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Informatics For Gen Next

SINCE 1966

Informatics For Gen Next Knowledge Premanand M E English First Edition: July 2012

Cover: Subin Puthukkudi Typesetting: Navadham, Clt Printing: Repro India Ltd.

ISBN: 978-81-300-1386-2 5979(7-2012)177.I.a All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.

Published by: POORNA PUBLICATIONS, KOZHIKODE TBS Building, G.H. Road, Kozhikode-673001 Ph: 0495-2720085, 2720086, 2721025 Branches: Kannur 0497-2713713, Kalpetta 04936-203842 Thrissur 0487-2320776, Kottayam 0481-2585612 Thiruvananthapuram 0471-2570504 Online Bookstore:



Informatics For Gen Next

Premanand M E As per syllabus of University of Calicut for students of III Sem BA Functional English & III Sem BA English







Premanand M E Premanand M E, Associate Professor, has been associated with the Dept. of English, Malabar Christian College, Calicut, Kerala, India since 1989. He is currently engaged in research on Collaborative Writing using ICT for young learners. He is also an ELT trainer and combines his IT skills with pedagogy of teaching English language. Widely travelled, he has presented 15 papers, with his latest international paper on Info-graphs presented in Yangon, Myanmar. He has published four e-books on Informatics, Studies in Advertising, Media II, and Writing for the Media for students of Calicut University. An avid web designer & CMS provider, he maintains 2 blogs and 2 active websites – and Research Scholar Dept. of English Calicut University Email –

Associate Professor Dept. of English Malabar Christian College Email –

Acknowledgements I thank the Lord Almighty for all the small mercies showered upon me. Many have supported me in this endeavour and I would like to thank them profusely. The inspiration to bring out this book was the students of 3rd Semester (2011-2014 batch). Subin Varghese was instrumental in editing and compilation; Abhimanue B Raveendran and Remo Benjamin Peter were the official photographers for Module I (2009 – 2012 batch). My department colleagues also helped to build up the book by giving the right feedback at the right time. My Principal, Prof. Gladys P E Isaac, present Manager, Prof. Jayaprakash Raghaviah and past Manager Mr. Ernest Edapally, HOD- Dr. Lizzy Manjooran, my colleagues, friends and well- wishers were all part and parcel in this endeavour. I would also like to thank my guide, Dr. B Sreedevi for all help rendered. Thank you one and all. Prof. Premanand M E Associate Professor

For Appa & Amma Preethy & Darsana, Shobha & family Viju & family

Core Course III

INFORMATICS For B.A. Functional English Code: FE3B03 Contact Hrs/week: 4 Credit: 4 1. AIMS This course introduces students to all the different aspects of information Technology and Computers that an educated citizen of the modern world may be expected to know of and use in daily life. The topics in the syllabus are to be presented as much as possible with a practical orientation so that the student is given a perspective that will help him to use and master technology. 2. OBJECTIVES Upon completion of the course: * The student will have a thorough general awareness of Computer hardware and software from a practical perspective. * The student will have good practical skill in performing common basic tasks with the computer. 3. COURSE OUTLINE Module 1: General Introduction Outline history of the development of computers - Type of computers - PC/ Workstations - Laptops - Palmtops - Mobile Devices - Note books- Mainframes - Suppercomputers - Significance of IT and the Internet. Module II: Introduction to Basic Hardware Monitor - CRT and LCD - issues - CPU- mouse - keyboard processor types - Ports - USB 2.0 - IEEE Fire wire - IDE/SATA

connectors- Input devices - Printers - Scanners - Graphic tablet Thumbdrive - Modems - Digital Cameras - Microphones - Speakers Bluetooth devices. Module III: Introduction Software Topics: Operating Systems - Windows - Windows versions - Linux - Linux distributions- Free software - software licenses - GNU public license - other licenses. Open Source- Source Code FOSS. Installing Windows and Lunux 0 BIOS- Changong bootorder. Installing software in Windows and Linux - Drivers for peripherals - Software Tools (applications) - Windows software toos - Word, Power Point, Excel - Linuxtools - Open Office, etc. Advanced applications - Photoshop, GIMP, Spreadsheets, Database tools in Windows and Linux, Dream, weaver etc. Text - tospeech, OCR tools, speech recognition Content Management Systems- Learning Management System - Content Authoring toos - Blogs. Assistive technology for the handicapped - JAWS, NVDA. Virtual Reality, Quick Time Virtual Reality - Security issue - viruses- antivirus tools. File encryption - Cryptography. Various file formats and extensions - (eg: jpg, doc, . bmp. avietc) format reading software - converting between formats - proprietary formates formats that software save files in. Developing Software - Programming Languages - c++ - Visual Basic - Java- python etc. (introduction only). Module IV: Introduction to Networking and the Internet What is Networking - LAN - WAN - Wireles networks - Benefits of Networking file sharing - sharing of printers - examples - networking in an office - in an Internet cafe. The Internet - HTML - websites blogs - search engines - e mail- chat - wikis- social networking- file sharing - net banking - shopping on the internet - booking a rail ticket on line - checking telephone directories online Checking electoral rolls at the Election Commissions site - On line maps etc. Security issuesHacking - Phishing etc.

Module V: Knowledge Resources on the Internet Encyclopedias - libraries - book sites - journals - content repositories- online education other information sites - internet directories other information sources - websites of universities and research institutions - COIL, TDIL sites. Information Feeds - RSS, Atom etc. Online courses and Virtual Universities. Module VI: Computer Localization What is localization - using computers in the local languages in India- language packs for operating systems and programs - fonts - unicode tiff- ASCII - keyboard layout issue- official layouts - software tools for typing local languages - government developed toos - TDIL project - Bharateeya Open Office - Using local languages in Linux. CLIKK eralamsite (Centre for Linguistic Computing Keralam) 5. Model Question Paper (To be incorporated)

MODIFIED SYLLABUS OF INFORMATICS For B.A. English COURSE CODE EN3B1 TITLE OF THE COURSE : INFORMATICS SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSEIS TO BE TAUGHT3 NO. OF CREDITS 4 NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 72 (4hrs/wk) MODULE I : GENERAL INTRODUCTION Outline history of the development of computers – Types of computers– PC/Workstations-Laptops– Palmtops – Mobile Devices – Notebooks-Mainframes – Supercomputers – Significance of IT andthe Internet MODULE II :INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HARDWARE Monitor – CRT and LCD – issues – CPU –mouse-keyboardprocessor types – Ports – USB 2.0- Input-output devices – Printersscanners-graphic tablet-thumb drive-modems-digitalcamerasmicrophones-speakers. Bluetooth devices [To be deleted from MODULE II: IEEE Firewire – IDE/SATA connectors] MODULE III: INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE Topics: Operating Systems – Windows- Windows versions-Linux – Linux distributions- Freesoftware- software licenses – Software Tools (applications) – Windows software tools- Word,PowerPoint, Excel – Linux tools – Open Office – Security issues-viruses- antivirus tools

[To be deleted from MODULE III: GNU public license- other licenses. Open Source – Source Code FOSS. Installing Windows andLinux – BIOS – Changing boot order. Installing software in Windows and Linux – Drivers forperipherals – Advanced applications – Photoshop, GIMP, Spreadsheets, Database tools in Windowsand Linux. Dream weaver etc. Text-to-speech, OCR tools, speech recognition ContentManagement Systems-Learning Management Systems-Content Authoring tools- Blogs. Assistivetechnology for the handicapped – JAWS, NVDA.Virtual Reality, Quick Time Virtual Reality-File encryption - Cryptography. Various file formats and extensions- (eg: .jpg, .doc, .bmp. .avietc)format reading software converting between formats – proprietary formats – formats that softwaresave files in. Developing Software – Programming Languages- C++ - Visual Basic-Java-python] MODULE IV: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING AND THE INTERNET What is Networking – LAN – WAN – Wireless networks – Benefits of Networking – file sharing –sharing of printers – examples – networking in an office – in an internet cafe. The InternetHTMLwebsites– blogs – search engines –e-mail chat – social networking – Security issues – Hacking – Phishing. [To be deleted from MODULE IV:Wikis-file sharing – net banking – shopping on internet-booking a rail ticket online-checking telephone directories online-checking electoral rolls at the election commission site-online maps] MODULE V: KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET Encyclopedias – libraries – book sites – journals – content repositories – online education – otherinformation sites – internet

directories – other information sources – websites of universities andresearch institutions – Online courses and Virtual Universities [To be deleted from MODULE V COIL, TDIL sites. Information Feeds – RSS, Atom] MODULE VI: COMPUTER LOCALIZATION What is localization – using computers in the local languages in India – language packs foroperating systems and programs – fonts – Unicode – ASCII – keyboard layout issues – softwaretools for typing local languages – TDIL project. [To be deleted from MODULE VI: Ttf- official layouts – Government developed tools – Bharateeya Open Office – Using locallanguages in Linux. CLIK Keralam site]

Revised Order:-No.GAIV/B2/2141/06 Dated, Calicut University. P.O., 30-07-2010.

