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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-eh - m-ca- p≈ tXbn-e A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-eh - m-ca- p≈ tXbn-e:A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

ISBN: 978-81-908155-4-3 © 2010, Edition - first

Published by

TM

Prakruthi

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Organisation

43, 2nd Cross, Ramaya Layout St. Thomas Town Post Kammanahalli Bangalore 560 084, India www.prakruthi.org

Compiled and Edited by : M A Subair, Advisory Officer, UPASI V A Augustine, Prakruthi Design and Layout by Rajesh M V Printed at National Printing Press, Bangalore 4


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

DffS°w

apJhpc

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Biw-k

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Ipdn∏v

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tXbn-e-bpsS {]m[m\yw

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ G{]n¬, sabv, Pq¨ amk-ß-fn¬

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ Pqsse, BK-Ãv, sk]vXw-_¿, HIvtSm-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ \-hw-_¿, Unkw-_¿, P\p-hcn amk-ß-fn¬

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ s^{_p-h-cn, am¿®v amk-ß-fn¬

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IoS\min\nIƒ kpc£nXambn ssIImcyw sNø¬

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KpW-\n-c-hm-c-ap≈ Nmb D¬∏m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ So t_m¿Uns‚ \n¿t±-i-߃

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aÆv kmºn-fp-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°p∂ hn[w

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D‰vkv So k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

43, 2nd Cross, Ramaya Layout St. Thomas Town Post Kammanahalli Bangalore 560 084, India www.prakruthi.org

apJhpc

Im¿jnI taJ-e-bpsS ka-{K-hnI-k-\hpw Im¿jnI hyh-km-b-Øns‚ A\-¥-km-[y-X-I-fpsS D]-tbm-K-hp-amWv C¥y-bpsS hnI-k-\-Øns‚ ImX-emb-`m-Kw. {Kma-hn-I-k-\-Øn\v DX-Ip-∂Xpw hntZ-i-\mWyw t\SnXcp-∂-Xp-amb Im¿jnI hrØn-If- psS hnI-k\ - h - pw, hym]-\h - pw, XpS¿kw-c£ - W - hpw \ap°v A\n-hm-cy-ta-Je - b - m-Wv. aqeym-[n-jvTn-Xh - pw, kmaq-ly-{]-Xn-_≤ - X - b - p-ap≈ Im¿jntIm¬∏-∂ß - ƒ°v tZiob A¥¿tZ-iob hn]-Wn-bn¬ apJy-ÿm-\a- p-≠v. KpW\n-e-hmcw sa®-s∏-Sp-hm≥ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS kwc-£Ww {][m-\-am-Wv. aÆpw, Pehpw, ssPh-k-ºØpw kwc-£n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ {Inbm-fl-I-amb Im¿jnI CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ BWv \ΩpsS cmPy-Øn\v Bhiyw. AXn\v Irjn coXn-Is- f-°p-dn-®pw, aÆns‚ LS\, D]-tbm-Kw, _mly-LS- I - ß - f- psS D]-tbmKw F∂n-hs- b-°p-dn-®p≈ Adnhv I¿j-Ic- n¬ FØn-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. CØcw Adnhv tXbne I¿j-I-cn¬ FØn-°p-∂-Xn\v Hcp ssI]p-kvXIw {]kn-≤oIcn-°p-∂-Xn\v km[n-®-Xn\v "{]Ir-Xn°v' Gsd kt¥m-j-ap-≠v. tIc-f-Ønse {]tXyIn®pw hb-\m-´nse sNdp-InS tXbne I¿j-I¿°v th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb ]pkvXI-Øns‚ ]n∂n¬ {]h¿Øn® Fw. F. kpss_¿, D]m-kn, {]IrXn {]h¿ØI¿, XpS-ßn-b-hsc kvt\l-tØmsS Hm¿°p-∂p. Cu ]pkvXIw tXbne I¿j-I¿°v KpW-{]-Z-ambn Xocs´ F∂m-iw-kn-°p∂p. kvt\l-]q¿Δw, {]tamZv tPm¨ FIvknIyq´ohv UbdIvS¿ {]IrXn 7


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ Rev. Dr. James Purathail CST Managing Director WAM Tea Co. Ltd. Karimani, Wayand Dsit. Kerala

Biw-k

sX∂n-¥y≥ tXbn-e-bpsS Ncn-{Xw kvt\l _‘-Øn-s‚bpw ]mc-kv]-cy-Xbp-sSbpw Bhn-jvIc- a- m-Wv. tXbneIrjn `mcX Ncn-{X-ah - p-ambn KmV-ambn _‘s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. kmº-Øn-Im-[n-]-Xy-Øn\p th≠n-bp≈ A[ni i‡n-Ifpw kº∂ hn`mKhpw tXbnebpsS KpWhpw hnebpw \n¿Æ-bn-°p-hm≥ G¿s∏Sp-Øn-bn-cn-bv°p∂ {Iao-I-c-W-߃°-Xo-X-amb sNdp-InS I¿jIcpsS Iq´m-bva-bn-eqsS DS-se-SpØ Icn-am\n hmw So Iº\nbpw Cu Ncn-{X-Øns‚ `mK-am-bn-Øo¿∂ncn°p-∂p. CsXmcp kmaq-lnI kwcw`am-Wv. CXns‚ ]n∂n¬ \nc-∂p-sIm≠v So t_m¿Uv, D]m-kn, XpS-ßnb kwhn-[m-\-ßfpw {]Ir-Xn, tkmfn-Um-cn-Um-Uv XpS-ßnb kwL-S-\-Ifpw {]tNm-Z-\hpw Znim-t_m-[hpw Df-hm-°p-∂p-≠v. tXbne taJ-e-bn¬ F√m-h¿°p-ap≈ ]¶ns\ hy‡-am-°p∂Xpw KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw D¬∏m-Z-\-£-a-Xbpw h¿≤n-∏n-°p-hm≥ klm-b-I-amIp∂ Hcp sNdp]pkvXI - a- mWv (KpW-\n-eh - m-ca- p≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-coXn-Iƒ) {]Im-in-X-am-Ip-∂-Xv. CXns‚ ]n∂n¬ {]h¿Øn® {]Ir-Xn, D]mkn XpS-ßnbh¿°v Fs‚ A`n-\-μ-\-߃!. kvt\l-]q¿Δw, ^m. Pbnwkv ]pd-Ø-bn¬ CST Fw.Un hmw So Iº\n

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ M.A. Subair Advisory Officer UPASI-Tea Research Foundation Regional Centre, Mepadi, Wayanad. Kerala Ph: 0-4939 282463

Ipdn∏v

tXbneIrjn-bn¬ amkw-tXmdpw A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Kth-jW ^e-ßsf Bkv]-Z-am°n imkv{Xo-b-ap-d-bn¬ cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-SpØ tXbne Irjn∏Wn{]-tbm-K-ß-sf°p-dn®v Ipdn∏v ae-bm-f-Øn¬ Fgp-Xn- X-cp-hm≥ {io. hn. F AK-Ãn≥, {]-Ir-Xn Fs∂ kao-]n®t∏mƒ, efn-X-amb `mj-bn¬ I¿j-I¿°v Ffp-∏-Øn¬ a\- n-em-h-Ø° coXn-bn¬ Fgp-Xn-s°m-Sp-°p-hm≥ kabw Is≠-Ø-W-sa∂ {]m¿-XvY\- am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p-. \n›- b n®Xpt]mse L´wL´- a mbn, Ime- Ø n- \ - \ p- k - c n®v Fs¥√mw sNø-W-sa∂v Hcp-h¿j-tØ-°p≈ tXbne Irjn-∏Wn-Isf°pdn®v FgpXnsIm-Sp-°m≥ Ign-™p. Bt\m-´p-Iƒ {]kvZo-I-cn®v ]I¿∏v F√m- I¿j-Icnepw FØn-°m\pff {]hr-Øn- {]-Ir-Xn F∂ kwL-S\ `wKn-bmbn \n¿h-ln°p-Ibpw sNøvXp. CØcw {]hr-Øn-I-fn¬ F\n°v A\p-hmZw X∂v hf-sc-tbsd t{]m’ml\w \¬Inb D]m-kn-bpsS UbcIvS¿ tUm. ]n taml≥ Ipam-dn-t\mSv \μn ]d-™p-sIm-≈-s´. kok-Wn¬ A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ tXbne Irjn ]Wn-Isf°pdn®v Fgp-XnX∂ t\m´p-Iƒ Ct∏mƒ Hcp ssI]p-kvX-I-am°n {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p∂-Xn\v {]-Ir-Xn ap≥ssI FSp-Ø-Xn¬ {]-Ir-XnbpsS FIvknIyq´ohv UbcIvS¿ {io. {]tamZv tPmWn\pw {]h¿Ø-I¿°pw \μn Adn-bn-°p-∂-sXm-sSm∏w, Cu ]pkvXIw {]tXy-Ia- mbn hb-\m-´n-ep≈ sNdp-InS tXbne I¿jI¿°pw AXpt]mse a‰p kwÿm\ß-n-¬ NnX-dn-In-S-°p∂ F√m tXbne I¿j-I¿°pw {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-sa∂v {]Xo-£n°p∂p. 11


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

F√m h¿jhpw D]mkn ]pdØp sIm≠p-h-cp-∂ Kth-jW ^e-ßsf Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ ]pXp-°p-hm\pw ]pXnb \n¿t±-i-ßfpw Adn-hp-Ifpw ^e-ß-fpw imkv{Xob Irjn- coXnIfpw I¿j-I-cn¬ FØn-°p-hm≥ {]IrXn F∂ kwL-S\ {ian-°p-sa∂v ]q¿Æ-ambn hniz-kn-®p-sIm-≈-s´. Imem-h-ÿ-bnepw aÆns‚ Btcm-Ky-L-S-I-ß-fnepw hyXym-k-߃ D≈Xv sIm≠v, Irjn-]Wn {]tbm-K-Øn¬ am‰w hcmw. AXp-t]mse `mj-bnepw, hymI-c-W-Ønepw D≠m-tb-°m-hp∂ sX‰p-Iƒ am\y-hm-b-\-°m¿ kZbw £an-°p-sa∂v Icp-X-s´. kvt\l-]q¿Δw, Fw. F. kpss_¿ AUvsshkdn Hm^o-k¿ D]m-kn, ta∏mSn, tIcfw.

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KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

tXbn-e-bpsS {]m[m\yw

C¥ybpsS Im¿jnI hyh-kmb taJ-e-I-fn¬ hfscb[n-Iw sXmgn¬ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂-Xpw, hntZi \mWyw t\Sn-X-cp-∂-Xp-amb tXm´-hn-f-bmWv tXbn-e. {_n´ojv `c-W-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n®v tXbn-ebv°v {]m[m\yw hcn-Ibpw hym]m-cm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ h≥InS tXm´ßfpw sNdp-InS tXm´ßfpw D≠m-hpIbpw A¥¿t±iob hmWnPy kwcw`-߃ Bcw`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 19˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ Bcw`-tØmsS km[m-cW - ° - m-cpsS CjvS] - m-\o-ba- mbn tXbn-e amdn. C∂v 40 Hmfw cmPy-ßfn¬ Nmb hym]-Im-Sn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ Irjn-sNbvXphcp∂p. C¥y, ssN\, {ioe-¶, sI\n-b, Xp¿°n, Ct‚m-t\jy XpS-ßnb cmPy-߃ ap≥\nc-bn-em-Wv. Z£nW ]q¿tΔ-jy-bnepw Ata-cn-°b - nepw, DjvWt- a-Jem {]tZi-ß-fnepw, Dt]mjvW-ta-Jem {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ 30 kky-hw-iß-fpsS IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Xotbkn IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Ita-enb hwi-Øn¬s∏´ H∂mWv tXbn-e-. (China : C. sineniss, (L) O. Kuntze, Assam : C. assamica (Masters Wight), C. assamica ssp. losiocalyx)

F∂m¬ tXbn-e taJe C∂v cq£-amb {]Xn-k-‘nsb t\cn-Sp-I-bmWv h¿≤n® DZv∏m-Z-\-sN-e-hv, KpW-\n-e-hmc XI¿®, temI-hym-]mc kwL-S\m {]h¿Ø-\-߃, Imem-hÿ F∂nh tXbn-e- hy-h-kmbsØ tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n®p. sNdp-InS tXm´-ß-fpsS ]cn-]m-e-\hpw kwc-£-Whpw DZv∏m-Z-\-£a-Xbpw h≥InS tXm´-ßsf At]-£n®v hfsc Ipd-hmbn ImW-∏-Sp-∂p. imkv{Xob Irjn-]-cn-]m-e-\hpw Irjn-co-Xnbpw A\p-h¿Øn®v DZv∏m-Z-\-£aX h¿≤n-∏n-®m¬ am{Xsa DZv∏m-Z-\- sNehv Ipd-°p-hm≥ km[n-°q. KpW\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbne s]mSn D≠m-°p-Ibpw DZv∏m-Z-\ -sNehv Ipd-°p-bpw 13


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

hgn am{Xta tXbn-e hyh-kmbw A`n-ap-Jn-cn-°p∂ {]Xn-k-‘n-bn¬ \n∂pw c£-s]-Sm-\m-hp. sNSn-bpsS kwc-£Ww hf-{]-tbm-Kw, If-IoS \nb-{¥-Ww, sImfp¥v \p≈¬, Btcm-Ky-kw-c-£-W-ap-d-Iƒ, kmaq-ly-\o-Xn, Pew, aÆv kwc-£-Ww- F-∂n-hbv°v I¿j-I¿ {]m[m\yw \¬IWw. Nmb-bpsS hnI-k\-tØm-sSm∏w kaq-l-Øns‚ ka{K-hn-I-k-\hpw C∂sØ Ime-L-´-Øns‚ A\n-hm-cy-L-S-I-ß-fm-Wv. tZiob A¥¿t±-iob Xe-ß-fn-ep≈ hnI-k\ kwcw`ßfp-am-bp≈ GtIm-]n-X-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ IÆn-tN¿∂v ASn-ÿm-\hn`-hß - f- psS kwc-£W - hpw XpS¿ kwc-£W - hpw Dd∏phcpØn \ap°v hcpw Xe-ap-db - v°v ssIam-dp-Ibpw AXn-eqsS `£y-kp-c£ - bpw kmº-ØnI `{Z-Xbpw ssIh-cn-°p-Ibpw thWw.

C¥y-bpsS kºØv hyh-kvY-bn¬ tXbn-e-bpsS ]¶v z

z

hntZi hn\n-abw: Ib-‰paXn C\-Øn¬ 600 tImSn-bn¬∏cw hntZ-i-\mWyw e`n- ° p- ∂ p. hntZi\mWyØns‚ 1/12 `mKw tXbnebn¬ \n∂mWv e`n-°p-∂-Xv. B`y-¥-c-h-cpam\w: hnhn-[-bn\w \nIp-Xn-Iƒ, FIvssk-kv, hmWnPyw `q\n-Ip-Xn-, BZm-b -\n-Ip-Xn, sXmgn¬ \nIp-Xn. tXbn-e -tXm-´-ß-fpsS hcp-am-\-Ønse 1 cq]-bn¬ \n∂pw 33 ss]k k¿°m-cn-tebv°v \nIpXn C\-Øn¬ sImSp-°p-∂p.

z

sXmgn-e-h-k-c-߃: Ccp-]-Xv e-£-Øn¬∏cw sXmgn-e-h-kc-߃ D≠v. kv{XoI-fpsS ]¶m-fnØw Dd∏v hcp-Øp-∂p. tXbn-e-bpsS A\p-_‘ taJ-e-I-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ a‰v sXmgn-e-h-k-c-߃.

z

{Kmahn-Ik - \w: kmº-ØnI ]ptcm-Ka- \ - hpw {Kma-hn-Ik - \ - hpw kmwkvImcnI {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw \S-°p-∂p.

z

aÆv Pe kwc-£Ww: ta¬a-Æns\ Bhc-Wa- mbn kwc-£n-°p-hm≥ tXbnesN-Sn°v Ign-bp-∂p. ssPhm-h-ÿ- \n-e-\n¿Øp-∂p. Km¿lnI D]-tbm-KØn\v hndIv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. temI DZv∏m-Z-\-Øns‚ 27% C¥y-bn¬ \n∂m-Wv. C¥ybn¬ 79% A`y-¥c D]-tbm-Khpw 21% Ib-‰p-a-Xn-bp-amWv tXbn-e- ta-J-e-bn¬ D≈-Xv.

tXbne \√ BtcmKy ]m\o-b-am-Wv a\pjy ico-c-Ønse {]Xn-tcm-[-i‡n hf¿Øp-∂-Xn\pw kwc-£n-°p∂Xn\pw tXbne hgn km[n-°p-∂p. -Hcp DØa BtcmKy ]m\o-b-amWv CXv. {][m\ KpW-߃ NphsS tN¿°p-∂p. z

Is^-bn≥: c‡-ip-≤n-h-cp-Øp-∂p. \mUo-hyqlw kwc-£n-°p-∂p. am\-knIm-tcmKyw i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. 14


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

^f-thm-t\m-bnUv: a\pjy tImißsf kwc-£n-°p-∂p. Iym≥k¿ {]Xntcm[- i‡n h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂p. lrZ-bm-Lm-XsØ Ipd-bv°p-∂p. N¿Ω-ßsf Aƒ{Sm-ssh-e‰v civan-If- n¬ \n∂pw kwc-£n-°p-∂p. B‚n _mIvSo-cn-b¬ GP-‚mbn {]-h¿Øn-°p-∂p.- ]e {][m\ t]mj-I-ß-sfbpw {]Zm\w sNøp∂p. amwK\o-kv, kn¶v, ssh‰-an≥ _o, kn, sI, XpS-ßn-b-h.

z

^vfptdm-bnUv: ]√p-Is- fbpw tamW-Is- fbpw kwc-£W - Øn\pw hf¿®°pw klmbn-°p-∂p. a\p-jy-k-aq-l-Øn\v tXbne Hgn-®pIqSm\mhmØ ]m\o-b-am-sW∂v kwi-b-te-i-at\y sXfn-bn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂- km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ Atcm-Ky-ap≈ tXbn-e-bpsS DZv]m-Z\w Dd-∏m-t°-≠Xv Hmtcm I¿j-I-s‚bpw Hcp DØa ]uc-s‚bpw DØ-ch - m-Zn-Xzhpw IS-ab - p-am-sW-∂p≈ Xncn-®d- nhv D≠m-IW - w. sNSn-bpsS Hmtcm sNdnb hf¿®m ka-b-ß-fnepw I¿j-Is‚ {i≤bpw ]cn-N-c-Whpw {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p-∂p.

