ISSUE 07: ZIMBABWE @35 SEP 2015
PEOPLE OF VALID OPINIONS
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
COVER ILLUSTRATION Ryan Chokureva
ARS 2004 - 2 014
ARS 2004 - 2 014
E D I T I O N
ISSUE 06: WOMEN’S EDITION
PEOPLE OF VALID OPINIONS ISSUE 03: PHOTOGRAPHY FEATURING: Tamuka Mtengwa // Annie Mpalume // Robert Machiri // Tafadzwa Tarumbwa // Anesu Freddy // Baynham Goredema // Masimba Sasa // Khumbulani Mpofu // Rayan Chokureva // Steven Chikosi // Rudo Nyangulu // Victor Bagu
are done,love to love and be loved. www.durbandoodles.blogspot.com Animator. Photographer. Designer. www.greedysouth.blogspot.com Zimbabwe #1 ent blog www.thepeopleshub.posterous.com We are a team of PR professionals, bloggers, multi-media creatives and event managers. www.ri0.tumblr.com A meeting of the minds of two acquaintances - A photgrapher Rosiah and a poet RuTendo DeNise (.R.). www.iamblackbird.wordpress.com The Rap Empress www.commonsenseorisit.blogspot.com This blog www.muzhingi5h23.wordpress.com - Words of a Comrades Winner. www.kgskitchen.blogspot.com The food experience and experiment that is all about enjoying food and enjoying the cooking. www.chirinda.tumblr.com www.godfreykoti.blogspot.com out of Zimbabwe. www.ngizwani.wordpress.com Our interest was to tell, in pictures, the story of the Zimbabwe Election as it unfolded. www.zimbabweinpictures.com See for yourself www.25tolyf.com The aim of the blog is to showcase the talents of African hip hop artists from all over the world. www.meetmutsa.tumblr.com I’m passionate about being involved with HIV/AIDS projects especially in Africa. www.thesovereignstate.org A Zimbabwean graphic designer and social commentator. www.justpatience.com This blog is my notebook on my experiences, thoughts and opinions on fashion and lifestyle. www.farai.com Farai has combined media, technology, and diversity during her 20-year career as an award-winning author and journalist. www.carljoshuancube. I am now a stand up comedian...what was I before? www.zuwamusic.com What began as a simple blog to house my art eventually turned into a hub where my various thoughts are documented and displayed. www.fromthesoulofaman.blogspot.com I sometimes feel that the solutions to our greatest problems rest in common sense, which doesn’t always seem so common. www.nadiabrowncow.com A Zimbabwean Princess who found her Prince and is now living happily ever after amongst the cows in the Swiss countryside.www.zambezitraveller.com destinations along the Zambezi. www.hashbrowndontfrown.com www.namelesscomms.blogspot.com - Multi-lingual poet-musician and award winning journalist working for Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation –ZBC as a Producer/Presenter,(DJ),Reporter and Newsreader for Radio Zimbabwe, National FM and ZTV. www.marondera-high.blogspot.com This is an experience I had visiting my old school. I hope it will move people to contribute towards rebuilding this school. www.simukacomedy.posterous.com The home of Zimbabwean Stand Up Comedy www.mysoullife.blogspot.com - if you speak about it, you should be about it. www.themail faithtalk.blogspot.com A platform where I discuss and probe issues that have to do with Faith and Religion in Zimbabwe and beyond. www.davidcoltart.com - David Coltart, MDC Senator, has been a human rights lawyer in Zimbabwe since his return to the www.zimbogeek.com Discovering all things I.T., one “kill -s HUP foo” at a time. www.thandowako.blogspot.com A writer, performing poet and arts consultant based in Zimbabwe, concerned with the human challenges in the journey of life. stimulusnetwork.blogspot.com This is a space where we invite you to share your stories in your journey to becoming an entrepreneur www.bizsetup.wordpress.com - An organization dedicated to helping entrepreneurs start-up and grow businesses the smart www.techzim.co.zw - We explore new technologies, ICT services provision, Internet products and companies. www.zimbloggers.info - If you’re a blogger submit your blog today to gain exposure to a larger audience to our Directory. www.seek-creativity. - Continuously Seeking www.radioknk.com www.opium.co.zw Dynamic company breaking into media and media-related industries. www.ethos-photographic.blogspot.com - A journey through imagery with rudo nyangulu www.indiesoulchild.wordpress.com An outlet of expression. it’s my soap box, it’s my diary. it allows me to air out all my thoughts, my anxieties, my frustrations, and my outlook on both the good and the bad, the happy and the sad. www.trevormakonyonga.blogspot.com Zmbabwean news and my views.www.muzvarebettymakoni.org An organisation that champions the rights of the girl child in Zimbabwe and world over. www.afrofutures.com Futurism as a topic has to do primarily with blacks in the Diaspora but also the whole of African consciousness. www.edithweutonga.blogspot.com A mother of two sons,a wife to a very supportive hubby,very particular about how things are done,love to love and be loved. www.durbandoodles.blogspot.com Animator. Photographer. Designer. www.greedysouth.blogspot.com Zimbabwe #1 ent blog www.thepeopleshub.posterous.com We are a team of PR professionals, bloggers, multi-media creatives and event managers. www.ri0.tumblr.com A meeting of the minds of two acquaintances - A photgrapher Rosiah and a poet RuTendo DeNise (.R.). www.iamblackbird.wordpress.com The Rap www.commonsenseorisit.blogspot.com www.muzhingi5h23.wordpress.com - Words of a Comrades Winner. www.kgskitchen.blogspot.com The food expe rience and experiment that is all about enjoying food and enjoying the cooking. www.chirinda.tumblr.com www.godfreykoti.blogspot.com by one of the most insightful cricket analysists to ever emerge out of Zimbabwe. www.ngizwani.wordpress.com Our interest was to tell, in pictures, the story of the Zimbabwe Election as it unfolded. www.zimbabweinpictures.com See for yourself www.25tolyf. The aim of the blog is to showcase the talents of African hip hop artists from all over the world. www.meetmutsa.tumblr.com I’m passionate about being involved with HIV/AIDS projects especially in Africa. www.thesovereignstate.org A Zimbabwean graphic designer and social commentator. www.justpatience.com This blog is my notebook on my experiences, thoughts and opinions on fashion and lifestyle. www.farai.com Farai has combined media, technology, and diversity during her 20-year career as an award-winning author and journalist. www.carljoshuancube.posterous.com I am now a stand up comedian...what was I before? www.zuwamusic.com drums and cast to the winds by enchanting melodies www.sirnige.com What began as a simple blog to house my art eventually turned into a hub where my various thoughts are documented and displayed. www.fromthesoulofaman.blogspot.com I sometimes feel that the solutions to our greatest problems rest in common sense, which doesn’t always seem so common. www.nadiabrowncow.com A Zimbabwean Princess who found her Prince and is now living happily ever after amongst the cows in the Swiss country www.zambezitraveller.com www.hashbrowndontfrown.com namelesscomms.blogspot.com - Multi-lingual poet-musician and award winning journalist working for Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation –ZBC as a Producer/Presenter,(DJ),Reporter and Newsreader for Radio Zimbabwe, National FM and ZTV. www.maron dera-high.blogspot.com This is an experience I had visiting my old school. I hope it will move people to contribute towards rebuilding this school. www.simukacomedy.posterous.com The home of Zimbabwean Stand Up Comedy www.mysoullife.blogspot.com - if you speak about it, you should be about it. www.themailfaithtalk.blogspot.com A platform where I discuss and probe issues that have to do with Faith and Religion in Zimbabwe and beyond. www.davidcoltart.com - David Coltart, MDC Senator, has been a human rights lawyer in Zimbabwe since his return to the country in 1983. www.zimbogeek.com Discovering all things I.T., one “kill -s HUP foo” at a time. www.thandowako.blogspot.com A writer, performing poet and arts consultant based in Zimbabwe, concerned with the human challenges in the journey of life. www.stimulusnetwork.blogspot.com This is a space where we invite you to share your stories in your journey to becoming an entrepreneur www.bizsetup.wordpress.com - An organization dedicated to helping entrepreneurs start-up and grow businesses the smart way. www.techzim.co.zw - We explore new technologies, ICT services provision, Internet products and companies. www.zimbloggers.info - If you’re a blogger submit your blog today to gain exposure to a larger audience to our Directory. www.seek-creativity.blogspot.com - Continuously Seeking www.radioknk.com us all closer together. www.opium.co.zw Dynamic company breaking into media and media-related industries. www.ethos-photographic.blogspot.com - A journey through imagery with rudo nyangulu www.indiesoulchild.wordpress.com An outlet of expression. it’s my soap box, it’s my diary. it allows me to air out all my thoughts, my anxieties, my frustrations, and my outlook on both the good and the bad, the happy and the sad. www.trevormakonyonga.blogspot.com Zmbabwean news and my views.www.muzvarebet An organisation that champions the rights of the girl child in Zimbabwe and world over. www.afrofutures.com Futurism as a topic has to do primarily with blacks in the Diaspora but also the whole of African consciousness. www.edithweutonga. A mother of two sons,a wife to a very supportive hubby,very particular about how things are done,love to love and be loved. www.durbandoodles.blogspot.com Animator. Photographer. Designer. www.greedysouth.blogspot.com Zimbabwe #1 www.thepeopleshub.posterous.com We are a team of PR professionals, bloggers, multi-media creatives and event managers. www.ri0.tumblr.com A meeting of the minds of two acquaintances - A photgrapher Rosiah and a poet RuTendo DeNise (.R.). www.iamblackbird.wordpress.com The Rap Empress www.commonsenseorisit.blogspot.com www.muzhingi5h23.wordpress.com - Words of a Comrades Winner. www.god www.kgskitchen.blogspot.com The food experience and experiment that is all about enjoying food and enjoying the cooking. www.chirinda.tumblr.com freykoti.blogspot.com www.ngizwani.wordpress.com Our interest was to tell, in pictures, the story of the Zimbabwe Election as it unfolded. www.zim babweinpictures.com See for yourself www.25tolyf.com The aim of the blog is to showcase the talents of African hip hop artists from all over the world. www.meetmutsa.tumblr.com I’m passionate about being involved with HIV/AIDS projects especially in Af www.thesovereignstate.org A Zimbabwean graphic designer and social commentator. www.justpatience.com This blog is my notebook on my experiences, thoughts and opinions on fashion and lifestyle. www.farai.com Farai has combined media, technology, and diversity during her 20-year career as an award-winning author and journalist. www.carljoshuancube.posterous.com I am now a stand up comedian...what was I before? www.zuwamusic.com A rare and engaging artist... poetic and political lilts www.sirnige.com What began as a simple blog to house my art eventually turned into a hub where my various thoughts are documented and displayed. www.fromthesoulofaman.blogspot.com I sometimes feel that the solutions to our greatest problems rest in common sense, which doesn’t always seem so common. www.nadiabrowncow.com A Zimbabwean Princess who found her Prince and is now living happily ever after amongst the cows in the Swiss countryside.www.zambezitraveller.com www.hashbrowndontfrown.com This is the online head-quarters of myself, TehN Diamond, an up and coming Zim www.namelesscomms.blogspot.com - Multi-lingual poet-musician and award winning journalist working for Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation –ZBC as a Producer/Presenter,(DJ),Reporter and Newsreader for Radio Zimbabwe, National FM and ZTV. www.marondera-high.blogspot.com This is an experience I had visiting my old school. I hope it will move people to contribute towards rebuilding this school. www.simukacomedy.posterous.com The home of Zimba bwean Stand Up Comedy www.mysoullife.blogspot.com - if you speak about it, you should be about it. www.themailfaithtalk.blogspot.com A platform where I discuss and probe issues that have to do with Faith and Religion in Zimbabwe and beyond. - David Coltart, MDC Senator, has been a human rights lawyer in Zimbabwe since his return to the country in 1983. www.zimbogeek.com Discovering all things I.T., one “kill -s HUP foo” at a time. www.thandowako.blogspot.com A writer, per forming poet and arts consultant based in Zimbabwe, concerned with the human challenges in the journey of life. www.stimulusnetwork.blogspot.com This is a space where we invite you to share your stories in your journey to becoming an entrepreneur bizsetup.wordpress.com - An organization dedicated to helping entrepreneurs start-up and grow businesses the smart way. www.techzim.co.zw - We explore new technologies, ICT services provision, Internet products and companies. www.zimbloggers.info - If you’re a blogger submit your blog today to gain exposure to a larger audience to our Directory. www.seek-creativity.blogspot.com - Continuously Seeking www.radioknk.com mation to serve as a bridge between artists and fans alike bringing us all closer together. www.opium.co.zw Dynamic company breaking into media and media-related industries. www.ethos-photographic.blogspot.com - A journey through imagery with rudo www.indiesoulchild.wordpress.com An outlet of expression. it’s my soap box, it’s my diary. it allows me to air out all my thoughts, my anxieties, my frustrations, and my outlook on both the good and the bad, the happy and the sad. www.trevormak onyonga.blogspot.com Zmbabwean news and my views.www.muzvarebettymakoni.org An organisation that champions the rights of the girl child in Zimbabwe and world over. www.afrofutures.com Futurism as a topic has to do primarily with blacks in the Diaspora but also the whole of African consciousness. www.edithweutonga.blogspot.com A mother of two sons,a wife to a very supportive hubby,very particular about how things are done,love to love and be loved. www.durbandoodles.blogspot.com Anima tor. Photographer. Designer. www.greedysouth.blogspot.com Zimbabwe #1 ent blog www.thepeopleshub.posterous.com We are a team of PR professionals, bloggers, multi-media creatives and event managers. www.ri0.tumblr.com A meeting of the minds of two acquaintances - A photgrapher Rosiah and a poet RuTendo DeNise (.R.). www.iamblackbird.wordpress.com The Rap Empress www.commonsenseorisit.blogspot.com www.muzhingi5h23.wordpress.com - Words of a Comrades Winner. www.kgskitchen.blogspot.com The food experience and experiment that is all about enjoying food and enjoying the cooking. www.chirinda.tumblr.com www.godfreykoti.blogspot.com www.ngizwani.wordpress.com Our interest was to tell, in pictures, the story of the Zimbabwe Election as it unfolded. www.zimbabweinpictures.com See for yourself www.25tolyf.com The aim of the blog is to showcase the talents of African hip hop artists from all over the world. www.meetmutsa.tumblr.com I’m pas sionate about being involved with HIV/AIDS projects especially in Africa. www.thesovereignstate.org A Zimbabwean graphic designer and social commentator. www.justpatience.com This blog is my notebook on my experiences, thoughts and opinions on fashion and lifestyle. www.farai.com Farai has combined media, technology, and diversity during her 20-year career as an award-winning author and journalist. www.carljoshuancube.posterous.com I am now a stand up comedian...what was I before? www.sirnige.com What began as a simple blog to house my art eventually turned into a hub where my various thoughts are documented and displayed. www.fromthesoulofaman.blogspot.com I sometimes feel that the solutions to our greatest problems rest in common sense, which doesn’t always seem so common. www.nadiabrowncow. A Zimbabwean Princess who found her Prince and is now living happily ever after amongst the cows in the Swiss countryside.www.zambezitraveller.com www.hashbrowndontfrown.com This is the online www.namelesscomms.blogspot.com - Multi-lingual poet-musician and award winning journalist working for Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation –ZBC as a Producer/Presenter,(DJ),Reporter and Newsreader for Radio Zimbabwe, National FM and ZTV. www.marondera-high.blogspot.com This is an experience I had visiting my old school. I hope it will move people to contribute towards rebuilding this www.simukacomedy.posterous.com The home of Zimbabwean Stand Up Comedy www.mysoullife.blogspot.com - if you speak about it, you should be about it. www.themailfaithtalk.blogspot.com A platform where I discuss and probe issues that have
RESILIENCE BRILLIANCE PERSEVERENCE
FEATUING TUMI AND THE VOLUME AKALA METAPHYSICS XAPA TIMOTHY MWAURA
FEATUING TINA WATYOKA BATSIRAI CHIGAMA HOPE MASIKE RUTENDO AURATHAPOET
ISSUE 07: ZIMBABWE @35 SEP 2015
OCTOBER 2014 ARTS & CULTURE JOURNAL - AFRIKA
ARTS & CULTURE JOURNAL
ANNUAL REPORT 2011 www.povo.co.za
THE POVO JOURNAL 2012 www.povo.co.zw
ISSUE 04: INAUGURAL WOMEN’S EDITION
ISSUE 05: ANNIVERSARY EDITON
ARTS & CULTURE JOURNAL - AFRIKA
FEATUING MASIMBA HWATI CALVIN CHITUWUNA DAVID CHINYAMA SO PROFOUND HIFA
THE POVO JOURNAL 2013 www.povo.co.zw
ISSUE 02: ILLUSTRATION FEATURING: Boarding Dzinotizei // Charly Makwanya // Julian Mugabe // Robert Machiri // Tafadzwa Tarumbwa // Novic Hadebe // Baynham Goredema // Walter Murray // Paul Maposa
ADVERTISING a rate sheet is available on request zim: +263 774 168 975 / +263 77 228 3186 Rsa: +27 72 600 5283 / +27 11 7603511 / +27 76 099 9770 email: limited space available! PUBLISHERS Xealos design ConsulTanTs zim harare: +263 774 168 975 / 773 456 797, 1 Verona Gardens, 70 Livingstone Ave, Harare, Zimbabwe Rsa Johannesburg: +27 11 7603511 / +27 726005283 210 Klein Drakenstein, 31 Snipe Street, Horizon, 1724, Roodepoort, Johannesburg, South Afrika CONTRIBUTE Add your voice to the conversation. Your opinion is valid and valuable. Send your contributions to firstname.lastname@example.org KEY PERSONNEL EDITOR Archibald Mathibela PROJECT COORDINATOR Pauline Goredema PROJECT DIRECTOR Fambai Ngirande DESIGN AND LAYOUT Baynham Goredema PRODUCTION MANAGER Tafadzwa Gutsa FINANCE DIRECTOR Rodrick Longwe DISCLAIMER POVO JOURNAL is published by XEALOS DESIGN CONSULTANTS for POVOAfrika Trust. Opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reﬂect the views of POVOAfrika Trust, XEALOS DESIGN CONSULTANTS nor any of their funding partners. The information and views set out in this journal are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reﬂect the official opinion of POVOAfrika Trust, XEALOS DESIGN CONSULTANTS nor any of their partners. Neither POVOAfrika Trust or XEALOS DESIGN CONSULTANTS nor any person acting on their behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein. Neither are they responsible for siting references within articles or credits to photos supplied, this is the responsibility of the contributor. Rights to the photographs and articles remain with the photographers and with the authors respectively. Contact them respectively for reproduction. While all care has been taken during proofing, errors and omissions may slip through and we sincerely apologise for these.
Special thanks to our partner HIVOS for believing in this project and providing funding and technical advice on governance to a ﬂedgling organisation like POVOAfrika Trust.
THE POVO JOURNAL September 2015
[zim] Tatenda Kanengoni
The Complexity Of Race and Colour Relations in Modern Society
[zim] Christine Ndoro
[Suriname] XAVIER ROBLES DE MEDINA
Why Stop the Rain? Suriname to Zimbabwe
[zim] Wellins Chimusimbe
[zim] Ryan Chokureva
Mind the Tomatoes
Xenophobia - The After Thoughts
11 Dear Husband
[zim] Orpatience Muringai
12 Change of Philosophy - Key to [zim] ARCHIBALD MATHIBELA
the Rise of Afrika’s Youth
14 Cyberbullying - The Reinvention [zim] Zororo S. Mubaya
of an Existing Predicament
[zim] Nigel Zhuwaki
18 The Marriage Ring
[zim] Desmond Munemo
38 Kuchava Riniko...? Women Rights Infringement Continues to Stall [zim] Anesu Chigariro
Zimbabwe must Legalise Abortion
[KENYA] Elphas Were
Afrikan Youth: Resource or Disaster? [zim] Cwebile Sibanda
[zim] NANCY MTEKI
Because I am a Girl
20 Redefining Interior Design with Michelina Adreucci
Zimbabwe in Mind
21 My Beautiful Home – Comba [zim]
DBUTHOLEZWE KGOSI NYATHI
Debbie N. Peters
Pan-Afrikan Expatriates on the Afrikan Continent
[zim] Angelbert Wamambo
The Ubuntu Ransom Letter
28 I Choose Wisdom [zim] Elton MJANANA
[zim] Shaun Matsheza
Hey Zimbos, Why so Serious?
54 Interview with Rudo Chasi Kudzai Magoche
58 Get into the habit of [zim] Ernest MaCkina
60 Realistic Fashion makes Sense [zim]Gilmore Tee
in this Globalised World
[BURUNDI] Fidele Nkezamuzima
[IRELAND] Padraic Kavanagh
Burundi Political History and, their Stand on the Great Lakes Hurling
[zim] Raymond MUWANIRI
25 Ways for Zimbabweans to reduce their Carbon Footprint and Bills
& Tinodiwa Makoni
ComExposed, a New Platform for Comic Books [zim] Jimmy Saruchera
[zim] Takudzwa M. Nyazema
The Afrikan Arts, Something to Enthuse over!
Integrating Zimbabwean Youth in Ireland
[zim] CHIKONZERO CHAZUNGUZA
Dzimbanhete Artist Interactions [zim] Senzeni Mpofu
[zim] Rudo Chasi
Stranger in Berlin
[zim] Eugene Mapondera
“sharpening the saw”
23 Cognitive Chimurenga [SWEDEN] Karolina Jeppson
Culturally Appropriate or Tackling Culture
[zim] RUTRENDO MUTSAMWIRA
New Stories to be Told
Inventing the Future
The Name Game
[zim] Rodrick Longwe
Resolutions, Tar & Medals
[zim] Susan Mutambasere
Who will Stand for the Environment in Zimbabwe?
[zim] Tinashe Muchuri
[UGANDA] Doreen Anyijukire
[JAMAICA] Nyasha Mupaso
China: More than Business Buddies? Beyond Sino-Afrikan Business Relationships [zim]
Showcase 80 82
[zim] TASHINGA DEKUNYE
Graphic Designers in Zimbabwe - The Birth of an Organization
PHOTOGRAPHY 09 Tinashe Hwindingwi 13 David Abbey-Thompson [GHANA] 17 Nigel Zhuwaki [GHANA]
25 Collins Nyamadzawo 29 Darius Mutamba 36 Osborne Macharia [KENYA] 39 Xavier Robles De Medina [Suriname] 65 Shermon Baloyi 49 Takunda Gwatidzo 79 Tamuka Mtengwa PAINTING 81 Mavis Tauzeni ILLUSTRATION 03 Weston Takaedza 45 Thandiwe Tshabalala [RSA] 74 Tafadzwa Tarumbwa FASHION 61 Danai Chapfika DESIGN 27 Baynham Goredema
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
The complexity of race and colour relations in modern society IDENTITY
Tatenda Kanengoni WRITER @i4indie
ecently, my friends and I had a conversation about slavery. Imagine growing up in an era where you are saleable and consequently become someone’s property? Speaking as someone who never experienced this first hand, my rhetoric can be mistaken for mockery. No one is qualified to fathom the feelings of those who lived this reality. We spoke at length about the ripple effects of slavery and apartheid. How there appears to be new forms of separation in the present day. Don’t get me wrong; these atrocious inhumane practices were officially outlawed. This begs the question, was there a follow up lesson on equality and tolerance to counter the effects of what happened prior? Why do people still commit and get away with racially motivated hate crimes?
Nature Versus Nurture They say we are born with love, but hate is learnt. Who taught us hate? Having experienced hate based on the colour of my skin from someone who grew up post-segregatory regimes, this was mind boggling. I realised that our generation is presented with a new set of problems, a new war - a mental one. This is dangerous because it is internal and institutionalised in a way, which increases the propensity with which it is transferred from generation to generation. 6
THE POVO JOURNAL September 2015
Imagine growing up in an era where you are saleable and consequently become someone’s property? Speaking as someone who never experienced this first hand, my rhetoric can be mistaken for mockery.
How a child as young as eight knows that they are different from the next - forget the obvious visuals; how they speak of one creed being better than the other or that one does not belong, is scary to say the least. If we look back to the abode of all things oppressive, times where masters owned servants who were divided into classes consisting of those who lived closer to their masters and those who worked in the fields. The former were considered more privileged, almost in a satirical way. Does this ring a bell? Probably so, as it mirrors some of our everyday encounters. You can see traces of this in the way formerly marginalised populations behave in terms of association.
schools that had very few blacks. Not one historically black school was mentioned. Whilst one can argue affordability as a factor of choice, the idea of looking at racial minorities as a deciding factor ascribes to the school of separation. How do we move forward from this chain reaction?
Mind Over Matter As a parent, raising your child to not associate with their own race, what kind of mentality are you instilling in your children? If you preach segregation in the hopes of protecting your child or affording them a better life, and then release them into a diverse world, how will they treat others? This is no different from a child who is told to hide their food in their bag and not
If we look back to the abode of all things oppressive, times where masters owned servants who were divided into classes consisting of those who lived closer to their masters and those who worked in the fields Whilst dropping my son off at nursery school I was often asked, where is your son going to school next year? This asked with a premeditated reaction readying either a frown or smile depending on my response. Most black mothers spoke in favour of
share with others. They start to pile up food in their bag until it goes bad, then their 2 year old sibling gets hold of this bag and eats the food and gets food poisoning, essentially, applying formulas that backfire and affect your own.
I don’t think it is in all cases that hate is taught overtly, but by insinuating that you are better off if you associate with a certain type, you are effectively creating a divide of US versus THEM. Institutions of learning are also promoting separation; terms like All White schools, All Black this, Asian that, all sow division. It’s no wonder we are facing a lot of identity issues, offering unequal resources based on race. And you ask, who taught us hate? Our forefathers were forced to trade in a love they knew for submission. They walked away with a mirage survival toolkit and passed this on to their procreation, this consisting of insecurity that entails prioritising another by turning against their own. This vicious cycle will continue until we teach our children that variation exists and it is not about comparison or superiority. Is it hate or intolerance? An inability to move past a stereotype and a desire to eliminate all that does not match up with your faction. The question of why hate or racism exists does not have a simple answer; its complexity stems from multiple off springs, the mother being prejudice. Once prejudice is cleared we may have hope. On that day, I experienced hate due to the architecture of my being, I got home and thought to myself, I braved the cold today all I had was my smile, it shielded me, it soothed me, I felt warm within.
Climate Change Survey 2015
n the first quarter of 2015 POVO Afrika Trust conducted a country wide survey in tertiary and higher level institutions around Zimbabwe with the objective of finding out, “what students knew about Climate change”. The organisation had permission from the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education to conduct the survey and we received a very good response from the institutions and their students. The survey was conducted in all the major cities; Bulawayo, Gweru, Harare, Masvingo and Mutare. The institutions included; Lupane State University (LSU), National
University of Science and Technology (NUST), Midlands State University (MSU), Great Zimbabwe University (GZU), Belvedere Teachers College, Harare Polytechnic, Mutare Polytechnic and Marymount Teachers College. We randomly selected 1000 students from a wide variety of faculties and for their participation in our survey, students were given copies of the 2014 POVO Journals, the women’s and the main edition, as well as the 2014 compilation CD Speak Sing Vol1. The results of the survey will be published in the inaugural POVO Green Edition to be released in the first quarter of 2016.
During the survey, it was evident that students studying agriculture, geography, environment and other related fields were familiar with climate change as it is part of their curriculum. Others with knowledge of current affairs were also familiar with climate change, but the rest had no idea. But all students were in agreement that the climate in Zimbabwe had changed, it was getting warmer, the seasons were becoming unpredictable and they did not know the causes. It is important that students who are the future of the country
have full knowledge on Climate change and all other aspects of Sustainable Development, especially the teachers who will be working with our future generations. Human activity around the world is negatively affecting our planet and Zimbabwean’s should be educated on what is really happening and start to make changes towards reducing our carbon footprint and living sustainably. Climate Change is now considered a major threat to the planet and is high on the UN’s agenda. POVO Afrika Trust intends on doing its part by going into communities, schools, universities and colleges around Zimbabwe and educating the people on Sustainable Development, awareness, mitigation and adaption strategies to counter Climate Change and Global Warming, as our future is dependent on us making the change.
HIFA 2015 The second time having a stall at the festival and this time we had more visitors interacting with the brand and we distributed journals, got new contributors and sold T shirts.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Mind the tomatoes SOCIETY
Not so long ago did we joke and caution ourselves when in Harare to mind the tomatoes on the street pavements.
ot so long ago did we joke and caution ourselves when in Harare to mind the tomatoes on the street pavements. Back then there was only a handful of vendors on the streets of Harare. Astonishing it is how over the years things have changed from simply minding the tomatoes to minding everything that ranges from merchandise to people on the very same pavements. Harare has become a hive of everything, a hub of all vending activities I have seen it befitting to rename it Mbare Extension. This piece is not anything to do with politics but all to do with what an experience in Harare will be like in this day. I write in the position of one enjoying a stroll in the streets of Harare and narrating what he will have come across.
