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COVER STORY: Save money: don’t bother with a specialist? Doh! The Federation of Traditional Metal Roofing Contractors explains why it’s a nobrainer – Page 11
NEWS 5 HLF to invest £17m; The night installer of church roofs; Metal roofers ‘club’ together for golf day 6 Church restoration is a ‘duty of care’ 7 Restoration work proceeds on course; Nigel takes over 8 Master craftsmen all
WELSH HERITAGE 8 Collaboration will see historic pump restored 9 Learning old skills anew LEAD CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION 13 When it comes to lead a specialist is a must
STONE 17 The wait begins to find out the Stone Award winners; SFGB and Historic Scotland take to the floor 18 Masons design restoration work at medieval masterpiece 21 Thomas carves out an early advantage; A helping hand across the sea 22 Gently does it – for over 20 years TRAINING 23 Funding will boost heritage skills
ARCHAEOLOGY 25 Queen’s honour for Bournemouth archaeologist
FOCUS ON LIME IN TRADITIONAL BUILDING 27 Weather and water cause problems when building with lime 31 Let your building breathe: here’s how 34 SPAB spreads the word to owners and contractors alike
CLOCKS AND ORGANS 38 When the church clock stops, the whole town notices it 39 Organ refurbishment gets £950,000 grant; Turret Clock Group ASBESTOS 40 Academy promotes SAFE working and an awareness of asbestos 41 Time for change: MDHS100 replaces HSG264 INSTITUTE OF HISTORIC BUILDING CONSERVATION 43 Queen’s Speech decentralisation measures welcomed; Student awards scheme goes online 44 Historypin welcomed by IHBC boss STIRLING CASTLE 45 Specialist contracts awarded for Stirling
FUNERALS AND BURIALS 46 Funeral trade body ensures sensitivity ICON 48 Iconic conservation BRICKS AND MORTAR 48 Bricks are green RISK MANAGEMENT 49 Protecting Britain’s heritage from unforseen threats CAST IRON 51 Recreating a great ironfounder’s work EXHUMATION 52 Removal of remains requires sensitivity 53 Take care when disturbing the dead CHURCHES IN SCOTLAND 54 New churches reflect changing times 55 Prayers are answered with new hall; New churches reflect changing times UK CAST STONE ASSOCIATION 57 Cast in stone 58 Victorian hospitals get new lease of life; cast stone helps preserve their looks
Chris Thornley Advertising Manager Tel: 0161 850 1674 Mob: 07900 201480 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org All other enquiries: Tel: 0161 850 1680 Fax: 0161 834 0077 3rd Floor, Blenheim Court, Carrs Road, Cheadle, Cheshire SK8 2LA Copyright Ecclesiastical & Heritage World. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or transmitted in any form without prior permission of Ecclesiastical & Heritage World. Views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the publisher. 1DFF
High-definition images for demanding clients n
With over 25 years extensive photographic experience and always aiming to provide a quality, professional service, Peter
Marsh is commissioned by architectural, design, business and industrial clients â€“ anywhere! A specialism of Peterâ€™s is the photography of historic buildings and heritage conservation/repair programmes, providing high-quality archival images to English Heritage standards. His foremost heritage, ecclesiastical client is (and has been for the past 11 years) the unique, internationally important Salisbury Cathedral and its on-going major repair programme. He has also been commissioned to contribute to other nationally important projects. q
On 8 June the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) announced it will be investing £17m in 54 projects under its Skills for the Future programme. Launched last July, Skills for the Future supports organisations across the UK to create new training places within the sector. Grants range from £100,000 to £1m for a number of traineeships over a period of up to five years, with an emphasis on high-quality work-based training. The £17m announced will deliver 808 placements and adds-up to 780 years worth of paid training opportunities for people seeking a career in heritage. The funding will not only support traditional conservation training, but also a wide variety of more contemporary skills, such as managing volunteers and using social media to engage new audiences with heritage. Newly appointed Heritage Minister John Penrose, who attended the launch at the British Museum, said: “This investment is a great way of giving people access to practical on-the-job