Ce-\p-≈¬ tXbne Irjn-bn¬ G‰hpw {i≤bpw {][m-\yhpw A¿ln-°p∂ tPmenbmWv Ce\p≈¬ AYhm N∏v ]dnbv°¬. Nne- ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ CXns\ sImfp¥v \p≈¬ F∂pw ]d-bm-dp-≠v. tXbnebpsS D¬∏m-Z-\hpw KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw Ce-\p-≈p∂ coXn-bn-em-{i-bn-®m-Wn-cn-°p-∂-sX-¶nepw I¿j-I¿°v th≠{X Adnhpw {]m[m-\yhpw e`n-®n-´n-√. tXbne sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-tØbpw DZv∏m-Z-\-sØbpw t\cn´v _‘-s∏-Sp∂p F∂XmWv sImfp¥v \p≈-ens‚ {]tXy-IX. [mcmfw tPmen-°m¿ Bh-iy-ambn hcp∂ tPmen-bm-Wn-Xv. km[m-c-W-bmbn Hcp apIp-fhpw hnS¿∂ aq∂v Ce-Ifpw tN¿∂ Xfn-cp-IfmWv sNSn-bn¬ \n∂pw ]dn-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xv. Ce-\p-≈p-tºmƒ aq∂v Ce-Ifpw apIp-fhpw BImØ sNdnb Xfn-cp-Iƒ sNSn-Ifn¬ \n¿tØ≠-XmWv. Cßs\ \n¿Øp∂ Xfn-cp-Iƒ \n›nX ka-bØv aq∂v Ce-Ifpw Xncn-bp-am-hp-Ibpw Bk-a-bØv IrXy-ambn \p≈p-Ibpw thWw. Cßs\ IrXy-ambn CS-th-f-Ifn´v Ce \p≈n-bn-s√-¶n¬ sNSn-bn¬ Ce-Iƒ ap‰p-Ibpw AXv tXbne s]mSnbpsS KpW-ta-∑sb tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n-°p-Ibpw sNbpw. Ce-Iƒ \p≈p∂Xv sNSn-bpsS Hcp \n›nX \nc-∏n≥ (a-´w) Bbn-cn-°Ww. bmsXm-cp- Im-c-W-h-imepw Cu \nc-∏n\v Xmsg \n∂pw Ce-Iƒ ]dn-s®-Sp-°cpXv. Nne Iƒj-I¿ IØn- D-]-tbm-Kn®v Acn-s™-Sp-°p-∂Xv {i≤-bn¬s∏´n´p-≠v. Cßs\ sNbvXm¬ sNSn-bpsS \n›nX \nc∏v C√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw sNSnbpsS hf¿®-tbbpw, DZv∏m-Z-\-sØbpw, KpW\n-e-hm-c-sØbpw tZmj-Ic-ambn _m[n-°pw. 15


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

tXbne sNSn-I-fn¬ km[m-c-W-bmbn I≠p-h-cp∂ A{K-ap-Ipfw C√mØ Xfn-cp-I-sf-bmWv _©n F∂p hnfn-°p-∂pXv (Banji) sNSn-bpsS \n›nX \nc∏n¬ CØcw _©n-Iƒ \p≈n-am-t‰-≠-Xm-Wv.- Ir-Xy-k-a-bØv _©nIƒ \p≈n-am-‰n-bn-s√-¶n¬ DZv]m-Z-\hpw tXbne sNSn-bpsS KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw Ipdbp-Ibpw sNøpw. tXbn-e-bpsS hf¿® \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn\v Imem-hÿ Hcp {][m\ ]¶v hln-°p-∂p. km[m-cW G{]n¬, sabv amk-ßf- nepw sk]v‰w-_¿, HIvtSm_¿ amkßfnepw Xfn-cp-I-fpsS hf¿® {ZpXK-Xn-bn-epw th\¬Im-eØpw, Imeh¿jk- a - b Øpw hf¿® aμ- K - X n- b n- e p- a m- W v . ]mI- a mb Xfn- c p- I ƒ \p≈ptºmƒ c≠v hnf-sh-Sp-∏p-Iƒ XΩ-ep≈ CSthfsb π°nwKv C‚¿sh¬ F∂p ]d-bp∂p. Xfn-cne {ZpX-K-Xn-bn¬ hf-cp∂ amk-ß-fn¬ 8 apX¬ 10 Znhkw hscbpw, hf¿® Ipd™ amk-ß-fn¬ 12 apX¬ 15 Znh-kw-h-scbpw Cu ssZ¿Lyap≠m-Ip-∂p. Hcp slIvS¿ ÿeØv ÿnc-ambn c≠v sXmgn-emfnIƒ Ds≠-¶n¬ icn-bm-b- co-Xn-bn¬ hnf-sh-Sp∏v \S-Ømw. ta¬∏d™ coXn-bn¬ hnf-sh-Sp∏v \S-Øn-bm¬ KpW-ta∑ sa®-s∏-Sp-Ømhp-∂X - m-Wv. hcp-am-\hpw D¬∏m-Z\ - hpw h¿≤n-°pw. Xfn¿ sam´p-If- psS (Buds) hf¿® {ZpX-KX - n-bn-em-Ipw. ssIsIm≠p≈ hnf-sh-Sp∏v h¿j-Øn¬ 28 apX¬ 30 XhW hsc-bpw, I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v 22 apX¬ 24 XhW hscbpw sImfp¥v \p≈m≥ Ign-bpw.

hnc-ep-I-fm¬ \p≈p-∂-Xn\p ]Icw ssIhn-c-ep-Iƒ tN¿Øv hen-°p-tºmƒ: z

]mI-am-hmØ Xfn¿tam-´p-Iƒ AS¿∂p t]mcp-∂p

z

Ch°v Xq°w Ipd-hm-b-Xn-\m¬ BZmbw Ipd-bp-∂p.

z

sNSn-bpsS BtcmKysØ \ne-\n¿Øp∂, amXr Ce-Iƒ \jvS-am-Ip-∂p.

z

_©n Ce-Iƒ \p≈n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bmsX hcp-∂p.

z

Xfn¿ Ce-I-fpsS X≠v sNSn-bn¬ Xs∂ \n¬°p∂p

z

Ce-Iƒ Xmsg hoWv \jvS-am-Ip-∂p.

z

[mcmfw apSn®n-Iƒ cq]w sIm≈p-∂p.

F¥p sIm≠v sNdp-InS sXm´-ß-fn¬ Ipd™ CS-th-f-bn¬ hnfsh-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√? z

Stripping

(hen®p ]dn-°¬): Hmtcm hnfshSp∏nepw ]mI-amb Ce-Iƒ am{Xw FSp-°msX samØ-Øn¬ hnen®p-]-dn-°¬ 16


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

t]mjW Ce-I-fpsS \jvSw: sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn-\m-h-iyamb amXr Ce-Iƒ \jvS-am-hp-∂p. (\√ Btcm-Ky-ap≈ sNSn-bpsS \nc-∏n\v Xmsg 20 sk. an. Bg-Øn¬ Ce-Iƒ D≠m-tI-≠-Xm-Wv.)

z

t]mjW Ce-I-fpsS A`mhw ImcWw sNSn-bpsS apIƒ`mKw Iºpw tImepw \nd-bp-∂p.

z

Nne -tXm-´-ß-fn¬ a´-IØn D]-tbm-Kn®v Acn-s™-Sp-°p-∂p.

z

a´°Øn D]-tbm-Kn®pw tXbne sImfpØv Acns™Sp-°p-∂Xv hgn ]cnt]m-jW Ce-Ifpw tN¿∂v hcp-∂p. CXv hnf-hn-s\bpw sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-sØbpw _m[n-°pw.

]cn-t]mjW Ce-Iƒ (Maintenance Foliage) sNSnIƒ Blmcw ]mIw sNøp∂ {]Imi kwt«-j-W-sa∂ {]{In-b°v ]cn-t]m-jW Ce-Iƒ AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-Wv. CeIfneqsS \¬Ip∂ t]mjI-ßsf thcn-se-Øn-°p-Ibpw Btcm-Ky-ap≈ ]pXp-\m-ºp-Iƒ D¬∏m-Zn-∏n-°phm\pw ]cn-t]mjW Ce-Iƒ hfsc AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.

sNSnbpsS a´-`m-KØv \nd™p InS-t°≠ aqØ Ce-I-fm-Wv ]cn-t]mjW Ce-Iƒ GXm≠v Hcp h¿j-tØmfw {]Imikwt«-jW - {]{Inbbn¬ ]¶psIm≈p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Hmtcm h¿jhpw ]pXnb CeIƒ sNSnbn¬ \ne-\n¿tØ≠XmWv. P-\p-hcn apX¬ am¿®v hsc-bp≈ Ime-L´w A`n-Im-ayw.

]cn-t]mjW Ce-Iƒ \jvS-s∏-´m-ep-≠m-Ip∂ tZmj-߃? z z z z

z

CS Xq¿∂ Ce-Iƒ°v ]Icw sNSn-bn¬ Iºpw tImepw \nd-bp-∂p ]pXnb apIp-f-߃ Xfn-cn-Sm≥ Ign-bmsX hcp-∂p sNSn-bpsS BtcmKyw {ItaW £bn-°p∂p D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hf-ßfpw kq£a t]mj-I-ßfpw sNSn Dƒs°m-≈msX hcp-∂p D¬]m-Z\w Ipd-bp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Irjn-sN-ehv h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw hcp-am-\-Øn¬ h≥Ip-dhv D≠m-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p

_©n: Dd-°m-h-ÿ-bn-ep≈ apIpfw Imem-hÿ sNSn-IfpsS C\w, IhmØv Ign™ {]mbw, aÆnse aqeI-ß-fpsS Afhv Chsb B{i-bn®v G‰-°p-d-®n-ep-I-fn-≠m-Ip-∂p. _©nIsf Dd-°m-h-ÿ-bn-ep≈ apIpfw F∂p-≤-cn-°m-\p≈ ImcWw _©nbn¬ \n∂pw ]pXnb apIp-f-߃ cq]-sa-Sp-°m≥ FI-tZiw 120 apX¬ 17


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

150 Znh-k-߃ (4 apX¬ 5 amk-߃) FSp-°p-∂p. F���m¬ Hcp ]cn-t]mjW Ce-bn¬ \n∂pw \p≈m≥ Ign-bp∂ sImfpØv hf-cp-∂-Xn\v 60 apX¬ 90 hsc Znh-k-߃ FSp-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v _m©n-Isf ]dn-®p-am-‰n-bn-s√¶n¬ 12 apX¬ 20 iX-am\w hsc hnfhv Ipd-bp-sa∂v Kth-j-W-ß-fn-eqsS hy‡-am-bn-´p-≠v.

ka-bm-k-a-b-ß-fn¬ _©n ]dn-®p-am-‰n-bn-s√-¶n¬ z

hnfhv Ipd-bm\pw sNSn-I-fn¬ ]pXnb apIp-f-߃ Xfn-cn-SmsX hcn-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

z

D¬∏m-Z-\-£-aX Ipd-bp-∂-Xn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p.

z

kky hf¿®sb apc-Sn-∏n-°p∂ Nne tlm¿tam-Wp-If- psS {]h¿Ø-\Ø - m¬ sNSn-I-fn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hf-ßfpw a‰v t]mj-I-ßfpw {]tbm-P-\c-ln-X-am-Ip-∂p.

z

KpW-ta-∑sb tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n-°p-∂p.

ap-Sn-®n-Iƒ hnfshSp-∏n\v tijhpw \n¿Øp∂ Iºp-Iƒ sNSn-bpsS a´-`m-KØv Xnßn\n-d™v Ah Hmtcm∂nepw ]pXnb apIp-f-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂p. CØcw Xfn-cpIƒ icn-bmb coXn-bn¬ hf-cm≥ Ign-bmsX _©n-Iƒ cq]w sIm≈p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v CØcw Iºp-Iƒ D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ AXn¬ \Sp-hn-esØ Iºv ]®-\n-d-ap≈ Iºn¬ sh®v- H-Sn-®p -I-f-tb-≠-Xm-Wv.

I{XnI (Shear) D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ hnf-sh-Sp∏v sNdpInS tXbne I¿j-I-cpsS cq£-amb {]iv\-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv IrXy ka-b-ß-fn¬ tPmen-°msc In´m-\n-√mØ kml-Ncyw. sImfpØv FSp-°p-∂Xn\v {]m]vX-cmb Bfp-Iƒ Ipd-hm-b-Xn-\m¬ \n›n-X-k-a-b-ß-fn¬ hnf-sh-Sp°msX hcp-Ibpw KpW-ta-∑bpw hnf-\-jvShpw D≠m-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. CØcw kml-N-cy-ß-fn¬ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v sImfp-s¥-Sp°p∂-Xv hfsc {]tbm-P-\-I-c-am-Wv. I{Xn-I-bpsS imkv{Xob]c-amb D]-tbmKw A\p-h¿Ønt°-≠-Xm-Wv. CXp-aqew sXmgn¬ {]iv\w Hcp ]cn[n hsc ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ km[n-°pw.

I{XnIbpsS {]tbm-P-\-߃ z

IrXy-k-a-bØv hnf-sh-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p.

z

ssIsIm≠v FSp-°p-∂X - n-t\-°mƒ DZv]m-Z\w 50˛100 iX-am\w IqSp-∂p.

z

sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS e`y-Xsb \nb-{¥n-°mw. 18


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

sNSn-I-fpsS a´w,- i-cn-bmbn ]cn-]m-en-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.

z

hnf-sh-Sp-∏n-\p≈ sNehv Ipd-bp-∂p.

z

KpW-ta∑ sa®-s∏-Sp-∂p.

I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hn[w z z

z z z

z z z

z z z z

z z

z z

I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv IhmØv sh´nb tijw 18 amkw Ign-™n-cn-°W - w. km[m-cW G{]n¬, tabv amk-ß-fnepw sk]v‰w_¿, H-IvtSm-_¿ amk-ßfnepw Xfn-cp-I-fpsS hf¿® {ZpX-K-Xn-bn-em-Wv. Hmtcm {ZpX-K-Xn- hf¿®mka-bØpw Ipd-™Xv 3˛4 XhW XpS¿∂v I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn°mw. h¿jØn¬ 6 apX¬ 8 XhW D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. Hmtcm Xh-Wbpw IrXy-amb a´w sNSn-bn¬ {Iao-I-cn-°pI Cu a´-Øn¬ am{Xw I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°pI sh´p∂ `mKw \nc-∏n¬ \n∂pw Xmgv∂v t]mIm-sX-bpw, \nc-∏n¬ \n∂pw Db¿∂p-t]m-ImsXbpw I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°pI. ]c∂- {]X-e-ap≈ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°pI. I{XnI sh´p∂tXmsSm∏w Xs∂ _©n-Iƒ ssIsIm≠v \o°w sNøp-I. sh´p∂ `mKw Xfn-cp-I-fpsS ]®-\n-d-ap≈ X≠n¬ Xs∂-bm-Ip-hm≥ {i≤n°Ww. Hcn-°epw Nph∂ Imºn¬ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°mXn-cn-°p-I. aq∂n-ebpw Xncnbpw F∂ Af-hn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ce hcmsX {i≤n-°p-I. Ce \p≈n-t]m-Ip-∂-Xn-\p≈ Nmep-Iƒ tXm´-Øn¬ \n¿Ωn-°p-I. I{XnIbpsS heXv ssI `mKw A\-°msX ]nSn®v, CSXv ssI `mKsØ tªUv sIm≠v am{Xw sh´n-sb-Sp-°p-hm≥ ioen-°p-I. sh´p∂ ka-bØv ]cn-t]m-jW Ce-Iƒ \jvSs- ∏-Sm-Xn-cn-°m≥ {i≤n-°p-I. Ipd-™Xv 4 ap-X¬ 5 ASp°v ]cn-t]m-jW Ce-Iƒ sNSn-bn¬ D≠m-bncn°-Ww. 800 {Kman¬ Ipd-hp≈ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I. km[m-cW 15˛16 Znhkw CS-hn´v I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v Ce-Iƒ sh´n-sbSp°p-I.

IhmØv sh´¬ (Pruning) -IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xns‚ {][m\ Dt±iw ]pXn-b-Xmb c≠mw X´pw aq∂mw X´pw D≠m°n FSpØv sNSn- b psS Btcm- K ysØ hos≠- S pØv 19


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

kq£n-°p-Ib - m-Wv. sNSn-Iƒ \n›nX Db-cØ - n¬ sh´n sNSnsb Hcp°n FSp°p∂ coXn-bm-Wn-Xv. sNSn-Iƒ \´v A©p h¿jw XnI-™-Xn-\p-tijw 20˛22 C©v Db-c-Øn¬ BZy IhmØv \S-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. AXn\m¬ \nb-{¥-Wm-[o\-amb Hcp Db-cØn¬ sh´n icn-bmb hmXp-Iƒ CS-Xq¿∂v hf¿Øn AXn¬ \n∂pw ]pXnb Btcm-Ky-ap≈ hmXp-Iƒ kwc-£n-°epw, sa®-amb hnf-hn\v IW°m°n a´w Hcp-°-ep-am-Wv Ihm-Øns‚ e£yw (I-hmØv sNøp-∂-XpsIm-≠p≈ \∑-Iƒ ˛ Ihm-Øn\v ap≥]pw tijhpw {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃ F∂nh XpS¿∂p hcp∂ A≤ym-b-ß-fn¬ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.