All of Harare’s roads with the exception of Samora Machel have become grocery shops, vegetable and fruit markets as well as gochi gochi venues for chibage, sausages, livers to name a few. I bet KwaMereki they are going green with envy at their more enterprising colleagues in the CBD. If I was to do my own census I would put vendors at 7 is to 1 compared to ordinary citizens. Gone are the days one would worry about the times the conventional shops would close shop as all grocery shopping is now available from the streets. At one corner or street, one bumps into a mound of bath soaps mainly Protex as well as other popular bathing soap brands. Prices range from $1 for three to a 8
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dollar each. Toothpaste, towels, toothbrushes, petroleum jelly, lotions from big brands are also readily available on the streets. Who needs the retail chain shops anyway, when everything is found cheaply on the pavement? I presume they are that cheap as they do not have rentals, wages and bills to worry about. One area that has become exciting and confusing at the same time is the corner of Rezende and Robert Mugabe. The moment it hits 5pm carts with bananas, oranges, tomatoes, pine apples, carrots, apples, pitch tents here. It’s as if they owned this area of Harare. On the opposite side, kombi crews will be busy outclassing each other for passengers and this sometimes involves blocking the road to other road users. Facing the small Bakers Inn outlet at this corner will be makeshift roadside shops neatly arranged up to the top with snacks, energy drinks like the popular Dragon from across the Limpopo as well as its
unouraya mapete nemakonzo. Wemapete wemakonzo, paradyira ndipo parinofira.” I have since self-tasked myself to try and find an audiometer to measure the decibels of the noise produced here. Then on the other side of Robert Mugabe at its rendezvous with Julius Nyerere hordes of people will be lined up to catch a lift to go home. The crowds are a mixture of people who can afford the $1 fare home to Chitungwiza but are not comfortable using Kombis, those who can afford R5 and are not picky as to what mode of transport takes them home, the vendors and the touts. Its worrying trying to gauge the ages of these touts as they are youngsters supposed to be in school but will be running after every car prospecting to be tout. These youngsters get anything from a maximum of R5 and below for each car they load. These boys have no limitations to what can come from their tongues.
Harare has become a hive of everything, a hub of all vending activities I have seen it befitting to rename it Mbare Extension sister energy drink, Twizza. The energy drink is too cheap for my liking coupled with my lack of trust in the brand. Manoeuvring this part of Harare has become a task one too many. A few metres away at the corner of Robert Mugabe and Leopold Takawira streets, will be second hand clothes vendors and the orange overalled guys with their megaphones going, “Mushonga
Obscenities are spewed right, left and centre. Trying to reprimand them would render a sane person a fool as they have no respect for anyone. They simply don’t care what you deduce of them as long as they go home with the money. Some, young enough to be around Form 2 or 3 are already into smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. Fights here are prevalent.
A little further down town one bumps into the mushika shika taxis along Leopold Takawira. Now these guys are something else. These are guys you would never dare chase. Most of their cars are heavily dented with fenders hanging, electric windows out of order windscreens smashed such that it’s tempting to drive with one’s head out through the window. Any thought of being in danger of arrest by police will see them take off at scary speeds irrespective of what will be surrounding them. Those in the know are always vigilant after having chosen this mode of transport. Though small, these cars are made to carry two passengers on the front passenger’s seat and four on the back seat. By the boot will be two or three youths hanging in there as these taxis speed off to either Avondale or Fourth Street. A new addition to the streets of Harare has been roasting of mealie cobs and braiing chicken livers and gizzards right there in the street of the Sunshine City. Also, upcoming artists be they musicians, dance groups and actors have taken to selling their productions personally from any point of choice in the CBD and passer-by’s have a chance to feel the live performances without paying a cent. To be honest, initially I had serious issues with the sudden turn of things in Harare but have lately come to accept and appreciate that these are people simply trying to eke out a living through the only honest means that seems feasible at the moment. I worry though about the rise of pick pocketing and dirtiness in the ‘Sunshine City.’
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Xenophobia The after thoughts HUMAN RIGHTS
Ryan Chokureva CREATIVE
Lack of vision replaces failing systems and flawed recipes with foreigners. It limits our ability to identify stumbling blocks so we keep falling over in the same place.
e do see not far, nor do we learn much. Lack of vision says it’s okay to fight for waitress and gardener jobs in a continent that we call home. Not that there is anything wrong with these jobs it’s just that they should be the alternative and not the norm. Lack of vision replaces failing systems and flawed recipes with foreigners. It limits our ability to identify stumbling blocks so we keep falling over in the same place. Think about this for a minute:
Across Afrika there is a shortage of almost everything. We need more schools, more hospitals, better road and transport networks, more doctors, better housing …. And Yet, Our People Do Not Have Jobs? The problem is not people, who they are, or where they come from, the problem is What We Are Doing With And For The People. We have enough problems enough need to put all our human capital to good use. In fact we may not be enough. Our people have no jobs because we are not solving people-related problems. We do not have people focused visions, not at council level, not at City level, not at national level, worse as a continent. 10
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We build malls faster than we build schools or upgrade agricultural and mining infrastructure and future technologies necessary for the age we are entering. Who is going to buy there at these expensive malls, with what money? How is that sustainable? Vision should measure progress based on not leaving anyone behind, yet in principle we just build expectations and hope people catch up somehow.
In its true sense xenophobia is just an irrational fear and dislike of people from other nations. It is not violence. Violence is an expression on one’s emotions and frustration, which is a choice and an active decision
Levels of violence. The rest of the world was not shocked that South Afrikans wanted to drive foreigners out of their country because
things were getting harder. The most natural instinct is selfpreservation. This reaction is happening in the UK, Australia, Greece and the U.S. What shocked the world was the level of violence in the sense that it was so public and so brazen. In its true sense xenophobia is just an irrational fear and dislike of people from other nations. It is not violence. Violence is an expression on one’s emotions and frustration, which is a choice and an active decision. The context in which it happened may have been xenophobic but let us not fool ourselves that this is the only trigger it needs for it to surface:
The fact that people can burn another human being alive then stand and watch. The fact that children are allowed to watch and cheer, that old women stand arms folded, no tears, no sorrow, shows a deeper psychological problem. When you hide behind a bin or a wall, knife in hand waiting to attack someone, you are effectively hunting. Hunting human beings. That level of violence goes beyond the need to express frustration and needs to be solved within its own context so that when next frustrations boil over we witness different decision making.
The word “Foreigner” We use and have allowed the word ‘foreigner’ to define a whole person, a whole people, their values, their needs and attributes. We have abused that word so much that all a person is and can be, is completely stripped off them with that tag. Is there really anything so foreign about a human being living among other humans? There are no people, no colour or creed of humans called ‘foreigners’, we should reflect this in how we use the word. There are those that do not kill ‘foreigners’ with burning tires and sharpened knives but with their words, with their characterisation. With the way they discard a people’s dignity and humanity in short sighted attempts to create attention grabbing headlines.
In the media context, the word foreigner is used to draw a line between them and us. It puts a line between people that does not exist, then we shout after - We Are One. There are those that know how to stir it up, repeatedly until something happens, stand back and say “Wow... look at that, look at these people”, when in fact they are The People Foreign policy matters! Like the Ebola outbreak has shown. There is no longer ‘them’ and ‘we’. There is now just “Us”. If they get Ebola, we
have Ebola. If they are terrorized, so are we. Our leadership and our vision needs to reflect that. If Zimbabweans cry, we need to care why and help put that right, because what hurts them will hurt us. When South Afrikans get frustrated, we need to understand those frustrations because when they boil over, we suffer. We are too nonchalant towards foreign policy matters as Afrikans and with that ignorance we grow and nurture domestic national self-inflicted harm. We are planning for a more connected world, building for borderless businesses, promoting border-free economies, encouraging cross border solutions AND YET we plan and expect people to be bound by their physical borders?. How does that work? When a simple smashed fence can decide and dictate progress or hopelessness. When war and peace are divided by a line and yet the rules (and profits) that govern those wars are somehow universal. People have and will always move towards stability, sustainable environments and resources. That is what the human race has always done and will always do. In this context, just closing borders does not help. It has not helped the United States, with all the great resources they have for border control. We need to solve the push factors. Why do people move, what can be done to make them stay? We need to show comradeship in solving root causes, as much as we do in solidarity with things of a more political nature. Being our brother’s keeper in this day and age is in essence an important step to sustainable individual progress and stability.
Ownership So in the end, the security services, which should have surely learned from similar attacks were not to blame. The media that stir it up during quiet times, are not to blame. The leadership in Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Ethiopia and others who can’t create havens for their own citizens are not to blame. The locals who were responsible for the killing and maiming were not to blame. The Kings that give ill-advised speeches are not to blame. The employers who pay unfair wages and manipulate labour practices for profits are not to blame. Foreigners who commit crime are not to blame. Leadership that always leads after and never before, is not to blame. When no one is to blame, everyone is to blame. We seem to have a crisis that no one owns and that is a worry greater than the crisis itself. When next it returns, who is going to be the gatekeeper, the one who shuts the door before the leopard is on the prowl. Marching against xenophobia is nice, but it’s far from the conversation the guy committing it needs and wants to have. It’s far from the solutions that led to his frustrations boiling over. That person needs someone to take ownership of who he became, of the environment that brews his violence, of the system that impounds his hopelessness. He in turn needs to take ownership of his actions, while we own up to our own contribution through ignorance and inaction.
Dear husband POETRY
Orpatience Muringai STUDENT
It’s me, your woman Hello, my husband (with a smile) I love you from within, All I have for you is “true love”, And all I need from you is also “true love”. I leave my parents, just for you. You leave yours also for me, It is all because of “true love”. So, can we maintain that aspect of “true love” my husband. I lost my virginity for you my husband, You also lost yours just for me, Its all because of “true love” So can we maintain that as we rightly started. My care giving role to you is beyond compare, You also take care of my love needs, You also take care of my financial needs, You take care of my material needs But listen my husband; this is not your passport to treat me as your property. Can you treat me as your better half, Can you treat me as your mother, Can you treat me with everlasting love, Can you treat me as your soul mate, This is because all I need from you is “true love” Because all I have for you is “true love” This is my message to you my husband, Can you take your precious time to understand it, It is all because of “true love” I have for you. I need your reply as soon as you can.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Change of Philosophy Key to the rise of Afrika’s youth YOUTH
Archibald Mathibela PR & Marketing Specialist
Our forefathers and their forbears had enough courage for millennia to tackle bread and butter issues head on before you could swallow your spit.
s the day of reckoning edges closer to me, I become more and more disillusioned about my generation and other contemporaries. Our forefathers and their forbears had enough courage for millennia to tackle bread and butter issues head on before you could swallow your spit. Yet we, the potbellied, cigarette quaffing, status hungry, sex crazed, morally decrepit and beer guzzling nonenties of civilization take to social media to air out our emotions at other progressives who treat us with disdain for our lack of fortitude, industry, enterprise, courage and futuristic yet frugal mind-set that is able to delay gratification and toil for its own progress and that of its offspring. Our fathers went to war to seize the means to their dignity. Alas, their legacy has since been fed to the dogs of history and squandered by us; the prodigal generation of born frees perpetually stuck in a time warp of ‘free for all’ mentality without engaging our faculties in production and enterprise. Active citizens today register to vote. Other civilizations have created media to control Afrika’s thoughts and actions. Others toiled for decades quietly and unassumedly and now enjoy the fruits of their hard labour by invoicing the world for their 12
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prosperity and comfort. They have embrace the philosophy of ownership whose tentacles stretch to include the very resources under our feet whilst we sweat and toil to live by their antiquated standards. Here we are as young Afrikans, on Twitter and Facebook making billionaires out of other civilizations with emotional platitudes devoid of action, devoid of any way out whatsoever except to rally fellow colleagues with similar ‘victim’ minded and vindictive yet purposeless attitudes that dig us even deeper into the quicksand of has-beens and alsorans with eyes glued to the rear view mirror of our destiny whilst the rest of the world marches on - piggy backing on our sorrows to make fortunes and fuel further progress for their civilizations. As youths, our greatest tragedy is not our lack of knowledge because more of it is now freely available for the discerning to use at will. Our greatest undoing is our inertia, our love for theatrical pub talks and possession by the demon of conspicuous consumption. We are the one minute crowd that wants things now in their finished and processed form. We want to eat now! We want to wear the finest clothes that others have produced, drive the latest most expensive cars which other
civilizations toiled and perfected beyond our means. We want to holiday in the most exotic places, but have done nothing in the past 4 centuries to redeem us as a people. We are but the world’s market- simpletons who have mastered the art of blah blah blah. Great singers, great poets, great writers, great actors, great
Our greatest undoing is our inertia, our love for theatrical pub talks and possession by the demon of conspicuous consumption. We are the one minute crowd that wants things now in their finished and processed form artists - yet none strive to truly own what they create, we are content with our 10 seconds of accidental fame and fortune. Terrible commercial sense. Zero philosophy of ownership. Afrikan youths (and adults) continue to beg, wail and hide in classrooms and universities rather than face life and be an active and progressive civilization to reckon with.
A civilization that produces products and services that it truly owns via copyright and trademark and invoices the world to generate profit for the material and social development of its people. We are our own worst enemies, to be judged by our young generation for squandering God given opportunities in favour of pieces of silver. Today’s progressive Afrikan is one who always sees an opportunity where others see a problem. The modern active citizen is the lever of human civilization that sees everything with a commercial eye; always in flux, exploring opportunities to better their lot. Empowerment of others without personal upliftment is a myth. First be the change you want to see in the world and change yourself, break down your barriers and let go of your victim mentality and embrace the mentality that you are the catalyst for change that will galvanize those around you to jump to action. The honeymoon of praise and worship is over. Go out there and live the life God created for you. Be productive, be frugal, work hard, be enterprising and prosper. Afrikan youths, you are the youngest population in the world for the next 20 years for a reason. You have the energy and the wherewithal to take the baton of our political liberators to the economic dimension. Make it count. The time is yesterday!
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Cyberbullying The reinvention of an existing Predicament
Zororo S. Mubaya Audio Specialist @zoekav
ullying is defined as the use of influence or strength to intimidate another being or forcing them to do something unwillingly. It has been prevalent for decades in society especially in schools, in families and work settings, although in adults, cases are not as reported or talked of as in young ones. Often misunderstood and perhaps wrongfully defined for centuries, bullying was once perceived as only physical or verbal, culminating in injury or death. In addition, what might seem as unacceptable behaviour today may not have seemed so a generation ago. For years now research studies and activism have helped a great deal getting a clearer definition and better understanding of bullying.
Bullying techniques have evolved over time and now involve use of smart phones, instant messaging, e-mail, chat rooms and social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter to harass, threaten or intimidate victims. The advancement of technology and its extensive use in the last decade have been massive enablers of cyberbullying, which now coexists with the physical aspect. For as long as people have walked the earth, they have been networking through a number of ways. 14
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Often misunderstood and perhaps wrongfully defined for centuries, bullying was once perceived as only physical or verbal, culminating in injury or death.
From cave drawings, roman forums, town criers, drum beating and smoke to telegrams, telephones, smart phones and the internet, just to mention a few. Today, the most common form of networking is via the Internet with over 2 billion users across the world. In this milieu, social networking has given internet users a great experience whilst many have abused its power. Think about deceitful marketing scams, viruses, spam to pornography of minors and cyberbullying. The most distinguished examples of the latter comes in the form of rumour mongering, stalking, harassment, heated exchanges, ostracism, mocking, impersonating or sharing someone’s personal information without their consent. Anonymity thrills many and better still on the Internet, they thrive on the idea that no one can physically watch them type a message or attempt to infect someone’s computer with a virus. Similarly the absence of restriction to a specific location where one can use the internet, and the possibility of multiple identity use by perpetrators are also enablers of cyberbullying.
The odds of falling victim to cyberbullying and being the perpetrator are almost equal. Take for example the Tezvara (bride’s father) meme that became popular in the Zimbabwean community around the world in March 2015. A wedding guest uploaded a photograph on Facebook, with bride and groom and what appeared to be their parents captioned - Baba Vemukadzi Kana Ndimiwo, (Can you believe this – the bride’s father?). The “father” of the bride; in stripped blue short-sleeved shirt, oversized grey shorts, beige socks and hiking trainers stood on the bride’s side looked like a caricature. In this digital age we live in, it is quite simple for private photographs to be downloaded and used out of context, on the internet with misleading captions - parading with an English Premier League team, on the monument of Zimbabwe Fallen Heroes etc to much social media aplomb. Users of social networking sites should know their rights when publishing photos online. For example Facebook on their Statement of Rights and Responsibility clearly states that;
In addition bullied teenagers are more likely to use alcohol as a coping mechanism
“When you publish content or information using the Public setting, it means that you are allowing everyone, including people off of Facebook, to access and use that information, and to associate it with you (i.e., your name and profile picture)”. However they go on to say; “You will not bully, intimidate, or harass any user and you will not post content that: is hate speech, threatening, or pornographic; incites violence; or contains nudity or graphic or gratuitous violence.” As much as anyone can have their photos downloaded and used by anybody, there are limitations on the use especially when used on pages that prompt harassing comments on appearance or dress code or mere captioning. Take for example the Facebook page Masvingo (town in Zimbabwe) Scandals, whose objective stated by the admin; “This is page is for you wezhira (Masvingo resident) to inform us about what is happening in your community. The purpose is to name and shame unruly behaviour and promote peace”. This page will post photos of individuals most likely to have been taken from networking sites then a caption of infidelity stories to the finite detail. Whether what is being communicated is true or false or based on a rumour or first hand information, it does not qualify the admin to give such data. The page goes on to post couples in intimate positions without disguising
faces and obviously with no care of implications of such posts. Concern over one’s rights when publishing photos online should be observed. For example, Instagram requires users to grant usage permission to the site when pictures are uploaded. However it does not mean they get ownership of these photos – rather, they can use them any way they like. Other services, like Flickr, allow users to set who can and cannot use uploaded photographs. Having said that if one does not want to sell or make public any of these pictures, they should use a service that leaves all the rights in their hands and be sure to check out Creative Commons for an easy way to license these photos. It is largely impossible to avoid other social networking sites’ users downloading photos in these public domains and using them. Whether perpetrators are breaking some vague law or not is the least of their worries; instead they just do it on the chance that the person will not have the means or interest to sue them. Studies have shown that children who are bullied on cyber or physically are more likely to skip school to avoid confrontation with their tormentors or as a result of the trauma. It is estimated that as many as 160,000 students skip school nationally on any given day because of bullying. This can lead to becoming ill as a result of real repercussions produced psychosomatically, in the worst case scenario, suicide. Adrienne Nishina, assistant professor of human and community development at the University of California, Davis, explains this physiological process:
“Research with youth and adults shows that negative social interactions are experienced as particularly stressful. Stress
Everyone check out #feministwhileafrican for a little perspective on African feminists! - @feministculture
Being told you’ll marry a white man because no African man will tolerate feminism @obaa_boni
Being the only one in your family who thinks like you and having to navigate that reality without compromising beliefs @TheLoulette
Having my African experiences negated by western feminists and having my experience as a woman negated by African men @5inch_NEON
Losing more and more guy friends because you do not LOL at misogyny and “you take women politics way to seriously” @madblackqueer
Being told that no African man will listen to you unless you say it while soothing their ego. @bintiM
Doesn’t mean going against men, it means working towards the growth of African women in all corners of our lives. @fridamaskani
What is it Feminism? Feminism is a multi-disciplinary approach to sex and gender equality understood through social theories and political activism. Historically, feminism has evolved from the critical examination of inequality between the sexes to a more nuanced focus on the social and performative constructions of gender and sexuality. Feminist theory now aims to interrogate gender inequalities and to effect change in areas where gender and sexuality politics create power imbalances. Intellectual and academic discussion of these inequalities allows our students to go into the world aware of injustices and to work toward changing unhealthy gender dynamics in any scenario. Feminist political activists campaign in areas such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, gay marriage, and workplace issues such as family medical leave, equal pay, and sexual harassment and discrimination. Anytime stereotyping, objectification, infringements of human rights, or gender- or sexuality-based oppression occurs, it’s a feminist issue. SOURCE - Eastern Kentucky University Women & Gender Studies http://wgs.eku.edu/what-feminism-0
Learning not to judge my mother for her internalized patriarchy. @MsAfrakomah
“Yes, women should have rights but they should also know their place.” @TCKFeminist
causes the body to secrete the stress hormone cortisol. Cortisol impairs immune system functioning, leaving the individual more vulnerable and less able to combat physical illnesses.” In addition bullied teenagers are more likely to use alcohol as a coping mechanism that subsequently causes the teen to become an alcoholic on the path for self-destruction. Furthermore, a victim may become aggressive, defensive, reclusive or unwilling to participate in daily activities. For extreme cyber bullying, a victim may resort to selfharm, self-mutilation, binge drinking, binge eating and other destructive behaviors. In the long term victims bullied at a younger age may develop psychological issues as adults or more likely to become depressed by the time they reach puberty
Being told being a feminist will hurt my chance of finding a husband. @THECAROLDANVERS
Understanding that our mothers were products of their time and did their best in a much more patriarchal society. @bintiM
How men can be Marxists but women can’t be feminist because it’s a western idea @fistvoices
Learning that sometimes you will have to oblige patriarchy; not as collusion but as a survival strategy. @Lee_Ngcobz
But my feminism is not from America! It is from my mother’s resistance and her mother’s resilience.
Zimbabwe attains independence from British colonial rule after 2nd Chimurenga, a war of liberation Bob Marley was the first international artist to perform in Zimbabwe at the independence celebrations. Women’s hockey team win a gold medal at the Moscow Summer Olympics. In all Zimbabwe sent 42 competitors (23 men and 19 women) in 10 sports and has not sent that many to date.
Having your parents be proud of your accomplishments, but still praying that you will bring home a husband soon. @MsAfrakomah
or experience social anxiety and suicidal tendencies in their adult years. Social Media has made networking easier; however, this convenience often comes at a price. Whilst transgressions continue unabated, tracing perpetrators is now easier unlike in the past. However, in countries like Zimbabwe, law enforcement may not be well trained to deal with such situations, additionally; issues of jurisdiction also make investigations and prosecutions problematic. Having said that, victims and whistle blowers should have somewhere to turn to –a counsellor, teacher, parent or the police. Victims must not feel obliged to confront their tormentor on their own. Instead, they could limit computer connection time or ignore defamatory or threatening email messages from, unknown sources.
Entumbane Uprising (known as the Battle of Bulawayo or Entumbane II) in Bulawayo where the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) guerrillas, rebelled, creating a situation that threatened to develop into a fresh civil war. Zimbabwe played host to the first West Indies (B) cricket team tour.
Joshua Nkomo, leader and founder of the Zimbabwe Afrikan Peoples Union, accused of plotting a coup and dismissed him from the cabinet.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Nigel Zhuwaki Photographer @dambakuombera
Gukurahundi (Shona: “the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains”) was the suppression of Zimbabwean civilians, mostly supporters of Joshua Nkomo, by Zimbabwe’s 5th Brigade in the predominantly Ndebele regions of Zimbabwe. In the ensuing conflict thousands were killed—estimates range as high as 30,000. Zimbabwe cricket team beat Australia at their first World cup appearance held in England.
Zimbabwe Armed Forces Black Rhinos Football Club established. 16
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t is an interesting time in Afrika. Our level of awareness has increased and we have begun to question narratives that have in the past constantly shaped a false identity of who we are. It is even more interesting for the youth, because we find ourselves at a time when we have to fight our heroes and at the same time fight against injustices that these very heroes lay claim to have fought against. As we become absorbed into this struggle we are realizing that, no individual is bigger than the struggle. The struggle has the power to consume an individual. It’s with this enlightenment that we see how we have lived personalities in place of principles.
No individual is bigger than the struggle Our lives have been more about the people than the actual reason for existence. Personalities change with time, they change as one acquires certain privileges, and they change because of power but the struggle will always remain the same. It is now that we extricate ourselves from individuals and start being the change we want. This set of images is among the few from a series titled Introspection. A compilation of my favourite silhouette and a couple of images from my photographic journey.
It is an interesting time in Afrika. Our level of awareness has increased and we have begun to question narratives that have in the past constantly shaped a false of identity of who we are.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
The Marriage Ring MARRIAGE
Desmond Munemo RESEARCHER @munemo_des
hen a man and a woman come together to express their desire to spend the rest of their lives together and exchange vows, it is a beautiful thing. The couple usually show confidence in their marriage plan and promise to remain committed to their union until death separates them. In all this, I have observed the importance attached to a wedding ring, be it an engagement or marriage ring. Most, if not all, couples wear their rings with pride and a sense of commitment. Some couples prefer big shiny rings that draw the attention of everyone who come their way, whereas others feel comfortable wearing tiny rings that are less visible. While I respect the choice of rings couples prefer, I am often times disappointed by the poor levels of commitment demonstrated by married people – particularly men. It is sad to notice how the once precious ring worn with confidence and appreciation of marriage principles quickly loses its symbolic values of love, trust and commitment. It is even more disheartening to witness a man wearing his marriage ring unashamedly engaging in extra 18
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When a man and a woman come together to express their desire to spend the rest of their lives together and exchange vows, it is a beautiful thing.
marital affairs. You only wonder what drives such a man to do such shameless acts. It is not my intention to portray every single married man as a culprit in all cases of infidelity but rather to share my observation regarding the culture of unfaithfulness that is seemingly becoming popular and acceptable in society. It is demoralizing to see a married man whom you know has a loving wife and a beautiful family pursuing a senseless love affair which only compromises his long standing marriage. In most cases,
While society perceives men and women as equal in marriage, I disagree. I argue that it is the duty of every married man to give direction to marriage. In my observation, it is when a man fails to lead his family that a marriage begins to show signs of weakness. If not dealt with carefully and quickly enough, such circumstances may give rise to the ideas of separation or divorce. It is therefore important for every young or old man to understand and appreciate the leading role that they play in
While society perceives men and women as equal in marriage, I disagree. I argue that it is the duty of every married man to give direction to marriage it is unfortunate that victims of infidelity are the last ones to know about the unacceptable behaviour their partners are engaging in. In their dilemma, the victims continue serving their husbands diligently by continuing with their daily marital duties with the intention to remain committed to their vows and save their marriage.
marriage. The idea of having a mistress should never be tolerated or seen as fashionable. Rather, when such trying times arise, it is when one’s wedding ring should serve as a reminder of the vows and commitment they professed towards their marriage, not to easily fall for the temptation.
The first time a general election in Zimbabwe had been conducted under the administration of that country’s authorities. It saw the re-election, of the Zimbabwe Afrikan National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) government under Robert Mugabe.
Former Mozambican president, Samora Machel dies in a plane crash. First time hearing the iconic ‘Tormented Soul’ by Mattias Xavier (Hey, hey, heyeyeye). Halley’s comet sighted in Harare and will not be sighted for another 75 years, so we could see it twice in our lifetime.
Redefining Interior Design With Zimbabwe In Mind DESIGN
Michelina Adreucci Industrial & interior Design consultant
raditional Zimbabwean houses consisted of a series of “huts”; each with their designated purposes and function. The traditional homestead comprised the parent’s matrimonial hut gota rema dzi mai - or “mother’s hut”, separate hut(s) gota, for each gender, girls quarters and boys quarters - Gota re vasikana ne gota re vakomana, and a central cooking hut pamuzinda pe musha, which was also the meeting hut, situated in the centre of the communal meeting place. In Zimbabwean traditions the kitchen was the most decorated room. It served as a reception area and gathering place; a serving place a dining area as well as for preparation and cooking. The kitchen was therefore the central point of meeting and congregation. It served as a centre for the perpetuation of the culture and 20
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played a very important part in the fabrication and sociological makeup of Afrikan society. Today the most neglected places in our modern Western homes are the kitchens, perhaps because the kitchen was in many places perceived as a space for maids. It is no longer the mother’s domain – a domain for nourishment, sustenance and the rejuvenation of one’s tribe.
How can modern-day Zimbabweans adapt to this contemporary living? The Afrikan essence of humanity Ubuntu demands that we extend hospitality and cordiality not only to family but to members of our community and strangers as well. In turn Ubuntu allows us to ask, and expect, help from a neighbour or stranger. But do our buildings embrace this noble philosophy and way of life in our architectural design? In our culture the Shona adage “Munhu munhu pamsaka pe vamwe vanhu” – is a central philosophy in the social organisation of homes, communities and nations. However, this concept has not been adapted in our inherited Colonial structures which were built for servitude.
Today the most neglected places in our modern Western homes are the kitchens, perhaps because the kitchen was in many places perceived as a space for maids The demarcation of the modern Western home does not compliment traditional architectural spaces and their functions. The Colonial uses of rooms and the division of spaces have been inherited by Zimbabweans without giving it thought. Houses in Zimbabwe today are built on the same Western principal of: a master bedroom, separate bedrooms for boys and girls, lounge and dining room (either combined or as separate units), a kitchen and ablutions, all under one roof, as opposed to the individual traditional units.
Our social-cultural ethos is not reflected in our contemporary architectural design. Our social disposition is different in today’s suburbia. Due to the cultural protocol that arises from the extended family we have to re-imagine ways to accommodate Ambhuya (mother-in-law), Vatezvara (father-in-law), varamu nana tsano (sisters and brothersin-law) and even vazukuru (nieces and nephews) within our contemporary domestic spaces. We begin at the centre.