training, at a time when we need to do all we can to give people a helping hand to follow their careers. Making sure we have a skilled workforce for the future will also help to protect the very best heritage from our past.” Dame Jenny Abramsky, chair of the HLF, said: “When the recession kicked-in last year we thought very hard about how the Heritage Lottery Fund could make a difference to people’s lives at a time of real need. The answer was an innovative and ambitious programme focusing on equipping people with practical skills to help them secure future employment. We have been astounded by the response, which clearly shows a great hunger for skills training within our sector.” q
Metal roofers ‘club’ together for golf day n
On 12 August the Lead Contractors Association and the Federation of Traditional Metal Roofing Contractors are joining forces for the first time at a golf day for their members and associates, guests and friends. What promises to be a very special event will be held at the Championship Forest of Arden golf course at Meriden, Warwickshire. It will be in the form of a friendly match between the two organisations, represented by as many teams of two players as can be mustered. The teams will be captained by Chris Salmon for the LCA and Nigel Miles for the FTMRC. Pairs from each organisation will be matched against each other in a combined Stableford matchplay event (ie the best combined score wins the hole). There will be individual and team prizes announced during a private presentation dinner at the Forest of Arden Hotel and it is hoped the day will provide lots of sponsorship opportunities for those who perhaps may not be able to provide players, but nevertheless wish to support the day – or who may even do both! Although there has never been a combined event before, previous golf days organised by the LCA have been designed to raise money for charity, and any surplus funds which have accumulated by the end of the event will be donated to a charity of the winning captain’s choice. q
church roofs n
Lead from the roofs of churches is proving a key target for thieves – a recent example being Stoke Minster Church, where more than £13,000 worth of lead was stolen. Now, wireless security specialists Tag Guard have a solution in a purpose-designed security system developed specifically to combat the lead crime wave. The system, called Lead Protect, comprises a detection cable which is secured to leaded areas with a weather resistant, externally rated adhesive. Each zone, typically 50-100m in length, terminates in a small wireless transmitter that sends its signals to a base station installed inside the church or any other building to be protected. Should any part of the cable be moved or tampered with, which would occur if a thief attempted to remove the lead, it would activate the TagAlarm system inside the building. Tag Guard’s own central monitoring station, which is manned 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, monitors all alarm activity within seconds. There an operator can see from the computer screen the location of the building and even the exact area on the roof which is being attacked. On receipt of the alarm the action usually taken by Tag Guard is to notify a private security firm to investigate. If a crime is verified the police may be asked to respond and make the arrest, which has happened several times recently. The system can only be activated when the detection cable is physically disturbed and therefore will not false alarm. The entire system is wireless based so it does not need a telephone line or any other hard-wired external communication. This also makes it relatively easy and quick to install. Tag Guard says each system is unique to the building so they will carry out a survey and then produce a specification with quotation. Long-term contracts, including full maintenance and support for the system, are normal, providing the most effective and affordable means of combating this crime wave. For more information visit www.tag-guard.com. q
HLF to invest £17m The night installer of
Church restoration is a ‘duty of care’ n
Norman and Underwood is currently undertaking a programme of refurbishment and conservation work on the Church of St Editha in Tamworth, led by architects Brownhill, Hayward, Brown. Darrell Warren, director of roofing and stained glass at Norman & Underwood feels that they are ideally placed to ensure that St Editha’s can weather another seven hundred years.