IhmØv N{Iw Zo¿Ln-∏n-°p∂XpsIm-≠p≈ tZmj-^-e-߃ z

A©mw h¿jw apX¬ tXbne D¬∏m-Z\w Ipd-bp∂p.

z

Xfn¿ sam´p-I-fpsS hf¿® apc-Sn-°p-∂p.

z

Ce \p≈p-∂-Xn-\p≈ sNehv IqSp-Ibpw IqSp-X¬ Bfp-Isf tPmen°v D]-tbm-Kn-t°-≠-Xmbpw hcp-∂p.

z

Ce \p≈p-∂ Afhv Ipd-bpw.

z

_©n D¬∏m-Z\w IqSp-Ibpw sNSn-I-fn¬ ]qhpw, Imbpw IqSp-Ibpw sNøpw.

z

KpW-ta∑ \nb-{¥n-°m≥ Ign-bmsX hcp-∂p.

z

hcƒ® {]Xn-tcm-[n-°m-\p≈ i‡n sNSn-Iƒ°v Ipd-bp-∂p.

z

sNSn-I-fpsS Dbcw \nb-{¥Wm[o-X-am-hp-∂p.

z

hfßfpw a‰v t]mj-Iß - fpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂X - n¬ \n∂pw {]Xo-£n-°p∂ ^ew In´msX hcp-∂p. (a´w HSn-°¬ ˛ XpS¿∂v hcp∂ A≤ym-b-ß-fn¬ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-≠v).

hf {]tbm-Kw aÆns‚ D¬∏m-Z\£aX h¿≤n-∏n-°p-hm-\pw, tXbnetØm´-ß-fpsS D¬∏mZ\£aX IqSp- h m\pw KpW- \ n- e - h m- c - a p≈ Nmb D≠m- ° m\pw hf{]tbmKw {][m\ ]¶v hln-°p-∂p. sX∂n-¥y-bnse an° tXbnetØm´ßfpw ÿnXn sNøp-∂Xv ssPhmwiw Ipd™ ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fn-emWv. Bb-Xn\m¬ tXm´-Øn¬ \n∂pw \√ D¬∏m-Z\w e`n-°p-hm≥ cmk-hf- {- ]-tbmKw AXymh-iy-amWv.-sN-dp-In-S- I¿jI¿, NmW-I-s∏m-Sn, ItºmÃv apX-em-bh tXm´-ßfn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv ssPhmwiw h¿≤n∏n°m≥ km[n-°pw. Ihm-Øn\p tijw CeIfpw X≠pw tXm´-Øn¬ Xs∂ \nt£-]n-°-Ww. tXm´-ß-fnse cmk-h-f-{]-tbm-K߃ imkv{Xob coXn-bn-em-bn-cn-°Ww \S-tØ-≠-Xv. Bb-Xn\m¬ imkv { Xobamb kwtbm- P nX cmk- h f {]tbm- K sØ°pdn®v 20


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

sN-dp-In-SI¿jI¿°v a\- n-em-Ip∂ hn[-Øn¬ XpS¿∂v hcp∂ A≤ym-b-ßfn¬ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. D]mkn, So t_mUv XpS-ßnb Hut±ym-KnI GP≥knI-fpsS \n¿t±-i-߃ kzoI-cn-°m-hp∂-Xm-Wv.

kkyt]mj-I-߃ apJy t]mj-I-߃

ZznXob t]mj-I-߃

eLp t]mj-I-߃

Im¿_¨

a·ojyw

kn¶v

sl{U-P≥

Im¬kyw

amwK-\okv

HmIvkn-P≥

kƒ^¿

t_mtdm¨

ss\{S-P≥

Ab¨

s]m-- ´mkyw

tIm∏¿

t^mkv^-dkv

t¢mdn≥

t]mj-I-ß-fpsS {]m[m\yw ss\{S-P≥

t^mkv^-dkv

Ce-Iƒ hf-c-p-∂Xn\v

thcp ]Sew

s]m´mkyw BtcmKy-ap≈ inJn-c-߃

A-∂hpw,- t{]m-´o≥ ChbpsS \n¿ΩmWw

tImi hn`-P\w

sh≈-Øns‚ k¥p-e\w

B¬°-tembnUv a‰v {][m\ aqe-I-ß-fpsS BKn-c-Ww (-C-h-bpsS Ipdhv hm¬ hnf-dnb ]®-\n-dw, D¬∏m-Z\ Ipdhv F∂nh hcmw)

ATD – e - ADP

IoSßsf-bpw, (C-h-bpsS Ipdhv hcƒ®-tbbpw hcptºmƒ {]Xn-tcm-[n-°m-\p≈ Ce-I-fpsS Xnf°w i‡n (C-h-bpsS Ipdhv aßp-Ibpw hcƒ® hcptºƒ Ce-Iƒ Icnapc-Sn-°p-Ibpw bp-Ibpw s]mgnbpIbpw sNøp-∂p) sNøp-∂p.- D¬∏m-Z\w Ipd-bp-∂p)

21


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ G{]n¬, sabv, Pq¨ amk-ß-fn¬

1. tXbne- \So¬ aÆv Aæ-Kp-W-ap-≈-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww. ]n.-F-®v. 5.0 \v apI-fn¬ t]mh-cp-Xv. Ipgn-sb-Sp-°¬ z 30 sk.-an. hoXnbpw 45 sk.-an. Bg-hp-ap≈ Ipgn-I-fn-emWv sNSn-Iƒ \tS-≠-Xv. CS-hn´ InS-ßp-Iƒ z Hmtcm Cc-´-hcn tXbn-e- sN-Sn-Iƒ°pw CS-bn¬ 2 ao‰¿ \ofhpw 30 sk.an. hoXnbpw 45 sk.-an. Bg-hp-ap≈ InS-ßp-Iƒ c≠p ao‰¿ CS-hn´v Ipgn-°-Ww. ssXIƒ \Sp∂ coXn-Iƒ z 135 x 75 x 75 sk.-an. AI-e-Øn¬ {XntImWm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ \Sp-∂-Xn\v G°-dn-te°v 5300 ssXIƒ Bh-iy-am-Wv. tXbne \Sp-∂-Xns‚ kabw z Pq¨ amkw. ssXIƒ°p≈ cmk-h-f-{]-tbmKw c≠p-amkw Ign-bp-tºmƒ D]-tbm-Kn®p XpS-ßmw. XW¬ z tXbne \Sp∂ ^o¬Up-I-fn¬ s{Khn-enb tdm_à F∂ imkv{X-\m-aap≈ kn¬h¿ Hm°p-ssX-Iƒ '20 x 20' F∂ {Ia-Øn¬ \tS-≠-Xm-Wv.

22


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

2. A[nI hnf-hp-Imew G{]n¬ apX¬ Unkw-_¿ hsc \nc-∏n¬ \p≈n FSp-°p∂ coXn-bm-WnXv. sImfp¥v \p≈p-tºmƒ h´-bn-etbm "ao≥' Ce-tbm, ievI-]-{Xtam XpS¿®bmbn \ne-\n¿Øp∂ Cu coXn kzoI-cn-®m¬ sNSn-bpsS Dbcw h¿≤n-°p-Ibn-√. sImfp-s¥-Sp-°¬ XΩn-ep≈ CS-thf 8˛10 Znh-k-am-Wv. I{XnI (jn-b¿) D]-tbm-Kn-°¬ z A[nI hnf-hp-Im-eØv am{Xta jnb¿ D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ km≤y-am-hp-I -bp-≈q. Hcp h¿j-Øn¬ Btdm, Gtgm XhW jnb¿ D]-tbm-Kn®v CesbSp-°m¬ ]‰pw. \nc∂ I{Xn-I-bmWv D]-tbm-Kn-t°-≠-Xv. IqSmsX CSbv°p≈ _m©n-Iƒ ssIsIm≠v FSpØv If-tb-≠-Xm-Wv. I{XnI sIm≠v FSp-°p-tºmƒ sImfp-¥p-Iƒ FSp-t°≠ CS-thf 14 apX¬ 16 hsc Znh-k-am-Wv. cmk-hf- {- ]-tbmKw z aÆn¬ hf-{]-tbmKw XpS-tß-≠Xv 2''˛3'' (C-©v) ag Hcm-gvN-bv°p-≈n¬ In´n-b-tijw am{X-am-Wv. Ipd-™Xv 4, 5 Xh-W-sb-¶nepw h¿j-Øn¬ hf{]-tbmKw sNøWw.

3. cmk-h-f- {]-tbm-K-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\ -X-Øz-߃ icn-bmb Afhp \n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ Irjn-ÿ-esØ DXv]m-Z\w aÆnse ssPhmw-i-Øns‚ Af-hv, tXbn-e-bpsS C\w apX-em-bh IW-°n-se-Sp-t°≠-Xp-≠v. h¿j-Øn¬ BZysØ hf-{]-tbmKw \¬tI-≠Xv Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v tN¿Øm-Wv. AYhm Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v \¬Im≥ Ign-bmsX h∂m¬ bqdnb tN¿Øp≈ hf-an-{in-X-߃ Xmsg ]´n-I-{]-Imcw tN¿Øv sImSp-°mhp-∂-Xm-Wv. hf-an-{in-X-߃ Iq´p-∂-sX-ßs\? z BZyw (N) ss\{S-P≥ (K) s]m´mjv c≠pw \√-t]mse Cf°n Ie¿Øp-I. tdm°vt^m-kvt^‰v 33 Intem-bn¬ \n∂pw 5 Intem-hsc X\n-®p- am-‰n-bt- ijw AXn-t\mSv tN¿Øv 120 {Kmw kn{Sn°v BknUv \√-t]mse Ie¿Øp-I. ]n∂oSv _m°n-bp≈ 28 Intem tdm°v t^mkvt^-‰ns‚ IqsS ho≠pw \√t]mse Ie¿Øp-I. AXn-\p-tijw ss\{S-P≥, s]m´mjv an{in-X-Øns‚ IqsS tdm°vt^m-kvt^‰v kn{Sn°v BknSv an{inXw C´v Cu \mep Iq´pwtN¿Øv \∂mbn Cf-°n-b- tijw tXbn-e°v {]mb-Øn-\-\p-k-cn®v hfw \¬Ip-I. GI-tZiw 25 {Kmw apX¬ 30 {Kmw hsc Hcp sNSn°v A©ph-b-kp -{]m-bw- hsc F∂ tXmXn¬ \¬Imw. 23


N ss\{S-P≥ Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 29 Intem.

K s]m´mjv

P

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v

A\p-]mZw 1 : 1

bqdnb 38 Intem.

4000 Intem apX¬ 5000 Intem Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ 96 Intem. tXm´-߃°v

3000 Intem apX¬ 4000 Intem hsc Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v i(-h¿j-Øn¬) Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 32 Intem.

Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 29 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

AYhm Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v In´msX/ \¬Im≥ Ign-bmsX t]mbm¬

3000 Intem apX¬ 4000 Intem Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ 86 Intem. tXm´-߃°v

DXv]m-Z\w ]®- Ce/ G°-dn\v/ h¿j-Øn¬

kn{Sn°v BknUv

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw.

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw.

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw.

Ce -]-dn-°p∂ tXbne tXm´-߃°p≈ cmk-h-f-ß-fpsS Xq°w, G°-dn\v G{]n¬/ sabv/ Pq¨ amk-Øn¬

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

24


bqdnb 42 Intem.

Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 37 Intem.

Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 32 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

5000 Intem apX¬ 6000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v bqdnb 48 Intem.

Fw.- Hm.- ]n. 37 Intem.

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v 33 Intem.

AYhm Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v In´msX/ \¬Im≥ Ign-bmsX h∂m¬

5000 Intem apX¬ 6000 Intem Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ 110 Intem. tXm´-߃°v

4000 Intem apX¬ 5000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

AYhm Atam-Wnbw kƒt^‰v In´msX/ \¬Im≥ Ign-bmsX h∂m¬

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw.

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw.

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw. KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

25


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

sabv, Pq¨ amk-ß-fn¬ Ihm-Øp-sh-´p∂ tXbne ImSp-Iƒ°v BKÃv amk-Øn¬ hfw \¬In-bm¬ aXn. IhmØv tXm´-Øn-te-°p≈ hf-Iq´v ASpØ e°-Øn¬ hnh-cn®v Xcp-∂-Xm-Wv.

4. tXbne sNSn-Iƒ hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°¬ XmbvX-≠p-ap-dn-°¬ (sk‚-dn-ßv) z sk‚-dnßv sNøp-tºmƒ XmbvX≠v F{X-tØmfw XmgvØn apdn-°p-hm≥ km[n-°ptam A{X-tØmfw XmgvØn-sh-´W - w. Cßs\ sNøp-tºmƒ Ft´m, ]tØm Ce-I-fpsS H∂p c≠p sNdp-Nn-√-Iƒ sNSn-bn¬ \ne-\n¿Øm≥ {i≤n-°-Ww. sNdp-Nn-√-Iƒ C√mØ sNSn-I-fn¬ Ft´m, ]tØm Ce-Iƒ \ne-\n¿Øn XmbvX≠p apdn-°-Ww. sNSn-Iƒ \´v 4 amkw Ign™v am{Xta sk‚-dnßv \S-Øm-hq. Ign™ h¿jw \´ tXbn-e-sN-Sn-Iƒ sk‚-dnßv sNøm-Øh Cu h¿j-Øn¬ G{]n¬ / sabv amk-ß-fn¬ tase hnh-cn®Xp-t]mse sh´mw. sk‚-dnwKv Ign™v a´w HSn-°¬ z BZysØ {]mhiyw a´w HSn-t°-≠Xv Xd-\n-c-∏n¬ \n∂pw 35 sk.ao Db-c-Øn-em-Wv. c≠m-aXv 50 sk.- an. Db-c-Øn-epw. a´w HSn-®p-I-gn™ tijw sImfp¥v FSp-°p-∂-hn[w z a´w HSn-®-tijw Hcp h¿jwhsc Xmbv-Ce sh®v sImfp¥v \p≈mw. AXn-\p-tijw ]pXnb \nc-∏n¬ sImfp¥v \p≈m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.

5. IhmØv sh´¬:˛ sabv / Pq¨ amkw tXbne \´- t ijw BZysØ IhmØn\v A©p-h¿jw Ign-b-Ww. CXns\ \Sp-I-hmØv F∂v hnti-jn∏n-°p-∂p. Xd-\n-c-∏n¬ \n∂pw imJIƒ apdn-°p∂ Dbcw 20''-˛22'' (50 ˛ 55 sk.-an) BWv. AXn\v tijw F√m \mep-h¿j-Øn¬ Hcn-°¬ XpS¿∂v IhmØp sNø- W w. a´w HSn- ° ¬ IhmØv sh´nb Db-c-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb Af-hn\v B{i-bn-®m-bn-cn-°-Ww.

6. IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v D≠m-hp∂ \∑-Iƒ z

IhmØv sh´p-hm≥ A\p-tbm-Py-amb amk-߃ G{]n¬/ sabv, Pq¨ As√-¶n¬ BK-Ãv, sk]v‰w-_¿ /HIvtSm-_¿ BWv. Cu amk-ßf- n¬ A[nIhpw Bh-iy-Øn-\p≈ ag, iotXm-jvW\ - n-e, aÆnse Cu¿∏w F∂nh D≠mbn-cn-°pw. CØcw Imem-h-ÿ-bn¬ sh´p∂ sNSn-Iƒ sh´p∂ Db-c-a-\p26


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

k-cn®v A[n-Ihpw 2 As√-¶n¬ 3 amk-߃°p-≈n¬ Xs∂ a´w HSn-s®Sp-°m≥ Xøm-dm-Ipw. z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

IhmØv F∂p ]d-™m-ep-S≥ ]ecpw Ipd™ Db-c-Øn¬ (10-˛16 C©v Db-c-Øn¬) sh´p-∂-Xm-sW∂v Icp-Xn-bmWv sNSn-Isf sh´p-∂-Xv. IqsS-Xs∂ XmgvØn sh´n-bm¬ \√ Dd-∏p≈ inJ-c-ß-fp-≠m-hp-I-bp≈p F∂ sX‰mb tXm∂¬ ImcWw hfsc \jvSß - f- p-≠m-hp-∂Xv Adn-bp-∂n-√. IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xns‚ {][m\ Dt±iw ]pXn-b-Xmb c≠mw X´pw, aq∂mw X´pw D≠m-°n-sb-SpØv B sNSn-bpsS Btcm-KysØ hos≠-SpØv kq£n°p-Ib - m-Wv. F∂m¬ am{Xta {]Xo-£n-°p∂ hnf-hpw, Bh-iy-Øn\p th≠ (Productive Branches) inJ-c-ßfpw D≠m-hp-I-bp-≈p. AXp-Im-cWw \Sp-Øc IhmØv (20-˛24 C©v Db-cw) As√-¶n¬ ta¬ IhmØv (24-˛26 C©v Db-cw) sh´p-∂-XmWv G‰hpw \√-Xv. CØcw DbcØn¬ IhmØv sNø-W-sa-¶n¬ icn-bmb Db-c-Øn¬ (28 C©v Db-cØn¬) BZyta a´w HSn-®n-cn-°-Ww. CXpt]mse IhmØv sNømsX hn´m¬, ]® tXbn-e-bpsS KpW-ta-∑sb _m[n-°p-Ibpw AXn¬ \n∂pw D≠m-Ip∂ tXbn-e-s]m-Sn-bpsS KpW \nehm-c-tØbpw hf-sc-b-[nIw _m[n-°pw. hn]-Wnsb XI¿°p∂p. CXpsIm≠v KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ sImfp-¥p-I-fp-≠m-hm≥ IhmØv {]tbmKw tXbne-bn¬ Hgn-®p-Iq-Sm≥ Ign-bmØ Hcp {][m\ ]cn-N-c-W-ap-d-bm-Wv. IhmØv sNøm≥ G‰hpw \√ amk-߃ G{]n¬ / sabv, Pq¨ As√¶n¬, BKÃv / sk]v‰w-_¿, HIvtSm-_¿ amk-ß-fm-Wv. tXbne sNSn-Iƒ \n›-bn-°-s∏´ Ime-Øn-\p-≈n¬ IhmØv sNøm-Xn-cp∂m¬ ]qhpw, ImbvIfpw IqSp-X¬ D≠m-hpw. CXp-Im-cWw hnfhv Ipdbpw. CXns\ Hgn-hm-°m-\pw, Cfw Xfn¿ sImfp-¥p-I-fpsS FÆw A[n-I-ap≠m-hm\pw IhmØv {]tbmKw Bh-iy-am-Wv. IhmØv Zo¿Ln-∏n-®m¬ sImfp-¥ns‚ hf¿®-bpw, Xq°hpw Ipd-bp-∂tXm-sSm∏w, h©n-I-fpsS FÆhpw IqSpw. CXn-\m¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ icmicn Afhv Ipd-bp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v hnf-sh-Sp-°m-\p≈ Nnehpw h¿≤n°p-∂p. AsXm-sIm≠v Ce FSp-°m-\p≈ Nnehv \nb-{¥n-°m≥ icn-bmb CS-th-f-I-fn¬ IhmØv sNtø-≠-Xm-h-iy-am-Wv.

7. IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xn\p ap≥]v {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃ z

aÆns‚ KpW-\n-eh - m-cØ - n-\\ - p-kc- n®v hnfhv In´p-∂X - p-sIm≠v BZyw aÆp ]cn-tim-[\ \√-Xm-Wv. XpS-- ¿∂v hnfsh-Sp-°p-XvsIm≠v aÆn¬ \n∂pw saKv\ojyw, I¬kyw, XpS-ßnb a‰v LS-I-ß-fpsS Afhpw Ipd-bp-∂p. 27


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

XpS¿∂v ]e h¿j-ß-fmbn \¬In h∂ hf-ß-fm¬ aÆns‚ ]n.-F-®v. hfsc Ipd™p t]mhm-\p≈ km≤yX hfsc IqSp-X-em-Wv. CXv aÆns‚ Btcm-KysØ hf-sc-b-[nIw _m[n-®n-´p-≠v. h¿jw-tXmdpw \¬Ip∂ hf߃ sNSn-Iƒ°v th≠-Xp-t]mse {Kln-°m≥ Ign-bmsX ]mgm-bnt]m-hm≥ km[y-X-Iƒ IqSp-X-em-Wv.

z

AXpsIm≠v aÆns‚ Ipd-™p-t]mb ]n.-F-®v. Db¿Øm≥ tSmtfm-ssa‰v aÆn¬ \¬tI-≠Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv.

z

tSmtfm-ssa‰v IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xn\v 2 amkw ap≥]v \√-t]mse ]cØn C´p-sIm-Sp-°-Ww.

z

aÆnse ]n.-F® - v. \v A\p-kc- n®v tSmtfm-ssa-‰ns‚ Af-hnepw hyXym-kß - ƒ D≈-Xp-sIm-≠v, a¨ ]cn-tim-[\ F√m-hn-[-Ønepw \√-Xm-Wv. a¨ ]cntim[-\bpw tUmtfm-ssa‰v ]cn-tim-[\ - bpw Ip∂q¿, hmƒ]md, KqU-√q¿, D]mkn tI{μß-fn¬ ]cn-tim-[-\°v sImSp-°mw.

8. IhmØv sNbvX-tijw {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃ z

IhmØv sh´n-°-gn-™-Xn\v tijw I´n-Iq-Snb sImºp-Iƒ Hgn-hm°n sNdnb sImºp-Np-≈n-Ifpw Cebpw tN¿Øv InS-ßp-Iƒ FSpØv AXn¬ \nd-®n´v aqSn-bn-Sp-∂Xv \√-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ aÆnse ssPhmwiw IqSp-∂-XpsIm≠v hnfhv h¿≤n-°pw. CXp-t]mse sNøm≥ Ign-bmØ Ah-ÿI - fn¬, s]≥kn¬ (Pencil) hÆ-Øn¬ sNdnb Iºp-Isf IjvW-ß-fm°n sh´n, InS-ßp-Iƒ°v ]I-cw, tXm´-Øn�� \nc-Øn-bn-Sp-∂Xpw \√-Xm-Wv.

z

IhmØv sh´nb sNSn-bpsS sh´p-ap-J-Øn¬ tIm∏¿ HmIvkn t¢mssdUv + en≥koSv Hmbn¬ (NW FÆ) 1:1 F∂ tXmXn¬ Ie¿Øn sh´p-ap-JØn¬ ]pc-´n-bm¬, sNSn-bpsS inJ-c-߃°v _m[n-°p∂ DW-°-tcm-Kw, X≠v Agp-I¬ tcmKw F∂n-h-bn¬\n∂pw sNSn-Isf c£-s]-Sp-Øm≥ Ign-bpw.

z

IhmØv sh´nb tXm´-ßf- n-ep≈ Imen-ÿe - ß - sf sNSn-sh®v ]nSn-∏n-°m≥ 12 apX¬ 15 amkw-hsc {]mb-amb ssXIƒ \Sp-∂-Xm-Wv G‰hpw \√-Xv.

28


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ Pqsse, BK-Ãv, sk]vXw-_¿, HIvtSm-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬ tXbn-esb _m[n-°p∂ t]mf≥ tcmKw ^wKkv _m[-aqew (-Ip-anƒ tcmK-߃) tXbn-e-bpsS Ce-bnepw X≠pI-fnepw tcmK-ß-fp-≠m-Ip-∂p.

t]mf≥ tcmKw (_vfn-ÿ _vssf‰v tcmKw) FIvtkm-t_-kn-Unbw shIvk≥kv F∂ ^wK-kmWv Cu tcmK-Øn-\p≈ Imc-Ww. tXbn-e-bpsS tcmK-ß-fn¬ G‰hpw {][m-\-s∏-´Xpw hf-sc-b-[nIw kmº-ØnI \jvSw hcp-Øp-∂-Xp-amWv t]mf≥tcm-Kw. Xfn-cn-e-I-sfbpw X≠p-I-sf-bp-amWv Cu tcmKw Iogvs∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. t]mf≥ tcmK-Øn-s\-Xnsc \S-]-Sn-I-sf-Sp-Øn-s√-¶n¬ Dev]m-Z-\-Øns‚ GI-tZiw 43% apX¬ 50% \jvSs∏-Sp-sa∂v IW-°m-°n-bn-´p-≠v.

t]mf≥ tcmK-Øns‚ Bhn¿`mhw B man¬ \n∂pw 1868-˛¬ Xs∂ t]mf≥tcm-Ks- Ø-°p-dn-®p≈ hnh-cß - ƒ e`n-s®-¶n-epw, tcmK-Im-cWw I≠p-]n-Sn-°m≥ Ign-™Xv 1895-˛¬ am{X-am-Wv. 1908-˛¬ Um¿Pn-en-ßnepw 1912 \pw 1922 \pw CSbv°v t^m¿tam-k-bnepw P∏m-\nepw Cu tcmKw {]Xy-£-s∏-´p. sXt° C¥y-bn¬ Cu tcmKw BZy-ambn dnt∏m¿´v sNbvXXv 1946 BKÃv amk-Øn-em-Wv. tIc-f-Ønse ap≠-°-b-Øp\n-∂pw, ]n∂oSv ]ocp-ta-Sv, B\-a-e, ssltd©v F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnepw tcmKw {]Xy£-s∏-´p. AtX-h¿jw Unkw-_¿ amkm-cw-`-Øn¬ \oe-Kncn Pn√-bnse tIm´Kncn `mKØpw Cu tcmK-Øns‚ B{I-aWw Zriy-am-bn. 1947-˛¬ {ioe-¶bnepw 1949-˛¬ Ct¥m-t\-jy-bnepw Cu tcmKw ]S¿∂p ]nSn-®p.

29


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

tcmK-Im-cWw z

km[mc-W-bmbn ag-°m-e-ØmWv t]mf≥ tcmKw {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv

z

taLm-hr-X-amb A¥-co-£w IqSmsX

z

kqcy-{]-Imiw BgvN-bn¬ 2 apX¬ 10 aWn-°q¿ t\cw D≈-t∏mƒ

z

Db¿∂ Bt]-£nI B¿{ZX 60-˛100%

z

Ce-I-fn¬ 8 apX¬ 12 aWn-°q¿ hsc Cu¿∏-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°p-I

z

ag-bpsS Afhv Hcp BgvN-bn¬ 2 apX¬ 10 sk.-ao. hsc s]øp-tºmƒ

z

17-˛230 C˛ bn¬ Ipd™ Dujvamhv F∂nh Cu ^wK-kns‚ hf¿®bv°v hfsc A\p-Iq-e-am-Wv

z

IqSp-X¬ XW-ep≈ ^oƒUp-I-fnepw \oscm-gp-°p-Iƒ ISpØp≈ sNSnI-fnepw t]mf≥ tcmK-Øns‚ B{I-aWw cq£-am-bn-cn-°pw

tcmK-e-£-W-߃ BZyta kqNn-∏n-®X - p-t]mse Xfn-cn-eI - s- fbpw Cfw X≠n-s\-bp-amWv t]mf≥ tcmKw _m[n-°p-∂X - v. IhmØv sh´n-bt- ijw Xfn¿Øp-hc- p∂ ^o¬Up-Ifn¬ tcmK-_m[ cq£-am-bn-cn-°pw. ^wK-kns‚ kvt]mdp-Iƒ Ce-If- n¬ hoW-bpSs\ apf-bv°p-hm≥ Bcw-`n-°p-∂p. BZyw Cfw a™ \nd-Øn¬ an\p-ka- p≈ sNdnb ]p≈n-Iƒ Ce-I-fn¬ {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂p. Ch ]n∂oSv 6˛12 an.-an. hymk-Ønep≈ hrØ-ß-fmbn hnI-kn-°p-∂p. {ItaW Ch Ce-bpsS apI-fn¬ Ipan-fI-fmbn amdp-∂p. CXp-sIm-≠mWv CXns\ t]mf≥ (ªn-ÿ) tcmKw F∂p hnfn°p-∂X - v. Ipan-fI - f- psS Ipgn-™h - iw an\p- a- p-≈X - m-Wv. ]cp-]c- pØ s]m¥nb ASn-`mKw BZyw a™-bmbpw ]n∂oSv Nmc-\n-d-ambpw Ah-km\w Sm¬°w ]uU¿ XqIn-b-Xp-t]mse sh≈-\n-d-Øn-ep-am-Ip-∂p. Cu ^wK-kns‚ Pohn-XN{Iw 11 apX¬ 28 Znh-k-ß-fn¬ ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂p. Hcp NXpc sk.-ao. D≈ Ipan-f-Øn¬ \n∂pw kpam¿ 24 aWn-°q¿sIm≠v 15 e£w ^wK-kns‚ hnØpIƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂p.

\nhm-cW am¿§-߃ tcmK \nhm-c-W-Øn\v ]e Imcy-ßfpw sNtø-≠-Xp-≠v. Ah Hmtcm-∂mbn Xmsg hnh-cn-°p-∂p.

1. \ng-ens‚ km{μX Ipd-bv°¬ XW¬ ac-߃ IqSp-X-ep≈ ^o¬Uns‚ A¥-co-£-Øn¬ Bt]-£nX B¿{ZX 80 iX- a m- \ - Ø n- e - [ nIw D≈- t ∏mƒ t]mf≥ tcmK- a p- ≠ m- ° p∂ ^wKkns‚ kvt]mdp-Iƒ thKw apf-bv°p-Ibpw hym]n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. 30


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

AXp-sIm≠v ag-°mew XpS-ßp-∂-Xn\v ap≥]v \ng¬ ac-ß-fpsS ]m¿izin-Jc-߃ apdn®p-am‰n \ng-ens‚ km{μX Ipd-bvt°-≠-Xm-Wv. \ng¬ ac-߃ ]pXp-Xmbn \´p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p∂ tXm´-Øn¬ G°-dn\v 110 ac-ß-fpw, c≠m-asØ Ihm-Øns‚ ka-bØv 55 ac-ßfpw (40x20 ASn) F∂ tXmXn¬ \ne-\n¿Ønbm¬ IqSp-X¬ kqcy-{]-Imiw sNSn-I-fpsS ta¬ ]Xn-°p-∂p. CXp-aqew tcmKØns‚ ImTn\yw Ipd-bp-∂p.

2. IhmØp sNbvX tXm´-Ønse If-\n-b-{¥Ww IhmØv sh´nb ^o¬Up-If- n¬ If-Iƒ hf-cm-\p≈ km≤yX IqSp-Xe - mWv. tXbne sNSn-I-fpsS ta¬]c-∏n-ep≈ kq£va-Im-em-hÿ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn¬ If-Iƒ°pw ]¶p-≠v. If-I-fpsS B[nIyw aqew B¿{ZX h¿≤n-°p-∂p. tcmKIm-cn-bmb ^wK-kns‚ kvt]mdp-Iƒ [mcm-f-ambn apf-bv°p-hm≥ CXp klm-bn-°p∂p. ]p√pw, sNSn-Ifpw IqSp-X¬ hf-cp∂ ^o¬Unse tXbn-ebn-e-Iƒ am{X-a-√ Cfw-X-≠p-Ifpw t]mf≥ tcmK-Øns‚ cq£-amb B{I-a-WØn-\n-c-bm-Ip-∂p. If-\n-b-{¥-W-Øn-eqsS t]mf≥ tcmK-Øns‚ cq£X Ipd-bv°mw.

3. IhmØv sNtø≠ kabw hb-\m-´nse Imem-h-ÿ-bv°pw, `p{]-Ir-Xn-bn-°p-a-\p-k-cn®v sabv / Pq¨ As√-¶n¬ HmKÃv / sk]v‰w-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬ IhmØv sh´p-∂Xv A\p-tbmPy-am-Wv. F∂m¬ sNdp-InS I¿j-I¿ ]ecpw \hw-_¿, Unkw-_¿, P\p-hcn amk-ß-fn¬ IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xmbn ImWmw. Cu ka-bØv IpanƒtcmKw A[nIw _m[n-°p-Ibpw 50 iX-am\w hoXw hnfhv Ipd-bv°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. AXp-sIm≠v X°-k-a-bØv IhmØv sNbvXm¬ Cu tcmK-Øns‚ cq£X Ipd-bv°mw.

4. \o≠ \mfp-I-fpsS CS-th-f-bn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v tcmK-i-a\w A[n-I-cn-°pw \o≠ \mfp-I-fpsS CS-th-f-bn¬ Ce FSp-°p-tºmƒ ]pXnb Cfw Hcp Ce Acn-ºp-If- n¬ tcmKw A[nIw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ Ipanƒ\min\n Xfn-°p-tºmƒ hf¿∂ Ce-I-fn¬ am{X-ta-s]-Sp-∂p-≈p. sNdnb Cfw Acn-ºpI-fn¬ s]Sp-∂n-√. IqSmsX iotXm£vW \nebpw amdp-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v Ipdn∏n´ icn-bmb Ime CS-th-f-I-fn¬ Ce ]dn-°p-∂Xv Bh-iy-am-Wv.

^wKkv \min-\n-I-fpsS {]tbmKw IhmØv sNbvX-tijw Xfn¿Øp-h-cp∂ tXm´-ß-fn¬ sImgp-∂p-I-fn¬ \o¿]Zw A[n-I-am-hp-I-bpw, Cf-b-Xp-am-b-Xp-Im-cWw B sImgp-∂p-I-fns‚ X≠p-Ifpw a‰pw Ce-Ifpw A[nI Af-hn\v Cu ^wK-kns‚ cq£-X-tbdpw 31


40 an√n + 36 an√n

50 an√n + 85 {Kmw 30 an√n + 30 an√n

slIvtkm-tIm-Wm-tkmƒ5 EC + ss{SUvtam¿^v AYhm

s{]m]n-tIm-Wm-tkmƒ 25 EC + tIm∏¿ HmIvkn-t¢m-ssdUv

s{]m]n-tIm-Wm-tkmƒ 25 EC + 5 ss{SUv tam¿^v

2.

3.

4.

t\m¨ Atbm-Wn°v sh‰nßv GP‚v (]-i) acp-∂-Sn-°p∂ sh≈-Øn¬ tN¿t°-≠Xv 0.05%

80 an√n + 85 {Kmw

slIvtkm-tIm-Wm-tkmƒ 5 EC + tIm∏¿ HmIvkn-t¢m-ssdUv AYhm

^wKkv \min-\n-bpsS Af-hp-Iƒ G°-dn\v/ Hcp Xh-Wbv°v

1.

acp-∂p-I-fpsS t]cp-Iƒ

5

5

5

5

^wKkv \min\n Xfnt°≠ Ime CS-thf

IhmØv sh´nb tXbn-e-tØm-´-߃°v a´w HSn®v XpS¿®-bmmbn bn sImfp¥v FSp-°p-∂-Xp-hsc Xfn-t°≠ ^wKkv \min-\n-I-fpsS hnh-c-߃

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

32


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

AXp-sIm≠v tXm´-ß-fn¬ Xfn-t°≠ ^wKkv \min-\n-I-fpsS Af-hp-Iƒ Xmsg-bp≈ Nm¿´n¬ sImSp-°p-∂p.

hym]mc (\m-a-ß-fn¬) t]cp-Iƒ slIvtkm-tIm-tWm-tkmƒ s{]m∏n-tIm-tWm-tkmƒ ss{SUvtam¿^v tIm∏¿ HmIvknt¢mssdUv

: : : :

tIm¨Sm-^v, I¨t{Smƒ, kn‰m-c, Sm_¿ ‰n¬´v Imen-Ivkn≥ ss^t‰m-em¨, ªqtIm-∏¿, _vssftSm-Ivkv, Ip{]m-tkmƒ, Ip{]nIv

t\m¨ Atbm-WnIv sh‰nßv GP‚v : C≥t{Km¨ A.E. IhmØv sNbvX-tXm-´-ß-fn¬ tcmK-_m[ cq£-am-hp-tºmƒ 4˛5 Znhkw CS-hn´v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I. A√mØ ka-b-ß-fn¬ 7 Znh-k-Øn-sem-cn-°¬ Xfn°mw. a´w HSn-®p-I-gn-™m¬ ]n∂oSv Ce FSp-°p∂ tXm´-ß-fn¬ Xfn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse 7˛10 Znh-ksØ CS-hn´v Xfn-®m¬ aXn. Ce ]dn-°p∂ tXm´-ß-fnepw tase Nm¿´n¬ (]´nI) sImSpØ t]mse ^wKkv \min-\n-bpsS Afhp-{]-Imcw D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. F∂m¬ IhmØv sNbvX tXm´-sØ-t]mse 4˛5 Znh-ksØ CS-th-fbv°v ]Icw 7˛10 Znh-ksØ CS-hn´v Xfn-®m¬ aXn-bm-hpw. tcmK-_m[ Ipd-bp∂Xn\-\p-k-cn®v Xfn-°p-∂Xns‚ Ime C-St- h-fsb \o´n-sIm-≠p-t]m-hmw. IqSp-∂X - n-\\ - p-kc- n®v Znh-ksØ Ipd-bv°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-XmWv.