The purpose of creating living spaces is universal; function, culture and human requirements are the same the world-over. People need to eat, sleep, entertain, socialize, bath and most of all accommodate – where the term “accommodation” is derived from. What differs within the all-encompassing home environment is the climate, region, materials, ways of living and culture. The traditional dwellings of our ancestors also reflected their occupations. The signs of livelihood of the farmer, the hunter, the blacksmith, etc would be evident and reflected within these dwellings. However, since the arrival of the Colonial Pioneers, when people were relegated to the “back” of the main house, this identity has been lost. Today, the home or house, is used for the most basic of needs; a place to sit and eat – nzvimbo dzekugara chete. But where are people supposed to communicate, grow and dream? It is a well-known fact that people’s behaviour, emotions and mental health are physiologically influenced by the state of their homes and surroundings. Colonisation and Colonial Architecture have hybridized the Shona concept of living spaces. The architecture is not compatible to traditional Shona ways; it is not expected to be, but it should be a challenge to architects and designers to conceptualise how to integrate indigenous culture into modern homes. How can one dream when their most basic of needs are being neglected in the dwelling scheme?
My Beautiful Home â€“ Comba Indlu Ngobuciko DESIGN
Butholezwe Kgosi Nyathi creative entrepreneur @amaguguheritage
n 2014, Amagugu Heritage Trust in partnership with Veronique Attala and John Knight initiated the My Beautiful Home (MBH) hut painting competition in Matobo District. Due to the rapid spread of modernisation into the rural hinterland, the popularity of hut painting among rural communities in Matobo district is in decline rendering hut painting a skill and practice in threat of extinction. The rationale of the competition is thus to revitalise traditional hut painting using natural pigments.
winning huts is done by villagers working together with their traditional leadership. Through the MBH competition, hut painting is being revitalised and the skill transmitted from older women to their girl children. Amagugu Heritage Trust facilitates guided tours to the painted homesteads.
The competition awards prizes to huts with the most immaculate interior and exterior. Open to two wards in 2014, the competition has in 2015 been expanded to seven wards. Painted huts exude a warm outlook and brighten the rural landscape, adding value to the overall ambience of local communities as they exist within the broader context of Matobo Hills as a World Heritage Site. Hut painting is traced back to pre-colonial era and is a skill unique to women.
Butholezwe Kgosi Nyathi
Hut painting is normally done after April when rains have ceased. Images often times depict the local environment with flora and fauna being the major sources of influence. Some homesteads change designs from one year to the other. The competition has strong community participation. Adjudication and selection of Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Pan-Afrikan Expatriates on the Afrikan Continent
Debbie N. Peters Afrikan repatriate @dnpeters
y the time I got into the Business Class lounge at Johannesburg to catch the SAA flight in to Lagos, I knew I was going to see some familiar faces going back to Nigeria to work. Because we take the flight to Lagos together so often and sometimes do business together in Nigeria, the expatriates in Lagos tend to know each other. When I worked in Nigeria from 20112013, I joined a group called South Afrikans in Lagos (SAIL), which is run by the spouses of some of the South Afrikan expatriates. They organized monthly social events for South Afrikans living in Lagos. There are about 2000 South Afrikans living in Lagos and about 200 Zimbabweans. The majority of South Afrikans in Nigeria work in sectors like banking, telecommunications, hospitality and construction. As South Afrikan companies venture out aggressively into the Afrikan continent, they bring their skilled people with them. Afrikan economies are starting to boom and South Afrikan businesses are poised to take advantage of that. While most international investors are still hesitant, South Afrikans are moving rapidly north. South Afrika is also a mature market with opportunities for growth in the rest of Afrika for the likes of Shoprite. 22
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While most international investors are still hesitant, South Afrikans are moving rapidly north. South Afrika is also a mature market with opportunities for growth in the rest of Afrika for the likes of Shoprite.
In almost any major Afrikan city now you find the cookiecutter shopping centre with their South Afrikan anchor stores like Shoprite and Game, sometimes a Woolworths and Mr. Price and a food court with Steers and Fishaways. After private equity firm Actis made an eye-popping return of 400% on their investment in Accra Mall, international investors are lining up for a piece of the action in Afrika. These malls are being replicated all over Afrika and South Afrikan professionals are involved at every stage
When the Legacy group opened the Wheatbaker in Ikoyi, Lagos, they also brought in their Food and Beverage Manager and Housekeeping Head from South Afrika. Hotels like Southern Sun can charge $500 per night in Lagos for a room that would only fetch about half of that in South Afrika. The Rooms Manager at Southern Sun Ikoyi is a Zimbabwean who was transferred from South Afrika. The countries around South Afrika have turned into South Afrikan provinces. Everything in Namibia and Botswana is
There is a whole skill to negotiating an expatriate package and the trick is to find an old hand who will tell you what to ask for from architecture to project management to construction management. In fact investors will not put money in a project unless they are certain about the skills of the management team. The hotel industry in Afrika is also booming and South Afrikan hotel-groups like Protea and Southern Sun are at the forefront. Although locals are employed, there is always a Manager from South Afrika and very often that Manager is a Zimbabwean who had moved to South Afrika and is redeployed by their employers.
South Afrikan, including banks like FNB. With its numerous shopping centres, Lusaka has turned into a mini-Johannesburg. Certain South Afrikan brands like Rhapsody’s restaurant are appreciated more outside South Afrika than at home. I remember the long lines when the Rhapsody’s opened at Accra Mall and the same thing happened when they opened in Lagos. Those who pioneered the expatriate trend in Afrika can tell you horror stories of the time when you could find nothing in some of these
countries. I worked in Nigeria through Afrikan Management Services Company (AMSCO), a UNDP/IFC project which placed skilled Managers with Afrikan companies. I became friends with an Afrikaans man who has worked outside South Afrika for over 20 years with Stanbic Bank, etc. There is something addictive about the expatriate lifestyle and the compensation just can’t be beaten. The Southern Sun Maputo hotel, right on the beach! I lived in a large complex in Lagos called 1004 Estate simply because there were 1004 apartments which were originally built for civil servants but had been converted into luxury accommodation for expatriates and the local elite. Rents in Lagos are high. At one point you had to pay 3 years rent at one time to even secure decent accommodation but now it’s down to one years’ rent. One morning I ran into a group of older white South Afrikan men who lived in the building and were working on construction sites. Expatriate packages in Afrika are pretty inviting. You get paid in tax-free dollars, free housing in the best areas, car with driver and fuel, school fees and at least one ticket home a year although many companies offer more. There is a whole skill to negotiating an expatriate package and the trick is to find an old hand who will tell you what to ask for.
The most popular benefit in working out in the continent is the extra ‘hardship pay,’ which can be up to 100% of your base salary. Ironically the people getting all these benefits are the same people you see in groups on the weekend on jet-skis and yachts around the beaches while living the high life on the continent. Many of the South Afrikans working in jobs like construction and transport are hired for their experience not for their academic qualifications. Some of them told me they only have matric so they would never be making the kind of money they were making in Nigeria if they were in South Afrika. Recruiters look for people who have had international experience especially in places like Nigeria because they develop a useful network and learnt to be very resourceful to deal with a challenging environment. There are lots of business people who fly in and out of Afrikan countries from South Afrika but they are at a disadvantage especially when they are trying to develop business by spending a few days at a luxury hotel and taking a few meetings. I organized a lot of social events in Lagos for Zimbabweans and the Ambassador who was based in Abuja, the capital. I laughed one day when I told someone that I was an expatriate and they said there’s no such thing as a Black expatriate. There are relatively few but they are there, especially in banking and insurance. The head of SAA is a black South Afrikan lady, Thobi Duma, Liberty medical aid was run by Zimbabwean, Nick Zaranyika and the head of Tiger Brands Nigeria who handled the purchase of Dangote Flour Mills was another Zimbabwean, Dr. Tawanda Mushuku. For security reasons, a lot of the South Afrikan companies like SAA, Tiger Brands and the South Afrikan embassy put their staff in
the same complex in the upscale Ikoyi suburb of Lagos. I had a journalist friend who lived in another building in Ikoyi with journalists from all the news agencies like BBC and E-News Afrika which led to interesting collaborations especially when there was a big story like that plane crash in Lagos a couple of years ago. The South Afrikan embassy in Lagos was run by the lovely Ambassador Monaise who invited us to many of their functions which were held at Federal Palace Hotel. I travelled a lot on business and I finally understood the difficulty Nigerians face when they apply for visas because even with a foreign passport it was just so difficult to get a visa to go anywhere from Nigeria. Several times, pushing aggressively, I obtained visas at the eleventh hour in order to attend finance conferences abroad. I often lobbied the over-worked South Afrikan embassy staff on behalf of my Nigerian colleagues when their South Afrikan visa applications would take up to 2 months. I went to Ghana a lot and there was a smaller South Afrikan presence but it is a more popular employment destination for South Afrikans because things are more organized there. I am now based in Zimbabwe and recently hospitality veteran, Shingi Munyeza has opened two Mugg and Beans, an Ocean Basket, a News Café and a Smooch yoghurt bar in Harare. Many Zimbabweans have lived, studied and worked in South Afrika so people are lining up because they see brands that they recognize and trust so less marketing needed by South Afrikan franchises there than for local businesses. I came back to Zimbabwe because working in Afrika prepares you to handle anything because if I can handle Nigeria then I can deal with Zimbabwe.
Cognitive Chimurenga POETRY
RUTENDO MUTSAMWIRA Poet / Writer @RuTendoDeNise
Liberation of the mind, mine is a Cognitive Chimurenga… Armed with a questioning mind, calculated risks, informed opinion, with a dash of brilliance which makes others think ndinopenga! I’ve learnt that life is too short to remain smacked or hooked on things and people that erode and eat at your soul… Dig deep within yourself, mind, body and soul… do what you have to, for you to feel celestially whole. Challenge yourself to cross and conquer the barb wired, mediocre, mental border… If need be, barbarically attack through vigorous reading and critical engagements of the enlightened in nature… Work.Play.Sleep. not necessarily in that order…. Maximize your fullest potential with enlightened cognizance, that’s not a suggestion, that’s an ORDER! If you never try, you’ll never know just what you’re worth… Go forth and liberate your mind, to realize your worth! Like all great battles it will not be easy… They’ll manipulate your weakness and insecurities with scriptures that make you ridicule and trivialize the customs of your people… As with all battles, you must question it all, stand tall in your convictions for they prey on the feeble. Guard the gates of your mind like the warriors of Torwa na Kami… Leave a trail and legacy like that of Rekai Tangwena With the resilience and influence of Mbuya Nehanda… The wit and precision of Sekuru Kaguvi… The persistence of Chinotimba… The relentlessly inquisitive and critical narratives of the intellectual elite… The charisma of a foresighted and articulate veteran charmer… Let the world not be robbed your warmth and compassion… For your ordinarily abstract mind may make others question kuti uno penga… Go forth dear comrade, VIVA Cognitive Chimurenga! .R. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
New stories to be told TRAVEL
Karolina Jeppson journalist / writer / poet Sweden
uring three months this year, I stayed in the village of Kufunda, southeast of Harare. Kufunda is just 35 minutes by car from the city, or 25 minutes by kombi and then a walk of 8 kilometres. Kufunda is not an ordinary village. It is based on principles of inclusion, co-creation and belief in the human being. During the month of March, Kufunda facilitators arranged a training program for young women in the Harare region, called Young Women are Medicine. The training program is meant to be a zone for self-discovery and self-knowledge, in order to support the women’s interest for carrying out inclusive leadership in their home communities. This program opened up many hearts, eyes and doors. As a co-creative participant, I must say that it did change me. We shared our personal life stories, we learned from each other and I was overwhelmed by the passion that arose within each and every one of us. This passion and talent were expressed in different creative activities, such as writing, performance poetry, handicraft, facilitating, singing, dancing, cooking, sports, storytelling and a lot more. These young women are fighters! They have been struggling in their childhood, in their youths and as adults. Society and the structures of daily life did not encourage them to bring forward their dreams, passion and talents enough. The poem to this text, Child Within, tells the story of finding your own voice. 24
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The training program is meant to be a zone for self-discovery and self-knowledge, in order to support the women’s interest for carrying out inclusive leadership in their home communities.
Being a writer and journalist myself, I came back to Sweden one month ago, carrying the voices of so many people in my head, in my heart and in my body. Not only from Young Women are Medicine and the community of Kufunda, but also from the many interviews I made with Zimbabwean writers, poets, publishers and musicians. I am trying to share the stories of young women, of Zimbabwean music and literature in Sweden. Not least, I want to talk about the cultural and creative vibe I found in Harare and Bulawayo, which inspired me immensely. I am grateful to have learnt a lot of new things and I feel that the task is important: Stories need to be told about contemporary culture and daily life in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is so much more.
They have been struggling in their childhood, in their youths and as adults. Society and the structures of daily life did not encourage them to bring forward their dreams, passion and talents enough
CHILD WITHIN POETRY
I have seen the world begin by women speaking their child within: I can do this, I can do that I want this, I want that I am this, I am that I know this, I know that But somehow on the way our courage betrays us, when coming of age too early, too fast the birth of our rage will explode, be a blast I have seen the world fall ill by women rejecting their child within: I can’t do this, I can’t do that I can’t want this, I can’t want that I ain’t this, I ain’t that I don’t know this, I don’t know that Dedication and courage – away did it sway! And we go with the ray of the sun burning light – no relief, no shade will protect my face when restraints and barriers is all I embrace
After all, our minds are free the spirit of my child within is buzzing like a bee and we made ourselves clear that now we’ll move from here I have seen the world begin by women speaking their child within: the moment to start is always a blast my courage is earned from all that I’ve learned No matter single or married wealthy or poor no matter widow or wife bruised or with sores: My mind is this roar of hope and evolution of strength and resolution I will become me even more and empower and score those goals that I saw as a child outlaw that I could not then reach and since, they have bleached but now I’ve gained courage and from this I will nourish the trust to my age and shout out my rage
I have seen the world begin by women’s wisdom from their child within: I can learn this, I can learn that I can become this, I can become that I can do this, I can do that I will try this, I will try that
I will turn to my inner child and express my discovery turn to women of my town side blindfolded of poverty I will tell them all to discover: there is a lot in yourselves to uncover
In a way do we enter the gate of life’s Centre when overcoming the first disappointment and thirst
We’ll tell all, my child and me: I have seen the world begin by women speaking their child within
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
The Ubuntu Ransom letter HUMANITY
Robert Mugabe and ZAPU leader Joshua Nkomo signed the Unity Accord effectively dissolving ZAPU into ZANU, renamed Zimbabwe Afrikan National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF). Unity Day holiday is in remembrance of this. Madonna asked Bundu Boys fronted by Biggie Tembo to be her support act at Wembley Stadium in 1987, they performed in front of a 80 000 crowd.
ChiKONZERO ChAZuNguZA [FACEBOOK]
Amnesty International’s Human Rights Now! concert in Zimbabwe featuring performances by Tracy Chapman, Bruce Springsteen, Sting, Peter Gabriel and Youssou N’Dour. Mugabe announced an amnesty for all dissidents and criminals of various types serving jail terms on 18 April, Nkomo called on them to lay down their arms. A general ordinance was issued saying all those who surrendered before 31 May would get a full pardon. 26
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STATISTICIAN / ACTIVIST @dearangelbert
his sparked a lot of conversation following my tweets about issues around the Ubuntu principle. I would then tweet about such topical issues as orphans, child labour, charity, girl child empowerment, diseases, youth and drug abuse, unemployment, etc. At first it was all tweets and Facebook posts until people started paying attention and some asked, “…where is this ransom letter you are always talking about?” This got me thinking. Of course, I have it but I had never really shared it with people and honestly I don’t know why. Actually it belongs to the people because they are the ones who need to come up with the ransom right? Anyway here is an extract from the Ubuntu ransom letter:
For as long we call them orphans; As long as we call them street kids; As long as we refer to them as destitute; Then Ubuntu isn’t coming back to you anytime soon! As long as you are not the person you want to meet; As long as you aren’t the man you want your daughter to marry; As long as you aren’t the woman you want your son to marry; My sister, then Ubuntu is just a myth.
So my twitter bio reads: “They say Ubuntu got kidnapped, well I got the ransom note.”
For I am because we are, Ubuntu! Ubuntu buthi umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, Yikho woba ngumuntu wabantu ngobuntu! Ndati hunhu hunoti munhu, munhu munhu nokuda kwavanhu Saka iva munhu wavanhu nohunhu! For as long as we are not responsive to the calls of hunger, poverty, desperation, inequality, and disempowerment coming from the least of our people, then we are all nothing, for they are nothing. For as long as your favourite tsumo is “nhamo yemumwe hairambirwe sadza,” As long as the dogs of the rich eat better than the children of the poor, then Ubuntu remains prisoner in kuvukiland, far from the reach of anybody’s heart. But there is hope! The fire is still burning, the fire of Ubuntu.
Raise your candle let me light for you, carry it to the four corners of the earth. One soul at a time. Let it shine bright. Light other candles, for a candle loses nothing by lighting another. Only then will the fire of Ubuntu burn bright enough, then we can free Ubuntu. Peace can be more than a word on page 437 in the dictionary, it becomes second nature! Start by signing here! Don’t end at signing here! Repeat these words on a daily. Live these words. Teach these words:
I am the change I want to see in the world. I am the Hope the next person needs. I am my brother’s and sister’s keeper. I am the Ubuntu Torchbearer! Well there you have it; this is the modus operandi of my being. This is my life manual. I hope you can make it yours too.
56th Venice Biennale, Zimbabwe Pavillion
Three artists who represented Zimbabwe at the 56th Venice Biennale, 2015 in Italy under the theme was Pixels of Ubuntu. Gareth Nyandoro, Chikonzero Chazunguza and Masimba Hwati.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Elton MJANANA WRITER @EltonMjanana
he complexities of working in film production always bring out the best or worst in us. Can you imagine shooting a film that will be 90 minutes long when it is complete – having to shoot it in a jumbled up manner and then having to put it up together in post-production in an order that will make sense and make people love it, rate it and even pay money to watch or own a copy?
Willowgate scandal exposed by the Chronicle newspaper where government ministers were given preference in buying vehicles at the Willowvale motor industries at discounted prices and reselling them at very inflated prices. It led to the resignation of the ministers. 28
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I will gently begin by how we should all as living beings yearn for wisdom before anything else; sex and wealth included. I truly believe that being wise will determine how you treat yourself, even sexually and will also impact how one acquires wealth.
The fact that the same footage shot can be edited by three editors, with each coming up with different versions show the complexities, and perhaps excitement of working with material at your disposal. The moral of my story – Wisdom. I will gently begin by how we should all as living beings yearn for wisdom before anything else; sex and wealth included. I truly believe that being wise will determine how you treat yourself, even sexually and will also impact how one acquires wealth.
al will argue that education is the basis for everything, especially success. I beg to differ. Wisdom anchors all. No doubt, without it some of the most educated in our midst have made fools of themselves and a complete mockery of their reputation. I like the way my educated friend, Professor M.K. Asante puts it – ‘Don’t let education get in the way of your learning’. I insist, with wisdom, we are able to make decisions that will leave indelible marks in the things we wish to achieve.
When wisdom becomes the fundamental base upon which we start our journey, I am confident there will be no stopping us until we get to the destination We have all heard of or know that one guy who had it all the other time but has since lost it all. I lay blame squarely on a lack of wisdom. When wisdom becomes the fundamental base upon which we start our journey, I am confident there will be no stopping us until we get to the destination. Professors, doctors and academics et
As a scholar, it is important to see beyond the books for a better grade at life. Can you imagine if one was to close their brain as they turn over the last page of a book? I always draw parallels to the craft of filmmaking to prove that the air that we breathe holds a lot of opportunities and examples of wisdom. From an idea, a story is carved
and then taken through the next step of creativity up to post-production. There are some who glorify the role of film schools and hail the various graduates they churn out every year. But, what I know is that the film industry has its own dictates, especially now in the age of digital migration. Things taught in a classroom setup may not be applicable when you get into the field a year down the line. In my experience the Zimbabwean ‘film industry’ does not recognize some of the principles still applicable in Hollywood. In Zimbabwe we cannot follow the ‘write your script and give it to a producer who will find it a studio to make it into a film’ concept. Many a film school students nowadays keep piles of undone work waiting for studios to avail a producer and the budget needed to shoot and make their films. Wisdom has taught me that if you have a brilliant idea in Zimbabwe, you can assemble a group of like-minded people and just get on with it. There is no studio waiting to dole money to aspiring filmmakers. This wisdom needs to cascade to many levels and even stereotypes of our societies and communities. Being on set since 1995, I am thankful that I have learnt that no matter how learned you are, you are poorer without wisdom. Always choose wisdom over education.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Darius Mutamba TITLE
FRUIT OF THOUGHT
Hey Zimbos, why so serious? CULTURE
Shaun Matsheza Communication Professional @seancelcius
imbabweans have a very specific script of how a ‘grown up’ acts, and any deviation from that is likely to draw a lot of disapproving stares. We simply have no time for fun, or child’s play. Ask Seh Calaz, with Zimbabweans, hasi mafunnies. It gets to me sometimes. I have my best ideas when I’m in play mode, that’s why I’m in my late twenties and I still enjoy flying kites. I could easily spend an afternoon making figurines out of play dough, in fact I often do. Sometimes, I want to go out into the rain and simply enjoy it. I find great joy when I am engrossed in a challenging jigsaw puzzle, and don’t even try me when it comes to scrabble. But I have to do all these things on the ‘down low’, otherwise I’d be told to ‘grow up’, and to ‘act like an adult’. I don’t mean to say we don’t have a funny bone. We do. But even when you take a close look at the most successful ‘classical’ Zimbabwean comedians, the list reveals a lot about us as a society. Paraffin, Mukadota, Mutirowafanza, Gringo, Kapfupi: all of them occupy the ‘clown’ slot in the comic spectrum. We laugh at them mostly, not with them. We have never been that good at 30
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Zimbabwean have a very specific script of how a ‘grown up’ acts, and any deviation from that is likely to draw a lot of disapproving stares. We simply have no time for fun, or child’s play.
laughing at ourselves, not really. Zimbos like to look ‘dignified’ all the time, and there’s nothing dignified about an adult enjoying ‘child’s play’. But what’s the big problem with fun? Perhaps our overly serious approach to life is a hangover from colonial times, when our people simply did not have the luxury to take things lightly. Back then, leisure time was a preserve of the elite, and fun was something you stole. Serving the needs of the colonial system was what determined everyday life, and time for fun was carved away from actual ‘surviving’ time. Play time was a reprieve
is done with the serious task of staying alive, so where does he get the time for fun? Our ambiguous attitude to fun expresses itself, for example, in how we approach our educational curriculum. The way we train our young people in some ways stifles their creativity, and emphasizes prestige over passion. I know many people who are today stuck in professions they are miserable in, simply because they chose ‘serious’ professions. There was a big hullaballoo in 2014 when Oliver Mtukudzi intimated that he wasted a lot of time going to school, as his passion was elsewhere.
The way we train our young people in some ways stifles their creativity, and emphasizes prestige over passion. I know many people who are today stuck in professions they are miserable in, simply because they chose ‘serious’ professions from the tedium of a system that saw us only as beasts of labour, means through which to get things done. Perhaps that is why we as a society have a problem with mafunnies. A man who engages in mafunnies suggests that he
I think many commentators missed the main gist of his revelation. Tuku was not blasting school per se, but the way the education system limits the possibilities open to scholars. His success outside of the conventions of society vindicates him.
I was always made to believe that the time I spent doing the things I enjoyed was time stolen from the ‘serious things’ that I was supposed to be engaged in. Our education system placed emphasis on the attaining of ‘five O’levels’ (it still does), rather than on discovering the things that we enjoy doing, and therefore are likely to become good at. I remember my own high school days… I handled my school work, but there were other things that I found infinitely more interesting. I had more fun in the Quiz Club, where we had to condense tons of information and have it at our fingertips. I loved public speaking, where we’d have to craft a story that could keep a critical audience’s attention for a full five minutes. In writing my speeches, I learned how to weave a tale that could enthral an audience, and how to modulate my voice to keep their attention. I can never forget the afternoons spent honing arguments with the debate club, trying to figure out holes in our own propositions and to anticipate the opposition’s attack. What about Creative Writers Club, where we played journalists and tried to publish a magazine every term? I had more fun in those clubsand the other multitude I was in- than I ever did in class. The instructive element here is that it is the skills and techniques I learned in those extracurricular activities that stand me in good stead today in my career as a
communication professional, and not the rote learning of poetry or the intricacies of chemical reactions that I had to do to make sure I passed my exams ‘with flying colours’- as if that was the only key to success in life.
RAVEN RAVEN VEN
Now don’t get me wrong, there’s nothing wrong with getting educated and taking schoolwork seriously. We pride ourselves on that as a nation, and we’re good at it. And there’s absolutely no problem with people who had as much fun counting atoms as I did crafting arguments; that’s just the beauty of human diversity. But what are the consequences of being such a serious lot? I have been lucky to get the opportunity to travel, and I’ve had a glimpse of the different ways in which societies can be arranged. I can safely say that our focus on ‘the serious stuff’ limits the creativity and innovative potential inherent in our society. People who cannot laugh at themselves are more risk averse; afraid of making mistakes. Creativity and innovation thrive where people are intrinsically motivated, and there’s not greater motivator than simple pure unadulterated fun. What makes you tick? What is it that you’d rather do, if you didn’t have to do anything else at all? No bills to pay, no family to appease, no in-laws to impress; when is it that you feel you have the most fun? That’s the question your high school self should have been asked, because your answer to that question is probably the best way to figure out what you’re best at. It seems to me a waste to not pursue it to the best of your ability as soon as you can. This has to begin with a school curriculum that helps us in figuring out where we are happiest.
of people who do things because they have to, and instead foster more motivated workers. We can enhance our chances as a society by embracing the inherent value of fun. In Europe, because young people are encouraged in the things they find interesting, many people end up making a living through their hobbies. “Oh, the kid seems to like tinkering with electronic gadgets, let’s get him a professional toolset, give him access to a place where he can practise.” And it’s no surprise when the kid becomes more technically savvy than the smart Zimbabwean with a university degree who can quote complex theory but gets flustered with actual practical work. In our current mode of thinking, when you do something ‘for fun’, and it does not fall into the traditional conservative definition of ‘productive things to do’, then it is not something worth pursuing: in other words, ‘mafunnies’
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Some wise guy, probably Confucius, came up with the saying “choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.” I’m glad that, like Tuku, I found that job, but the honest truth is that the education system I went through
had very little to do with it. As a society, we need to loosen up, and be open to the multitude of possible career paths. We should place life satisfaction as a priority when advising young people on career choices. That way, we can reduce the number
Innovation is a constant of human nature; we will always be coming up with new things and new ways of doing things. Even with our less than ideal education system, we have fostered creativity and come up with out-of-the-box solutions for many of the problems that bedevil this our great House of Stones. But our progression need not be incidental. Becoming an adult should not mean discarding that sense of wonder that makes children amazing. We can find ways of having fun, while each contributing to the well-being of our society. We should learn to take ourselves less seriously, realize that there is more to a good life and happiness than the prestige that comes from fulfilling narrow and conservative definitions of success. So let us fly those kites, play those games, and createNgatiitei mafunnies. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Why stop the rain? PERSPECTIVE
Christine Ndoro FINE ARTIST
have watched the rain flow fervently; embroiling itself in such filth, I have been afraid to clean the objects it soiled. Yet that same rain has fallen on dusty leaves and cleansed the air we breathe. The same storm has smeared and cleansed, exposed and buried, depleted and nourished, entrapped and set free. We can choose not to get caught up in the rain but the rain never chooses or discriminates us. It falls because its time has come. I can never say I hate the rain. In the same way rain, as it gathers, can suffocate as much as it also refreshes. One rainy summer years ago my young and foolish mind believed I could swim without ever learning how. From infant school to junior school, we were asked if we could swim and I said I could. I despised the fact that only three people ever went for swimming practice. That afternoon, they lined us up at the deep end and I jumped in to the water and imitated what I had watched countless people do. In my mind I was swimming, but the reality is I went a little too deep in the water. After a while I stopped moving at all. Grace and Mercy have never let go. My plan was not to take a breath until I reach where my feet could touch the base of the pool. After what seemed an eternity, I felt hands on my tummy pushing me towards the walls of the swimming pool. Before I knew it, other strong hands hoisted me quickly out of the water. I was safe. Did I regret it? No! My young mind could not 32
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We can choose not to get caught up in the rain but the rain never chooses or discriminates us. It falls because its time has come.
grasp the kind of danger I had put my life in. It took a number of talks for it to finally sink in. By the end of the year I could swim a full pool length without stopping and I learnt how to breathe while swimming (at the same time). The same thing that almost took my life refreshed and saved it. Where rain gathers, the interpretation and acceptance of it is an individual experience. For so many years after, I found joy in swimming in the sewer gutters of my neighbourhood, and rivers in the rural areas where the rain had gathered. Never mind the bilharzia, the colds and the scratches that took forever to heal afterwards. My childhood
yard. It was dry season then or so we thought. Then the rains came down and the crate was infested by termites. That for me rendered it untouchable until about six seasons later, when I was certain the termites were gone. I binned the shoes but was so intrigued by the textures that had been created in the wood. The termites had eaten holes into it and the rains had split the wood into layers. I used the wood to frame a multimedia painting I called ‘Fallen from Grace’. It speaks of how people fall because of our perceptions of them and the labels we give them. It is a commentary on how these labels strip away the basic right to self-
I can never say I hate the rain. It brings as much bad, as it does good, yet it is so necessary. Rains are like change in our lives. I want to explore this a little further was happier because of what started in that rainy summer, so long ago. Now that I can swim, as an adult, I have chosen to dislike it, but I can never say I hate the rain. Sometimes the rain erodes as much as it renews. I can never say I hate the rain. There was this humongous wooden crate that had no room in our home so we placed it outside. It had shoes we planned to give away to a charity. Within a couple of days, rats came and destroyed those shoes. So we moved the crate from the veranda to the back
esteem and human dignity. Like this object, sometimes our lives and ourselves as people need to be corroded down in order to be renewed. Just because someone cannot see our usefulness, it does not mean we become irrelevant. Seasons change and life evolves. Everyone is useful. Every life counts and that is why I can never say I hate the rain. Fallen From Grace I can never say I hate the rain. In the same stroke that rain kills it brings life. Through the rains
disease, poisons, electricity have been carried through. These have killed and maimed people and animals yet our species continue to survive. Cyclones, tornados and floods sweep away entire lives. When the rains come down in our own lives, parts of us are broken. We are left with parts of us missing or segments of ourselves even die. During our time of personal turmoil we often lose a lot. We become so overwhelmed by the loss we fail to see how life is making a new way. We fail to see our life and our strength evolving, and the alternative life lines created in the process. Bessie Head in When Rain Clouds Gather wrote a passionate passage about how good people are like rain. Good people accept the good with the bad and they always find a way. I hope to be counted among the good people when the cycle of this life ends, because it means I would have lived beyond and despite my obstacles and boundaries. As I take time out to look at the cycle of my life, outside the discomfort of the thunderstorm and the wetness, I can never say I hate the rain. Change like rain embraces everything and manoeuvres around obstacles to find its way. ‘Mizu no Kokoro’ if I remember it correctly means a mind like water but I will take it a step further and say our lives must be like water… always reinvented and moving on. I can never say I hate the rain because it makes no sense for me to hate it. Let the change come and may I always find strength to learn from it and move on. If embracing it is a workable alternative, why should I ever stop the rain?