Module I:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION Outline history of the development of computers One of the greatest inventions of man after the wheel and electric bulb has been the computer. Computers have invaded our lives in almost every aspect of our lives. Although there was an initial hesitation in accepting this device which was thought that it would make us lethargic and lazy, this device is transforming lives, in the field of education, medicine, robotics etc. Computers are part of our lives so much that they can be found in every area. The earliest record of computing is the abacus which existed more than 5000 years ago. Computing was achieved using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack. Later, paper and pencil took over. In 1642, Blaise Pascal, the son of a French tax collector invented a numerical wheel calculator to help his father with his accounts.


Informatics For Gen Next

Pascal’s device used a base of ten to compute figures. The device was known as Pascaline. It used eight movable dials to add sums up to eight figures long. When one dial moved ten notches, or one complete revolution, it moved the next dial - which represented the ten’s column - one place. When the ten’s dial moved one revolution, the dial representing the hundred’s place moved one notch and so on. The main drawback of the Pascaline, was that it could do only addition. In 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Leibniz improved the Pascaline by inventing a machine that could also multiply. Mechanical computation gradually became vogue. The real beginning of computers began with Charles Babbage -the father of computers. In 1820, he began the quest for a programmable machine, and as a result the difference engine was developed. This was

General Introduction


powered by steam and large as a locomotive. The machine could perform calculations and print results automatically. After 10 years he began work on the first general purpose computer called “analytical engine”. Augusta Ada King was one of few people who understood engine design as well as Babbage. She is considered as the first female computer programmer. (A programming language called ADA is named after her.) In 1854, George Boole wrote an investigation into the “laws of thoughts” and was later recognized as the father of computer science. In 1890 Herman Hollerith developed punch cards to compute. Hollerith wanted to find a faster way to compute the US census. He founded Tabulating Machine Company in 1896, which later became IBM (International Business Machine). In 1892, William Burroughs introduced a commercially successful printing calculator and in 1925Vannevar Bush founded “differential analyzer” for solving differential equations. As years progressed, Konrad Zuse built a “mechanical calculator” in 1935 and in 1940 George Steblitz used “teletype machine”. It is the first example of network. Frenetic activity and development in the same year saw John V Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developing the first “allelectronic computer

Five Generations of Modern Computers: First generation (1945-1956) In 1941, KonradZuse developed a computer “Z3” and in 1944, Howard H Aiken produced an “all-electronic calculator”. The space taken taken by this ‘calculator’ was about half the size of a football field with over 800kms of wiring. After that, John Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly developed “ENIAC” (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Later on John Von Neumann, in 1945 designed

Informatics For Gen Next


“EDVAC” (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) with a memory to hold bothe a stored program as well as data. In 1951, “UNIVAC 1 (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) was built by Remington Rand. The distinctive feature of first generation computers was the use of vacuum tubes and magnetic drums for data storage. Each computer also had a binary-coded program called a machine language. UNIVAC’s impressive achievement was predicting the winner of 1952 US presidential elections. Characteristics 

Operating instructions were specific to the task for which the computer was to be used.

Each computer had a specific binary-coded program that told it how to operate. This was called machine language.

Use of vacuum tubes.

Magnetic drums for storage of data.

Computers were limited in versatility and speed.

General Introduction


Second Generation Computers (1956 – 1963) Transistors were invented by 1948. This invention greatly changed the develop ment of computers. It replaced vacuum tubes which took up a lot of space and generated lots of heat.. The transistor was at work in the computer by 1956. As a result computers became smaller, faster, more reliable and more energy-efficient. By 1965, second generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. More sophisticated high level languages such as “COBOL” (COmmon Business Oriented Language) and “FORTRAN” (FORmulaTRANslator) were formulated. New types of careers opportunities (analyst, and computer expert) sprung up and it spawned the entire software industry. It can be said that programmers began with this generation. Characteristics 

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes – solid state design

Replaced machine language with assembly language.

Abbreviated programming codes replaced long, difficult binary codes.

Printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory, operating systems came into existence.

COBOL, FORTRAN came into common use.

Informatics For Gen Next


Third Generation Computers (1964 – 1971) By the third generation, transistors were replaced by quartz mainly because they generated heat. Jack Kilby developed “Integrated Circuits” (IC) in 1958. The IC contained three electronic components in a small silicon disc, made from quartz. As a result computers became even smaller, as more components could be squeezed on to the chip. Operating systems (OS) were used. They allowed machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer’s memory. Characteristics 

Transistors gradually replaced by Integrated Circuits

Operating systems used

Different programs could run different machines

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – Present) After “Integrated Chips”(IC), came “LSI” (Large Scale Integration) which could fit hundreds of components onto one chip. By 1980s “VLSI” (Very LSI) and later came “ULSI” (Ultra LSI). As a result size and price diminished. With improvements in power and efficiency for the ‘processors (chips), reliability increased. In 1971, a more advanced “Intel 4004 chip” was developed. By 1970s, mini computers came complete with user friendly software packages. 1981, IBM introduced

General Introduction


the “Personal Computer” (PC). This created a revolution of sorts and it continued the trend towards smaller size, working their way down from desktops to laptops, palmtops and net books. It also paved the way introduced global web of computer circuitry- the internet. Electronic mail or e-mail allows users to type in a computer address and send messages.

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) This generation is in its infancy. Most famous example of this generation computer is “HAL9000” from Arthur C Clarke’s novel, 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could reason well enough to hold conversations with its human operators, use visual inputs, and learn from its own experiences. Using recent engineering advanced computers may be able to accept spoken word instructions and imitate human reasoning. The ability to translate foreign language is also a major goal of fifth generation computers. Advances in software and computers have made facial detection, touch and swipe possible. Retina displays and ultra-fast processing capabilities make computers more simple and easy to use.

Types of computers A computer is a machine that can take instructions, and perform computations based on those instructions.. These instructions are known as programs. Computers can also store and retrieve large amounts of data. Computers range from the very small to the very large. Some are capable of doing millions of calculations in a single second, while others may take long periods of time to do even the most simple calculations. But theoretically, anything one computer is capable of doing,

Informatics For Gen Next


another computer will also be able to do. Given the right instructions, and sufficient memory, a computer will be able to complete the operation in a very short time. All computers have a Central Processing Unit (CPU), Memory, Mass storage device, Input device and output device. Every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: 

Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor.

Workstation: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and, in general, a higher-quality monitor.

Minicomputer: A multi-user computer capable of supporting up to hundreds of users simultaneously.

Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.

Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Personal Computer (PC) PC (Personal Computer) is a general-purpose computer. They are used in a variety of applications such as word-processing, database management, spread sheet calculations and desktop publishing. Desktop Personal Computers are small, relatively inexpensive computers that are designed for individual users. These devices include a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other peripherals.

General Introduction


Workstations Workstations are generally used as diskless terminals. They are generally linked to a local area network. They are used as terminals to provide extra services with moderate amounts of computing power. For example, an architect in his office will have a main computer and his assistants will have workstations. Workstations are designed for powerful business applications that do large numbers of calculations or require high-speed graphical displays.

Laptops Laptops are small and light enough to sit on a person’s lap while in use. So, it can be defined as: a portable computer that has an LCD screen, which usually weighs less than 3 kilos. Today’s laptops provide all the capabilities of most desktop computers. Following are the major features:


Informatics For Gen Next

Keyboard: Function keys and cursor keys are often made smaller. Usually, a touchpad or tracking device replaces the mouse.

Screen Resolution: Laptops use high-quality LCD screens. However, the built-in display system has an external monitor for desktop use or a data projector. The laptop should have the highest resolution for the external display if you plan on connecting one.

External Display & Keyboard Connectors: A full- size monitor and keyboard can also be connected such that both are positioned comfortably.