^wKkv \min-\n-bpsS (tIm-∏¿ HmIvkn-t¢m-ssd-Un-s‚) KpW-\n-ehmcw tIm∏¿ HmIvkn-t¢m-ssdUv tIm∏-dns‚ Awiw kkvs]≥kn-_n-en‰n Akn-Un‰n as H2SO4 AYhm B¬°-en-\n‰n as NaoH tIm∏-dns‚ Hcp iX-am-\-Øns‚ PH kkvs]≥j≥ (W/v)

: 50 WD : 48.5 \pw 52.5% CSbv°v : 80 iX-am\w AXn-\p-ap-I-fn¬ : 0.2 iX-am\w G‰hpw A[nIw : 6.5 \p Xmsg

33


ssIsX-fn-∏m≥

kn^men kvt{]b¿ (hn-tZ-iw)

Position 4

1.5

1.0

AMN

tamt´m¿ kvt{]b¿

disc - 10

1.0

Rotatatory No.2

0.55

0.45

tamt´m¿ kvt{]b¿

hntZiw

(Knapsack)

NMD

NMD Co.45

ssIsX-fn-∏m≥

(Knapsack)

t\mkn¬

kvs{]b¿

UnkvNm¿Pv td‰v (en./\nan-jØn-¬)

20 -- 28

28 -- 36

24 -- 36 20 -- 24

28 -- 36

60 - -68

70 -- 100

IhmØv ImSv

24 -- 36

48 - -60

60- -- 70

sImgp-s\m-Sp°p∂ ImSv

Xfn-t°≠ sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv (en./G°¿)

100 -- 80

110 -- 70

110 -- 70

60 -- 50

40 -- 35

100 -- 70

90 -- 70

90 -- 70

50 -- 40

35 - -25

acp-∂-Sn-°p∂ Bfns‚ \S-°p∂ thK-X (en/\nan-j-Øn¬) sImgp-s\m-Sp- IhmØv °p∂ ImSv ImSv

{][m-\-ammbn bn {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-t°≠ sh≈w, t\mkn¬, aanjy≥, njy≥, UnkvNm¿Pv td‰v \S-°p∂ thK-X, ASn-t°≠ \nc-Iƒ

4+4

2+2

2+2

1+1

1+1

\nc-Iƒ (c≠p-h-iw) KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

34


-2˛masØ hf{]tbmKw

63 Intem

72 Intem

4000 Intem apX¬ 5000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

5000 Intem apX¬ 6000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

55 Intem

48 Intem

80 Intem

80 Intem

Fw.-H.-]n. a·ojyw 43 kƒt^‰v Intem 40 Intem

72 Intem

63 Intem

bqdnb 56 Intem

a·ojyw ss\{S-P≥ kƒt^‰v

tdm°v kn{Sn°v t^mkvt^‰v BknUv

55 Intem

48 Intem

66 Intem

66 Intem

240 {Kmw

240 {Kmw

Fw.-H.-]n. tdm°v kn{Sn°v 43 t^mkvt^‰v BknUv Intem 33 Intem 120 {Kmw

s]m´mjv

72 Intem

63 Intem

bqdnb 56 Intem

55 Intem

48 Intem

Fw.-H.-]n. 43 Intem

ss\{S-P≥ s]m´mjv

80 Intem

80 Intem

a·ojyw kƒt^‰v 40 Intem

a·ojyw kƒt^‰v

hf-an-{in-X-߃ Iq´p-tºmƒ {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃: bqdn-bmbpsS IqsS a·ojyw kƒt^‰v (2-˛m-asØXpw 4˛masØ hf-{]-tbm-Kw) Ie¿Øp-tºmƒ, DS-s\-Xs∂ ^o¬Un¬ \¬In-bn-cn-°-Ww. bqdn-b-bpsS IqsS a·ojyw tN¿Øv Iq´p-tºmƒ IqSp-X¬ kabw sh®m¬ Aen™v sh≈-ambn t]mIpw.

bqdnb 56 Intem

ss\{S-P≥ s]m´mjv

Pq-¨ amk-Øn¬ 2˛masØ hfw. BK-Ãv, sk]v‰w-_¿, amk-Øn¬ 3˛-masØ hfw. sk]v‰w-_¿, HIvtSm-_¿ amk-Øn¬ A\p-]mZw ˛ 1 x 1 A\p-]mZw ˛ 1 x 1 4˛masØ hfw. A\p-]mZw ˛ 1 x 1

3000 Intem apX¬ 4000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

DXv]m-Z\w ]® Ce/ G°-dn\v / h¿j-Øn¬

Ce ]dn-°p∂ tXm´-߃°p≈ cmk-h-f-ß-fpsS Xq°w, G°-dn\v : BKÃv, sk]v‰w-_¿ & HIvtSm-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬

]´nI No.1.

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

35


bqdnb 62 Intem

70 Intem

80 Intem

4000 Intem apX¬ 5000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

5000 Intem apX¬ 6000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

ss\{S-P≥

92 Intem

80 Intem

66 Intem

66 Intem

Fw.-H.-]n. tdm°v 72 t^mkvt^‰v Intem 33 Intem

tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v

BK-Ãv 1-˛masØ hfw A\p-]mZw ˛ 2 x 3

240 {Kmw

240 {Kmw

80 Intem

70 Intem

92 Intem

80 Intem

80 Intem

80 Intem

80 Intem

70 Intem

92 66 Intem Intem

80 66 Intem Intem

240 {Kmw

240 {Kmw

kn{Sn°v BknUv 120 {Kmw

kn{Sn°v BknUv

HIvtSm-_¿3˛masØ hfw A\p-]mZw ˛ 2 x 3

kn{Sn°v ss\{S-P≥ s]m´mjv a·ojyw ss\{S- s]m´mjv tdm°v BknUv kƒt^‰v P≥ t^mkv t^‰v kn{Sn°v bqdnb Fw.-H.]n. a·ojyw bqdnb Fw.-H.]n. tdm°v t^mkv BknUv 62 kƒt^‰v 62 72 72 120 {Kmw Intem Intem 40-Intem Intem Intem t^‰v 33 Intem

sk]v‰w-_¿ 2˛masØ hfw A\p-]mZw ˛ 2 x 3

sabv, Pq¨ amk-Øn¬ IhmØv sh´nb tXm´-߃°p-≈ cmk-h-f-ß-fpsS Xq°w G°-dn\v: BK-Ãv, sk]v‰w_¿ & HIvtSm-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬

3000 Intem apX¬ 4000 Intem hsc h¿j-Øn¬ Ce-sb-Sp-°p∂ tXm´-߃°v

DXv]m-Z\w ]® Ce/ G°-dn\v/ h¿j-Øn¬

]´nI No.2

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

36


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

Pqsse, BK- à v , sk]v ‰ w- _ ¿ amk- ß - f n¬ IhmØv sNbv X m¬, sk]v‰w_¿,HIvtSm-_¿, \hw-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬ hf-{]-tbmKw \S-Ømw. tasehn-hcn®Xpt]mse Xs∂ hfw \¬Im-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. IhmØv sNøp-∂-Xn-s\ °p-dn®-pw, sNbvXt- ijw {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-ßs- f-°p-dn®-pw Ign™ e°-Øn¬ hnh-cn-®Xv {i≤n-°p-I. sk]v‰w-_¿ amk-Øn¬ IhmØv sNbvX tXm´-߃°v F{]n¬, sabv, Pq¨, \hw-_¿ amk-Øn¬ hf-{]-tbmKw \S-Øp-tºmƒ, `qanbnse (a-Æn-se) Pemw-iw, hf-{]tbmKw \S-Øn-b-tijw In´m-\p≈ ag- F∂nh F√mw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v thWw hfw \¬Im≥

]´nI No.3 Cu h¿jw ]pXp-Xmbn tXbn-e-Irjn sNbvX-h¿ 2 amkw-I-gn-™-tijw \¬tI≠ hf-ß-fpsS Xq°w G°-dn\v Xmsg hnh-cn-°p-∂p. A\p-]mXw ˛ 283 ss\{S-P≥ s]m´mjv tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v kn{SnIv BknUv bqdnb Fw.-Hm.-]n. tdm°v t^mkvt^‰v kn{SnIv BknUv 52 Intem 60 Intem 33 Intem 120 {Kmw Hcp sNSn°v GI-tZiw 24 {Kmw hoXw 9 C©v hn´v \¬Ip-I. 2˛mw h¿jw ssXIƒ°v 28 {Kmw hoXw 3˛mw h¿jw ssXIƒ°v 30 {Kmw hoXw 4˛mw h¿jw ssXIƒ°v 32 {Kmw hoXw 5˛mw h¿jw ssXIƒ°v 34 {Kmw hoXw BZy-hfw \¬Inbtijw c≠m-asØ hf-Øn-\p≈ CS-thf 21 Znh-ka- m-Wv. c≠m-asØ hfw sNøp-tºmƒ bqdn-bbpw + Fw.Hm.]n. bpw am{Xw \¬Inbm¬ aXn. 3˛masØ hfw BZysØ hf-{]-tbmKw t]mse \mepw tN¿Øv \¬IpI.

hf¿®bv°v kq£va-t]m-jIw kn¶v kƒt^-‰v z

z

z

z

kn¶v kƒt^-‰v kvt{] sNtø-≠Xv ImeØv sXfn™ Imem-h-ÿ-bp-≠mIp-tºmƒ am{X-am-Wv. Ipd-™Xv 2˛3 aWn-°q-sd-¶nepw kn¶v kƒt^-‰v kvt{] sNbvX-tijw ag D≠m-h-cp-Xv. A[nI hnf-hp-Im-eØv kn¶v kƒt^-‰vIqSp-X¬ Bh-iy-ap-≈-Xp-sIm≠v. A[n-Ih - n-fhp Ime-ßf- n¬ kn¶v kƒt^-‰vkvt{] sNøp-∂Xv ^e-{]-Za- mWv. Ipd-™Xv 5 Xh-W-sb-¶nepw h¿j-Øn¬ tXbn-ebv°v kvt{] sNøp-∂Xv ^e-{]-Z-am-Wv. 37


120 an√n

acp-∂ns‚ Afhv G°-dn\v 80 an√n

Xq°w 1 kg.. 1 kg.. 155 g. 55 g. 20 an√n

1750 {Kmw

100 en.

sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv

80 en‰¿

sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv 80 en‰¿

80 en‰¿ apX¬ 100 hsc

sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv

sXfn-t°≠ amk-߃ 1. G{]n¬ / sabv 2. Pq¨ 3. BKÃv / sk]v‰w-_¿ 4. HIvtSm-_¿ / \hw-_¿ 5. \hw-_¿

BKÃv / sk]v‰w-_¿ / HIvtSm-_¿

kok¨ / amkw

G{]n¬ / sabv /sk]v‰w-_¿ /HIvtSm-_¿ amk-Øn¬ Hcn-°¬, Pqsse amkw Hgn®v G{]n¬ apX¬ Unkw-_¿ hsc

kn¶v kƒt^‰v Xfn-°p-tºmƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ LS-I-ß-fpsS Af-hv

acp-∂ns‚ Afhv G°-dn\v

ta¬hfw Xfn-°¬

(Di-Ammonium phosphate)

Un. G. ]n.

]´nI No.6

ItSm-Ãnaw ˛ 20

tlm¿tam¨ t^m¿ap-te-j≥ sskt‰msskw / _tbmsskw

Bh-iy-amb km[-\-߃ a. kn¶v kƒt^‰v b. a·ojyw kƒt^‰v c. amwK-\okv kƒt^‰v d. t_mdnIv ]uU¿ e. ^vfmt\m-^nIvkv / At{KmW

]´nI No.4

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

38


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

BZy-hfw \¬In-bt- ijw c≠m-asØ hf-Øn-\p≈ CS-thf 21˛Znh-ka- mWv. c≠m-asØ hfw-sN-øp-tºmƒ bqdn-bbpw + Fw. Hm. ]nbpw am{Xw \¬In-bm¬ aXn. 3˛masØ hfw BZysØ hf-{]-tbmKw t]mse \mepw tN¿Øv \¬IpI.

tXbne sNSn-Iƒ a´w HSn-°¬ IhmØv sNbvX tijw Xfn¿Øv hcp∂ X≠p-Isf BZy-ambn Hcp \n›nX Db-c-Øn¬ HSn-°p-∂-Xn-\mWv a´w HSn-°¬ F∂v ]d-bp-∂-Xv. a´w HSn-°p-tºmƒ, HSn-s®SpØ sImgp- ∂ n¬ sNdnb apIp- f hpw 3 As√-¶n¬ 4 Ce-Ifpw IqSnb `mK-amWv HSn-s®-Sp-t°-≠Xv. a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xns‚ {]m[m-\y-߃ z Bh-iy-Øn-\p≈ kwc-£W/t]mjW Ce-Iƒ sNSn-bn¬ \ndp-Øn-bmWv a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xv. AXp ImcWw sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-sØ-bpw, sImgp-∂ns‚ hf¿®bv°pw Du°w \¬Ipw. z

a´w HSn®v Ign-™m-ep-Ss\ ]m¿iz-ap-Ipf-߃ thKw hf¿∂p-h-cpw. Cfw Acnºp-Iƒ s]m´n hcp-∂-Xm-Wv.

a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xns‚ as‰mcp Dt±-iw, Btcm-Ky-ap≈ c≠mw-\n-e, aq∂mw \ne inJ-c-߃IqsS sNSn-bn¬ D≠m°n FSp-°pI F∂-Xm-Wv. CØcw inJ-c-߃ Ds≠-¶n¬ am{Xta ASpØ Ihm-Øn-\m-h-iy-ap≈ inJ-c-߃ D≠m-hq. A[n-I-]£w sNdp-InS I¿j-I¿°v a´w HSn-°p∂ Imcy-Øn¬ kw`-hn-°p∂ sX‰p-Iƒ z Ipd™ Db-c-Øn¬ a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xv. z

z

IØn/I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v sh´n-sb-Sp-°p-∂-Xv.

z

F√m A\m-h¿Øn sImgp-∂p-Ifpw A[nIw hf-cm≥ hn´-tijw sNs¶mºn\v Xma-kn®v Htc t\cØv HSn-s®-Sp-°p∂ {]hrØn

icn-bmb \nc∏v \ne-\n¿ØmsX ]dn-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xv. Ipd™ Db-c-Øn¬ a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-≠m-hp∂ tZmj-߃ z sNSn-Iƒ Dbcw Ipd™v s]m°-an-√msX hf-cpw. z

z

sNSn-If- psS ]pXnb imJ-Iƒ ]S-cm-sX-bpw, If-s®-Sn-Iƒ [mcmfw hf¿∂ph-cn-Ibpw sNøpw. 39


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

]pXnb imJ-Iƒ, c≠mw X´pw, aq∂mw X´n-ep-ap≈ Nn√-Iƒ C√m-Xm-hp-∂Xp-sIm≠v D¬∏m-Z\w Ipd-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

z

AXp-Im-cWw ASp-Øp-h-cp∂ IhmØpw Ipd™ Db-c-Øn¬ Xs∂ sht´≠n hcp-∂p.

ho≠pw D¬∏m-Z-\sØ hf-sc-b-[nIw _m[n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xns‚ Dbcw z Bkmw C\ sNSn-Iƒ: IhmØv sNbvX Db-c-Øn¬ \n∂pw 6 C©v Dbcw AYhm Xd-bn¬ \n∂pw (from Ground Level) samØw 28 C©v Db-cw, CXp c≠n¬ GXmWv A[nI Db-c-sa-¶n¬ B Db-c-Øn¬ a´w HSn-°Ww. Ipd-™-]£w IhmØv I´°v apI-fn¬ aq∂v henb Ce-Iƒ \n¿Øp-Xv \√XmWv z

z

ssN\m C\w sNSn-Iƒ: IhmØv sNbvX Db-cØ - n¬ \n∂pw 4 C©v Dbcw AYhm Xd-bn¬ \n∂pw (from Ground Level) samØw 24 C©v Db-cw, CXp c≠n¬ GXmWv A[nI Db-cs- a-¶n¬ B Db-cØ - n¬ a´w HSn-°W - w. Ipd™ ]£w c≠v henb Ce-Iƒ \n¿Øp-Xv \√-XmWv.

a´w HSn-°p-tºmƒ {i≤n-t°≠ Imcy-߃ z IØn D]-tbm-Kn-°-cp-Xv. ssIsIm≠v Xs∂ In≈n FSp-°-Ww. z

a´w HSn-°p∂ X≠p-Iƒ ]®-bm-bpw, A[nIw aqØp-t]m-hm-sXbpw D≠m-h-Ww. AXm-bXv sNs¶m-ºm-hmsX a´w HSn-°-Ww.

z

B mw C\ tXbn-es- N-Sn-Iƒ a´w HSn-°p-tºmƒ, HSn-s®-Sp-°p∂ sImgp∂pIƒ (Tipping Material) \mev Ce-tbm-Sp-Iq-Snb Acnºpw D≠m-bn-cn-°Ww. ssN\m C\ tXbn-e-sN-Sn-I-fm-sW-¶n¬ a´w HSn-°p-tºmƒ aq∂v CetbmSp-Iq-Snb Acnºv In≈n FSp-°-Ww.

z

sNSn-bn¬ kpam¿ 30 iX-am\w inJ-c-߃ (X-≠p-Iƒ) Xøm-dmb \ne-bn¬ D≈-t∏m-gmWv a´w HSn®v XpS-tß-≠X - v. a´w HSn®v XpS-ßn-bXp apX¬ ]ns∂ 7 As√-¶n¬ 8 As√-¶n¬ 9 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-bn¬ a´w XpS¿∂v 3˛4 XhW HSn®v \nc∏v \ne-\n¿Øn, XpS¿∂v \nc-∏n¬ \n∂pw sImfp¥v ]dn®p XpS-ßmw. AXn-\vtijw 10 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-bn¬ sImfp¥v FSp-°mw.

z

Dbcw Iq´n HSn-°p-∂-Xp-Im-c-Ww, sNSn-bn¬ Bh-iy-Øn-\p≈ kwc-£W/ t]mjW Ce-Iƒ D≠m-hp-∂p. ]pjvSn-{]-Z-amb Blmcw Cu kwc-£W Ce-Iƒ aqew \n¿Ωn-°p-∂p.

z

Dbcw Iq´n a´w HSn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v inJ-c-߃ ]S¿∂v apIƒ]-c∏v aqSn In´p-∂p. 40


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

If-Iƒ D≠m-hp-∂-Xns\ hf-sc-b-[nIw XS- -s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.

z

Btcm-Ky-ap≈ (I-´n-Iq-Sn-b) ]pXnb inJ-cß - ƒ sNSn-bn¬ ho≠pw D≠m-hp-∂p.

z

ASpØ IhmØv sNøp-tºmƒ IqSp-X¬ inJ-c-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn, Dbcw Iq´n sh´m≥ Ign-bp-∂p. hnfhv AXp-t]mse A[n-I-am-hp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

icn-bmb Db-cØ - n¬ a´w HSn®v Btcm-Ky-ap-≈Xpw Dd-∏p-≈X - pamb ]pXnb inJc-ßsf D≠m-°-Ww.

