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¡‹Í¹¨Ð»´àÅ‹Á I Epilogue »ÃЪҪ¹áÅзҧÃÒª¡Òà «Öè§Ê‹§¼ÅÍ‹ҧÂÔ觵‹ÍàÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ Êѧ¤Á áÅФسÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§»ÃЪҪ¹ »˜ÞËҴѧ¡Å‹ÒǨ֧¶×Í໚¹ÇԡĵԢͧ »ÃÐà·È·Õè¨íÒ໚¹µŒÍ§ä´ŒÃѺ¡Òÿ„œ¹¿Ùà¾×èÍãËŒ¡ÅѺÊÙ‹ÊÀÒ¾à´ÔÁâ´Â à˧´‹Ç¹ ´ŒÇ¡ÒÃÇҧἹ»‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒÍ‹ҧ¶Ù¡ÇÔ¸Õ áÅР໚¹Ãкº â´ÂÍÒÈѤÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×ͧ͢·Ø¡½†Ò·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ 㹩ºÑº¹Õàé ÃÒ¢Íá¹Ð¹íÒ˹ѧÊ×Í “ʶҹ¡Òó¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜§› Í‹ÒÇä·Â·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÇԡĵԔ «Ö觨Ѵ·íÒâ´Â ¡Í§µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ à¹×Íé ËÒã¹àÅ‹Á໚¹¡ÒùíÒàʹ͢ŒÍÁÙÅáÅТŒÍà·ç¨¨ÃÔ§à¡ÕÂè ǡѺʶҹ¡Òó ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹¾×é¹·Õèµ‹Ò§æ ¢Í§Í‹ÒÇä·Â â´Â੾ÒÐ ¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÀÒÇÐÇÔ¡ÄµÔ «Öè§ä´Œ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃǺÃÇÁ àÍ¡ÊÒ÷ҧÇÔªÒ¡Ò÷Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§ áÅСÒÃÊíÒÃǨ¾×¹é ·Õãè ¹ÀҤʹÒÁ ¹Í¡ ¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ¹íÒàʹÍÊÒà˵ØáÅлÃÐà´ç¹»˜ÞËÒ·Õè·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´¡ÒáѴà«ÒÐ äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨Ð໚¹ÊÒà˵بҡ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅСÒáÃзíҢͧÁ¹Øɏ ÃÇÁ·Ñé§ ¹íÒàʹͼšÃзº¨Ò¡¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§µ‹ÍÃкº¹ÔàÇÈ àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ áÅÐÊѧ¤Á µÅÍ´¨¹¹íÒàʹ͡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òû‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒǢͧ˹‹Ç§ҹµ‹Ò§æ ·Ñ§é ÀÒ¤ÃÑ°ÀÒ¤àÍ¡ª¹ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é »ÃЪҪ¹ ã¹¾×é¹·Õè ÍÕ¡·Ñé§Âѧ䴌¹íÒàʹÍÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ¡ÒèѴ¡Òû‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡Œä¢ »˜ÞËÒ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜§› ¢Í§»ÃÐà·È «Ö§è »ÃСͺ´ŒÇÂ໇ÒËÁÒÂËÅÑ¡ á¹Ç·Ò§ áÅÐÁҵáÒáÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹ã¹àÃ×èͧ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇ ÃÇÁ¶Ö§¹íÒàÊ¹Í ¢ŒÍ¤Ô´àËç¹áÅТŒÍàʹÍá¹Ð㹡ÒÃᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§ à¾×èÍãˌ˹‹Ç§ҹ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¹íÒ仾ԨÒóһÃСͺ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà »‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹µ‹Íä» ËÒ¡·‹Ò¹Ê¹ã¨ÊÒÁÒöµÔ´µ‹Íä´Œ·Õè ¡ÅØ‹Á§Ò¹µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹ ʶҹ¡Òó ¡Í§µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹ ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ËÃ×Í download ä´Œ·Õè http:// www.onep.go.th/download/thai_bay_erosion.pdfß

impact on our society, economy, and people’s quality of life. As a result, coastal erosion has made its way onto the nation’s priority list and needs to be urgently addressed through a prevention and resolution scheme involving all stakeholders. Here, we would like to introduce the interesting book titled “Critical Stage of Coastal Erosion along the Gulf of Thailand” published by the Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The publication provides alarming facts and information about the state of coastal erosion, with a focus on the severely eroded areas along the Gulf of Thailand, compiled from both academic papers and field surveys. The causes and factors that drive coastal erosion, whether natural or man - made, are also presented here along with the socio - economic and ecological impacts. Moreover, the publication outlines the prevention and resolution programs implemented by public and private authorities as well as local community remedial efforts. Prevention and resolution strategies on coastal erosion, complete with objectives, guidelines, and operational measures, along with opinions and recommendations concerning the topic are also included for consideration by related authorities. The publication can be requested from the State of the Monitoring and Evaluation Group, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning,or downloaded from http://www.onep.go.th/download/thai_bay_erosion.pdf.ß

51


º·ºÃóҸԡÒà Editorial Notes

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§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ âºÃҳʶҹ áÅÐáËÅ‹§âºÃÒ³¤´Õ ໚¹·ÃѾÊÁºÑµÔ¢Í§ ªÒµÔ·Ø¡ªÒµÔ ·Ø¡»ÃÐà·È·ÑèÇâÅ¡ «Öè§áÊ´§¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁ໚¹àÍ¡ÅѡɳáÅФÇÒÁÀÒ¤ÀÙÁÔ㨢ͧª¹ã¹ªÒµÔ ÊзŒÍ¹ ãËŒàË繶֧ÍÒøÃÃÁ¢Í§ªØÁª¹ã¹âš㺹Õé «Ö觷ç¤Ø³¤‹ÒÍ‹ҧËÒ·ÕèÊØ´ÁÔä´Œ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹áµ‹ÅЪҵÔᵋÅлÃÐà·È¨Ö§ÁØ‹§ÁÑè¹ áÅоÂÒÂÒÁ·Õè¨Ð»¡»‡Í§ ¤ØŒÁ¤Ãͧ áÅдÙáÅÃÑ¡ÉÒäÇŒ¨Ò¡ÃØ‹¹Ë¹Öè§ä»ÊÙ‹ÍÕ¡ÃØ‹¹Ë¹Öè§ÁÒ໚¹àÇÅÒÂÒǹҹ ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ¨Ö§ä´Œ¹Òí ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ âºÃҳʶҹ áÅÐáËÅ‹§âºÃÒ³¤´Õ «Öè§à»š¹à¾Õ§ʋǹàÅç¡æ ·Õèä´ŒÁÕ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÍ‹ҧµ‹Íà¹×èͧÁÒ à¼Âá¾Ã‹ãËŒàË繶֧á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒèѴ¡Òõ‹Í·ÃѾÊÁºÑµÍÔ ¹Ñ ÁÕ¤Ò‹ àËÅ‹Ò¹Õãé ¹ÃٻẺµ‹Ò§æ ·Ñ§é ã¹ÃдѺªØÁª¹ËÃ×Í·ŒÍ§¶Ô¹è ÃдѺ»ÃÐà·È áÅÐÃдѺâÅ¡ ᵋ·Ñ駹Õé·Ñ駹Ñé¹ ¡ÒèѴ¡Òà ¨ÐÊíÒàÃç¨ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹Í‹ҧäõŒÍ§¢Öé¹ÍÂÙ‹¡Ñº¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ ¢Í§ªØÁª¹ã¹¾×é¹·Õè áÅФÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×ͧ͢ÀҤʋǹÊѧ¤ÁÍ×è¹æ ·Ñé§ÀÒ¤ÃÑ° ÀÒ¤àÍ¡ª¹ áÅÐͧ¤¡Ãµ‹Ò§æ 㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ ͹ØÃѡɏ »¡»‡Í§áÅФ،Á¤Ãͧ·ÃѾÂÒ¡ÃáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁàËÅ‹Ò¹ÕéÍ‹ҧ¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§áÅШÃԧ㨠â´ÂµŒÍ§¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§¤Ø³¤‹Ò·Ò§¨Ôµã¨ Êѧ¤Á áÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ´ŒÇ ¹Í¡à˹×ͨҡ»ÃÐ⪹·Ò§´ŒÒ¹àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨à¾Õ§ Í‹ҧà´ÕÂÇ «Ö觡ͧºÃóҸԡÒÃËÇÑ§Ç‹Ò à¹×éÍËÒÊÒÃТͧÇÒÃÊÒéºÑº¹Õé¨ÐÊзŒÍ¹ãËŒ¼ÙŒÍ‹Ò¹ä´Œà¢ŒÒã¨áÅÐÊÒÁÒö »ÃÐÂØ¡µ¹Òí àÍÒͧ¤¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Œ ·èÕ Ò‹ ¹¤Ô´Ç‹ÒàËÁÒÐÊÁä»à»š¹áººÍ‹ҧ㹡ÒäԴáÅоԨÒÃ³Ò à¾×Íè ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹¨ÃÃâŧ·ÃѾ ÊÁºÑµÔÍѹÁÕ¤‹Ò¢Í§ªÒµÔ ãËŒÊÒÁÒöÍÂÙ‹ÃÍ´»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ໚¹ËÅÑ¡°Ò¹Â×¹Âѹ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁ໚¹ªÒµÔ·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒÃÊ׺·Í´ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ÁÒ¡‹Í¹Í‹ҧÂÒǹҹáÅÐÂѧÁÕ¡ÒþѲ¹Òä»ÊÙ‹ÅÙ¡ËÅÒ¹¢Í§¾Ç¡àÃÒÊ׺ä»

A

l nations alike take pride in national assets like natural environment, cultures, traditions, and historical sites - or in other words, things that convey unique identity and pride of the citizens. Every nation has its own history of determination and actions to protect, preserve, and hand down these national assets from generation to generation, reflecting the invaluable lines of civilization born and intertwined on this very planet as well. Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal, therefore, joins the rest of the world in celebrating such priceless assets and brings to you articles about how the natural environment, cultures, traditions, and historical sites are managed and handled by local communities and countries around the world. Nevertheless, each conservation, protection, and prevention approach presented here cannot be accomplished without the selfless commitment and cooperation from the people in the community as well as from the other parts of society, i.e. public and private sectors and independent groups. The editorial team sincerely hopes that this journal’s contents would bring about a better understanding of issues facing the aforementioned national assets and enable our readers to consider the appropriate ways to preserve them for our next generation.

ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡»¡ Cover Picture ÀÒ¾â´Â ¾§É¾Å ÇÔ¹Ô¨¼Å Photo : Pongpol Vinitphon


ÊÒúÑÞ

CONTENTS Ü

º·ºÃóҸԡÒà / Editorial 05 ÀÒ¾¢‹ÒÇ News Feature

10

Ü

º·ÊÑÁÀÒɳ / Interview

10 “á¹Ç¤Ô´ÁØÁÁͧ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡Í‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹” Sustainable Management of World Heritage Sites

Ü

º·¤ÇÒÁ¾ÔàÈÉ / Special

14 “Áô¡âÅ¡” Áô¡àÃÒ Áô¡à¢Ò Áô¡ã¤Ã? “World Heritage” Ours, Theirs, Or Whose?

14

Ü

28

20 ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ : ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¡Ñº¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ The International Day for Biological Diversity : Biological Diversity and Agriculture 24 ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ·íÒÃŒÒÂàÃÒ ËÃ×Í àÃÒ·íÒÌҸÃÃÁªÒµÔ Natural Disasters - the Fault of Man or Nature? 28 ¡ÒÃ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¨Ò¡¢ŒÍÁÙÅÊÒÃʹà·ÈÀÙÁÔÈÒʵÏ 㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒáÃШÒµÑǢͧ áËÅ‹§âºÃÒ³¤´Õ㹺ÃÔàdzàÇÕ§ÅÍ ÍíÒàÀͨع ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¾ÐàÂÒ Geographic Information System Application in the Study of the Distribution of Archeological Sites in the Area of Wiang Lo, Joon District, Prayao Province 32 ÍÂظÂÒ..Áô¡âÅ¡..Áô¡àÃÒ Ayutthaya ... World Heritage ... Our Heritage 34 á¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙŒ¢Í§ªØÁª¹ Cultural Heritage Atlas and Socialization 38 àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÃÒ¡°Ò¹ÊíÒ¤ÑޢͧÊѧ¤Áä·Â Old Towns: the Foundation of Thai Society

32

38

Ü

Ü

44

ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁáÅÐÁžÔÉ / Environment and Pollution

44 ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкº¹ÔàÇÈÇÔ·ÂÒã¹Í´Õµ¢Í§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ Study of an Early Ecosystem of Cultural Heritage 48 ͹ØÊÑÞÞҤ،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡ The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

20

34

¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ / Balance and Diverse

¡‹Í¹¨Ð»´àÅ‹Á / Epilogue

50 á¹Ð¹íÒ˹ѧÊ×Í “ʶҹ¡Òó¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§Í‹ÒÇä·Â ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÇԡĵԔ Book Review “Critical Stage of Coastal Erosion along the Gulf of Thailand”

¢ŒÍ¤Ô´àËç¹áÅТŒÍàʹÍã´æ ·Õè¹ÓàʹÍ㹺·¤ÇÒÁµ‹Ò§æ ໚¹¢Í§¼ÙŒà¢Õ¹ All comments and recommendations in this journal are exclusively of the authors


ÀÒ¾¢‹ÒÇ I News Feature

ÀÒ¾¢‹ÒÇ

News Feature

¹Ò§Í¹§¤ÇÃó à·¾ÊØ·Ô¹ ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕÇ‹Ò¡ÒáÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔ

1. áÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ໚¹»ÃиҹÁͺÃÒ§ÇÑÅ»ÃСǴÀÒ¾¶‹Ò áÅÐແ´§Ò¹áÊ´§

¹Ô·ÃÃÈ¡ÒÃÀÒ¾¶‹ÒÂàªÔ§Í¹ØÃѡɏ “¡Ò« àÃ×͹¡ÃШ¡” ³ Èٹ¡ÒäŒÒÊÂÒÁ¾ÒÃҡ͹ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 1 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Mrs. Anongwan Thepsuthin, Natural Resources and Environment Minister, presided over “Green House Gases”, an environmental conservation photo exhibition, and awarded prizes to the winners of the photo contest at Siam Paragon shopping complex on July 1st, 2008. ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

2. ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ໚¹»Ãиҹ㹡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò “à¾×èͪÕéᨧ

á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒèѴ·íÒá¼¹»®ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒÃà¾×èͨѴ¡ÒäسÀÒ¾ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁã¹ÃдѺ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ »‚§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ ¾.È. 2553” ãˌᡋ¼ÙŒ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¨Ò¡Ë¹‹Ç§ҹµ‹Ò§æ ³ âçáÃÁ à«ç¹¨ÙÃÕè¾ÒϤ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 22 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso, ONEP Secretary - General, presided over the seminar on “Setting a Provincial Environmental Quality Management Action Plan for Fiscal Year 2010” for participants from concerned agencies at Century Park Hotel, Bangkok, on July 22nd, 2008. ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

3. ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ áÅйҧÊÒÇÊØ·¸ÔÅ¡Ñ É³ ÃÐÇÔÇÃó ÃͧàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃ

¾ÃŒÍÁ¼ÙºŒ ÃÔËÒÃÊíҹѡ/¡Í§ãËŒ¡ÒõŒÍ¹ÃѺ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ ·Õèä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒÃᵋ§µÑé§ãËÁ‹ 16 ¤¹ (¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´) ã¹âÍ¡ÒÊࢌÒàÂÕèÂÁªÁÈÖ¡ÉÒ´Ù§Ò¹ ´ŒÒ¹¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Ò÷ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ áÅСÒôíÒà¹Ô¹´ŒÒ¹µ‹Ò§æ µÒÁÀÒáԨ¢Í§Êíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï ·Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§¡ÑºÀÒáԨ¢Í§Êíҹѡ§Ò¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔ áÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 23 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á 2551 Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso - ONEP Secretary - General and Ms. Suthilak Rawiwan - Deputy Secretary - General, along with the executive of the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), welcomed 16 newly - assigned provincial natural resource and environmental officers during their visit to ONEP to observe ONEP natural resource and environmental management programs related to a provincial mission on July 23rd, 2008. ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

4. ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ໚¹»Ãиҹແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò àÃ×èͧ

“¡ÒÃá»Å§ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔ Ç‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÍÔ Ò¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 - 2555 ä»ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡” ¾ÃŒÍÁÍÀÔ»ÃÒ àÃ×èͧ “ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 áÅСÃкǹ¡ÒÃá»Å§á¼¹ä»ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ” ³ âçáÃÁà´ÍÐä·´ ÃÕÊÍÏ· ºÒ§áʹ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ªÅºØÃÕ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 9 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á 2551 Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso, ONEP Secretary - General, presided over the seminar on “Implementing the National Strategy on Climate Change Management, 2008 - 2012 - Eastern Region” and gave a lecture on “National Strategy on Climate Change Management 2008 and Implementation Process” at The Tide Resort, Bang San, Chon Buri, on July 9th, 2008.

5


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ¹Ò§»ÃÐàÊÃÔ°ÊØ¢ ¨ÒÁÃÁÒ¹ ¼ÙÍŒ Òí ¹Ç¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ

5. áË‹§ªÒµÔ ແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò àÃ×èͧ “¡ÒÃá»Å§ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔ

Ç‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 - 2555 ä»ÊÙ‹ ¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ “¤ÃÑ駷Õè 3 ÀÒ¤à˹×Í ¾ÃŒÍÁºÃÃÂÒÂáÅÐÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁàËç¹ àÃ×èͧ “ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 áÅСÃкǹ¡ÒÃá»Å§á¼¹ä»ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ” ³ âçáÃÁâŵÑʻҧÊÇ¹á¡ŒÇ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ àªÕ§ãËÁ‹ Çѹ·Õè 16 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Mrs. Prasertsuk Jamorn - marn, Director of National Environmental Board, presided the 3rd seminar on “Implementing National Strategy on Climate Change Management 2008 - 2012 - Northern Region” and gave a lecture on “National Strategy on Climate Change Management 2008 and Implementation Process” at Lotus Pang Suan Kaew Hotel, Chiang Mai, on July 16th, 2008. Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ»ÃЪØÁ

6. ÊÑÁÁ¹ÒªÕéᨧ “á¼¹»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒÃàªÔ§¹âºÒ´ŒÒ¹¡ÒèѴ¡Òþ×é¹·ÕèÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ

ªØÁª¹àÁ×ͧÍ‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹áÅСÒûÃÐÊÒ¹¡ÒùíÒá¼¹Ï ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ” à¾×èÍãËŒ ·Ø¡ÀҤʋǹ·Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§ ä´ŒÃºÑ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒ㨵‹Íá¼¹»¯ÔºµÑ ¡Ô ÒÃàªÔ§¹âºÒ´ŒÒ¹ ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃ¾×¹é ·ÕÊè àÕ ¢ÕÂÇÏ ÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»»¯ÔºµÑ ·Ô àèÕ »š¹ÃÙ»¸ÃÃÁ䴌͋ҧÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ â´ÂÁÕ¹Ò§ÊÒÇÊØ·¸ÔÅѡɳ ÃÐÇÔÇÃó ÃͧàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹ ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ໚¹»Ãиҹແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇ ³ âçáÃÁàÍàªÕ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 22 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) held a seminar on “Action Plan and Policy on Sustainable Management of Urban Green Area and the Bridge to Implementation” for all concerned sectors to improve understanding and knowledge of the action plan and policy on Sustainable Management of Urban Green Space, leading to an efficient plan realization. Ms. Suthiluk Raviwan - ONEP Deputy Secretary - General, presided over the seminar at Asia Hotel, Bangkok, on July 22nd, 2008. Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 㹰ҹР7. ˹‹ Ç»ÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹¡Åҧ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¾×é¹·ÕèªØ‹Á¹éíÒ ¨Ñ´¡ÒÃá¶Å§¢‹ÒÇà¾×èÍ

໚¹à¡ÕÂõÔá¡‹¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃä·Âä´ŒÃѺÃÒ§ÇÑÅ Ramsar Wetland Conservation Awards »ÃШíÒ»‚ 2008 â´ÂÁÕ´Ã.ÈÑ¡´ÊÔ·¸Ôì µÃÕà´ª »ÅÑ´¡ÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ໚¹»Ãиҹá¶Å§¢‹ÒÇáÅÐËÇÁáÊ´§¤ÇÒÁÂÔ¹´Õ¡Ñº ÃÈ.´Ã. ÈѹʹՏ ªÙáÇÇ «Öè§à»š¹¼ÙŒä´ŒÃѺÃÒ§ÇÑŴѧ¡Å‹ÒÇ ÊÒ¢Ò¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ³ ˌͧ»ÃЪØÁ 301 ÍÒ¤ÒáÃÁ¤Çº¤ØÁÁžÔÉ àÁ×Íè Çѹ·Õè 22 ¡Ã¡¯Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 As the coordinating agency for Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) held a press conference for Associate Professor Dr. Sansanee Choowaew, a Thai academic awarded a Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award 2008 in the field of Education. Dr. Saksit Tridech Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, presided over the press conference and congratulated her at the Conference Room 301, Pollution Control Department, on July 22nd, 2008. ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¡Å‹ÒÇແ´¡ÒÃÊÑÁÁ¹ÒàÊÃÔÁÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ

8. ᡋ਌Ò˹ŒÒ·ÕèÊíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï 㹡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔµÒÁ ¾.Ã.º. ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ¢‹ÒÇÊÒâͧÃÒª¡Òà ¾.È. 2540 «Öè§ä´ŒÃѺà¡ÕÂõԨҡ ´Ã.¹¤Ã àÊÃÕÃѡɏ ¼ÙŒàªÕèÂǪÒÞ´ŒÒ¹

¢ŒÍÁÙÅ¢‹ÒÇÊÒà Êíҹѡ¹Ò¡ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ à»š¹ÇÔ·ÂÒ¡Ã â´ÂÁռٌࢌÒËÇÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò 200 ¡Ç‹Ò¤¹ ³ ˌͧ»ÃЪØÁÊíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 25 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso, ONEP Secretary - General, gave the opening speech for the seminar on “Compliance with the Official Information Act, 1997” by Dr. Nakorn Serirak, Information Expert, Office of the Prime Minister. Over 200 participants attended the seminar at ONEP Conference room on July 25th, 2008.

6


ÀÒ¾¢‹ÒÇ I News Feature Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ à´Ô¹Ë¹ŒÒ

9. ÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁàËç¹ àÃ×èͧ “¡ÒÃá»Å§ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃ

¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 - 2555 ä»ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ” ¤ÃÑ駷Õè 4 ã¹ÀҤ㵌 «Öè§ä´ŒÃѺà¡ÕÂõԨҡ Ãͧ¼ÙŒÇ‹ÒÃÒª¡ÒèѧËÇÑ´ÊØÃÒɯÏ¸Ò¹Õ ໚¹»Ãиҹ ແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÑÁÁ¹Ò â´ÂÁÕ ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹ ¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ºÃÃÂÒ¾ÔàÈÉ ã¹ËÑÇ¢ŒÍ àÃ×èͧ “ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏáË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¾.È. 2551 áÅСÃкǹ¡ÒÃá»Å§á¼¹ä»ÊÙ‹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ” ³ âçáÃÁ ä´Á͹¾ÅÒ«‹Ò ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊØÃÒɯϸҹÕàÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 28 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2551 The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) held the 4th seminar on “Implementing the National Strategy on Climate Change Management, 2008 - 2012 - Southern Region”. The Deputy Governor of Surat Thani presided over the seminar and Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso, Secretary - General of ONEP, gave a special lecture on “National Strategy on Climate Change Management, 2008 and Implementation Process” at Diamond Plaza Hotel, Surat Thani, on July 28th, 2008. Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁË Ç Á¡Ñ º

10. ÁÙŹԸÔʶҺѹÇÔ¨ÑÂà¾×èÍ¡ÒþѲ¹Ò»ÃÐà·Èä·Â áÅкÃÔÉÑ· ¨ÕàÍçÁ·Õ

¤ÍÏ»ÍàêÑè¹ ¨íÒ¡Ñ´ ¨Ñ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁàªÔ§»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒÃàÃ×èͧ “ËҧÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Ò÷Õè´Ô¹ : ¡ÒÃÇҧἹ¡Òö×ͤÃͧ·Õè´Ô¹ ¡ÒÃʧǹáÅоѲ¹Ò·Õè´Ô¹ áÅСÒÃʧǹËÃ×ÍËǧˌÒÁ·Õè´Ô¹¢Í§ÃÑ°” à¾×è͹íÒàʹÍËҧÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ¡ÒúÃÔËÒà ¨Ñ´¡ÒÃ·Õ´è ¹Ô áÅÐÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹ ¢ŒÍàʹÍá¹Ðµ‹ÍËҧÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ â´Â¡Ãкǹ¡Òà ÁÕʋǹËÇÁ ³ âçáÃÁàôÔÊѹ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 14 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á ¾.È. 2551 ·Õ輋ҹÁÒ The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) in cooperation with Thailand Development Research Institute Foundation (TDRI) and GMT Corporation, Co., Ltd. held a workshop on “Draft of Land Management Strategy : Land Ownership Planning, Land Conservation and Development, and Protecting the Property of the State” to present the draft of the Land Management Strategy and gather useful suggestions through interactive means at Radisson Hotel, Bangkok, on August 14th, 2008. ¹Ò§ÊÒÇÊØ·¸ÔÅѡɳ ÃÐÇÔÇÃó ÃͧàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐ

11. á¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ໚¹»Ãиҹແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁàªÔ§

»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡Òà àÃ×èͧ “»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¡Ñº¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹´ŒÒ¹¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾” áÅкÃÃÂÒ¾ÔàÈÉ ËÑÇ¢ŒÍ “¡Ãͺ§Ò¹áË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â” ³ âçáÃÁÃÒÁÒ¡ÒÏഌ¹ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 15 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Ms. Suthiluk Raviwan - ONEP Deputy Secretary - General, presided over the workshop on “Thailand and Biological Safety Measures” and gave a special lecture on “National Framework for Thailand’s Biological Safety” at Rama Garden Hotel, Bangkok, on August 15th, 2008.

7


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ¹ÒÂÇÔàªÕÂà ¨Ø§‹ Ãا‹ àÃ×ͧ ÃͧàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

12. ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ໚¹»Ãиҹແ´¡ÒûÃЪØÁÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹

àÃ×Íè § “¡ÒáíÒ˹´»ÃÐàÀ·â¤Ã§¡ÒÃËÃ×Í¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ·ÕÍè Ò¨¡‹ÍãËŒà¡Ô´¼Å¡Ãзºµ‹ÍªØÁª¹ Í‹ҧÃعáç ·Ñ駷ҧ´ŒÒ¹¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊØ¢ÀҾϔ «Öè§Êíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï ¨Ñ´¢Öé¹ à¾×è͹íÒàʹÍÊÃØ»¼Å¡ÒûÃЪØÁÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹Ï ·Õèä´ŒÃѺ ¨Ò¡ÀÒ¤»ÃЪҪ¹ã¹ 4 ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤ ÃÇÁ¶Ö§¡ÒÃÃѺ¿˜§¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ ³ âçáÃÁàÍàªÕ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 8 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Mr. Wichien Jungrungruang, ONEP Deputy Secretary - General, presided over the conference on “Categorizing Projects or Activities That Entail Severe Community Impacts in Natural Resource, Environmental, and Health Aspects” held by ONEP to present the summary of public opinion from four regions and to gather additional opinions at Asia Hotel, Bangkok, on August 8th, 2008. ¹Ò§¨Ô¹µ¹Ò ·ÇÕÁÒ ¼ÙŒàªÕèÂǪÒÞ´ŒÒ¹ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ແ´¡ÒÃÊÑÁÁ¹ÒàÃÔèÁ

13. â¤Ã§¡ÒáÒèѴ·íÒÃÒ§ҹáË‹§ªÒµÔ ©ºÑº·Õè 2 ³ âçáÃÁà«ç¹¨ÙÃÕè »ÒϤ

¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 14 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á 2551 Mrs. Chintana Thaweema, Senior Environmental Planning Expert, led the project kick - off seminar on National Report - 2nd edition preparation - at Century Park Hotel, Bangkok, on August 14th, 2008. àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 21 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á ¾.È. 2551 Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹

14. ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¨Ñ´¡ÒÃÊÑÁÁ¹Ò·ÔÈ·Ò§¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹

¢Í§Êíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï à¾×Íè áÅ¡à»ÅÕÂè ¹¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ÀÒÂËÅѧ¡ÒùíÒàʹÍá¼¹§Ò¹¢Í§Êíҹѡ/¡Í§ ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃä´ŒÁͺ¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¹Ç·Ò§¡Òû¯ÔºÑµ§Ô Ò¹ ãˌᡋ਌Ò˹ŒÒ·Õ¢è ͧÊíҹѡ§Ò¹Ï ·Ø¡ÃдѺ ³ âçáÃÁà´ÍÐä·´ ÃÕÊÍÏ· ºÒ§áʹ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ªÅºØÃÕ On August 21st, 2008, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) held a seminar on “ONEP Operational Direction for Information Exchange”. After all proposals were presented, Dr. Kasemsun Chinnavaso Secretary - General of ONEP, gave a speech on “Policy and Operational Guidelines to all ONEP Staff” at The Tide Resort, Bang San, Chon Buri. ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

15. ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁËÇÁàÊǹÒã¹ËÑÇ¢ŒÍàÃ×Íè § “ÁžÔÉáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ”

㹧ҹ»ÃЪØÁÇÔªÒ¡Ò÷ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¤ÃÑ駷Õè 1 ³ Èٹ¡ÒûÃЪØÁáÅйԷÃÃÈ¡ÒÃäºà·¤ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 3 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ ¾.È. 2551 Dr. Kasamsun Chinnavaso, Secretary - General of the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, attended the panel on “Pollution and Environment” at the 1st Natural Resources and Environmental Convention at BITEC Convention and Exhibition Hall on September 3rd, 2008. ҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¨Ñ´ÊÑÁÁ¹Ò “EIA àËÅÕÂÇ˹ŒÒáÅËÅѧ” 㹧ҹ»ÃЪØÁÇÔªÒ¡Ò÷ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔ 16. ÊíáÅÐÊÔ è§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¤ÃÑ駷Õè 1 â´Â ä´ŒÃѺà¡ÕÂõԨҡ»ÅÑ´¡ÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ËÇÁ¡Ñº ¼ÙŒ·Ã§ ¤Ø³ÇزԴŒÒ¹µ‹Ò§æ áÅÐàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃ

Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ÍÀÔ»ÃÒÂã¹»ÃÐà´ç¹·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¡ÑºÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˏ¼Å¡ÃзºÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ «Öè§Áռٌʹ㨠ࢌÒÃѺ¿˜§¡Ç‹Ò 1,000 ¤¹ ³ Èٹ¡ÒûÃЪØÁáÅйԷÃÃÈ¡ÒÃäºà·¤ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 4 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ ¾.È. 2551 The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) held a seminar on “EIA - a 360 Degree View” at the 1st Natural Resources and Environmental Convention with honorary panel members including the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, experts from various fields, and the Secretary - General of ONEP, who discussed Environmental Impact Assessment Reporting Issues. Over 1,000 participants attended the session at BITEC Convention and Exhibition Hall on September 4th, 2008.