Built-in Pointing Device A touchpad or pointing stick is built into the laptop. A mouse can be connected via the USB port. Expansion: Modern laptop computers have PC Card slots and USB ports, making them very flexible to expand into a full-featured desktop. Batteries: Extended life batteries add weight, whereas flat auxiliary batteries can be plugged into the laptop. The rechargeable battery (if present) is charged from an AC adapter and stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours, depending on the power management of the computer.

General Introduction


Multimedia : All laptops today have built-in speakers and may include a camera for video telephony. They generally have a CD or DVD drive with read/write facilities. Laptops have evolved over the period into sleek, slim, and colourful as well as an affordable gadget. It’s a style statement more than a mobile computer

Palmtops or net books Palmtops are small hand-held computers that fit (literally) in the palm of your hand. Palmtops have limited functions such as phone books and calendars with an operating system that contains a word processor and a spread sheet. They are battery powered. They do not have disk drives. They have PCMCIA slots in which you can insert disk drives, modems, memory, and other devices. The most important feature is that a lot of data can be stored in it. Palmtops are being rechristened as Net books. A net book is a small, light and portable computer, which is neither too big to carry around nor too small to function efficiently. The primary purpose was to surf the internet, chat and email friends. Nowadays more powerful processors are making net books very powerful. Net books have small keyboards, small yet clear screens, more storage capacity than expected of it (hard drives and USB storages) and runs on battery. Net books are ideal for students while


Informatics For Gen Next

taking lectures. Students can take notes, type them, save and categorize and even work on projects. It is also convenient to use while in airports, on planes, or anywhere and they are popular among writers and businesspeople. On the top of all, they are easy on the budget. Mobile devices: Any computer- based device that is mobile or portable that cater to our conveniences and needs, can be called a mobile device. Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, some of which are listed below: A pager is a simple personal telecommunication device for short messages. It can only receive a message consisting of a phone number that the user is then expected to call. Two-way pagers have the ability to send and receive email, numeric pages, and SMS messages. They continue to work in times of emergency or disaster as they do not suffer from network overload. For this reason, they are still very popular with emergency service personnel, medical personnel, and information technology support staff. Mobile phone (also called mobile, cell phone or hand phone) is an electronic device used for two-way radio telecommunications over a network of base stations known as cell sites. A mobile phone allows its user to make and receive telephone calls to and from the public

General Introduction


telephone network. A key feature of the cellular network is that it enables seamless telephone calls even when the user is moving around. It uses a rechargeable battery. Smart phones, like the iPhone, and Blackberry are full-featured cell phone- computers with built-in GPS, compass and camera, Web access, streaming video, a touch screen, multiple gigabytes of memory and tons of applications. The iPhone is a line of Internet and multimedia-enabled smart phones. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (also including text messaging and visual voice mail) and a portable media player (equivalent to a video iPod). It is also an Internet client (with e-mail, web browsing, and Wi-Fi connectivity). The device also has multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one and diverse functionalities, including games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, and advertising for television shows, films, and celebrities. A tablet computer is a computer contained entirely in a flat touch screen. It uses the screen as an input device, using a stylus, digital pen, or fingertip instead of a keyboard or mouse. Tablet PCs use the pen with hand writing and voice recognition functionality. While


Informatics For Gen Next

tablet computers run on an operating system dedicated to the device rather than a Microsoft Windows, or Linux. Sometimes they need to be connected to a traditional PC for back up or software upgrade. Tablet computers are specialized for internet use and general purposes. A carputer is a computer that can be installed and run in cars. It has an LCD touch screen that allows users to enjoy features such as a GPS direction system, personal mp3 music libraries, radio (AM, FM,), voice recognition, and web browsing. They ensure safe driving too. Wearable computers are computers that are not just portable but wearable. This technology is used in, health monitoring systems, and information technologies. Wearable computers are useful for applications that require computational support while the user’s hands, voice, eyes, arms or attention are actively engaged with the physical environment. There is a constant interaction between the computer and user. It is not necessary to stop what you are doing to use the device. It can therefore be an extension of the user’s mind and/or body. Both general and special purposes are envisioned. Nintendo Wii is a type of wearable computer. Notebooks: Laptop computers began to be called notebooks when they reached a relatively small size in the 1990s. Notebooks have the capacity of a computer that has word processing, spreadsheets, database management and desk top publishing capabilities. Notebooks are also capable of Internet chat, text and managing digital photos. It is also portable.

General Introduction


Mainframes: A mainframe (also known as big iron) is a high-performance computer used for large-scale computing purposes that offers greater availability and security. Mainframes acquired their name in part because of their substantial size, and because of requirements for specialized heating, ventilation, air conditioning and electrical power. The term originally referred to the large cabinets that housed the central processing unit and main memory of early computers. Later the term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less powerful units. Mainframes are powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing. Some of its most distinct features are reliability, availability, and serviceability (or “RAS�) Mainframes have always been important factors in data processing. USES If you ever used an automated teller machine (ATM) to interact with your bank account, you used a mainframe. In banking, finance, health care, insurance and a multitude of other public and private enterprises, the mainframe computer continues to be the foundation of modern business. No other computer architecture can claim as much continuous, evolutionary improvement, while maintaining compatibility with previous releases.


Informatics For Gen Next

Because of these design strengths, the mainframe is often used by IT organizations to host the most important, mission-critical applications. These applications typically include customer order processing, financial transactions, production and inventory control, payroll, as well as many other types of work. These machines often run for years without interruption, with repairs and hardware upgrades taking place during normal operation. One common impression of a mainframe’s user interface is the 80x24character “green screen� terminal, named for the old cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors from years ago that glowed green. In reality, mainframe interfaces today look much the same as personal computers. Business applications accessed through a web browser rely on the mainframes to: Perform large-scale transaction processing (thousands of transactions per second) Support thousands of users and application programs concurrently accessing numerous resources Manage terabytes of information in databases and handle largebandwidth communication Modern mainframe computers have abilities defined by high reliability and security, extensive input-output facilities, strict backward compatibility with older software, and high utilization rates to support massive throughput. Thus mainframe computers perform crucial functions behind the scene.

General Introduction


Supercomputers: A supercomputer performs at an unbelievable rate of speed which is far above that of other computers. They are at the front line for their speed of calculation. They have great processing power and multiple processors such that they are incredibly fast, sophisticated and powerful. In the fast changing world of computing, today’s supercomputer will be tomorrow’s computer. Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s, designed primarily by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation(CDC). Today, supercomputers are produced by “traditional” companies such as Cray, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. The Cray’s Jaguar is the fastest supercomputer in the world. Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems involving quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modelling, physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion). Scientific organizations like NASA have supercomputers the size of rooms for the purpose of performing calculation; derive complex formulas, and performing other tasks which require a large amount of computer power. Some supercomputers have also been designed for very specific functions like cracking codes and playing chess. Deep Blue is a famous chess-playing supercomputer. Even supercomputers have their own issues…. Supercomputers get extremely hot as they run, requiring complex cooling systems to ensure that no part of the computer fails. It takes advantage of extremely cold liquids. Also, another issue is the speed at

Informatics For Gen Next


which information can be transferred to a storage device, as that will limit the supercomputer’s performance. Significance of IT and the Internet: Information technology has a significant role in almost all areas of our lives. IT is a main component in business, hotels, colleges and our homes. 

Almost everyone use email as an important mode of communication.

Internet allows us to hold conversations in real-time (eg:-Skype, Google talk)

Surveys and research can be conducted

Word processors, Power Point, Photoshop use software

games, modelling and simulation, networking

digital imaging and photography

audio and video applications,

electronic commerce applications

search engines

The growth and diversity of applications greatly increase the utility of IT, leading to its further expansion in all walks of life. The Internet is named after the Internet Protocol, the standard communications protocol used by every computer on the Internet. The Internet has a powerful ability to find, manage, and share information. Information is available to so many people at such little cost. Knowing how to get the most out of the Internet can help you as much as knowing how to read. The Internet has become an integral part of our lives, with such powerful

General Introduction


capabilities. The making of the Internet is attributed to 3 individuals – Vannevar Bush, Norbert Wiener and Marshall McLuhan at the 1956 Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Here, the idea of a global village interconnected by an electronic nervous system part of our popular culture was conceptualized


Informatics For Gen Next


Module II

INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HARDWARE MONITOR Monitor is the most important output device of a computer. It is also known as Visual Display unit (VDU). It is the device used by the computer to display information. In earlier days only monochrome monitors that could display text and images in black and white were available. But, today colour monitors are widely used. Smaller and lighter monitors that use technologies like liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are also becoming popular. Less electricity consumption and less harm to the eye are some of its characteristic features.