“St Editha’s was built in the late 14th and early 15th centuries,” he said, “and we will be sand casting the lead for the nave roof in much the same way as the original artisans would have done when the building was new.” The timbers and masonry of the nave roof will also be restored, returning the roof to its former glory. In addition to their roofing experts, Norman and Underwood’s glazing specialists will also
be restoring the clerestory windows which date from the 1870s. Keith Learoyd, head of conservation at Norman and Underwood said: “Projects like St Editha’s are always satisfying; when a building has held an important place in a community for so long it becomes more than the sum of its parts and the conservation of such buildings is something of a ‘duty of care’ rather than just a building job.” q
Thefts lead to increase in stainless steel n
Formed in 1996, Leicestershire-based JTC Roofing Contractors have had a great deal of success in the specialist metal roofing field in subsequent years. Both very old and new buildings have been worked on by the company, after careful consideration. Heritage work has included Westminster Abbey, Durham
and Hereford Cathedrals, Hanbury Hall, Howden Minster, Warwick Castle and Arundel Castle, to name just some of the many contracts carried out. The materials used generally on ancient buildings have been traditionally sand-cast, milled and machine-cast lead. On newer designs those materials have been used, plus zinc, copper and stainless steel. All
those materials may also be used for facades. Over the past three years many thefts have occurred on ancient buildings and have required the substituting of the lead with terne coated stainless steel, which – from a distance after weathering – gives the appearance of lead if laid with traditional rounded batten rolls. q
Work on Bramshill Mansion, a Grade One-listed building and Grade Two*-listed landscape which is currently The National College of Police Leadership, is due to be completed in June. The project began in 2008 when Ellis & Co of Shepton Mallet, Somerset, supplied a team of masons/conservators to work both on site and in their banker shop to conserve and where necessary replace masonry and brickwork, and carpenters, tilers and leadworkers to work on the building’s roofs. The works initially comprised rebuilding a number of chimney stacks which were liable to collapse. Further works have included conservation/ replacement of stone windows for the National Police Library, which is housed in the Long Gallery, nearby brickwork and re-stabilisation of ‘The Pepper Pot’ one of two stone ‘follies’. A mixture of stone has been used, including Hartham Park, Clipsham and Portland. All masonry replacements have been closely monitored by English Heritage, which
Nigel takes over n
The Lead Sheet Association (LSA) has appointed Nigel Johnston, its former training manager, as general manager, responsible for all aspects of the association’s activities. The LSA is the UK’s foremost independent authority for the use and application of lead sheet in the construction industry and its technical advice service and application manuals are renowned
Restoration work proceeds on course has designated the house and estate of special historic interest. In the 14th century Bramshill was the home of Thomas Foxley, who rebuilt Windsor Castle. Foxley appears to have used masons from Windsor to erect a fortified manor house at Bramshill in 1327. Today the estate is owned and used by the National Policing Improvement Agency . The NPIA supports the police service by providing expertise in areas such as serious crime analysis, leadership training, operational support and in the development of new policing technologies and skills. q
worldwide. Mr Johnston was responsible for setting up the LSA’s new purpose-built training centre, which opened in 2008 at East Peckham in Kent, and has worked for the association for more than 14 years. “We see Nigel’s appointment as the next stage of the LSA’s development,” said LSA Chairman Joss Campbell. “He takes over at a critical time for the industry and we are confident he will facilitate the promotion of the use of lead in the construction industry as the recovery gathers pace.” q
Master craftsmen all
The Guild of Master Craftsmen is the UK’s leading trade association with members in many different trades, crafts and professions. Most members – but by no means all – are involved in traditional craft occupations often associated with the building trade. Some are large companies, many of them household names such as Bentley Motors Ltd, Harrods Ltd and the Ritz Hotel, whilst others are sole traders. Despite these differences, there are some things that all Guild members have in common. They have acknowledged a commitment to work with skill and integrity and they have all received praise and recognition from their customers. Membership of The Guild is by no means automatic. Applicants are required to show that they have earned the right to be called ‘master craftsmen’ – through the quality of their work, their commitment to customer care, and the level of service they provide. And once accepted into membership they are required to maintain the aims and objectives of The Guild. Should they fail to do so they will be expelled from membership. Although not a consumer organisation, The Guild resolves to pursue the interests of the consumer through careful membership selection and its proven procedure for conciliation and arbitration. q
Collaboration will see historic pump restored n
The historic Melingriffith Water Pump in Whitchurch, near Cardiff, is set to be restored to former glory, having been carefully dismantled so that its timber and metalwork can be refurbished. Following a period of decline, Cardiff Council and Cadw are jointly funding the restoration of the nationally protected, scheduled ancient monument, which has the support of local community group Friends of Melingriffith Water Pump. Much of the restoration work is to take place in workshops, but once complete the refurbished pump will be returned and reassembled on its former site, scheduled for this summer. The 200-year-old pump stands as a reminder of the former Glamorganshire Canal and Melingriffith Tin Plate Works, one of the earliest and most important works of its kind. For 135 years it was this pump that ensured there was a continuous water supply, principally for the canal. But when the canal closed in 1942 it was no longer needed and the pump became redundant and has remained idle ever since.