8


ÀÒ¾¢‹ÒÇ I News Feature ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕÇ‹Ò¡ÒáÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ໚¹»Ãиҹ

17. 㹡ÒûÃЪØÁ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒèѴ¡Ò÷Õè´Ô¹áË‹§ªÒµÔ ¤ÃÑ駷Õè 2/2551 ³

ˌͧ»ÃЪØÁ¡ÃÁ¤Çº¤ØÁÁžÔÉ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 17 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ ¾.È. 2551 The Natural Resources and Environment Minister presided over the 2nd National Land Management Committee 2008 at Pollution Control Department Conference room on September 17th, 2008. àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 9 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ 2551 ´Ã.à¡ÉÁÊѹµ ¨Ô³³ÇÒâÊ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃ

18. Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁÃѺÁͺ

¸§ÊÑÞÅѡɳ â¤Ã§¡ÒèҡÇѹáÁ‹¶Ö§Çѹ¾‹Í 116 Çѹ ÊÌҧÊÒÁѤ¤Õ ¨Ò¡ ¹ÒªҵÃÕ ª‹Ç»ÃÐÊÔ·¸Ôì Ãͧ»ÅÑ´¡ÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ à¾ÕèÍ´íÒà¹Ô¹ ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁÊÒ¹ÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁÊÒÁѤ¤Õã¹·Ø¡ÀҤʋǹ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§Çѹ·Õè 9 - 15 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ 2551 On September 9th, 2008, Dr. Kasamsun Chinnavaso, Secretary - General of the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) received a flag carrying the royal emblems of Their Majesties the King and Queen for the 116 - day Unity Campaign from Mother’s Day to Father’s Day from Mr. Chatree Chuayprasit, Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, as a part of the activities to promote national unity in all associated agencies during September 9-15, 2008. Çѹ·Õè 16 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ ¾.È. 2551 ¹ÒÂÇÔàªÕÂà ¨Ø‹§ÃØ‹§àÃ×ͧ ÃͧàÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃ

19. Êíҹѡ¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ䴌ʋ§Áͺ

¸§ÊÑÞÅѡɳ â¤Ã§¡ÒèҡÇѹáÁ‹¶Ö§Çѹ¾‹Í 116 Çѹ ÊÌҧÊÒÁѤ¤Õ ãˌᡋ ͸Ժ´Õ¡ÃÁ¤Çº¤ØÁÁžÔÉà¾×èͨѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ ¢Í§¡ÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ On September 16th, 2008, Mr. Vichien Jungrungruang, Deputy Secretary General of the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) passed on the flag carrying the royal emblems of Their Majesties the King and Queen for the 116 - day Unity Campaign from Mother’s Day to Father’s Day to the Director - General of the Pollution Control Department (PCD) to campaign activities within Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment. ¹Ò§Í¹§¤ÇÃó à·¾ÊØ·Ô¹ ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕÇ‹Ò¡ÒáÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ໚¹»Ãиҹແ´§Ò¹ “·Ê.ÊÑިûÅÙ¡»†Ò ¾ÅÔ¡¿„œ¹¼×¹»†Ò

20. ´ŒÇ¾ÃкÒÃÁÕ : ÀÒ¤ÕÃѡɏ¤ÅͧáÁ‹ÅíҾѹ” «Öè§à»š¹Ë¹Öè§ã¹¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ “¨Ò¡ÇѹáÁ‹¶Ö§Çѹ¾‹Í 116 Çѹ ÊÌҧÊÒÁѤ¤Õ” ·ÕèÊíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã

¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁËÇÁ¡ÑºÀҤըѧËÇÑ´ÊØ⢷Ñ ¨Ñ´¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁµ‹Ò§æ ¢Öé¹ ³ ºÃÔàdz˹ŒÒÈٹâÍ·Í» µíÒºÅàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò áÅÐâçàÃÕ¹ÊØ⢷ÑÂÇÔ·ÂÒ¤Á ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊØ⢷Ñ àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 13 ¡Ñ¹ÂÒ¹ ¾.È. 2551 Mrs.Anongwan Thepsuthin, Natural Resources and Environment Minister presided over the opening ceremony of “MNRE Forestation Tour - We love Mae Lampan Canal Conservation Activity” under the umbrella of the Royal Forest Rehabilitation program and a part of the 116 - day Unity Campaign from Mother’s Day to Father’s Day. This activity was one of many mobilized by a joint effort between the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) and Sukhothai Province. Campaign activities were held in front of the OTOP Center in Muang Kao district and at Sukhothai Wittayakom School in Sukhothai on September 13th, 2008.ß

9


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

“á¹Ç¤Ô´ÁØÁÁͧ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡Í‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹” Sustainable Management of World Heritage Sites

àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 4 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á 2551 ¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒÃä´ŒÃѺâÍ¡ÒÊ ¨Ò¡ÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÏ ´Ã. Í´ØÅ ÇÔàªÕÂÃà¨ÃÔÞ «Öè§ÁÕ»ÃÐʺ¡Òó áÅÐͧ¤¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒÊ٧㹡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃáËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ·Ñé§ã¹»ÃÐà·È áÅе‹Ò§»ÃÐà·È ´Ñ§¨ÐàËç¹ä´ŒÇ‹Ò·‹Ò¹ä´Œ´íÒçµíÒá˹‹§ÊíÒ¤ÑÞµ‹Ò§æ ÁÒ¡ÁÒ ´Ñ§àª‹¹ à¤Â໚¹»Ãиҹ Ãͧ»Ãиҹ áÅСÃÃÁ¡Òà 㹤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÁô¡âÅ¡ áÅСÃÃÁ¡ÒÃã¹Í§¤¡ÃÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏáÅÐÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáË‹§ÊË»ÃÐªÒªÒµÔ (UNESCO) áÅÐ à¤Â໚¹»Ãиҹ¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃáË‹§ªÒµÔÇ‹Ò´ŒÇÂ͹ØÊÑÞÞҤ،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡ ·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§âÅ¡ «Ö觷‹Ò¹ä´ŒãËŒ¢ŒÍ¤Ô´àËç¹·Õè໚¹»ÃÐ⪹·Õè ÊíÒ¤ÑÞã¹á§‹ÁØÁ¢Í§¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÁô¡âÅ¡·Õè¨ÐÁҵѴÊÔ¹¡Òâ͢Öé¹ ·ÐàºÕ¹¨Ò¡·ÑèÇâÅ¡änj䴌Í‹ҧÅÐàÍÕ´¤Ãº¶ŒÇ¹ â´ÂàÃÔèÁ¨Ò¡»ÃÐà´ç¹ ¾×é¹°Ò¹ã¹àÃ×èͧ¢Í§¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏâ´Â੾ÒСÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ·Õè໚¹¡Òà ºÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡Í‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹ »ÃÐà´ç¹áá·Õè·‹Ò¹¡Å‹ÒǶ֧¤×Í Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¢Í§¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ â´Â㪌¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃࢌÒä»´íÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃà¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏÁô¡ âÅ¡äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨Ð໚¹·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÀÒÂã¹»ÃÐà·ÈËÃ×͸ÃÃÁªÒµÔÀÒÂã¹ »ÃÐà·ÈËÃ×ÍÃÐËÇ‹Ò§»ÃÐà·È â´ÂࢌÒÁÒÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÃкºÍ¹ØÊÑÞÞÒ¡Òà ¤ØŒÁ¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡»‚ ¤.È. 1972 ¼ÙŒ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§â´ÂµÃ§ ¤×ͽ†Ò·ÕèÁÕʋǹ 㹡ÒèѴ¡Ò÷‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇ«Öè§ÃѺ¼Å»ÃÐ⪹¨Ò¡¡Ò÷‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇ ÊÔè§ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ ·Õµè ÍŒ §¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§¤×Í ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ É¹¹éÑ ÁÔ㪋໚¹à¾Õ§¡Ò÷Õàè ÃÒ¨ÐÁҨѴÊÃÃãËŒ 㪌ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ãˌ㪌 ¤ÇÒÁÁا‹ ËÁÒ¢ͧ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ Éâ´Â੾ÒÐàÃ×Íè §¢Í§Áô¡ âÅ¡µÒÁ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ ¤×Í¡Ò÷Õè¾×é¹·ÕèáË‹§ã´äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨Ð໚¹·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ËÃ×Í·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ·Õèä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏäÇŒ¹Ñ鹡çà¾ÃÒÐÊÔ觹Ñé¹Áդس¤‹Ò á¡‹Á¹ØÉÂªÒµÔ áÅÐàÁ×èÍàÃÒä´ŒÃѺÊ׺·Í´ÁÒ¨Ò¡ºÃþºØÃØÉáÅŒÇ ¡ç¤Çà ¨ÐࢌÒã¨ã¹áËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡¹Ñé¹ ª×蹪Á㹤س¤‹Ò¢Í§áËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ áÅкÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃà¾×èͨÐÃÑ¡ÉÒàÍÒäÇŒà¾×èÍãˌ͹ت¹ÃØ‹¹ËÅѧÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊ ·Õè¨Ðä´ŒàËç¹ä´ŒªÁ¤ÇÒÁ§ÒÁ´Õà´‹¹¢Í§Áô¡âÅ¡ã¹»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏäÁ‹ãª‹à»š¹¡ÒÃËŒÒÁ㪌»ÃÐ⪹ ᵋ¨Ð 㪌ã¹ÅѡɳзÕÁè ô¡âÅ¡¹Ñ¹é µŒÍ§ä´ŒÃºÑ ¡ÒôÙáźíÒÃاÃÑ¡ÉÒ áÅÐÊÒÁÒö ·Õè¨ÐÍÂÙ‹µ‹Íä»ä´ŒÍ‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹ â´ÂÁÕËÅÑ¡¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏÍ‹ҧà´ÕÂǡѹ ᵋ ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´à»ÅÕÂè ¹ä»µÒÁÅѡɳТͧáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡¹Ñ¹é ¡ÒèзíÒãËŒ “ÂÑè§Â×¹” ¹ÕéÁÕ»˜ÞËÒÍÂÙ‹·ÕèNjҨкÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃÍ‹ҧäÃã¹ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃ㪌 áÅСÒÃËŒÒÁ㪌㹺ҧ¡Ã³Õ ¡ÒèíÒ¡Ñ´¡Ãͺ¢Í§¡ÒÃ㪌¡ç໚¹àÃ×èͧ·Õè 10

ºÃóҸԡÒà Editor th On August 4 , 2008, Prof. Dr. Adul Wichiencharoen, former Vice - president, President and a committee member of National World Heritage Committee of Thailand, a committee member of UNESCO, and Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World culture and Natural heritage, kindly shared with the editorial team of Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal his insightful perspectives on sustainable management of World Heritage sites from the fundamental conservation to nominating a site for World Heritage listing. This priceless experience inspired the editorial team to pen the following article to share with our readers. First of all, to be sanctioned under the Convention Concerning the Protection of Cultural and Natural World Heritage of 1972, tourism authority needs to be directly involved as it gains direct benefits from the tourism of national and international cultural and natural sites located in the country. Conserving something is not only about limiting permission to use or not to use. It is about saving and nurturing invaluable heritages of the mankind. Conservation - oriented, ecotourism principle must be applied to tourism policies in order to achieve as such. Therefore, it is important to mindfully manage, with the objective of conserving and protecting Word Heritage sites -- so that the next generations have a chance to admire the magnificent World Heritage sites we have in our time. Each World Heritage site is different and requires different conservation approach to be sustainable. This is a major controversial issue for every site. We cannot even apply the same approach on all natural sites in a particular country as they are of different geographical settings, which entail different sets of variables and factors to be pondered about. For instance, different types of construction materials used in different sites certainly need different kind of care and maintenance. Authenticity of World Heritage sites is one of the main concerns surrounding conservation and restoration approach. In some countries where large stones were used to build monuments and buildings, this concern is relatively minimal because these large stones can survive thousands of years without much wear and tear. However, for countries where using wood is a core of their construction methods - such as Japan, China, or Finland - this material issue becomes a major head-throbbing concern because the


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same kind of wood is no longer be available for restoring the ancient buildings. To decide on which kind of wood would be the most similar and suitable for replacing the obsolete ancient wood in World Heritage sites is a very delicate process. Such protocols for changes are to be referred from the international framework in the Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites of 1964. World Heritage Committee has developed a compilation of conservation frameworks, measures, and precise criteria for the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List called the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. The guidelines lay out details of every step starting from preparing for nominations to monitoring the state of conservation of World Heritage properties, as well as the criteria for delisting poorly managed World Heritage sites, which would be registered on the World Heritage in Danger List. World Heritage in Danger properties would be under the care of the country the sites are located while they are evaluated. Possible remedial approaches are to be identified before the eventual deletion of the properties from the World Heritage List. If the properties are later restored to meet World Heritage List’s criteria, they can be inscribed on the list again. Nevertheless, for a World Heritage site to be listed on World Heritage in Danger List is not a punishment from World Heritage Committee to the contracting country responsible for the site. It is a crucial warning measure of the state of the property and the urgency of restoration the site needs, which requires restoration efforts from the country the site is located as well as from the International Assistance. Such cooperation mechanism formed between States Party that the site is located and the World Heritage Committee can be laid out in steps as follows. • International States Parties are obliged to submit annual periodic report on legislative and administration provisions which they have adopted and other actions which they have taken since the application of this Convention, together with details of the experience acquired in this field, as well as planned items not yet implemented. • World Heritage Committee provides evaluation and monitoring process after receiving a periodic report from a States Party. International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) serves as cultural Advisory Bodies, while International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 11


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal and Sites ËÃ×Í ICOMOS) ໚¹·Ò§´ŒÒ¹ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ áÅР㹡óբͧ·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ 䴌ᡋ ÊËÀÒ¾¹Ò¹ÒªÒµÔ à¾× è Í ¡ÒÃÍ¹Ø Ã Ñ ¡ ɏ ¸ ÃÃÁªÒµÔ á ÅзÃÑ ¾ ÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔ (International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ËÃ×Í World Conservation Union : IUCN) ã¹ ICOMOS «Öè§ÁÕà¤Ã×Í¢‹Ò·ÕèäÁ‹ãª‹¢Í§ÃÑ° ÍÂÙ‹·ÑèÇâÅ¡ áÅÐÁÕ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒâͧᵋÅлÃÐà·È·Õè໚¹ ¡ÅØ‹Á¢Í§¡Åä¡·Õ誋ÇÂ㹡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å â´Â੾ÒÐÍ‹ҧÂÔè§ à¡ÕèÂǡѺàÃ×èͧ¡Òá‹ÍÊÌҧ ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏÇÑÊ´Ø áÅФÇÒÁÃÙŒ´ŒÒ¹ à·¤¹Ô¤¢Í§¡ÒôÙáÅáËÅ‹§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕÂé §Ñ ÁÕÍ¡Õ ËÅÒ ˹‹Ç§ҹ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ ઋ¹ ½†ÒÂàŢҹءÒâͧ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ ¡ÒÃÁô¡âÅ¡ 㹡Ãا»ÒÃÕÊ »ÃÐà·È½ÃÑè§àÈÊ à»š¹¼ÙŒ·Õ誋Ç ¡Ãе،¹¡ÒõÃǨÊͺÍÕ¡·Ò§Ë¹Öè§ • ¡ÒõÃǨÊͺ㹢Ñé¹ÊØ´·ŒÒ¡ç¤×Í àÍÒÃÒ§ҹ·Õè»ÃÐà·È ÊÁÒªÔ¡·Õè໚¹ÃÒ§ҹ»ÃШíÒ»‚ä»ÃÇÁ¡Ñº¡ÒõÃǨÊͺ¢Í§ ICOMOS ËÃ×Í IUCN áÅŒÇᵋ¡Ã³Õ áÅÐÃÇÁ¡ÑºÃÒ§ҹ ¢Í§½†ÒÂàŢҹءÒä³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÏ â´Â¨Ðẋ§¡Ñ¹·íÒ໚¹ ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤ ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤ÅÐ 5 »‚µ‹Í¤ÃÑé§ â´Âẋ§à»š¹¡ÅØ‹Á »ÃÐà·È ä·ÂÍÂÙ‹¡ÅØ‹ÁàÍà«ÕÂừԿ¡Ê ¡ÅØ‹ÁÍ×è¹æ ¡çÁÕÍàÁÃÔ¡Òà˹×Í ÍàÁÃÔ¡Ò ÍÒ¿ÃÔ¡Ò áÅÐÍÒËÃѺ ·Ñé§ËÁ´¡ç໚¹ 5 ¡ÅØ‹Á ´ŒÇ¡ѹ ÃÒ§ҹ·Ñé§ËÁ´¨Ð¶Ù¡¹íÒàʹÍÁÒÂѧ·Õè»ÃЪØÁãËÞ‹ ¾Ô¨ÒóҵÃǨÊͺÁô¡âÅ¡·Õèä´ŒÁÕ¡ÒâÖé¹·ÐàºÕ¹äÇŒáÅŒÇ Ç‹ÒÁÕÊÀҾ͋ҧäà ¶ŒÒÍÂÙã‹ ¹ÅÑ¡É³Ð«Ö§è ¡íÒÅѧÁÕ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà à¾×èͨÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒãËŒ´Õ¢Öé¹·Õè»ÃЪØÁ¡çÃѺ·ÃÒº áÅШÐÁÕ ÁµÔÇ‹Ò¢ÍãËŒÃÑ°ÊÁÒªÔ¡»¯ÔºÑµÔµÒÁÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅŒÇᵋ ¡Ã³Õ • ¶ŒÒËÒ¡ÁÕÁô¡âÅ¡áË‹§ã´ÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÀÒÇТͧ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ·Õè äÁ‹à»š¹·Õ蹋ҾÍ㨠à¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁàÊ×èÍÁâ·ÃÁ ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÏ ¨Ð¾Ô¨ÒóҵÒÁ¢ŒÍàʹÍá¹ÐËÃ×͵ÒÁ·Õ·è »èÕ ÃЪØÁÍÀÔ»ÃÒ¡ѹ à¾×èÍÃдÁà§Ô¹·Ø¹à¾×èÍʹѺʹع¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅÐãËŒ¤ÇÒÁ ª‹ÇÂàËÅ×Í·Ò§´ŒÒ¹à·¤¹Ô¤µ‹Ò§æ ¨Ò¡»ÃÐà·ÈËÃ×Íͧ¤¡Ã·Õè à¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ãˌࢌÒÁÒª‹ÇÂàËÅ×Í ¶ŒÒÁѹÌÒÂáçÁÒ¡ÂÔ觢Öé¹ ¡ç ¨íÒ໚¹·Õ¨è еŒÍ§¾Ô¨ÒóÒÇ‹Ò¤ÇÃźª×Íè ÍÍ¡ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ ËÃ×ÍÂѧãËŒ ¤§ÍÂÙ‹ «Ö觡ÒÃźª×è͹Õé¨Ð໚¹ÁҵáÒâÑé¹ÊØ´·ŒÒÂ㹡Òà ·Õè¨Ð໚¹¢ŒÍªÕéÇ‹ÒÃÑ°ÊÁÒªÔ¡·Õè໚¹à¨ŒÒ¢Í§áËÅ‹§¨íÒ໚¹µŒÍ§ ·íÒÍÐäÃãËŒÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò·Õè·íÒÁÒ

(IUCN) is responsible as Advisory Bodies for natural World Heritage sites. There are also non-governmental offices in ICOMOS in countries around the world, with their committees coming together as a part of evaluation mechanism of construction, materials, and technical know-how needed in managing cultural sites. Moreover, related agencies such as the Secretariat to the World Heritage Committee at the World Heritage Centre in Paris, France, also play a role in the property evaluation process. • The final step in the evaluation process is consolidating national periodic reports from the States Parties into Regional State of the World Heritage reports by adding those prepared by Advisory Bodies such as ICOMOS or IUCN, as applicable, and those prepared by the Secretariat. The consolidated evaluation reports are done by region in six-year cycle. There are 5 regions in total, namely Arab States, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Europe and North America region. All Regional State of the World Heritage reports will be presented to the World Heritage Committee, who would review the issues raised regarding the inscribed World Heritage properties and then vote to get resolutions to for issues at hands. • Any of the World Heritage properties not taken care properly and deteriorating would be up for International Assistance grant. Technical assistance will be solicited from related countries or agencies before the final evaluation if the site should be removed from the List. Removing a World Heritage site from the List serves as the last-resort punishment and also the final reflection of what the government where the site is located should have done more to protect it.

Êí Ò ËÃÑ º ¡ÒÃ¢Ö é ¹ ·ÐàºÕ  ¹Áô¡ÃÒÂª× è Í ¹Ñ é ¹ ¨ÐÁÒ¨Ò¡ºÑ Þ ªÕ Tentative List ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÁÕ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼ÅÇ‹ÒáËÅ‹§·Õè¢Í¢Öé¹·ÐàºÕ¹¹Ñé¹ ¢Öé¹´ŒÇÂËÅѡࡳ±à˵ؼÅÍÐäà ÊÀÒ¾¢³Ð¹Ñé¹à»š¹Í‹ҧäà â´Â¨Ð ÁÕ¡ÒÃࢌÒä»ÊíÒÃǨ â´Â¶ŒÒ໚¹àÃ×èͧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ IUCN ¡ç¨Ð໚¹ ¼ÙŒ´íÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà Ëҡ໚¹àÃ×èͧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¡çãËŒ ICOMOS ໚¹¼ÙŒ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹ NjҨТÖé¹·ÐàºÕ¹ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé ã¹ Operation Guideline ÁÕ¡ÒÃÃкØàÃ×èͧ¡Òà ¡íÒ˹´¾×é¹·Õè¢Í§áËÅ‹§ãËŒªÑ´à¨¹´Ô¹á´¹ Íѹ¹Õé㪌䴌·Ñ駷ҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ áÅзҧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¶ŒÒËÒ¡Ç‹ÒÁÕ·ÃÑ¾ÂÊ¹Ô ÍÂÙã‹ ¹ÅѡɳзҧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ã¹ÂؤÊÁÑÂà´ÕÂǡѹÃٻẺà´ÕÂǡѹÍÂÙ‹ËÅÒÂáË‹§¢Í§»ÃÐà·È˹Öè§ »ÃÐà·Èã´¡çµÒÁ ÊÒÁÒö¢Íàʹ͢Öé¹à»š¹ Serial ä´Œ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò Serial Nomination ઋ¹ ¡Ã³Õ¢Í§»ÃÐà·ÈÞÕè»Ø†¹ ·ÕèÁÕËÁÙ‹ºŒÒ¹Ê¶Ò»˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁ Ẻà´ÕÂǡѹ 2 ËÁÙ‹ºŒÒ¹ ¶ŒÒÍÂÙ‹¹Í¡»ÃÐà·ÈàÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò Transboundary

As for World Heritage nominations, properties in the Tentative List would be reviewed according to the selection criteria and current state evaluated by field inspection. IUCN would take the responsibility for natural properties, while ICOMOS would take the responsibility of cultural World Heritage. In addition, the Operational Guidelines also include allocation of new territories in controversial areas like borders between countries. For instance, if there are many properties exhibiting a similar culture and architecture across countries in a region, and one of the countries wants to nominate the site to become a World Heritage site. The other properties sharing the same culture and

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º·ÊÑÁÀÒɳ I Interview ᵋµŒÍ§àËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ «Öè§ã¹Í´ÕµÁÕµÑÇÍ‹ҧ·Õè·Ò§ÊËÃÑ°ÍàÁÃԡҢ͢Öé¹ ·ÐàºÕ¹áËÅ‹§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ«Öè§ÍÂÙ‹·Ò§µÍ¹à˹×ÍµÔ´à¢µá¤¹Ò´Ò ·Ò§ ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÏ àʹÍÇ‹ÒÁÕ¾×é¹·Õè·Õè໚¹¢Í§á¤¹Ò´ÒÍÂÙ‹´ŒÇ¤ÇÃ໚¹·Õè ͹ØÃѡɏàËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ ¢Íãˌ任ÃÖ¡ÉҡѺ᤹ҴҨÐä´Œ¢Öé¹·ÐàºÕ¹ ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ «Öè§ÊËÃÑ°Ï ¡ç·íÒµÒÁ¹Ñé¹ ÍÕ¡ 4 - 5 »‚µ‹ÍÁÒ¡ç¢Öé¹·ÐàºÕ¹ ÊíÒËÃѺàÃ×èͧ¹¤ÃÇÑ´ ¼Á´ÙáÅŒÇäÁ‹ÁÕá¼¹¨Ñ´¡Òà ਌Ò˹ŒÒ·ÕèäÁ‹à¾Õ§¾Í ¡ÒÃÅÑ¡¢âÁ¡çÁÕÁÒ¡ äÁ‹ÁÕ¡®ËÁÒ¤،Á¤Ãͧ ᵋÁÕ¡ÒÃÇÔè§àµŒ¹â´ÂÁÕ »ÃÐà·È½ÃÑè§àÈÊ áÅÐÞÕè»Ø†¹à»š¹¼ÙŒÊ¹ÑºÊ¹Ø¹ «Ö觼Á¤ŒÒ¹ã¹·Õè»ÃЪØÁ «Ö觼Á¡Å‹ÒÇã¹·Õè»ÃЪØÁÇ‹Ò “¼ÁàͧÃÙŒÊÖ¡äÁ‹ÊºÒÂ㨷Õ赌ͧµÑ´ÊԹ㨷íÒ ÍÐäÃä»ã¹ÊÔ觫Ö觴ÙÃÒǡѺNjÒäÁ‹à»š¹¡ÒÃà¡×éÍ¡ÙšѺ»ÃÐà·Èà¾×è͹ºŒÒ¹ ¼ÁºÍ¡Ç‹Òà¢ÁáѺä·ÂÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñ¹´Õ »ÃÐà·Èä·ÂãËŒ¤ÇÒÁª‹ÇÂàËÅ×Í ·Ò§´ŒÒ¹âºÃÒ³¤´Õ ᵋ㹰ҹжŒÒ¾Ô¨ÒóÒã¹á§‹¼Á໚¹¼Ùጠ·¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ¡çµÍŒ §Ê¹ÑºÊ¹Ø¹à¾×è͹ºŒÒ¹ àÃÒ¡çÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñ¹´Õ¡çª‹ÇÂàËÅ×ÍÍѹ¹Õé¡ç ª‹Ç¡ѹ˹‹Í ᵋã¹ÍÕ¡°Ò¹ÐË¹Ö§è ¼ÁÁÒ¹Ñ§è ¹Ö¡Ç‹Òã¹°Ò¹Ð໚¹¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ¤¹Ë¹Öè§ã¹ 21 »ÃÐà·È ¼Á¨ÐµŒÍ§»¯ÔºÑµÔµÒÁËÅѡࡳ±·Õè¡íÒ˹´äÇŒ ËÒ¡äÁ‹µÃ§ËÅѡࡳ±¼Á¡çäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒöʹѺʹع䴌 «Öè§ã¹·ÕèÊØ´¨ºÅ§ ´ŒÇ¡ÒÃàÍÒ¹¤ÃÇÑ´¢Öé¹·ÐàºÕ¹ãËŒÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÀÒÇÐÍѹµÃÒ¾ÌÍÁ¡Ñ¹¡Ñº·Õè »ÃСÒÈÇ‹ÒÃѺ¢Öé¹·ÐàºÕ¹Áô¡âÅ¡ ã¹ËÅÑ¡¡ÒûÃСÒÈ¢Öé¹ÀÒÇÐ ÍѹµÃÒ¡経ͧªÕéᨧNjÒÍÐäúŒÒ§·Õè¢Ò´µ¡º¡¾Ã‹Í§áÅÐãËŒÃÑ°ÊÁÒªÔ¡ ¡ÑÁ¾ÙªÒ仨Ѵ¡ÒÃàÃ×èͧàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé·Ñ¹·Õ” ʋǹàÃ×èͧ¤ÇÒÁÂÑè§Â×¹¢Í§Áô¡âÅ¡¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â·ÕèàÃÒä´Œ¢Öé¹ ·ÐàºÕ¹áÅŒÇ ¡ÒèÐ͹ØÃ¡Ñ Éãˌ§èÑ Â×¹¹Ñ¹é ÁÕËÅÒÂà§×Íè ¹ä¢áÅÐÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´ Í‹ҧàÃ×èͧ¾Ô¾Ô¸Àѳ±ºŒÒ¹àªÕ§¡ç¨ÐµŒÍ§»ÃѺ»Ãا à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ºŒÒ¹àªÕ§ ໚¹¾×é¹·Õèແ´·Õè¨Ñ´áÊ´§â¤Ã§¡Ãд١ ËÃ×ÍÍ‹ҧ·ÕèÍÂظÂÒËÁÙ‹ºŒÒ¹ â»ÃµØà¡Ê¹Ò¹æ ࢌÒÁѹ¡ç¨Ð¼Ø¡Ã‹Í¹ ÊÔ觷ÕèàÃÒµŒÍ§·íÒ¡ç¤×Í µŒÍ§ãªŒ ÇÔ¸Õ¡Ò÷Õèà¢Ò·íҡѹÁÒ¡ã¹á¤¹Ò´Ò ÃÑÊà«Õ ¨Õ¹ ¤×Í¡ÒèíÒÅͧ ʋǹ·Õ¨è йíÒÁÒáÊ´§ â¤Ã§¡Ãд١à¢Ò·íÒ໚¹¢Í§à·ÕÂÁ ¤×Í·íÒ´ŒÇÂàÃ«Ô¹è «Ö§è ËÅ‹ÍáÅŒÇÍÍ¡ÁÒàËÁ×͹¡Ñº¢Í§¨ÃÔ§ ᵋ¤ÇÒÁ¨Ãԧ໚¹¢Í§»ÅÍÁ·Ñ§é ¹Ñ¹é ¢Í§¨ÃÔ§¹Ñé¹à¡çºÍÂÙ‹ã¹·Õèæ «Öè§äÁ‹ÊÙÞÊÅÒ ·ÕèàÅ‹ÒÁÒ·Ñé§ËÁ´¡ç໚¹àÃ×èͧ·Õè¤Ô´Ç‹Ò¤¹ä·Â¹‹Ò¨Ðä´ŒÃѺ·ÃÒºäÇŒ à¾×èͨÐ䴌ࢌÒã¨áÅÐÊÒÁÒöÁÕʋǹËÇÁ㹡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏà¾×èͤÇÒÁÂÑè§Â×¹ µ‹Íä»ä´Œ ·Ñ駹Õé¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒÃËÇѧ໚¹Í‹ҧÂÔ觷Õè¨ÐãËŒ·‹Ò¹¼ÙŒÍ‹Ò¹ ä´ŒÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨àÃ×èͧ¢Í§¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃÁô¡âÅ¡Í‹ҧ Âѧè Â×¹äÁ‹ÁÒ¡¡ç¹ÍŒ  áÅÐà¹×Íè §¨Ò¡ÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÏ ´Ã.Í´ØÅ໚¹¼Ù·Œ ÁèÕ ¤Õ ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ¤ÇÒÁÊÒÁÒöÁÒ¡ ·Ò§¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒèоÂÒÂÒÁ¹íÒàÃ×èͧÃÒÇã¹ »ÃÐà´ç¹·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞµ‹Ò§æ ÁÒàÅ‹ÒÊÙ‹¡Ñ¹¿˜§ã¹¤ÃÒǵ‹Íæ ä»ß

architecture can also be nominated as Serial in Serial Nominations. For example, Japan has two villages sharing the same architecture listed as World Heritage. If these properties are not in the same country, they are called Tran boundary properties. Another instance is a U.S. property nominated for a natural World Heritage site. However, the site is located in an area jointly - owned by Canada. Therefore, the Committee recommended that the United States of America jointly nominate the site with Canada for the Tentative List. Four to five years post that, there was the Angkor Wat, which at the time obviously lacked a good administration, shorted of manpower and legislative measures, and was frequently looted. France took the lead in nominating the site, supported by Japan. However, in his own words, Prof. Adul opposed it because, “I wasn’t comfortable making a call on something not beneficial to my own neighboring country like Cambodia. Cambodia and Thailand have nurtured a good relationship. Thailand even provided Cambodia with archaeological assistance for Angkor Wat and I want to help out wherever I can. On the contrary, I wore another hat as one of 21 committee members of international countries and I had to oblige to a set of criteria. I couldn’t support a case that didn’t meet our criteria. It eventually turned out that Angkor Wat was listed as a World Heritage in Danger site and at the same time was announced as a World Heritage site. At this point, Cambodia was then informed of the urgent needs of the property as a World Heritage in Danger site.” For Thailand, Prof. Dr.Adul stated that we also need to meet the criteria for administrating our World Heritage properties properly. For example, Ban Chiang Archaeological Site is an outdoor museum, where the bones and the artifacts are displayed out in the open, and that way they will keep deteriorating. In a sustainable approach done in many countries such as Canada, Russia, and China, we need to keep the original artifacts safe and display only the imitated ones, such as bones made from resin. Finally, it is important for all Thais to be aware of and to be able to involve in sustainable conservation. The editor Environment and Nature Journal hopes to bring you more insights from the talented Prof. Dr.Adul in our upcoming issues.ß

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

“Áô¡âÅ¡” Áô¡àÃÒ Áô¡à¢Ò Áô¡ã¤Ã? “World Heritage” Ours, Theirs, or Whose?