Cathode Ray Tube(CRT) CRT monitor creates a picture out of many rows or lines of tiny coloured dots. The CRT monitor comes in 15-inch to 21-inch sizes (38-53 cm) and larger though the actual viewing screen is about 1 inch (2.5 cm) smaller than the rated size. The specification regarding CRT monitor is ‘dot pitch’ which relates to the tightness or sharpness of the picture. CRT technology was widely used in the late 1990s – early 2000s. Demerits of CRT include radiation, emission, high power consumption, weight and bulk.

Introduction To Basic Hardware


LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) A liquid crystal display is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. They are used in computer monitors, television, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit display, signage etc....They are common in consumer devices such as video player, gaming devices, clocks, watches in telephone. Most laptops and net books use LCD screen. LCDs have displaced CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) in most applications. They are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery powered electronic equipment.

OLED (Organic Light Emitting Display) Previously only CRT monitors were available. Size mattered. CRTs were large and bulky. Today, LCD monitors came into prominence. They are a lot thinner but priced higher. The basis of OLED was discovered in 1985. A Kodak researcher by a name of Ching Tang noticed that if you put an electrical current through an organic material, it glowed green. This is where the idea behind OLED came from. The biggest disadvantage is that it has short screen life- one or two years. It is also hard to see the display in direct sunlight.

Informatics For Gen Next


Central Processing unit (CPU) The CPU is the brains of the computer. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. It is linked to main memory, peripheral equipment, which includes input and output devices, and the storage units. It selects instructions from the main memory in proper sequence and sends them to the instructiondecoding unit, which interprets them so as to activate functions of the system at appropriate moments. The control unit integrates computer operations. CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. Since the 1970s the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely over taken all other CPU implementations. Two typical components of a CPU are the following. 

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations.

The control unit (CU), which extracts instruction from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

MOUSE A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the mouse’s tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. Mouse contain at least one button and sometimes as

Introduction To Basic Hardware


many as three, which have different functions depending on what program is running Some newer mouse also include a scroll wheel for scrolling through long documents. There are three basic types of mouse: 

Mechanical: Has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can roll in all directions. Mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the direction the ball is rolling and move the screen pointer accordingly.

Optomechanical: Same as a mechanical mouse, but uses optical sensors to detect motion of the ball.

Optical: Uses a laser to detect the mouse’s movement. You must move the mouse along a special mat with a grid so that the optical mechanism has a frame of reference. Optical mouse have no mechanical moving parts. They respond more quickly and precisely than mechanical and optomechanical mice, but they are also more expensive

KEYBOARD The computer keyboard is the basic device through which you input information into the system. Though many other forms of inputting devices have come out in the market today, there is nothing equivalent to the keyboard.

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There are many tasks that you can accomplish using the keyboard. You can use it to type out your documents, access menus, manipulate your system and much more. The keyboard also includes shortcut keys that enable you to carry out certain tasks more easily and quickly using just the keyboard. Usually a keyboard has something between 80 to 110 keys. The difference in the keys setup is based on many factors such as board’s manufacture, the operating system they are made from, whether they are part of a PC system or they are part of a laptop or hand-held device. When you press any key on the keyboard you actually turn on a switch. This sends the message to the processor that a particular key has been pressed and you see the output on your screen. If you were to hold a key down continuously for some time, it is considered to be a repetitive pressing of that key and so you see that output on the screen. Ports A port is an outlet on an equipment to which a plug or cable connects. I/O ports are the interfaces to communicate with external devices such as printers, modems, joysticks, and terminals. I/O is an abbreviation of Input and Output. Inputs are the received signals and outputs are the sent signals. They are distinguished by their connectors, which have different shapes and numbers of contact pins, and also by the devices that may

Introduction To Basic Hardware


be connected to them. A variety of protocols are used with them which specify the control and data signals the port uses, and how they are to be interpreted. Computer ports in common use are of shapes such as round (PS/2), rectangular (Firewire), square (telephone plug), trapezoidal (D-Sub), etc, which is to standardize its physical properties and function. Ports can be divided into two groups based on the signal transfer: 

Serial ports send and receive one bit at a time via a single wire pair.

Parallel ports send multiple bits at the same time over several sets of wires.

Universal Serial Bus (USB) A system contains two Universal Serial Bus (USB) connectors for attaching USB compliant devices. USB allows high-speed, easy connection of peripherals to a PC. Portable computing devices such as handhelds, cell phones and digital cameras that connect to the PC as a USB peripheral benefit from having additional capability to connect to other USB devices directly. For instance, users can perform functions such as sending photos from a digital camera to a printer, PDA, cell phone, or sending music files from an MP3 player to another portable player, PDA or cell phone. Wireless USB (WUSB) is the new wireless extension to USB that combines the speed and security of wired technology with the ease-ofuse of wireless technology. Wireless connectivity has enabled a mobile lifestyle filled with conveniences for mobile computing users. USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports.

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Firewire IT’S NOT A WIRE ON FIRE Firewire ports used with video equipment can be either 4-pin or 6pin. The two extra conductors in the 6-pin connection carry electrical power. A self-powered device such as a camcorder often connects with a cable that is 4-pins on the camera side and 6-pins on the computer side, the two power conductors simply being ignored. Laptop computers usually only have 4-pin FireWire ports, since they cannot provide enough power to meet requirements for devices needing the power provided by 6-pin connections. IDE is Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) that connects hard drives or CD drives to a PC. It is a communication channel for the hardware to the motherboard. Some computers use EIDE which is the Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. It is three to four times faster than IDE. An IDE cable connects two drives: Master (primary) and Slave (secondary) drive. IDE cables consist of either 40 or 80 wires. IDEs are now outdated. SATA is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment that connects storage devices like hard disk drives to motherboards. It increases performance, improve efficiency and reduce development costs. It transfers data between motherboard and hard disk drives. SATAs are compact and easier to connect. It facilitates high-speed data transmission. SATA cable has a 15-pin connector.

SCANNER A scanner is device that can capture images from photographic prints, posters, magazine paper sources for editing and display. Scanners are generally classifies into 3 types - hold in, feed in and flatbed. Very high

Introduction To Basic Hardware


resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scanners are enough capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobe Photoshop. This program lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image. What is a graphics tablet? A graphics tablet is a computer input device that allows one to handdraw images and graphics, similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper. It is also referred to as a digitizing tablet, digitizer tablet, graphics pad, pen tablet, or drawing tablet. A tablet is an alternate type of input device that can be used in place of, or in conjunction with, a mouse, trackball, or other pointing device. The tablet consists of two parts, a flat surface for drawing, and a pen, stylus, or puck that is programmed to work with the tablet. Usually, you also get a pen holder, and some tablets even come with a cordless mouse that works on the tablet surface. Even non-artists may choose to use a tablet because it offers a more ergonomic method of input that can reduce the likelihood of developing repetitive strain injury.

Bluetooth devices Bluetooth is a new developed technology in our fast moving life. We are getting familiar with this Bluetooth by the mobile phone which is now a part of our life. Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard. With high levels of security from fixed and mobile devices we can exchange data over short distances creating personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth uses short length radio waves. It was invented by telecommunication giant Ericsson in 1994 by JAAP HEARTSEN and SUEN MATTISSON and conceived as a wireless alternative. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Now days Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.


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Name and logo The word Bluetooth is an anglicised version of Danish Blütand. Bluetooth does the communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard. The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes (Hagall) and (Bjarkan), Harald’s initials. Implementation Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands of 1 MHz width in the range 2402-2480 MHz. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of more than 13,000 companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Mobile phone requirements A Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support, the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP)

Introduction To Basic Hardware


forum has published a recommendations paper, entitled “Bluetooth Local Connectivity�. The Bluetooth SIG Web site offers additional information about use cases for Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones. It was also used for control of the radio link between two devices. Bluetooth was used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols. It provides segmentation and reassembly of on-air packets. Bluetooth devices Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, the Wii, PlayStation 3, PSP Go, and Lego Mindstorms NXT and in some high definition watches, modems and headsets. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).

INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES Input device is a hardware device that sends information to the computer, without which a computer would be simply a display device. An output device is a peripheral device that receives and displays output from a computer.