Nharira Cave FINE ART
Xavier Robles de Medina ARTIST @bere_furu Suriname
he Nharira caves at Dzimbanhete house some of the oldest ancient rock paintings in Zimbabwe. Inspired by the history of this artistic ancestry, my cave drawings explore rock and cave spaces as predecessor to the canvas and painting heritage. A pun on the name of the country itself, the drawings are created through an intense concentration that results from engaging fully with the space as I chisel the stone forms in pen and ink from observation. Adopting certain ritualistic habits to respect the ancestors and spirits of the cave, I would remove my shoes while in the space, and applaud to honour the ancestors before every drawing session. These rituals have become studio habits, and frame my drawings as well as my overall experience and engagement with the culture and space. Subsequently the drawings evoke a strong religious and spiritual atmosphere. The string that runs through most of my work is an appreciation for classical sculpture and painting, and here once again through the subtle and complex relationships within the lyricism of the values I demonstrate my affinity for artists such as Rembrandt and Michelangelo.
Nharira Cave, 2015, pen and ink on paper, 28 x 19 cm Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Xavier Robles de Medina ARTIST @bere_furu Suriname
avier Robles de Medina is a Surinamese artist working in painting and sculpture. His sensibilities are deeply rooted in an observational drawing practice as well as an objective dissection of the painting as a three-dimensional object. He questions social and artistic categorizations, in search for a truth regarding his identity as it relates to the painting tradition. His distinctions during his BFA include First Place for Black and White Drawing, as well as the Canson Award at the 2010 Foundations Honours Show. His work has been published on the cover of Strathmore canvas pads, the cover of the Savannah College of Art and Design graduate catalog, and reviewed in both Sranan Art Xposed vol. 5 and the Savannah Morning News. In 2012 Robles de Medina graduated from the Savannah College of Art and Design, in the USA, with BFA’s in Painting and Animation. In 2014, Robles de Medina was a guest speaker at the Academie voor Hoger Kunst – en Cultuuronderwijs, in Paramaribo, Suriname. Robles de Medina has exhibited internationally and is represented by Catinca Tabacaru Gallery in NY. He is currently an artist in residence at WOW, Amsterdam, where he lives and works.
How you did you get to go to Dzimbanhete and the artist residency Catinca had been hinting at doing a residency in Zimbabwe for some time. When plans started to solidify with Dzimbanhete Arts Interactions I got even more excited that we were going to be hosted by one 34
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Suriname to Zimbabwe of the pillars of the Zimbabwe art community. For me it made a lot of sense because of my history and culture as a Surinamese person, and dealing with certain issues of politics and identity in my work. And coming from a culture that is strongly influenced and connected to the African continent, I just knew it was going to be hugely inspiring.
What were your expectations of Zimbabwe and first impressions on arriving in Zimbabwe I tried not to develop any expectations, regardless of what I had heard and read beforehand. When I arrived in Harare I was supposed to be picked up, but I think there was some confusion regarding my arrival time and because it was the middle of the night the airport was empty except for some taxi’s and one guy working at an airport shop, and even though I must have seemed completely weird and foreign to him he lent me his personal cell phone without hesitation. So I really felt a strong friendliness and hospitality from the moment I landed, and that is my prime impression of the people I met; a boundless empathy for others, even for complete strangers.
Are there any similarities between Zimbabwe and Suriname? There are so many similarities that I noticed both in the bigger picture and in how people seem to treat each other on a personal level. Zimbabwe is a much larger country, and the population is ethnically less diverse so I wasn’t expecting the similarities to be as pervasive. But both exist
in a post-colonial climate and achieved independence around the same time; after independence both faced huge challenges and went through periods of extreme economic hardship accompanied by hyperinflation and corruption, and I believe these factors determined many of the social and cultural similarities.
a particular material. In general I have a strong tendency to engage in a hyper-refining and super-smoothing; I think about surface a lot and achieving a luscious and rich texture to carry the form and subject to the degree where emotional and conceptual meaning is completely intertwined with the way I use the materials. Even when there is a subject and discernible form, I believe the work lives in this abstract realm where the material is just as much subject as the literal depiction.
I noticed there is a sincerity, warmth, and approachability What inspired the body of sculptures that is also very reminiscent of that include “A Freeze is Coming’? Suriname. There are so many When I lived in Bed-Stuy, a similarities in micro details very Caribbean neighbourhood in cuisine, music, in Brooklyn, I aesthetics, noticed these spirituality a d ve r t i s e m e n t s too many to for hair products name, which everywhere. On a is probably personal level this very directly reminded me a resulted from lot of Surinamese the African contemp orar y diaspora, culture; at the and cultural same time it exchanges also made me b e t we e n think of Abstract A Freeze is Coming, Africa and the 2013, urethane plastic, Expressionist painters, Caribbean. 28 x 28 x 6.5 cm and then strangely also of Renaissance or Baroque painting, because Your work is a mixture of painting, of the dynamism. All of these sculpture, graphite pencil any allusions strongly encouraged preference medium, what me to explore these images determines the medium you use? further, so I started to dissect Sometimes I’ll think that the them by cutting them into grids material I use is just practical, and rearranging them to be and that what makes the completely abstract fields of work is actually a particular organic form. The form in the way I transform the material. collages read so strongly to me, But then, I’ll try to paint with that I knew the works needed acrylic, or watercolour and to be translated into sculptures realize that I really just don’t like or friezes. The materials I used using it, or somehow it doesn’t for those works are also largely compliment my hand as well from similarities I drew between so it certainly isn’t arbitrary. elements in Pop culture and Most of the time, I’ll have an painting history. “A Freeze idea for a subject and concept is Coming” is made from a and immediately envision it in naturally black urethane, the
like Admire Kamudzengerere, Misheck Masamvu, and Chiko Chazunguza for advice! But the advice I would give students and younger artists is to study these amazing individuals who are fully committed to culture, community, and making work.
actual same material used for Batman merchandise objects, like the Bat mobile toy, an object that is synonymous to painting in that it is in a chronic state of transformation.
“Counter” looks like Samora Machel former Mozambican president and Cecil John Rhodes, British imperialist, an unlikely team. Can you tell us more about the two men in that painting and what inspired it? The men who inspired “Counter” are Wilfred Hawker and Surendre Rambocus, who attempted a counter-coup against the military regime in Suriname in 1981. Both men were executed, and the history of this event, the injustice, the trauma lingers and remains unresolved. The source image I used for the painting was already so symbolic of the way these events have been remembered or more so forgotten, that translating it through paint in a particular hazy manner becomes an homage to these men, but also to an archetype, a history many countries with a dictatorship or communist past share.
What is your understanding of contemporary art? I feel very fortunate that I have been able to study painting in the United States, where the professors and education I enjoyed were excellent. It also gave me a strong understanding of one of the most important foundations of the contemporary art world: art education at university level. In New York City I was able to work for several art manufacturing companies and learned about that side of the contemporary art world, the importance of paying attention to detail, the culture of outsourcing and superstar artists and mega galleries. Furthermore, I was able to form a partnership with Catinca Tabacaru Gallery, which has taught me a lot
What else did you get up to while in Zimbabwe? Counter, 2014, oil on linen, 60 x 90 cm
about the contemporary art world in relation to what I do and who I am. I feel grateful to know the contemporary art world in Suriname, and now in Zimbabwe as well, where art is not really commoditised or even valued to the degree it is in wealthier countries; only the absolute most extreme art diehards stick around and in many ways that makes it interesting. I think my understanding of the contemporary art world mainly lives as a culmination of all these experiences and insights.
What did you take away from your interactions at Dzimbanhete?
Do you have work that you say “This is mine” Not for sale, not even for exhibition?
One particular aspect I’ve been thinking about a lot is the music culture. Certain people I met at Dzimbanhete would spend the whole day with music, playing the mbira, walking around with it, and I want to adopt that attitude in my own practice more. This complete effortless sense, that it’s not second nature, but first nature, and casual.
I don’t at all. I spend so much time with the work, conceptualizing, creating, and refining, that by the time the work is finished and hanging on the wall I feel it’s very much over. Not dead, but to me I’m done with it, and I’m probably more interested in the next work/idea. Right now sales make me very happy, to know that someone likes it enough to spend money on it and hang it in their house. I think that’s the best part of being young and relatively unknown: whenever I sell work I feel confident it’s coming from a very real emotional need to live with the work, right now I want to just revel in that and offer up everything I do.
Just the memory of all the amazing people I was able to hang out with for a month, the conversations, the moments when everything clicked and we felt so strongly connected, as well as the moments of tension and friction where we had to talk things out and work through issues. Also I feel I got to know Catinca, Raphael, Justin, and Rachel, a lot better in certain scenarios we wouldn’t have shared anywhere else, and living with them for a month really strengthened our friendship.
What are your thoughts on the art scene in Zimbabwe from what you were exposed to? Any advice to the artists you worked with? The Zimbabwe art scene is really very strong, like I said before, I believe it’s a small group of highly committed artists and art supporters. I wish I could have spent more time in some of the artist’s personal studios; I should really be asking artists
We went to Mbare and experienced Harare city life quite a bit. We also did some touristy things like Great Zimbabwe, and Snake World. We were very lucky that most of the galleries in Harare were having openings and events during the time we were there, so outside of the residency and the artists we met through that, I feel we were privileged in gaining an understanding of how things operate in the city and in galleries there.
You represented your country at tennis, Why did you not pursue a career in tennis? I’m too short.
You have done short stories are you still writing? During my stay in Zimbabwe I did come up with a plot about a foreigner who travels to an exotic land and gets attacked by baboons while meditating in the forest, though this idea requires quite a bit of refining. I think my short stories and writing are an extension of my greater passion for metaphor, composition, and human narrative. In a sense my drawings and paintings are also like poems or short stories. There is a relationship to language in everything I do thus writing is never completely divorced from my process. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Kikuyu word for spectacles This is my first of many fictional stories to come. It revolves around the Mau Mau (guerilla fighters during Kenyaâ€™s struggle for independence). Rumour has it that within the Mau Mau fighters was a special unit of 5 opticians who hand crafted special made spectacles that they used to spot the enemy at night. Little is known about them... until now. This is their story. 36
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Karanja ‘The Mole’ Jere: Normally operates underground with his modified underground breathing suite. His hair is designed to appear like a rodent burrowing through the soil and he’s spectacles are telescopic able to see close to 1km away.
2nd Commander Kigotho: The last man standing and survivor from his previous battalion. He’s always at the back of the group with his special designed specs that spot the enemy from behind.
» KEVO ABBRA ASSISTANTS » VICTOR NDALO & YONAS TADESSE
Kimani ‘Ninja’ Nganga: Hands on fighter and front man in the pack. He’s a master tracker and attributes his level of high senses to the wire dish on his jacket.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
» OSBORNE MACHARIA
@OsborneK63 COSTUME & SPECTACLE DESIGN
General Njuguna: Commander-in-Chief of the unit. Fighter since the age of 9. The different stars represent the lives he’s saved.
Kuchava riniko...? LITERATURE
Tinashe Muchuri Actor / Storyteller / Writer @mudararatinashemuch
guva zhinji ndinozvibvunza kuti, “Kuchava rini kuti uvaranomwe hweShona huwane kusununguka”. Mukuramba ndichizvibvunza mubvunzo uyu, ndinoona kuti handisini ndoga ndine dambudziko rimwe iri. Mune rimwe detembo mushakabvu Julius Chingono aka Mudhara Judza vakanyora vachiti ivo, “VaShona Varwara”. Asi ndozvitarira zvakadzama ndinoona kuti uvaranomwe hweShona hahuna kubvira hwasununguka. Kunyange zvazvo nyika yeZimbabwe yava namakore makumi matatu nemashanu yawana kuzvitonga kuzere uye yavawo namakore gumi namashanu yatora ivhu Shona haisati yasunungurwa kubva kumakashu ezvinetso. Vamwe vanogona kuti sei uchitaura kudaro, asiwo kune vanotevera uvaranomwe hweShona vanoona kuti kuchine hondo huru yekuti uvaranomwe hweShona hudambure makashu akahusunga aya. Chekutanga ndechekuti uvaranomwe hweShona huzere nekupokana, kutukana, kuurayana uye kurwisana. Kubvira pabhuku rekutanga kutsikiswa mururimi rweShona muna 1956 ravaSolomon Mutsvairo, Feso iro rakatsikiswa nekambani yemabhuku yeLongman Zimbabwe, kuchitevera raJoyce Simango “Zviuya Zviri Mberi” rinovawo rokutanga kutsikiswa mururimi rweShona 38
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rakanyorwa nomudzimai mugore ra1974, anotenderera panyaya dzokurwisana. Pane imwe nguva muverengi akaverenga bhuku rimwe anenge averenga nyaya dzose zvichisakiswa nengari yokuti manyorerwe acho anongoda kuenderana. Ukatora mabhuku ehutikitivha anongotenderera pahuori hwamapurisa. Hongu hazvo zvinogona kuva saizvozvo kuti mapurisa ava nehuori, asi kunoshaiwavo here mhosva inotikitivhiwa pasina kuora kwamapurisa. Sajeni Chimedza, Chinamanenji Hachifambisi namamwe mazhinji akaita sokudaro, huwori hwamapurisa. Chinonyanya kudzimba kana ndichitaura nezveuvaranomwe hweShona ndezvekuti huri shuresa pane hweChiRumbi hwakanyorwa navanyori vemuZimbabwe. Vanyori veChiRumbi vanopiwa mukana mukuru chose wekuti vanyatse kutambanuka pamanyorero, muzvidavado kunyange
maviri amadzimai anoti, “Masimba”, “Totanga Patsva”, Tudikidiki kaMemory Chirere naMazambuko rinova bhuku rakapindurwa kubva kunyaya fupi dzaiva dzakanyorwa mururimi rweShona mamwe anenge atova mabhuku avanyori vari kusimukira akaita seiro rakanyorwa nenhengo dzeWin Zimbabwe. Asiwo tikainda kuChiRumbi kune mazhinji mabhuku enyaya fupi akanyorwa nemunyori mumwe akazvimirira uye ayo akanyorwa navanyori vazhinji vakaungana kozouyawo mamwe ainyorwa navanyori vaviri vaviri. Kushaikwa kwamabhuku enyaya fupi kunobudisa pachena kusasununguka kweuvaranomwe hweShona. Kanapo tikauya kunduri tinoona kuti nduri dzeShona mabhuku ananyanduri akanyorwa navananyunduri vazhinji. Kana totsvaka mabhuku enduri dzomunyori mumwe chete tinoona kuti
Pane imwe nguva muverengi akaverenga bhuku rimwe anenge averenga nyaya dzose zvichisakiswa nengari yokuti manyorerwe acho anondoda kuenderana pamhando dzezvinyorwa zvacho. Kana tichienzanisa neChiRumbi, zviri pachena kuti uvaranomwe hweShona hwakasarira shure chose. Nyaya fupi hakuna dzakawanda. Mabhuku enyaya fupi mururimi rweShona anoverengeka zvichida anogona kutadza kuzadza chanza changu chimwe chete. Kusiya kwemabhuku
tinenge tobata vanyori vakaita saChirikure Chirikure, Paul Chidyausiku, Memory Chirere nebhuku rake risina basa nokuti rakanyorwa masikati zvichidawo tozopinza Chiparurangoma ChaMudyanadzo raMordekai Hamutyinei naAaron. C. Hodza wenduri dzamadzinza naShoko Risina Musoro raHebert Chitepo. Mabhuku aya mashoma zvichienzaniswa
nounyanzvi hwaiva navanyori vakaita saana G. Mandishona, Wilson Chivaura, J.C. Kumbirai navamwe venguva yavo. Zvinosuwisa kuti kusvika parizvino vananyanduri vazhinji vakazorora nduri dzavo dzisina kuunganidzwa pamwe chete kuitira vaya vanodzidza uvaranomwe hweShona vagonyatsowana mukana wekunyatsoongorora nduri dzomumwe nomumwe nyanduri zvine udzamu uye zvakadzama. Zvainaka kudai kune mabhuku akawanda akatsikiswa ari enduri dzomunyori mumwechete kuti vadzidzi vanyatsogungwa nokutapatira kwouchenjeri hwanyanduri uye zvaanofarira mukunyora kwake pamwe nezvidavado zvaanonyanya kufarira. Imwe yenguva kururimi rweChiRumbi tinoona kuti kunowanikwa mabhuku anenge akasangana nduri nenyaya fupi dzomunyori mumwe chete sebhuku raJulius Chingono, “Not Another Day” namamwewo. Kunyange munyori umwe achinetsa kuita ari ega zvaigona kuitwa sekuuya kwebhuku “Together” unova muunganidzwa wenduri nenyaya fupi dzavanyori vaviri vanoti Julius Chingo naJohn Epel. Kushaikwa kwezvinyorwa zvakadai zvinoreva kuti uvaranomwe hweShona hausi kutambanuka pamwe nekuvandudzika. Huri kuramba hwakabopwa namakashu anohutadzisa kunyatsofamba zvakanaka. Izvi zvinobudisa pachena basa rinoda kuitwa kuti uvaranomwe hweShona huwane kutambanuka nokusunguka kwakanaka. Kana kuri kudivi rengano
unogumbuka ukazvimba mapapu. Pane mumwe munyori andinokurudzira kuti kudai aramba akasimba nekusimudzira ngano. Ndinodaro nokuti kana dziri ngano dzinonzi ngadzirambe dziri musango chinova chinhu chakapa hama yangu Ignatius Mabasa kukavadzana nacho apo akanyora ngano “Wachi yaTsuro” zvikapa vamwe vanoti vakurudziri wemutauro weShona uye ruzivo rweShona kuzvimbirwa kuti anoitirei kuti Tsuro naGudo vanhasi abude musango. Hanzi Tsuro naGudo havafaniri kushandisa midziyo iriyo zvino uno. Asiwo muverengi akatarira kwakabviwa nengano dzinotendeka kuti inyaya dzaiitika muvanhu zvichienderana nokuvandudzika kwaiita upenyu hwavanhu munharaunda dzavagere. Rungano rwaTsuro naGudo rwakatanga vari musango apo pakatanga vanhu kuchera matsime, Tsuro naGudo vakatangawo kuchera tsime paya pakaramba Tsuro kuchera tsime pamwe nedzimwe mhuka. Pakatanga vanhu kurima minda, Tsuro naGudo vakavambawo kurima minda yamanhanga pamwe neyenyimo. Pakatanga vanhu kuchera makurwe, Tsuro akaonekwa achichera makurwe. Paya pakatanga vanhu kukama mukaka uyewo vachirwisana neutongi hweudzvinyiriri, Tsuro naGudo vakaonekwa vachirwisana nevarimi vakanga vachivatorera masango avaigara apo vaikwira mumuchovha vachidonhedza masaga pamwe nokundokama mukaka kumatanga, uri mucherechedzo wekupikisana nehutongi hwaiva huripo panguva iyoyo hwokubvutira vanhu pfuma yavo. Vanhu pavakavawo navashandi vanorera vana, Tsuro
takamuona achibatsira kurera mwana wamai vaiva nemwana aivatadzisa kurima achichema baba vacho vari musiyadzasukwa. Kuva iyeka, anonzi nheni mazuva ano. Izvi zvinoburitsa pachena kuti Tsuro haasariri shure sekusarira kwaita uvaranomwe hweShona asi kuti anoramba ari mberi sehuma. Saka anoti Tsuro naGudo asabata michina yamazuvano kombuyuta, rerofoni kana kushandisa Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, Selfie zvichienda zvakadaro ndiye uya anoda kuti uvaranomwe hweShona hurambe hwakasara shure. Imwe nyaya inodzimba ndeyokuti zvinozivikanwa nomunhu wese wemuZimbabwe kuti hakuna rurimi runonzi Shona. Shona chigadzirwa chemubatanidzwa hwendimi dzinosvika shanu idzo dzakabva dzanzi dzive inonzi “Standard Shona”. Uyu mutauro unamazwi mazhinji echiZezuru. Zvinoreva izvo kuti ushanu hweShona hauwanikwi muuvaranomwe hweShona. Mazwi echikorekore, ChiNdau, chiManyika neChiKaranga anowanikwa mashoma muStandard Shona. Izvi zvinoreva kuti zvinonyorwa hazvisirizvo zvinotaurwa navanhu vazhinji. Kushaikwa kwendimi dzinotaurwa noruzhinji uye muupande hwakasiyana hweShona zvinoratidza kuti uvaranomwe hweShona hunotambudza vadzidzi vazhinji nokuti vanenge vachirwisana nekutanga kunzwisisa mutauro weStandard Shona. Shona inotaurwa kumba inenge yakasiyana dzimwe nguri neinotaurwa muchinyorwa cheChiShona. Kana chiri ChiNdau neChiKorekore hachiwanikwi muuvaranomwe hweShona. Chindau chinowanikwa mumaBhaibheri echechi
yakaita seUCC. Kana chiri ChiKorekore tinenge totochihwa kana Oliver Mutukudzi achinge ava kuimba musambo wemumhanzi weKatekwe wekumusha kwake kuMashonaland Central. Pasina izvozvo kuti usangane neKorekore muzvinyorwa zveuvaranomwe ihondo chaiyo. ChiManyika unozochihwavo kana “Mutirowafanza” mutambi mukuru wemunaMutirowafanza dhirama rapaTerevhizheni otaura. Asizve zvikamu zvacho zvishomasasa. Yakasungwa namakashu anotoda zibanga rinocheka kose riri mesa pakupinza kuti igone kudambura makashu aya. Kudai vakuru vanoona nezvedzidzo vaigona vakasunungura uvaranomwe hweShona kuti kana pane vanogona kunyora zvinyorwa zvinozoshandiswa muuvaranomwe hweShona vanyore nendimi shanudzo dzinonzi dzinoumba Shona vadzidzi vawane kutapirirwa nemutauro vasingasungirwi kuti vatevera “Standard Shona”. Ndakapinda mukunyora ndine vavariro yekuti ndifambise ChiKaranga mberi nokuti ndicho chandaiva ndakura ndichibwereketa asi ndakaudzwa kuti kana uchida kuti bhuku rako ridzidzwe muzvikoro unofanirwa kushandisa “Standard Shona” pakurinyora. Ini ndozvibvunza kuti ko sei vanhu vachida kundisunga nomusungo usina uchenjeri? Ko pandinonyora ndinonyorera mudzidzi here kana kuti mudzidzi kuzowana chinyorwa changu kunge chasarudzwa? Handiti ndinonyorera muverengi? Hunzi kana uchinyora nezvehondo uchiimba nziyo dzokuhondo usaisa zvinyadzi madziri. Ndoshama kuti ko dzinozova nziyo dzokuhondo here? Kana
ndikabvisa zvinyadzo panziyo dzehondo dzinozova nziyo dzehondo papi? Kana ukabvisa muchohwe pajakwara napanhimbe chii chinosara? Unoona kuti vana vezera rimwe vanoita uvaranomwe hweChiRumbi vakasiyana nevanoita uvaranomwe hweShona pane zvavanofanira kuziva. Unoona kuti “I Will Marry When I Want” rine chirevo chinoti, “Wisdom is like a penis every man carries his own” zvinoreva kuti, “Uchenjeri hunenge sikarudzi yemurume, murume mumwe noumwe ane yake” kana zvichishandurwa. Bhuku iri rinenge richiitwa navana vefomu 4 asi iwe ukanyora zvinoenderana naizvozvi unonzi wava kunyadzisira. Uvaranomwe hweShona hunondiudza kuti usati nyoka inyoka iti igavi kana kuti bhande. Zvino zvazvinonzi uvaranomwe hunoratidza zvinenge zvichiitika munharaunda yakanyorwa chinyorwa ichi hweShona hunonzvenga mbambo dzouvaranomwe. Munyori weShona akasungwa mbiradzakondo. Pane dambudziko rekushaikwa kwerudo runonzi rudo. Koshaikwa kunodzidzira vana zvakanaka. Mukunyora kwedu zvinonzi hazviiti kuti kuve nemunhu wakarurama. Kana mutambi akava akarurama chaizvo yatova mhosva. Chii? Imwe nyaya hombe yoshupa ndeyokuti kana pakaita chinyorwa vapepeti vanotanga kutsvaka kuti bato riri kutonga munyika reZANU PF rakaenzaniswa nei uyewo reMDC rakaenzaniswa nei kunyange bhuku risinei nezvematonganyika. Kana
CONTINUED ON PAGE 41 Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Women rights infringement continues to stall EQUALITY
Doreen Anyijukire ACCOUNTANT
Women’s rights have varied through time and across cultures, even though today there’s still some disagreements about what really constitutes women’s rights.
“I think God made a woman to be strong and not to be trampled under the feet of men. This however contrasts with some of the verses in the bible which claim that Eve was created second to Adam and was responsible for original sin that women must be “subservient” to their husbands and prohibited from serving as deacons, pastors or chaplains. Richard Little” - American scholar.
omen’s rights are privileges and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide. They promote a position of legal and social equality of women with men. In some places the rights are institutionalised or supported by law, local custom and behaviour whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. Women’s rights have varied through time and across cultures, even though today there’s still some disagreements about what really constitutes women’s rights. However, rights can be guaranteed under specific situations which are usually determined by whether women have equality with the rights of men where women and men’s capacities are the same. 40
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Does a woman have a right to control family size, right to equality of treatment at the workplace, and right to equality of access to military assignments? This view that women are somehow inferior to men is not restricted to one religion or belief. Women are prevented from playing a full and equal role in many faiths. Nor, tragically, does its influence stop at the walls of the church or mosque; this discrimination, is unjustifiably attributed to a Higher Authority which has provided an excuse for the deprivation of women’s equal rights across the world for centuries. Similarly to the majority of countries around the world, the traditional gender roles of women in Uganda are
throughout the country, domestic violence and sexual assault remain prevalent issues in Uganda. These issues affect women all around the world and do not discriminate on the basis of race or class. However, poverty is also correlated with an influx of domestic violence. Government reports suggest rising levels of domestic violence toward women are directly attributable to poverty. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the violence that swept Uganda inflicted a particularly heavy toll on women. Economic hardships were felt first in the home, where women and children lacked economic choices available to most men. Some
The Ugandan government of the late 1980s pledged to eliminate discrimination against women in official policy and practice, eliminating prejudice in public education, full political rights to vote and run for political positions, reproductive, sex, and domestic rights
often considered subordinate to those of men. However, women in Uganda have substantial economic and social responsibilities throughout a range of economic and educational backgrounds. Despite the economic and social change
Ugandan women believed that the war years strengthened their independence. However, as the disruption of normal family life opened new avenues for acquiring economic independence, and government reports suggested that the number of women
employed in commerce increased in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Ugandan government of the late 1980s pledged to eliminate discrimination against women in official policy and practice, eliminating prejudice in public education, full political rights to vote and run for political positions, reproductive, sex, and domestic rights. Women were active in the National Resistance Army (NRA), and were subjected to special circumstances such as maternity leave for child bearing and less susceptible to mistreatment like trafficking and rape. Joyce Mpanga was appointed Minister for Women and Development in 1987, and proclaimed the government’s intention to raise women’s wages, increase women’s credit and employment opportunities, and improve the lives of women in general. In relation to social dynamics, gender roles in Uganda are influenced by tradition. Traditional roles of women in Uganda are similar to those of women around the world. These roles are largely domestic including housekeeping, child bearing, and fetching water, cooking and tending to community needs. However despite of the above hardships, in many respects Ugandan women hold and still enjoy rights that exceed those of their western counterparts. Many Ugandans recognise women as important religious and community leaders. Women have held
rights to own land, influence crucial political decisions made by men, and cultivate crops for their own profit. However, some marriage practices in polygamous states, which permit a man to marry more than one woman, have reinforced some aspects of male dominance. Conversely, they have also given women an arena for cooperating to oppose male dominance. Women began to organise to exercise their political power before independence. In 1960 the Uganda Council of Women passed a resolution urging that laws regarding marriage, divorce, and inheritance should be recorded and publicized nationwide as a first step towards codifying customary and modern practices. The Uganda Association of Women
Lawyers, which was founded in 1976, established a legal-aid clinic in early 1988 to defend women who faced the loss of property or children because of divorce, separation, or widowhood. The association also sought to expand educational opportunities for women, increase child support payments, cases of divorce, establish common legal grounds for divorce for both men and women, establish common criminal codes for men and women, assist women and children who were victims of AIDS, and implement nationwide education programs to inform women of their legal rights. According to the report conducted by Human Rights commission in 2014, while there have been some positive steps to promote
women’s rights in Uganda, in particular the adoption of laws criminalising female genital mutilation (FGM) and sanctioning domestic violence; measures necessary to ensure their implementation are lacking, while other much needed reforms of discriminatory laws have stalled. The quest for women’s rights has led to legal challenges in the areas of employment, domestic relations, reproductive rights, education and criminal law. However, several offices have been established to handle matters concerning women, for example MIFUMI a community based NGO, HEPS Uganda, Child and Family Protection Unit at every Police station which receives at least 10 cases of women rights violation.