Learning old skills anew n
Some of the best-known monuments in Wales threw open their doors to a range of learning festivals as part of Adult Learners’ Week in May. The sites included Denbigh Castle, Caernarfon Castle, Criccieth Castle and Plas Mawr in north Wales, and Tintern Abbey, Caerwent Roman Town, Caerphilly Castle, Laugharne Castle and St David’s Bishops Palace in south Wales. The Learning Festivals are part of Cadw’s historic environment service’s on-going commitment to lifelong learning. At Caerphilly Castle (pictured) there was a chance to meet the Marcher Stuarts and learn what life was like in the 17th century. Visitors were able to try their hand at archery, learn about medicinal matters, weaponry, armour and domestic life. A medieval monk will also be on hand to take eager visitors on a tour of Tintern Abbey. The abbey has inspired artists and poets for centuries, so there were watercolour classes in the abbey grounds. In north Wales Sir Robert Wynn, the master of Plas Mawr in Conway, talked about life in
Restored between 1974 and 1989 by Oxford House (RISCA) Industrial Archaeology Society and the Inland Waterways Association, the pump remains a striking and constant reminder of the area’s industrial past; but once again the pump is in need of attention. Cllr Nigel Howells, executive member for sport, leisure and culture, said: “This pump is not only a landmark for the area but an important symbol and reminder of the region's industrial past. I am delighted that we are able to provide this opportunity to restore the pump. It is hoped the pump can be restored to working condition and I am greatly looking forward to the official unveiling later this year.” Welsh Assembly Government Minister for Heritage, Alun Ffred Jones, said: “I am delighted that the Assembly Government, through our historic environment service Cadw, is able to support this restoration. Our industrial legacy is a key component of the rich and diverse heritage of Wales and it is vitally important that it should be protected, preserved and promoted for the benefit of present and future generations. I am pleased that this collaboration with the city and Council of Cardiff will be giving people the opportunity to see the pump as it was and to provide information about its purpose and role in the tin plate works and the area as a whole.” q
The historic Melingriffith Water Pump in Whitchurch
the Elizabethan age and why he built Plas Mawr. At Caernarfon Castle there was a chance to learn medieval building skills, using conventional techniques and tools. Visitors could have a go at shaving an oak peg or carving a moulding! The medieval ‘architect’ of the castle, Master James of St George, was on hand to explain how he went about building the castle. Adult Learners’ Week was co-ordinated by NIACE Dysgu Cymru and core funded by the Welsh Assembly Government and the European Social Fund. q
Save money: don’t bother with a specialist? Doh! n
The parlous state of the construction industry over the past year or so has proved both a boon and a curse for property owners and developers – particularly when it comes to traditional metal roofing. Like many in construction, general roofing contractors have been under increasing pressure as their regular sources of work dry up in the face of economic uncertainty and a general lack of investment in property development. As a result, they have been looking to move into any area that offers the chance of work. Traditional metal roof design using aluminium, copper, steel and zinc is one such area. For some reason it has a perceived low barrier of entry; you know the sort of thing: “I’ve been on a threeday course, so I’m an expert.” That is despite the extensive technical knowledge and experience which is actually required to ensure the long-term performance offered by the product manufacturers and which is usually provided by a specialist contractor. An increasing number of contractors chasing a declining pool of work have therefore been vulnerable to demands that they cut their prices in order to win competitive tenders, so seemingly the client could benefit in getting their metal roof done at a much lower cost than had been anticipated. Such is the ‘boon’ for the client; but what about the ‘curse’? Well, that comes when they find out at what price the ‘saving’ has been achieved. From any sensible business perspective there is a margin over the basic material cost that every contractor and sub-contractor must achieve in order to pay for labour and overheads. The margin obviously varies with the size of the business and the resulting overheads it carries. No business can continue for any lengthy period of time without covering essential costs. If those costs cannot be met by margins which have been restricted by price-cutting competition, then none of the alternatives