㹪‹Ç§äÁ‹¹Ò¹·Õ輋ҹÁÒ ¡ÃÐáÊàÃ×èͧÁô¡âÅ¡ ¶Ù¡¹íÒÁÒ໚¹ »ÃÐà´ç¹¢‹ÒÇãËÞ‹ã¹¾×é¹·ÕèÊ×èÍÁÇŪ¹ËÅÒÂᢹ§ ¨Ò¡¡Ã³Õ·Õè໚¹¢ŒÍ ¾Ô¾Ò·ã¹àÃ×èͧ¡ÒûÃСÒÈÊÔ·¸Ô¤Ãͺ¤Ãͧ»ÃÒÊÒ·à¢Ò¾ÃÐÇÔËÒà «Öè§à»š¹»ÃÐà´ç¹·Õèà¡ÕèÂǾѹâ§ã¡Ѻ¼Å»ÃÐ⪹ ·Ñé§ã¹Ê‹Ç¹·ÕèÁͧàËç¹ ÊÒÁÒö»ÃÐàÁÔ¹ÍÍ¡ÁÒ໚¹µÑÇàŢ䴌 Í‹ҧઋ¹¨íҹǹ¾×é¹·Õè ËÃ×Í áÁŒáµ‹àÁç´à§Ô¹¨Ò¡¸ØáԨ·‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇ·Õè¨ÐËÅÑè§äËŵÒÁÁÒÊÙ‹¼ÙŒ¤Ãͺ¤Ãͧ áÅÐÂѧÁÕʋǹ·ÕèÁͧäÁ‹àËç¹ áµ‹à»š¹»ÃÐà´ç¹·Õè໚¹µÑǨشª¹Ç¹ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ äÁ‹ÇÒ‹ ¨Ð໚¹àÃ×Íè §¢Í§¡ÒÃàÁ×ͧ㹷ŒÍ§¶Ô¹è ËÃ×Í»ÃÐà´ç¹·Õ´è àÙ ËÁ×͹¤Ù¾‹ ¾Ô Ò· ·Ñé§Êͧ½†Òµ‹Ò§¡çÁÕ¤íÒÇ‹Ò “ÈÑ¡´ÔìÈÃÕ” ໚¹à´ÔÁ¾Ñ¹ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·íÒãËŒÂÒ¡·Õè¨Ð ¤Ò´à´Òº·ÊÃØ»¢Í§¤´ÕÌ͹ÃдѺâÅ¡¤´Õ¹Õéä´Œ ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèÁô¡âÅ¡¨Ò¡¢ŒÒ§µŒ¹ Âѧ໚¹àÃ×èͧÃÒÇ·ÕèÂѧäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒö ËÒº·ÊÃػ䴌 ËҡᵋÁͧŒ͹¡ÅѺä»ã¹¤ÅѧÊÁºÑµÔ¢Í§ªÒµÔ àÃÒÂѧÁÕ Áô¡âÅ¡ÍÂÙ ‹ ã ¹¤Ãͺ¤Ãͧ·Õ è ä Á‹ µ Œ Í §á‹ § ªÔ § ¡ÃÃÁÊÔ · ¸Ô ì ¡ Ñ º ã¤Ã 14

ºÃóҸԡÒà Editor

The media has just recently jumped on the bandwagon over the world heritage fever. Issue on the right of Preah Vihear Temple involves with the obvious benefit such as area or sum of money derived from tourism industry and with the hidden benefit like local politic. These can trigger conflict since both sides have their “honor” at stake. It is difficult to predict the final outcome from this global dispute. While that world heritage is still unsettled, looking into our national treasures, we will find many of our rightful world heritages. How have these existing world heritages been taken care of? Follow us to find out the current conditions of Sukhothai, Sri Satchanalai,


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Kampaengphet Historical Parks, the world cultural heritage 1 in 3 of Thailand that the World Heritage Committee of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage has declared world heritage between the year 1991 and 1992. Heritage.... Of Monetary Aspect Fifteen years ago, UNESCO declared Thailand’s natural and cultural heritage, the world heritage of significance to mankind. The four sites “Sukhothai, Sri Satchanalai, Kampaengphet Historical Parks,” “Ayutthaya Historical Park,” “Ban Chiang Archaeological Site,” and “Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries” were enlisted on world heritage. This has brought fame and pride, but for the locals in Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, and Udonthani, they have more than that. Huge income is from tourists for restaurant, souvenir shops, guesthouse, as well as bicycle rental for area sight-seeing. A souvenir vendor in the Sukhothai Historical Park told us about her business from the start that it was in high demand that she had to hire for helpers. Even today without special events, tourists still visit the site and bring locals good source of income. Heritage.... Brought Job Everyday from morning through evening, besides tourists from around the world, we can see locals who make a living in the Historical Park with their happy smiles. It indicates a good morale as they are never tired of working since their jobs are the pride of their homeland. Miss Kwanla Lumjuen, a field expert at Sri Satchanalai Historical Park has devoted her life for her homeland. She graduated in Economics. Despite her unrelated field of study, her job requires that she researches from books, articles, and experts. The knowledge acquired from these sources forms her passion and pride for her homeland. She has devoted for this job for over 10 years. Miss Kwanla chose to pursue her study in Education, majoring in guidance so she can apply theory and skill on knowledge sharing for people to tourists who have different background, attention, and interest. Her job is to communicate to these groups of people to the best of her knowledge. Miss Kwanla gave an interesting point of view that besides differences in age and education background of groups of visitors, ethnicity between Thai and foreigners are also significant worthy of consideration. 15


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“Foreigners seem to have more interests from the origin of the city. Each building has been built from some inspiration. Especially, international tourists like to ask in details such as structure and pattern of architecture, which pagoda is an authentic Sukhothai, which has been influenced from Cambodian cultural art since they have had gathered some information beforehand.” Miss Kwanla went on to say that the opinions of Thai tourists were mostly concerned about the construction of something for convenience such as restroom which seems insufficient to accommodate Thai tourists which usually come in big group. For foreign tourists, Miss Kwanla gave a viewpoint from her experience that: “Probably the most wanted for them is nearby accommodation since there are too few of them. These tourists are interested in the history, structure of pagoda and they cannot catch them all up in a day. Accommodation here in Sri Satchanalai is not enough.” Moreover, Miss Kwanla also wants the maintenance of these valuable constructions in order to prevent deterioration which includes the protection of new city quarter to let no constructions blocking the view of the park landscape. “Besides, the community environment here should be better. It could be done through zoning. Basically, master plan of the park from what I read or knew that many heads of the park paid more attention to constructions which must look clean with the landscape. More importantly, the majority of officials here, excluding executives, state officers, and archeologists, everybody works together with the locals. Cooperation and response are easy to do since they have good understanding and are in a loving atmosphere.” Miss Kwanla gave a final interesting opinion that even world heritage could be meaningless if not for the love and pride of the locals that keep the world heritage alive. Heritage.... Everlasting Beauty If we compare Sri Satchanalai to a girl, her beauty is so appealing that many people must come back to her. Professor Komsan Theerapabwong, Assistant Dean of International Affairs, Department of Architecture, Chiang Mai University, is another one who has been indulged into the beauty of Sri Satchanalai. The impression comes not only from the appearance but also a deep study and understanding in its history and culture.


º·¤ÇÒÁ¾ÔàÈÉ I Special ÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹ ¸ÕÃÀҾǧȏ ¼ÙŒª‹Ç¤³º´Õ½†Òµ‹Ò§»ÃÐà·È ¤³Ðʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁÈÒʵÏ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂàªÕ§ãËÁ‹ ¡ç໚¹Íա˹Ö觺ØÃØÉ ·ÕèËŧãËÅ㹤ÇÒÁ§ÒÁ¢Í§ÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑ «Öè§à»š¹¤ÇÒÁ»ÃзѺ㨷ÕèÁÔä´Œ à¾Õ§à¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òê×蹪Á´ŒÇÂÊÒÂµÒ ËҡᵋÂѧÁÕ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹´ŒÒ¹ »ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏáÅÐÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¨¹à¡Ô´à»š¹¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨Í‹ҧÅÖ¡«Öé§ “¤ÃÑé§áá·Õè¼Áä´ŒàËç¹ ÊÔè§ááÊØ´·Õè¼Á»ÃзѺ㨤×ÍàÃ×èͧ¢Í§¡Òà ÇÒ§¼Ñ§¢Í§·Õè¹Õè àÃ×èͧ᡹àÁ×ͧ µíÒá˹‹§¢Í§áÁ‹¹éíÒÂÁ ᵋ¾Íä´ŒÁÒ´Ù ¤ÃÑ駷ÕèÊͧ ¤ÃÑ駷ÕèÊÒÁ ¡çä´ŒàËç¹ÅÖ¡¶Ö§àÃ×èͧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ µÑé§áµ‹¡Ò÷íÒàµÒ ·ØàÃÕ§ ËÁŒÍ äË µ‹Ò§æ ÂÔ觷íÒãËŒ¼ÁÃÙŒÊ֡ʹ㨠¨¹à¼ÅÍæ ÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒ àËç¹Ç‹Ò·Õè¹ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞÁÒ¡¡Ç‹ÒÊØ⢷Ñ´ŒÇ«éíÒ ÊíÒËÃѺ¼Á ÁѹÁÕ ÍÐäÃÍÂÙ‹ã¹¹Ñé¹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡ÊÀÒ¾·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙ‹ ÅѡɳТͧÇÑ´·ÕèÇÒ§ âÍŒâË.. ¼ÁÇ‹ÒÁѹ»ÃзѺã¨ÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò·Õèà¤Âä´Œ´ÙÁÒ” ໚¹¤ÇÒÁ»ÃзѺ㨠·Õè¨ÐàÃÕ¡NjÒÃÑ¡áᾺ¡ç¤§äÁ‹¼Ô´¹Ñ¡ à¾ÃÒÐËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ àÁ×èÍã´·ÕèÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊ ÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹ¡ç¨ÐáÇÐàÇÕ¹ÁÒ àÂÕÂè ÁªÁʶҹ·Õáè Ë‹§¹Õàé ÊÁÍ áµ‹äÁ‹ÇÒ‹ ¤Ãѧé ä˹ Á¹µàʹ‹ËᏠˋ§ÈÃÕ滄 ¹ÒÅÑ ¡ç´Ù¨ÐäÁ‹àÊ×èÍÁ¤ÅÒ ¹Í¡à˹×Í仨ҡ¹Ñé¹ ã¹°Ò¹Ð¢Í§Ê¶Ò»¹Ô¡ ÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑÂã¹ÁÔµÔ¤ÇÒÁʹ㨢ͧÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹ¨Ö§ÁÕàÃ×èͧ¢Í§¡Òà ¨Ñ´ÇÒ§¼Ñ§àÁ×ͧ»¹ÍÂÙ‹´ŒÇ «Öè§ã¹á§‹¹Õé ÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑ¡çà»ÃÕºàËÁ×͹ÅÒ ᷧ·ÕèËÒ¡ÁÕ¼ÙŒ·ÕèÊÒÁÒö¶Í´ÃËÑÊÅÒÂá·§¹Õéä´Œ ¡ç¨ÐÊÒÁÒöࢌÒ㨠»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ ÃÇÁ件֧á¹Ç¤Ô´¢Í§ºÃþºØÃØÉ·Õè໚¹ÃÒ¡à˧ŒÒ¢Í§ àÃÒä´Œ “¼ÁªÍºàÁ×ͧࡋÒæ ·ÕèÂѧÁÕ¤¹ÍÂÙ‹´ŒÇÂÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò Í‹ҧàÇÅÒä» àǹÔÊ ËÃ×Í ¿ÅÍàù« ¤×ÍÁѹÁÕÇ¶Ô ªÕ ÇÕ µÔ ¢Í§¤¹ÍÂÙã‹ ¹¹Ñ¹é ÁѹÁÕ¤¹¢Ò¢ͧ ÁÕÁØÁ·Õ褹¹Ñ觤Ø¡ѹ ¡Ô¹¡Òá¿ ÁÕ¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔÞàµÔºâµàÅç¡æ ¢Í§¼ÙŒ¤¹ã¹ àÁ×ͧ ᵋ·ÕèàÃÒÍÂÙ‹·Õè¹Õè¤×Í Áѹ¶Ù¡á¡ʋǹ Áѹ´ÙáËŒ§ ¡ÅÒÂ໚¹Ç‹Ò

“The first time I saw it, my initial impression was the town planning like the positions of town center and the river Yom. On my later visits, I looked into the culture from pottery making and it has my interests. To me it even could be more important than Sukhothai. There is something in there beyond present conditions or the position of temples. Wow! This is so impressive!” It was an impression at first sight. Later on whenever he has a chance, Prof. Komsan always pays a visit at Sri Satchanalai. Each time its charm has never faded away. Besides, as an architect, Sri Satchanalai contains what Prof. Komsan is interested in, town planning. This aspect, Sri Satchanalai resembles a treasure map. Whoever be able to unlock it will find himself understand history and our root through ancestors’ mindset. “I like living old towns. Like Venice or Florence, people are still living in there. There are plenty of human’s way of life, traders, caf at the corner, and a city slowly flourishing. Here, we have separated them. They look dull. People live in one zone or maybe this is because we are accustomed to it as it is easy to handle.” The knowledge and experience gained from travelling abroad, Prof. Komsan has many good ideas on development and management of this world heritage masterpiece. “Technology can be applied for knowledge or information sharing like the headset or earphone. We can use it as a self-learning tool while walking. What am I interested in, I can learn it by just pressing the button and listen to the information. This temple has a lot to offer and there is no need to go by a large group. This can be an effective way of data presentation.” “Or perhaps, using electricity like lighting show in the evening, Sri Satchanalai is very charming through time. Will it be in the daybreak, daytime, evening, or nighttime, its beauty is distinguishable.” Prof. Komsan’s suggestions might attract many disagreements, for example; budget appropriation received from the state is insufficient. However, what does the insufficient really mean? Can it be a total lack of money or just bad allocation. As a Chiang Mai resident, Prof. Komsan gives us an example: “We try to invest a lot, Chiang Mai for example, the Night Safari needs a lot of money with new constructions and animals. Tourists can find this type of attraction in many countries. In Thailand, there are so 17


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ªÒǺŒÒ¹ÍÂÙ‹Íա⫹˹Öè§ «Öè§Áѹ¡çÍÒ¨¨Ð໚¹ÊÔ觷ÕèàÃҤ،¹à¤Â¡Ñ¹ÍÂÙ‹ à¾ÃÒÐÁѹ´Ù¨Ñ´¡Òç‹Ò¡NjҔ ¨Ò¡¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒáÅлÃÐʺ¡Òó·Õèä´ŒÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊà´Ô¹·Ò§ä»µ‹Ò§ »ÃÐà·È ·íÒãËŒÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´´Õæ ÁÒ¡ÁÒ 㹡Ò÷Õè¨Ð ¾Ñ²¹ÒáÅШѴ¡ÒáѺÁô¡âÅ¡ªÔé¹àÍ¡áË‹§¹Õé “ÁѹÍÒ¨¨ÐÁÕàÃ×èͧ¢Í§à·¤â¹âÅÂÕ·ÕèàÍÒࢌÒÁÒ㪌䴌¡Ñº¡ÒÃãËŒ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ãËŒ¢ŒÍÁÙŠઋ¹ªØ´ËÙ¿˜§à¤Å×è͹·Õè ·ÕèàÃÒÊÒÁÒö㪌¿˜§ä´ŒàͧàÇÅÒ à´Ô¹ ¤×ͼÁÍÂÒ¡¨Ð仨شä˹¼Á¡çä» Ê¹ã¨ÍÐäá硴¿˜§ä´ŒÊºÒ áÅŒÇ ÁÒ¶Ö§ÇÑ´¹ÕéÁÕÍÐäù‹Òʹ㨠µÃ§¹Ñé¹ µÃ§¹ÕéÁÕÊÔ觹‹ÒÊѧࡵµÃ§ä˹ ¡ç¨Ðä´ŒäÁ‹µŒÍ§à´Ô¹µÒÁ¡Ñ¹à»š¹¡ÅØ‹ÁãËÞ‹áÅп˜§à´ÕëÂǺÃÃÂÒÂáÅŒÇ «Ö觹‹Ò¨Ð·íÒãËŒÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒùíÒàʹ͢ŒÍÁÙÅ´ÕÁÒ¡¢Öé¹” “ËÃ×ÍÍÒ¨¨Ð¨Ñ´¡ÒÃàÃ×èͧ俿‡Ò áʧÊÕ àª‹¹ ÁÕ¡ÒèѴäÅ·µÔé§ µÍ¹¤èíÒæ ä´ŒäËÁ à¾ÃÒÐÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑÂËÒ¡ä´Œ´Ù´Õæ ÁÕàʹ‹ËÁÒ¡æ â´Â੾ÒжŒÒàÃÒä´ŒàËç¹ã¹ËÅÒÂÁԵԢͧàÇÅÒ àªŒÒµÃÙ‹ ¡ÅÒ§Çѹ àÂç¹ ¤èíÒ ¤ÇÒÁÊǧÒÁ¨Ðµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹àÅ¹Д ¢ŒÍàʹÍÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹ ¡çÍÒ¨¶Ù¡àºÃ¡¨Ò¡ã¤ÃËÅÒ¤¹´ŒÇ ¤íÒÇ‹Ò §º»ÃÐÁÒ³¨Ò¡ÀÒ¤ÃÑ°ÁÕäÁ‹à¾Õ§¾Í ᵋ¤íÒÇ‹ÒäÁ‹à¾Õ§¾Í¹Ñé¹ á»ÅÇ‹Ò äÁ‹ÁÕ ËÃ×ÍÁÕ áµ‹¢Ò´¡ÒèѴÊÃû˜¹Ê‹Ç¹·Õè´Õ? 㹰ҹзÕè ໚¹¤¹àªÕ§ãËÁ‹ ÍÒ¨ÒÏ¡µÑÇÍ‹ҧã¡ÅŒµÇÑ ÍÍ¡ÁÒãËŒàÃÒä´ŒàËç¹ÀÒ¾ “àÃÒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÂÒÂÒÁŧ·Ø¹ÁÒ¡ÁÒ à¾×èͨШѴÍÐäÃÍ‹ҧ¹Õé ઋ¹·ÕèàªÕ§ãËÁ‹ àÃÒà¾Ôè§à»´ Night safari ŧ·Ø¹àÂÍÐÁÒ¡ µŒÍ§ ÊÌҧ·Õãè ËÁ‹æ µŒÍ§ËÒÊѵǏÁÒ¡ «Ö§è ÊѵǏÍÒ¨¨ÐäÁ‹ä´ŒªÍº ËÃ×͹ѡ·‹Í§à·ÕÂè Ç ÍÒ¨¨ÐàËç¹ÊÔè§àËÅ‹Ò¹Õéã¹»ÃÐà·ÈÍ×蹡çä´Œ ᵋ¶ŒÒÁÒ·Õè¹Õè ¢Í§´Õæ àÃÒÁÕ ÍÂÙ‹áÅŒÇ áÅСçäÁ‹ÁÕã¹·ÕèÍ×è¹´ŒÇ ¨Ð´Õ¡Ç‹ÒäËÁËÒ¡·íÒä´Œ¢Öé¹ÁÒ” “«Öè§ËÒ¡·íÒ䴌͋ҧ Museum ·Õè¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÍÂظÂÒ ÁÕ¡ÒèѴáÊ´§ ·Õè´ÕáÅйíÒàʹÍÍ‹ҧ¹‹Òʹ㨠¡ç¨Ð´ÕÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ à¾ÃÒÐÊÔ觷ÕèàÃÒÁÒ´Ù ³ µÍ¹¹ÕéÁÕà¾Õ§ᵋ Outdoor ¶ŒÒ¨ÐÁÕ Indoor ËÃ×ͶŒÒÁÕ Museum Áѹ ¡ç¨Ð¨Ñº¤ÇÒÁʹ㨢ͧà´ç¡ä´ŒÁÒ¡¢Öé¹´ŒÇ µÍ¹¹ÕéàÃÒ¨ÐàËç¹¡Ñ¹Ç‹Ò ¤¹·ÕèÁÒà´Ô¹´Ù ¶ŒÒà¨ÍÍÒ¡ÒÈÌ͹æ ࢌÒä» à´Ô¹ä´Œà¾Õ§ÊͧÇÑ´ÊÒÁÇÑ´ ¡çàÃÔèÁà˹×èÍÂáÅŒÇ ÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁʹ㨡çŴŧ·Ñ¹·Õ «Ö觡ç໚¹¢ŒÍ¨íÒ¡Ñ´¢Í§ Outdoor excursion ÍÂÙ‹áÅŒÇ ÍÕ¡Í‹ҧ·ÕèÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑ Áѹ¡ÇŒÒ§áÅÐ ÂÔè§ãËÞ‹ÁÒ¡ ÍÒ¨¨Ð·íÒãËŒÁͧàËç¹ÀÒ¾ÃÇÁä´ŒÂÒ¡ ᵋ¶ŒÒà¡Ô´ àÃÒÁÕ¡ÒÃÃÇÁÍÐäÃäÇŒ·Õèà´ÕÂÇ ÁÕ¡ÒèѴáÊ´§·Õè´Õ ऌҡç㪌ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ ¤ÃÖ§è ÇѹàÃÕ¹ÃÙ·Œ ¹èÕ ¹èÑ ä´ŒàÅ áÅоÍä´ŒÍÍ¡ÁÒàË繢ͧ¨ÃÔ§¡ç¨ÐÂÔ§è »ÃзѺ㨠ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ §‹Ò¢Öé¹” 㹰ҹзÕè໚¹ÍÒ¨ÒÏ ˹ŒÒ·Õè¡ÒÃÊ‹§µ‹Í¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒÊً͹ت¹ÃØ‹¹ËÅѧ ¨Ö§à»š¹Ë¹ŒÒ·Õè·ÕèÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹÂÔ¹´Õ»¯ÔºÑµÔÍÂÙ‹àÊÁÍ àª‹¹ã¹¤ÃÑ駹Õé·Õèä´Œ ¾Ò¤³Ð¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂàªÕ§ãËÁ‹ÁÒŧ¾×¹é ·Õàè ¾×Íè ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁ§ÒÁ ·Ò§´ŒÒ¹»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁä·Â «Öè§äÁ‹ãª‹á¤‹à¾Õ§¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ËҡᵋÃÇÁ件֧¤ÇÒÁÃÑ¡áÅФÇÒÁÀÒ¤ÀÙÁÔ㨵‹ÍÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑ ¡ç¨Ð¶Ù¡ ¶‹Ò·ʹÊ׺µ‹Íä»ÍÕ¡´ŒÇ “¡ÒèоҹѡÈÖ¡ÉÒÁÒ·Õè¹Õè¡çµŒÍ§¤Ò´ËÇѧÍÂÙ‹áŌǤÃѺ ¤×Í˹Öè§ à´ç¡¨ÐµŒÍ§ÃÙŒã¹àÃ×èͧ·ÕèàÃÒµŒÍ§¡ÒèÐÊ͹ ¤×Í »ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁä·Â Íѹ·ÕèÊͧ¤§¨ÐãˌऌÒä´Œ Get ¶Ö§ Sense ËÃ×Í Spirit ¢Í§àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò Ç‹ÒÊÔ觷Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹àÁ×ͧ¨ÃÔ§æ¹Õè Åͧ¹Ö¡ÀÒ¾´ÙÇ‹Ò¶ŒÒà¡Ô´ àÃÒŒ͹¡ÅѺ仹Ñè§ Time machine ¡ÅÑºä» ·Ø¡Í‹ҧÊÁºÙóËÁ´ Áѹ¤§¨ÐÍÅѧ¡ÒÃÁÒ¡ ¤§¹‹Òµ×è¹àµŒ¹ «Ö觼Á¤Ô´Ç‹Òà´ç¡à¢ÒÊÑÁ¼ÑÊä´Œ 18

many things that only exist here. It is already possible but is it good to make it happen?” “It would be better if we can make museum in Ayutthaya a good exhibition and more interesting presentation. What we have now is people come to see an outdoor demonstration. Indoor showcase or museum can draw more children’s attention. As we know, people get exhausted from heat and they can walk only within a few temples before getting tired. Their interests would diminish. This is a limitation of outdoor excursion. Sri Satchanalai is so vast and huge that a complete tour is difficult. But if we put all of them into one place and have a good demonstration, then people can only spend half a day to learn the site background. They then get a real trip with more impression.” As an instructor, Prof. Komsan is willing to pass the knowledge to the younger generations. He guides a group of Chiang Mai University students on a field trip to study the beauty of history of Thai architecture. Not only the knowledge, but also passion and pride of Sri Satchanalai are passing to his students. “Taking a field trip with students, I have expectation that they learn to understand the history of Thai architecture. I also would like to see that they have a sense or spirit of old towns by imagining what had happened here. Traveling through a time machine, everything was perfect and extraordinary. This could be so exciting and I think that they can feel it too. But it is not just looking at something, they need a mentor to guide them through so they can see the beauty and greatness, and be undoubtedly proud of this heritage.” “To me, this place is my most favorite comparing to other places. Excuse my saying that Ayutthaya has so much garbage in there. There are things not quite right in it. Too many businesses bother tourists. Management


º·¤ÇÒÁ¾ÔàÈÉ I Special ᵋ¼ÁÇ‹ÒÁѹ¤§¨ÐäÁ‹ãª‹á¤‹àËç¹Í‹ҧà´ÕÂÇ ¤§µŒÍ§ÁÕÍÒ¨ÒÏ µŒÍ§ÁÕä¡´ á¹Ð¹íÒ à¾×èÍà¢Ò¨Ðä´ŒàË繤ÇÒÁ§´§ÒÁ ¤ÇÒÁÂÔè§ãËÞ‹áÅÐà¡Ô´ÀÒ¤ÀÙÁÔ ã¨ã¹Áô¡ªÔé¹¹ÕéÍ‹ҧªÑ´à¨¹” “ÊíÒËÃѺã¹ã¨¼Á ·Õè¹Õè¤×Í·Õè·Õè¼ÁªÍºÁÒ¡·ÕèÊش໚¹ÅíҴѺ·Õè ñ à¾ÃÒжŒÒ¨Ðà·Õº¡Ñº·ÕèÍ×è¹·Õè¼Áä»à¤ÂÁÒáÅŒÇ ¢Íâ·É¹Ð¤ÃѺ ËÒ¡ ¡µÑÇÍ‹ҧ·ÕèÍÂظÂÒ¼ÁÇ‹ÒÁѹÁÕ¢ÂÐÍÂÙ‹ã¹¹Ñé¹ ÁѹÁպҧʋǹ·ÕèäÁ‹àËÁÒÐ ÍÂÙ‹ã¹¹Ñé¹ áÅŒÇàÃ×èͧ¢Í§¾Ò³ÔªÂ¡ÒäŒÒ¢ÒÂÍÐäáçÁÕÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä» ¨¹ºÒ§·Õ·íÒãËŒ¹Ñ¡·‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇÃÙŒÊÖ¡ÃíÒ¤ÒÞ¾ÍÊÁ¤Çà ã¹Ê‹Ç¹¡ÒèѴ¡Òà ¡ÒõѴËÞŒÒãËŒàÃÕºÌÍ ¡ÒôÙáŤÇÒÁÊÐÍÒ´¢Í§âºÃҳʶҹ·Õè¹Õè¡ç ·íÒä´Œ´ÕÁÒ¡æ ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞ¤×ͺÃÃÂÒ¡ÒÈ´ŒÇÂÁÑ駤ÃѺ ¼ÁÁÒ·Õè¹Õè¡Õè¤ÃÑ駡ç ÂѧÊÇ »ÃзѺ㨠áʧ¡ç໚¹ã¨ ¶‹ÒÂÃٻ䴌´Õ ʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§·Õè¹Õè ´Ù¡Õè·Õ¡çÁÕàʹ‹Ë” ÊíÒËÃѺ¼ÙŒ·ÕèÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊä´Œà´Ô¹·Ò§ä»àÂÕèÂÁªÁʶҹ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞæ µ‹Ò§æ ÀÒÂã¹»ÃÐà·È ÁÒ¡ÁÒ ·Ñ駷Õè໚¹¡Ò÷‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇ áÅÐ໚¹ ¡ÒÃà´Ô¹·Ò§´ŒÇÂ˹ŒÒ·Õè¡Òçҹ ¡Ò÷ÕèÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑÂ໚¹Ê¶Ò¹·ÕèÍѹ´Ñº ˹Öè§ã¹´Ç§ã¨¹Ñé¹ ¤§º‹§ºÍ¡¶Ö§¤Ø³¤‹Ò¢Í§Áô¡âÅ¡áË‹§¹Õéä´ŒªÑ´à¨¹ ÍÒ¨ÒϤÁÊѹ䴌¡Å‹ÒǶ֧¤ÇÒÁ»ÃзѺã¨à»š¹¡Òû´·ŒÒº·Ê¹·¹Ò äÇŒÇ‹Ò “áÁŒ¡ÒÅàÇÅÒ¨Ðà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ áÅмٌ¤¹¨Ðà»ÅÕèÂ¹ä» Ëҡᵋ ¼Áä´Œ¡ÅѺÁÒ·Õè¹ÕèäÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨ÐàÁ×èÍäËË ¤ÇÒÁÊǧÒÁáÅФÇÒÁ»ÃзѺ㨠Âѧ¤§ÁÕÃÍÍÂÙ‹àÊÁÍ” à§Ô¹·Í§·ÕèäËÅࢌÒÁÒ§Ò¹ËÃ×ÍÀÒÃзÕ赌ͧ´ÙáÅ áÅФÇÒÁ§´§ÒÁ Íѧ·Ã§¤Ø³¤‹Ò äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¤Ø³¨ÐÁͧÁô¡âÅ¡¨Ò¡ÁØÁä˹ äÁ‹Ç‹ÒÁô¡âÅ¡ ¨Ð໚¹¢Í§àÃÒËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ ¤Ø³¤‹Ò·Õèá·Œ¨ÃÔ§¢Í§¡ŒÍ¹ËÔ¹·ÕèàÃÕ§ÃÒÂã¹áµ‹ÅÐ ¡ŒÍ¹·Ñº«ŒÍ¹à»š¹¡íÒᾧàÁ×ͧ àÊÒËÔ¹ ÇÔËÒà ਴Տ ËÃ×;Ãоط¸ÃÙ» áÁŒ¨Ð´Ù·ÃØ´â·ÃÁŧµÒÁ¡ÒÅàÇÅÒ áµ‹¡çä´ŒÁͺ¤Ø³¤‹Ò·ÕèÂÔè§ãËÞ‹ Ê×èÍ ¤ÇÒÁËÁÒ¶֧Áô¡ÍѹÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·Õ¤è ¹·Ñ§é âÅ¡¤ÇèÐËÇÁÁ×͡ѹª‹ÇÂÃÑ¡ÉÒäÇŒ à¾ÃÒмٌ·Õèä´ŒÃѺÁô¡ÍѹÁÕ»ÃÐ⪹ÂÔ觹Õé·Õèá·Œ¨ÃÔ§ÍÒ¨äÁ‹ãª‹à¾Õ§ ¾Ç¡àÃÒ áµ‹à»š¹àÂÒǪ¹¤¹ÃØ‹¹µ‹ÍÁҢͧâÅ¡ ·Õè¨Ðä´ŒàËç¹áÅлÃШѡɏ ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÂÔ§è ãËÞ‹¢Í§ÊÔ§è ·ÕÁè ¤Õ ÇÒÁËÁÒÂ·Õ¤è ¹ËÅÒª‹Ç§ÍÒÂؤ¹¡‹Í¹Ë¹ŒÒ à¢Òä´ŒÃÔàÃÔèÁ¡‹ÍÊÌҧ¢Öé¹ÁÒ â´ÂÁվǡàÃÒã¹Çѹ¹Õé䴌ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ÃÑ¡ÉÒäÇŒãËŒ Ê׺·Í´µ‹Íä»ã¹Í¹Ò¤µß

of the site and maintenance of the yard or cleanliness of the ancient sites here have been very well done. More importantly, I find that the atmosphere here seems always beautiful and impressive. Good lighting together with architecture can enchant photography.” For those who have chances to visit famous places in the country either for pleasure or business, Sri Satchanalai is the number one which clearly stands for its value as the world heritage. Prof. Komsan has made his final statement: “Time and people change, but whenever I come back here, this place is always beautiful and impressive.” Whatever aspects we are looking into, money, job or burden on maintenance, and the beauty of the world heritage, whether or not it is our world heritage, the real value of city walls that made of stones, poles, temples, pagodas, or the Buddha images, even deteriorating through time, their greatness as important world heritages should the citizens of the world help to preserve. The heritages belong to the next generations as we have come to realize the greatness of many generations before us had initiated, and today we as a follower help carry on this mission for the future.ß 19


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ : ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¡Ñº¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ The International Day for Biological Diversity : Biological Diversity and Agriculture

ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ䴌¶Ù¡¡íÒ˹´¢Öé¹ â´ÂÊË»ÃÐªÒªÒµÔ Çѹ¹Õ¨é §Ö ¶×Í໚¹ÇѹÊíÒ¤ÑÞã¹ÃдѺ¹Ò¹ÒªÒµÔÇ¹Ñ Ë¹Ö§è â´Âͧ¤¡ÒÃÊË»ÃЪҪҵÔä´Œ¡Òí ˹´ãËŒÇ¹Ñ ·Õè 22 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á¢Í§·Ø¡»‚ ໚¹ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ Êíҹѡ§Ò¹àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡Òà ͹ØÊÞÑ ÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¨Ö§ä´ŒÊ§‹ àÊÃÔÁãËŒ»ÃÐà·È ÀÒ¤Õ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ ãªŒÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¹Õé ¼ÅÑ¡´Ñ¹ãËŒàÃ×Íè §¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅÐ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ Í‹ҧÂÑè§Â׹໚¹ÇÒÃÐáË‹§ªÒµÔ â´Â¡ÒèѴ§Ò¹ËÃ×Í¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁµ‹Ò§æ ©ÅͧÇѹÊíÒ¤ÑÞ¹Õéã¹»ÃÐà·È¢Í§µ¹¾ÃŒÍÁ¡Ñº¹Ò¹Ò»ÃÐà·È à¾×èÍãËŒ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨áÅÐÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡãËŒ¡Ñº»ÃЪҪ¹·Ø¡¡ÅØ‹Á ·Ø¡ÊÒ¢ÒÍҪվ㹤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅÐ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¤ÇÒÁ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ͋ҧÂÑè§Â×¹ ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¹Ñ¹é à´ÔÁ¡íÒ˹´ãˌ໚¹ Çѹ·Õè 29 ¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á«Öè§à»š¹Çѹ·Õè͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ·Ò§ªÕÇÀÒ¾ÁÕ»ÃÐà·ÈÀҤդú 30 »ÃÐà·È ·íÒãˌ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ Áռźѧ¤ÑºãªŒã¹»‚ ¤.È.1993 (¾.È.2536) ᵋà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡Çѹ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇ ÍÂً㹪‹Ç§Çѹ¤ÃÔʵÁÒÊáÅÐÇѹ¢Öé¹»‚ãËÁ‹«Öè§à»š¹ª‹Ç§à·È¡ÒÅ ÇѹÊÒ¡Å áË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¨Ö§äÁ‹ÍҨ໚¹·Õ訴¨íÒÁÒ¡à·‹Ò·Õè¤Çà ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹é 㹡ÒûÃЪØÁÊÁѪªÒÊË»ÃЪҪҵÔÊÁÑÂÊÒÁÑÞã¹à´×͹¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á ¤.È. 2000 ¨Ö§ä´ŒÁÕÁµÔãËŒ¶×ÍàÍÒÇѹ·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒÃÃѺÃͧà¹×éÍËÒ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ ³ ¡Ãاä¹âÃºÕ »ÃÐà·ÈहÂÒ ¤×ÍÇѹ·Õè 22 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á¢Í§·Ø¡»‚ ໚¹ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ 1 1

The International Day for Biological Diversity has been declared by the United Nations to be on the 22nd of May. As a result, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity has encouraged parties to launch the International Day for Biological Diversity and ensure that conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity becomes part of their national agenda. Celebrations like campaigns or activities for the event should be nationally undertaken along with international celebration to promote knowledge, understanding, and public awareness on the importance of conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity in all sectors. The International Day for Biological Diversity was first designated on the 29th of December, which was the date that the Convention on Biological Diversity reached the threshold of 30 parties, thereby entering into force in 1993. However, since that day falls during the Christmas and New Year holidays the UN General Assembly in December 2000, agreed to use the date of adoption of the text of the convention on the 22nd of May as International Day for Biological Diversity.