CONTINUED FRom PAGE 39 Kuchava riniko...?
izvozvo zvafungidzirwa zvotonzi manyorero awaita vakuru veZANU PF naava vanopikisa apa hazviiti. Twasanudza uchienda wakadai ndiko kuti bhuku rako ritambirike. Hakuna uvaranomwe huri kunyorerwa vaverengi zvichibva muunyanzvi hwanyakunyora asi kuti unofanira kutevera nzira yakatarwa yekunyora nayo. Mukudai tinorashikirwa nenyaya pamwe nenhaurwa dzakakosha. Kushaikwa kwenyengo muuvaranomwe hweShona. Dambudziko iri rinouya apo kudanana kwemunyaya zhinji kuri kuteya riva rokuti nyaya iwane kufambira mberi. Mabhuku akaita sana, “Kumuzinda Hakuna
Weko”, “Rurimi Inyoka”, “Kusasana Kunoparira”, “Chinamanenji Hachifambisi” ose anonongedzera kudanana senzira yemusungo. Hakunawo zvinyorwa zvinoita kuti muverengi atapirirwe nerudo kanawo magariro akanaka anoita vanhu munharaunda dzavo. Nyaya ndedzemhirizhonga. Kana ari semabhuku anokurukura nezvougaro hwepasichigare unoona kuti kurava “Jekanyika” warava “Sarawoga” uye warava chikamu chikuru cha”Tambaoga” nokuti panotofanira kuva nomwana anorwira humambo hwababa vake hwange hwava kubiwa nomuzukuru kana nomunin’ina wababa. Imwe nyaya ndeyokuti zvinonzi hakuna vaverengi vakawanda veshona saka nyaya dzinobuda kana kwapera nguva refu chose. Uvaranomwe hweShona hausi kufambirana nenguva.
Hunoramba huri shure chose. Ndinofara kuti zvino Shona yava kuwanikwawo padandemutande. Ndinoyeuka pandakatanga bhurogu rangu http//:mudararatinashemuchuri. blogspot.com umwe sahwira wangu wakandibvunza kuti ndaipedzerei nguva kunyora nyaya neShona padandemutande achiti yaizoverengwawo nani. Ndakamudaira ndichiti mumwe chete achaverenga ndiye wandakananga. Sekutamba ndakaritanga ndokubva ratambarara. Iye zvino kune vazhinji vanorirava vamwe vachiri pembedza zvichingoinda zvakadaro. Chinofadza ndechokuti kunewo vamwe vakazoona zvakanaka kushandisa mikana yakaita sefesibhuku, newhatsapp kuita mapeji anenge achiburitsa kuvanduka kweShona. Kudai zvaramba zvakadaro pamwe tingakunda.
First elections to be contested under the amended constitution of 1987, which established an elected executive presidency and abolished the Senate. They were also the first ever elections in the country to be contested on a single roll, I.e. with no separate voting for whites and blacks. Edgar Tekere formed an opposition party Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM) which contested in the election. In July the government lifted the 25-year-old state of emergency. Students protested against proposals for an increase in government control of universities. Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) founded and is one of the earliest and highly regarded LGBTI (Lesbian-GayBisexual-Transgender-Intersex) advocacy organizations in Southern Africa.
Zimbabwe became a republic on 17 April. The Nyanga Bus Disaster - Zimbabwe’s worst bus disaster - happened when a bus carrying Regina Coeli students and staff members from a sports event, crashed about 20km from the school. The bus was overloaded with about 100 people, instead of the stipulated 75 passenger limit.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Zimbabwe Must Legalise Abortion HUMAN RIGHTS
anesu ChigaRiRo DIGITAL STRATEGIST @anesu_chiga
hould abortion be legalised? This question is always sure to spark a heated argument in contemporary Zimbabwe. However, I think the answer to this question is a simple and unequivocal yes. As a question of legality and justice there is no reason for a woman to be denied the right to a safe abortion if the procedure is as a result of an informed choice premised on what is best for her and for her unborn child. I use the word “child” deliberately because the pro-life, or more accurately, the anti-choice movement which co-opted the word “life” in a stroke of political genius, would have us think that it is inhumane to kill a child, and I would agree. However a fetus is not a child. It has the potential to become a child. It is an undeveloped child; a pre-child if you will and it is not an autonomous living human being unlike its “mother”.
However, if you believe in the personhood and of an unborn fetus, I will quote Mary Elizabeth Williams who wrote, in her article, So what if abortion ends life? 42
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As a question of legality and justice there is no reason for a woman to be denied the right to a safe abortion if the procedure is as a result of an informed choice premised on what is best for her and for her unborn child.
“Here’s the complicated reality in which we live: All life is not equal... Yet a fetus can be a human life without having the same rights as the woman in whose body it resides. She’s the boss. Her life and what is right for her circumstances and her health should automatically trump the rights of the non-autonomous entity inside of her. Always.” Interestingly the debate on abortion in Zimbabwe is never a debate of the higher philosophical questions of when life begins or what constitutes the personhood and the rights of the fetus. Instead what I have often encountered are highly emotive arguments not based on empirical scientific evidence or discussions on Christian theology and the doctrine on the beginning of life or what accords a fetus personhood. It is always a matter of blind religiosity and morality and how it is “wrong” because abortion is murder; based on the predominantly Christian world views held by Zimbabweans. However, the Old Testament does not consider an aborted fetus to be
a murder punishable by death. (See Exodus 21:22-23) Abortion should not be an issue of morality based on JudeoChristian doctrine. It is an issue of justice and civil liberty which cannot be imposed on by religious beliefs which are not necessarily subscribed to by everyone. Justice, the quality of being fair and reasonable which is the duty of the law, is allowing a woman to decide whether or not she is fit to be a mother. Justice is allowing a fetus to be given a humane end to its existence because the mother knows that she hasn’t the means: emotional, financial or otherwise to give it a humane, decent and good quality of life. Our current legislation makes provisions for the abortion of fetuses conceived out of rape or incest; the abortion of fetuses with serious defects and where the life of the mother is at risk of grievous harm due to the pregnancy. These concessions are necessary but even then there are so many hurdles of process to obtaining an abortion
that many women fail to receive the abortive services that are due to them. Like with Mildred Mapingure, the fact remains that abortion is illegal and the burden of proof rests on the woman to justify the need for abortion and the processes are long and burdensome. Let us face the facts: in Zimbabwe, over 70 000 illegal and unsafe abortions take place each year according to a 2005 UNICEF report. Post-abortion complications remain one of the major causes of death among women of child bearing age in Zimbabwe. There are women who want the procedure enough to risk their lives to get it. Justice is ensuring that these lives that already exist are given their full rights and protection. These people are more important than a fetus whose personhood is yet to be realised. I believe that being pro-choice is actually being pro-life; that is, pro- the life of the woman who knows she cannot sustain another life and chooses to spare this life from coming into existence and pro- the humane end of that fetus’ life. Maternal mortality in Zimbabwe sits at a high of between 470 to 520.7 per 100 000 live births and infant mortality is even worse at 57
per 1000 births and under 5 at 84 per 1000 births (2010/2011 survey). A child born into a family that is ill-equipped to rear it will die before it even reaches the age of 5 because of disease, malnourishment, and more commonly in Zimbabwe neglect and abandonment. There are also increasing reports of infanticide and baby-dumping into sewer systems, pit latrines and dustbins. These situations should alarm us more than aborted fetuses, as these are living, breathing human beings that are declared and understood to be citizens of Zimbabwe and are afforded full human rights. Unwanted pregnancies occur and not only because people are “irresponsible”. Access to and uptake of contraception in Zimbabwe is relatively high but even then all contraceptives have a failure rate. Unwanted pregnancies will happen for as long as heterosexual sexual activity occurs even with 100 percent adoption of birth control. On the matter of contraception: we must acknowledge that women are often called to negotiate contraceptive use with their sexual partners, including husbands. In a country where women are governed by and measured against patriarchal power dynamics, especially in the bedroom, many women must negotiate contraceptive use as they are denied their rights even on an interpersonal basis. A sexually active woman who carries her own condoms or is on the pill is perceived to be promiscuous. A wife who wants to use condoms with her husband or is on the pill may also be accused of the same. We must also acknowledge that there are sexually active teens: either those who are curiously
Legalised abortion would not result in fastfood-style drive-through abortion clinics for “fast and loose” women exploring their sexuality with their peers or those in, often transactional, relationships with older partners. For these teens contraceptives are almost impossible to access without parental consent or stigma, if they are even aware of how to prevent pregnancy and STIs. We cannot look at the issue of abortion in isolation as a question of what is right and wrong, but it must be seen as a matter of justice for the reproductive rights of Zimbabwean women and girls. The detractors who say women will use abortion as birth control fail to look at the right to a legal and safe abortion as an element of a public health schema for comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare in Zimbabwe. Legalised abortion would not result in fast-foodstyle drive-through abortion clinics for “fast and loose” women. Legalised abortion would be regulated and occur in a controlled environment within a comprehensive healthcare system. The challenge in Zimbabwe is that we have a severely broken healthcare system that needs to be rebuilt from the ground up. As regards a comprehensive reproductive healthcare structure there would have to be a strong educational component that equips women and men with a sound understanding of sexual and reproductive health. This must start in schools to ensure that adolescents are aware of the risks of sexual activity as well as the preventive measures available. This educational component must be carried
on through to adult education systems, such as public service announcements, community workshops etc. to reach those outside the schooling system and involve workforce employers, traditional leaders and other community leaders. Within this comprehensive system, abortion must be present as an option for women who have failed to prevent conception. This allows the public health system to provide women with options and pre-abortion counselling and post-abortion care should they decide to go through with an abortion, as one of the options presented to them. This is a far better process than for the public health system to encounter women who are coming for post-abortion care after a botched abortion which may end their lives or leave them with physical and or mental damage. These women present a larger burden to our public health system than the perceived burden of providing abortion on demand. Clearly, the simplistic scenario I have presented here is an ideal. The implementation of such a plan would require years of consistent and focused effort. However the laws of the land should uphold ideals and we should endeavour to live up to these ideals than to bury our heads in the sand of “morality” as women and children die needlessly and women are treated as second class citizens who are incapable of deciding what is best for them and their potential offspring.
Zimbabwe experienced the worst drought in living memory. ESAP (Economic Structural Adjustment Programme), an economic policy which is sited as one of the causes of the destruction of the Zimbabwe economy. The first cases of a cholera epidemic were reported from within the Tongogara Refugee Camp in Manicaland. Sarah Francesca (Hayfron) Mugabe a.k.a. Sally Mugabe, the first wife of Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe passed away.
Baptists from many nations gathered in Harare, August to produce a response to racism known as The Harare Declaration (1993).
Zimbabwe School Examinations Council Act (ZIMSEC ACT 1994) was passed by Parliament. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
The name game IDENTITY
Susan Mutambasere supermom / lawyer @smanyere
espite the fact that I have been married for almost 10 years now, I never assumed my husband’s name. Not because I had feminist objections, but simply because I found the process tedious. Having to go through the process of getting a new identification card, a new passport, changing my banking details etc., I just honestly didn’t have the energy for it. My husband has never been bothered by the continued use of my maiden name, but is clearly confident in knowing that I am loyal to him as his wife. It doesn’t mean I do not honour or respect him, in fact in all matters that fall under our traditions and social set up, I am addressed by my married name. My children have at some point questioned why I use a different name from them, but as they grow older, they now appreciate the dynamics of a family unit, where I share my name with my side of the family and that there are two family trees that they are descendant from. I have faced criticism from some quarters, with one person blatantly asking me if I was unsure about being married to my husband. Some people have supported my lack of initiative in changing my name by saying that it becomes messy in the event of a divorce to untangle yourself from the name, However, no one gets into a marriage with the intention of getting out at some point, so that 44
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My husband has never been bothered by the continued use of my maiden name, but is clearly confident in knowing that I am loyal to him as his wife.
could never be a valid reason for not wanting to change. So, my reason for not changing my name all along is simple, I am just lazy. Recently, I joined a law practice and for all intents and purposes your name means everything in building your practice. It is what recommends you or otherwise. A colleague of mine highlighted a somewhat feminist-eque view on the subject. The ultimate goal for lawyers who join legal practice is to have their name put up on a plaque, whether
up and consider it. After all I have a very unique surname, I can most assuredly tell you that anyone you meet with that name is definitely a part of my extended family, descended from the same family tree. Therefore should my name go up anywhere, anyone who knows of my family is bound to take notice. On the other hand I learnt a lot from an Ethiopian colleague who told me that in her culture they do not use surnames or family names. At birth a child has a given name and what is attached to it is her father’s first name. So for example if I was named Susan at birth, and my father’s name is Joe, I would go by Susan Joe. However, it also means that I do not answer to Miss Joe, instead you call me Miss Susan, and I maintain my identity like that. In turn when I get married I do
My children have at some point questioned why I use a different name from them, but as they grow older, they now appreciate the dynamics of a family unit, where I share my name with my side of the family and that there are two family trees that they are descendant from
as a name partner or simply on the letterhead. Why therefore would one want to have some other family’s name up when for twenty-something or more years you did not even know them. Why should the goodwill of your success be visited upon that family as compared to your parents who moulded you to become who you are, the success that you are. This got me to perk
not take my husband’s name at all. Food for thought; what’s in a name? What is it about a name that gets people in knots? Should it matter at all if I feel attached to a certain name? And like some people I know, should I choose to just get a notarial deed of change of name and get a brand new name altogether, should that be anyone’s concern? Do we not put more emphasis on the
name itself than on building the relationships that those names are premised on? I am a girl child yes but I think I will keep this name alive for this one last generation in my line since my children have already taken their father’s. What do you know, my reasons are feministic after all!
Bundu Boys lead singer Biggie Tembo commits suicide 6th All-Afrika Games were held in Harare, winning 7 medals, 1 gold, 2 silver, 4 bronze. Establishment of Great Zimbabwe University, which began life as the Masvingo State University (MSU). Introduction of Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC).
Establishment of University of Bindura borne from the Zimbabwe-Cuba Teacher Training Programme, which used to send student teachers to Cuba for training in Science Education. President Robert Mugabe marries Grace Marufu.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Resource or Disaster? EMPOWERMENT
Elphas Were FOUNDER OF KEYNET Kenya
he findings by Germany’s KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau) Research as written by Eva Erhardt that youth employment is rightly becoming an increasing focus of development cooperation and never before have there been so many young jobseekers around the globe and more so in developing countries where their numbers will continue to grow in the future echoes very fundamental concerns regarding young people who are according to Eva ‘three times as likely as adults to be hit by unemployment, underemployment or precarious working conditions.”
“It is a hard nut to crack let alone chew as the population of youths soars by the day and as their woes skyrocket by the minute, who is going to save the youth from the infamy of unemployment and political interference? It is a make or break situation for Afrikan youth which may have a domino effect on the economic development of many countries”. It is indeed true that youth unemployment has a devastating bearing for a given country in general and the society in particular. Apart from the affected youth, this is a predicament that can easily emasculate the economic gains of a given country. To corroborate the findings echoed 46
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The focus on youth in the development agenda is proving colossal to the government and numerous NGOs are now actively involved in jump-starting the process of empowering the youth for sustainable development in all fronts.
by Eva, many governments especially in developing countries are busy working out modalities to harness the great potential vested in the youth for economic development. This is in response to the International Labour Organization alarm in 2012, calling for urgent action on youth employment in its Labour Conference as seconded by the propositions in the Millennium Development goals set to expire by the end of 2015. The focus on youth in the development agenda is proving colossal to the government and numerous NGOs are
empower youths in Kenya especially in the marginalised areas of the country. Simply Known as KEYNET, the organization has created plentiful opportunities for the unreached youths across the country to eke a living through creative and innovative programmes and support.
Outstanding exemplar KEYNET has moved swiftly to the help of young people who he says comprise well over 50% of the population in many Afrikan countries noting that
Youth employment is rightly becoming an increasing focus of development cooperation and never before have there been so many young job seekers around the globe and more so in developing countries where their numbers will continue to grow in the future now actively involved in jump-starting the process of empowering the youth for sustainable development in all fronts. One such organization is Kenya Youth Economic Network (KEYNET), a Community Based Organization (CBO) that continues to preponderantly
they also make up the largest cohort of the unemployed. “Such statistics clearly imply that sustainable development requires youth to be a core focus of development planning”, he says. Youth energy, creativity and desire for change represent a huge resource, not only to
make a significant quantitative contribution to development, but also to push qualitative change in ways of working, innovative and institutional reforms, including better governance, combating corruption, militia groups, and building a healthier social and physical Afrikan environment. Empowering young people in Afrika today is one of the most serious challenges facing the continent and although Kenya is experiencing an economic boom, youth unemployment is at its critical level. While Kenya has made strides in the provision of education, the country has not matched this with access to jobs. It remains arguable that Afrikan youth are becoming better and better educationally than ever before and with increasing access to ICT and mobile connectivity they are even more exposed to western ideals and aspirations. The Kenya Economic Youth Network (KEYNET) initiative program identifies youth as an area to be addressed by giving consideration to youth development issues not only in Kenya but also in Afrika at large. Based in Kakamega County, the objectives of KEYNET are nonpolitical and non-profit making and include facilitating youth entrepreneurship for creation of wealth and poverty reduction, talent development for income generation and community development both in and outside Church. KEYNET also indulges in sound academic empowerment, career development and mentorship aimed at creating
brighter future generations, environmental development, conservation and promoting healthy living. KEYNET networks and partnerships with the Government of Kenya, other civil societies and religious organizations and International donors such as USAID, Funds For Hope among others help foster community development and Health education, Nutrition provision. Since its inception in 2005, KEYNET has established functional networks in Busia, Siaya, Vihiga and Nandi Counties. The organization offers a comprehensive and Systematic platform for young people and the community at large to enable them to deal with day to day challenges of life especially those related to social, and economic in order to reach their full potential. KEYNET further advocates for a supportive environment for life skills development and works closely with relevant national and county government departments and any other key stakeholders.
Empowering the community KEYNET has been distributing re-usable sanitary towels to needy school girls in western Kenya, a success story being Bukolwe Secondary School in Kakamega County and Igero Primary School in Busia County where girls were missing out on school due to lack of proper management of menses as others opted to dropout completely. Through this project, teachers and the community have reported an increasing enrolment of girls for national exams and with impressive grades too.
We laud the Dairy goats milk Project for women and the Soya Beans Project piloted in Butere, Kakamega County that has seen the community reap a good sum of money enough for school fees and domestic upkeep. KEYNET has also organized and pitched many medical camps in Butere Sub-County through an annual community initiative dubbed “Butere Annual Community Fair” at Buchenya Primary school. The Organization has promoted peace in the western region of Kenya through sporting activities for the youths in Kakamega County and its environs. Currently, KEYNET is carrying out a WASH (water, Sanitation and Hygiene) campaign in partnership with Afrikan Water Association funded by USAID. The objective of the campaign is to sensitize youth and women on their role in water management. Statistics have it that since 1950 the young population worldwide has doubled overall, and in developing countries it will continue to grow over the coming decades. Within the global youth population, major shifts are currently taking place between the regions. More than in any other region, the number of young people in Afrika has exploded. In 1950 just 9% of all young people in the world lived in Afrika. By contrast, in 2050 it is estimated that some 29% of them or around 350 million young people will be Afrikans. The question therefore begs, what is to be done to avert the impending disaster of youth unemployment?
Cwebile Sibanda Student
Because I AM A GIRL Bayethe Mthwakazi kaNdaba!! Kambe kulicala na ukuba yinkazana? Ngithi kulicala na ukuba yintombazane? Ngididekile ngididekile Zulu kaNdaba…… Kweyiswa lokhu Kophela nyakana kutheni? Kambe kunga Kungenxa ngiyinkazana na? Yes! I guess it Is because I am a girl Mthwakaz’omhle, Zulu kaNdaba. Alinanzeleli ngani ukuthi izolo bekuyizolo. Ngokunjalo, Namuhla kunamuhla. Kambe isiphiwo somuntu silani Lobulili? Sona phela isiphiwo asikhethi mhlobo. Yebo kambe njengoba zikhona imbongi, Lakanjalo ngubani ongenqabela ukuba khona kwembongikazi na? Awu mntwanongumfana Mus’ukungiqhuzulela Awengwe. Mus’ukungibukisa okweqamule lintshintsha umbala. Empeleni kangenzi ngamlingo, angenzi ngalutho. Kuphela ngemvunulo langetshoba lami ngogiya, ngicwile ngibuye ngivumbuluke ngoba isipho singesami. Sizukulwane sikaMzilakawulandelwa; Thina mantombazane sithi phambili ngombono we gender equality. Siyalilangazelela lelothuba Lapho siqolotsha Ngobugabazi obuhlasimulisa Imzimba ngezipho zethu. Hayi bo Ukuvalelwa sininelwa Phandle njengezibi. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
NANCY MTEKI PHOTOGRAPHER
Honai! Nancy Mteki is a visual artist, specialising in photography - takes us through her latest series titled Honai.
started photography in 2008, introduced by Buyaphi Mdledle from Cape Town. I have exhibited in Zimbabwe, South Afrika, Europe and other parts of Afrika. I enjoy collaborating with artists and engaging in workshops. Themes I enjoy tackling include women and society. My work is inspired by emotions and things that I have been through in my life and try to portray it through photography and explain my inner feelings to the world. I am inspired by what other people are going through as well.
The work for Honai started in September 2014. I have longed to do something that had to do with my past and to express my emotions. The title Honai is a shortened version from ; “Ah, Honai! Arambwa nemurume, achazvara vana vakawanda nanababa vakasiyana siyana.” These are the words I could hear every day. Through this work I was trying to tell the possibility of me becoming a better person. Through Honai I was trying to express the pain that I went through when I was pregnant. It was difficult to face the society who were judging me because of what had happened. The work is also a reflection of what other women face in society, facing neglect, going through depression, miscarriages, and sometimes they could go through early marriages just to please the society. This work is expressing my experience and to engage other women and other people in society.
Honai looks at the black female body, and when people look at 48
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the black female body we tend to judge without knowing what’s inside that person. Society tends to judge who you are what you wear, what you do and who you talk to. Society imposes rules like the way you live your life, for example, when you are leaving your house you must wear certain clothes, you must do certain things you don’t want to do. In my work I tend to bring a dialogue between the object, subject and society. I intend to have a bigger dialogue about this work and encourage people to open up about themselves. To other artists, if you need to work on a certain subject, it should be about you expressing what you want, you being open to the world. Sometimes these topics that we need to explore could be in your household. Like what I did I worked in a domestic space to tell a story about being a woman using my body as a woman to express these challenges. I did the shoot myself at my house using a timer. I wanted to
tell my story in a private space on my own. Having someone to take the photos becomes another story. The process was to have myself in the kitchen. The kitchen is where society wants the women to be, being a mother. I included the newspaper to represent the background, meaning its me in front and the society is at the back. The newspaper as a backdrop was to represent the world and the society. Light was an important factor as I shot in the afternoon with the image starting darker progresses to light. This was part of the process I was using to tell the story, as my story was coming from being dark to being light, from being shameless to being braver and to talk about my story. I was not sure if the work was going to be exhibited in Zimbabwe. I approached up to four people, some who said they love the work but they cannot show it to the public. I then met Dana Whabira of Njelele Art Station and we discussed the work and she loved it and said Nancy, there is a story behind this
work, if you want to showcase the work I can give you that platform. Dana is passionate about art and she was there to support me from day one. The work is not just me showing off my body, there is a story behind it, its not just me taking off my clothes and showing off my other life, my other identity but its also about engaging with the society. Its not something that is new but its something that women out there can relate to. I knew what I wanted to show and I knew the effect of showing that work. Even when people came to see the work they were shocked. Some commented that “I used to see this kind of work in magazines, but its different when we see it in the gallery space even in Zimbabwe” Generally it was well received with people talking about how I was brave, fearless and confident and that is what women are supposed to be. Be proud of who you are and what you are going through. With Linda Gabriel it started as a conversation on Facebook, she said she loved my work and I am coming to the opening and I said maybe you can come through and do a performance. After the speech she performed a poem and I was moved by the poem and Linda mentioned some of the aspects from my exhibition. In future I would love to work with Linda and include images with the spoken word and video. I would like to thank Njelele for giving me the space to show my work and also to engage with the public,and I would like to thank my father who has been my number one supporter of my art from day one, including my mother and my grand mother. I spend most of my time with my grandmother and she was present at the opening of the exhibition.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Culturally Appropriate or Tackling Culture? HIV/AIDS Education in Zimbabwe CULTURE
Stephanie Schlipper Researcher
ave we achieved the aim to become more culturally appropriate? This was the question on the tip of my tongue as I headed to Zimbabwe for my Master’s research. Since the advent of HIV and AIDS in the eighties, the international community has been trying to spread awareness about the virus and its impact, particularly in Afrika where the impact has been the largest and hardest. Billions of dollars are spent each year by various United Nations agencies, philanthropists, and NGOs in a bid to combat HIV/AIDS. However, these international actors largely come in with their own agendas, indicators, or ideas on how to combat the virus in countries like Zimbabwe. Western biomedical conceptions of, and approaches to, disease are propagated in the belief that they are trans cultural models of reality. Countries in Afrika are kaleidoscopically diverse in terms of culture not only between nations but within nations. Therefore, the cultural complexity of countries like Zimbabwe necessitates culturally complex responses to HIV/AIDS. The virus is not simply a biomedical phenomenon that occurs at the level of the individual, it 50
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HIV and AIDS education is more likely to resonate with the recipient audience if the content and approaches are tailored to and respectful of peoples’ cultural context and understandings.
transcends the individual, and is contracted and reproduced in an entangled mixture of social, economic, historic, geographic and cultural factors, especially in Afrika. Culture is simply one factor to consider when addressing the virus, but it is an important one. Why? Because culture gives identity and meaning to peoples’ lives as they enact cultural norms, values, epistemologies and practices communally. It often dictates how groups of people live, how they communicate, how they understand, and how they interact. In more recent years, certain international and Afrikan actors have realised that biomedical approaches have not been sufficient in stemming the tide of HIV and have looked toward more holistic and innovative ways of spreading awareness. One of these more novel approaches to HIV/AIDS has been to put culture in the centre of the strategy in terms of both content and methods of communication. There are two ways ‘culture’ has become intertwined with strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS in southern Afrika. Firstly, cultural determinants of HIV/AIDS have been tackled in a bid to curtail transmission.
For example, the HIV/AIDS community have identified certain southern Afrikan cultural practices that are deemed to spread HIV/ AIDS, practices such as wife inheritance, widow cleansing, or polygamy. The practices have been titled ‘harmful’ or ‘negative’ in their capacity to contribute to the spread of HIV. The automatic response of those working in HIV/AIDS is to believe that if you arrest these practices, you will significantly reduce transmission.