41


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ \-hw-_¿, Unkw-_¿, P\p-hcn amk-ß-fn¬ Ce]dn-°¬ AYhm sImfp¥v \p≈¬ km[m-c-W-bmbn HIvtSm-_¿ amkw \√ hf¿®-bp≈ Ime-amWv. Cu amkw 8 apX¬ 10 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-bn¬ sImfp¥p ]dn°mw. Cfw Xfn¿ sImfp¥pIsf Hgn-hm-°n thWw ]dn-t°≠-Xv. 2/3 Cebpw Xncn-tbm-Sp-IqSnb sImfp¥pIsf am{Xw FSp-°p-I. F∂m¬ Unkw-_¿ amkm-h-km\w apX¬ Xmbv Ce-sh®p thWw ]dn-°m≥. \hw-_¿,- Un-kw-_¿ amk-ß-fn¬ 10 apX¬ 12 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-bn¬ sImfp¥p ]dn°mw. \√ hf¿®-bp-≈t∏mƒ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. \nc-∏n-ep≈ h©n-Iƒ apgp-h\pw Hcne \ndpØ FSp-t°-≠-Xm-h-iy-amWv. _m©n-Isf Dd-°m-hÿ - b - n-ep≈ apIpfw F∂p-≤c- n-°p-hm-\p≈ ImcWw _m©n sImfp¥n¬ \n∂pw ]pXn-b-ap-Ip-f-߃ cq]-sa-Sp-°m≥ kpam¿ 120 apX¬ 150 \mfp-Iƒ (4˛5 amk-߃) Bhp∂-p. F∂m¬ Hcp ]cn-t]m-jW Ce-bn¬ \n∂pw ]dn-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ sImfp¥v hfcp-∂Xn\v 90 Znh-ka- m-Ip∂p. Bb-Xn-\m¬ _m©n-Isf ]dn-®p-am-‰n-bn-s√¶n¬ 12 apX¬ 20 iX-am\w hsc hnfhv Ipd-bp-sa∂vv D]m-kn-bpsS Kth-jWw aqew Adn™n´p≠v. _m©n-Isf FSp-°msX hnSp-tºmƒ D≠m-hp hnfhv \jvSw:IhmØv sh´n-bXp apX¬ {]mbw hnfhp\jvSw (-iXam\w) BZy-h¿jw 12.0 c≠mw h¿jw 19.0 aq∂mw h¿jw 19.4 \memw h¿jw 20.4 ic-micn 17.7% 42


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

CXp-am-{X-a√ sNdp-InS I¿j-I¿ IØn D]-tbm-Kn®pw Ducn-]-dn-®pw, aqØ kwc-£W Ce-Iƒ tN¿Øp ]dn-®p-amWv Ce ]dn°p∂Xv. Cßs\ FSp°p∂XpsIm≠v tXbn-e sNSn-I-fpsS BtcmKysØ IqSp-Xembn _m[n-°p∂-p. 1. sNSn-IfpsS inJ-c-߃ saen™p t]mhp-Ibpw 2. hf-cp∂ sImfp¥ns‚ \ofw sNdp-XmbnXs∂ D≠m-hp-Ibpw 3. hf-sc-b-[nIw hnfhv \jvSs∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøpw. \√ hf¿®-Im-eß - f- n¬ 2˛3 Ce-ItfmSp-Iq-Snb sImfp-¥p-Iƒ ssIsIm≠v 8˛-10 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-I-fn-epw, aμ-KXn hf¿®m-Im-e-ß-fn¬ 10-˛12/13 ZnhksØ CS-th-f-I-fnepw ]dn-®m¬ hnfhv IqSp-X¬ In´pw. CS-th-f-Ip-d®v Ce FSpØv hnfhv Iq´p-Ibpw KpW-ta∑ h¿≤n∏n-°p-Ibpw sNømw. CS-th-fIp-d®v h¿j-Øn¬ A[nI Xh-W-I-ƒ FSp-°p∂Xn-s‚ Nm¿´v Xmsg hnh-cn°p∂-p. h¿j-Øn¬ Ce FSp-°ptºmƒ hnfhv G°-dn\v Xh-W-Iƒ h¿j-Øn¬ (Intem) 20 apX¬ 22 XhW FSp-°p-tºmƒ 3900 kg 30 apX¬ 34 XhW FSp-°p-tºmƒ 6200 kg

^o¬Un¬ tXbn-e-s®-Sn-Iƒ hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°¬ kzm`mhnI coXn-bn¬ hf-cm≥ A\p-h-Zn-®m¬ tXbn-e-s®-Sn-Iƒ IpØs\ hf¿∂p s]mßp∂p. CØcw sNSn-I-fn¬ \n∂pw A[nIw hnfhp e`n-°pI-bn-√. sNSn-I-fpsS inJ-c-߃ \√ hnkvXm-c-Øn¬ hf-cp-hm≥ Xmsg s°mSpØncn-°p∂ am¿§-߃ Ah-ew-_n-°Ww.

1. XmbvX≠p apdn-°¬ tXbn-e-s®-Sn-Iƒ hnkvXm-c-Øn¬ hf-cp-hm\pw DZv∏m-Z\ - £ - a- X h¿≤n∏n-°p-hm\pw Cfw ssXI-fpsS XmbvX≠v apdn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. CXn\v 'sk‚-dnßv ' F∂p ]d-bp∂-p. sk‚-dnßv sNøptºmƒ XmbvX≠v F{X-tØmfw XmgvØn apdn-°p-hm≥ km[n-°ptam A{X-tØmfw XmgvØn-sh-´p-I. Cßs\ sNøptºmƒ Ftt´m ]tØm Ce-I-fp≈ H∂p -c≠p sNdp-Nn-√Iƒ sNSn-bn¬ \ne-\n¿Øm≥ {i≤n-°Ww. sNdp-Nn√-Iƒ C√mØ sNSn-I-fn¬ Ft´m]tØm Ce-Iƒ \ne-\n¿Øn XmbvX≠p apdn-°Ww. sNSn-Iƒ \´vv \mtem At©m amkw Ign™v GI-tZiw 10 sk.-an. ag e`n® tijw am{Xsa sk‚-dnßv \S-Øm-hp. A¥-co43


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

£-Ønse Cu¿∏-Øn-s‚ Afhv Db¿∂ \ne-bn-em-bn-cn-°Ww. tdmkm-sNSnIƒ apdn-°p∂Xn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ knt°-®¿ F∂Xcw I{Xn-I-bmWv XmbvX≠v apdn- ° m≥ \√Xv . Hcp Imc- W - h - i mepw th\¬°m- e Øv sk‚- d nßv \S-Ø-cpXv.

2. a´w HSn-°¬ sk‚-dnßv \S-Øn-bt- ijw sNSn-Isf km[m-cWKXn-bn¬ hf-cp-hm≥ A\ph-Zn-°p-I. Xd-\n-c-∏n¬ \n∂pw 35 sk.-an. Db-c-Øn-emWv BZysØ {]mhiyw a´w HSn-t°-≠-Xv. Cßs\ HSn-s®-Sp-°p∂ sImfp¥n¬ Ipd-™Xv, aqt∂m \mtem Ce-I-sf-¶nepw D≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww. AXp-t]mse c≠m-asØ {]mhiyw Xd-\n-c∏ - n¬ \n∂pw 50 sk.an Db-cØ - n-emWv a´w HSn-t°-≠X - v. Hcp ^o¬Unse F√m sNSn-Ifpw Htc-k-a-bØv a´w HSn-°-en\v hnt[-b-am-I-W-sa∂-n-√. a´w HSn-∏n\v Xøm-dm-bn-´n-√mØ inJ-c-߃ Ipd®v Znhkw Ign™v HSn-°mw. Cu {]tbmKw aqew inJ-c-߃ c≠p-aq∂p X´p-I-fn-embn ]S¿∂p ]¥-en-°p∂-p. IqSmsX Nn√-I-fn¬ [mcmfw Xfn-cp-Ifpw D≠m-Ip∂-p.

3. sImfps¥Sp°¬ sk‚dnßv \S-Ønb sNSn-If- n¬ Nn√-Iƒ Xg-®p-hf- c- W - s- a-¶n¬ Ahbv°v \√ Btcm-Ky-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°Ww sNSn-If- n¬ Bh-iym-\p-kc- Ww t]mjI CeIƒ Ds≠-¶n¬ am{Xsa CXp km≤y-am-Ip. a´w HSn-®-Xn\p tijw sImfp¥p\p- ≈ m- \ m- c w- ` n- ° p- t ºmƒ hf- s c- b - [ nIw {i≤n- t °- X p- ≠ v . hf- s c- Ip- d ®p sImfp¥p e`n-°p∂ P\p-h-cn,- s^-{_p-hcn, am¿®v, Pqsse, B-KÃv F∂o amk-ß-fn¬ 12 apX¬ 15 Znhkw hsc CS-hn-´mWv sImfps¥Spt°-≠-Xv. Cu amk-ß-fn¬ Xmbv Ce sNSn-bn¬ \ne-\n¿Øn thWw sImfp¥p\pt≈-≠Xv IqSp-X¬ hnfhp e`n-°p∂ G{]n¬, tabv, Pq¨, sk-]v‰w-_¿, H-IvtSm-_¿, \-hw-_¿,- Un-kw-_¿ amk-ßf- n¬ Ft´m ]tØm Znh-kØ - n-semcn°¬ ]pXnb \nc-∏n¬ 50 sk.-an. Db-c-Øn\p apI-fn¬ ao≥ Ce-bvt°m, h´ Ce-bvt°m sImfp¥p \p≈mw.

XW¬a-c-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°¬ tXbn-e-s®-Sn-IfpsS Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb hf¿®bv°v XW¬ Bh-iy-am-Wv. tXbne \Sp-∂Xn\p aptºm,- \-´p-sIm≠ncn-°p-tºmtgm XW¬a-c-ß-fpsS ssXIƒ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°-mhpXm-Wv.

sNSn-Iƒ \´-tijw sNtø≠ Imcy-߃ sNSn-Iƒ \´tijw kwc-£n-°p∂ coXn-bpw,- h-cƒ®s°Xn-sc-sb-Sp-°p∂ \S-]S- n-Ifpw tXbn-eb - psS hf¿®-bn-epw, DZv∏m-Z\ - £ - a- X - b - nepw Imcy-amb ]¶ph-ln-°p-∂p. ag-°m-eØv sNSn-Iƒ \´mepw XpS¿∂p hcp∂ th\¬°m-eØv 44


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

Cu sNSn-Isf hcƒ®-bn¬ \n∂pw kwc-£n-°p-hm≥ Xmsg-s°mSp°p∂ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.

hcƒ®-bn¬ \n∂pw sNSn-Isf kwc-£n-°p∂ hn[w ]pX-bnS¬ sNSn-Iƒ \´p-S-s\-Xs∂ ^o¬Un-s‚ apIƒ`mKw hnØp-I-fn-√mØ ]p√pIƒ, Icn-bne ]ج F∂n-hsIm≠v aqS-Ww. aÆnse Cu¿∏w \ne\n¿Øp-∂Xn-\pw, asÆmen∏p XS-b-p-∂Xn-\pw ]pX-bnS¬ (a¬®nßv) klm-bn°p∂-p. ]pX-bnS¬ ImcWw If-I-fpsS hf¿® XS- -s∏-Sp-Ibpw aÆnse ssPhmwiw h¿≤n°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Hcp slIvS¿ tXm´w ]pX-bnSp∂Xn\v GI-tZiw 25 S¨ ]p√pw ]Ø-epw (a¬®nßv) B-h-iy-ap-≠v.-sN-SnIƒ \´p-Ss\-Xs∂ ]pXbnS¬ Bcw-`n-°W - w. ] - p√pw ]Øepw sNSn-If- psS XmbvX≠ - ns\ sXmSmsX thWw ]pX-bntS-≠-Xv. a¬®nßn\p]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hkvXp-°fpw XmbvX-≠p-am-bp≈ \nc-¥c kº¿°w ]´No-b¬ tcmKw £Wn-®p-h-cp-Øpw.

Cfw ssXIƒ°v "Itbm-en≥' Xfn-°¬ D]mkn tXbne Kth-jW tI{μØn¬ \S-Ønb ]T-\ß - f- n¬ \n∂pw sXfn™Xv Cfw tXbn-e-ssX-I-fn¬ "Itbm-en≥' F∂ cmk-hkvXp th\¬°meØv Xfn-®m¬ hcƒ®m {]Xn-tcm-[-i‡n A[n-I-cn-°p∂-p-sh∂v ImW-s∏´p. AXn-\m¬ th\¬°mew Bcw-`n-°p∂Xn-\v ap≥]mbn 12 Intem Itbm-en\pw 330 an√n hnt\m-^m≥ AYhm C≥t{Sm¨ F C 110 an√n F∂ ]ibpw 100 en‰¿ sh≈-Øn¬ Ie°n sNSn-If- n¬ Xfn-°p-I. Itbm-en≥ hcƒ®m-ka- b - Øv sNSn-I-fn¬ ]Xn-°p∂ kqcy-c-ivanIsf {]Xn-^-en-∏n®v sNSn-Isf kwc-£n °p∂-p.

ASn-a-Æp-\-\-bv°¬: Unkw-_¿, -P-\p-hcn, s^_yp-h-cn, am¿®v amk-ß-fn¬ km[mcW-K-Xn-bn¬ F√m sNSn-I-fp-sSbpw thcp-Iƒ sh≈-ap≈ ÿetØ°v BI¿jn-°-s∏-Sp∂-p. Zo¿L-Ime hnf-bmb tXbn-ebv°v \´ DS-s\Xs∂ "Xfn-®p-\\' (sprinkler irrigation) Bh-iy-a-√. CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ Pe-tk-N\w aqew sNSn-I-fpsS ]pXnb thcp-Iƒ aÆn-s‚ ta¬\n-c-∏n¬ hf-cp-Ibpw Ah-bpsS hcƒ®m {]Xn-tcm-[-i‡n Ipd-bp-Ibpw sNøpw. th\¬°m-eØp ta¬aÆp hc-fp-tºmƒ Cu sNSn-Iƒ hmSn-°-cn-bpw. sNSn-IfpsS thcp-Iƒ Bg-Øn¬ hf-c-W-sa-¶n¬ ASn-a-Æn-te°v sh≈w FØn°p-I-bmWv th≠-Xv. CXn\v tXbn-e-ssX-Iƒ \Sp-tºmƒXs∂ GI-tZiw 30 sk.-an. \of-ap≈ t]∏¿tIm¨, ap-f,- ]n.-hn.-kn. ss]∏v F∂n-hb - n-te-sX¶nepw H∂v sNSn-bn¬ \n∂pw 15 sk.-an. am‰n 45 Un{Kn sNcn®v Dd-∏n-°Ww. 45


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

Ipg-ens‚ 25 sk.-an. `mKw thcn-t\mSv tN¿∂v aÆn-\-Sn-bnepw 5 sk.-an. `mKw aÆn\p apI-fnepw hc-Ø-°-hn[w thWw Ah ÿm]n-t°-≠-Xv. sNcn-™{]-tZ-iß-fn¬ Ipg-ep-Iƒ Ncn-hn-s‚ Db¿∂ `mKØp Ipgn-®n-S-Ww. t\mkn¬ am‰n-bt- ijw kvt]b-dp-]t- bm-Kn®v Ipg-ep-If- n¬ sh≈-samgn°mw.- sN-SnI-fpsS thcp-]S- e - a- p≈ `mKtØ°v Cu Pew FØn-t®-cp-∂p. thcv `mKtØ°v t\cn´p sh≈w ]ºp-sNbvXp Cd-°m-hp∂ k_vtkm-bn¬ F∂ D]-I-c-Whpw CXn\p-]-tbm-Kn-°mw. ag°mew Ign-™t- ijw \hw-_¿-˛U - n-kw-_¿ amk-tØmsS ASn-aÆp \\bv°¬ Bcw-`n-°-Ww.- G-{]n¬ amk-Øn¬ ag- e-`n°p-∂Xp-hsc Bgv®-bnsemcn°¬ sNSn-sbm∂n\v Hcp en‰¿ F∂ IW-°n\mWv sh≈w Hgn-t°≠Xv. CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ \\-bv°-en\v sh≈w Ipd®v aXn-bmIpw. IqSmsX If-I-fpsS AanX hf¿® Hgn-hm-°m\pw Ign-bpw.