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 8Ç Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ Environmental Official, Level 8, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning

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à¾ÃÒ¾Ãó ·Í§ÊŒÁ11 Praopan Tongsom


¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse »ÃÐà·È·ÑèÇâÅ¡ä´ŒãËŒ¤ÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×Í㹡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁà¾×èÍ©Åͧ ÇÑ ¹ ÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕ Ç ÀÒ¾ »ÃÐà·Èä·Ââ´Â Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ã¹°Ò¹Ð˹‹Ç§ҹ¡ÅÒ§»ÃÐÊÒ¹¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹Í¹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ ä´Œ¨Ñ´¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁµ‹Ò§æ ¢Öé¹·Ø¡»‚à¾×èÍ ©ÅͧÇѹÊÒ¡ÅÏ ä´Œá¡‹ ¡ÒèѴ»ÃЪØÁÇÔªÒ¡Òà ¡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ »ÅÙ¡äÁŒ¾×é¹àÁ×ͧ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹»ÃШíҨѧËÇÑ´à¾×èÍ¿„œ¹¿Ù¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ ªÕÇÀÒ¾ ÃÇÁ·Ñé§Ã‹ÇÁ¡ÑºÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂã¹ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤¨Ñ´¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ áÅÐÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡµ‹Í¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ ªÕÇÀÒ¾ãËŒ¡Ñº¹ÔÊÔµ ¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅлÃЪҪ¹·ÑèÇä» Í¹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ䴌¡íÒ˹´ËÑÇ¢ŒÍ ÊíÒËÃѺÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ã¹áµ‹Åл‚ à¾×èÍãËŒ »ÃÐà·ÈÀÒ¤ÕÁØ‹§à¹Œ¹¡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁáÅСÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹µ‹Íà¹×èͧ ÀÒÂ㵌ËÑÇ¢ŒÍà´ÕÂǡѹ ´Ñ§¹Õé

Nations around the world have supported activities celebrating the International Day for Biological Diversity. To observe the day, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, as Thailand’s National Focal Point for the Convention on Biological Diversity has annually organized activities such as technical conference and the restoration of biodiversity by planting local plants of the province, as well as cooperation with regional universities to provide knowledge and awareness on biodiversity to their students and the public. The Convention on Biological Diversity has defined yearly theme for the International Day for Biological Diversity to support parties to continually organize the event under the same theme given as :

»‚ ¤.È. 2002 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾»†ÒäÁŒ »‚ ¤.È. 2003 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾áÅСÒâ¨Ñ´¤ÇÒÁ ÂÒ¡¨¹ »‚ ¤.È. 2004 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ : ÍÒËÒà ¹éíÒ ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ »‚ ¤.È. 2005 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ : ªÕÇÔµ·ÕèÁÑ蹤§ ã¹âÅ¡·Õè¡íÒÅѧà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ »‚ ¤.È. 2006 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ㹾×é¹·ÕèáËŒ§áÅŒ§¡Ö觪×é¹ »‚ ¤.È. 2007 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾áÅСÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§ ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈ »‚ ¤.È. 2008 ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¡Ñº¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ

Year 2002 Dedicated to Forest Biodiversity Year 2003 Biodiversity and Poverty Alleviation - Challenges for Sustainable Development Year 2004 Biodiversity : Food, Water and Health for All Year 2005 Biodiversity : Life Insurance for our Changing World Year 2006 Protect Biodiversity in Drylands Year 2007 Biodiversity and Climate Change Year 2008 Biodiversity and Agriculture

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ÊíÒËÃѺ»‚ ¤.È. 2008 ¹Õé àÅ¢Ò¸Ô¡ÒÃ͹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ䴌á¶Å§¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ·Ò§ªÕÇÀÒ¾¡Ñº¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃÇ‹ÒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¨íÒ໚¹Í‹ҧÂÔ觷Õè¨ÐµŒÍ§¤ØŒÁ¤Ãͧ ÃÑ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾¢Í§âÅ¡ à¾×èÍÊíÒÃͧänj໚¹Çѵ¶Ø´Ôº ÊíÒËÃѺ¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ«Ö觨ÐãËŒ¼Å¼ÅԵ໚¹ÍÒËÒÃÊíÒËÃѺºíÒÃاàÅÕé§ Á¹ØÉÂªÒµÔ áÅÐä´ŒáÊ´§¤ÇÒÁ¡Ñ§ÇÅÇ‹ÒËÒ¡ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙ޾ѹ¸Ø¢Í§ ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµÂѧ¤§´íÒà¹Ô¹µ‹Íä»àª‹¹¹Õé ¨Ð໚¹¡ÒÃÂÒ¡·Õè¨ÐËÒáËÅ‹§ÍÒËÒà ÊíÒËÃѺ»ÃЪҡÃâÅ¡·Õè¶Ù¡¤Ò´¡ÒóÇ‹Ò¨Ðà¾ÔèÁ¢Ö鹶֧ࡌҾѹŌҹ¤¹ ÀÒÂ㹤ÃÖè§ÈµÇÃÃɹÕé ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ·Ò§ªÕÇÀÒ¾·Õè¨Ñ´â´Â»ÃÐà·ÈÀÒ¤Õ·ÑèÇâÅ¡ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駻ÃÐà·Èä·Â ã¹»‚¹Õé ¨Ö§à»š¹¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ·Õè์¹¶Ö§¤Ø³¤‹Ò¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ·Ò§ªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃà¾×èͤÇÒÁÁÑ蹤§·Ò§ÍÒËÒÃáÅÐâÀª¹Ò¡Òâͧ Á¹ØÉÂªÒµÔ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駡ÒþѲ¹Ò¤ÇÒÁ໚¹ÍÂÙ‹¢Í§»ÃЪҪ¹ã¹ÀÒ¤ à¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁ㹪¹º· ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé䴌์¹ÂéíÒ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁ¨íÒ໚¹¢Í§ ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹à¾×èÍËÂØ´ÂÑ駡ÒÃÊÙÞàÊÕ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ à¡ÉµÃáÅСÒÃãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑޡѺ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¾×é¹·Õèà¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁà¾×èÍ Â¡ÃдѺ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§à¡ÉµÃ¡Ã â´Â·Õ è » ÃÐà·ÈÊ‹ Ç ¹ãËÞ‹ ã ¹âš໚ ¹ »ÃÐà·Èà¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁ ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹Í¹ØÃѡɏáÅÐ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ à¡ÉµÃÍ‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹¨Ö§ÁÕº·ºÒ·ã¹¡Òâ¨Ñ´¤ÇÒÁÂÒ¡¨¹¢Í§»ÃЪҡà âÅ¡ãËŒËÁ´ä»ä´ŒµÒÁ໇ÒËÁÒ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒáË‹§ÊËÑÊÇÃÃÉ «Ö§è ໇ÒËÁÒ ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇä´ŒÃкض֧¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ ªÕÇÀҾNjҨÐÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»ÊÙ‹¡ÒúÃÃÅؼÅÊíÒàÃç¨ã¹¡Òâ¨Ñ´¤ÇÒÁ ÂÒ¡¨¹Å§ä´Œ ໇ÒËÁÒ´ѧ¡Å‹ÒÇä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒÃÃѺÃͧâ´ÂÊË»ÃÐªÒªÒµÔ ã¹»‚ ¤.È. 2000 ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹Í¹ØÃѡɏáÅÐ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¤ÇÒÁ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃÍ‹ҧÂÑè§Â×¹Âѧ໚¹¡Òõͺʹͧµ‹Í ໇ÒËÁÒ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ ¤.È. 2010 «Öè§ä´ŒÃѺ¡Òà ÃѺÃͧ¨Ò¡¡ÒûÃЪØÁÊØ´ÂÍ´âÅ¡Ç‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÍ‹ҧÂѧè Â×¹ ³ ¹¤Ã â¨Îѹà¹ÊàºÔÏ¡ »ÃÐà·ÈáÍ¿ÃÔ¡Ò㵌 ã¹»‚ ¤.È. 2002 ·Õè»ÃЪØÁ «Ö觻ÃСͺ´ŒÇ¼ٌ᷹¨Ò¡»ÃÐà·È·ÑèÇâÅ¡ä´ŒÇҧ໇ÒËÁÒÂãËŒÁÕ ¡ÒÃÅ´ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙÞàÊÕ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾŧÍ‹ҧÁÕ ¹ÑÂÊíÒ¤ÑÞÀÒÂã¹»‚ ¤.È.2010 ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃ¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ 3 ÃдѺ ¤×Í 1) ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉÃкº¹ÔàÇÈà¡ÉµÃ «Ö§è 䴌ᡋ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ É¾¹é× ·Õè à¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁµ‹Ò§æ ઋ¹ ¾×é¹·Õè»ÅÙ¡¾×ªÊǹ äË ¹Ò ¾×é¹·ÕèàÅÕ駻ÈØÊѵǏ ¾×¹é ·Õàè ÅÕÂé §ÊѵǏ¹Òíé 2) ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ Éª¹Ô´¾Ñ¹¸ØᏠÅÐÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø· Ò§¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ (conservation of species and varieties used in agriculture) â´Â੾ÒÐÍ‹ҧÂÔ觪¹Ô´¾Ñ¹¸ØáÅÐÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¾×é¹àÁ×ͧ´Ñé§à´ÔÁ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ àª‹¹ ⤠¡Ãк×Í Êءþѹ¸Ø¾×é¹àÁ×ͧ¢Í§ä·Â ໚¹µŒ¹ 3) ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé¨Ðª‹ÇÂãËŒ à ¡ÉµÃ¡Ã ÊÒÁÒö¤Ñ´àÅ×Í¡¾Ñ¹¸Ø·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ¡ÑºÊÀÒ¾¾×é¹·Õè áÅÐ/ËÃ×Í»˜¨¨Ñ·ҧ ÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ·Õèà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ä»à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈä´Œ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ã¹¢³Ð·Õâè Å¡¡íÒÅѧ»ÃÐʺ¡Ñº»˜ÞËÒÇԡĵ¡ÒóÍÒËÒâҴá¤Å¹áÅÐ ÁÕÃÒ¤ÒÊÙ§ ¨Ö§¨íÒ໚¹·Õè»ÃÐà·Èµ‹Ò§æ ¨ÐµŒÍ§à˧´íÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃáÅÐÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁ ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡»ÃÐà·È·ÕèÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃÊÙ§ ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁä´Œà»ÃÕº¡Ç‹Ò·Ò§ ¤ÇÒÁÁÑ蹤§·Ò§ÍÒËÒà áÅСÒÃà¡ÉµÃ·ÕèÂÑè§Â×¹ 22

As for the year 2008, the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity has stated the importance of biodiversity for agriculture that it was necessary to protect and preserve world’s biodiversity as raw materials for agriculture to produce food for mankind. Within half a century, world population was predicted to reach nine billion and food shortages seem imminent if the extinction rate of species continued to grow. Consequently, activities of the International Day for Biological Diversity this year for all parties human food, including Thailand, would emphasize the value and importance of agricultural biodiversity for security and nutrition, as well as the development of rural farmers’ living conditions. These activities would also underline the necessity of putting an end to the loss in agricultural biodiversity and to pay more attention to the conservation of agricultural area in order to alleviate farmers’ quality of life. The majority of the nations of the world are still based on agriculture; therefore, conservation and sustainable utilization of agricultural biodiversity will play a key role in the abolition of world poverty as stated in the Millennium Development Goal. The Millennium Development Goal, endorsed by the UN in 2000, had identified the conservation of biodiversity so as to contribute to the goal of poverty eradication. Moreover, conservation and sustainable utilization of agricultural biodiversity is in response to the goal for 2010. It was endorsed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. A meeting between representatives from nations around the world set a target for significant reduction of biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The conservation of agricultural biodiversity involves three levels, which are 1) conservation of agricultural ecosystem in agricultural land, such as horticultural areas, fields, farmlands livestock and aqua cultural areas; 2) conservation of species and varieties used in agriculture, especially local and native species and varieties, such as native cows, buffaloes and pigs. 3) This conservation of biodiversity for agriculture helps farmers choose species which are good for the local area and/or the environmental factors fit local weather conditions. While the world is facing a crisis of food shortages and high costs, nations must have arrangements concerning the promotion of agricultural biodiversity conservation. Countries with high agricultural biodiversity have more advantages on food security and sustainable agriculture.


¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse Êí Ò ¹Ñ ¡ àÅ¢Ò¸Ô ¡ ÒÃÍ¹Ø Ê Ñ Þ ÞÒÇ‹ Ò ´Œ Ç Â¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ ªÕÇÀҾ䴌㪌âÍ¡ÒÊÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾»‚¹Õé ¡Ãе،¹ãËŒ»ÃÐà·ÈÀÒ¤ÕÃÔàÃÔèÁãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑޡѺ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ ªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃ ã¹¢³Ð·Õ»è ÃÐà·Èä·Âä´ŒÁ¡Õ ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹Í¹ØÃ¡Ñ É¤ÇÒÁ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ·ÕèÂÑè§Â×¹ÁÒ¡‹Í¹Ë¹ŒÒ¹Õé áÅŒÇ â´Â´íÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹µÒÁà¡ÉµÃ·ÄÉ®ÕãËÁ‹¢Í§¾ÃкҷÊÁà´ç¨ ¾ÃÐ਌ÒÍÂÙË‹ ÇÑ Ï «Ö§è ¾ÃÐͧ¤·Ò‹ ¹·Ã§ä´Œ·Òí ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÇÔ¨ÂÑ àªÔ§»¯ÔºµÑ ¡Ô Òà ÁÒ໚¹àÇÅҹҹ㹾×é¹·Õèʋǹ¾ÃÐͧ¤¡‹Í¹¾ÃÐÃÒª·Ò¹á¡‹¾Ê¡¹Ô¡Ã ªÒÇä·Âã¹»‚ ¾.È. 2537 ËÅÑ¡¡Òâͧà¡ÉµÃ·ÄÉ®ÕãËÁ‹¹Õé ์¹¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃ·Õ´è ¹Ô áÅйéÒí ÊíÒËÃѺ¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ·ÕÂè §èÑ Â×¹ â´Â¡ÒèѴ¡Òà ·ÃѾÂÒ¡ÃÃдѺä˹ÒÍ‹ҧàËÁÒÐÊÁ´ŒÇ¡ÒÃÊÌҧáËÅ‹§¹éÒí ã¹·Õ´è ¹Ô ÊíÒËÃѺ ¡Ò÷íÒ¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃẺ¼ÊÁ¼ÊÒ¹ËÃ×Í¡Ò÷íÒà¡ÉµÃ·ÕèËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂã¹ ¾×¹é ·Õàè ´ÕÂǡѹ 䴌ᡋ ¡ÒûÅÙ¡¾×ªËÁعàÇÕ¹áÅСÒûÅÙ¡¾×ªËÅÒÂæ ª¹Ô´ ¤Çº¤Ù‹¡Ñº¡ÒÃàÅÕé§ÊѵǏ ¡ÒûÅÙ¡¾×ªÊÁعä¾Ã ¡Ò÷íÒ¹Ò¢ŒÒÇ ¾×ªÊǹ ¾×ªäÃè ã¹ÅѡɳÐäÃè¹Ò¼ÊÁ¼ÊÒ¹/äÃè¹ÒÊǹ¼ÊÁ à¾×èÍà©ÅÕè ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕè§äÁ‹ãËŒà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒÂàÁ×èÍÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁá»Ã»Ãǹ ¶×Í໚¹ ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃÃкº¹ÔàÇÈà¡ÉµÃãËŒà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅ ÁÑ蹤§ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ㹾×é¹·Õè ·íÒãËŒà¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÁÕÍÒËÒÃÊíÒËÃѺ ºÃÔâÀ¤áÅÐÁÕÃÒÂä´ŒµÅÍ´·Ñ駻‚ ÊÔè§àËÅ‹Ò¹Õé¤×ÍËÅÑ¡¡ÒáÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ áÅÐ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀҾ͋ҧÂÑè§Â×¹â´Âá·Œ ¨Ò¡ ËÅÑ¡¡Òôѧ¡Å‹ÒÇ ·íÒãËŒàÃÒä´ŒàË繶֧¾ÃÐÍѨ©ÃÔÂÀÒ¾¢Í§¾ÃÐͧ¤·Ò‹ ¹ ã¹´ŒÒ¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾áÅСÒþѲ¹Ò¡Òà à¡ÉµÃÍ‹ҧÂѧè Â×¹ «Ö§è ·íÒãËŒà¡ÉµÃ¡Ãä·ÂÁÕªÇÕ µÔ ·ÕÁè ¹èÑ ¤§ ÊÒÁÒö¾Ö§è ¾Ò µ¹àͧ䴌áÅÐÁդسÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ·Õè´Õ ÇѹÊÒ¡ÅáË‹§¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾äÁ‹ä´ŒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ à¾Õ§¡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁã¹Çѹ·Õè 22 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Áà¾Õ§Çѹà´ÕÂÇ áµ‹¡Òà ´íÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹â´ÂÊ׺à¹×Íè §¹Ñ¹é ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò ˹‹Ç§ҹ·Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§ ¤ÇÃËÇÁÁ×͡ѹ´íÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹áÅÐÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁãËŒ»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÕ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾à¡ÉµÃÍ‹ҧµ‹Íà¹×èͧáÅШÃÔ§¨Ñ§ «Öè§ÁÔ㪋 à¾×è͵ͺʹͧµ‹Í໇ÒËÁÒÂã¹ÃдѺâÅ¡´Ñ§·Õèä´Œ¡Å‹ÒÇÁÒáÅŒÇà·‹Ò¹Ñé¹ áµ‹·§éÑ ¹Õàé ¾×Íè ¡ÒþѲ¹Ò¡ÒÃà¡ÉµÃ¢Í§ä·ÂãËŒÁ¤Õ ÇÒÁÂѧè Â×¹ «Ö§è ¨ÐÊ‹§¼Å ãËŒà¡ÉµÃ¡Ãä·ÂÁÕªÕÇÔµ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹ÍÂÙ‹·Õè´Õ »ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÁÑ蹤§ ·Ò§ÍÒËÒÃáÅоÖ觾ҵ¹àͧ䴌µÒÁËÅÑ¡»ÃѪÞÒàÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨¾Íà¾Õ§ Ê׺ä»ß

The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity has just taken this year to be International Day for Agricultural Biological Diversity to encourage member countries to pay more attention to the biodiversity for agriculture. While Thailand has initiated and offered to the public, the sustainable conservation programs on biodiversity for agriculture through the New Theory of Agriculture from His Majesty the King’s long time action research, offered to the public in in 1994. The principle of New Theory Agriculture emphasize soil and water management for sustainable agriculture through field and water resource management used for integrated or mixed farming in the same area, for example, the planting of rotated and mixed crops in conjunction with animal husbandry, of medicinal plants, rice farming, mixed field corps, and garden plants. This helps reduce risk and damage caused by irregular changes in the environment. It is an ecosystem management system for stable biodiversity in the area so that farmers will have enough food and income throughout the year. These are the principles on conservation and utilization for a truly sustainable biodiversity which reflect His Majesty the King’s talents in the conservation of biodiversity and the development of sustainable agriculture resulting in Thai farmers being more secure in life for they can become self reliant and have a better quality of life. The International Day for Biological Diversity does not consist of just some activities on the 22nd of May, but the continued working on it is far more important. Concerned parties should render support and promote the works so that Thailand receives meaningful and continued conservation of biodiversity for agriculture. This is not just to respond to the global goal, but also for the country’s development of sustainable agriculture which will produce a better quality of life for Thai farmers through becoming more secure on food and self reliant in correspondence with the Philosophy of the Sufficiency Economy.ß

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ·íÒÃŒÒÂàÃÒ ËÃ×Í àÃÒ·íÒÌҸÃÃÁªÒµÔ Natural Disasters - the Fault of Man or Nature? ÁÔ觢ÇÑÞ ¸ÃÈÔÃÔ¡ØÅ1 áÅÐ 1 ÍÃسÇÃó ¹Øª¾‹Ç§2 Mingkwan Thornsirikul and Aroonwan Nuchpoung2

âÅ¡ÁÕÇѯ¨Ñ¡ÃµÒÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ¢Í§ ´Ô¹ ¹éíÒ ÅÁ ä¿ ·Õèà¡Ô´ ´ŒÇµÑǢͧâÅ¡àͧ ໚¹¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ·Õèà¡Ô´ÁҾÌÍÁ¡Ñº¡ÒáíÒà¹Ô´âÅ¡ ÁÕ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§µÅÍ´àÇÅÒ·Ñ駴ŒÒ¹¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ à¤ÁÕ áÅЪÕÇÀÒ¾ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹡ÒÃà¡Ô´ÀÙà¢Òä¿ÃÐàºÔ´ Ἃ¹´Ô¹äËÇ ¾ÒÂØ áÅÐÍ×è¹æ ¨Ö§à»š¹ ¡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷ҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ¢Í§âš㺹Õé·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ÁÒµÑé§áµ‹Í´Õµ¡ÒÅ áÅШÐà¡Ô´µ‹Íä»Í‹ҧäÁ‹ÊÔé¹ÊØ´ËÒ¡ÊÀÒÇÐÂѧäÁ‹ÊÁ´ØÅ Á¹ØÉÂªÒµÔ áÅÐÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµµ‹Ò§æ ¡ç໚¹Ê‹Ç¹Ë¹Ö觢ͧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ «Öè§ÁÕ¡ÒÃÇÔÇѲ¹Ò¡Òà ¡ÒûÃѺµÑÇáÅСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§µÒÁÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÂÀÒ¾áÅÐà¤Áբͧ âšઋ¹¡Ñ¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹡Òý„¹ËÃ×ÍàÍÒª¹Ð¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃÍÂÙ‹ÃÍ´¢Í§ Á¹ØɪҵԨ֧໚¹¡Ò÷íÒãËŒÇѯ¨Ñ¡Ã¢Í§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ¡ÅѺÁÒ·íÒÌҵÑÇàÃÒ ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹

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Our planet was born with natural cycles of the four elements, i.e. soil, water, wind, and fire. These cycles continuously go through physical, chemical, and biological changes resulting in acts of nature such as volcanic eruption, earthquake, storm, and so on. As long as the four elements have not reached a balance, these acts of natural processes will continue. Man and all living organisms are also a part of nature that evolve, change, and adapt to the physical and chemical changes of the world. Therefore, whether man’s quest to resist and defeat the processes of nature would backfire remains the question.

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 8Ç Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ਌Ò˹ŒÒ·ÕèÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˏ¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹ Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ Environmental official, Level 8, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning. Policy and planning Analyst, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning.

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¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse à˵ءÒó¤ÇÒÁËÒ¹е‹Ò§æ ¨Ò¡ÁËѹµÀѸÃÃÁªÒµÔ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ ·ÑèÇâÅ¡ äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¾ÒÂØ·ÍϹÒâ´ àÎÍÃÔह ä«â¤Å¹ 䵌½Ø†¹ Ἃ¹´Ô¹äËÇ ÀÙà¢Òä¿ÃÐàºÔ´ áÅÐÊÖ¹ÒÁÔ ÅŒÇ¹à»š¹à˵ءÒó·ÕèÁÔ㪋àÃ×èͧä¡ÅµÑÇ ÍÕ¡µ‹Íä»áÅŒÇ ÀѾԺµÑ àÔ ËÅ‹Ò¹ÕÁé àÕ ¡Ô´ãËŒàË繺‹Í¤ÃÑ§é ¢Ö¹é Ãعáç¢Ö¹é áÅРᵋÅФÃѧé ä´ŒÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒ¹ҹѺ»ÃСÒà ·Ñ§é ¤Ã‹ÒªÕÇµÔ ¼Ù¤Œ ¹ÅŒÁµÒ ºÒ´à¨çº ¾Ô¡Òà ·íÒÅÒ·ÕèÍÂÙ‹ÍÒÈÑ áËÅ‹§ÍÒËÒà áËÅ‹§¹éíÒ áÅл˜¨¨Ñ ¡ÒôíÒçªÕÇÔµ¢Í§Á¹ØɏáÅÐÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµÍ×è¹æ Í‹ҧ‹ÍÂÂѺ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ áÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¶Ù¡·íÒÅÒÂÍ‹ҧÊÔé¹àªÔ§ ´Ñ§µÑÇÍ‹ҧŋÒÊØ´·Õèã¡ÅŒµÑÇ ·ÕèÊØ´à¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤àÍàªÕ¢ͧàÃÒ¹Õèàͧ ¤×Í¡ÒÃࢌҷíÒÅÒ¢ͧ¾ÒÂØ ä«â¤Å¹¹ÒÏ¡ÕÊ «Ö觡íÒà¹Ô´ã¹ÁËÒÊÁØ·ÃÍÔ¹à´Õ áÅŒÇà¤Å×è͹µÑÇࢌÒÊÙ‹ ªÒ½˜›§´ŒÒ¹µÐÇѹµ¡à©Õ§㵌¢Í§»ÃÐà·È¾Á‹ÒàÁ×èÍà·Õ觤׹¢Í§Çѹ·Õè 2 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á ·Õ輋ҹÁÒ ´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇÅÁ¶Ö§ 216 ¡ÔâÅàÁµÃµ‹ÍªÑèÇâÁ§ ໚¹ä«â¤Å¹·ÕÁè ¤Õ ÇÒÁÃعáçÃдѺ 43 ÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒÂÍ‹ҧÁËÒÈÒÅ â´Â੾ÒÐ¾×¹é ·Õªè Ò½˜§› ·ÐàÅ áÅзÕÃè ÒºÅØÁ‹ ÊÒÁàËÅÕÂè Á»Ò¡áÁ‹¹Òíé ÍÔÃÐÇ´Õ ·íÒãËŒ¾×é¹·ÕèÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò 5,000 µÒÃÒ§¡ÔâÅàÁµÃ µŒÍ§¨ÁÍÂً㵌¹éíÒ ¤Ò´Ç‹ÒÁÕ¼àŒÙ ÊÕªÕÇµÔ áÅÐÊÙÞËÒÂÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Òáʹ¤¹ äÁ‹¹ÍŒ Â¡Ç‹Ò 1.5 Ōҹ¤¹ µŒÍ§¡ÒäÇÒÁª‹ÇÂàËÅ×ÍÍ‹ҧà˧´‹Ç¹ áÅмٌÃÍ´ªÕÇÔµ¡Ç‹Ò 2 Ōҹ¤¹ ÍÒ¨ÁÕ¡ÒÃÅŒÁµÒÂà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ÍÕ¡ËÒ¡¤ÇÒÁª‹ÇÂàËÅ×ÍÂѧÁÒäÁ‹¶Ö§ 10 Çѹµ‹ÍÁÒ ã¹Çѹ·Õè 12 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á àÇÅÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 14.30 ¹. µÒÁàÇÅÒ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹»ÃÐà·È¨Õ¹ ä´Œà¡Ô´á¼‹¹´Ô¹äËǤÃÑé§ÃŒÒÂáç·ÕèÊØ´ ¤Ãѧé Ë¹Ö§è «Ö§è ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáç¶Ö§ 7.9 µÒÁÁÒµÃÒÃÔ¡àµÍÏ ·ÕÁè ³±Åàʩǹ «Ö§è ÍÂÙ·‹ Ò§´ŒÒ¹µÐÇѹµ¡à©Õ§㵌¢Í§»ÃÐà·È¨Õ¹ ÁÕ¼àŒÙ ÊÕªÕÇµÔ ¶Ö§ 14,463 ¤¹ ÊÙÞËÒ 14,051 ¤¹ ¶Ù¡½˜§ÀÒÂ㵌«Ò¡»ÃÑ¡ËÑ¡¾Ñ§¶Ö§ 25,788 ¤¹ áÅкҴà¨çºÁÒ¡¶Ö§ 64,746 ¤¹ ÃÇÁáÅŒÇÁÕ¼ÙŒ»ÃÐʺÀѶ֧áʹ¤¹ (³ Çѹ·Õè 14 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) «Öè§ÁÕáçÊÑè¹ÊÐà·×͹ÁÒ¶Ö§¡Ãا෾-

3 3

Natural disasters happening around the world, such as tornado, hurricane, cyclone, typhoon, earthquake, volcanic eruption, and tsunami, are no longer a far - fetched image in anyone’s mind as they are happening more often and more destructive. Each event not only tallies high casualties, but also destroys homes, food and water resources, as well as living essentials for both man and other organisms. Ecosystems and environment are inevitably severely harmed. Cyclone Nargis, the most recent and the deadliest natural disaster that just occurred right in our Asia region, can very well illustrate such destructive act done by the nature. This cyclone was formed in the Indian Ocean and hit the southwestern coastline of Burma (Myanmar) around the midnight on May 2, 2008 with the maximum wind speed of 216 kilometers per hour, making it a Category 4 cyclone3. Cyclone Nargis severely damaged Burmese coast and the Irrawaddy Delta, making more than 5,000 km2 of land submerged in the water. Over 100,000 people were estimated to be dead and missing and around 1.5 millions were in need of immediate assistance. Had the help not come in time, over 2 millions survivors could add to the death toll. Ten days later, on May 12, 2008 around 2.30 pm. local time, China was hit by a massive earthquake measured 7.9

ä«â¤Å¹ÃдѺ 4 ËÁÒ¶֧ ¾ÒÂØ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇÅÁ � â´ÂÊÔé¹àªÔ§ ʋǹâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ·Õèá¢ç§áç䴌ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒÂ˹ѡ Category 4 Cyclone - Cyclones with wind speed 131 - 155 miles per hour (209 - 248 kilometers per hour). Storm surge 5.5 meters. Small houses damaged and some parts blown away with the wind. Significant structural and house damage.