Telling people their traditional practices are bad and need to be stopped can never be culturally appropriate International and national actors call for polygamy to be replaced with monogamy; despite the reality that poly-fidelity is just as HIV protective as monogamy. One of the academic research respondents for my study explained her strong view on this matter. She felt that Feminists and Christians, who ideologically do not agree with polygamy, ‘Trojan horse’
their respective agendas in HIV education materials. This is despite the reality that polygamous relationships can protect themselves from the virus just as much as any monogamous couples could with the right tools and awareness. Whether you personally agree with polygamy or not, it is not an outsider’s right to judge people’s lifestyles. Various actors also call for wife inheritance to be jettisoned without offering any replacement social mechanisms. Yes, wife inheritance can put women in a vulnerable position and can contribute to HIV transmission but it was created with a precise social purpose. Zimbabwean interviewees in my study told me that the practice was originally protective, aiming to maintain family continuity and women’s access to their deceased husband’s family resources. Therefore, simply telling those who practice this tradition to suddenly arrest it without any legitimate and agreeable alternatives and solutions may unravel complex social and cultural systems. The second way culture has been incorporated into the HIV/AIDS response is to tailor prevention messages to the culture of the project recipients. Projects that are culturally integrated, relevant, sensitive, and acceptable are referred to as ‘culturally appropriate’ interventions. For example, using local languages, traditional
Yes, people need to understand where HIV transmission can occur in their social and cultural norms and practices but they should never be told to just arrest these traditions. Once people identify transmission nexuses, outsiders can be useful in providing the tools and support for project recipients to create their own solutions that
As we see, culture gives meaning to peoples’ lives. It gives people identity. While a lot of outsiders come with good intentions to combat the AIDS pandemic, we need to question our actions and value judgements every step of the way. We are entering another’s territory and we must tread with respect. Granted, certain practices should not be preserved at the expense of women’s and children’s rights and freedoms but it is not an outsider’s right to point to which practices should or should not be preserved. Only Zimbabweans can know best how to address
The government unilaterally banned anti-personnel mines on 15 May 1997 Privatisation of Dairibord one of the largest food producers in southern Afrika, former state owned Dairy Marketing Board November 14 - “Black Friday”, when the Zimbabwe dollar lost 71,5% of its value against the United States dollar. Sited as another marker in the collapse of the economy.
Government sends part of the Zimbabwe National Army to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to fight in the Second Congo War Econet Wireless received the license to operate a second mobile telecommunications network in Zimbabwe after a five year battle with the government. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
So we have two ways that culture has become central to HIV prevention strategies. On one hand, there are the interventions that tackle perceived cultural determinants of HIV/AIDS, such as wife inheritance. On the other hand there are projects that aim to ensure their content and approach is culturally appropriate. Sometimes there are projects that aim to do both. Unfortunately, some people mistake tackling such cultural determinants as being a culturally appropriate approach in itself. Tackling only ‘harmful’ and ‘negative’ practices such as wife inheritance or polygamy can never be culturally appropriate. Telling people their ‘traditional practices are bad and need to be stopped’ can never be culturally appropriate.
Interestingly, almost everyone I spoke to for my project defined culture as ‘a way of life’, whether they were Zimbabwean, nonZimbabwean, working for the United Nations or working in community-based initiatives. People defined it rather consistently regardless of their background or experiences. Other common components added to this consistent core were that culture ‘defines us’ and ‘it makes us what we are’. There was also a strong emphasis on the fluidity of culture, the ability for cultural norms and characteristics to morph and contour with time and influence.
While it may seem common sense that HIV messages should at least be in the local language, this has actually not been the case across most of the international HIV/ AIDS responses in Afrika. The English ABC slogans (Abstain, Be faithful and Condomise) have been cut and pasted across Afrika despite English being the linguistic legacy of colonialism rather than a native language. It is important to note that simple translation of such messages will never suffice. One’s native tongue is semantically rich and nuanced compared to the meaning someone can extract from a lingua franca or a second language. Moreover,
the actual content of the ABC slogan is questionable and seriously inadequate in various Afrikan contexts.
their own issues and construct their own solutions. The answers lie within each and every one of you. So I call on Zimbabweans to find these solutions to their HIV/AIDS epidemic and not be tempted to follow outsider’s proposals simply because they have power, influence, and money propping them up. Only then can HIV/AIDS prevention strategies become culturally appropriate.
methods of communication or grounding messages in cultural values and norms are recognised as culturally appropriate approaches to information dissemination. Importantly, using performing arts, such as theatre, poetry or music, to convey HIV messages is also deemed to be culturally appropriate, particularly in the Zimbabwean context. Certain local people who work in this realm told me that Zimbabweans are ‘talking’ and ‘performing’ people not ‘writing people’; therefore, dialogue and theatre would always be more effective than pamphlets and billboards.
fit within their own value and epistemological constellations. I ask you now, what is culture to you? Think about it for a moment. Ponder the definition you would give if someone randomly asked you what ‘culture’ is. It is a process that most of us do not undertake consciously or one that we take for granted. We use the word almost daily across various contexts, whether in referring to culture as the arts, socioeconomic and value systems, or as the unifying common characteristics of groups or entities (e.g. sports culture or corporate culture). So I ask you again, what is culture to you?
THOUSANDS Photographs captured at various events Tinashe Makura
Tehn Diamond, Shingai Shoniwa with M.anifest on stage
HIFA Night crowd
Thakor Patel & Jimmy Saruchera
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Barbra Breeze Anderson
Tehn Diamond & M.anifest
SANDRA Mlambo | Baynham Goredema
Mandi “Poefficient” Vundla
Creative mirror suit
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Rudo Chasi MUSICIAN @RudorwasheC
Tell us about yourself. Who is Rudo Chasi and her journey so far?
was born and raised in Harare Zimbabwe on the 6th of march in 1988 and I come
from a family of two children that is my twin sister and I. I went to Moleli high school and Franklin Delano Roosevelt Girls High where I excelled in my academics and proceeded to study law in the year 2008 at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. How did your journey into music begin?
hENRy OliVER hAKulANDABA
During these years my music compositions matured as I took up the acoustic guitar and learnt the basics. I grew up in a Christian home where my main musical influence was gospel music. Studying abroad gave me the opportunity to become my own person and a chance to be able to form my own opinions about anything and so I started seeing the world from a different perspective .This gave me new content on love and other social issues. 54
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You sound mature for your age, what was life like growing up?
What are your plans for the future?
After the passing on of my father when I was 13, my father’s younger brother and his wife and my mother took up the task of raising my sister and I. These three provided me with a loving and supporting family. A strict conservative protective mother and a liberal uncle and aunt gave me just the right balance .It is under that guardianship that I learnt to follow my dreams relentlessly and sing my soul out and walk the journey destined for me musically. Growing up I was a bubbly character with an ability to influence others and I always had my cousins and friends learning new songs. My uncles gave me the nickname Gamba meaning a hero, which I hated until now because I was a risk taker. I dare to be different, I dream big and I take well calculated risks!
My immediate plans are to participate more in community projects and do musical videos for the album and for the tears from inside projects and also to participate in music festivals in Afrika. There is more to come from me as I am writing a beautiful musical story with my life that will make history in years to come!
So, you do music full time? I am also a legal practitioner and I am quite passionate about my work and I am constantly striving to balance my work and music. My experience in the courts in handling sexual abuse matters has inspired me to take part in community projects which include a documentary launched recently titled Tears From Inside which tells the ordeal of three victims of rape and how different centres can provide assistance when such heinous crimes are committed. I composed the sound track to the documentary and will soon be launching the soundtrack’s video. I intend to use my music as a tool to lobby for women and child rights and other issues close to her heart.
Who have been your major influences in your life/ music career? When I was a kid we used to travel a lot because of the nature of my Father’s job and on these road trips he would play Mukanya (Thomas Mapfumo) and Oliver Mtukudzi. In my teens I listened to a lot of gospel artists such as Juanita Bynum, Cece Winans I fell in love with the vocals and they still inspire me to this day. During my university days, I was into Nigerian guitarist - Asa whose work is a huge influence. Where do you get the inspiration to write songs from? What motivates me to play music is the fact that I get to tell all kinds of stories, my stories and other people’s stories .I get an opportunity to send out a message with my unique touch to it. No rules, no limitations and no boundaries as far as my imagination can go. In the year 2012 I joined the Sister’s Open Mic, a talent scouting and mentorship programme
Studying abroad gave me the opportunity to become my own person and a chance to be able to form my own opinions about anything and so I started seeing the world from a different perspective
which is run by the F.L.A.M.E and PAMBERI trust through which I have grown to become a professional artist. I released my debut album Afrikan Sun mid- 2014. What genre of music do you play?
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) formed, first proper opposition for ruling party ZANU PF founded by trade unionist Morgan Tsvangirai.
I play Afrofusion music and I believe I bring a different fresh Inception of Harare sound and vocal prowess to the International Festival of the Arts Afrikan music scene. My dream is to sing my Afrikan song all (HIFA) - a 6-day annual festival and workshop programme around the world to tell my stories in different places and to A court sentenced Canaan become an Afrikan role model Banana, Methodist minister, for the young. theologian, and the former Any major collaborations so far or any that fans can look forward to?
President of Zimbabwe to ten years imprisonment, nine years suspended for sodomy. Establishment of the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU), a distance education university in Zimbabwe, the only distance education university in the country.
I am yet to really share a stage with a big artist but I have had the privilege of opening for the great Oliver Mtukudzi at the Misty’s Show and also to perform at the Mukanya Death of Joshua Mqabuko Danger zone album launch. I Nyongolo Nkomo, he was have a six member band that the leader and founder of the play bass, lead, drum, and Zimbabwe Afrikan People’s keyboard and two backing Union (ZAPU) and a member of vocalists. My Facebook page is the Ndebele tribe. Rudorwashe Chasi , same for Twitter and Soundcloud is www. Zimbabwe Institute of soundcloud.com/rudo chasi. I Vigital Arts or ZIVA was last played at the Book Cafe on founded by Saki Mafundikwa the 14th of March 2014 and the as the first school of digital audience was blown away by design, new media and visual the performance. communication in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Stranger in Berlin CULTURE
Kudzai Magoche architect
he first thing that strikes me about Berlin, is how the people dress. I have memories of my older sister, in her preteen years, on the veranda of our house in Harare, standing proud in a burst of colour, dressed like Punky Brewster, her toothy grin daring you not to love her outfit. Perhaps I only have memories of the photographs, so often flicked through with nostalgic hands. It’s hard to tell now, which memories of Harare emigrated with me, and which were later arrivals, never experienced but quietly assimilated years later in Dublin. I remember, too well, the outfits of my first years in Dublin. They too were bursts of colour, bright and oversized shrouds of the hip hop soundtrack of my emigration. I recall, on my first arrival to Ireland, cows grazing somewhere very close to the runway. This might be a tourism board ploy to get the favoured American visitors to immediately feel pastoral, or my imagination warping my memories because I felt pastoral. The descent to Dublin is the redemption of every flight; no matter how bad the food was or how loud someone’s baby was crying, if one has a window seat, it’s always a pleasure to watch as the dim grey plate of sea gives way to a beautiful tapestry of green textures. As the ground rises to meet you, field and park and forest, in the deepest hues and faint, is framed and sliced and signed by roads and paths and dotted by buildings, which 56
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It’s hard to tell now, which memories of Harare emigrated with me, and which were later arrivals, never experienced but quietly assimilated years later in Dublin.
multiply and conglomerate into a density of grey, lined and dotted by strips and patches of unrelenting, exuberant green. Zimbabwe is very green too, the sinuous stretch of the Eastern Highlands and its teaplanted valleys springs to mind, but this only accentuates the expanse of savannah hues, of sunned vegetation, golden and red, and all colours between. The “Emerald Isle” officially surrendered its own Punts for Euros in 1999, at the peak of the Celtic Tiger, and the year I first touched Irish soil. I remember the first day in Irish secondary school, wearing the full uniform: shirt, tie, trousers, blazer, and hideous black shoes. I was the only one. Everyone else had just enough uniform on to make a case, if it went to court. The most dishevelled uniforms were worn with greatest pride, there were no blazers, most had hoodies, jackets and sneakers. It was very casual, and revealed, comfortingly, that Irish youth were just as Americanized as Zimbabwean youth. I wasn’t going to need a new wardrobe to feel at home. The architects dressed different. When I started university in 2003, studying architecture in Dublin, the inevitability of wardrobe change was immediately evident. All the architects wore black. Clearly this had to be a case of convergent evolution, something in the process of becoming an
As the ground rises to meet you, field and park and forest, in the deepest hues and faint, is framed and sliced and signed by roads and paths and dotted by buildings, which multiply and conglomerate into a density of grey, lined and dotted by strips and patches of unrelenting, exuberant green
architect would blacken all our clothes as it had theirs. And so it did. By the time I graduated I could wear black on black on black nearly all week, and the dark tones of winter had made it my favourite season. Of course, fashion trends in general were changing. The rise and rise of indie bands made jeans ever skinnier and gave t-shirts ever funnier and ironic phrases. A new age techno scene blossomed and either forgot, or, more likely, wasn’t bothered, to wear “normal” clothes outside the clubs in daylight. The hipster appeared and began the 1000 year reign. The global recession and collapse of the job market lit a fire under the art community:
new enterprises, new projects, new pieces kept popping up, and often the canvas were the artist themselves. Tattoos became so mainstream they could actually help at job interviews. I had a phone interview at the end of 2013, so tattoos, which I didn’t have, would not have helped anyhow. That phone call brought me to Berlin on the 2nd of January, 2014. I remember how excited I felt in the taxi ride from Berlin Tegel airport to the apartment I would be renting for the first 2 weeks. The apartment was on Turiner Straße, (Turin Street). I had been to Turin, the industrial northern Italian city, once. I stayed with an Italian family for a week. They lived on Piazza Barcellona and had homemade ice-cream and pasta, and the children read Dante’s Divina Commedia in its entirety. I’ve been to Barcelona, Spain’s Catalan capital, twice. The first visit was with my architecture class, to admire the works of Gaudi and the many great modern buildings there. It was March, the time of the 6 Nations Rugby final, so naturally we went, blissfully unaware of the pain the Welsh would mete out, to support the Irish team in an Irish pub. The pub was next to Gaudi’s incomplete masterwork, La Sagrada Familia, but the basilica had no TV or beer. I suspect every city has an Irish pub, and I think it’s true of all forty European cities I’ve been to. I travelled, always with a sketchbook or camera, eager to observe these strange lands. Except they weren’t strange. The cities had different histories and cultures, the people had different languages and complexions,
foods and dances, but just as the years of architecture school drew me and my colleagues into a vortex of black textiles, just as I had found the Irish not so dissimilar to the Zimbabwean, decades of global culture, open borders and cheap travel within Europe, had given these very different cities a certain similarity. The sameness is here in Berlin also. American Apparel, Burger King, Jurassic World. But there is also the “other”. Not the “other” that becomes so after being ostracised by the in-crowd, but the self-selected, self-announced “other”. When I arrived at the apartment and put my bags down, ready to explore, the first thing that struck me about Berlin, is how people dress. On my first trip on the U-Bahn, the subway that reduces the city’s 890 square kilometres to a few Euro and an hour, the familiarity that I felt in every other city I travelled to, dissipates for the first time. It’s in the clothes; in outfits so outlandish, so bizarre, the ubiquitous sameness cedes the stage. It’s clear you can wear anything (or nothing) in Berlin, and hardly anyone will be bothered or even notice. There is a special sense of freedom. What is strange here is no stranger than in other places, but it is more; more numerous, more intense, more expressive. I think this idiosyncratic openness oozed out of the wound between East and West, in the 40 years that Berlin was two cities until 1990. It meant that the reunified city would have two equally vivid memories of the vacuum left by the fall of the Prussian empire, of Nazism, of the humiliation of defeat and occupation and years of separation. The city is necessarily dialectical, the distance between its two narratives leaving room for the unorthodox, the potential.
OUR WORK DOESN’T REVEAL HOW GOOD WE ARE, IT REVEALS HOW GOOD YOU ARE.
A BRAND & IMAGE CONSULTING AGENCY.
What is suffocated everywhere else thrives here, and all Berlin benefits. The fancy retail in Kurfürstendamm depends on the seduction of endless parties in Neukolln’s battered basements. All manner of ideologies and lifestyles are able to find a home in the many unprogrammed spaces like the immense Tempelhofer Feld, but are also welcome to intrude as protests, rallies or celebrations through the heart of the city, like the LGBT parade marching up to Brandenburg Gate and
the Memorial to the murdered Jews. It is for this Berlin attracts so much interest and investment and is today ranked the world’s 3rd most livable city. Anyone, of any lifestyle, can fall in love with Berlin. I have met, quite randomly, some Zimbabweans in Berlin. As I was finishing this article, having that first Friday drink in the office with a colleague, I discovered he too was born in Harare, and emigrated as an 11 year old to Berlin in 1998.
He will be going back for Christmas, after 17 years away. I hope he brings the love of the dialectic, the willingness to hear a different narrative and interrogate one’s own position to Zimbabwe. I hope for that third “space”, that welcomes what is “other”, what is seen as obscene, what might be taboo. That space where we find, in chorus, observation or opposition, what is good, what is beautiful, what is true.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Get into the habit of “sharpening the saw”
Ernest MaCkina PHOTOGRAPHER @ernestmac54
eading is a culture that has since receded into oblivion, yet it has the potential to open new dimensions and evoke vivid images during the transfer of text from the author to the reader. The culture of reading enables the reader to undergo the cognitive process of understanding of written linguistic messages. An author can trap a frame, a thought, a conversation, an ideology or a paradigm in a paragraph. 58
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The culture of reading enables the reader to undergo the cognitive process of understanding of written linguistic messages.
Upon reading these sentences and clever grouping of words one can transform their knowledge and unlock new possibilities. Recently during this practice of reading, I came upon a discovery of Stephen Covey’s 7th habit of being a highly effective person. This self-development expert coined the term ‘Sharpening the Saw’ as a means of ‘preserving and enhancing the greatest asset we have; Ourselves’. Many a time, we have experienced a block, or
a stage where fatigue stifles our progress and we are so restricted that we cannot move forward from that point.
Turning Point: Remember that time when you stopped and asked yourself: ‘what’s the point?’ Well, the solution is simple: Self renewal. Covey rightfully postulates that having a balanced program for self-renewal in the four areas of your life that is; your physical,
social/emotional, mental and spiritual well-being are the key towards re-invigorating yourself and ultimately ‘Sharpening the Saw’. Let’s take a look at these areas and try to come up with examples of activities that can help put Covey’s 7th habit in motion.
Physical Renewal In the physical being, an individual can undergo selfrenewal through healthy eating. Paying attention to a balanced diet, taking four meals a day and drinking at least six glasses of water as well as avoiding saturated fats and junk food,
Ok, Rest and Exercise. What else?
Paying attention to a balanced diet, taking four meals a day and drinking at least six glasses of water as well as avoiding saturated fats and junk food, food with artificial colouring are steps towards healthier eating habits that aid self-renewal
The human body maintains a stable equilibrium through homeostasis comprising of physiological processes that regulate a body’s organ functions. Continuous work for prolonged periods such as staring at a screen all day for instance working with spreadsheets and the Internet can strain the body and result in Carpel Tunnel Syndrome (CRT), Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) as well as migraines and dehydration. Regular breaks permit the body to renew and re-focus its energies and enables increased productivity in both studying and in the work environment. Simple exercise and stretching can make a difference between a tiresome day to an extremely fatigued day. Get adequate amounts of sleep, resting at odd hours deposits fatigue into the following day and at the end of the week one’s body can crash from this collective fatigue. Do remember, sleep is not for children alone, you too need to recharge your batteries.
Talking matters… food with artificial colouring are steps towards healthier eating habits that aid self-renewal. It is also important to consume food in its right proportions, too much of one thing can be unhealthy. It is also important to take the time out to exercise. According to Wikipedia, physical exercise maintains physical fitness and overall health and can boost the immune system. Exercise can also be done as recreation for personal enjoyment and fulfilment. At the end of the day, after the hustle and bustle of life it is very beneficial to give the body that works and the mind that thinks time to rest.
Covey also claims in his 7th habit that by ‘making social and meaningful connections with others, one is able to renew themselves socially and emotionally. It goes without saying that humans thrive on attention and on social relations. Our social lives have a bearing on how we operate and can be the same factor that boosts our productivity or outright demotivate us. Creating, maintaining and mending our social relations with friends, relatives and colleagues can rekindle our passion for life and light up a flame that can help us look forward to performing tasks and getting things done.
So go ahead, strike a conversation with that long lost cousin, call an old friend, visit a colleague out in hospital, surprise your parent with a gift. Not only will you make them smile, you will realize a happiness which has the potential to renew you.
Learning for self-renewal You can renew your mental being by learning new things, reading literature, writing down your experiences and feelings. Taking time out to share what you know by conducting demonstrations, teachings and lectures can give you a sense of self fulfilment and empower those around you. You can even mould protégés through mentorship. Putting aside time to teach is like giving out pearls of wisdom and these are gems which can last a lifetime.
Connecting with your spirituality Man has a connection with his spirituality and this section could start a whole new article. However, Covey claims in his 7th habit of ‘sharpening the saw’ that man can renew his spiritual being by ‘spending time in nature, expanding spiritual self through meditation and music’.
Referendum on the draft constitution which resulted in a resounding ‘No’ vote. Fast-Track Land Reform Program” (FTLRP). The predominantly white farm owners were forced off the land by war veterans. Food Riots due to price increases. Passing away of Richard Utete Tsimba a.k.a “The Black Diamond”, the first black player to represent his country at rugby.
Daily News building bombed destroying its printing presses. Tsotso magazine, which was published with a mandate to undermine the continued colonial domination of literature is, shut down. Minister of Information Jonathan Moyo implements 75% local content, despite many misconceptions only Power FM moved it up to 100% as an experiment!
At the end of the day, all I’m trying to say is… You are the engineer of your own happiness. It is a script that only you are responsible to write down. Your happiness is not someone else’ responsibility, but your very own. So next time you feel all worn out and all your emotions are spent, why don’t you try ‘sharpening the saw’? Renewing yourself could prove to be revitalizing and make you highly effective as a person.
The Chirundu Bridge built, a two-lane, three-span continuous prestressed concrete box girder bridge, 400m long and 10.3m wide, 65 km downstream from the Kariba Dam where the river is about 400m wide. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Realistic Fashion Makes Sense in this Globalised World Fashion
Gilmore Tee Social Entrepreneur @GilmoreTee
lobalisation has made the world smaller than it used to be. Back in the day, it would take forever for one to know what was happening in Holland or Tanzania. Globalisation as a concept has brought people, villages, neighbourhoods, cities, countries and regions closer to each other. I actually think in theory, it’s a good thing that the world is being shrunk into a little village. It sounds really pretty that everyone is equal and has the “same” access to commodities that are available for all to use. In reality however, globalization has benefitted more of the first world countries than the developing ones. But again should the first, fast countries be blamed for that? Brands like Nike have managed to penetrate the furthest areas such as Tsholotsho in Zimbabwe and the brand keeps growing every day. The beauty about clothing and branding in first world countries is that they make clothes for an average individual, making it easy to reach an already existing market. Now, globalisation brought the internet to our doorsteps; we 60
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Globalisation as a concept has brought people, villages, neighbourhoods, cities, countries and regions closer to each other.
are able to see what is trending and to know what is happening on the other side of the world. With this in mind, we are able to allow that part of the world to have access to our own brands and products, only if we invest in the quality we produce. The question then is; are our Afrikan designers aware of the platforms that exist for them to take their brands across the globe? Rather, are many of them equipped enough to penetrate the global clothing
Thula Sindi, whose brand is available on online stores and he recently opened a physical store for people to walk in and purchase his clothes. Just like a few more designers that have grasped the concept of being realistic, Thula Sindi’s brand has grown in the past years. When you see his collection on the run way, the first thing that comes to mind is, “I can see that on the streets of Bulawayo or Lagos”. Once a designer has managed to
The beauty about clothing and branding in first world countries is that they make clothes for an average individual, making it easy to reach an already existing market market? The question can be thrown back and forth, but the answer will remain with those that run fashion labels. With the availability of online stores, retail stores and the internet, it has been made easy for one to reach their customers and grow their brand. A perfect example of this rise is that of South Afrika’s
communicate that to you as an audience or potential client, then they are bound to grow. I’m uncomfortable with a designer who tells a client what to wear, before they listen to their needs. It’s like you are going to bang their head with that scissors in their workshop and tell them, “No”. While it is
important to have an identity as a designer, it is also important to realise that the client is king. Do not get me wrong, I am not saying you should then tolerate the clients that come with cut out pictures of outfits and ask you to reproduce the same outfit. If you see yourself do that, you might as well subscribe to tailoring or rather stop. Listen to your client, tell them what you can do or sketch what they have in mind and add your label’s identity and deliver the product. It is the same client that will take your original brand to the extreme parts of the world. We have over a billion consumers worldwide that wake up in the morning and try to figure out what to wear to different occasions. Why then is it that our own fashion brands seem to have difficulties reaching out to that already existing audience? I might have an answer. Designers need to realise that their outfits need to be commercial and realistic for the same person in Tsholotsho to want to wear it. Just like Nike, the same impact can be for Maita Marimo, a Zimbabwean clothing brand & Abrantie The Gentleman, a clothing label from Ghana. The key is to take advantage of globalisation and reach the already existing market.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
@hausofstone | PHOTOGRAPHY
NONIDZASHE CHINARA | MODEL
Burundi political history and, their stand on the great Lakes HISTORY
Fidele Nkezamuzima biopharma scientist Burundi
urundi is a small country situated in the Central East of Afrika, being in the central East of Afrika and its map shaped as a heart Burundi is sometimes called the heart of Afrika. Burundi is neighbouring DRC on the East, Rwanda on the South, and Tanzania on the West without forgetting Zambia on the other end of Lake Tanganyika. Before the 19 century, the Tutsi, a tall cattle-rearing people probably from the upper reaches of the Nile, infiltrate the area and win dominance over the Batwa and Hutu who were, already in residence and living by pottery and agriculture. During 1860, the Tutsi realm was organized on a feudal basis, with the Tutsi as the aristocracy and the Hutu as their vassals. The Tutsi were the upper class and are mostly herdsmen whereas, Hutu were the lower class and for the most part lived by farming. During all this time it was called Rwanda and in 1894 Von Götzen a Germany missionary entered Rwanda and visited the Rwabugiri’s kingdom - a year later the king died. With Rwanda in turmoil over the succession, the Germans then moved in from Tanzania in 1897 to claim the region for the Kaiser. That was the time Burundi was claimed as a separate kingdom 62
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Before the 19 century, the Tutsi, a tall cattle-rearing people probably from the upper reaches of the Nile, infiltrate the area and win dominance over the Batwa and Hutu who were, already in residence and living by pottery and agriculture.
to the south. The entire area was then treated as one colony, known as Ruanda-Urundi. After the outbreak of the European war in 1914, the region was suddenly taken from their hands. During World War 1 when Belgium was invaded by Germany, the Belgians retaliated in a smaller way in Central Afrika. Belgian troops moved East from the Belgian Congo to occupy Ruanda-Urundi and then right after the war the League of Nations confirmed the existing state of affairs, granting Belgium in 1924 a mandate to administer the colony. From then on, RuandaUrundi was linked with Belgian Congo, but colonial rule took a very different form in the two territories. The administration of the Congo was centred in Brussels, while the RuandaUrundi administration was left in the hands of the Tutsi aristocracy. The Belgians, observing the distinction between Tutsi and Hutu, make it the very basis of their colonial system. The Hutu are subject to the forced labour which disfigures many European colonies in Afrika, but here it is the Tutsi who supervise them at their tasks, Hutu being 85%, Tutsi 14% and 1% of the Batwa
(Pygmies). In 1961, the Urundi kingdom organized for elections where it was won by the joint Hutu and Tutsi party led by Prince Rwagasore, the eldest son of the king, who was then assassinated a few months later, before independence had been formally achieved. In 1962 Urundi became independent and changed its name to Burundi with Mwambutsa IV, presiding over a government combining Hutu and Tutsi Ministers. In January 1965, Hutu Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe, was assassinated by a Tutsi gunman. In May of the same year, elections bring a Hutu majority to the national assembly. At this point the Mwami’s even-handedness snaps. He disregards the election result and appoints as Prime minister, his Tutsi private secretary. In retaliation, Hutu officers attempt a failed coup where 34 of them are captured and killed. But this incident leads rapidly to a transformed Burundi. In July 1966 the Prince took the crown from the absent father, but before the end of the year he too had been overthrown by his Prime Minister, Michel Micombero and a republic is
proclaimed. A power which he yields with ruthless brutality over the Hutus, as a result Hutu authorities attempt an uprising in May 1972. As a response to the uprising at least 100,000 people are killed, among them nearly all Hutus of the professional or educated class, since then Tutsi civil service discrimination against the Hutus has become commonplace, and often provokes outbreaks of Hutu unrest. One such incident was in 1988 in the northern provinces of Ntega and Marangara, which led to another massacre of Hutus, totalling about 20,000 deaths. The ruling Tutsi minority of Micombero did not last long and was overthrown in 1976 bringing Colonel Jean Baptist Bagaza to power as the second republic President. In 1987, another coup ushered in the third republic Presidency of Major Pierre Buyoya. Due to the 1988 uprising and repression, the new president makes a greater effort than his predecessors to deal with the nation’s ethnic problem. Buyoya takes steps to ensure a Hutu presence in his government by setting up a commission to advise on ways of achieving a new sense of national unity. Buyoya then prepares the nation for its first democratic presidential election, scheduled for 1993 where he expected to win Burundi’s first multiparty presidential election in June 1993, but he is defeated by Melchior Ndadaye, leader of the main opposition party
FRODEBU (Burundi Democratic Front), who also wins a large majority in the accompanying legislative elections. The first democratically elected Hutu Merchior Ndadaye forms a conciliatory government giving Tutsi politicians eight places out of twenty-two in his cabinet. But this hopeful development is soon frustrated by his assassination in a Tutsi attempted coup. In response between 25,000 and 50,000 people were killed in both sides due to ethnic violence between Tutsis and Hutus with more than 750,000 Hutu and Tutsi flee the country. In 1994 the national assembly elects a Hutu president, Cyprien Ntaryamira, who in turn appoints a Tutsi as his Prime Minister. But again he was killed in April 1994 in the airplane of President Habyarimana of Rwanda when it was brought down by a rocket. On 6 April 1994, Silvestre Ntibantunganya yet another Hutu was chosen to replace Cyprien Ntaryamira. In July 1996 president, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya, attends a memorial service for 300 Tutsis butchered by militant Hutu. Amid angry scenes he has to flee for his life. A few days later the Tutsi army seizes power and brings back President Pierre Buyoya. In response to the military coup, sanctions are imposed on Burundi by most of its neighbouring states, including the international bodies, and the rebels group known as FDD (democratic defence force) is born.