PRINTER Printer can be considered as an output device, to take hard copy of the file. The print out is taken on the paper sheets. Printers vary in size, speed, sophistication and cost. Printers are more frequently purchased separately due to different requirements.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRINTERS: DOT MATRIX PRINTERS They are common and cheapest. They are aptly named Dot Matrix printers because; they can only print in the form of dots. INKJET PRINTERS It is also known as ‘BUBBLE JET PRINTERS’. They are similar to dot-matrix printers because, expected that the print head consist of ink nozzles rather than pins. Their mode of operation is such that they spray tiny inkjets on the paper in a dot matrix pattern. The quality is superior to the Dot-matrix because the head consists of many nozzles and the dots are overlapped and the ink is disposed in ink cartridge. LASER PRINTER It is a high speed printer, uses laser technology. Laser recreates the image on a negatively charged drum, which attacks positively charged ink to the area image. THERMAL PRINTER It uses heated pins to print images. On sensitive paper the pins are electrically heated and brought in to contact with concerned paper. When it is heated the coating on the paper discolors. PLOTTERS It is used for constructing high quality drawings. It holds pens can draw curved lines. The text is drawn in the form of images.

Introduction To Basic Hardware


COLOR PRINTERS It can draw in colours including black and white. It can have a set of color pens. A plotter selects a pen form the predefined position. It can be connected to the post, which is normally used by a printer.

THUMB DRIVE A thumb drive is a portable memory storage device. It is re-uniteable and holds memory without a power supply. It fits into any USB port on the computer. This driver is small, as a size of human thumb. Hence, it got its name and it’s a very stable storage device. One of the drawbacks of thumb drive is that it lacks compatibility with Windows 98. Its main use is that they are stable, versatile, durable and portable data storage device. It is ideal for any computer user who wants safe, long term storage for a low price. Most thumb drives have millions of re-writeable cycles and can store data for 10 years before they need replacing.

MODEM Modem is both an output and input device. Its full form is modulation and demodulation. It is an electronic device which helps the user to connect with the internet. The role of modem in a computer is to convert the analog signals to digital signals which a computer recognizes. DIGITAL CAMERA It is a battery powered electronic device which is used for recording and storing photographs in digital mode. It can be stored in a computer and later may be used to enhance or otherwise modified accordingly to the wish of the user. It stores the photographed image electronically, rather than on film.


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to capture more pictures. The only drawback of digital camera is its dependence on IT and computers to manipulate it which makes it difficult for the computer illiterate user. DIGITAL CAMERA BASICS If we need to share a photo with our friend through e-mail, you need the image to be represented in the language, which the computer understands. That is, bits and bytes. Essentially, a digital image is just a long string of ‘I’s and ‘o’s that represent all the tiny coloured dots or pixels that collectively make up the image. In its basic level, both conventional cameras and digital cameras have a series of lenses that focus light to create an image of a scene. But instead of focusing this light into a piece of film, it focuses it into a semi conductor device that records light electrically. Later, the computer break this electronic information down into digital data. Microphones & Speakers are two important devices used in computers. They can record and reproduce sound signals. Microphone is an input device and speakers are output devices. MICROPHONES MICROPHONES are used to record sound signals and also widely used in internet chatting and other communicational activities. Nowadays, microphones attached to headphones are widely being used net savvy users. Dynamic Microphones can also be used for much advanced and specified purposes like sound mixing through computer and also for vocal recording.

Introduction To Basic Hardware


SPEAKERS Speakers are used as a sound output device in computers. Two channel speakers (Left/Right channel speakers) are commonly used for stereophonic sound output. Headphones are used for more personal use. The output level of headphones will be much lesser than speakers but the user will have a better experience.. High definition speakers and headphones that cancel outside noise have gained prominence. They are also capable of delivering a less distorted sound with a powerful output. 4/5/7 channel speakers are used for more advanced sound output. Placing them strategically around the room of your house gives a theatrical effect with a ‘surround sound’ effect.


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Module 3

SOFTWARE Software is a type of computer program filled with instructions and data that tell a computer what or how to do a particular thing. Once the software on the computer is installed, one can perform specific tasks such as downloading music, creating documents, or creating charts. Computer programs, games, and operating systems are all examples of software. The term ‘software’ was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software “cannot be touched”.Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. OPERATING SYSTEM The operating system is the environment which allows humans to interact with computers. It manages the functions of computer hardware and programs simultaneously.It directs the input and output of data, keeps track of files, and controls the processing of computer programs.



When several jobs reside in the computer simultaneously and share resources (multitasking), the OS allocates fixed amounts of CPU time and memory in turn. Through a process called time-sharing, a large computer can handle interaction with hundreds of users simultaneously, giving each the perception of being the sole user. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone etc. Windows Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world’s personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7. Windows 8 (Metro) is being trial-tested and will be available for consumer use in 2012. The most recent server version is Windows Server 2008 R2; the most recent mobile version is Windows Phone 7.5. Versions of Windows Version 1.0 (1985) Version 1.0 (1985) provided a graphical user interface, multitasking, and virtual memory management; it ran on top of MS-DOS and was supported on Intel- based personal computers. Version 3.1 (1992)

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sold over 3 million copies in its first two months and helped establish Microsoft’s dominance of the operating system market for microcomputers. Windows 95 and Windows 98 Windows 95 and Windows 98 continued its success. Windows NT (1993), which can run on RISC-based computers as well as traditional Intel-based systems, is a high-end version of Windows intended for more powerful personal computers, workstations, and servers. Windows CE(1996) Windows CE(1996) is an embedded operating system for palm PCs and other handheld devices. Microsoft continues to release new versions of its operating system: Windows 2000 for corporate-oriented computers, Windows Me (2000) for consumer-oriented computers, and in 2001 a version for both environments, Windows XP. Today Windows runs on more than 90% of all personal computers. Windows 7 

Microsoft released a new version of Windows in 2010 based on the needs of its users. Windows 7 is designed to do the following:

Work the way consumers want – withspecial attention to performance, reliability, security, compatibility and battery life.

Make everyday tasks faster and easier - Jumplists, Previews and the new Taskbar make it easier to operate PCs.

Offer a better entertainment experience- easier streaming of music, video and photos.



Windows 7 will enable people with touch-screen monitors to use multiple fingers to interact with their PC screens in a more intuitive way. Windows Media Center, available in some editions of Windows 7, with a TV tuner and improved user interface, makes recording TV free and easy. Linux Linux is a full 32-bit, multitasking operating system that supports multiple users and multiple processors. Linux can run on nearly any computers and can support almost any type of application. The biggest nontechnical difference between UNIX and Linux is price. Anyone can get a free copy of Linux on the internet. For this reason Linux has become a popular OS in certain circles. Although Linux is typically considered to be a server platform, an increasing number of software companies are writing new desktop applications or modifying existing ones for Linux. FREE SOFTWARE Software that can be easily run and distributed on a computer without much time-consuming installation process is known as Free software. Free software can also be copied, changed and improved upon. Free software is also 

The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).

The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.

The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour (freedom 2).

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The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes.

Software licenses A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law) governing the usage or redistribution of software. A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner’s exclusive rights under copyright law.A free open source license makes software free for inspection of its code, modification, and distribution. Free licenses like the GNU General Public License (GPL) allow the product and/or derivative to be commercially sold. GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is the most widely used software and originally written by Richard Stallman. The GPL is the first copy left license for general use, which means that derived works can only be distributed under the same license terms. Under this philosophy, the GPL grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the free software definition and uses copy left to ensure the freedoms are preserved, even when the work is changed or added to. Software Tools (applications) There are many free software programs that promise security and stability. Prominent among them are DVD Tools used as a CD burning software, Open Office used as an Office software suite and Bitdefender, used as anti-virus software.