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ÁËÒ¹¤Ã´ŒÇ áÅÐàÁ×èÍŒ͹ä»àÁ×èÍ¡Ç‹Ò 60 »‚·Õ輋ҹÁÒ âÅ¡àÃÒµŒÍ§ ༪ÔޡѺÀѸÃÃÁªÒµÔ·ÕèÃŒÒÂáçâ´Â੾ÒСÒÃà¡Ô´¾ÒÂØËÁعࢵÌ͹ ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçÃдѺ 54 «Öè§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´¶Ö§ 224 ÅÙ¡ ¨Ö§à»š¹ àÃ×èͧṋ¹Í¹Ç‹Òã¹Í¹Ò¤µàÃÒ¤§Ë¹ÕäÁ‹¾Œ¹·Õè¨ÐµŒÍ§¼¨Þ¡ÑºÁËѹµÀÑ àËÅ‹Ò¹Õé«éíÒáŌǫéíÒàÅ‹Ò ÊíÒËÃѺ»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¢Í§àÃÒ àÁ×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ¶Ö§»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵϵÑé§áµ‹ ÍҳҨѡÃ⹡ (»˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ÍÂÙã‹ ¹¾×¹é ·ÕÍè Òí àÀÍàªÕ§áʹ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´àªÕ§ÃÒÂ) ·Õèä´ŒÁÕ¡Òö١ºÑ¹·Ö¡¶Ö§¡ÒÃà¡Ô´á¼‹¹´Ô¹äËÇËÅÒ¤ÃÑé§ «Ö觤ÃÑ駷ÕèÃعáç ·ÕèÊØ´ ¶Ö§¡Ñº·íÒãËŒÍҳҨѡÃ⹡ŋÁÊÅÒ àÁ×èÍ»‚ ¾.È. 1003 áÅÐ ¨Ò¡ËÅÑ¡ÈÔÅÒ¨ÒÃÖ¡¢Í§ÍҳҨѡÃÊØ⢷ÑÂä´ŒºÑ¹·Ö¡à˵ءÒóá¼‹¹´Ô¹ äËÇ 2 ¤ÃÑé§ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õéã¹¾§ÈÒÇ´Òâͧ¡ÃاÈÃÕÍÂظÂÒÁÕ¡Òúѹ·Ö¡ äÇŒ 7 ¤ÃÑé§ áÅо§ÈÒÇ´ÒâͧàªÕ§ãËÁ‹ä´ŒºÑ¹·Ö¡äÇŒ 4 ¤ÃÑé§ áÅÐ ¤ÃÑé§ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹·ÕèàªÕ§ãËÁ‹ ¤×Í ã¹»‚ ¾.È. 2088 ·íÒãËŒÂÍ´ ਴Տ·ÕèÇѴ਴ՏËÅǧËѡ⤋¹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ¾ºÍÕ¡Ç‹ÒàÁ×èÍ 60 »‚ ·Õ輋ҹÁÒ ÁÕ¾ÒÂØËÁعࢵÌ͹à¤Å×è͹ࢌÒÊÙ‹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¶Ö§ 182 ÅÙ¡ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é ä´ŒÃºÑ ÀѾԺµÑ ÊÔ ¹Ö ÒÁÔ «Ö§è à¡Ô´¨Ò¡á¼‹¹´Ô¹äËÇ㵌·ÐàźÃÔàdzà¡ÒÐ ÊØÁÒµÃҢͧ»ÃÐà·ÈÍԹⴹÕà«Õ àÁ×èÍ»‚ ¾.È. 2547 ·Õ輋ҹÁÒäÁ‹¹Ò¹¹Õé áÅÐÂѧ¾ºÍÕ¡Ç‹Ò㹺ÃÔàdzÀÒ¤µÐÇѹµ¡áÅÐÀÒ¤à˹×ͧ͢»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ÁÕÃÍÂàÅ×è͹ËÅÒÂÃÍÂàÅ×è͹·ÕèÂѧÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¤Å×è͹äËǴѧઋ¹ ÃÍÂàÅ×è͹ áÁ‹·Òã¹ÀÒ¤à˹×Í ÃÍÂàÅ×è͹ÈÃÕÊÇÑÊ´Ôì ÃÍÂàÅ×è͹Ãйͧ - ¤Åͧ ÁÒÃØ ã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹµ¡ ໚¹µŒ¹ ¤§µŒÍ§¢Í·Ô駤íÒ¶ÒÁänjNjҨÐà¡Ô´ÍÐäà µ‹Íä»ã¹ª‹Ç§ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§àÃÒáÅÐÅÙ¡ËÅÒ¹¢Í§àÃÒ áÅÐàÃҨдíÒçÍÂÙ‹ µ‹Íä»Í‹ҧäà ¤§µŒÍ§¶Ö§àÇÅÒ·Õàè ÃÒ«Ö§è ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹Ë¹Ö§è ¢Í§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ µŒÍ§¾Ô¨ÒÃ³Ò ·º·Ç¹áÅŒÇÇ‹ÒÀѾԺѵԷÕèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹Í‹ҧâ˴ÌҹÕé໚¹¡ÒáÃзíҢͧ ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔᵋà¾Õ§½†ÒÂà´ÕÂǨÃÔ§ËÃ×Í «Öè§ËÒ¡Áͧ´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁÂصԸÃÃÁ µÒÁà˵ØáÅмÅáÅŒÇ ¤§µŒÍ§ÂÍÁÃѺNjÒàÃÒ·Ø¡¤¹º¹âš㺹Õé¡çÁÕʋǹ ·íÒãËŒ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒüԴ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ¡ÒäԴ¤Œ¹ÊÔ觵‹Ò§æ ´ŒÇ¾ÅѧÊÁͧ

4 4

on the Richter scale in its southwestern Sichuan province. 14,463 people were dead, another 14,051 were missing, 25,788 were buried in the debris, and 64,746 had been injured. The casualties total 100,000 people as of May 14, 2008. This earthquake can also be felt in Bangkok. When we went back to 60 years ago, our Earth has faced natural disasters such as 224 of the most destructive Category 5 tropical cyclones4. It is evident that we cannot escape from the cycle of such catastrophes in the future. In Thailand, tracing back to the era of Yonok Kingdom, once situated in the Chiang San district in Chiang Rai province, there are many records of earthquakes. The worst one eventually caused the fall of the Yonok Kingdom in 460. Not only that, two earthquakes were inscribed on the Sukhothai Kingdom’s Ramkhamhaeng stele. Seven earthquakes were mentioned in Ayutthaya Kingdom Chronicle, while Chiang Mai Kingdom Chronicle recorded four - with the most severe one in 1545 taking down the top of the pagoda at the Royal Pagoda temple. In the past 60 years, Thailand has endured 182 tropical cyclones as well as a recent tsunami catastrophe caused by underwater earthquake with an epicenter off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia in 2004. At present, there are still many slipping faults in Thailand, namely Mae Tha fault in the North, and Srisawat and Ranong - Khlong Marui faults in the West. With such many natural disasters waiting to happen, which one would happen in our lifetime, and how we and our offsprings would survive remain the questions. It is time for us, who are also a part of nature, to ponder whether these deadly catastrophic events hold only the nature at fault or else. With a logical and fair view on the subject, we need to admit that everyone of us contributes to the problem. Our inventions manipulate ecosystems and disrupt the natural cycles of the four elements, i.e. soil water, wind and fire. Our progressive development aimed at controlling and overcoming the force of nature foregoes the important

ä«â¤Å¹ÃдѺ 5 ËÁÒ¶֧ ¾ÒÂØ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇÅÁÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò 155 äÁŏµ‹ÍªÑèÇâÁ§ (ÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò 248 ¡ÔâÅàÁµÃµ‹ÍªÑèÇâÁ§) ·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´¹éíÒ·ÐàÅ˹عÊÙ§à¡Ô¹¡Ç‹Ò 5.5 àÁµÃ ºŒÒ¹àÃ×͹¢¹Ò´àÅ硶١¾Ñ´ËÒÂ仡Ѻ¾ÒÂØ ºŒÒ¹àÃ×͹·Ø¡ÃٻẺ䴌ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒÂ仡Ѻ¾ÒÂØ ºŒÒ¹àÃ×͹·Ø¡ÃٻẺ䴌ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒÂâ´ÂÊÔé¹àªÔ§ Category 5 Cyclone - The most destructive cyclones with wind speed >155 miles per hour (>248 kilometers per hour). Storm surge >5.5 meters. Small houses completely destroyed and blown away with the wind. Significant structural and house damage with widespread destruction

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¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse

·Õè´ÕàÅÔȢͧÁ¹Øɏ¡‹ÍãËŒà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§µ‹ÍÃкº¹ÔàÇÈáÅÐ Çѯ¨Ñ¡Ã¢Í§´Ô¹ ¹éíÒ ÅÁ ä¿ ¡ÒäԴ¤Œ¹»ÃдÔÉ°ÊÔ觵‹Ò§æ à¾×èÍ ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÍ‹ҧäÁ‹ÊÔé¹ÊØ´à¾×è͵ŒÍ§¡Ò÷ءÊÔ觷ءÍ‹ҧ·Õè¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ÊÌҧäÇŒÁÒ໚¹¢Í§µ¹àͧãËŒÁÒ¡·ÕÊè ´Ø µŒÍ§¡ÒÃàÍÒª¹Ð¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ äÁ‹¤Òí ¹Ö§ ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÂÑè§Â×¹ äÁ‹¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§¡Ò÷´á·¹ äÁ‹¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§¡ÒÅàÇÅÒ äÁ‹ÁÕ¡Òà ãËŒ¡ÅѺ¤×¹áÅп„œ¹¿Ù¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔÍ‹ҧÊÁ´Øšѹ ¡ÒáÃзíÒàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé໚¹ ¡Ò÷íÒÌҸÃÃÁªÒµÔ㪋ËÃ×ÍäÁ‹ ¡‹Í¹·Õè¨ÐÊÒÂà¡Ô¹ä» àÃÒ·Ø¡¤¹µŒÍ§ËѹÁÒãËŒ¤ÇÒÁʹ㨡Ѻ ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ·ÕèÍÂÙ‹ÃͺµÑÇàÃÒãËŒÁÒ¡¢Öé¹æ ´ÙáÅàÍÒã¨ãÊ‹¡Ñº¡ÒÃÊÌҧ “¤ÇÒÁÂÑè§Â×¹” áÅÐ “¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅ” ãËŒ¡Ñº·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ÁÕ¡ÒÃ㪌»ÃÐ⪹Í‹ҧ»ÃÐËÂÑ´ãËŒÊÁ´ØšѺ¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒ áÅп„œ¹¿Ù ÃÇÁ·Ñ駵ŒÍ§ËѹÁÒãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑޡѺ¡Òû‡Í§¡Ñ¹ ¡ÒõԴµÒÁ »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼ÅËÇÁ¡Ñº¡ÒÃᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹Í‹ҧ᷌¨ÃÔ§ à¾Õ§෋ҹÕé àÃÒ¡çÅ´¡Ò÷íÒÌҸÃÃÁªÒµÔ áÅФ§äÁ‹á»Å¡ËÒ¡¡ÒáÃзíÒ¢ŒÒ§µŒ¹ ¨ÐÊ‹§¼ÅãËŒ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔÅ´¡Ò÷íÒÃŒÒÂàÃÒ´ŒÇÂઋ¹¡Ñ¹ß

balance among development, sustainability, replenishment, time, and rehabilitation. This said, aren’t our actions indeed harm the nature? We all need to be mindful of the surrounding nature before it is too late. The attention must be paid on ensuring “sustainability” and “balance” where natural resources and the environment are carefully utilized, coupled with sufficient conservation and rehabilitation efforts. Prevention, evaluation, and monitoring also need to be highlighted in problem-resolution approaches. With these few extra steps, we would do much less harm to the nature; and the nature would consequently be kinder to us in return.ß

͌ҧÍÔ§ Reference: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

¹ÒÇÒÍÒ¡ÒÈàÍ¡¡ÁÅ ÇѪÃàʶÕÂà (2547), ÊÒÃҹءÃÁä·ÂÊíÒËÃѺàÂÒǪ¹Ï àÅ‹Á·Õè 28 Watcharasatira, Group Captain Kamol. Thai Junior Encyclopedia. Vol. 28. 2004. new.bbc.co.uk (14th May 2008) News. 14th May 2008. <http://news.bbc.co.uk> www.komchadluek.net (23 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) News. 23rd May 2008. <http://www.komchadluek.net> www.matichon.co.th (9 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) News. 9th May 2008. <http://www.matichon.co.th> www.matichon.co.th (10 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) News. 10th May 2008. <http://www.matichon.co.th> www.manager.co.th (13 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) News. 13rd May 2008. <http://www.manager.co.th> www.manager.co.th (15 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2551) News. 15th May 2008. <http://www.manager.co.th>

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

¡ÒÃ㪌»ÃÐ⪹¨Ò¡¢ŒÍÁÙÅÊÒÃʹà·ÈÀÙÁÔÈÒʵÏ 㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒáÃШÒµÑǢͧ áËÅ‹§âºÃÒ³¤´Õ㹺ÃÔàdzàÇÕ§ÅÍ ÍíÒàÀͨع ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¾ÐàÂÒ Geographic Information System Application in the Study of the Distribution of Archeological Sites in the Area of Wiang Lo, Joon District, Prayao Province ¨µØþà à·ÕÂÁ·Ô¹¡Äµ1 áÅÐ1 ÊǹԵ à·ÕÂÁ·Ô¹¡Äµ2 Jathuraporn Thiamthinkrit and Sawanit Thiamthinkrit2

1 2 1 2

¹Ñ¡âºÃÒ³¤´Õ 6Ç ÊíҹѡÈÔŻҡ÷Õè 7 ¹‹Ò¹ ¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 5 Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ Archaeologist, Level 6, Office of Archaeology, Nan Environmental Official, Level 5, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning

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Today, Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been employed extensively in many applications like the location of natural resources or urban settlements. GIS also supports data mining, for example the determination of the quantity of natural resources or population in particular areas. Such data may be used to figure out the relationship between groups such as relationship between urban settlements and sites of natural resources both inside and outside the area, determination of proper resources management in the area as well as allocation of land for agriculture or settlement, etc. Archeology applies GIS data in identifying the locations of ancient remains and archeological sites scattered around. The positions of ancient remains, archeological sites, and excavation pits can be used for future in - depth study, for example the GIS database management for ancient cities and the conservation and development master plan for ancient cities, etc. A case of GIS application for the study in archeology includes the location and identification of the ancient city of Wiang Lo, Lo and Honghin sub - districts, Joon district, Prayao Province. This place is located on flat terrain between the foot of jikjong mountain and the river Eng, around 30 kilometers away from Joon district. The trails of canals and walls made of clay still exist there. Many ancient remains are found both inside the town and in the surrounding areas. Town planning followed geological conditions and canal and walls patterns cannot be truly identified. The river Eng runs through the south town wall to the east and the old trail of the river Eng bypasses the south of the town and travels towards the north-east.

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

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The ancient city of Wiang Lo was named after the settlement described in the Muen Lo Inscription on the construction of Wat Thepmai, inscribed around 1987 and found in Wat Thepmai, Joon District, Prayao Province. It reads “...Year 856 of Meungsai, month 2, Ogg 11 Kam, Wednesday, Kadmao, Prince Muen Lothepsrichula who had faith in the virtue of the Three Gems, ordered to.... build a new temple...” Moreover, during the Lanna era, Wiang Lo, besides controlling the agricultural plain for Prayao, it was a principal city in charge of transportation route to Prayao, Chiang Kong, Theung, Nan, and Lanchang. There is also the legend of King Thongthip, Wat Seuntan, Nan, that during the reign of King Tilokaraj, in 1450, Nan was invaded by troops passing through Lo and Pong, and across the Wow mountain. Much evidence indicates that Lo was still a major city and was occupied by people throughout the Thonburi era. It is assumed that the city fell when Praya Kawila brought troops to attack and round up all the people with him. Moreover, archeological exploration shows that the area includes prehistoric human settlements. The study began around 2004 - 2005 using primary information about the location of ancient remains in Wiang Lo from the survey by Nan’s Office of Archaeology, Department of Fine Arts, and local people living in the area in sites that are either explored or unexplored. In order to acquire as much as possible data of the locations and to gain access to the data sources field surveys through the ancient remains scattered around the area were administered together with the identification of satellite coordinates by Global Positioning System (GPS), Garmin made version 72. While the overlaying technique was also used to identify the relevant locations on various types of maps such as topographic map, L7017 and L7018, and aerial photographs from the Royal Thai Survey Department. Data will then be digitally processed and saved in the GIS. Primary data records include locations of ancient remains and excavation pits, their size, accessibility, area photographs, landmarks, measurements, and area planning of the ancient remains. The data concerning locations acquired through these methods is highly accurate compared to traditional methods using surveys alone and will be very useful for future archeological research. The locations of ancient remains scattered around the ancient city of Wiang Lo can be divided into two groups, which are unnamed ancient remains and locally known ancient remains, including the


¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse ¤¹·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ áÅÐÃÇÁ¶Ö§µíÒá˹‹§·ÕèµÑ駢ͧËÅØÁ¢Ø´¤Œ¹·Ñé§ 19 ËÅØÁ »˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ä´ŒÁÕ¡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µãªŒ¢ŒÍÁÙŴѧ¡Å‹ÒÇ㹡ÒÃÇҧἹ¡ÒèѴ¡Òà ¾×¹é ·Õâè ºÃҳʶҹàÇÕ§ÅÍ ¡ÒèѴ·íҼѧºÃÔàdzà¾×Íè »ÃСÒÈࢵâºÃÒ³ ʶҹµ‹Íä»ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ ·Ñ駹Õé¨Ø´ÁØ‹§ËÇѧ¢Í§¡ÒèѴ·íÒ¢ŒÍÁÙÅÃкºÊÒÃʹà·ÈÀÙÁÔÈÒʵÏ ·Ò§âºÃÒ³¤´Õ¹Ñé¹ ÁըشÁØ‹§ËÇѧà¾×èÍ·Õè¨Ð¾Ñ²¹Ò°Ò¹¢ŒÍÁÙÅÃкº ÊÒÃʹà·ÈãˌࢌÒÁÒÁÕʋǹËÇÁ¡Ñº§Ò¹âºÃÒ³¤´ÕÍ‹ҧÊÍ´¤ÅŒÍ§ àª×èÍÁ⧡ѹ áÅÐ໚¹¡ÒùíÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙ‹ÁÒ㪌ãËŒà¡Ô´»ÃÐ⪹ Í‹ҧ¤ØŒÁ¤‹Ò áÅй͡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧª‹ÇÂãËŒ¡ÒáíÒ˹´¼Ñ§¾Ô¡Ñ´¢Í§áËÅ‹§ âºÃҳʶҹ㹾×é¹·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒ໚¹ä»ã¹Ãкºà´ÕÂǡѹ áÅÐã¹Í¹Ò¤µ °Ò¹¢ŒÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´ŒÂѧÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»àª×èÍÁâ§ࢌҡѺ¢ŒÍÁÙÅã¹Ê‹Ç¹Í×è¹æ ¢Í§Ë¹‹ÇÂÃÒª¡Ò÷Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ä´Œµ‹Íä» àª‹¹ ¡ÃÁÍØ·ÂÒ¹áË‹§ªÒµÔ ÊѵǏ»†Ò áÅоѹ¸Ø¾×ª ¡ÃÁ·Õè´Ô¹áÅСÃÁ¸¹ÒÃѡɏ ໚¹µŒ¹ à¾×èÍ㪌 »ÃÐ⪹ã¹¡ÒáíÒ˹´¢Íºà¢µ¾×¹é ·Õàè ¾×Íè »‡Í§¡Ñ¹¡ÒÃÍÍ¡àÍ¡ÊÒÃÊÔ·¸Ôì «éÒí «ŒÍ¹ áÅÐà¾×Íè »‡Í§¡Ñ¹»˜ÞËÒ¡ÒúءÃØ¡áÅзíÒÅÒÂ¾×¹é ·Õâè ºÃҳʶҹ ÍÕ¡·Ò§Ë¹Ö觴ŒÇÂß

locations of 19 excavation pits. Currently, the data has been applied to be used in formulation of the management planning for the ancient remains of Wiang Lo and area planning development for future defining boundary of the ancient remains. The goal of GIS data management for archeology is to develop a GIS database to use in archeological works and to utilize the existing technology to bring out the value of the data. Moreover, it helps to specify the coordinates of the area of ancient remains to the same standard. In the future, the acquired database can be linked with information from the other related agencies such as National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Department of Land, Treasury Department, and others in order to make use of boundary determinations to prevent the issuance of duplicated land deeds and hinder encroachment on and destruction of the ancient remains as well.ß

ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ·ÕèµÑ駢ͧáËÅ‹§âºÃҳʶҹàÁ×è͹íÒ仫ŒÍ¹·Ñº¡Ñº ¢ŒÍÁÙÅÍ×è¹æ ã¹·Õè¹ÕéáÊ´§¢ŒÍÁÙÅã¹Ê‹Ç¹¢Í§áËÅ‹§âºÃҳʶҹ ¶¹¹áÅÐáÁ‹¹éíÒ Figure 1 Location of ancient remains overlaying with roads and rivers.

ÃÙ»·Õè 2 ·ÕèµÑ駢ͧáËÅ‹§âºÃҳʶҹ«ŒÍ¹·Ñº¡Ñº¢ŒÍÁÙÅáÊ´§ ª¹Ô´´Ô¹áÅÐàÊŒ¹ªÑ鹤ÇÒÁÊÙ§ Figure 2 Location of ancient remains overlaying with soil types and altitude line.

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ÍÂظÂÒ..Áô¡âÅ¡..Áô¡àÃÒ Ayutthaya ... World Heritage ... Our Heritage ºØɺ§¡ª ´ÕÇÒ¨Ò1 Bussabongkot Deewaja1

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The capital of Siam for 417 years, Ayutthaya flourished prosperously before declining, as witnessed by architectural remains and items of cultural heritage. Foreign trade exchanges with the capital exhibited the nature of the ancient civilization as a place of wealth, prosperity, and unity. King Ramathibodi I or King Uthong established Ayutthaya as the capital on Friday, the 6th day, during the crescent moon, month 5, Year of the Tiger, Thai minor era of 712, corresponding to the 4th of March, 1350. He named it, according to the annals, “Krungthep Maha Nakorn Baworn Thawarawadee Sri Ayutthaya Maha Dilok Pop Noparat Rachathani Burirom Udom Praratchaniwej Maha Stan.” Ayutthaya was ruled by 33 kings from five dynasties, which were Uthong, Supanaphum, Sukhothai, Prasathong, and Ban Phulueng. In 1569, during the reign of King Maha Jackapadi, Ayutthaya was seized by Burma. Fifteen years after that defeat, King Naresuen the Great reclaimed sovereignty of the capital in 1584. Ayutthaya became prosperous,

਌Ò˹ŒÒ·ÕèÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˏ¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹ Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ Policy and planning Analyst, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning.

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until 1767 when King Suriyas Amarin lost Ayutthaya to Burma for the second time. That was the final chapter of Ayutthaya’s long reign as capital of Thailand. Through its 417 years, the capital Ayutthaya was not only the pinnacle of the Thai nation, but also recognized by nations around the world as a highly civilized metropolis. Even though Ayutthaya was destroyed by war, remnants of our ancestors’ talents and devotion and their culture and wealth are national heritage that is still being appreciated today. In view of that, the World Heritage Committee of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage declared the historic town of Ayutthaya and its associated historic towns, which have been incorporated into the Ayutthaya Historical Park since 1976, a world heritage site on the 13th of December, 1991, in Cartage, Tunisia, along with Sukhothai Historical Park - Sri Satchanalai Historical Park - Kampaengphet Historical Park. This is in accordance with the third condition, which deals with extraordinary and unique places or evidence of tradition of remaining or lost civilizations. After two decades of being a world heritage site, Ayutthaya Historical Park has hosted a large number of local and international visitors. This has caused Ayutthaya to have one of the top per capita incomes for its people. Further, the economic development has led to the historical park area enjoying booming construction in order to serve tourists even better. There has been some concern that Ayutthaya might be delisted from its status because of visual pollution. This has alerted interested parties like the state, local administration, the general public, and businesspeople in the area. They are coming together in order to share opinions and discover solutions. At first, there was agreement to remove buildings blocking the ancient sites. However, some people have still refused to move out and claim that the space provided by the state is not sufficient for all the merchants. Today, in order to solve the problems that world heritage sites like Ayutthaya face, all parties must find the solution to solve these problems. Only in this way will people and the ancient sites coexist and Ayutthaya will then last as a world site and the heritage for our descendants.ß

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¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse 㹩ºÑº·ÕèáÅŒÇÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁÏ ä´ŒàʹÍàÃ×èͧ á¼¹·ÕèªØÁª¹·Õèà´ç¡æ ¡ç·íÒä´Œ3 à¾×èͨк͡àÅ‹ÒãËŒ¼ÙŒÍ×è¹ä´Œ·ÃÒºÇ‹Ò ¾×é¹·Õè ᵋÅÐáË‹§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ áÅФÇÒÁ·Ã§¨íÒã¹ÇÑÂà´ç¡¨Ðª‹ÇÂ㹡Òà ÃÑ¡ÉÒÊÁºÑµÔ·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ ÊíÒËÃѺ©ºÑº¹Õé ¨Ð¡Å‹ÒǶ֧ “¡ÒèѴ·íÒá¼¹·ÕèªØÁª¹´ŒÒ¹Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ” ËÃ×Í “á¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ” ËÃ×Íá¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ໚¹ ÃÙ»¸ÃÃÁ«Ö§è ໚¹¤ÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×ÍÃÐËÇ‹Ò§ÃÑ°¡Ñº»ÃЪҪ¹â´Â¼‹Ò¹¡Ãкǹ¡Òà àÃÕ¹ÃٌËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ á¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ4 (Cultural Heritage Atlas) ¤×Í ¨Ø´ÍŒÒ§ÍԧËÇÁ¢Í§·Ø¡ÀҤʋǹ㹡ÒÃÃкطÃѾÂҡ÷ҧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÍѹ໚¹ ·Ø¹·Ò§Êѧ¤Á·ÕÊè Òí ¤ÑޢͧªØÁª¹ â´ÂÁÕ¾¹é× °Ò¹ÁÒ¨Ò¡á¹Ç¤Ô´àÃ×Íè §¡Òà ͹ØÃѡɏÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ·ÕèÁÕªÕÇÔµ (Living Heritage) ์¹¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒªØÁª¹¼‹Ò¹¡Ãкǹ¡ÒèѴ¡Ò÷ÃѾÂҡ÷ҧÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ â´Â à¹×Íé ËÒ¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁÍ‹ҧ¤Ãº¶ŒÇ¹µÑ§é ᵋ¾²Ñ ¹Ò¡Ò÷ҧ»ÃÐÇѵÈÔ ÒʵϢͧ àÁ×ͧ ÊÀҾͧ¤»ÃСͺ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀҾ㹻˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ ÃÇÁ件֧ͧ¤ »ÃСͺ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞÍ×è¹æ ઋ¹ ºŒÒ¹àÃ×͹ࡋÒá¡‹ Ãкº¤Ù¤ÅͧµŒ¹äÁŒãËÞ‹ ¾Ñ¹¸ØäÁŒ¾×鹶Ôè¹ ÏÅÏ Íѹ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹Ë¹Ö觷Õè»ÃСͺ¡Ñ¹à»š¹¤Ø³¤‹ÒËÇÁ (Collective Value) ¢Í§ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ«Öè§ÁÔ㪋ÁÕᵋ âºÃҳʶҹ ÇÑ´ Çѧ ·ÕèÁդس¤‹ÒÊ٧෋ҹÑé¹

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Åíһҧ໚¹¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊíÒ¤ÑިѧËÇѴ˹Ö觷ҧÀÒ¤à˹×Í·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ÊíÒ¤ÑÞŒ͹ä»ä´Œ¶§Ö Âؤ¡‹Í¹»ÃÐÇѵÈÔ ÒʵÏ ¾Ñ²¹Ò¡ÒÃÊÙ‹ ¤Ø »ÃÐÇѵÈÔ ÒʵÏ ¡ÒÃ໚¹¹¤ÃáË‹§ÅŒÒ¹¹Ò¨¹¶Ö§»˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ¾×¹é ·Õ¨è §Ñ ËÇÑ´ÅíÒ»Ò§Âѧ¤§ÁÕªÇÕ µÔ ÁÕàÃ×èͧàÅ‹Ò¢Ò¹ÁÒ¡ÁÒ ÅíÒ»Ò§¨Ö§à»š¹ 1 ã¹ 10 àÁ×ͧࡋҷÕèÁդس¤‹Ò ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞÍѹ´Ñº 15 ·Õ赌ͧÁÕ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃÍ‹ҧà˧´‹Ç¹ ¡ÒèѴ·íÒá¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¨Ö§à»š¹à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í·Õè¨Ð·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃٌËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ 㹡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷í Òá¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¹¤ÃÅí Ò »Ò§ ä´Œ¹íÒ “ËÅÑ¡¡Ò÷íÒá¼¹·ÕèªØÁª¹” ÁÒ㪌´ŒÇ¤ÇÒÁàª×èÍ·ÕèÇ‹Ò ã¹áµ‹ÅÐ ·ŒÍ§¶Ô蹺ŒÒ¹àÁ×ͧŌǹÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ§´§ÒÁ áÅÐËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ¢ͧÁô¡·Ò§ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ÀÒÂ㵌¡ÃͺÇÔ¸Õ¤Ô´·Õ赋ҧ¡Ñ¹ä»µÒÁÊÀÒ¾¢Í§¾×é¹·Õè áÅÐ à§×è͹䢷ҧ»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ 㹡óբͧ¹¤ÃÅíÒ»Ò§¡çઋ¹¡Ñ¹ ໚¹¡Òà ¹íÒàʹÍÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁâ´Â㪌Ἱ·Õè໚¹µÑÇàÅ‹ÒàÃ×èͧ «Ö觨йíÒä» ÊÙ¡‹ ÒþԨÒóÒËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹àÃ×Íè §Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁàÁ×ͧࡋҹ¤ÃÅíÒ»Ò§ â´Â㹡ÒèѴ·íÒä´ŒÁÕ¡ÒáíÒ˹´¾×é¹·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒ áÅÐÊíÒÃǨ¾×é¹·Õèã¹ ºÃÔàdzࢵà·ÈºÒŹ¤ÃÅíÒ»Ò§áÅо×é¹·Õèã¡ÅŒà¤Õ§ËÇÁ´ŒÇÂ

3 4 5 3 4 5

The previous issue of Thailand Nature and Environment magazine presented a story about community map made by children3. Other people can learn the area importance and those childhood memories will help preserve local natural and cultural properties. This issue of “the making of community map for cultural heritage” or “cultural heritage atlas” will present cooperation between government and public through socialization. Cultural heritage atlas4 is a reference for all sectors as an indication of cultural resource. It is an important social capital of community based on the concept of living heritage conservation. Community development emphasizes through cultural resource management process. The contents are completely covered from a history society of city development, current physical features, as well as other important components such as old houses, canal system, trees, local plants, etc. Together these integrate as a collective value of cultural environment which is not just about valuable ancient sites, temples, and palaces.