\ng¬°q-Smcw \n¿Ωn°¬ th\¬°m-eØv aÆnse Pem-wiw Ipd-bp-Ibpw kky-tkz-Z\w IqSp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. {ItaW sNSn-Iƒ hcƒ® _m[n®v hmSn-t∏m-Ip∂-p. CXv XS-bm\mbn Ce-Iƒ,-]Ø - ¬, sXtßme apX-em-bh D]-tbm-Kn®v sNSn-Iƒ°v XmXv°menI XW¬ \¬Imw. Ce-I-fnse _mjv]o-I-c-Ww, Ipd-bv°m\pw Aßs\ hcƒ®-bpsS Xo{hX Ipd-bv°m\pw CXp-aqew km[n-°pw. a™p-ho-gv®-bp≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ sNSn-Isf a™n¬ \n∂pw kwc-£n-°p-hm\pw \ng¬°q-Smcw klm-bn-°pw. ag-°mew Ign-™m-ep-S-s\-Xs∂ IqSm-c-߃ ÿm]n-°Ww GItZiw 10 sk.-an. ag e`n® tijw Ch FSp-Øp-am-‰m-h-X p- m-Wv.

Nph∏p\nd Nne-¥n-Iƒ (Red Spider mite) tXbn-esb _m[n-°p∂ Nph-∏p-\nd Nne-¥n-Isf (red spider mite) \nb-{¥n-°p∂ hn[-ßs- f-°p-dn®v BZysØ e°-Øn¬ (P-\p-hcn, s^{_p-hc- n,am¿®v) X∂n´p≈Xp {i≤n-°p-I.

Ipanƒtcm-Kw (Blister Blight Disease) Ipanƒtcm-K-sØ-°p-dn®v Ign™ e°-Øn¬ (Ppembv, BK-Ãv,- sk-]v‰w_¿) sImSpØn-´p≈ hnh-cWw {i≤n-°pI.

hf{]tbm-Kw hf {]tbmKw \S-Øp-tºmƒ aÆn¬ Pemwiw D≠m-bn-cn-°Ww. h-f-{]-tbmKsØ Ipdn-®p≈ ]´nI Ign™ e°-Øn¬ X∂n-´p-≈-Xp {i≤n-°p-I (G-{]n¬, tabv, Pq¨, Pq-sse,- B-K-Ãv, -sk-]v‰w-_¿)

46


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

eLp t]mjI߃ Xfn-bv°¬, kvt{] sNø¬ (Micro Nutrient Foliar Spray)

eLp-t]m-j-I߃ Ign™ e°-Øn¬ X∂Xp {]Imcw \hw-_¿ amkw sImfps¥-SpØ tijw sXfn-®psImSp°mw. Cu amk-Øn¬ c≠m-asØ XhW Ce-I-fn¬ hf¿®bv°v tlm¿tam-Wp-Iƒ Xfn-°mw. \hw-_¿ amk-Øn¬ D.A.P BZysØ du≠n¬ 1750 {Kmw 100 en‰¿ sh≈-Øn¬ (G°-dn-\v) \√t]mse Ie¿Ønb tijw Xfn-®-psImSp°mw.-c-≠m-asØ du≠n¬ bqdnb 1 Intem + Fw.Hm.]n 1 Intem + {Ko≥ andm-°nƒ 200 an√n. aq∂pw tN¿Øv Hcp G°-dn\v 80 en‰¿ sh≈-Øn¬ Ie¿Øn tamt´m¿ kvs]b¿ aqew Xfn®psImSp°mw. ssI Xfn-°p-hm≥, t\]vkm-Iv, D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ sh≈Øn-s‚ Afhp 120 en‰-dm°n am‰pI. \h-w_ - d- n¬ D]-tbm-Kn-®X - p-t]mse BZysØ du≠n¬ Un. F. ]n.bpw, c≠masØ du≠n¬ bqdnb + Fw.-Hm.]n + {Ko≥ andm-°n-fpw,- Un-kw-_¿- amk-Ønepw XpS¿∂vv P\p-hcn, s^-{_p-h-cn, -am¿®v amkw hsc XpS-cmw.

47


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Ønt°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ s^{_p-h-cn, am¿®v amk-ß-fn¬

1. ]®-tX-bne ]dn-°¬ AYhm sImfp¥v \p≈¬ s^{_p-hcn amkw km[m-c-W-bmbn aμ-h-f¿®-bpsS ka-b-am-Wv. IqSmsX hcƒ® IqSp-X-ep≈ ka-b-am-b-Xn-\m¬, Cu ka-bØv X≈- C-e-sb (Mother leaf) \ne-\n¿Øn Ce ]dn-°p-∂-XmWv sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-Øn-\pw, ASp-Øph-cp∂ sImfp-¥ns‚ hf¿®bv°pw \√-Xv. kwc-£W Ce-Iƒ (Maintenance Foliage) As√-¶n¬ t]mjW Ce-Iƒ sNSn-I-fn¬ hfsc Bh-iy-am-Wv.

2. (a) sNtø-≠ -Im-cy-߃ 2˛3 Ce-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb sImfp-¥p-Isf am{Xw FSp-°pI z P\p-hcn apX¬ am¿®v/ G{]n¬ hsc Xmbv/X≈ (Mother leaf) Ce sh®v FSp°pI. z aμ-h-f¿®-bp≈ Ime-ß-fn¬ 12 apX¬ 15 Znh-ksØ CS-th-f-bn¬ sImfp¥p ]dn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. z \nc-∏n-ep≈ _©n-Iƒ Hcnesh®v apgp-h\pw FSp-t°-≠Xv Bh-iy-amWv. z \nc∏v (a-´w) \ne-\n¿tØ-≠Xv Bh-iy-am-Wv. H∏w Cfw Xfn¿ sImfp-¥pIsf H-gn-hm°n FSp-°-Ww (b) sNøm≥ ]m-Sn-√mØ Imcy-߃ z Cfw Acn- º p- I ƒ/ Xfn¿ AYhm {]mb- a m- h mØ sImfp- ¥ p- I sf FSp-°-cp-Xv. z Xmbv (X≈) Ce hbv°msX sImfp¥p \p≈-cp-Xv. z Ducn-∏-dn-°¬ AYhm a´-I-Øn-sIm≠v Ce tiJ-cn-°p-∂-Xv. sNSn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-sØbpw hnf-hn-s\bpw _m[n-°p-∂p. z

48


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ z

\nc-∏n\p Xmsg Ce FSp-°-cp-Xv.

z

h©n-Isf ]dn-s®-Sp-°msX sNSn-bn¬ Xs∂ hnSp-∂Xv.

3. hcƒ®bn¬ \n∂pw tXbn-esb kwc-£n-°p-hm≥ Xmsg hnhcn®h D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv (X-fn-°p-∂Xv) \√-Xm-Wv (a). ssX sNSn-Iƒ : -˛ (5 hbkv {]mbw hsc) (i) I-tbm-en≥ ]uU¿ ˛ 12 In. {Kmw ˛ 330 an√n (ii) ^nt\m-^m≥ C≥ c≠pw tN¿Øv 100 en‰¿ sh≈AYhm Øn¬ Ie¿Øn ssI sXfn-]m≥ aqew \\®p sImSp-°pI C≥t{Km¨ ˛ F. C ˛ 110 an√n (b). apXn¿∂ sNSn-Iƒ°v : -˛ (5 hbkn\v tase) ˛ 1 In. {Kmw (i) bqdnb (ii) Fw. Hm. ]n. ˛ 1 In. {Kmw aq∂pw tN¿Øv 100 en‰¿ sh≈(iii) {Ko≥ and-°nƒ ˛ 200 an√n Øn¬ Ie¿Øn ASn-°pI

4. tXbn-esb _m-[-n°p∂ Nph∏p\nd Nne-¥n-Isf (aficn) \nb-{¥n-°p∂ hn[߃ Np-h∏ - p-\nd Nne-¥n-Iƒ (Read spider mite) BZy-Imeßfn¬ Xs∂ tXbnesb _m[n-°p∂ {][m-\s- ∏´ Nne-¥n-If- n-sem-∂m-Wv. Cu Nne-¥n-Iƒ Ing°≥ Gjy-bn-epw, B{^n-°-bnepw tXbn-e-tXm-´-ß-fn¬ A[n-I-ambn I≠p-h-cp-∂p. Ign™ Iptd h¿j-ß-fmbn sXt° C¥y-bn¬ \oe-Kncn (Kq-U-√q¿) bnepw hb-\m-´nepw tcmKw I≠p-h-cp-∂p. Cu Nne-¥n-Iƒ A[nIw D≠m-Im-\p≈ Imc-W-߃ Imem-h-ÿ-bn¬ D≠mb am‰-w, iotXm-jvW-Øns‚ Af-hn¬ G¿s∏-´n-´p≈ am‰-߃, Ipd™ Af-hn-ep≈ ag-bpw, AXp-aqew D≠m-bn´p≈ hcƒ®-bp-am-Wv. IqSmsX tXbne tXm´-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw \ng¬ ac-ßsf sh´n Hgn-hm-°n-b-Xpw, Hcp {][m\ Imc-W-am-Wv. Cu Nne-¥n-Iƒ apXn¿∂ Ce-If- psS apIƒ `mK-ØmWv A[n-Ia- mbn ImWs∏-Sp-∂-Xv. CØcw Ce-I-fn-ep≈ \ocns\ hen-®q-‰n-Ip-Sn-°p-∂p. CXp-aqew CeIfn¬ {]Imi kwt«-j-W-i‡n Ipd™p hf¿®sb XS-k-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xp-Iq-SmsX hnf-hp-Ip-d-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cu Nne-¥n-I-fpsS B{I-a-W-Øn\m¬ 14 apX¬ 18 iX-am\w hsc hnfhp Ipd-bp-∂-Xmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂p. Nne-¥n-bpsS B{I-aWw A[n-I-am-bm¬ Ce-Iƒ DXn¿∂p t]mIpw. Cu Nne-¥n-Iƒ°v Ce-I-fn¬ he-Iƒ ]n∂p-hm\pw Ign-hp-≈-Xm-Wv. 49


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

5. \nb-{¥W coXn-Iƒ (Control Strategies) Cu Nne-¥n-Isf \nb-{¥n-°m≥ ka-{K-IoS \n¿Δ-lW apd-Iƒ Bh-iy-am-Wv. a). Im¿jnI \nb-{¥-W-am¿§-߃

Np-h-∂ aficn _m[n®v Ce sImgn-™p-t]mb `mK-ß-fn¬ ssI D]-tbmKn®v am{Xta Ce-Iƒ \p≈p-hm≥ ]mSp-≈p. am{X-a√ Btcm-Ky-ap≈ Hcp X´v Ce-Iƒ sNSn-bn¬ \ndpØn sNSn-I-fpsS BtcmKyw h¿≤n-∏n-°p-hm≥ {]tXyIw {i≤n-°-Ww. Bh-iy-amb Af-hn¬ XW¬ ac-߃ C√mØ tXbn-e-tXm-´-ß-fn¬ aficn-_m[ hfsc cq£-am-bn-cn-°pw. icn-bmb Znim-t_m-[-an-√msX XW¬ ac-߃ sh´p-∂Xpw XW¬ Ipd-bv°p-∂Xpw afi-cn-_m[ h¿≤n-°m≥ klm-bn-°p-∂p. Bb-Xn-\m¬ ip]m¿i sNbvXn-´p≈ coXn-bn¬ XW¬ a-c-߃ sh®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw Ahsb icn-bmb coXn-bn¬ {Iao-I-cn-°p∂Xpw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc afi-cn-_m[ XS-bp-hm≥ klm-bn-°pw. b). ssPh \nb-{¥Ww (Biological Control) ]cm-Zß - ƒ, Cc-]n-Sn-b∑ - m¿, kqjvam-Wp-°ƒ F∂nh aqew £p{Z IoS-ßsf \nb-{¥n-°p∂ coXn°v Ct∏mƒ hf-sc-b[ - nIw {]Nm-ca- p-≠v. kao-]I - m-eØv Hcp apJy Cc-]n-Sn-b≥ Nne-¥nsb tXSn-]n-Sn®v sIm∂p-Xn-∂p-∂Xv I≠dn™p. £p{Z-IoS-ßpsS Cu i{Xp-°ƒ Hc-f-hp-hsc \mi-Po-hn-I-fpsS FÆw Ipd-bv°p-∂X - n\v klm-bn-°p-∂X - p-sIm≠v CØcw Cc-]n-Sn-b∑ - msc kwc- £ n- t °- ≠ Xv Bh- i y- a m- W v . IoS- ß sf sIm√pw ^wK- k p- I ƒ (Entomopathogens) D]-tbm-Kn®v Nne-¥n-Isf \nb-{¥n-°mw. sh¿´n-knenbw se°ms\ (Verticillium lecanni) F∂ ^wK-kns\ 600 {Kmw Hcp G°dn\v F∂ Af-hn¬ sh≈-Øn¬ ebn-∏n®v Xfn-°mw. CXn-\m¬ Cu Nne-¥n-Isf hfsc Ffp-∏-Øn¬ \n-b-{¥n-°mw.

6. kpc-£n-X-am-°p-∂-Xn\v apºp≈ ap∂-dn-bn-∏p-Iƒ 1. Nne¥n (a-fic- n) bpsS B{I-aWw XpSßp-tºmƒ Xs∂ acp∂v Xfn-°Ww. 2. ip]m¿i sNø-s∏´ acp-∂p-Iƒ am{Xta Ipdn-∏n-ep≈ Af-hn¬ D]-tbm-Kn°m≥ ]mSp-≈q. 3. tamt´m¿ kvt{]b¿ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ Hcp G°-dn\v 140 en‰¿ sh≈Øn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. 4. km[m-cW kvt{]b¿ D]-tbm-Kn®v Xfn-°p-tºmƒ Hcp G°-dn\v 180 en‰¿ sh≈-Øn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. 5. sNSn-If- psS \Sp-`m-Kß - f- pw, Im∏p (Xm-bv) Ce-Iƒ apgp-h\pw \√-Xp-t]mse \\-bp∂ coXn-bn¬ acp∂v Xfn-°p-∂Xv G‰hpw Bh-iy-am-Wv. 50


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

6. km[m-cW kvt{]b¿ D]-tbm-Kn®v acp∂v Xfn-°p-tºmƒ Hmtcm `mKØpw Hcp \nc hoXhpw tamt´m¿ kvt{]b¿ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ c≠v \nc-Iƒ hoXhpw Hmtcm `mKØpw acp∂v Xfn-°Ww. 7. Htc Xcw acp∂v ho≠pw ho≠pw D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ ]mSn-√. Hmtcm Xh-Wbpw acp-∂ns\ am‰n D]-tbm-Kn-°-Ww. 8. Nne-¥n-Iƒ A[n-I-ambn I≠p-h-cp∂ L´-Øn¬ 7 apX¬ 10 Znh-k-Øn\p-≈n¬ acp∂v Xfn-°¬ \n¿_-‘-am-hp-∂p. 9. ]pXn-b-Xmbn ip]m¿i sNø-s∏-´n-´p≈ s{]m]m¿tK-‰v, s^≥]p-tdm]m¿Øn≥, s^≥km-Ip-bn≥ t]mse-bp≈ acp-∂p-Isf Xfn-®-tijw 15 Znhkw hsc CS-thf \¬Imw. tase hnh-cn-®n-´p≈ hnfhv \nb-{¥W apd-Iƒ F√mw H∂p-tN¿Øv sNøpI-bm-sW-¶n¬ Nne-¥n-bpsS B{I-aW - Ø - n¬ \n∂pw tXbn-esb kwc-£n®v hnf-sh-Sp-°mw.

7. Nph-∏p-\nd Nne-¥n-Isf \nb-{¥n°m≥ D]mkn ip]m¿i sNøs∏-´n-´p≈ acp-∂p-Iƒ acp-∂p-Iƒ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

s{]m]m¿tK‰v ˛ 57 EC (Hmssa-‰v, knw_m) s^≥km-Ip-bn≥ ˛ 10 EC (ta-Pn-ÿ) s^≥t{]m-]m-Øvdn≥ ˛ 30 EC (an-tbm-Øn-dn≥) slIvkn-X-bm-tUmIv 5.45 EC ssStIm-t^mƒ ˛ 18.5 EC (sI¬tØ≥ AYhm tItfm-W¬ ˛ 5) kvss]tX-sa-kn-^≥ 240 SC sh‰-_nƒ kƒ^¿ ˛ 80 wp

Afhv Ce ]dn-°p∂Xn-G°-dn\v \p≈ CS-thf (Znhkw) 200 an√n 10

400 an√n

10

80 an√n 160 an√n

10 10

400 an√n 120 an√n 400 {Kmw

6 12 10

51


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

52


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

53


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

54


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

KpW-\n-c-hm-c-ap≈ Nmb D¬∏m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ So t_m¿Uns‚ \n¿t±-i-߃

1. 2. 3. 4.

Xfn-cn-e-Iƒ am{Xw \p≈pI aq∂v Cebpw Xncnbpw / c≠v Cebpw _m©nbpw am{Xw \p≈p-I. hnc-ep-IƒsIm≠v sImfp¥v FSp-°p-I. sNSn-bpsS apIƒ`m-KØv ImWp∂ apc-Sn® apIp-f-߃ (_m-©n-Iƒ) ka-bm-k-a-b-ß-fn¬ \p≈n-F-Sp-°p-I. 5. sNSn-bpsS \nc∏v (a-´w) F√m-bvt∏mgpw ]cn-]m-en-°p-I. 6. a´-Øn¬ ImWp∂ {Xniq-em-Ir-Xn-bn-ep≈ sNdp-Nn-√-Iƒ (ap-Sn-®n) ka-bmk-a-b-ß-fn¬ HSn-®p-am-‰p-I. 7. sImfp¥v FSp-°p-∂-Xn\v IØn, Acn-hmƒ F∂nh D]-tbm-Kn-°m-Xn-cn°p-I. 8. sImfp¥v XW-eØv / sjUn¬ \nc-Øn-bn-Sp-I. 9. \ncØn C´n-cn-°p∂ sImfp-¥n¬, hfw, IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ, hnk¿Py-h-kvXp°ƒ, arK- ß ƒ, ]£n- I ƒ ]S- c msX kq£n- ° p- I . a‰pa- c - ß - f psS Iºp-Iƒ, Ce-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh s]dp°n am‰p-I. 10. hml-\-ß-fn¬ Ib-‰p-tºmƒ am{Xw sImfp¥v Nm°n¬ \nd-bv°p-I. 11. Nm°n¬ 25 Intembne-[nIw \nd-bv°m-Xn-cn-°p-I.