Word, PowerPoint, Excel These are three application based software developed by Microsoft. Word is used for word-processing. Using the latest version of Word 2007 or Word 2010, a user can bold, italicize, and underline characters. A letter or document can have different character styles and images can be inserted anywhere in the document. In modern times, most employers, students and teachers demonstrate their skills and abilities by presenting their knowledge of a given subject. This is usually done to an audience or classroom. Microsoft PowerPoint is software that makes a presentation clear and easy to understand. A spreadsheet is similar to an accounting worksheet. It has a number of cells that make a grid consisting of rows and columns. These cells can be used to calculate data. MS Excel software can easily recalculate an entire spreadsheet after a small change has been made in one of the cells. It can also insert charts, pictures and do complex scientific calculations. MS Office Microsoft Office is a collection of productivity software applications that perform a range of home and business tasks, including word processing, email, accounting, desktop publishing and multimedia presentation. Referred to as a suite, the specific bundles are designed to match types of computer users with the applications they find most useful. Purchasing a Microsoft Office bundle saves money in comparison to buying each application individually. Open Office Open Office is a free collection of programs meant to compete with the Microsoft Office Suite. (It can thus open any Microsoft Office


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document.) Sponsored by Sun Microsystems and released in 2002, this collection is open source, which means anyone can access the source code. Adobe Photoshop Adobe Photoshop is the only image-editing application famous enough to have become a verb. The company and its intellectual-property lawyers may cringe when the public refers to a misleadingly retouched photograph as being “Photoshop enhanced” but the usage only points to the software’s popularity. From its roots as an experimental application through its early days as a singlelayer editing application and on into its modern incarnation as a multilayer, multi-adjustment image editor, Photoshop has gained a user base broad enough to spawn supporting industries in third-party plug-in software, video- and website-based user training, and basic and specialized printed user guides. GIMP GIMP is a free program which can be freely distributed, meaning you can download and install it for free. The title of the program is an acronym for “GNU Image Manipulation Program” and it is very similar to paid graphic design software, such as Adobe Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro or Corel Draw.



Spreadsheets A spreadsheet is a type of document that arranges information in columns and rows. Spreadsheets are often used in accounting to help organize and keep track of all numbers.Spreadsheet applications (sometimes referred to simply as spreadsheets) are computer programs that let you create and manipulate spreadsheets electronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell. You can define what type of data is in each cell and how different cells depend on one another. The relationships between cells are called formulas, and the names of the cells are called labels. Dreamweaver - Adobe Dreamweaver Adobe Dreamweaver is a computer program aimed at Web developers. Dreamweaver works on both PC and Apple computers, and enables the end user to create websites and Web applications using a variety of online technologies such as HTML and Javascript. Text to speech One of the many applications of speech recognition software is taking dictation. While devices that can acknowledge vocal commands have existed in some form for decades, software sophisticated enough to recognize a wide variety of spoken words, convert them into text, and apply them to a document is a comparatively recent development, and the scope of the technology remains limited. However, a number of


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products for both general and professional users (such as lawyers and physicians) can be found on the market. How Speech-To-Text Software Works Speech-to-text dictation software performs two basic functions. First, the software registers a vocal command via the microphone, then performs a function (such as opening a web browser or capitalizing a word) that it is programmed to associate with the sound. OCR Tools Optical character recognition (OCR) tools allow you to capture the text contained within an image file and convert it into a text document so you can edit and manipulate the text. For these programs to work effectively, you need a clear digital image of text in a font that is not overly stylized. While many scanners and all-in-oneprinters come with OCR programs, you may need to download one if your device did not. Blogs “Blogs” are web logs which contain visual media and writing in a journal-style format written by users who wish to share details of their lives with internet users. Often posts about recent trips, concerts or jobs are used to illustrate a user’s daily life. Many online services offer blog hosting and creation sites free of charge. Starting your own blog is as easy as creating a user account, customizing your blog, and writing



your first post. Please visit for a full blog experience. JAWS This is a powerful software program designed to work with a speech synthesizer to improve the productivity level of visually impaired employees, students and the casual user. By streamlining keyboard functions, automating commands, and eliminating repetition, JAWS allows the operator to learn faster and easier than ever before. JAWS is based upon a whole new approach to talking computers - that of designing software with the priorities of the blind user in mind. Yet, the sighted trainer or supervisor has not been forgotten, since JAWS offers both audible and visual flexibility. NVDA NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) is a free and open source screen reader for the Microsoft Windows operating system. Providing feedback via synthetic speech and Braille, it enables blind or vision impaired people to access computers running Windows for no more cost than a sighted person. Major features include support for over 35 languages and the ability to run entirely from a USB drive with no installation. NVDA is developed by NV Access, with contributions from the community. Virtual Reality Virtual reality is a computer program that allows you to interact with it and gives an appearance of actually being in the situation. For example, a virtual reality baseball game would allow you to be the pitcher, batter, etc. and actually throw the ball or hit the ball and run the bases.


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SECURITY ISSUES Viruses Security issues for computers have become very important because we rely so much on technology these days. One major security issue is how valuable data can be protected and preserved, in their both theoretical and practical aspects. Computer Security is a definite branch of study which was introduced in the 1970’s. Computer Security is a branch of Computer Science Risk Management. It is also regarded as a form of Security Engineering as because it adequately addresses security issues of Computer. Computer Security’s purpose is to secure a particular computer system from any kind of cybercrime. Computer Security, therefore, aims at securing data, keeping them intact and also providing uninterrupted services. Importance of Computer Security Issues We cannot deny the fact that we always feel threatened by the fact that any computer genius may use unknown techniques to know and may come to know important details about your financial status and might tamper with it. This is also true in the case of big organization. This is where computer security steps in. It aims to preserve the “integrity, availability and confidentiality” of vital information stored in computers. Viruses A program or programming code that duplicates itself and infects the computer is termed a Virus. They can be can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in a downloaded file, or be present on



a diskette or CD. The immediate source of the e-mail note, downloaded file, or disk you’ve received is usually unaware that it contains a virus. Some viruses begin their destructive effect as soon as their code is executed; other viruses lie dormant until circumstances cause their code to be executed by the computer. Some viruses are harmless but they can be playful. Viruses have strange and sometimes even fanciful names in order to catch the attention of the user. Armageddon, Burger, Happy Birthday, Ludwig are examples of certain viruses. A virus that duplicates itself and sends itself as an e-mail attachment or as part of a network message is known as a Worm. One of the more recent worms includes stuxnet and the very recent Flame worm. Flame has penetrated many computers in Iran and Israel. It is believed to wipe out information from computers. This 20MB virus stealthily installs itself before stealing data and passwords, taking screenshots and surreptitiously turning on microphones to record audio conversations. The malware sets up a backdoor and opens encrypted channels to command-and-control (C&C) servers using (Secure Sockets Layer) SSL protocols. Antivirus tools Viruses and Worms can be removed using Antivirus Software. As soon as an infection is detected, it must be eliminated. Otherwise it will cause great harm to your data. Your data might get corrupted or even eliminated. Antivirus tools can be purchase from the market. They are also provided free of cost by certain companies. Most of them provide the


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user with an antivirus scanner for 30 days. Afterwards, the customer has to pay. Other companies provide antivirus tools to eliminate a certain number of viruses. In order to remove malicious viruses, the customer will have to pay. Kaspersky, Norton, Microsoft are leading antivirus vendors. Microsoft bundles their antivirus software with a genuine copy of Windows. File Encryption Encryption is the process of securing the contents of a file or message by encoding it. An encrypted message looks like gibberish, unless you can decode it using a key to translate those random characters back into real text or data. The Internet has made it simple to share data with others, creating a growing personal need for privacy. Not all encryption schemes are the same, however, nor are they foolproof. Cryptography Cryptography is the science of transcribing and sharing messages in secret code. Many experts date the practice back to 1900 B.C. in ancient Egypt, shortly after the advent of writing, when a scribe used non-standard hieroglyphs to transcribe a message. Successfully communicating an encrypted message requires encryption, or the transformation from standard language to secret code, as well as decryption, or the conversion from secret code to standard language using a “key.� Cryptography is widely



used in Internet communications to send secure messages over unsecured networks. File Formats A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file, as files need a way to be represented as bits when stored on a disc drive or other digital storage medium.

Some Examples of Extensions This table lists a few of the most common file extensions and a little information about them. Extension Description



Graphics, pictures

Opened by default browser or by graphics program


Graphics, pictures

Opened by default browser or by graphics program


(Bulky) graphics

Opened by Paint or by graphics program


Word processing file

Opened by WordPad or Word (several formats)


Text file

Opened by Notepad or text editor or Word, etc.


Portable document file Opened by Adobe software

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htm, html Web pages, etc.