Example of Lampang City Cultural Heritage Atlas

Lampang is one of the important northern provinces since pre-historical era. It has flourished to historical Lanna till these days. The province is still pretty much alive and has so many stories to tell. Lampang is one of ten old towns with first5 priority on management. The making of cultural heritage atlas is by far a tool for socialization. The cultural heritage atlas making process for Lampang applies “creation principle of community map” on a belief that each community has its own beauty and cultural heritage diversity under the different mindsets dependent upon the area conditions and history. In the case of Lampang, the presentation of cultural heritage by using map as a storyboard. This leads to consideration of cultural heritage of old town Lampang by specifying an area of study and surveying in the Lampang municipality and vicinity.

ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ »‚·Õè 4 ©ºÑº·Õè1 Á.¤.-ÁÕ.¤. 51 â´Â »ÃÐʧ¤ àÍÕèÂÁ͹ѹµ áÅÐÇÃÈÑ¡´Ôì ¾‹Ç§à¨ÃÔÞ á¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¨Ð¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹ÁÒ Åѡɳзҧ¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ »˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ ÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ áÅл˜ÞËÒ¤ÇÒÁ¤Ø¡¤ÒÁ¢Í§¾×é¹·Õè ÁÒ»ÃСͺ¡Ñº á¼¹·Õè·Ò§ÀÙÁÔÈÒʵÏà¾×èÍ� àÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 30 ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á áÅÐ 23 ¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á 2547 â´Â¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹Ò¡ÃاÃѵ¹â¡ÊÔ¹·ÃáÅÐàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò Thailand Nature and Environment magazine 4th Year, Issue 1, Jan - Mar 2008, Prasong Eiam - Anant and Warasak Phuangchareon Cultural Heritage Atlas covers history, origin, geology, presence, importance, and threat over the area supplemented with geographical atlas used for community’s reference for participation on planning and direction for appropriate area conservation and development On 30th August and 23rd December 2004, by the Committee on Conservation and Development of Krung Rattanakosin and Old Towns

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒèѴ·íÒá¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ

¡‹Í¹Ë¹ŒÒ¹Õ¤é ¹ÅíÒ»Ò§¡çÁ¤Õ ÇÒÁ¾ÂÒÂÒÁ·Õ¨è Ð͹ØÃ¡Ñ É ¿„¹œ ¿Ù¤³Ø ¤‹Ò áÅÐÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨à¡ÕèÂǡѺºŒÒ¹àÁ×ͧÅíÒ»Ò§ ᵋ¡çäÁ‹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ¤×ºË¹ŒÒà·‹Ò㴹ѡ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹é ã¹ÃÐÂÐàÃÔÁè µŒ¹¢Í§¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¨íÒµŒÍ§¡ÃеعŒ ÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁµ×è¹µÑǢͧ¼ÙŒ¤¹ÅíÒ»Ò§ã¹àÃ×èͧàÁ×ͧࡋÒâ´Â¡Òþº»Ð áÅ¡à»ÅÕè¹ ¢ŒÍÁÙŤÇÒÁÃÙŒ áÅТ‹ÒÇÊÒÃàÃ×èͧàÁ×ͧÅíһҧ໚¹¡Ô¨Çѵà â´ÂÁÕʶҹ·Õè¡ÅÒ§·ÕèàÃÕ¡¢Ò¹¡Ñ¹Ç‹Ò “àÁ×ͧࡋҤÒ࿆” ·íÒãˌ䴌¼ÙŒÊ¹ã¨ ÁÒËÇÁ໚¹ “·ÕÁ§Ò¹” Í‹ҧËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂ㹡ÒÃ໚¹ÍÒÊÒÊÁѤ÷Õè¨Ð ËÇÁ´íÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà ·Ñ§é ·ÕÁè ÒËÇÁŧ¾×¹é ·ÕÊè Òí ÃǨÊ׺¤Œ¹¨ÃÔ§ áÅÐÁÒáÅ¡à»ÅÕÂè ¹ ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ·Ò§»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵϢͧ¾×é¹·Õè ¨¹¡Ãзѧè ÁÕ¡ÒÃແ´µÑÇ “â¤Ã§¡ÒèѴ·íÒá¼¹·ÕÁè ô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¹¤ÃÅíÒ»Ò§” Í‹ҧ໚¹·Ò§¡Òà ¨Ñ´¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁãËŒà´ç¡æ ä´ŒÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ·Ñ駨ҡÇÔ·ÂÒ¡ÃáÅСÒÃàÊǹҫÖè§à»š¹¡ÒÃÊÌҧ¡ÒÃÃѺÃÙŒ¨Ò¡¼ÙŒ¤¹ã¹ ¾×¹é ·Õè ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé Âѧʋ§àÊÃÔÁ¡ÒÃÁÕÊÇ‹ ¹Ã‹ÇÁ¢Í§¤¹ã¹·ŒÍ§¶Ô¹è â´Â¡Òà ãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑޡѺ¡ÒäԴàͧ ·íÒàͧ ¢Í§¼ÙŒ¤¹äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨Ðʋǹ㴡çµÒÁ â´ÂÁÕ “·ÕÁ§Ò¹” ËÃ×ÍÍÒÊÒÊÁѤôѧ¡Å‹ÒÇãËŒ¤ÇÒÁª‹ÇÂàËÅ×Íã¹´ŒÒ¹ µ‹Ò§æ ·ÕèÂѧ¢Ò´ÍÂÙ‹ â´Â¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ˹Ö觷Õèà¡Ô´µÒÁÁÒ ¤×Í ¡ÒÃͺÃÁ ¹Ñ¡Ê׺¹ŒÍ ËÃ×ͤ¹ÊíÒÃǨà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃŧÊíÒÃǨ¾×é¹·Õè¨ÃÔ§ â´Â໚¹¡Òà á¹Ðá¹Ç·Ò§áÅСÃкǹ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ÊíÒÃǨàÁ×ͧࡋÒÍ‹ҧ໚¹¢Ñ¹é µÍ¹ µÒÁËÅÑ¡ÇÔªÒ¡Òà «Ö觡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙŒ¨Ò¡¡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷íҧҹ໚¹ÊÔè§ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ ÁÒ¡¡Ñº¡ÒùíÒä»ãªŒ»ÃÐ⪹¢Í§µÑÇà´ç¡æ àͧ ·Ñé§ã¹¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ àÃ×èͧàÁ×ͧࡋÒáÅЧҹÍ×è¹æ ´ŒÇ ¡ÒÃŧ¾×é¹·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒÊíÒÃǨ áŌǹíÒ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ¡ÅѺÊÙ‹¾×é¹·Õèã¹ÃٻẺ ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁáÅÐàÇ·ÕªØÁª¹ÃÇÁ¶Ö§¡ÒÃÊÑÁÀÒɳ»ÃЪҪ¹ã¹ªØÁª¹µ‹Ò§æ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¨Ð໚¹¡ÒÃä´Œ¢ŒÍÁÙž×é¹·Õè¨ÃÔ§à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ¨Ò¡¢ŒÍÁÙÅÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃáÅŒÇ Âѧª‹ÇÂãËŒ¼ÙŒ¤¹ÅíÒ»Ò§·ÕèÍÂÙ‹áÅÐäÁ‹ä´ŒÍÂÙ‹ã¹¾×é¹·Õè·Õè໚¹àÁ×ͧࡋÒä´Œ·íÒ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ¨Ñ¡¾×é¹·Õè¢Í§µ¹àͧ «Ö觹͡¨Ò¡¨Ð෋ҡѺ໚¹¡Ò÷íÒ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ¨Ñ¡ µÑǵ¹¢Í§µ¹àͧáÅŒÇ Âѧª‹ÇÂãËŒà¡Ô´¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÃٌ䴌àË繫Ö觡ѹáÅСѹ ¡Ñº¤¹Í×è¹æ ã¹¾×é¹·Õèà´ÕÂǡѹáÅо×é¹·ÕèÍ×è¹æ ÍÕ¡´ŒÇ «Ö觨йíÒä»ÊÙ‹ ¡ÒÃàª×èÍÁâ§ãËŒàËç¹ÀÒ¾ÃÇÁàÁ×ͧÅíһҧ䴌 ·íÒãˌࢌÒ㨻˜¨¨ØºÑ¹·Õè ໚¹ÍÂÙ‹«Öè§à»š¹¼Å¨Ò¡¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§µ‹Ò§æ áÅÐÊÒÁÒö¨Ñ´¡ÒáѺ ÊÀÒ¾»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ä´Œ áÅзŒÒ·ÕèÊØ´¹Ñé¹à¾×èÍÊÒÁÒö¡íÒ˹´Í¹Ò¤µ¢Í§ µ¹àͧáÅзŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ä´Œ¶Ù¡·Ôȶ١·Ò§µÒÁ·Õè¤ÇèÐ໚¹

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The Process of Making Cultural Heritage Atlas

Although progress seems slow, The residents of Lampang have recently tried to preserve, restore, and promote knowledge and understanding about Lampang. However, the progress seems frailly slow. Thus, in this process, the initial stage of working is to motivate residents about old town through exchanging of knowledge, data, and information about Lampang on regular basis at a meeting point named the “Old Town cafe”. This cafa invites many interested people to form a team that consists of various groups of volunteers to collaboratively conduct field surveys and exchange the area historical data. The official opening of “Lampang City Cultural Heritage Atlas Project,” creates knowledgeable activities for children are through experts, talks and interactions. Moreover the local residents’ participation is promoted to emphasize the concept of “thinking and doing on oneself”. “Team” or volunteer groups support on many activities like the little investigator or surveyor training as a field guide. Surveys of old town follow academic principles. Learning actually doing in the field is very important which will benefit the children not only in the old town tasks but in other jobs as well. Data gathered from the field survey used for activities and community forum including people interviews are academically supplied. This helps Lampang residents who live inside or outside the old town to better know their areas. Besides self recognition, they learn how to share knowledge with other people who live in the same or different areas. This leads to a complete picture of Lampang city. Through understanding of current circumstances impacted by several of changes, they will be able to handle the can control situations and able to in the end set future goal for themselves and their community.


¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse ¨Ö§ÁÔä´Œ·¨èÕ Ð໚¹à¾Õ§Ἱ·ÕÁè ô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ·Õãè ËŒÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´ ÅÖ¡«Öé§Ãͺ´ŒÒ¹ã¹á§‹¢Í§»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏàªÔ§ºÃÃÂÒ «Öè§à»š¹Ë¹Ñ§Ê×Í ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙ‹áÅŒÇÍ‹ҧÁÒ¡ÁÒÂã¹·Ø¡¾×é¹·Õè ᵋ໚¹¡ÒÃàª×èÍÁ⧢ŒÍÁÙÅ·Ò§ »ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵϴѧ¡Å‹ÒÇ áÅТŒÍÁÙÅàªÔ§»ÃШѡɏ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊíÒÃǨÀÒ¤ ʹÒÁࢌÒÊÙ‹¼Ñ§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ ¼‹Ò¹¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˏáÅÐÊѧà¤ÃÒÐˏ¢ŒÍÁÙÅÍ‹ҧ ÁÕÊÇ‹ ¹Ã‹ÇÁ à¾×Íè ·Õ¨è Ðä´Œ¹Òí ä»ãªŒà»š¹°Ò¹¤Ô´áÅТŒÍÁÙÅ͌ҧÍԧ㹡Ãкǹ¡Òà ÇҧἹã¹ÃдѺ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ä´ŒÍ‹ҧàËÁÒÐÊÁáÅÐ໚¹ÃÙ»¸ÃÃÁÁÒ¡ ÂÔ觢Öé¹

Therefore, this is not only a detailed cultural heritage atlas that gives ordinary descriptive information as can be found in general history books, but a inter linkage of historical data and evidence based data acquired from field surveys that put into a physical chart through quantitative analysis and synthesis. So this can be used as a knowledge base and reference for a more appropriate and practical local planning.

á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒùíÒá¼¹·ÕèÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁä»ãªŒã¹Í¹Ò¤µ

Future Use of Cultural Heritage Atlas

á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒùíÒá¼¹·Õ´è §Ñ ¡Å‹ÒÇä»ãªŒ»ÃÐ⪹ ÁÕ 4 á¹Ç·Ò§ËÅÑ¡ ¤×Í 1) ໚¹°Ò¹¢ŒÍÁÙÅÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ·ÕèÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»ÍŒÒ§ÍÔ§ ËÃ×Í»ÃÐÂØ¡µãªŒã¹§Ò¹Í×è¹æ ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駡ÒÃÇҧἹ͹ØÃѡɏ áÅоѲ¹Òã¹ÃдѺ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ 2) ໚¹à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í·Õ誋ÇÂ㹡ÒõÃǨÊͺ ཇÒÃÐÇѧ¡ÒþѲ¹Ò·ÕèäÁ‹àËÁÒÐÊÁáÅеÃǨÊͺ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·Õè ¨Ð·íÒÅÒ¤س¤‹Ò¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¾×é¹·Õè 3) Ê‹§àÊÃÔÁ¡ÒÃÁÕʋǹËÇÁ ¢Í§¤¹·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ã¹¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃÇҧἹáÅкÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃÁô¡·Ò§ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§µ¹ áÅÐ 4) ¡ÒÃÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨à¡ÕèÂǡѺ ¤Ø³¤‹Ò¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¾×é¹·Õèà¾×èÍÊÌҧ¡ÒÃÃѺÃÙŒÊÒ¸ÒóРÍѹ¨Ð¹íÒä»ÊÙ‹ ¤ÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×ͧ͢·Ø¡ÀҤʋǹ㹡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹Òµ‹Íä»ã¹ ͹Ҥµß

There are 4 approaches for the atlas utilization: 1) used as a database for cultural heritage which can be referred or applied for other tasks including conservation and development of local planning, 2) used as a tool for monitoring or watching inappropriate developments and changes that resulted in value damaging, 3) used to promote community’s participation on cultural heritage planning and management process, and 4) used to create knowledge and understanding of area value in order to draw public awareness on cooperation among all parts for future conservation and development.ß

͌ҧÍÔ§ Reference:

Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂ� Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, 2007, Lampang City Cultural Heritage Atlas, Natural and Cultural Environmental Conservation Division, Bangkok

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÃÒ¡°Ò¹ÊíÒ¤ÑޢͧÊѧ¤Áä·Â Old Towns: the Foundation of Thai Society ¡ÔµµÔÁÒ ÂÔ¹à¨ÃÔÞ1 1 Kittima Yincharoen

ã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â»ÃÒ¡¯àÁ×ͧࡋÒÁÒ¡ÁÒ¡ÃШÒÂÍÂÙ‹ã¹·Ø¡ÀÒ¤ ¢Í§»ÃÐà·È àÁ×ͧࡋҨíҹǹÁҡ໚¹¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕ»ÃЪҡÃ㪌»ÃÐ⪹ ໚¹·ÕèµÑ駪ØÁª¹µ‹Íà¹×èͧÁÒ¨¹¶Ö§»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ àÁ×ͧࡋÒàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé ÁÕ»ÃÐÇÑµÔ ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹ÁÒÂÒǹҹ ÁÕàÃ×èͧÃÒǢͧ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·Ò§Êѧ¤ÁáÅÐ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁµÒÁª‹Ç§àÇÅÒµ‹Ò§æ Í‹ҧÁÒ¡ÁÒ «Ö§è ÊÒÁÒö㪌໚¹µÑÇÍ‹ҧ 㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·íÒ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨àÃ×Íè §·ÔÈ·Ò§áÅÐá¹Ç⹌Á¢Í§¡ÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§ Êѧ¤ÁáÅÐÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÁ¹Øɏ䴌໚¹Í‹ҧ´Õ 1 1

There are many old towns scattered throughout all regions of Thailand. Many of them have been home to people until the present day. These old towns have long histories and so many stories about social and cultural change through time which can be used as learning guides to understand the directions and trends of such changes.

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 8Ç Êíҹѡ§Ò¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ Environmental Official, Level 8, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning

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¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse ã¹»˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ·Ø¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÁÕ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§·Ñ§é ´ŒÒ¹¡ÒÂÀÒ¾áÅÐÊѧ¤Á ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÍ‹ҧÁÒ¡áÅÐÃÇ´àÃçÇ Ê‹§¼Å¡Ãзºµ‹ÍËͧÃÍÂáÅзíÒàÅ ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞµ‹Í¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÇѵԤÇÒÁ໚¹ÁÒ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駾×é¹·Õè·Õè໚¹ àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊ·Õè¨Ð¶Ù¡à»ÅÕè¹ÊÀÒ¾ËÃ×Ͷ١·íÒÅÒÂä»Í‹ҧÊÔé¹àªÔ§ ¨Ö§¤ÇÃÁÕ¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ§é ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§àËÅ‹Ò¹Õé à¾×Íè ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉÃÍ‹ §ÃÍ áÅзíÒàźҧʋǹ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞµ‹Í¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÇѵԤÇÒÁ໚¹ÁÒ áÅСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§àÁ×ͧࡋÒã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂäÇŒ ÁÔãËŒàÊ×èÍÁÊÀÒ¾ áÅÐÃÑ¡ÉÒÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÊÁÑÂÍ´ÕµàËÅ‹Ò¹Õäé ÇŒãˌ໚¹ÊÁºÑµµÔ ¡·Í´ á¡‹»ÃЪҡÃÃØ‹¹ÅÙ¡ËÅÒ¹Ê×ºä» Êíҹѡ¹Ò¡ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ ä´ŒÍÍ¡ÃÐàºÕºNjҴŒÇ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅÐ ¾Ñ²¹Ò¡ÃاÃѵ¹â¡ÊÔ¹·ÃáÅÐàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¾.È. 2546 áÅÐä´ŒãËŒ¹ÔÂÒÁ ¤íÒÇ‹Ò “àÁ×ͧࡋҔ ´Ñ§¹Õé

Physical and socio - cultural changes are prevalent and rapid in all provinces. They have effects on trails and sites which are crucial for the study of history. Areas of old town may have been altered or destroyed entirely before their time. So, there should be some preventive strategies to safeguard parts of the trails and vital sites for the study of history and prevent change and damage to the old towns. Historical cultural heritage must be saved for future generations. The Office of the Prime Minister issued a regulation on the conservation and development of Krung Rattanakosin and old towns in 2003. It defined “old towns” as:

- àÁ×ͧËÃ×ͺÃÔàdz¢Í§àÁ×ͧ·ÕÁè ÅÕ ¡Ñ ɳоÔàÈÉ੾ÒÐáË‹§Ê׺µ‹Í ÁÒᵋ¡ÒÅ¡‹Í¹ ËÃ×ÍÁÕÅѡɳÐ໚¹àÍ¡Åѡɳ¢Í§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ·ŒÍ§¶Ô¹è ËÃ×ÍÁÕÅ¡Ñ É³Ð¨íÒà¾ÒТͧÊÁÑÂ˹֧è ã¹»ÃÐÇѵÈÔ ÒʵÏ - àÁ×ͧËÃ×ͺÃÔàdz¢Í§àÁ×ͧ·ÕèÁÕÃٻẺ¼ÊÁ¼Êҹʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁµ‹Ò§¶Ô¹è ËÃ×ÍÁÕÅ¡Ñ É³Ð໚¹ÃٻẺÇÔÇ²Ñ ¹Ò¡Ò÷ҧÊѧ¤Á ·ÕèÊ׺µ‹ÍÁÒã¹Âؤµ‹Ò§æ - àÁ×ͧËÃ×ͺÃÔàdz¢Í§àÁ×ͧ·Õèà¤Â໚¹µÑÇàÁ×ͧ´Ñé§à´ÔÁã¹ÊÁÑ ˹Öè§áÅÐÂѧ¤§ÁÕÅѡɳÐà´‹¹»ÃСͺ´ŒÇÂâºÃҳʶҹ - àÁ×ͧËÃ×ͺÃÔàdz¢Í§àÁ×ͧ«Ö§è â´ÂËÅÑ¡°Ò¹·Ò§»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ ËÃ×Íâ´ÂÍÒÂØ ËÃ×Íâ´ÂÅѡɳÐáË‹§Ê¶Ò»˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁ ËÃ×ͤس¤‹Ò ã¹·Ò§ÈÔŻРâºÃÒ³¤´Õ ËÃ×Í»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ

- towns or areas of town which contain unique characteristics from the past or localities which have distinctive cultural features specific to a certain period of history, - towns or areas of town which contain various architectural styles or evidence of patterns of continuous social evolution, - towns or areas of towns which are of original construction and still outstanding examples of ancient remains, and - towns or areas of towns which contain historic evidence, dates, architectural designs, or value in terms of art, archeology, or history.

¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧࡋÒã¹àªÔ§Í¹ØÃѡɏ¹Ñé¹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ ÍѵÅѡɳ ¤Ø³ÅѡɳÐ੾ÒÐ ºÙóÀÒ¾ áÅÐ ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¢Í§à´ÔÁá·Œ¢Í§àÁ×ͧࡋÒáÅŒÇ ¨ÐµŒÍ§¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§Ãкº¹ÔàÇȢͧ àÁ×ͧ´ŒÇ ÍÒ·Ô ÊÒ¹éíÒËÃ×ÍáËÅ‹§¹éíÒ·ÕèËÅ‹ÍàÅÕé§àÁ×ͧ Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ à¡ÉµÃâ´ÂÃͺàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò áÅÐÃкº¹ÔàÇȸÃÃÁªÒµÔ·ÕèÁÕ¼Åà¡ÕèÂÇà¹×èͧ¡Ñº àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò à¾ÃÒÐÃкº¹ÔàÇÈàËÅ‹Ò¹ÕÂé Í‹ ÁÁÕ¼Å㹡Ò÷íÒãËŒàÁ×ͧࡋÒÊÒÁÒö ´íÒçÍÂÙä‹ ´ŒÍ‹ҧÂѧè Â×¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹é ÀÒ¾¢Í§¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¨Ö§ÁÕºÃÔº··Õè¡ÇŒÒ§¢ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ÂѧµŒÍ§ºÙóҡÒÃÈÒʵÏ µ‹Ò§æ ࢌÒÁÒª‹Ç§ҹ´ŒÒ¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ áÅÐÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁãËŒ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ä´ŒÁÕ Ê‹Ç¹Ã‹ÇÁ㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ ¡Åä¡ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒõÒÁÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ É¾²Ñ ¹Ò àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¾.È. 2548 - 2552 ·Õ褳ÐÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕÁÕÁµÔàË繪ͺàÁ×èÍ Çѹ·Õè 4 Á¡ÃÒ¤Á ¾.È. 2548 䴌ᡋ ¡®ËÁÒ «Ö觡®ËÁÒ·Õè à¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¡Ñº¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÁÕËÅÒ©ºÑº áÅÐËÅÒ ÅѡɳРáÅзÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§â´ÂµÃ§ 䴌ᡋ ÃÐàºÕºÊíҹѡ¹Ò¡ ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹Ò¡ÃاÃѵ¹â¡ÊÔ¹·ÃáÅÐàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¾.È. 2546 ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑÞÞѵԡÒüѧàÁ×ͧ ¾.È. 2518 áÅзÕèá¡Œä¢ à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑÞÞѵÔâºÃҳʶҹ âºÃÒ³Çѵ¶Ø ÈÔÅ»Çѵ¶Ø áÅоԾԸÀѳ±Ê¶Ò¹áË‹§ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2504 áÅзÕèá¡Œä¢à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑÞÞѵԤǺ¤ØÁÍÒ¤Òà ¾.È. 2522 áÅзÕèá¡Œä¢à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑÞÞѵÊÔ §‹ àÊÃÔÁáÅÐÃÑ¡ÉҤسÀÒ¾ÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁáË‹§ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2535

Conservation development of the old towns, should concern about their valuable architecture, identity, uniqueness, completeness and originality. In addition, the ecosystem of the towns, such as the streams or water resources that nourish the towns, the ecosystems around old towns, and nature related to the old towns must also be concerned. Since the ecosystem can affect the sustainability of the old towns, conservation and development of old towns must take place in a broad framework. Moreover, many fields of science should also be integrated into the work of conservation and promotion with more local participation. The law is the key mechanism for the strategic conservation and development of old towns, and a plan for 2005 - 2009 was approved by cabinet on the 4th of January 2005. There are several laws in various categories governing the conservation and development of old towns. These include the regulations on conservation and development of Krung Rattanakosin and old towns 2003, Town Planning Act 1975 and amendment, 39


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

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Ancient Monuments, Antiques and National Museums Act in 1961 and amendment, Building Control Act 1979 and amendment, and Enhancement and conservation of National Environmental Quality Act 1992. Moreover, individual provinces may issue city ordinances in order to control activities that are deemed inappropriate for the areas of old towns. The general public may also propose to its local administration that it issue a local statute which has the power granted by the Local Statute Proposal Act 1999 On the conservation of historic towns, Sir Bernard Feildenstates that preservation of uniqueness, landscape, and restoration of old towns consists of four elements, which are integrated conservation with city planning, control of change, infill design, and administrative actions. Nid Hinchirananthm2 once recommended six elements in the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, which are consideration of land utilization, consideration of development and construction, conservation, transportation, control of public service, and establishment of a specific committee for general issues. There should be special conservation programs for old towns with original settlement. Prasong Eiam - anant3 recommended four elements in the conservation of early communities in northern Thailand, which are the conservation of concepts, conservation of styles, conservation of craftsmanship, and conservation of building materials. However, problems and threats from the development of old towns in Thailand are facing now can be summed up as cultural heritage disturbance, improper construction around the area, faulty restoration of ancient remains, road pavement and infrastructure development that destroy the structure and atmosphere of old towns, to name just a few. Causes are various and multifaceted, for example, the lack of consciousness and realization of the value of old towns that leads to improper development and the destruction of cultural heritage in old towns, the lack of data about old towns, the lack of cooperation and good protection for old towns especially those with urban development, the lack

Í´Õµ¼ÙŒ·Ã§¤Ø³ÇزÔ㹤³Ð͹ءÃÃÁ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ »Ãиҹ͹ءÃÃÁ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ Former expert for the Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage President of the Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage

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¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse µÒÁËÅÑ ¡ ÇÔ ª Ò¡Òà áÅСÒõѴ¶¹¹áÅоѲ¹ÒÊÒ¸Òóٻ âÀ¤ ÊÒ¸Òóٻ¡Ò÷շè Òí ÅÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧáÅкÃÃÂÒ¡ÒȢͧàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÊÒà赯 ¢Í§»˜ÞËҴѧ¡Å‹ÒÇÁÕËÅÒ»ÃÐà´ç¹ áÅФ‹Í¹¢ŒÒ§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ«Ñº«ŒÍ¹ 䴌ᡋ ¡ÒâҴ¨ÔµÊíÒ¹Ö¡áÅФÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡÃٌ㹤س¤‹Ò¢Í§àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò «Ö觷íÒãËŒà¡Ô´»˜ÞËÒ¡ÒþѲ¹Ò·ÕèäÁ‹àËÁÒÐÊÁ ¡Ò÷íÒÅÒÂÁô¡·Ò§ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁã¹àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¡ÒâҴ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒâŒÍÁÙÅ·Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§¡ÑºàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¡ÒâҴ¡ÒûÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Ò÷Õè´Õ㹡Òû¡»˜¡ÃÑ¡ÉÒ àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò â´Â੾ÒзÕèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¡Ñº¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧ ¡ÒâҴ¡Òà ʹѺʹع´ŒÒ¹ÁҵáÒ÷ҧ¡®ËÁÒÂáÅÐÃкºáç¨Ù§ã¨ áÅСÒâҴ ¹âºÒÂʹѺʹعãËŒä»ã¹·ÔÈ·Ò§à´ÕÂǡѹ¨Ò¡·Ø¡ÀҤʋǹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ à¾×èÍá¡Œ»˜ÞËÒ·Õ赌¹à˵ب֧µŒÍ§´íÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹µÒÁËÅÑ¡¡Òà 㹡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò «Öè§ÊÒÁÒöÊÃػ䴌໚¹ 7 àÃ×èͧ 䴌ᡋ 1) ¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒàÍ¡Åѡɳ¢Í§àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò 2) ¡ÒáíÒ˹´¢Íº ࢵ¾×é¹·Õèà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒãËŒªÑ´à¨¹ 3) ¡Òÿ„œ¹¿ÙÍÒ¤Òà ÊÔ觡‹ÍÊÌҧ ÅѡɳÐÀÙÁÔ·Ñȹ ¾×ª¾Ãó áÅÐáËÅ‹§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ·Õè àÊ×èÍÁâ·ÃÁáÅж١·íÒÅÒÂä»ãËŒ¡ÅѺ¤×¹ÊÀÒ¾ 4) ¡ÒÃàÊÃÔÁÊÌҧͧ¤ »ÃСͺµ‹Ò§æ ¢Í§àÁ×ͧãËŒÊÒÁÒö´íÒà¹Ô¹¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁã¹Êѧ¤ÁËÇÁÊÁÑ 䴌â´ÂäÁ‹·íÒÅÒ¤س¤‹ÒÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ 5) ¡ÒáíÒ˹´¡®à¡³± ÃÐàºÕº ¡®ËÁÒ ¢ŒÍºÑ§¤Ñº á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧ ÃÇÁ·Ñé§ ÁҵáÒÃáç¨Ù§ã¨à¾×Íè ãËŒÁ¡Õ ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉàÁ×ͧãˌ䴌¼Å 6) ¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒÃкºÊÒ¸ÒóٻâÀ¤ ÊÒ¸Òóٻ¡Ò÷Õè·Ñ¹ÊÁÑ Êдǡ áÅÐ »ÅÍ´ÀÑ ᵋ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÊÍ´¤ÅŒÍ§¡Ñºâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ¢Í§àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò áÅÐ 7) ¡ÒáíÒ˹´ËÃ×Íᵋ§µÑ駤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃàÁ×ͧࡋÒÃдѺ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹à¾×èÍ ÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº´íÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹à¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò á¹Ç·Ò§ã¹¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒàÍ¡Åѡɳ¢Í§ªØÁª¹ã¹àÁ×ͧࡋÒÁÕÍÂÙ‹ËÅÒ »ÃСÒà ·Ñé§ã¹´ŒÒ¹¢Í§¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÊíÒÃǨ ÃÐºØ áÅШѴ·íÒ·ÐàºÕ¹ áËÅ‹§·ÕÁè ¤Õ ³Ø ¤‹ÒÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅÐÁô¡·Ò§¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒ Ã³Ã§¤ áÅÐÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁãËŒÁÕ¡ÒûÅÙ¡¾×ª¾Ñ¹¸Ø· ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ ¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒáÁ‹¹éíÒ ¤Ù¤Åͧ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкº·ÕèÇ‹Ò§ áÅзÕèâÅ‹§ã¹àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅР͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉÃ»Ù áººÍÒ¤Ò÷ÕÁè ¤Õ ³Ø ¤‹Ò ¡ÒÃÇҧἹÃкº¶¹¹ ÊÒ¸ÒóٻâÀ¤ ÊÒ¸Òóٻ¡Òà ¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹Òͧ¤»ÃСͺËÅÑ¡¢Í§àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ·Ñ§é ¡íÒᾧàÁ×ͧ »ÃеÙàÁ×ͧ â´Â¾ÂÒÂÒÁÃÑ¡ÉÒÇÑÊ´Ø áÅТ¹Ò´ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é ¡ÒÃÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁáÅÐÇÔ¶ÕªÕÇÔµ·ŒÍ§¶Ôè¹ ã¹´ŒÒ¹¢Í§¡Òÿ„œ¹¿ÙªØÁª¹áÅÐàÁ×ͧ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÂÑè§Â×¹ ÊÒÁÒö ·íÒä´Œâ´Â¡ÒÃÊÌҧ°Ò¹¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹â´ÂªØÁª¹ ÇÒ§Ãкºã¹¡Òà Ê׺·Í´ª‹Ò§½‚Á×ÍáÅÐÇÑÊ´Ø¡‹ÍÊÌҧ â´Â੾ÒСÒÃàµÃÕÂÁ¾×é¹·Õèà¾×èÍ

of legal support and incentives as well as policy support from all sectors. Consequently, in order to solve the problems at their causes, the principles of conservation and development of old towns must follow these seven concepts, which are; the uniqueness preservation of old towns; the determination of precise boundaries for conservation and development; the restoration of deteriorated or destroyed constructions, landscape, flora and natural sources back to their original state; the creation of contemporary activities as urban components without destroying the value of cultural heritage; the determination of law and order as well as directions for urban development and incentives for conservation and effective urban development; the development of modern, convenient, and safe infrastructure in line with the structure of old towns; and the establishment of a local committee responsible for development of old towns. There are many ways which can be used to preserve the uniqueness of communities in old towns. Examples are studying, surveying, specifying, and registering valuable cultural and natural heritages; preserving, campaigning, and promoting local species planting; preserving waterways; studying empty and open space systems in the old towns; studying and conserving valuable building architecture; planning road and infrastructure systems, and preserving and developing the main components of old towns such as city walls and gates complete with the preservation of materials and the promotion of activities and local ways of life. As for the sustainable restoration of communities and urban areas, a community responsible should be set up. Especially in terms of woud the preparation of woud by planting trees to repair the building. This will ensure that communities will have wood to use for repairing broken preserved buildings in the old towns. The obstacle for the conservation of old towns in Thailand is strategic to implement including the presence of laws and incentives. As widely accepted in general, successful conservation of old towns may be classified into five categories ranking from the most difficult to the easiest, which are: 1) the right of ownership by the state; 2) law issuance both hard and soft regulation; 3) incentives such as money support like grants, 41