55


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

aÆv kmºn-fp-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°p∂ hn[w

]cn-tim-[-\-bv°mbn FSp-°p∂ kmºnƒ, Irjn-ÿ-esØ apgp-h≥ {]Xn\n-[o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww. aÆv kmºnƒ FSp-°p∂ ÿew ]p√pw CeIfpw \o°w sNbvXv hrØn-bm-°nb tijw a¨sh´n D]-tbm-Kn®v V BIr-Xnbn¬ aÆv sh´n-sb-Sp-°p-I. s\¬]m-S-ß-fn¬ 15 sk‚nao‰dpw a‰v ÿe-ßfn¬ 25 sk‚ nao‰dpw Bg-Øn-emWv Ipgn-sb-Sp-t°-≠-Xv. sh´n-am-‰nb Ipgnbn¬ \n∂pw apI-f‰w apX¬ Xmsg-hsc 2 sk. an. I\-Øn¬ aÆv Acn-s™Sp-°-Ww. Irjn-ÿ-e-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw A\p-k-cn®v 8 apX¬ 16 ÿe-ßfn¬ \n∂pw Cßs\ kmºnƒ tiJ-cn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. tiJ-cn® aÆv \∂mbn Iq´n-°-e¿Øn AXn¬ \n∂pw I√p-Ifpw sNSn-bpsS Ah-in-jvS-ßfpw a‰pw \o°n-°-f-bp-I. aÆv \nc-Øn-bn-´-tijw s\Sp-sIbpw Ipdp-sIbpw Hmtcm hc hc®v \mev `mK-ß-fm-°-Ww. CXn¬ \n∂pw tImtWm-Sp-tIm¨ hcp∂ c≠v `mK-߃ am{Xw FSpØv ho≠pw Iq´n-°-e¿Øn Cu {]{Inb XpS-c-Ww. GI-tZiw 1/2 In.{Kmw aÆv BIp-tºmƒ AXv hrØn-bp≈ IS-em-kn¬ \ncØn XW-eØv DW-°n-sb-Sp-°-Ww. DW-ßnb aÆv kmºnƒ XpWn-k-©n-bntem πmÃnIv Ih-dntem \nd®v ]cn-tim-[-\bv°v Abbv-°mw. kmºn-fns‚ IqsS Irjn-°m-cs‚ t]cv, ta¬hn-em-kw, k¿tΔ \º¿, hnkvXo¿Æw, hnf-I-fpsS hnhcw F∂nh IqSn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°-Ww. aÆv kmºnƒ FSp-°p-tºmƒ hc-ºn-t\mSv tN¿∂p-In-S-°p∂ `mK-߃, ]pXp-Xmbn hfw tN¿Ø ÿe-߃, ]gb Ipgn-Iƒ, sh≈w sI´n-\n¬°p∂ ÿe-߃, hf-°p-gn-°-SpØ {]tZ-i-߃ F∂nh Hgn-hm-°-Ww. hfw, IpΩmbw F∂nh tN¿Øv 3 amk-sa-¶nepw Ign-bmØ tπm´p-I-fn¬\n∂pw kmºnƒ FSp-°-cp-Xv. tiJ-cn®v 6 amkw Ign™ aÆv ]cn-tim-[bv°v Abbv°m≥ ]mSp-≈-X-√. 56


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

List of Maximum Residue Limits Established in the Japanese General Food Law in the Tea Practises (UTZ Certified List of MRLS) Name of crop protection product (Active Ingredient)

MRL (PPM)

1.

1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (Agronact)

0.1

2.

Bromide (Methyl Bromide)

60

3.

Carbofuran (Thimat etc.)

1

4.

Chlorphyrifos

0.05

5.

Cypermethrin

0.05

6.

Deltamethrin, Tralomethrin (Intotal)

7.

Dichlorros

0.2

8.

Diuron (Weedicide etc.)

0.02

9.

Glyphosate Weed off round up)

2

1

57


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

D‰vkv So k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥

temI- \ n- e - h m- c - a p- ≈ Xpw AwKo- I r- X - h p- a mb k¿´n- ^ n- t °- j - \ mWv D‰vkv (UTZ) \√Xv, Ie¿∏n-√m-ØXv F∂¿∞w hcp∂ Cu ]Z-Øns‚ D¤hw "amb' `mj-bn¬ \n∂m-Wv. kmaqly {]Xn_≤X Dd-∏p-h-cpØn \nc-¥-c-amb CS-s]-S-ep-I-fneqsS DZv∏m-Z-\-£-a-Xbpw, Im-cy-£-a-Xbpw, KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øn-s°m≠v Hcp D¬∏-∂-Øns‚ Dd-hnSw Is≠Øp-∂-Xv apX¬ D]tbmKw hsc-bp≈ imkv{Xob coXn-bmWv D‰vkv k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥.Cu kwhn[m-\-Øn\v B`y-¥c KpW-ta∑m kwhn-[m\w (ICS) F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. Dev∏∂w FhnsS \n¿Ωn®p? Bcv Fßs\ \n¿Ωn®p? Dev∏∂ - Ø - n¬ AS-ßn-bn-cn-°p∂ tNcp-h-Iƒ Fs¥√mw? XpS-ßn-bh kw_-‘n® Adnhv D]-t`m-‡m-°-fn¬ FØn-°p-I-bmWv Cu k¿´n^n-t°-js‚ {]tXy-I-X. Db¿∂ KpW-\n-e-hmchpw,- kp-ÿn-c-Xbpw {]Ir-Xn-bpsS kwc-£-Whpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øn-s°m≠v hn]Wn-bn¬ A\-¥-amb km[y-X-Iƒ Is≠-Øp-hm\pw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-hm\pw hf¿Øp-hm\pw klm-bn-°p-∂p.-\√ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ (GAP) A\p-h¿Øn-°m≥ I¿j-Isc {]m]vX-cm-°p-hm\pw cmjv{S \n¿Ωm-W-Øn\v kaq-lsØ im‡oI-cn-°p-∂X - n\pw BtKm-fh - n-]W - n-bn¬ IÆn tNcp-hm\pw CXv hgn km[n-°pw. D‰vkv k¿´n-^n-t°-j\v BtKm-fX - e - Ø - n¬ t\XrXzw \evIn hcp-∂Xv tkmfnUmcn-UmUv F∂ kwL-S\ - b - m-Wv. s\X¿em‚v tI{μ-am°n {]h¿Øn-°p-∂ kwLS-\-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-߃ temI-sa-ºmSpw hym]n®pInS-°p-∂p.C¥y-bn¬ {]IrXn F∂ kwL-S-\-bp-ambn kl-I-cn®pw {]h¿Øn®phcp-∂p. D‰vkv So {]mPIvSv Icn-am\nbpsS \n¿Δ-lW GP≥kn "{]Ir-Xn-'bm-Wv. _m•q¿ Bÿm-\-am°n 1991 apX¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ kwL-S-\-bmWv {]Ir-Xn. kmº-ØnI kmaq-ly-˛-kmw-kv°m-cnI taJ-e-I-fn¬ \ne-\nev°p∂ Ak-a-Xzßfpw, h¿£-hn-th-N\ - ß - fpw, D¬∏m-Z\ hnX-cW taJ-eI - f- nse A¥-cß - fpw, 58


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

Ipd-®p- sIm≠p h∂v, C¥y≥ kºZv LS-\-bnse Xmsg-X-´n-ep≈ sNdp-InS I¿j-I¿, tXm´w sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ, kv{XoIƒ,-Ip´nIƒ,-bp-h-P-\-߃, sN-dp-InS-kw-c`- I - {]h¿Ø-I¿,- Xp-Sß - nb hn`m-Kß - f- psS ka{K hnI-k\Øn\p th≠n {]h¿Øn®p hcp∂ kwL-S-\-bmWv {]Ir-Xn. tZiob A¥¿tZ-iob Xe-ßfn¬ tIm¿∏-td‰v kwhn-[m-\-ß-fp-am-bp≈ GtIm-]\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-eqsS kmaq-lnI {]Xn-_≤ - X Dd-∏p-hc- p-Øn-sIm≠v e£y-{]m-]vXn-bn-se-Øp-∂X - n-\p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fmWv \S-∏nem°n hcp-∂-Xv.kmº-ØnI \b-ß-fpsS `mK-ambn DZm-ch - X - v°c- Ww, kz-ImcyhXv°c- Ww,B-tKmfhXv°c- Ww XpS-ßn-bh - b - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]iv\-ß-tfm-Spw,-{]-Xn-k-‘n-I-tfmSpw,hnI-k\ kao-]-\-ß-tfmSpw {Inbm-fl-I-amb CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ \SØn hcp-∂p. c≠p]Xn-‰m-≠p-I-fmbn kaql-Ønse Xmsg-Ø´- n-ep-≈h - sc apJy-[m-cb - n-te°v sIm-≠p-hc- p-∂X - n\v ka-tbmPnX,GtIm-]\ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ°v {]IrXn t\XrXzw sIm-Sp-Øp-hc- p-∂p. CXns‚ `mK-ambn ]cp-Øn,- tX-bne, Im∏n, I-cn-ºv,- XpS-ßnb Im¿jnI taJ-e-Ifnepw {Kma hnI-k\w,kmaqly kmwkv°m-cnI ]-mcn-kv∞n-XnI- taJ-e-I-fpsS kpÿn-cX - b - pw,Xp-S¿kw-c£ - W - h - pw,-{]-[m\ {]h¿Ø\ taJ-eI - f- m-Wv. hkv{X \n¿ΩmW taJ-eb - nse kmaq-lnI kmº-ØnI {]iv\ß - t- fmSpw hn\n-ab - irwJe-bnse Ak-¥p-en-Xm-hÿ t\cn-Sp-∂Xn\pw th≠p∂ {Inbm-flI {]h¿Ø\-߃ {]Ir-Xnsb A\-\y-am-°p-∂p. {]Ir-Xn°v cmPym-¥c k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ ISO 9001:2008 e`n-°p-Ibpw A¥¿tZ-iob Xe-ß-fnte°v {]-h¿Ø-\-߃ hym]n-∏n®phcp-∂p.

F¥p-sIm≠v D‰vkv k¿´n-ss^bvUv temI-hn-]W - n-bn¬ kao-]I - m-eØv D≠mb ImX-emb am‰w `£y-kp-c£ - bpw kmº- Ø nI `{Z- X bpw Dd- ∏ p- h - c p- Ø p- ∂ - X n\v apJy- ÿ m\w \ev Ip- ∂ p.kmaqly\oXn-bpw,-{]-Xn-_-≤-Xbpw {]IrXnbpsS D]-tbm-Khpw kwc-£-W-hpw Dd∏phcp-Ønbn´p≈ KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ Dev∏-∂-߃°mWv A¥¿tZiob˛ tZiob am¿°-‰n¬ P\-{]oXn D≈Xv. CØcw km[-\-߃°v A[n-I-hne \evIp-hm\pw Xøm-dm-Wv.- _mlyLS-I-ß-fmb cmk IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ, hf-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS D]-tbm-Kw,- co-Xn-Iƒ, B-tcmKykwc-£Ww, sXmgnem-fn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-i-߃, _me-th-e, -Xp-S-ßn-b-hbv°v {]m[m\yw sIm-Sp-°p∂p. AXp hgn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h¿°v Dev∏-∂-Øns‚ Dd-hn-S-hp-ambn \√ _‘-ap-≠m°p-hm\pw \ne-\n¿Øp-hm\pw km[n-°p-∂p. D‰vkv k¿´n-ss^bvUv hgn Dev∏∂-Øns‚ \n¿ΩmW hnX-cW hn\n-ab irwJ-e-I-fn¬ _‘-s∏-Sp-∂-h-cpsS PohnX\ne-hmcw Db¿Øp-hm\pw sXmgnem-fn-If- p-tSbpw, I¿j-Ic- p-tSbpw a‰pw ASn-ÿm\ Bh-iy-߃ kwc-£n-°p-hm\pw Ign-bp-sa∂ Dd∏v \evIp-∂p. Irjn-bnepw, kw-kv°-cWime-I-fnepw, hn-]-Wn-bnepw, Hu-]-Nm-cn-I-Xbpw, imkv{Xob-Xbpw Dd-∏p-hc- pØn IrXy-amb am\-ZW - vUß - f- n-eqsS kmaqly˛kmº59


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

ØnI ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw {]Ir-Xn-bpsS kwc-£-Whpw \S-∏n-em-°p-∂p. CS-]m-SpI-fn¬ D‰vkv {]oanbw hne \evIp-Ibpw, A¥m-cmjv{S am\-Z-WvU-ßfpw C‚¿ \mj-W¬ te_¿ Hm¿K-ss\-tk-j≥ (ILO) \n_-‘-\-Ifpw ]men-°-s∏-Sp∂tXmsSm∏w hnI- k \ hnZym- ` ymk ]T\ ]cn- i o- e - \ - ß ƒ°v t\XrXzw sIm-Sp-°p∂p.

k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ km[y-X-Iƒ tXbne Im∏n XpS-ßnb taJ-e-I-fpsS hnI-k\ km[yX temI-hn-]-Wnbn¬ Gsd-bmWv. sNdp-InS I¿j-Icpw tXm´w DS-a-I-fp-amWv {][m\ Dev∏m-Z-I¿.

k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ km[y-X-Iƒ tXbne, Im∏n XpS-ßnb taJeIfpsS hnI-k\ km[yX temI-hn-]-Wnbn¬ Gsd-bm-Wv. sNdp-InS I¿j-Icpw tXm´w DS-a-I-fp-amWv tXbne D¬∏mZn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. B`y-¥c KpW-ta-∑m-kw-hn-[m\w (ICS) ]cn-tim-[-\-I-fpw,-tc-JIƒ Xøm-dm-°epw hgn I¿j-I¿°pw kwcw-`-I¿°pw X\-Xmb hy‡n-Xzhpw \ne-\nev∏pw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-hm≥ Ign-bpw. kpÿn-c-Xbv°p th≠n tZiob˛A¥¿tZiob hn]-Wn-bn¬ ]¶p-tN-¿∂v tIm∏-td‰v kwhn-[m-\ß - f- p-ambn klI-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p-hm≥ km[n°pw. Nmb (C-hnsS) sb BtKmf hn]-Wnbn¬ apJy-[m-c-bn¬ FØn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bpw.-^-e-h-Ømb {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS `mK-ambn kmaqly {]iv\-߃, ]m-cn-ÿn-XnI {]iv\-߃,\√ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ (GAP), Dev∏-∂-Øns‚ KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw, kpc-£n-X-Xz-hpw, ^e-h-Ømb kwL-S\m {]h¿Ø\w F∂o Xe-ß-fn¬ CS-s]-Sp-hm\pw {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ tN¿∂v {]h¿Øn-°p-hm\pw km[n-°p-∂p.

a‰v k¿´n-^n-t°-j\pIƒ 1). Hm¿Km-\nIv : D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-e-bn¬ _mly-LS-IßfpsS D]-tbm-Kw (-cm-kh-kvXp-°-fpsS D]-tbm-Kw)- H-gn-hm°n aÆv,- P-ew,- ssP-h-k-ºØv F∂nhbpsS kwc-£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øn-s°m≠pw hnj-I-e¿∏n-√mØ `t£ymev∏∂ - ß - ƒ DZv∏m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ. A\p-_‘ taJ-eb - psS hnIk-\hpw hf¿®bpw. 2). s^b¿t{SUv: _mly-L-S-I-ß-fpsS D]-tbmKw Ipd®v DZv∏m-Z\ hn\n-ab hn]-W\ taJ-e-I-fnepw A\p-_‘ taJ-e-I-fnepw `£y kpc-£bpw NqjW clnX Dev∏-∂-ßfpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂p. C‚¿ \mj-W¬ te_¿ Hm¿K-ss\-tk-j≥ (ILO) \n_-‘-\Iƒ ]men-°-s∏-Sp-∂p-sh∂pw Dd-∏ph-cp-Øp-∂p.

60


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

3). sdbn≥ t^mdÃv Ae-b≥kv: {]Ir-Xn-bpsS k¥p-en-Xm-hÿ \ne-\n¿Øp∂-Xn\p th≠n h\y-Pohn kwc-£Ww, h\-kw-c-£-Ww,- a-Æv,- P-ew,- ssP-hk-º-Øv,- Xp-S-ßn-bhbpsS kwc-£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-tXm-sSm∏w kmaqlnI \oXn-bpw,- `£y-kp-c-£bpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw sNøp∂ coXn.

61


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

Important Address Prakruthi 43, 2nd Cross, Ramaya Layout St. Thomas Town Post Kammanahalli Bangalore - 560 084 Tel: +91 80 2543 8935/36 Fax: 080 4173 2338 www.prakruthi.org Solidaridad South and South East Asia A-5, 1st Floor, Shankar Garden, Main Najafgarh Road, Vikas Puri, New Delhi - 110 018 Tel: +91 11 2551 5122/ 23 www.solidaridad.in/nl Executive Director Tea Board, Govt. of India, Shelwood, Coonoor Club Road, Coonoor, Nilgiris Dist. Tamil Nadu - 643 101 Tel +91 423 2221 464/ 2231 638 Fax: 2232 332 Joint Controller of Licensing Tea Board Govt of India Indira Gandhi Road, Willingdon Island, Kochi - 682003, Kerala Tel: 0484 2666 523, 2668 481 Fax: 0484 2666 648

Tea Board Govt. of India College Road, Kottayam - 686 001 Tel: 0481 2567 391 Fax: 0481 2567 391 UPSAI & KVK Glenview, Coonoor, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu - 643 101 Tel: 0423 2230 772/ 2240 972 Director UPASI Tea Research Foundation Nirar Dam, B.O,Valparai, Tamil Nadu 04253 235301 Advisory Officer UPSAI - Tea Research Foundation Regional Centre, Mepadi - Wayanad Tel: 04936 282463 Tea Board enlisted Soil Laboratories Kerala and Nilgiris UPSAI & KVK Coonoor - Nilgiris - Tamil Nadu UPSAI Tea Research Foundation Regional Centre Calicut Road, Gudalloor Nilgiris - Tamil Nadu Kerala Agriculture - University Trichir & Ambalavayal, Kerala 62


KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ tXbn-e:- A\p-h¿Øn-t°≠ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ

63


Guna Nilavaramulla Teyila