Viewed in browser, code edited in text editor


Sound clip

Opened by Windows Media Player


Video clip

Opened by Windows Media Player


Video clip

Opened by RealPlayer


Dynamic link library

Used by software in a variety of functions, leave alone


Executable file

File that actually runs software (also type of ZIP)


Compressed file

Opened by WinZip, PKZip, etc. or native XP function

There are thousands of extensions, however. Among the sites with large lists and descriptions of the different file types are:




Data conversion Data conversion is the conversion of computer data from one format to another. Throughout a computer environment, data is encoded in a variety of ways. For example, computer hardware is built on the basis of certain standards, which requires that data contains, for example, parity bit checks. Similarly, the operating system is predicated on certain standards for data and file handling. Furthermore, each computer program handles data in a different manner. Whenever any one of these variable is changed, data must be converted in some way before it can be used by a different computer, operating system or program. Even different versions of these elements usually involve different data structures. For example, the changing of bits from one format to another, usually for the purpose of application interoperability or of capability of using new features, is merely a data conversion. Data conversions may as simple as the conversion of a text file from one character encoding system to another; or more complex, such as the conversion of office file formats, or the conversion of image and audio file formats Proprietary software Proprietary software is computer software licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder. The licensee is given the right to use the software under certain conditions, while restricted from other uses, such as modification, further distribution, or reverse engineering.


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Complementary terms include free software, licensed by the owner under more permissive terms, and public domain software, which is not subject to copyright and can be used for any purpose. Proponents of free and open source software use proprietary or non-free to describe software that is not free or open source. In the software industry, commercial software refers to software produced for sale, which is a related but distinct categorization. According to Eric S. Raymond, in the Jargon File, “In the language of hackers and users” it is used pejoratively, with the meaning of “inferior” and “a product not conforming to open-systems standards”. Programming languages A programming language is the type of language used to create applications or utilities that communicate to the computer. Some types of programming languages include but not limited to Visual Basic, C++ and Java. Different types of programming languages exist because each one of them excel in a different aspect of programming, and in fact many languages are invented specifically to fulfill a niche that existing languages or language families don’t handle as well as programmers would like. The two main distinctions used when determining what languages are best for a given task are low-level vs. high-level and interpreted vs. compiled. “Low-level” languages such as C and the various assembly languages grant a programmer the maximum amount of control over memory usage and allocation, making those languages good for embedded devices and tasks where memory is at a premium, while “high-level” languages



provide a great deal of abstraction, allowing programmers to perform more complex tasks with less code and implementing concepts such as variable-length arrays, garbage collection, first-class functions, etc. 1. Java Java is a programming language which was developed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems team. Java language is much influenced by the languages such as C and C++ , resembling its most of the syntax. When we talk about its principles, it is one of the simple, object oriented programming language. Its high performance extends its usability to more of the developers out there. Its the only language which most dynamic, threaded and interpreted. It’s one feature that is automatic memory management leads it to far high compared to other programming languages. 2. C# C# is yet another most powerful language after Java, designed and developed by Microsoft. Its one of the language which is multi-paradigm encompassing the features like imperative, functional, object oriented, structured and component oriented. It is mostly influenced by Java. It’s secure, dynamic and threaded.


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3. C++ C++ is the general purpose programming language.It is middle level language , that it is been combined by high level language and low level language. The language is an enhancement over C. It was initially named as “C with Classes�. It is static and unsafe in most of the applications but it is a must for every developer and programmer initially. Python Python is general - purpose high level programming language. It is object oriented, functional, reflective and imperative programming language. It’s typing discipline says that its strong, dynamic and duck.



Ruby Ruby is yet another dynamic, object oriented programming language developed by the influence of Smalltalk and Perl. It appeared in the year 1995. It was designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto. Its typing discipline is duck, dynamic and strong. It is a cross platform language.

Thanks to: programming_languages#ixzz1xYEZAIjP h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / i n f o _ 1 2 1 9 5 5 8 8 _ q u e s t i o n s cryptography.html#ixzz1xTmXDdmK h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / a b o u t _ 5 7 5 9 8 6 6 _ f i l e encryption_.html#ixzz1xTljbAcu h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / a b o u t _ 6 3 7 5 4 2 6 _ s p e e c h text_.html#ixzz1xTXNXfpq


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h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / a b o u t _ 6 3 7 5 4 2 6 _ s p e e c h text_.html#ixzz1xTWhPL5O html#ixzz1xTVb94Hy h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / i n f o _ 8 6 2 6 0 1 0 _ g i m p software.html#ixzz1xTPxSxoc h t t p : / / w w w. e h o w. c o m / i n f o _ 8 4 6 0 4 4 9 _ d e f i n i t i o n photoshop.html#ixzz1xTMiav79 Read more: h t t p : / / w w w. t h e r e g i s t e r. c o . u k / 2 0 1 2 / 0 5 / 2 9 / flame_cyberweapon_analysis/


Module IV

INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING AND THE INTERNET What is networking? A network is a number of computers, people, or things that are interconnected. Network is usually used when people are talking about computers that are all able to communicate with each other. Networking means to connect or operate with the use of a network. In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. LAN - Local Area Network A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs


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(perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring. WAN - Wide Area Network As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth. A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address. A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances. Wireless network Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind. It is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using a transmission system called radio waves. This

Introduction To Networking And The Internet


implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure. Benefits of networking路 

The benefits of computer network are sharing the resources like printer,scanner,copier, internet, and maintaining the centralized database so that the users may have access, and provides security to systems and to the database.

Increases computer security.

Allows computers to communicate with each other securely.

Gain access to a high speed Internet connection.

Remotely running operating systems.

Fast file transfers between machines.

The Internet The Internet or the Net is the large group of millions of computers around the world that are all connected to one another. These computers are connected by phone lines, fibre optic lines, coaxial cable, satellites, and wireless connections. When you log on to the Internet you are given access to many of the other computers that are connected around the world. The Internet was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known


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as the ARPANet. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to be able to “talk to” research computers at other universities. Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. For many Internet users, electronic mail (e-mail) has practically replaced the Postal Service for short written transactions. Electronic mail is the most widely used application on the Net. You can also carry on live “conversations” with other computer users, using Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and more recently with Internet telephony. HTML (HyperTextMarkup Language) The document format used on the Web. Web pages are built with tags embedded in the text that are coded in HTML. The tags define the page layout, fonts and hypertext links to other documents on the Web. Each link contains the URL (address) of a Web page residing on the same server or any server worldwide, hence “World Wide” Web (see hypertext). The HTML also defines all the graphic elements used on the page, which are separate files on a local or remote server. HTML 2.0 was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with a basic set of features, including interactive forms. Subsequent versions added more features such as blinking text, custom backgrounds and tables of contents. With each new version of HTML, Web browsers must be updated to take advantage of the new codes.

Introduction To Networking And The Internet


Websites A virtual location managed by a single entity that provides information such as text, graphics, and audio files to users, as well as connections (hypertext links, hyperlinks, links) to other Web sites. Every Web site has a home page, the initial document seen by users, which acts as a table of contents to other offerings available at the site.An example of a website is Blogs A blog is also known as Weblog. It is a personal online diary or a journal which allows one to share thoughts and ideas. In a blog, one can add video, pictures and music. One can also read comments that a visitor leaves on the blog. The best part is that one does not have to be computer literate. People who create blog are called bloggers. Blog is a very cheap medium on the Internet through which one can express feelings and write according to ones wish about anything that one likes. A blog gives us the freedom of writing articles. Users can give their views about the article and you can know your mistakes. Specially those people who has no website but wants to give information to others about themselves, and want to share his/her opinion about others, can use this to their advantage.Some of the best blogging sites are given below.

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72 The following blogs may also be browsed: Search engine A Search engine is a program that that searches documents and materials for specified keywords and returns a list of documents in which that particular keyword is mentioned. Search engine is really a general class of programs; the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google, Alta Vista and Excite that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web and USENET newsgroups. Typically, a search engine works by sending out a spider to fetch as many documents as possible. Another program, called an indexer, then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that, ideally, only meaningful results are returned for each query.

Introduction To Networking And The Internet


e-mail e-mailis the shortened form for electronic mail, the transmission of messages over communications networks. These messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or attachments from a computer. They enable users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. E-mails are fast, flexible, and reliable. An email address is usually made by the user in order to communicate. Chat Chat is live online communication between two users via computer. Once a chat has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user’s monitor. A chat room is a Web site or part of a Web site that provides a venue for communities of users with a common interest to communicate in real time. Because chat room messages are spontaneous and instantly visible, there is a potential for abuse, which may or may not be intentional.


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Chat rooms can be found that focus on virtually any aspect of human endeavor or interest. Social networking Social networking is the communication of choice between modern youths of today. Social network can be termed as a small community found in a workplace, university or college. Imagine a million individuals who are ready to meet other people, share first-hand information and experiences about any topic under the sun. Social networking in advantageous in a sense because it creates diversity. One can make friends with another person in another part of the continent and share „culinary secrets The flip side that social networking sites attract viruses and thieves who try to con you.There are many social networking sites including Orkut, friendfinder, classmates... Net banking Net banking, also called internet or online banking, is the process of conducting banking transactions over the Internet. Viewing bank statements and the status of a bank account online also comes under the definition of net banking. The bank updates accounts and records of transactions almost instantly on the Internet. This form of banking comes with both benefits and scams. Banks need to use enhanced security measures to ensure the safety and privacy of Internet transactions.