Burundi’s stand in the Great Lakes They do not interfere with their neighbour’s internal affairs unlike Rwanda. And they focus on their own development peace within the country and in the region. They contributed in the peace keeping in Somalia and elsewhere in the region.
Who is Pierre Nkurunziza? Pierre Nkurunziza is the current Burundi President from the CNDD FDD party who doesn’t want to respect the Arusha peace accord on Burundi. He was born in December 18, 1963 in Bujumbura and raised up in the north of the country in the province of Ngozi, son of a Hutu father and a Tutsi mother. His father was a governor of two provinces before being killed in 1972. Nkurunziza graduated in 1990 at the University of Burundi, with a degree in physical education. He went on to teach high school and also served as an Assistant Lecturer at the university. In 1995, he narrowly escaped death during the army attack
Under Nkurunziza’s leadership, the party won a decisive victory in parliamentary elections held in July. In preparation for the upcoming Presidential election in Parliament, Nkurunziza was asked to be the CNDD-FDD’s candidate. He accepted the nomination and as the only candidate he won 151 of the 162 ballots cast and was elected President on August 19, 2005. He was formally sworn into office on August 25. In 2006 he attempted a ceasefire with the only Hutu rebel group FNL (Liberation National Front) remaining outside the peace process, but this was rejected by the group. The truce was soon ignored, however, and intermittent violence resumed.
During 1860, the Tutsi realm was organized on a feudal basis, with the Tutsi as the aristocracy and the Hutu as their vassals. The Tutsi were the upper class and are mostly herdsmen whereas, Hutu were the lower class and for the most part lived by farming.
on the university campus that killed some 200 people. After his escape he became active in the conflict and then went on to join the rebel group. In 1998, a Burundian court sentenced him in absentia to death for his rebel activities. Nkurunziza headed negotiations that reached a point of high development by signing a peace accord with President Domitien Ndayizeye in 2003. As part of the agreement, Nkurunziza received immunity from prosecution for war crimes. He later joined Ndayizeye’s cabinet as Minister of Good Governance in November 2004. In 2005, CNDD-FDD became an official political party.
No substantive agreement was reached until May 2008, when the FLN convened with Nkurunziza in Bujumbura and signed another ceasefire. In December of that year, Nkurunziza met with FNL leader Agathon Rwasa and signed a definitive peace agreement. In 2010 Nkurunziza was reelected with more than 90 percent of the vote following the withdrawal of all six of his challengers. The campaign and election proceedings were marred by violence, contributing to a markedly low voter turnout.
CONTINUED ON PAGE 64
Co - Hosted the world cup cricket with South Afrika. Last execution. About 78 people have been executed in Zimbabwe since independence. Amongst the last 4 executed was Chidhumo.
Inception of the POVO Brand with the compilation of a 36 page A6 sized booklet with a collection of essays by artists and showcase of their work. Blessing Makunike together with Shingirai Alron and Gary Mashoko, and two supporters, burned to death in a car accident, marking the greatest loss of players lives in a single incident in Zimbabwean football. Saki Mafundikwa authors Afrikan Alphabets - The Story of Writing in Afrika, which is the first book on Afrikan typography.
Operation Murambatsvina / Restore Order billed to rid urban areas of illegal structures resulted in the displacement of over 700,000 people. MDC breaks into factions, MDC T (Morgan Tsvangirai) and MDC N (Welshman Ncube). The Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Gender and Community Development is set up being responsible for gender and community issues in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
CONTINUED FRom PAGE 63 Burundi political history and, their stand on the great Lakes
Nkurunziza continued to face criticism in his second term over his administration’s treatment of the media and response to public dissent. He garnered additional condemnation for his desire to stand for a third term as president in the 2015 election, something which many, including some within his own party, saw as a violation of the country’s constitution as well as the Arusha Agreement that had paved the way to ending Burundi’s civil war. Nkurunziza’s supporters countered by claiming that the two-term limit stipulated in both documents was not yet applicable because Nkurunziza had been directly elected only once—to his second term—and argued that his first term, by which he had been elected by Parliament, did not count toward the term limit. Nkurunziza’s plan to stand for president in the June 2015 election, confirmed in late April by the CNDD-FDD, led to many large-scale demonstrations with protesters calling for him to abandon his bid for a third term. The public protests often led to clashes with the police and harsh responses from the government, alarming many in Burundi as well as the international community.
He really ascended beyond all his predecessors, as he was loved by all the peoples in the country. They only came to dislike him because of his decision to run for the third term.
Who did he ascend to power?
How popular are the opposition? The opposition is popular in Burundi in a way that even the 64
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second term was not going to be won if the opposition was not driven away, or threatened to be killed. As for the 2015 elections, the Burundi opposition have gone even stronger than before, they have joined together to fight the common enemy –a Hutu and Tutsi coalition.
protect the constitution and the Arusha accord that brought our country to peace and trust of all Burundians. We wouldn’t want to see Burundians fleeing the country as we did in the past, we want peace just like in Europe.
Where do Burundians in the diaspora stand?
The army is kind of neutral for now, we are not that sure about the future, what with the daily protests, as Government is a mixture of the former ruling Tutsi government, the former
As far as I am concerned the Burundian diaspora is as firm as the protesters in the country, we are in position to
Where does the army stand?
rebels of CNDD FDD and the former FNL rebels. We have seen their neutrality in the past few days, and have seen how people rejoiced with them during the attempted coup, but today it seems as if they are for the government as well, why? Because there is no way the police can kill people and then they show up later trying to show people that they trying to protect them. At the beginning of the protest you would see how much protesters appreciated the army showing up.
county championship and the opportunity to win the All Ireland CLUB championship with the finals played on St. Patrick’s Day every year.
Padraic Kavanagh Ireland
urling is one of the two national sports of Ireland, the other being Gaelic football. For those who have played and have been brought up with the game, it is deeply rooted in their everyday lives. In fact the game holds a unique role in many clubs creating a stronger community relationship. Hurling is a game played with ash sticks and a small ball called a sliotar. Fifteen players play against fifteen. There is a goalkeeper, six defenders, two midfielders and six forwards.
The object of the game is to score more points than your opponents. A point is scored when the ball is hit (pucked) over the crossbar and three points is awarded if you can score a goal past the goalkeeper. Hurling is the fastest field sport in the world and in my opinion the most skilful. The most successful county in Hurling is Kilkenny with 35 All Ireland titles followed by Cork with 30 and Tipperary with 26. The All Ireland series is run over the summer with the final played on the first Sunday in September. On completion of the All Ireland championship, players return to their respective local clubs i.e. their hometown or village team. They have the opportunity to win their own
Obviously the biggest rivalries in Hurling are amongst neighbouring counties. Kilkenny versus Tipperary, Cork versus Tipperary, Clare versus Galway and Laois versus Offaly. The standard of physicality, fitness, speed and preparation has increased dramatically over the years and I believe that the association will find it very hard to keep the games amateur with the high demands placed on players in the modern game. The sport has now been given the opportunity to be viewed by a wider audience as the sporting organisation (GAA) has signed a deal with Sky Sports to televise some of the biggest games in the Hurling Championship. The reaction from the British public has been shock and awe. The most surprising part is that these players are amateur even though they play the sport to a professional standard. This game has to be seen to be truly understood. http://www.gaa.ie/about-the-gaa/our-games/hurling/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgEMvRrOCRI
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
SHERMON BALOYI TITLE
ALLEYS & PUDDLES
25 ways for Zimbabweans to reduce their carbon footprint and bills CLIMATE CHANGE
Raymond muWaniRi ENVIRONMENTALIST @raykasezim
very Zimbabwean is responsible for some amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere induced by our daily activities, known as ‘Carbon Footprint’. Climate Change/Global Warming is being caused by the collective increase of CO2 emissions into the earth’s atmosphere from human activity all over the world. As Zimbabweans and citizens of this planet it is our responsibility to reduce our carbon footprint to counter the effects of climate Change. The following points are for everyday Zimbabweans to follow, therefore reducing their impact on the planet, saving energy, which translates to savings. Zimbabweans need to be encouraged to ‘Go Green’ to achieve a sustainable future. Note; some of these suggested points are already being practiced, but the people who are unaware unconsciously do a disservice to the planet. 1. Take Public Transport or Carpool – Research shows that drivers spend 18 days of the year in a car, each car emitting its own weight in CO2. Sharing a car/Riding the bus or kombi to work or school uses less fuel, emits less and slashes the number of cars on the road. It would 66
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Every citizen is responsible for some amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere induced by our daily activities, known as ‘Carbon Footprint’.
be beneficial for Zimbabwe to have a good public transport system, which includes local trains that can transport large numbers of people efficiently. An example would be a train system going between Harare and Chitungwiza where 1 million people live, with most commuting to Harare for work, school and shopping etc. With Oil peak predicted to be reached in 2015 and to run out by 2050, we need to be conservative with the way we use our fuel. 2. Shift gears sooner – For those that do drive, it is advised you shift into a higher gear as soon as possible, before 2,500 rpm (revs per minute) on a petrol car and 2,000 rpm on a diesel. If you do this right you will find yourself saving fuel because your engine is maintaining a higher speed without working as hard. 3. Use Hybrid cars - Although they are pricier, over the lifetime of the vehicle you will find yourself more than covering the difference in fuel savings.
4. Walk close distances – Sometimes there is no need to use a vehicle for short distance, like going to the local shops or visiting friends nearby. Save your fuel and walking is naturally very good for the health. 5. Take a shower - Uses about 80% less energy compared to a bath, and uses less water too. You can install a ‘low flow’ shower head to limit the amount of water being used. For those accustomed to ‘bucket baths’, you are doing a great service to the planet. 6. Use cold water – when washing and rinsing clothes, 90% of the energy used goes towards heating the water. Unless you are trying to kill germs on your clothes 7. Replace light bulbs with CFL bulbs (Compact Fluorescent) - Can last up to 15 times longer and use up to 8o% less energy than regular light bulbs and reduces your electric bill. Switching off your lights when they are not in use also saves energy. 8. Unplug Your Gadgets Unplug your phone charger, laptop and other gadgets when you’re not using them. Some appliances consume a significant amount of
electricity even when they are switched off. Ever notice how your phone charger can get hot with no phone on it? Adopting these practices can save you $100 each year. 9. Choose a Laptop over a Desktop – A laptop can be up to 80% more energy-efficient than a desktop because of battery life, energy-efficient LCD screens, hard drives, CPUs and adaptors. 10. Home temperature - Keep your curtains open during the day in the winter to let in sunlight, and close them at night to keep in warmth, reduces heater usage. During the summer, close the curtains during the day to keep out extra sunlight and open them at night to moderate the temperature, or even open the windows to let in a cool breeze. This will limit the amount of times you need to use fans and air conditioning.
11. Don’t buy bottled water – There is an environmental toll from the plastic waste and high food miles from the distance travelled by the water before getting to the supermarket (food miles distance food travels from its origin to the final destination). Tap water (excluding Harare) is perfectly suitable for consumption, especially if you use a filtration pitcher. 12. Buy local produce - If you keep things local it will reduce the amount food miles and fuel required to get the food from the farm to your fridge. The same concept goes for other goods and
services; it also boosts the local economy. 13. Eat in season produce - Out of season produce has higher costs on refrigeration, ripening process, storing and transportation. It comes with a high price tag in order to get it from where it is in-season to where it is being consumed. 14. Go Digital - Read newspaper online rather than in print, you are saving trees
As Zimbabweans and citizens of this planet it is our responsibility to reduce our carbon footprint to counter the effects of climate Change and paper printing costs. If internet is not available make sure you recycle your paper. 15. Chose Energy Efficient Kitchen Appliances microwaving your food is faster and often uses less energy than the stove. On average a meal takes 15 minutes to cook in the microwave versus one hour in the stove. 16. Using rechargeable batteries - can save a lot of kg off of your carbon footprint by the time the batteries die for good. 17. Use the top shelf of the oven - If you are using the stove, your food will cook faster on the upper shelf of the oven because heat rises. 18. Using ceiling fans Instead of air conditioning is sure of saving. If you live in a climate where you rely heavily on your A/C this could save you up to a ton in CO2 emissions. 19. Don’t use black bin bags - Because of the black pigmentation these trash bags cannot be recycled. A better option is to use white trash bags and the best option is of course, use none.
20. Compost heaps – Having organic gardens and compost heaps to grow your own food saves money and is good for the environment. 21. Use certified wood - From responsibly managed forests (e.g. Gum tree firewood). Meaning, logging in those forests is being monitored to prevent deforestation. Wood bought on the road side is cut illegally from our forests, causing deforestation, loss of habitat and biodiversity, affecting the amount of CO2 being processed back to oxygen by trees and plants. 22. Plant a Tree – Is the most efficient way to help the environment. Not only do they provide shade and oxygen but they consume CO2 in atmosphere. A single young tree can absorbs 6kg of CO2 each year. That amount will climb to 22kg annually as trees mature. Just one 10-year-old tree releases enough oxygen into the air to support two human beings. 23. Use both sides of the paper – When printing in the office use both sides of the paper and reduce paper consumption, saving money and trees. 24. Use Renewable Energy – Where possible use solar, biogas, wind and other forms of green energy. The future is green energy which is cleaner and has no environmental impact. We need to move away from nonrenewable energy forms like coal, which are causing the increase of CO2 into the atmosphere. 25. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle – Remember and Practice the 3R’s.
The beginning of the Marange diamond rush. Considered to be home to one of the world’s richest diamond deposits
The United States imposed travel sanctions against 38 people with ties to President Mugabe
Hyper Inflation in Zimbabwe rises to about 150,000%, in the midst of a sophisticated black market. Human rights activist Jestina Mukoko abducted during the night from her home. General election with official results being announced more than a month after the first round. No clear winner made way for the first runoff after an election pipping, Tsvangirai (with 47.9% of the first round vote) against Mugabe (43.2%). Government of National Unity (GNU) power-sharing agreement brokered by South Afrikan leader Thabo Mbeki who had earlier announced to the world that there was ‘No Crisis’ in Zimbabwe. Zimbabweans who fled the dire economic situation in their country are targeted in xenophobic attacks in South Afrika. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Who will stand for the environment in Zimbabwe? ENVIRONMENT
Nyasha Mupaso Mushroom grower / Consultant @mushtella
he level of environmental degradation that has occurred in Zimbabwe is so disturbing; the year 2000 was the beginning of it all, the land reform has done serious damage to the nation in general and the environment in particular. Deforestation is largely driven by high demand for firewood arising from incessant power cuts as most urban dwellers now use firewood for cooking as well as tobacco farmers who use firewood to cure tobacco. Veld fires are on an increase every year. There is no longer any discipline on most farms. The damage on the ecosystem is huge but I will mostly focus on the effects on Non Wood Forest Products (NWFP) which include game animals, nuts, seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, medicinal plants, peat, forage, honey, insects and many others. These are things we require on a daily basis but take little thought of when destroying forests and grasslands. As a mushroom farmer I will zero in on mushrooms. 68
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Deforestation is largely driven by high demand for firewood arising from incessant power cuts as most urban dwellers now use firewood for cooking as well as tobacco farmers who use firewood to cure tobacco.
Besides the cutting down of trees there has been an increase in veld fires which also have serious repercussion on the environment. Wild mushroom harvesting helps in the alleviation of poverty, malnutrition and food challenges faced by the nation. A lot of harvesting of this rich NWFP resource from the wild is common mostly in rural areas where the mushroom is sold on road sides and urban areas to generate income. Instead of farming some of our new farmers are making more money selling firewood than from their farming activities, consequently forests are suffering. Another challenge is lot of harvesting is happening in our plantations yet there is little or no planting happening. Already the country has started importing timber from South Afrika; a sign that something has gone wrong in our forests. The sad reality on the ground is that yields of wild mushrooms are going down each year because of veld fires and cutting
down of trees. These fires in turn cause temperatures to rise thereby killing the fungi in the soil and on trees. Slowly the fungus is being killed off until a time we will not have any left. Dead leaves reside on the ground surface, grass and animal dung provide food to the fungi and in turn the fungi when matured gives us mushrooms. The burning of this forest also leaves the soil susceptible to erosion since most of the fungi resides in the top layer of the soil which is heated by burning and when rain comes it washes the top soil away together with the fungi. Consequently the mushroom population is depleting. Some mushrooms do not grow in the soil but on the trees thus cutting down of trees is resulting in reduction of wild mushrooms. There are mushrooms in the wild that are classified as mycorrizhae; these mushrooms only grow on or close to certain trees and without trees they will never grow.
These mushrooms rely on the trees and the trees rely on these mushrooms because they make the roots easily absorb moisture and nutrients and improve soil structure thus creating a symbiotic relationship; one without the other cannot grow well. Thus a lot of collateral damage is being done to our NWFP. The Environment Management Agency (EMA) need to do more to slow down and eventually stop this environmental damage. EMA can do all it can but without the Government playing its role this trend will continue. The Ministries responsible for the environment, agriculture, tourism and energy must swing into action. Sadly our Government is in hibernation with little effort put on such issues. Simple things like fire guards will go a long way, but the government and its agencies have a long way to go in resolving these challenges so that we have sustainable harvesting in our forests. As environmentalists, we will not stop highlighting these issues. Those involved in wild mushroom trading are directly
affected but the challenge will also be felt by those into mushroom farming. The grass that is burnt year in year out can be sustainably harvested for mushroom growing substrate by those into organic mushroom growing. Research into those species is affected as some species are now hard to find and some have gone into extinction. We cannot afford to be silent and then take action when we are living in a desert. The time is now and it takes you and me, since it will affect our children. Just think of the aforementioned NWFP and picture how much damage veld fires do for instance to honey and the bees, eggs and young animals. When God created mushroom, it had its role in the ecosystem the good news for us is that we can reclaim lost forest using mushrooms using a concept known as mycoremediation. This is a topic for some day but the beauty is mushrooms can be used to reclaim the environment that we have damaged. If the damage can be stopped now the burden can be reduced. We need to take initiatives like the national tree planting day seriously and play our role. Huge incomes are earned through the NWFP where we also get medicine from various herbs; very few people are aware that mushrooms are used in traditional medicine practice particularly ganoderma lucidum which is classified as a medicinal mushroom. At one point Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe said “Our people are growing tobacco and want to make money out of it but on the down side we have seen massive deforestation leading to desertification in some areas. We are saying to them, ‘use coal or we will stop tobacco production”. That was a welcome statement for most environmental activists.
Many wonderful species of plants and animals have been lost, and many others remain endangered. Plants absorb Carbon Dioxide CO2 (a greenhouse gas) from the atmosphere and uses it to produce food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees) Sadly little or no action has been taken and the damage continues. It’s been three years now since we first embarked on an effort to “green” our mushroom farm. We are doing this by using green energy. We are now advocating for use of green energy on mushroom farms. Solar and biogas are presenting huge potential. There is a long way to go but until all mushroom growers relying on firewood move to green, progress remains elusive. This is the message I hope will reach the responsible authorities to act so that we start slowing down the environmental destruction then move on to completely stop the damage. The government must quickly act on this by putting incentives that motivate the populace to stop using firewood. Whilst rural electrification was a good move, it was unfortunately not backed by enough power generation. The government must move quickly to invest in electricity generation. Reducing duty on solar and gas as well as
Mandi Poeffient Vundla South Afrikan poet performs at the Hivos poetry cafe during Harare International festival of the Arts WATCH HERE http://bit.ly/1Xc7iyd
gas related products will go a long way in slowing the damage. While a strong legislation and empowering the policing agencies is required there is need to educate the populace on environmental issues and give support for the use and adoption of clean energy. Biogas and solar are viable options which can be used in rural as well as urban settings. When forests are destroyed, the atmosphere, water bodies and the water table are all affected. Many wonderful species of plants and animals have been lost, and many others remain endangered. Plants absorb Carbon Dioxide CO2 (a greenhouse gas) from the atmosphere and uses it to produce food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees). In return, it gives off Oxygen. Destroying the forests mean CO2 will remain in the atmosphere and in addition, destroyed vegetation will give off more CO2 stored in them as they decompose. This will alter the climate of that region. Deforestation can also be seen as removal of forests leading to several imbalances ecologically and environmentally. Zimbabwe being one of the poorest countries in the world can create value from NWFP which contribute to food security, alleviation of malnutrition and poverty, provide medicines and many other day to day necessities. It’s time we take action and stand for the environment.
February Tsvangirai was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe March, Tsvangirai’s wife was killed in a car accident Use of the Zimbabwean dollar as an official currency effectively abandoned allowing the use of foreign currencies alongside its dollar Launch of the online POVO platform
Brazil played Zimbabwe beating them 3-0 on their way to the World Cup Football in South Afrika Solomon Mujuru a.k.a Rex Nhongo dies in an inferno. Establishment of Zimbabwe National Paralympic Committee (ZNPC) which is responsible for overseeing disability sports in the country. Death of Sam Mtukudzi, son of singer Oliver Mtukudzi
Inaugural SHOKO festival by Magamba Network The first printed edition of the POVO Journal. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Resolutions, Tar & Medals RECREATION
Rodrick Longwe Project finance manager @rodricklongwe
have never been good at keeping new year’s resolutions and 2015 was no different! The year’s list was; exercise more, save money, read more books and take the family on an exciting, adventurous holiday. Well, by the end of January I had not started any of those goals and was actually further from achieving them than I had anticipated. I have learnt that talk really is cheap and taking the first step in attaining your desired goals is the hardest thing to do and to maintain. I never thought I would find myself saying this, but my first step in achieving my new year’s resolution to exercise more came from seeing my wife’s steel determination in wanting to take up running after her brother in law Batsirai Nyamugama. I mean, this is a woman who never enjoyed sport at school and a few years ago when I tried to introduce her to jogging she brushed it aside and said what benefit do you get from just running aimlessly? The same woman who had said these words a few years back was the same woman waking up in the early hours of the morning to walk and run, for twenty minutes while I enjoyed my sleep. I am a natural sportsman since school and my family always encouraged me but despite all 70
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Well, by the end of January I had not started any of those goals and was actually further from achieving them than I had anticipated. I have learnt that talk really is cheap and taking the first step in attaining your desired goals is the hardest thing to do and to maintain.
this, taking that first step in doing anything is always the hardest thing. After a few weeks of my wife Chipo waking up to run and brisk walk, she began running straight without walking for 30 minutes and there after her fitness levels began to improve . This is what challenged me to also follow suit and I asked myself, “How can I be out done by a woman?” I got up early the next morning just before Chipo, got my running gear on and waited like an eager beaver for her to join me for the run. Big mistake! One golden rule when starting to run, take it easy. Start by brisk walking and running in between and keep your distances short. Well, this eager beaver was not having any of that and thought I could match my wife stride for stride! It did not end well with me because for the next few weeks my legs where sore from trying to run too fast and too far on my first run. After a bruised ego and a few weeks’ rest, I got back on the road and this time I took it easy. I started with brisk walking and a light jog in between, and during all this I came to appreciate every runner’s effort in simply getting out of bed! The fact that you got up, means you have gone further and have done more
than one who is asleep. I began to appreciate and understand how running can become addictive during my short runs. The sound of your feet pounding the ground, the sound of your breathing and each stride taken in achieving that desired distance is so challenging yet so liberating. What joy when you have done your three kilometres.
The sound of your feet pounding the ground, the sound of your breathing and each stride taken in achieving that desired distance is so challenging yet so liberating One thing I quickly picked up when running in my neighbourhood is that running is for everyone; just one foot forward. I have seen youthful, elderly, fast, slow, big, slim runners and all running their desired distance. Running with Chipo has made me appreciate my wife more for
her determination and the resilience to achieve weight loss, living healthy and above all to compete in the Victoria Falls Marathon. Training for a half marathon is tough, let alone a full marathon. Joining a running club was not an option since the Friday afternoon running times were not conducive. Running has always been associated with black Afrikans who have dominated the sport especially Kenyans in the long distance marathons and Afrikan Americans dominate the short distance races. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that when you look at the previous winners for all our local marathons, the winners are mostly blacks. This got me thinking about why black Afrikans do not train for races. Could it be in the genes maybe? This could be true but when you delve deeper you notice that some, if not most of these marathon race champions come from impoverished backgrounds and this is a way out of poverty unlike for others who run for exercise, weight loss and just the sheer thrill of achieving a non-competitive long distance race. There is nothing wrong in running to get out of poverty, but the challenge is that the career life span of these elite athletes is short lived due to the extreme limits they push their body to. Well, for Chipo and myself that was not the route we were taking, but we were happy to just compete in a half marathon (21.1km).
POVOAfrika currently has two main content types under the following brands;
Nancy Mteki Honai!
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Digitzz Dutch rapper at HIFA
Eugene & Tinodiwa Comexposed
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Gran’Mah Mozambican band at HIFA
Masimba Hwati Venice Biennale preview
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Tinashe Makura Hello!
Calvin Chimutuwah Contemporary art in Zimbabwe
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Chashe Global stage at HIFA
David Chinyama Taking fine art to the people of Zimbabwe
Breeze Hivos Poetry Cafe, HIFA
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This is contrary to running to get out of poverty but, waking up to achieve that task was still tough work especially in winter. Often, we ran 10km and had to be up by 5am when it was pitch black
and freezing. Although I had gloves and a sweater on, Chipo just wore her running gear with no extra warm clothing because she didn’t want the hassle of removing them when she started sweating from the run. The worst runs we had were on a Saturday where the 19km, 23 and 21 would be done because waking up early was a nightmare for me, but I was elated when I finished the race. The biggest mistake we made however was not having considered the terrain we were to expect in Victoria Falls which was a bit hilly. My word, did I not sweat, dry up and sweat again. By the 15th km mark, I brisk walked for 2kms as I had done in my early days on practicing. On the day of the Victoria Falls Marathon, we met participants from all backgrounds, but the one that blew me away was a 67 year old lady who was running the full marathon and passed me before the 21.1 km mark. I love my wife and I thank God for her perseverance of wanting to achieve her new year’s resolution because without that I would not have started running and above all I would not have spent 3 months bonding with my wife and toping it off having one of the best weekends ever with her in the resort town of Victoria Falls. Run your race, you only live once!
Interviews,documentaries and discussions
Still, the half marathon looked impossible from where I was starting, because just being able to run 3km without a rest was very hard work. Waking up at 5:30am to run 3km was tiring as was doing it for five days a week with only Thursday and Sunday to rest. The beginning of April was the start of our training and 28 June was race day. My brother Batsirai Nyamugama was our inspiration, having run for over 20 years. He has run the Victoria Falls, Kariba, Vumba, 2 oceans and Comrades marathons on numerous occasions and when asked why he kept doing it, his reply was, “I am now addicted.” Running has kept him very fit, it has afforded him new friends, business contacts, and family holidays because when you begin to run these marathons and fun runs you begin to see the familiar faces at these events and before you know it you are part of a running community. This now is what got us hooked especially the family holidays when you can double up a run with a mini holiday away with your family.
Live events and shows
WATCH HERE http://bit.ly/1JK5Hd4 Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
ComExposed, a new platform for comic books CULTURE
Eugene Mapondera Tinodiwa Makoni Founders of COmEXPOSED
Tafadzwa Tarumbwa takes time to chat to Eugene Ramirez Mapondera and Tinodiwa Zambe Makoni the founders of ComExposed , Zimbabwe’s Comic Book Convention
@Ink_glare / @Eugene_Ramirez
What is ComExposed EM: ComExposed is an organisation we founded together to promote comic books and help out the comic book artists, and bring them together to the rest of the world, the general public and the corporate world. To just introduce Zimbabwe to the culture of comic books and how everyone can benefit and enjoy it TM: It has also since grown to
become a digital arts hub and a way to connect with everyone if they are not into comics - though that is our starting point - to also converse, share and collaborate as long as they are doing digital art.