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

»ÅÙ¡ÊÌҧÊǹ»†Ò ÊíÒËÃѺ¹íÒäÁŒÁÒ㪌㹡Òë‹ÍÁá«ÁÍÒ¤ÒÃÍѹ¤Çà ͹ØÃѡɏã¹àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¡ÒáíÒ˹´á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÍÒ¤Òà áÅРͧ¤»ÃСͺµ‹Ò§æ ¢Í§àÁ×ͧ ·Ñ駹ÕéÊÔ觷Õè໚¹ÍØ»ÊÃäÁÒ¡·ÕèÊش㹡Òà ´íÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒôŒÒ¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏàÁ×ͧࡋÒã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â 䴌ᡋ ÁҵáÒà 㹡ÒùíÒä»ÊÙ¡‹ Òû¯ÔºµÑ Ô «Ö§è ÁÑ¡¨Ð䴌ᡋ ¡®ËÁÒÂáÅÐáç¨Ù§ã¨ â´Â ·ÑèÇä»à·‹Ò·ÕèÁÕ¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔã¹ÊÒ¡ÅâÅ¡ ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ãËŒÊÑÁÄ·¸Ôì¼Å ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÁÕà¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í (tools) ·Õè¨Ð¹íÒÁÒ㪌 «Öè§à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇÊÒÁÒöẋ§ä´Œà»š¹ 5 á¹Ç·Ò§ àÃÕ§µÒÁÅíҴѺ¤ÇÒÁÂÒ¡ §‹Ò ´Ñ§¹Õé 1) ¡ÒäÃͺ¤Ãͧ¡ÃÃÁÊÔ·¸Ôì·Õè´Ô¹áÅÐÍÒ¤ÒÃâ´ÂÃÑ° 2) ¡ÒÃÍÍ¡¡®ËÁÒ ·Ñ駢ŒÍºÑ§¤Ñºáººà¢ŒÁ§Ç´ áÅТŒÍºÑ§¤Ñº Ẻ͋͹ 3) ¡ÒÃÊÌҧáç¨Ù§ã¨ ÍÒ·Ô ¡ÒÃãËŒà§Ô¹Ê¹ÑºÊ¹Ø¹ ·Ñé§ãˌẺ ãËŒà»Å‹Ò ËÃ×ÍẺÊÁ·º ¡ÒÃãËŒÊÔ·¸Ô¾ÔàÈÉ·Ò§ÀÒÉÕ ·Ñ駡Òà ŴÀÒÉÕà§Ô¹ä´Œ áÅСÒÃÅ´ÀÒÉÕâçàÃ×͹áÅзÕè´Ô¹ 4) ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹ËÃ×Íâ͹ÊÔ·¸Ô㹡ÒþѲ¹Ò·ÃѾÊÔ¹ â´Â㪌 à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Íã¹àÃ×èͧ¢Í§¡ÒáíÒ˹´à¾´Ò¹¢Í§¡ÒþѲ¹Ò ¡Òà ¡íÒ˹´ÇÔ¸Õ¡Òë×éÍËÃ×Íâ͹ÊÔ·¸Ô áÅСÒáíÒ˹´µÑÇ¡ÅÒ§ 㹡ÒÃà¨Ã¨ÒáÅСíÒ˹´¢ŒÍáÅ¡à»ÅÕè¹ 5) ¡ÒÃãËŒ¢ÍŒ ÁÙÅ¢‹ÒÇÊÒà ·Ñ§é ¡ÒÃÃкØáÅкѹ·Ö¡·Õâè ´Â¹Ñ ËÁÒ¶֧ ¡ÒâÖé¹·ÐàºÕ¹ËÃ×Í¢Ö鹺ÑÞªÕ Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¡Òà ÃѺÃͧNjÒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ¡ÒÃÂÍÁÃѺ ¡ÒÃÊ‹§àÊÃÔÁ ʹѺʹع ¡ÒèѴ·íÒ¤Ù‹Á×Íà·¤¹Ô¤¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ¡ÒÃãËŒ¤ÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×Í ¡Òà ¡ÒÃãËŒ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Ñ駷ÄÉ®ÕáÅл¯ÔºÑµÔ áÅСÒÃ⹌Á¹ŒÒÇ ·Ñ§é ¹Õé ÃٻẺ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Ò÷Õàè ËÁÒÐÊÁ㹡óվ¹é× ·Õàè Á×Í§à¡‹Ò ã¹ÀÒ¤à˹×Í ÍÒ¨¨ÐÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»»ÃÐÂØ¡µãªŒ¡ÑºàÁ×ͧࡋÒÍ×è¹æ ä´Œ â´ÂÊÒÁÒöẋ§ä´Œà»š¹ 3 àÃ×èͧãËÞ‹æ 䴌ᡋ 1. ¡ÒèѴµÑé§Í§¤¡ÃËÃ×ͼٌÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº´ŒÒ¹àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ·Ñé§ ¤³Ð͹ءÃÃÁ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒáÅÐ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉàÁ×ͧࡋÒÃдѺ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é ·ŒÍ§¶Ô¹è ઋ¹ à·ÈºÒÅ ÍÒ¨¨Ñ´µÑ駤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃËÃ×ͤ³Ð·íÒ§Ò¹·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ ¡Ñº¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏàÁ×ͧࡋÒä´Œ ·Ñ駹Õé »ÃÐà´ç¹¢Í§¤³Ð·íÒ§Ò¹ËÃ×Í ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Ò÷ÕÃè ºÑ ¼Ô´ªÍºà¡ÕÂè ǡѺàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò äÁ‹ä´ŒÍÂÙ·‹ ¡èÕ ÒÃÁÕËÃ×ÍäÁ‹Á¡Õ Òà 42

matching grants, tax incentives, income tax reduction, and property tax reduction; 4) change/transfer of right of properties development by using development ceiling determination as a tool, determination of buying or transferring of rights, and determination of negotiation intermediaries; and 5) information supply for both identification and documentation such as registration or listing of cultural heritage, validation, recognition, promotion, creation of manuals for preservation and maintenance techniques, coordination, education, and persuasion or exhortation. The appropriate management of old towns in the north of Thailand can be applied to old towns in other areas. It is divided into three main topics: 1. Establish a responsible agency, both provincial and local levels: such an entity may be a commitment, municipality committee or working group in charge of development and conservation of old towns. However, the key success is not just based on the appointment of such a body taking care of old towns, but the commitment to work which must be integrated with “heart”. 2. Integrated conservation plan for management with a common goal and objective: since there are many units participating on the job, trying to reduce barriers on each of them is the best policy. A good form of integration must involve plans in the form of conservation plans or conservation and development plans for old towns. In some areas, in particular, a good strategic plan for conservation and development of old towns must cover complete elements, so operators can understand and use it as a direction for working. Besides having a plan for old towns, other development plans should also


¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØÅáÅФÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ I Balance and Diverse ᵋ§µÑ駼ٌÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍºáµ‹à¾Õ§Í‹ҧà´ÕÂÇ áµ‹ÍÂÙ‹·ÕèÇ‹Ò¼ÙŒ·ÃÕè Ѻ¼Ô´ªÍºËÃ×Í ¤³Ð·íÒ§Ò¹¹Ñé¹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁµÑé§ã¨¨Ãԧ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ÁÒ¡¹ŒÍÂà¾Õ§㴠«Öè§ »˜¨¨Ñ·Õè¨Ð·íÒãËŒ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒàÃç¨ ¤×Í ¡ÒúÙóҡÒÃã¹ ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ áÅСÒ÷íÒ§Ò¹´ŒÇ “㨔 2. á¼¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅСÒúÙóҡÒÃ㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà â´Â ÁÕ໇ÒËÁÒÂáÅÐÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤Ã‹ÇÁ¡Ñ¹áµ‹¼ÙŒ·Õè·íÒ§Ò¹ÁÒ¨Ò¡ËÅÒÂ˹‹Ç ËÅÒÂͧ¤¡Ã ¨Ö§µŒÍ§¾ÂÒÂÒÁÅ´ÍØ»ÊÃä¢Í§áµ‹Åн†ÒÂãˌ䴌ÁÒ¡ ·ÕèÊØ´ ¡ÒúÙóҡÒ÷Õè´Õ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÁÕá¼¹·ÕèÍÒ¨ÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÅѡɳТͧἹ ͹ØÃѡɏ ËÃ×ÍἹ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ËÃ×ͺҧáË‹§ÍÒ¨ÁÕ á¼¹ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧࡋÒâ´Â੾ÒÐá¼¹ ·Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§¡Ñº¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧࡋҷմè Õ ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÁÕͧ¤»ÃСͺ ·Õè¤ÃºÊÁºÙóà¾×èÍãËŒ¼ÙŒ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§à¢ŒÒã¨áÅÐÊÒÁÒö㪌໚¹á¹Ç·Ò§ 㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃä´Œ «Ö觹͡¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÁÕá¼¹´ŒÒ¹àÁ×ͧࡋÒáÅŒÇ á¼¹¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒÍ×è¹æ ¡ç¤ÇèÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÍ´¤ÅŒÍ§¡Ñ¹´ŒÇÂã¹ÅѡɳкÙóҡÒà ÁԩйÑé¹á¼¹·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¡ÑºàÁ×ͧࡋҨдíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃãËŒÊíÒàÃç¨ä´ŒÂÒ¡ «Ö觡ÒúÙóҡÒÃÁÕËÅÒÂÁÔµÔ ä´Œá¡‹ ¡ÒúÙóҡÒôŒÇ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ¡Òà ºÙóҡÒôŒÇÂÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¡ÒúÙóҡÒôŒÇÂͧ¤¡Ã ·Ñ駡Òà ºÙóҡÒ÷ҧµÑ§é 䴌ᡋ ¡ÒáíÒ˹´Ë¹‹Ç§ҹËÃ×ͤ³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍºÅ´ËÅÑè¹µÒÁÍíҹҨ˹ŒÒ·Õè áÅСÒúÙóҡÒ÷ҧ¹Í¹·Õè ËÁÒ¶֧¡ÒÃÊÌҧà¤Ã×Í¢‹Ò¢ͧ¼ÙŒÁÕʋǹ䴌ʋǹàÊÕ 3. ¡ÒèѴÊÃ纻ÃÐÁÒ³ 㹡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃà¡ÕÂè ǡѺàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ËÒ¡ÁÕ¡ÒúÙóҡÒ÷մè áÕ ÅŒÇ§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ÍÒ¨äÁ‹ãª‹»Þ˜ ËÒ·ÕÊè Òí ¤ÑÞÁÒ¡¹Ñ¡ à¾ÃÒÐä´ŒÁ¡Õ ÒûÃÐÊÒ¹»ÃÐ⪹ »ÃÐÊÒ¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡ÃÃÐËNjҧ˹‹Ç§ҹ µ‹Ò§æ ᵋ㹺ҧ¡Ã³ÕÊÒí ËÃѺ¾×¹é ·Õ·è äèÕ Á‹ÁÃÕ ÒÂä´ŒËÃ×ͧº»ÃÐÁÒ³ÁÒ¡¹Ñ¡ â´Â੾ÒÐàÁ×ͧࡋÒ㹨ѧËÇÑ´·Õäè Á‹ä´Œà»š¹¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ãËÞ‹ËÃ×ͨѧËÇÑ´ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ ÍÒ¨µŒÍ§ãªŒ§º»ÃÐÁÒ³·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒèѴÊÃÃ໚¹¾ÔàÈɨҡÃÑ°ºÒÅ¡ÅÒ§ Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ä´Œ¨Ñ´·íÒá¹Ç·Ò§»¯ÔºÑµÔáÅÐÁҵáÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ¾Ñ²¹Ò áÅп„œ¹¿Ù ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁã¹¾×é¹·ÕèàÁ×ͧࡋÒáÅо×é¹·Õèâ´ÂÃͺ µÒÁÁҵðҹ ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ : àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò â´Â㪌àÁ×ͧࡋÒã¹¾×¹é ·ÕÀè Ò¤à˹×͵͹º¹à»š¹¾×¹é ·ÕÈè ¡Ö ÉÒ ä´Œá¡‹ àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ÅíÒ»Ò§ àÁ×ͧࡋÒÅíÒ¾Ù¹ àÁ×ͧࡋҹ‹Ò¹ áÅÐàÁ×ͧࡋÒá¾Ã‹ «Öè§ àÁ×ͧࡋҷÑé§ 4 áË‹§ ໚¹µÑÇá·¹¢Í§àÁ×ͧࡋҷÕèÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÅíҴѺ¤ÇÒÁ ÊíÒ¤ÑÞà˧´‹Ç¹ã¹¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¡ÅØ‹Á·Õè 1 (àÁ×ͧࡋÒÅíÒ»Ò§ ÅíÒ¾Ù¹ áÅÐ ¹‹Ò¹) áÅÐàÁ×ͧࡋҷÕèÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÅíҴѺ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞà˧´‹Ç¹ã¹ÅíҴѺ·Õè 2 (àÁ×ͧࡋÒá¾Ã‹) á¹Ç·Ò§´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇÊÒÁÒö¹íÒä»»ÃÐÂØ¡µãªŒ¡ºÑ àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ·Ñé§ 2 ¡ÅØ‹Áã¹ÀÙÁÔÀÒ¤µ‹Ò§æ ä´Œß

be created, otherwise it would be difficult for the plan to be successful. Plan integration is multi - dimensional, e.g., integration by data, objective, organization, vertical hierarchical function or committee description, and horizontal networking for concerned parties. 3. Budget allocation on the management of old towns: if good integration is in place then budget is not an important issue because benefits and resources have already been appreciated and arranged among units. In some cases, however, areas that have no income or huge amount of budget, especially those old towns in small or minor provinces, may need a special budget appropriated from the central government. The Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning provided guidelines directions and measures on conservation, development, and restoration of environment in the old towns and surrounding areas pertaining to the natural and cultural heritage standard: old towns, by using old towns in the upper north as an area of study. Examples include old towns in Lampang, Lampoon, Nan, and Prae. These 4 places are representatives of old towns in need of urgent conservation, group 1 (old towns in Lampang, Lampoon, and Nan) and group 2 (old towns in Prae). These directions can be applied for both groups of old towns around the country.ß

͌ҧÍÔ§ Reference:

• Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔ§è áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ. 2548. ÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅоѲ¹ÒàÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¾.È. 2548 - 2552. ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅоѲ¹Ò¡ÃاÃѵ¹â¡ÊÔ¹·ÃáÅÐ àÁ×Í§à¡‹Ò ¡ÃзÃǧ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï • Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡� ÀÒÂ㵌â¤Ã§¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃáÅп„œ¹¿ÙÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ. ºÃÔÉÑ· âÁ⹡ÃÒ¿ ¨íÒ¡Ñ´ ¡Ãا෾Ï. • ¹Ô¨ ËÔÞªÕÃйѹ·¹. 2550. ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁã¹àÁ×ͧ. ¢‹ÒÇÊÒÃÊíҹѡ¼Ñ§àÁ×ͧ. 33/2550. ˹ŒÒ 25 - 26. • Office of Natural R� on Conservation and Development of Krung Rattanakosin and Old Towns, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok • Office of Natural Resource� the Management and Restoration of Natural and Cultural Heritage Project, Monograph Company Limited, Bangkok • Nid Hinchira�

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкº¹ÔàÇÈÇÔ·ÂÒã¹Í´Õµ¢Í§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ Study of an Early Ecosystem of Cultural Heritage ÊǹԵ à·ÕÂÁ·Ô¹¡Äµ1 1 Sawanit Thiamthinkrit »˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁºÃþ¡ÒÅ2 ¢Í§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ ä´ŒÃѺ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨à»š¹Í‹ҧÁÒ¡ ·Ñ駹Õéà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¤ÇÒÁµŒÍ§¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا ÀÙÁÔ·Ñȹ¢Í§¾×é¹·ÕèãËŒ¤§ÊÀÒ¾ã¡ÅŒà¤Õ§ ËÃ×ÍàËÁ×͹à´ÔÁãËŒÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ à·‹Ò·Õè¨ÐÁÒ¡ä´Œ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкºÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁºÃþ¡ÒŢͧáËÅ‹§ ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ¹Ñé¹ÊÒÁÒö·íÒä´Œâ´ÂÍÒÈÑÂÈÒʵÏáÅÐÈÔÅ»Š·ÕèÊÓ¤ÑÞᢹ§ µ‹Ò§æ »ÃÐÂØ¡µà¢ŒÒ´ŒÇ¡ѹ«Öè§ÊÒÁÒö¨íÒṡ ä´Œ 3 ÇÔ¸Õ ¤×Í ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ŒÍÁÙŨҡàÍ¡ÊÒà ËÃ×Í ºÑ¹·Ö¡»ÃÐàÀ·µ‹Ò§æ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¨Ò¡ÃٻẺÈÔÅ»ÐáÅÐʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁáÅÐ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´ÂÍÒÈÑ ¡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷ҧÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁºÃþ¡ÒŨÐÁØ‹§à¹Œ¹à¾×èÍ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¶Ö§ ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕÂè ¹á»Å§¢Í§Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈÇÔ·ÂҢͧ¾×¹é ·Õ¤è Ǻ¤Ùä‹ »¡Ñº¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¤ÇÒÁà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·Ò§¸Ã³ÕÇÔ·ÂÒáÅл°¾ÕÇÔ·ÂҢͧªÑé¹´Ô¹·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧÊÒÁÒöáÊ´§ãËŒàË繶֧¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§ÊÀÒ¾ ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈã¹Í´Õµ¨¹¶Ö§»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹¢Í§¾×é¹·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒä´ŒÍÕ¡´ŒÇ ·Ñ駹Õéâ´ÂÁÕ ¨Ø´»ÃÐʧ¤ËÅÑ¡à¾×èÍ㪌㹡Òõͺ¤íÒ¶ÒÁà¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ ¢Í§ÊÀÒ¾¾×é¹·Õè¹Ñé¹à»š¹ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ àª‹¹ ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§ÃдѺ ¹éíÒ·ÐàÅã¹¾×é¹·Õè ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈã¹áµ‹ÅÐÂؤ/ÊÁÑ áÅзÕäè ´ŒÃºÑ ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨à»š¹Í‹ҧÁÒ¡ã¹»˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ¤×Í¡ÒùíÒÁÒ㪌㹡Òà »ÃѺ»ÃاÀÙÁÔ·Ñȹ¢Í§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ à¾×èÍ»ÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾ÀÙÁÔ·ÑȹËÃ×Í ¨Ñ´·íÒẺ¨íÒÅͧ¢Í§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁãËŒã¡ÅŒà¤Õ§ËÃ×Ͷ١µŒÍ§µÒÁ ÊÀÒ¾´Ñé§à´ÔÁ¢Í§¾×é¹·ÕèãËŒÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´à·‹Ò·Õè¨ÐÁÒ¡ä´Œ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´ÂÍÒÈÑ¢ŒÍÁÙŨҡàÍ¡ÊÒ÷չè ÂÔ Á¡Ñ¹Í‹ҧá¾Ã‹ËÅÒ¹ѹé à¾ÃÒЧ‹ÒÂáÅÐÊдǡµ‹Í¡ÒÃËÒ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ «Öè§ä´Œá¡‹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¨Ò¡ºÑ¹·Ö¡ ¨ÒÃÖ¡ ¾§ÈÒÇ´Òà ¨´ËÁÒÂà赯 áÅлÙÁ «Öè§ÁÑ¡¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒáŋÒǶ֧ ÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§¾×é¹·Õèµ‹Ò§æ ·Õè¼ÙŒºÑ¹·Ö¡ä´Œà¢ŒÒä»à¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ ઋ¹ ¡ÒáŋÒǶ֧ÊÀÒ¾¢Í§ºÃÔàdz»‡ÍÁºÒ§¡Í¡¢Í§ºÒ·ËÅǧµÒϪÒô ¹Ô¡ÒÂà«ÙÍÔµ ¤¹áá«Öè§à´Ô¹·Ò§à¢ŒÒÁÒÍÂظÂÒã¹ÊÁÑ·ÕèÁҡѺ¤³Ð ½ÃÑè§àÈÊã¹ ¾.È. 2228 «Ö觵ç¡ÑºÊÁÑÂÊÁà´ç¨¾ÃйÒÃÒ³ÁËÒÃÒª ·íÒãËŒ·ÃҺNjÒã¹Í´Õµ¾×é¹·ÕèºÃÔàdz¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ãã¹»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹¹Ñé¹ ÁÕÊÀҾ໚¹´Ô¹àŹ ໚¹¾×é¹·ÕèÅØ‹ÁµèíÒ¹éíÒ·‹ÇÁ¢Ñ§ ËÃ×ͨҡ¨ÒÃÖ¡ ÇÑ´»†ÒÁÐÁ‹Ç§ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊØ⢷Ñ ·Õè¡Å‹ÒǶ֧Ãкº¹ÔàÇÈ¡ÒÃÁÕÍÂÙ‹¢Í§ ¾×ªã¹ºÃÔàdzâ´ÂÃͺ (´ŒÒ¹·Õè 2 ºÃ÷Ѵ·Õè 11 - 24) Ç‹Ò “.....¨Ö§ãªŒ ¹Òª‹Ò§ãËŒ¿˜§¤íÒÊÑ觻ÅÙ¡ÊÌҧ¡Ø®Õ¾ÔËÒà ¡ÅÒ§»†ÒÁÐÁ‹Ç§ ÍѹÁÕâ´Â 1 2 1 2

Currently, the study of the Palaeoenvironment as part of cultural heritage has become popular due to the need to restore landscape to its original or previous state. This study applies disciplines both from science and art, which can classify into 3 methods namely 1) study from documentations and memoranda, 2) study from art and architecture, and 3) study from the scientific process.

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 5 Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹Í´Õµ·Ò§¸Ã³Õ¡ÒÅ Environmental Official, Level 5, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning. The environment as perceived through geological time scales.

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ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁáÅÐÁžÔÉ I Environment and Pollution ·ÔÈ»˜È¨ÔÁ¢Í§àÁ×ͧÊØ⢷ѹÕé......áÅлÅÙ¡ÊÌҧ¡Ø®ÕÇÔËÒà ʶҹ·Õè¡Ò§ ྴҹÍѹÇÔ¨ÔµÃ.....㹡ÅÒ§ÊØÁÁ‹Ç§ãËŒ»ÃдÔÉ°Ò¹¡Ø®Õ¾ÔËÒÃ....” «Öè§à»š¹ ·ÕèÁҢͧª×èÍâºÃҳʶҹáË‹§¹Õé ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ»ÃÒ¡¯¢ŒÍ¤ÇÒÁÍÕ¡ÁÒ¡ÁÒ·ÕèáÊ´§ãËŒàË繶֧ ÊÀÒ¾¾×é¹·Õè¢Í§àÁ×ͧÊØ⢷ÑÂáÅÐÍÂظÂÒ ã¹áµ‹ÅЪ‹Ç§ÂؤÊÁÑ µÒÁ ¨ÒÃÖ¡ËÃ×ͺѹ·Ö¡¡ÒÃà´Ô¹·Ò§µÔ´µ‹ÍÃÐËÇ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹·Ñ駢ͧ¤¹¾×鹶Ôè¹áÅÐ ªÒǵ‹Ò§ªÒµÔ·Õèà´Ô¹·Ò§à¢ŒÒÁÒáÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ã¹´ŒÒ¹µ‹Ò§æ ઋ¹ ºÑ¹·Ö¡¡Ò÷íÒ¡ÒäŒÒ¢Í§ºÃÔÉÑ·ÍÕʵàÍàªÕµԡʏ (VOC) ËÃ×Í ¨´ËÁÒÂà˵Øá¡ÁÁÔà¿ÍÏ ໚¹µŒ¹ «Ö觢ŒÍ¤ÇÒÁàËÅ‹Ò¹ÕéÂѧ¤§ÃͤÍ ¡ÒþÔÊÙ¨¹¢ŒÍà·ç¨¨ÃÔ§µ‹Íä» à»š¹µŒ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´ÂÍÒÈÑÂÃٻẺÈÔÅ»ÐáÅÐʶһ˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁ ໚¹¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´ÂÍÒÈÑÂËͧÃÍ¢ͧÃٻẺÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ËŧàËÅ×ÍÍÂÙ‹ º¹âºÃҳʶҹã¹áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ ¹Í¡à˹×ͨҡ·Õè¹Ñ¡âºÃÒ³¤´Õ áÅйѡ»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏÈÔÅ»Š¨Ð㪌໚¹ÊÔ觡íÒ˹´ª‹Ç§ÍÒÂØáÅÐàÇÅÒ ã¹¡Òá‹ÍÊÌҧ »ÃѺ»Ãا ËÃ×Í à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ¹Ñé¹æ «Öè§ ÈÔÅ»¹¼ÙŒÃѧÊÃ䏧ҹÁÑ¡¨ÐËÂԺ¡ÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢ŒÒ§µÑÇËÃ×ÍàÃ×èͧÃÒÇ ·Õ»è ÃÒ¡¯Ã‹ÇÁÂؤÊÁÑ ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺËÅѡ㹡ÒÃÊÌҧÊÃ䏨¹Ô µ¹Ò¡Òà §Ò¹ÈÔÅ»Š¢Í§µ¹ ઋ¹ ÀÒ¾µŒ¹¡ÅŒÇÂáÅеŒ¹µÒÅ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ãËŒàËç¹ Í‹ҧഋ¹ªÑ´º¹ÀÒ¾¨ÔµÃ¡ÃÃÁ½Ò¼¹Ñ§ÇÑ´ÀÙÁÔ¹·Ã ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¹‹Ò¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´ÂÍÒÈÑ¡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷ҧÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏ ÇÔ¸¡Õ Ò÷չè ÂÔ Á 㪌㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒËÇÁ¡Ñº§Ò¹âºÃÒ³¤´Õ ¤×Í¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҨҡǧ»‚äÁŒáÅÐ ¨Ò¡ÅÐÍͧàó٠«Ö觡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷Ñé§Êͧ¨ÐãËŒ¼ÅÅѾ¸¢Í§¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Õè ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ¡Å‹ÒǤ×Í ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҨҡǧ»‚äÁŒ ¨Ð·íÒãËŒ·ÃÒº¶Ö§ÊÀÒ¾ ÀÙÁÔÍÒ¡ÒÈã¹¢³Ð·Õ赌¹äÁŒ¹Ñé¹ÁÕªÕÇÔµÍÂÙ‹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҢͧ Gordon Jacoby Âѧ¾ºÇ‹Òǧ»‚·Õè¼Ô´Ãٻ仨ҡ»¡µÔÊÒÁÒöº‹§ªÕé¶Ö§ ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´á¼‹¹´Ô¹äËÇÍÕ¡´ŒÇ ·Ñ駹Õéà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡à¹×éÍàÂ×èÍà¨ÃÔޢͧà¹×éÍäÁŒ

The study of the Palaeoenvironment emphasizes changes in the ecosystem of an area, as well as its geology and soil science. Moreover, it highlights climate changes from the past until the present since its primary goal is to report on and respond to the changes to the area, for example the change of sea level and climate, for each area. These days, more emphasis is placed on this study because of its role in understanding the landscapes of the past and in restoring artistic artifacts to their original state as far as possible. The study by review literature is popular, these include memoranda, inscriptions, lineage documents, archives and almanacs. These also mention about information on the environment of the area. For example, Fr. Guy Tachard SJ of the Jesuits’, who was among the first group of French people who came to King Narai the Great’s Ayutthaya in 1685, mention about Bangkok fortress. It reveals that the soil of Bangkok was clay filled with water. An inscription at Wat Pa Mamueng, Sukhothai, describes the plant ecosystem (side 2, line 11 - 24) thus: “[He] .... commanded the workers to construct a temple in the middle of the mango tree forest west of Sukhothai....the fineness of temple ceiling.... in the neighbourhood of mango trees was a temple constructed....” and this is the name of this historical site. In addition, numerous resources also illustrate Sukhothai and Ayutthaya throughout the ages. Inscriptions or travel memoranda between locals and foreigners, such as those from the East Asian Company (VOC) or Kaempfer’s archives, await further investigation. The study of art and architecture also reveals the presence and nature of artifacts in ancient remains. Besides the time and date of construction, archaeologists and historians can identify acts of renovation or modification of the cultural heritage. Further, artists can make discoveries about the environment through studying artistic pieces, for example the painting of banana plants and palm trees in the wall of Wat Poomin, Nan. The study by using scientific method can apply to archaeology for example, studying tree rings (Dendrochronology) and pollen (Palaeobotany), which yield different results. Tree rings provide information on the climate during the period of the tree’s growth. Furthermore, Gordon Jacoby determined that some unusual tree rings were shown when earthquakes occurred. The growth of tree rings varies in accordance with the presence of water in the different seasons. 45


ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal ¨Ðá»Ã¼Ñ¹µÒÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³¹éÒí ·Õµè ¹Œ äÁŒä´ŒÃºÑ ã¹áµ‹ÅÐÄ´Ù¡ÒÅ ã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ´ŒÇ¡Ãкǹ¡Òôѧ¡Å‹ÒÇÁÕ¢ŒÍ¨íÒ¡Ñ´¤×Í ¾ºäÁŒà¾Õ§ 2 ª¹Ô´ à·‹Ò¹Ñé¹·ÕèÁÕǧ»‚·Õèà¨ÃÔÞà©ÅÕ軂ÅÐ 1 ǧ ¤×Í äÁŒÊ¹ (Tectona grandis L.f.) ǧȏ PINACEAE Ê¡ØÅʹÊͧ㺠(Pinus merkusii Jungh. De Vriese) áÅÐʹÊÒÁ㺠(Pinus kesiya Royle. ex Gordon.) ઋ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒǧ»‚¢Í§âŧäÁŒÊ¡Ñ ã¹à¢µÍíÒàÀͻҧÁмŒÒ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´áÁ‹ÎÍ‹ §Ê͹ «Öè§áÊ´§ãËŒàË繶֧¤ÇÒÁµ‹Íà¹×èͧ¢Í§¾Ô¸Õ¡ÃÃÁ·Ò§¨ÔµÇÔÞÞÒ³«Ö觹íÒ äÁŒÊÑ¡ÁÒ»ÃдÔÉ°à»š¹âŧ â´ÂÁÕÃٻẺÇÔÇѲ¹Ò¡ÒâͧËÑÇâŧ·Õè ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ã¹Âؤ¡‹Í¹»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏ (ª‹Ç§»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2,300 1,200 »‚¡‹Í¹) ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧáÊ´§ãËŒàË繶֧ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ ÀÙÁÍÔ Ò¡ÒȢͧ¾×¹é ·Õºè ÃÔàdz¹Ñ¹é ÍÕ¡´ŒÇ 㹢³Ð·Õ¡è ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¨Ò¡ÅÐÍͧ àóٹÑé¹ ¨Ð·íÒ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¨Ò¡µÑÇÍ‹ҧ´Ô¹ ÍÔ°áÅÐËÔ¹ ໚¹µŒ¹ à¾× è Í ¹í Ò ÁÒ·í Ò ¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´áÅÐÊѧà¤ÃÒÐˏá¡ÍÔ¹·ÃՏá ÅÐÍ¹Ô ¹ ·ÃÕ Â  ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡¡Ñ¹â´Â¡Ãкǹ¡Ò÷ҧÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏ¡‹Í¹¨Ð¹íÒµÑÇÍ‹ҧ·Õè ä´ŒÁÒÈÖ¡ÉÒà»ÃÕºà·Õº¡ÑºÅÐÍͧàóٵÑÇÍ‹ҧµ‹Íä» àª‹¹ ¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒµÑÇÍ‹ҧ·Õèä´Œ¨Ò¡ªÑé¹´Ô¹ºÃÔàdzÊÃйéíÒ ã¹ºÃÔàdzÊǹË‹ÍÁ ¢Í§¾ÃÐÃÒªÇѧâºÃÒ³ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¾Ãй¤ÃÈÃÕÍÂظÂÒ ¾ºÇ‹Ò㹪‹Ç§ »ÅÒ¢ͧ¡ÃØ § ÈÃÕ Í ÂØ ¸ ÂÒºÃÔ à dz´Ñ § ¡Å‹ Ò Ç¶Ù ¡ »¡¤ÅØ Á ä»´Œ Ç Â¾× ª ã¹Ç§È Amaranthaceae (ºÒ¹äÁ‹ÃÙŒâýÃÑè§) Urticaceae (µíÒáÂ) áÅÐ Moraceae (¢¹Ø¹) ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ¾ºµÑÇÍ‹ҧ¢Í§¾×ª ¹éíҡËÍ ઋ¹ ⡧¡Ò§ (Rhizophoraceae) áÊÁ (Avicennia) áÅÐÅíÒ¾Ù (Sonneratia) «Öè§Êѹ¹ÔɰҹNjҹ‹Ò¨ÐÅÍÂÁÒµÒÁ¹éíÒ¨Ò¡ ºÃÔàdz¾×é¹·Õè¹éíҡËÍ«Öè§äÁ‹ä¡Å¨Ò¡ÍÂظÂÒÁÒ¡¹Ñ¡ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡äÁ‹¾º ªÑ¹é µÐ¡Í¹à¡Å×Íã¹ªÑ¹é ´Ô¹·Õ¾è ºµÑÇÍ‹ҧàËÅ‹Ò¹Õé áÅÐàÁ×Íè ·íÒ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˏ ËÇÁ¡ÑººÑ¹·Ö¡¢Í§ªÒǵ‹Ò§ªÒµÔ·Õèà´Ô¹·Ò§à¢ŒÒÁÒ㹪‹Ç§ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¹Ñé¹ àª‹¹ ºÒ·ËÅǧµÒϪÒϵ áÅÐ á¡ÁÁÔà¿ÍÏ (Kaempfer) ¾ºÇ‹Ò¾×ª ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒǾºÍÂً໚¹¨íҹǹÁҡ㹺ÃÔàdz¾×é¹·Õè·Õè໚¹¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã ã¹»˜¨¨Øº¹Ñ ËÃ×ͨҡµÑÇÍ‹ҧ´Ô¹·Õäè ´Œã¹ªÑ¹é ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ㹪‹Ç§µÍ¹»ÅÒ ¢Í§ÍҳҨѡÃÊØ⢷Ñ (¾.È. 1900) 㹺ÃÔàdz¤Ù¹éíÒÃͺÇÑ´ã¹à¢µ âºÃÒ³¢Í§ÍØ·ÂÒ¹»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏÊØ⢷Ñ ¾ºÇ‹Ò ¾×é¹·ÕèʋǹãËÞ‹ã¹ Í´Õµ¹Ñé¹»¡¤ÅØÁä»´ŒÇ µÒÅâµ¹´ ÁоÌÒÇ ÁÐÁ‹Ç§ ÁТÒÁ áÅÐÂÒ§ ໚¹µŒ¹

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Scientific study in Thailand has the constraint that there are only two types of tree that has average one ring per year, which are the teak (Tectona grandis L.f) and the pine (Pinaceae, Pinus merkusii Jungh. De Vriese and Pinus kesiya Royle. ex Gordon). The study of tree rings of log coffins in the Pangmapa district of Mae Hong Son shows continuity of ritual in using teak as a coffin log and which evolved into various patterns in the prehistoric era (approximately 1,200-2,300 years before present). It


ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁáÅÐÁžÔÉ I Environment and Pollution ·Ñ駹Õé¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Ò§ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏ·Ñé§Êͧ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒùÕé äÁ‹à»š¹·Õèá¾Ã‹ËÅÒÂã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÒ¡¹Ñ¡ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¢ŒÍ¨íÒ¡Ñ´¢Í§ ºØ¤ÅÒ¡ÃáÅСÒÃãËŒ¤Ø³¤‹ÒáÅФÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ ¼Å§Ò¹·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯«Öè§ÁÑ¡ ¨Ñ´·íÒâ´Â¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒêÒǵ‹Ò§ªÒµÔ·ÕèࢌÒÁÒ·íÒ¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹ÁÒ¡ ÍÕ¡·Ñ駡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҴѧ¡Å‹ÒǶŒÒ¨Ðãˌ䴌¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Õè ÊÁºÙó¨ÐµŒÍ§·íÒËÇÁ¡Ñº¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤‹ÒÍÒÂØ â´ÂÇÔ¸Õ¡Òõ‹Ò§æ ઋ¹ Carbon dating ËÃ×Í Thermo luminescence «Öè§ÁÕÃÒ¤ÒÊÙ§ 㹺ҧ¤ÃÑé§äÁ‹¤ØŒÁ¤‹Ò¡Ñº¡ÒÃŧ·Ø¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹨ÐàËç¹ä´ŒÇ‹Ò¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкº¹ÔàÇÈÇÔ·ÂÒã¹Í´Õµ¢Í§ áËÅ‹§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ¶ŒÒ¨Ðãˌ䴌¼Å·Õè¶Ù¡µŒÍ§áÅÐÊÁºÙó¨ÐäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒö㪌 à¾Õ§ÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃã´ÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃ˹Öè§à·‹Ò¹Ñé¹ ËҡᵋµŒÍ§ÍÒÈÑÂÊËÇÔ·ÂÒã¹ËÅÒ ÊÒ¢Ò»ÃСͺËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ ¨Ö§¨Ðä´Œ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¶Ù¡µŒÍ§áÁ‹¹ÂíÒáÅÐÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô´¾ÅÒ´¢Í§¢ŒÍÁÙŹŒÍ·ÕèÊØ´ß

also shows how the climate has changed in the area. Pollen analysis, on the other hand, uses samples of soil, bricks and rock. Organic substances are extracted from non-organic material and analysed. The study of soil from a garden pond from an ancient palace in Ayutthaya has revealed that, in the late of Ayutthayan period, was covered with various plants such as Amaranthaceae, Urticaceae and Moraceae. Samples of mangrove plants were also found, such as Rhizophoraceae, Avicennia and Sonneratia. It can be assumed that they came from the area of brackish water located not far from Ayutthaya, since no trace of salt sediment was found in these samples. Analyses of such foreign memoranda, Fr. Guy Tachard SJ and of Kaempfer in that period, reveal that those plants were plentiful in what is now the area of Bangkok. Soil samples from the late Sukhothai period 1357 taken from pond areas around ancient historical sites show that the land was mostly covered with palm, coconut, mango, tamarind and rubber trees, among others. However, these scientific method, tree rings and pollen analysis, are not popular in Thailand because of the lack of trained personnel and people do not appreciate the value and importance of the work. Most of the research are conducted by foreign scholars who working in Thailand. Besides, a complete study also require carbon dating or Thermo luminescence method, which are high cost and sometimes the investment is not justified by results. As a result, for a study of the early ecosystem of our cultural heritage to be accurate and complete, several methods are needed. A multidisciplinary approach will render better accuracy and fewer errors.ß

ÊÒÁÒöËÒÍ‹Ò¹à¾ÔèÁàµÔÁä´Œ¨Ò¡ For Further Reading:

1) ÂÍϪ à«à´Ê, “ËÅÑ¡·Õè 4 ÈÔÅÒ¨ÒÃÖ¡ÇÑ´»†� 74 – 86. 2) � 3) Han ten Brummelhius, A History of the contacts between The Netherlands and Thailand, 1987. 4) Manas Wattanasak, Assoc Prof. Dr., et al., Palaeo-ecological Reconstruction of Sukhothai World Heritage, Bangkok, 2003. 5) Bernard Maloney, Environmental Reconstruction at Ayutthaya, Thailand, Queen’s University, Northern Ireland 6) http://highland.trf.or.th/ 7) http://www.royin.go.th 1) George Cœd‹s “The Fourth Kh� 1978,) p. 74-86 2) George Cds “The Kh� 3) Hans ten Brummelhius, A History of the Contacts between the Netherlands and Thailand, 1987 4) Manas Wattanasak, Assoc Prof. Dr., et al., Palaeo-ecological Reconstruction of Sukhothai World Heritage, Bangkok, 2003 5) Bernard Maloney, Environmental Reconstruction at Ayutthaya, Thailand, Queen’s University, Northern Ireland 6) http://highland.trf.or.th/ 7) http://www.royin.go.th

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

͹ØÊÑÞÞҤ،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡ The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage ¡Ã¾Ô¹¸Ø ¾ÂѤ¦»ÃСÒó

1

Korapin Payakaprakarn1

¹ÔÂÒÁ Definition

Áô¡âÅ¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ËÁÒ¶֧ áËÅ‹§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅиÃÃÁªÒµÔ·ÁèÕ ¤Õ ³Ø ¤‹Òâ´´à´‹¹ÃдѺÊÒ¡Å (outstanding universal value) ¨¹ä´ŒÃºÑ ¡ÒûÃСÒÈ¢Ö¹é ·ÐàºÕ¹ãˌ໚¹áËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ ÀÒÂ㵌ËÅѡࡳ±·ÃèÕ ÐºØäÇŒã¹Í¹ØÊÞÑ ÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡ÒäØÁŒ ¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ áÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ËÃ×Í͹ØÊÑÞÞҤ،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡ (The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage) World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites are sites of outstanding universal value in cultural and natural aspects and are listed as World Heritage sites under criteria outlined by the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, or the World Heritage Convention. ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ Í¹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ ¨Ö§à»š¹¡Åä¡ÊíÒ¤ÑÞ㹡ÒäѴàÅ×Í¡áËÅ‹§ Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ¢Í§»ÃÐà·ÈÀÒ¤ÕÊÁÒªÔ¡à¾×èÍ ¹íÒä»ÊÙ‹¡ÒâÖé¹·ÐàºÕ¹໚¹áËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ â´ÂÁÕ Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention ໚¹á¹Ç·Ò§¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔÊíÒËÃѺ»ÃÐà·ÈÀÒ¤ÕÊÁÒªÔ¡

Therefore, the Convention serves as the important mechanism in selecting which sites of the States Parties to be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List.. There is also “Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention” available to the States Parties.

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Thailand and World Heritage Convention

»ÃÐà·Èä·Â䴌ࢌÒËÇÁ໚¹ÀÒ¤Õã¹Í¹ØÊÞÑ ÞÒÏ àÁ×Íè à´×͹ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á »‚ ¾.È. 2530 áÅШ¹¶Ö§»˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ (à´×͹µØÅÒ¤Á »‚ ¾.È. 2550) ä´ŒÁÕ »ÃÐà·Èµ‹Ò§æ ÃÇÁ 185 »ÃÐà·È ࢌÒËÇÁ໚¹ÀÒ¤Õã¹Í¹ØÊÑÞÞÒÏ ©ºÑº¹Õé ¨Ö§¹Ñºä´ŒÇ‹Ò͹ØÊÑÞÞҤ،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡âÅ¡ ໚¹¤ÇÒÁµ¡Å§ ÃдѺ¹Ò¹ÒªÒµÔà¾×Íè ¡ÒäØÁŒ ¤ÃͧÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅиÃÃÁªÒµÔ·èÕ »ÃÐʺ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒàÃç¨ÁÒ¡·ÕèÊش͹ØÊÑÞÞÒ˹Öè§ ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ã³Õ·»èÕ ÃÐà·Èä·ÂáÅÐÃÑ°ÀÒ¤Õã¹Í¹ØÊÞÑ ÞÒÏ ¨ÐµŒÍ§ÂÍÁÃѺ ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃáÅеÃÐ˹ѡÍÂÙ‹àÊÁÍ Áմѧ¹Õé 1. ¡íÒ˹´¹âºÒÂáÅÐÇҧἹáÁ‹º·à¾×Íè ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃ¡Ñ ÉáÅШѴ¡Òà Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ·Õè¤íÒ¹Ö§¶Ö§¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ·ÕèÁÕ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¾ÃŒÍÁ仡Ѻ¡ÒÃ㪌»ÃÐ⪹Í‹ҧàËÁÒÐÊÁ¢Í§ªØÁª¹ 2. ¡íÒ˹´ÁҵáÒ÷ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ´ŒÒ¹¡®ËÁÒ ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÏ à·¤â¹âÅÂÕ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Òà áÅСÒÃʹѺʹع§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ à¾×Íè ¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒÇԨѠ¡Òû¡»‡Í§¤ØŒÁ¤Ãͧ ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃѡɏ ¡ÒúÃÔ¡Ò÷ҧ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ áÅСÒÿ„œ¹¿ÙÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ 3. ÅÐàÇŒ¹¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃã´æ ·ÕèÍÒ¨¨Ð·íÒÅÒÂÁô¡·Ò§ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ¢Í§ÃÑ°ÀÒ¤ÕÍ×è¹æ ·Ñé§â´Â·Ò§µÃ§áÅÐ ·Ò§ÍŒÍÁ ᵋ¨ÐʹѺʹعáÅЪ‹ÇÂàËÅ×ÍÃÑ°ÀÒ¤ÕÍ×è¹æ 㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅл¡»‡Í§¤ØŒÁ¤ÃͧÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔã¹ »ÃÐà·È¹Ñé¹æ 1 1

Thailand became one of the States Parties in this convention in August, 1987. As of October, 2007, there are 185 States Parties in this convention. World Heritage Convention has proven to be one of the most successful international agreements on cultural and natural heritage conservation. The obligations that Thailand and other States Parties must share and adhere to are as follows. 1. Formulate policies and master plans for cultural and natural heritage conservation that are both efficient and beneficial to communities. 2. Formulate appropriate administrative, legal, scientific, and technological measures and provide funds for cultural and natural researches, conservation and protection campaigns, educational services, and rehabilitation programs. 3. Refrain from any action that could either directly or indirectly deteriorate cultural and natural heritage sites of other States Parties at the same time, support and assist other States Parties in their cultural and natural research and conservation programs.

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ 6Ç. ¡Í§Í¹ØÃѡɏÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ Environmental official level 6, Natural and Cultural Environmental Conservation Division

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ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁáÅÐÁžÔÉ I Environment and Pollution 4. ͸ԻäµÂÊÙ§ÊØ´à˹×ÍáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ Âѧ¤§à»š¹¢Í§ÃÑ°ÀÒ¤Õ «Öè§áËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡¹Ñé¹µÑé§ÍÂÙ‹ º·ºÒ·¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¡Ñº¡ÒùíÒàʹÍáËÅ‹§Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ áÅзҧ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ àÁ×èÍ»‚ ¾.È. 2530 ¤³ÐÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ ä´ŒÁÕÁµÔãËŒ»ÃÐà·Èä·Âà¢ŒÒ Ã‹ÇÁ໚¹ÀÒ¤Õã¹Í¹ØÊÑÞÞÒÇ‹Ò´ŒÇ¡Òä،Á¤ÃͧÁô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ áÅиÃÃÁªÒµÔ¢Í§âÅ¡ »˜¨¨ØºÑ¹»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÕáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ ·Ñé§ÊÔé¹ 5 áËÅ‹§ 䴌ᡋ - àÁ×ͧ»ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏÊØ⢷ÑÂáÅÐàÁ×ͧºÃÔÇÒà (ÍØ·ÂÒ¹ »ÃÐÇѵÔÈÒʵÏÊØ⢷Ñ - ÈÃÕÊѪ¹ÒÅÑ - ¡íÒᾧྪÃ) ä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒâÖé¹ ·ÐàºÕ¹àÁ×Íè »‚ ¾.È. 2534 à¹×Íè §¨Ò¡ÁÕÅ¡Ñ É³Ð§Ò¹·Ò§Ê¶Ò»˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁ·Õè â´´à´‹¹ ¹Ñºà»š¹µÑÇá·¹¢Í§ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁÊÂÒÁÂؤáá áÅÐ໚¹µŒ¹¡íÒà¹Ô´ ¢Í§¡ÒÃÊÌҧ»ÃÐà·È - ¹¤Ã»ÃÐÇѵÈÔ ÒʵϾÃй¤ÃÈÃÕÍÂظÂÒ ä´ŒÃºÑ ¡ÒÃ¢Ö¹é ·ÐàºÕ¹ àÁ×Íè »‚ ¾.È. 2534 à¹×Íè §¨Ò¡à»š¹áËÅ‹§ÃǺÃÇÁÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁÍѹ·Ã§¤Ø³¤‹Ò ໚¹µÑÇá·¹¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁ໚¹àÂÕèÂÁ㹡ÒÃÊÌҧÊÃ䏧ҹÈÔŻРáÅÐáÊ´§ ãËŒàË繶֧¾Ñ²¹Ò¡Ò÷Õ赋Íà¹×èͧ·Ò§Ê¶Ò»˜µÂ¡ÃÃÁä·Â - ࢵÃÑ¡ÉҾѹ¸ØÊѵǏ»†Ò·Ø‹§ãËÞ‹-ˌǢÒᢌ§ ä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒâÖé¹ ·ÐàºÕ¹àÁ×Íè »‚ ¾.È. 2534 à¹×Íè §¨Ò¡à»š¹¼×¹»†Ò͹ØÃ¡Ñ Éà¹×Íé ·Õ¢è ¹Ò´ãËÞ‹ ·ÕÁè ¤Õ ÇÒÁµ‹Íà¹×Íè § ÁÕ¤³Ø ¤‹Ò áÅФÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·Ò§ªÕÇÇÔ·ÂÒáÅйÔàÇÈÇÔ·ÂÒ ÁÕÅѡɳоÔàÈÉ੾ÒеÑÇ·Õè໚¹àÍ¡Åѡɳ áÅÐ໚¹áËÅ‹§¾Ñ¡ÍÒÈÑ ¢Í§ÊѵǏ»†ÒáÅоÃó¾×ª ໚¹¨íҹǹÁÒ¡ - áËÅ‹§âºÃÒ³¤´ÕºŒÒ¹àªÕ§ ä´ŒÃѺ¡ÒâÖé¹·ÐàºÕ¹àÁ×èÍ»‚ ¾.È. 2535 à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡à»š¹áËÅ‹§·ÕèÁդس¤‹Ò·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§ÁÇÅÁ¹ØÉÂªÒµÔ ·ÕèÊÐÊÁÊ׺µ‹ÍÁÒÂÒǹҹ áÅÐ໚¹áËÅ‹§·ÕèÁÕâºÃÒ³Çѵ¶Ø ÍѹáÊ´§ ãËŒàË繶֧ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁÍѹࡋÒá¡‹â´´à´‹¹Í‹ҧªÑ´à¨¹áÅÐÊÁºÙó ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é ໚¹áËÅ‹§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ Êѧ¤Á áÅÐÇÔÇѲ¹Ò¡Ò÷ҧ෤â¹âÅÂÕÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò 5,000 »‚ «Ö觻ÃÒ¡¯¡ÃШÒÂÍÂÙ‹·ÑèÇä»ã¹á¶ºàÍàªÕµÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§㵌 - ¾×¹é ·Õ¡è ÅØÁ‹ »†Ò´§¾ÞÒàÂç¹-à¢ÒãËÞ‹ ä´ŒÃºÑ ¡ÒÃ¢Ö¹é ·ÐàºÕ¹àÁ×Íè »‚ ¾.È. 2548 à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡à»š¹¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕÃкº¹ÔàÇÈ·ÕèÍØ´ÁÊÁºÙó áÅÐ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧªÕÇÀÒ¾ ÃÇÁ·Ñé§à»š¹¡ÅØ‹Á¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÃÇÁ¼×¹»†Ò·Õè ÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ»ÃÐà·È·ÕèÁÕÍÒ³ÒºÃÔàdzµÔ´µ‹Í¡Ñ¹ 5 áË‹§ ¤×Í ÍØ·ÂÒ¹ áË‹§ªÒµÔà¢ÒãËÞ‹ - ·ÑºÅÒ¹ - »Ò§ÊÕ´Ò - µÒ¾ÃÐÂÒ áÅÐࢵÃÑ¡ÉÒ ¾Ñ¹¸ØÊѵǏ»†Ò´§ãËÞ‹ ¹Ñºà»š¹¤ÇÒÁÀÒ¤ÀÙÁÔã¨Í‹ҧÂÔ觷Õè»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÕáËÅ‹§Áô¡ âÅ¡¶Ö§ 5 áËÅ‹§ áÅж×Í໚¹à¡ÕÂõÔÀÙÁԢͧ»ÃÐà·ÈªÒµÔ·ÕèàÃÒ·Ø¡¤¹ µŒÍ§ª‹Ç¡ѹÃÑ¡ÉÒäÇŒ ÀÒ¤ÃÑ°¤ÇÃãËŒ¤ÇÒÁÃÙŒ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÒã¨á¡‹»ÃЪҪ¹ ·ÕèࢌÒÁÒà·ÕèÂǪÁáËÅ‹§Áô¡âÅ¡ à¾×èÍãËŒà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁÃÑ¡áÅÐËǧá˹ áÅÐà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¹Ö¡·Õè¨Ðª‹Ç¡ѹ´ÙáÅ »ÃЪҪ¹ã¹¾×é¹·Õè¡ç¤ÇÃàÅç§àËç¹ ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤ÑޢͧÊÔ觷ÕèàÃÒÁÕÍÂÙ‹áÅÐËÇÁÁ×ÍËÇÁ㨡ѹ͹ØÃѡɏäÇŒß

4. Each World Heritage Site belongs to the state where the site is located. Thailand’s Properties submitted on the Cultural and Natural Heritage List Since the Royal Cabinet ratified Thailand to become one of the States Parties of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1987, Thailand has 5 properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. • Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns (Sukhothai Historical Park with associated historic parks in Sri Satchanalai and Kamphaeng Phet) was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991 for the outstanding architectural value, representing the earliest Siamese Arts as well as Thailand’s origin. • Historic City of Ayutthaya was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991 as a center of prominent artistic value and growth, representing how Thai Arts transformed over time. • Thungyai - Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries was inscribed on the World Heritage site in 1991 for the vast conservation forest that is biologically and ecologically invaluable. The area’s unique landscape and characteristics help shelter a great number of wild floras and faunas. • Ban Chiang Archaeological Site was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1992 for its rich archaeological value. Unearthed artifacts from the site, some are dated back over 5,000 years, help illustrate a clear view of ancient human civilization that was once widespread in Southeast Asia as well as to unveil technological evolution in the region. • Dong Phaya Yen - Khao Yai Forest Complex was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2005 for its fertile ecosystems, biodiversity, and a vast forest area covering 5 adjoining major forests in Thailand, namely Khao Yai National Park, Thap Lan National Park, Pangsida National Park, Ta Phraya National Park, and Dongyai Wildlife Sanctuary. It is a great honor of Thailand to have 5 properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. Hence, thais should be proud and do our best to preserve and protect them. The government and public sectors should also educate the visitors and local residents about the immense values of these World Heritage sites in order to build up conscience in the mind of Thai people to preserve our national treasures.ß

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ÇÒÃÊÒøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â Thailand’s Nature and Environment Journal

á¹Ð¹íÒ˹ѧÊ×Í

“ʶҹ¡Òó¡ÒáѴà«ÒÐ ªÒ½˜›§Í‹ÒÇä·Â·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÇԡĵԔ

Book Review

“Critical Stage of Coastal Erosion along the Gulf of Thailand” ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§à»š¹»˜ÞËÒÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ÁÒ¹Ò¹áÅŒÇã¹ »ÃÐà·È·ÕèÁÕ¾×é¹·ÕèªÒ½˜›§·ÐàÅ·ÑèÇâÅ¡ ÊíÒËÃѺ»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¡ç»ÃÐʺ¡Ñº »˜ÞËÒ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§àª‹¹à´ÕÂǡѺ»ÃÐà·ÈÍ×è¹æ ªÒ½˜›§·ÐàŢͧ »ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÂÒÇ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2,600 ¡ÔâÅàÁµÃ ẋ§à»š¹ 2 ´ŒÒ¹ ¤×Í ªÒ½˜›§·ÐàÅÍ‹ÒÇä·Â ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÂÒÇ 1,650 ¡ÔâÅàÁµÃ ¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ ¾×é¹·Õè 17 ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ áÅЪÒ½˜›§·ÐàÅÍѹ´ÒÁѹ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÂÒÇ 950 ¡ÔâÅàÁµÃ ¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ¾×é¹·ÕèªÒ½˜›§·ÐàÅÃÇÁ 6 ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ ÁÕ»ÃЪҡà ÍÒÈÑÂ㹺ÃÔàdz¾×é¹·ÕèªÒ½˜›§¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¡Ç‹Ò 12 Ōҹ¤¹ ¼Å¨Ò¡ ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§·íÒãËŒá¹ÇªÒ½˜›§à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ ËÃ×Íà¡Ô´¡ÒöÍÂ˹ ¢Í§ªÒ·ÐàÅ «Öè§ÊÀÒ¾¢Í§ªÒ½˜›§à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ä» ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¨ÐÊ‹§¼Å µ‹ÍÃкº¹ÔàÇÈ㹺ÃÔàdz´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇáÅŒÇÂѧ·íÒãËŒÊÙÞàÊÕ·ÑȹÕÂÀÒ¾ «Öè§Ê‹§¼Å¡ÃзºÍ‹ҧÁÒ¡µ‹Í¡Ò÷‹Í§à·ÕèÂÇ áÅйíÒÁÒ«Ö觤ÇÒÁÊÙÞàÊÕ ·Ò§àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨¢Í§»ÃÐà·ÈáÅŒÇ ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§ã¹ºÃÔàdz·ÕèÁÕ¡Òà µÑ駶Ôè¹°Ò¹¢Í§ªØÁª¹Âѧ·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁÊÙÞàÊÕ·ÃѾÊÔ¹·Ñ駢ͧ 50

Coastal erosion has long been a critical problem in countries around the world adjacent to the sea, including Thailand. With a total shoreline of 2,600 kilometers Thailand has 1,650 kilometers in coastline along the Gulf of Thailand, covering 17 provinces, and 950 kilometers along the Andaman Sea, covering 6 provinces. There are over 12 million people residing along the coast. Inevitably, geographical changes and receding shoreline caused by coastal erosion pose adverse impacts not only on the coastal ecosystems, but also on the aesthetics. Consequently, tourism suffers, causing great economic loss to our country. Moreover, coastal erosion that occurs near residential areas brings about both public and private property damage that causes significant


¡‹Í¹¨Ð»´àÅ‹Á I Epilogue »ÃЪҪ¹áÅзҧÃÒª¡Òà «Öè§Ê‹§¼ÅÍ‹ҧÂÔ觵‹ÍàÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ Êѧ¤Á áÅФسÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§»ÃЪҪ¹ »˜ÞËҴѧ¡Å‹ÒǨ֧¶×Í໚¹ÇԡĵԢͧ »ÃÐà·È·Õè¨íÒ໚¹µŒÍ§ä´ŒÃѺ¡Òÿ„œ¹¿Ùà¾×èÍãËŒ¡ÅѺÊÙ‹ÊÀÒ¾à´ÔÁâ´Â à˧´‹Ç¹ ´ŒÇ¡ÒÃÇҧἹ»‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒÍ‹ҧ¶Ù¡ÇÔ¸Õ áÅР໚¹Ãкº â´ÂÍÒÈѤÇÒÁËÇÁÁ×ͧ͢·Ø¡½†Ò·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§ 㹩ºÑº¹Õàé ÃÒ¢Íá¹Ð¹íÒ˹ѧÊ×Í “ʶҹ¡Òó¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜§› Í‹ÒÇä·Â·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÇԡĵԔ «Ö觨Ѵ·íÒâ´Â ¡Í§µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ à¹×Íé ËÒã¹àÅ‹Á໚¹¡ÒùíÒàʹ͢ŒÍÁÙÅáÅТŒÍà·ç¨¨ÃÔ§à¡ÕÂè ǡѺʶҹ¡Òó ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹¾×é¹·Õèµ‹Ò§æ ¢Í§Í‹ÒÇä·Â â´Â੾ÒÐ ¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÀÒÇÐÇÔ¡ÄµÔ «Öè§ä´Œ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃǺÃÇÁ àÍ¡ÊÒ÷ҧÇÔªÒ¡Ò÷Õàè ¡ÕÂè Ç¢ŒÍ§ áÅСÒÃÊíÒÃǨ¾×¹é ·Õãè ¹ÀҤʹÒÁ ¹Í¡ ¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ¹íÒàʹÍÊÒà˵ØáÅлÃÐà´ç¹»˜ÞËÒ·Õè·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´¡ÒáѴà«ÒÐ äÁ‹Ç‹Ò¨Ð໚¹ÊÒà˵بҡ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅСÒáÃзíҢͧÁ¹Øɏ ÃÇÁ·Ñé§ ¹íÒàʹͼšÃзº¨Ò¡¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§µ‹ÍÃкº¹ÔàÇÈ àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ áÅÐÊѧ¤Á µÅÍ´¨¹¹íÒàʹ͡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òû‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒǢͧ˹‹Ç§ҹµ‹Ò§æ ·Ñ§é ÀÒ¤ÃÑ°ÀÒ¤àÍ¡ª¹ ÃÇÁ·Ñ§é »ÃЪҪ¹ ã¹¾×é¹·Õè ÍÕ¡·Ñé§Âѧ䴌¹íÒàʹÍÂØ·¸ÈÒʵÏ¡ÒèѴ¡Òû‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡Œä¢ »˜ÞËÒ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜§› ¢Í§»ÃÐà·È «Ö§è »ÃСͺ´ŒÇÂ໇ÒËÁÒÂËÅÑ¡ á¹Ç·Ò§ áÅÐÁҵáÒáÒôíÒà¹Ô¹§Ò¹ã¹àÃ×èͧ´Ñ§¡Å‹ÒÇ ÃÇÁ¶Ö§¹íÒàÊ¹Í ¢ŒÍ¤Ô´àËç¹áÅТŒÍàʹÍá¹Ð㹡ÒÃᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ¡ÒáѴà«ÒЪÒ½˜›§ à¾×èÍãˌ˹‹Ç§ҹ·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¹íÒ仾ԨÒóһÃСͺ¡ÒôíÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà »‡Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐᡌ䢻˜ÞËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹µ‹Íä» ËÒ¡·‹Ò¹Ê¹ã¨ÊÒÁÒöµÔ´µ‹Íä´Œ·Õè ¡ÅØ‹Á§Ò¹µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹ ʶҹ¡Òó ¡Í§µÔ´µÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å Êíҹѡ§Ò¹¹âºÒÂáÅÐá¼¹ ·ÃѾÂҡøÃÃÁªÒµÔáÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅŒÍÁ ËÃ×Í download ä´Œ·Õè http:// www.onep.go.th/download/thai_bay_erosion.pdfß

impact on our society, economy, and people’s quality of life. As a result, coastal erosion has made its way onto the nation’s priority list and needs to be urgently addressed through a prevention and resolution scheme involving all stakeholders. Here, we would like to introduce the interesting book titled “Critical Stage of Coastal Erosion along the Gulf of Thailand” published by the Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The publication provides alarming facts and information about the state of coastal erosion, with a focus on the severely eroded areas along the Gulf of Thailand, compiled from both academic papers and field surveys. The causes and factors that drive coastal erosion, whether natural or man - made, are also presented here along with the socio - economic and ecological impacts. Moreover, the publication outlines the prevention and resolution programs implemented by public and private authorities as well as local community remedial efforts. Prevention and resolution strategies on coastal erosion, complete with objectives, guidelines, and operational measures, along with opinions and recommendations concerning the topic are also included for consideration by related authorities. The publication can be requested from the State of the Monitoring and Evaluation Group, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning,or downloaded from http://www.onep.go.th/download/thai_bay_erosion.pdf.ß

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/TNE-51-v3  

http://lib.mnre.go.th/lib/TNE/TNE-51-v3.pdf

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