Introduction To Networking And The Internet


Online shopping The act of purchasing products or services over the Internet is known as online shopping. It has grown in popularity over the years, mainly because people find it convenient and easy to bargain shop from the comfort of their home or office. One of the most enticing factor about online shopping, particularly during a holiday season, is it alleviates the need to wait in long lines or search from store to store for a particular item. SECURITY ISSUES Hacking Computer hacking is the practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside of the creator s original purpose. People who engage in computer hacking activities are often called hackers. Since the word “hack� has long been used to describe someone who is incompetent at his/her profession, some hackers claim this term is offensive and fails to give appropriate recognition to their skills. Phishing Phishing is an illegal process of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details etc. Phishing is generally done by e-mail or instant messaging and it


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often directs users to enter details at a fake website, which is almost identical to the legal one. The user requires tremendous skill to detect that the website is fake. A phishing technique was described in detail in 1987, and the first recorded use of the term “phishing� was made in 1996. The term is a variant of fishing.

Thanks to: computer_networks#ixzz1xYaQs7qD of_connecting_a_computer_to_a_network#ixzz1xYapbOk1 .html#ixzz 1xYgxy2v9


Module V

KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET ENCYCLOPEDIAS An encyclopedia or encyclopedia is a book or series of books that contain articles on a wide range of subjects or various aspects of a particular field. The word “encyclopedia” comes from the Greek enkykliospaideia, a “circle of learning.” Originally meaning a general education, it has come to signify a reference work containing information on all branches of knowledge, either in general or in a specialized field. An encyclopedia is often confused with a dictionary. A dictionary provides definition of words, while an encyclopedia explores topics in depth with illustrations, maps, and photographs. Encyclopedias are now available online, with no print version. One of the most important advantages of online encyclopedias is that they can be edited frequently, so they are up to date. Traditionally, an encyclopedia was written by a single writer or as a collaborative effort, but new works are being put together by a team of writers who often have no face to face contact whatsoever with each other.

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With the introduction of personal computers, CD-ROMs, and the World Wide Web, many encyclopedias are now being published in CD-ROM form, with the most notable example being Microsoft’s Encarta. LIBRARIES traditional library is a collection of books. Today’s libraries are repositories and access points for print, audio, and visual materials in numerous formats including maps, prints, documents, microfilms, audiotapes, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, video games, e-books, e-audio books and many other electronic resources. Libraries often provide public facilities to access to their electronic resources and the Internet. e-brary is a platform that provides desktop access to online books. E-books are electronic versions of printed books and are an exact duplication of the printed book. Online books can be viewed online from any PC connected to the Internet, browsed for quick research and reference. Most universities have e-braries that provide books for reference and research, in its vicinity. One such site is by UGC – BOOKSITES Book sites are the online book stores that allow you to buy books and sometimes even on a reduced rate. They offer a wide range of collection. Book sites provide an enjoyable shopping experience. They also ensure a safe shopping by protecting you while you shop so that you never have to worry about credit card safety.

Knowledge Resources On The Internet


Amazon is the clear leader in the online book market. Infibeam is another site that specializes in books. Many of these sites have broadened their base to include greeting cards, mementoes and memorabilia. JOURNALS journal contains scholarly articles. It disseminates current information on research and development in a particular subject field. E-Journals, or electronic journals, are the electronic equivalent of paper journals. E-Journals provide access to ‘full text versions’(full content) of articles which you can read on-screen, print out or save to disc. In some cases you will be limited to viewing a description of the article - an abstract or summary. Scholarly Journals are journals which are respected for the research and information they provide about the topic they cover. They are written for and by people who have rich experience in a particular discipline or field. The research is often refereed, meaning that it is reviewed by other researchers who are knowledgeable about the serious look than most popular magazines. They may contain graphs and charts but do not usually have many pictures. Scholarly journals cite their sources using footnotes or bibliographies.


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CONTENT REPOSITORIES Content Repositories are large storage facilities for storing content. Repositories give answers to any type of query. There can also be articles, comments, news about different matters. It is possible to define a single content repository table that is flexible enough to store everything in one place. ONLINE EDUCATION Online education is a classroom without walls. It is engaging in assisted, self-directed learning. Online education is also known as distance learning or e-learning. It differs from traditional education because students are not required to visit an actual classroom and listen to an instructor face-to-face. Online education is truly about student convenience. Students can check in, work on assignments, and turn them in when their schedules permit, not when the college doors are open. Students begin their course studies by logging onto the Internet. Once they are in their classroom, they will learn by reading assignments, asking questions, and receiving instructor feedback. Some courses even offer forums and/or chat rooms where students can gather, with or without the instructor, to discuss assignments. Finally, students are graded on homework assignments, final projects, and test scores.

Knowledge Resources On The Internet


INTERNET DIRECTORY ONLINE COURSES AND VIRTUAL UNIVERSITIES A virtual university provides higher education programs through electronic media, especially the Internet. Some institutions provide online learning as part of their extended university courses while others provide courses only online. Virtual universities function in many ways: some combine with universities, institutes or departments providing a number of courses over the Internet, television or other media; others have a legal framework, yet named virtual because they exist only on the Internet, without a physical location; and other virtual universities have specific or multiple physical locations, to receive program delivery through technological media that is broadcast from another location, where real professors give televised lectures. The goal of virtual universities is to provide access to students who live too far from a physical campus to attend regular classes and to those students who need the flexibility to study at home. Students taking the so-called “virtual” courses do “real” work to get their degrees and educators preparing and teaching those courses spend plenty of “real” time in doing so. Students meet rigorous academic learning outcomes and evaluations through programs constructed by credible academics conforming to university criteria. These degrees are recognized around the world. A good example of a Virtual University is Tamil Virtual Academy (

Informatics For Gen Next


Model Question Paper Core Course III

FE3B03 Informatics

Time: 3 Hrs

Total Weightage: 30

Section A: Objective Questions Answer all 12 questions

(Weightage 3)

1. LAN is _________________ a) Database

b) Word processing

c) Local Area Network

d) Local Aided Node

2. PDA is also known as ______________________ a) Personal Digital Assistant b) Personal Do it yourself Assistant c) Personal Data Assistant d) Personal Definite Assistant 3. www can be expanded as ____________________ a. world without walls c. world within web

b) world with a web d) world wide web

4. The father of modern computing is ____________ . a) V S Naipaul c) Steve Jobs

b) Charles Babbage d) Graham Greene

5. Color Monitors are also known as _____________ monitors. a) RYB c) RIB

b) RCV d) RGB

6. Excel is a ___________________ application.

Model Question Paper

a) Database c) Spreadsheet


b) Word processing d) Powerpoint

7. A series of instructions that performs a particular task is called ____________. a) Instructions

b) Protocol

c) Program

d) Process control

8. Free software movement was conceived and launched by________________ a) Bill Gates

b) Gordon Bell

c) Claude Shannonl

d) Richard Stallman

Expand the following 9. USB 10. HTML 11. OCR 12. CPU II. Short answer type questions. Answer all 9 questions (9 x 1wt = 9) 13. What is a notebook?. 14. Expansion of MODEM? 15. What according to you is Informatics? 16. Explain .doc file extension. 17. What is booting? 18. Mention a few lines about chips? 19. Explain the function of a scanner

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20. Clarify the meaning of VoIP 21. Mention different types of hand-held computers III. Short essay/paragraph questions. Answer any 5 questions from 7 (5 x 2wt = 10) 22.What are Blogs? Mention a few of them. 23. Explain Crytpography. 24. What is meant by Virtual Reality? 25. Outline Bluetooth devices 26. What is Open Office? 27. What are thumb drives? 28. Write a short note on tablets IV. Essay questions (Answer 2 question from 3) (2 x 4wt = 8) 29. Outline the history of the development of computers 30. State the different types of Operating systems and their applications 31. Explain the benefits of networking. (Total 31 questions and 30 weightage) Answers to Section A 1) 5)


2) 6)


3) 7)


4) 8)


9) Universal Serial Bus 10) Hyper Text Markup Language 11) Optical Character Recognition 12) Central Processing Unit