EM: ComExposed is also a representative body of a number of artists some of whom have participated in Comic Up which is a comic book we are going to talk about later on. TM: ComExposed started when we were both teaching at Digital Academy and we were frustrated with the way artists were not communicating or sharing knowledge,every artists seemed to live on an island and more or less believed that they 72
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were ‘it’, which we could not blame them because they didn’t know anyone else. Born from that frustration came the idea of possibly holding a convention. In asking questions, talking to people, embarking on a mission of a convention we came to the realisation that we needed to actually build an entire industry in order to hold a convention. That’s when ComExposed as an organisation was born and we set about trying to build our member base and we started with our students, Eugene coerced all our students onto the
ComExposed Facebook group and I reenforced his efforts and that’s how ComExposed was born and we just grew numbers until where we are now.
EM: And that was in 2013.
How did the comic book come into being? EM: The comic book was an idea that we are trying to build an industry, and there is no better way to do this than to create a comic book. Tino had this idea to get all these artists to contribute to anthology which is
just a collection of stories in one comic book. Like those Manga’s where you have multiple stories in one. The idea was to achieve all of our goals and perform our mandate by helping artists to collaborate, communicate, create, and pretty much work together towards making one publication, that was the idea behind Comic Hub. I needed a lot of convincing but eventually I agreed to it and supported him and it turned out to be the comic book we announced early in February 2015 on our podcast. It was met with a bit of scepticism at first, but we worked hard and we got artists like Tafadzwa Tarumbwa, and Nqobizitha Mlilo to help and support the project. In the end we had six great artists pitching in, and we distributed a thousand issues on the day of the convention.
Where can people find these comics? TM: The way the comic was done was through crowd sourcing and crowd funding. It didn’t necessarily work out that way. The method of getting one is through the individual artists and their networks, of course you can come to ComExposed to our offices and get a copy directly. We are exploring other avenues for distribution but we started this very grass roots,
guerilla style. You may not see it in Bon Marche anytime soon but you may see it in more speciality stores.
EM: Will be working with corporate partners to see how we can get some sort of distribution aided by them, we also encourage the general public to get in touch with us through our Facebook page and our group and get information from our website.
Paul Brickhill presented with the Prince Klaus Award by the Netherlands government for his role in establishing the Book Cafe. Ishmael Lo performs at Harare International Festival of the Arts
Where do you see Afrikan comic art in the near future?
TM: Big Question! We see exciting things. Now is the time for us to be doing something. Afrikan art, is not like art anywhere else in the world. We feel that there is this huge opening for it, everyone is hungry for something that they donâ€™t even realise that they are going to love. We have seen the sprouting of other conventions within Afrika and we are the third one that we know of. This resurgence of digital art and Afrikans getting into digital art is evidence that there is a hunger for that product. There are people at this point and time, ready to create that kind of artwork. Afrikans want to do Sci-fi, they want to do visual effects, they want to do comics, they want to do games, all of that stuff right now is when its happening. There is also a drive from the rest of the world to seek out more Afrikan content. As ComExposed we are aiming to be a gateway for all these people coming out of Afrika into Afrika for this art, and we aim to be a platform for people within Afrika to get their work out there. Just as the name says we are expanding to expose outside to what is inside and expose everyone inside to what is happening outside
EM: The future in Afrikan art and Afrikan comics is to play a
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 20th Session of the General Assembly held in Victoria Falls . Elections landslide victory for ZANU PF bringing an end to the GNU. Exponent of mbira music Chiwoniso Maraire passes away
leadership role for once in a long time the playing field has been levelled out. A great comic book, artist here in Zimbabwe called Walter Barna or Kudzai Gumbo who can create work like that is on par with someone in the United States. The difference is our work is absolutely Afrikan, and there are very unique ways of telling stories and visiting histories of countries that have been pretty much overlooked for centuries such as Zimbabwe. That means we have introduced the possibility of a whole new pool of ideas, new ways of story telling that may lead entertainment in the future for Afrika and the rest of the world even so its the beginning of a new age for us and the sky is the limit!
Victoria Falls hotel reaches 100 years.
Toby Thompson UK Poet performing at HIFA WATCH HERE http://bit.ly/1VuuDcx
Zanzibar Taarab Kidumbak Ensemble WATCH HERE http://bit.ly/1IFLn7z
State of Disaster Declared in Masvingo as Tokwe-Mukorsi dam overflowed and flooded areas downstream with over 20 000 people being displaced. Zimbabwe beat Australia in ODI cricket after 31 years. A total of three Miss Zimbabwes in the same year, Thabiso Phiri replaced by Cathrine Makaya who was also dethroned to give way to Tendai Hunda Founder of the Book Cafe and activist Paul Brickhill passes away. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
THE POVO JOURNAL September 2015
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Inventing the future ARTS
Jimmy Saruchera conceptual artist
magine a country where artists have taken over - literally? Where every ministry, every business, even the army, is run by artists. What kind of a country would that be? At its very best, art is an original expression of the highest form of humanity, where one is creating for society and expressing what is personal, with a mastery that can speak across cultures and social status - akin to a metaphysical tower of Babel. At its worst, art is manipulated by interests external to the source of inspiration, shallow and poorly executed. But for the purposes of the opening question, let’s assume we are dealing with a country taken over by the former definition of art. Good art, often entails an inevitable element of selfsacrifice, where you excavate from the innermost of you, without knowing whether the world will accept or ridicule what you create. It entails ‘unnecessary’ time and effort over and above what would be deemed adequate, and then some on top of that. What is original, is historic, it leaves a mark. When people buy quality products, what they are really buying is time – all of the extra testing, experimenting, thinking and re-thinking about the tiniest details. I believe that people can subconsciously feel the extra 76
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At its very best, art is an original expression of the highest form of humanity, where one is creating for society and expressing what is personal, with a mastery that can speak across cultures and social status - akin to a metaphysical tower of Babel.
effort that goes into creating something, even if at first glance it’s not immediately apparent. It is the absence of art and design that lies at the root of many of our country’s challenges. Take a walk down the aisle of any Zimbabwean supermarket, and more often than not the visually attractive products tend to be imported. Where are our Zimbabwean designed products in supermarkets abroad? Unsurprisingly, we have a lopsided economic balance of payments. Art and culture in Zimbabwe have been relegated
The Medici family, which controlled Florence throughout much of the European Renaissance, played a significant part in the patronage of the arts with the likes of Da Vinci influencing everything from architecture, military tactics, medicine and science. Art was not just about the next exhibition, it underpinned one of history’s greatest developmental flowerings and made Florence one of the most beautiful cities in the world, a legacy that continues to materially benefit today’s generation centuries later. Culture is forever. Afrikan
Art and culture in Zimbabwe have been relegated to being a peripheral ‘sector’, a source of entertainment rather than the linchpin of all economic and development activity to being a peripheral ‘sector’, a source of entertainment rather than the linchpin of all economic and development activity. There is talk of an Afrikan Renaissance, but in truth it is more a story of increased earnings from natural resources and a resultant growing consumer class.
cities may be getting bigger, and in some cases richer, but they are no more glamorous and their growth is consumption and resource based with little artistic underpinning - a renaissance without art. Good Afrikan artists leave to be signed by galleries in Europe and
elsewhere, how then do they play a full part in shaping their home societies profoundly in the way their erstwhile counterparts like Michelangelo did during the European Renaissance? Afrika’s rich need to come to the party and not just make money, but leave an enduring Afrikan artistic legacy that remains long after the resources are gone and consumerism here looks like that found anywhere else on the planet. The best Afrikan art and art based thinking needs to be found, shown, expressed, archived, represented and spoken for in Afrika by Afrikans. Taking a look at the applicability of art to bread and butter issues like shelter, why do we continue to build low income housing that looks dull and utilitarian, that uses the same design, inspiration and materials from fifty years ago when its purpose was simply storage for labour? The first job of design is to make sure that a creation is fit for a purpose. As storage for labour, in a context where people are not free, the low income housing of today is gloriously adequate. But as a dwelling for a free incumbent of the great Afrikan century, such mediocrity is incongruous. Can a low cost house not be beautiful? The focus on utility and economics at the expense of artistic posterity, means we have housing for the masses that looks as though we were never here. One of the few internationally awarded buildings in Zimbabwe - the Eastgate building, drew
on indigenous knowledge for its eco-friendly termite hill inspired design. Why are most of our local products bland and utilitarian when we have so many great artists and natural raw materials that are totally under utilised? Why aren’t we building on our tremendous sculptural heritage to design jewellery people cannot get anywhere else in the world? Further research needs to be done into the properties of biodiversity that we have here, and not just accept a brick for a brick, but play our part and contribute to the world’s store of material knowledge before someone else does it for us, and charges us for the privilege. Looking closer at our economy, consumers worldwide are prepared to pay top dollar for handmade products, artistically made in harmony with the environment and communities. Why then does our country lament that exports are down because our industry does not have the machinery for mass production? Why compete on the same basis as countries that have got the capacity to scale up their mechanisation beyond our means? It is with art that we can compete and turn the massive unemployment rate into a significant handmade revolution. A single Madecasse hand-made chocolate bar from Madagascar sells for $6, while an industrially made Cadbury’s double milk chocolate bar sells for just $2. A bottle of KooVha handmade cider is $10 using indigenous ingredients and non GMO Nyanga apples, while industrial cider sells for $1.50. People are putting increasing value on the input of a human hand. If only we can redirect the millions of mind hours that are dedicated to selling cheap imported goods toward making and assisting making. In today’s technology driven world, art
The Afrikan Arts, Something to Enthuse over! ARTS
Stephanie Kapfunde Founder of Enthuse. Afrika @stephkapfunde
or the longest of times I have, like so many others, sat back and endured the telling of borrowed and reconstructed narratives. The distortions of truths and the loud and shrill voices of countless ‘world renowned’ journalists and networks as they went about telling the world about Afrika. Afrika the disease ridden, poverty stricken, disorderly and cannibalistic continent slash country. A continent of so little a mind it had to be re taught its history, re-educated as our minds were bought and sold on the mental slavery market.
For the longest of times I have, like so many others, sat back and endured the telling of borrowed and reconstructed narratives.
At first I was both aloof and naïve, sold on the dreams of who I was told to be as an Afrikan, to aspire to be anything but. To be ashamed of those who were there before, taught me, to adopt every single thing foreign. As I grew up like any other teenager, popular culture was never Afrikan, I sobbed a little during the Pax Afro days. Being Afrikan was never ‘cool’ whilst everything Western was from rhythms to morals. I recall never knowing what being Zimbabwean meant, yet alone Afrikan, though I do remember what it felt like; shameful and inadequate. When I came back to Harare, I was
When I began to realise how much this nation, this continent has and continues to birth as creativity, talent, ambition, optimism and fire alone is not enough, that’s why the KooVha Creative Hub is collaborating with the Zimbabwe Institute of Visual Arts (ZIVA) on a programme and research where art meets technology, with a focus on seeing what happens when artists are no longer constrained by the cost of materials, and are liberated to
use 3D design and 3D printing to usher in a whole new dimension of creativity. Inventing the future is a Zimbabwe where art is not just for artists, but every person in society wants the best of art to be part of everything that they do, see and make. With art, design, progressive technology
thrown knee deep into what I now call “Zimbabweanness”. More specifically music, cultural diversity, live events, theatre, dance - it was then that I got awestruck. When I began to realise how much this nation, this continent has and continues to birth as creativity, talent, ambition, optimism and fire. That left me with an array of questions; how could anyone be ashamed of being part of such a people, a nation? Why didn’t I know about this? The questions rung in my head and stewed there until I woke up one morning with my mind made up. I would help tell these stories; I would tell those stories until the rest of the world stood and applauded my Afrikan people for their gifts in the arts and ceased frowning at our heritage. That I as a black Afrikan woman would take back the Afrikan narrative until at long last we could all tell our own stories.
and indigenous knowledge data underpinning our fledgling renaissance, we will have better and unique products, exports, better government services, health, transportation, better homes, cities and a better country overall. Few can predict the future, but many can invent it. Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Integrating Zimbabwean youth in Ireland CULTURE
Takudzwa M. Nyazema Sociologist
ZYI is a group based in Ireland looking to engage the Zimbabwean youth on different platforms. This may seem easy at face value but we expect many challenges.
Takudzwa M. Nyazema
YI is a group based in Ireland looking to engage the Zimbabwean youth on different platforms. This may seem easy at face value but we expect many challenges. One question that comes to mind is how much of our culture and values can we keep and integrate with the new environment. This affects mainly the young generation where most of them would be Irish born or have spent most of their childhood in Ireland. Whereas, most of the mid twenties and up have experienced our cultural values, we realise the need to approach the younger age group differently. We aim to create a platform where the youth meet and share talents, ideas and discuss some challenges they face and perhaps share or find the solutions. We have people who have different ideas in different disciplines, for example in arts, music, education and even access to the job markets. As Zimbabwean youth, we commend different perspectives of thinking which in turn helps us promote each other’s individual respective talent. The Zimbabwean immigrant youth in Ireland have an opportunity to experience different values, with the society becoming increasingly diverse. In terms of arts, it may benefit the young people to find a fusion of our own traditional music with what is marketable in 78
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different areas. We would have artists who are in the music industry here and we aim to connect such figures with the younger generation to show that they can break through the industry as well. We strive that the society experience a bit of our music and this is achievable
Trust. However, we aim to involve the youth in our current society, whilst realising and recognising the values of our parents, and consequently our own. The youth of today are a second generation and there has been significant changes on immigration, levels of acceptance and assimilation by Irish nationals. The immigration structure has continuously changed as the country itself had to respond to immigration from the late 90s to the early 2000s where most of the Zimbabwean immigrants and others, would have made their way to Ireland. There is now a shift in the challenges that the ‘first’ Zimbabweans here faced, and that which are faced by the young people today. Moreover, the family structure and roles have also changed
The Zimbabwean immigrant youth in Ireland have an opportunity to experience different values, with the society becoming increasingly diverse when we are proud to represent our own. This has helped different artists from Nigeria, Ghana and South Afrika to be internationally recognised and we should strive for the same. ZYI is not a pioneer group as there has been the long existence of other groups like the Zimbabwe Heritage
where most young people do not have the privilege of having their grandparents, uncles or aunts, or even cousins around. As such, ZYI aims to forge such relationships through the meeting of different people and thus maintain a disciplined youth that will make a positive contribution to society. The
social life also affects young people where some may opt to ‘fit in’ the society rather than to integrate and contribute to the society. We want to promote the integration and accept that integration is possible where you recognise, not overlook, your own cultural values and heritage. Only then can we realise how much of our culture we can retain in the Irish society. Although relatively new, ZYI has been involved in Afrika Day celebrations and we are planning several events to celebrate being young Zimbabweans. We are looking to facilitate workshops where young minds can interact, as that would also advertise different talents and events and create new communication links amongst the youth. We also plan to create networks and connections through sport. There is a social football team and some various sports where people can get a chance to meet and engage. Another huge factor is we also plan to engage with different organisations from back home and so far had initial contact with ‘I am Zimbabwean’. It is still difficult not being able to visit home as frequent as we would like, but due to technology, home feels a lot closer than before. ZYI aims to create a new home in the Irish society where the Zimbabwean culture and Irish culture mix without taking anything away from each other, and hopefully create something great that both cultures can benefit from. In future, we would like to teach the Irish born Zimbabweans about our heritage and encourage engaging in the society.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Dzimbanhete Artist Interactions
ChiKonZeRo ChaZunguZa fOUNDER DAI
DZiMBANhETE ARTS iNTERACTiONS
zimbanhete Arts Interactions (DAI) is an arts and culture resource centre that prioritises heritage preservation by promoting, enabling and giving space to endeavors, which strongly articulate traditional oral and material culture. DAI is situated along Bulawayo road, some 25km outside Harare, Zimbabweâ€™s capital. DAI is almost hidden away from the highway, located between the Lion Cheetah Park and the Snake World, amidst massive rocks, away from all urban and city disturbances rendering it an ideal venue for artistic and cultural endeavors.
We remain proud today for having offered residencies and mentorship to some of the internationally renowned Zimbabwean artists today.
Founded by Chikonzero Chazunguza through the inaugural DAI Month of Print making, held every May since 2008, DAI has evolved to encompass other art forms.
To date, DAI has offered services in creative skills training, residency programmes, cultural exchanges, consultancy services and exhibition space. This includes offering workshops
THE POVO JOURNAL September 2015
for professional and aspiring visual artists, collaborations with the local community through outreach programs. We have also hosted theatre workshops and performances, provided filmmakers with space and held several traditional ceremonies. In September 2014 we organized the biggest Mbira event ever, which featured 30 local
Mbira groups who performed for 36hrs. This marked the beginning of an annual Mbira and folk music festival to be held every September at Dzimbanhete. Currently DAI is run by Chiko Chazunguza as the Director, Jonathan Goredema the Deputy Director and a consortium of artists lead by Munyaradzi Mazarire.
» PAINTING Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
China: More than business buddies?
Beyond Sino-Afrikan business relationships BUSINESS
Senzeni Mpofu Fashion Entrepreneur @SenzeniMpofu
ne cannot discuss business in Afrika without mentioning the prominence of China’s presence on the continent. It is no secret that China’s economic relationship with Afrika has strengthened over the years, with Afrikan leaders welcoming China as a willing and deeppocketed trade partner. Afrika has doled out minerals, land and oil; while China, in return has shouldered some of the government’s infrastructural responsibilities, peppering the continent’s landscape with newly built roads, stadiums, dams and universities. Equally obvious is the mounting scepticism and criticism that Sino-Afrikan relations have received, both from Afrikans as well as the international community. China has been repeatedly accused of thwarting Afrika’s business and political potential through the introduction of cheap alternatives to local products and services as well as bolstering political regimes, which would have been toppled had it not been for Chinese funding. Even those who are sanguine about 82
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It is no secret that China’s economic relationship with Afrika has strengthened over the years, with Afrikan leaders welcoming China as a willing and deeppocketed trade partner.
China’s contribution towards the development of Afrika express their concern over the imbalance of this economic relationship and find Beijing’s “win-win” rhetoric disingenuous. Compounding the complexity of Afrika’s perception of China’s presence within their midst is the fact that over a million Chinese migrants have moved to Afrika, a move that has revived Afrikan colonial fears.
Afrikans are reported to pass through the city’s checkpoints (every year), as short-term visitors on purchasing runs. Guangzhou is so popular with Afrikan migrants and traders that it has been controversially dubbed “Chocolate City”, an Afrikan ode to the many Chinatowns across the globe. Most of the people who make their way to Guangzhou are traders who buy cheap goods
Compounding the complexity of Afrika’s perception of China’s presence within their midst is the fact that over a million Chinese migrants have moved to Afrika, a move that has revived Afrikan colonial fears What the dialogue on SinoAfrikan trade partnerships often overlooks is the burgeoning population of Afrikan migrants in China. Governmental statistics show that an estimated 16,000 Afrikans live in a southern Chinese city called Guangzhou alone. In addition over 430,000
and resell them back home for a profit. This move has obviously been incited by the need for transnational trading strategies that can outdo Chinese competitors who are operating in Afrika. For most of these traders, the first step in these strategies is often journeying to Guangzhou.
Some who have taken this step have managed to strike incredible profits, entering China with a few hundred dollars and turning it around into milliondollar companies within a period of ten years. Reports from local Chinese media state that more than 20 percent of Afrikans in Guangzhou earn 30,000 Yuan ($4,838) a month doing business in the city, a figure that is higher than the average wage of local Chinese white collar employees in that area. These people have fuelled direct exports of manufactured products from Guangzhou to Afrikan countries — resulting in an increase from around US$165 million in 1996 to US$2.1 billion in 2010. Significant numbers of Afrikans move to China to study. There are already around 12,000 Afrikans studying in China with the support of the Chinese government. In 2013, the government laid out plans to enroll 30,000 Afrikans on short-term professional training programs between 2013 and 2015 and 18,000 Afrikan students to pursue full-time degrees. China is currently the only country that is increasing its scholarships for Afrikans. As a result of this influx – but also stimulating it in an interesting positive feedback
loop – Afrikan-style Pentecostal churches have also flourished, to cater for the religious needs of these migrants. They are particularly visible in Hong Kong where religion is less regulated than in Mainland China. Afrikan restaurants are also commonplace, as are Afrikan hair braiding salons, and along with them the popularization of Afro-beats music. Interracial marriages, particularly between Afrikan men and Chinese women have also risen, giving rise to many Afro-Chinese children. It would be misleading, of course, to paint China like an Afrikan paradise where all Afrikan business dreams come to life, because it is not. It is a foreign land; where Afrikans, above all other racial groups are very unwelcome, and where potential business partners treat their Afrikan counterparts with a great amount of wariness and suspicion. Cases of blatant racism, fuelled by increasingly tightening immigration restrictions have resulted in clashes between Afrikan businessmen and the police. The story of how China is short-changing Afrika has been repeated too many times. Sadly, in its narrative, the media has conveniently overlooked the tale of the entrepreneurial Afrikan merchant or scholar that has also capitalized on this relationship and has worked hard to achieve his or her own version of the “Chinese Dream”. The increasing presence of Afrikans in China highlights the rise of Afrikans as viable global trade partners, although it does not go so far as to suggest that Sino-Afrikan trade relations are inching towards equality. Increasingly, Afrikans are taking charge of their destinies instead of waiting for their elites to broker deals on their behalf. It is definitely an exciting time to be a young, business-minded Afrikan in China.
Jilted Wilted POETRY
Vimbainashe Mangoma Art Education Teacher
What have I done wrong in this here life? Jilted, tilted, wilted before my time Dumped, dragged with shame in flames No call; no scream; just in waiting and equating… To laugh and cry in isolation Punishment of the highest order Imprisoned with no crime Guilty?… before the jury decides I’m innocent!! If family do not know you, what makes you think, tick, kick, be slick and nick! They are not going to care or bare, tare or dare He are not going to care for a rare mare Pack and go; Drift and stay Which is it?…Confused?…on the borderline you are!
President Robert Mugabe becomes AU chairperson. Activist and journalist Itai Dzamara abducted, by six men and disappeared was still missing at the time of going to press. 13 year old Cecil the lion who lived in the Hwange National Park was killed. He was a major attraction at the park and was being studied and tracked by the University of Oxford as part of a larger study. The Book Cafe closes its doors after battling to stay afloat. Vendors invade and flood Harare CBD, and it has proved to be difficult to take them out. Mass retrenchments after landmark interpretation of the law by the courts
Like a hungry stomach you churn not knowing when you will eat No bounce or ounce ready to pounce What is it you want? Why cannot a man be involved with you and evolve Not get too suspicious or malicious about intentions Just enjoy the date without relation, elation or correlation Analysing, tantalising everything… Regret? Lament? Elation builds with trust confined Hear the plea in desperation Fear not in serenity, there is a remedy… A gentle-man will be… In these tropics, a blessed soul to worship you Sure as the sun shall rise on bended knee he will need Groom of doom; Bloomed and pruned Stability with control; Patience with grace Waiting in worth There is a man who treats you well; Rings you if I can tell Makes you feel special …intentionally?…who knows? You do not have to run around like a mongoose Lose your cool like a goose feel trapped like a mousse ready for the kill Like the old fella! What a killa…? You learn to think! Quick! Why men cannot work you out… like a trout? See how nice guys always finish last? It is a must! There is no need to say much, When things are right, they are tight! Why bother the dead? When they are resting, nesting, questing for heaven’s door, Forever on that hurdle; To seize the moment you do not want to I guess I will never know!
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Contributors 01 darius mutamba 02 debbie peters 03 Xavier Robles de medina 04 Thandiwe Tshabalala 05 Kudzai magoche 06 Zororo mubaya 07 angelbert Wamambo 08 Rudo Chasi 09 Takudzwa nyazema 10 stephanie schlipper 11 Fidele nkezamuzima 12 senzeni mpofu 13 Wellins Chimusimbe 14 vimbainashe mangoma 15 shaun matsheza 16 Tatenda Kanengoni 17 Tinashe muchuri 18 Karolina Jeppson 19 ernest mackina 20 danayi Chapfika phoTo by @ZashCRaFTed 21 elphas Were 22 stephanie Kapfunde 23 doreen anyijukire 24 nyasha mupaso 25 Christine ndoro 26 Tafadzwa Tarumbwa 27 susan mutambasere 28 Ryan Chokureva 29 orpatience muringai 30 Raymond muwaniri 31 Chiko Chazunguza 32 michelina andreucci 33 Jimmy saruchera 34 anesu Chigariro 35 Tashinga dukunye 36 nancy mteki 37 gilmore Tee 38 Cwebile sibanda 39 desmond munemo 40 mavisTauzeni 41 Tinashe hwindingwi 42 Rutendo mutsamwira 43 Takunda gwatidzo 44 baynham goredema 45 Weston Takaedza 46 archibald mathibela 47 osborne macharia 48 Collins nyamadzawo 49 Tinodiwa makoni 50 euegene mapondera 51 david abbeyThompson 52 Rodrick longwe 53 butholezwe nyathi 54 padraic Kavanagh 55 elton mjanana 56 nigel Zhuwaki 57 Tamuka mtengwa 84
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Be a part of the Movement!
POVO depends on your contributions. The main thrust being to get people to document their opinions and share them on a wider platform. We are not looking for reportage, there are millions of sites reporting the news and issuing press releases. All Opinions, Features, and Interviews have to be unpublished, it must be published on POVO first and then can be published elsewhere. By Sharing your opinion and showcasing your work you become a part of the POVO movement. If you have an article that you may consider to be of relevance to the youth in Zimbabwe and Afrika then feel free to contribute contribute@povo. co.zw.
Zimbabwe @ 35 Issue 07
Graphic Designers in Zimbabwe DESIGN
TASHINGA DEKUNYE CREATIVE
he design industry in Zimbabwe, maybe the world over, is probably the single most under-rated profession historically. Zimbabwe’s multi-faceted economy revolves around the design industry. With all due respect to elements and components that hold up our economy, it’s a great misfortune that everything that needs to be done in any business related activity cannot be done without a designer. From this background however, the industry pays very little homage to the process of design. It is because of this primary reason resulting in a lack of appreciation that has passionately given birth to Graphic designers Zimbabwe (GDZ). Graphic designers Zimbabwe is setting up to be Zimbabwe’s largest designers’ body. We envision a national agenda of being able to certify and assist in publishing graphic and communication content for designers. Whether an established individual or a designer just starting off, the organization seeks to have a component that one can contribute and belong to. GDZ will turn its focus to the grass roots of our industry as a means of getting participation that revolves around the designer as opposed to the organization. 86
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The birth of an organization With all due respect to elements and components that holds up our economy, it’s a great misfortune that everything that needs to be done in any business related activity cannot be done without a Designer.
Our establishment will embody and commit to the advancement of professional standards, value and impact of design, starting locally but targeting influence internationally and actively regulating professional conduct. GDZ will be a member-based organization of design professionals, educators, administrators, students and affiliates in communications, marketing, media and designrelated fields, working together to inspire, support and learn from each other by contributing from each other’s individual growth. The Organization’s primary goal/focus will be to harness and foster a membership that is driven to advance the profession, grow professionally, mentor each other, show off their work, and enjoy the camaraderie. designers work as vendors or in a professional setup churning the wheels of industry and oiling efficiency for our country, turning what is seemingly void and empty into perceptions that the mind can readily grasp. A huge gap between the process and an appreciation for it still persists though. This misunderstanding has become the basis for manipulation, distorted expectations and to some extent taking advantage of the industry. As designers we have expectations of the
sweat we put into our work, in terms of monetary returns, long term investment and a general satisfaction that comes from a day’s work. Some designers barely realise this, hence Graphic designers Zimbabwe is meant to become an influence in bringing the much needed change for creatives across Zimbabwe. The Organization is setting up the administrative structures that will enable individuals within the industry to speak as one voice, action their concerns and make a difference that can be recognizable with the global community. These will enable us to effectively put in place a mission and goals that we can work towards in building a robust design industry that can produce work to rival regional and international standards. Our vision will include putting in place an industry that can complement content coming out of regional block on various media platform. Most creative content is produced primarily for three media platforms television, internet and print. As creatives in Zimbabwe, we should dominate this space and assist our individuals to reach their full potential by investing in them and the industry. A system founded primarily to foster change and cater for
the needs and growth of the industry allows the creatives themselves to rest assuredly in producing quality work. Those who engage creatives should do so with a full appreciation of the work they are doing and the process to get the work done within the Zimbabwean industry. The organization is putting in place a facility that will generate funds for the organization and its membership as well as be the central hub for assisting our members to grow, to be educated and to be highly efficient Zimbabwean professionals. In conclusion the organization embodies every person who qualifies to be creative, by virtue of passion and is driven by a genuine desire to constantly better the visual component of being a creative. It fuses the concept of appreciation and value addition into a single space for the benefit of engaging professionalism at its highest level. The organization will standardise the design process and bring order to the industry – however in the rephrased words of Saki Mafundikwa –
“You wanna break the rules? Well, you gotta LEARN the rules first”. Learn to draw like your life depends on it and in his Yale adopted concept “less is more.”, We find our passion to educate Zimbabwe about our industry so they can appreciate it more.
GRAPHICDESIGNERS GRAPHICDESIGNERS GRAPHICDESIGNERS ®
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The 7th Issue of the POVO Journal of alternative content. Collection of articles and artist showcases from Afrikan beyond. With contributors...
Published on Oct 3, 2015
The 7th Issue of the POVO Journal of alternative content. Collection of articles and artist showcases from Afrikan beyond. With contributors...