which are then open to the sub-contractor bode well for the client. The first option is, naturally, for the contractor to reduce their own costs; however, for many during this protracted period of economic downturn and recession, overheads have already been pared to an absolute minimum. The only thing that may be left is to downgrade the quality of the labour force to use cheaper, less experienced operatives on the project to get the job done. ‘Bad news one’ for the client is, therefore, if the quality of the on-site supervision is insufficient to compensate for the shortcomings of the installers. The second option, and ‘bad news two’ for the client is for the contractor to cut corners in carrying out the installation and save money by not completing the work as it should be – and as required by the product manufacturers to ensure the quality of long-term performance of their roofing metal. The finished roof may look good, but what trouble lies beneath? The third option and most definitely ‘bad news three’ for the client is that, once the job has started, the sub contractor produces an on-going list of additional works required that were not covered in the tender. In the end the final account looks nothing like the original tender price. The best way to avoid such ‘bad news’ pitfalls is to use an approved specialist. Members of the Federation of Traditional Metal Roofing Contractors (FTMRC) have all had the quality standard of their work checked by an experienced member of the governing council by way of an on-site vet, carried out at roof top level. On-site vetting is not just a barrier of entry to be cleared by any prospective members looking to join the FTMRC: it is an on-going programme of internal policing to ensure standards are maintained by each member. That means an experienced work force with an appropriate level of on-site supervision to make sure the installation is correctly carried out, not only to the manufacturer’s instructions, but
also in accordance with the federation’s own Guide to Good Practice. It also means corners cannot be cut as the work may be independently checked through the FTMRC vetting programme and any non-conforming details identified must be corrected or the installer’s FTMRC membership is forfeit. That, in turn, means fewer ‘surprises’ for the client once the job has started, as the costs for doing the job properly are built in from the outset – so cheapest is very rarely best. A further benefit is that the FTMRC is supported by the major European metal manufacturers, who recognise the value of using an installation workforce in the UK that is accountable to a central organising body. Some have gone further, such as VM Zinc, which has already worked closely with the FTMRC in delivering a programme of zinc training courses for developing the design knowledge and installation skills of its members. The FTMRC is working with other metal manufacturing associates such as Luvata, KME and Rheinzink, with a view to extending the range of courses available in a formal metal roofing training and development programme. In fact, through its associate membership, the FTMRC provide a number of solutions for the client facing a metal roofing project. All of its metal manufacturing associates supply material under a performance warranty, produced to a European standard and backed up by extensive technical support and advice for the client, architect and contractor. Non metal-manufacturing associates, such as Advanced Cladding and Pittsburgh Corning (Foamglas), supply the leading insulation and composite support panels used in metal roofing, and specialist associates such as Latchways and Gable Fall Safe provide on-site solutions for fall protection. Linking them all with FTMRC contractor members on site are the essential stockist and distribution services provided by Associated
Lead Mills, Metra Non Ferrous Metals and Norkem. In addition, Associated Lead Mills have run a number of extensive publicity campaigns. This commitment of promotional support for the sector has served to raise the profile of the FTMRC and increase awareness of the quality ethic of its membership. So, with the FTMRC providing a specialist organisation of traditional metal roofing contractors, vetted and approved for their quality of workmanship, working with materials made to a European standard and backed by so much technical and ancillary support and on-site service through its associate membership, why should anyone use a non specialist? Please don’t say “...to save money”! For further information on FTMRC members and associates, contact the secretary on 01342 301627; email email@example.com. q
Lead Contractors Association
When it comes to lead a specialist is a must n
Lead sheet is a soft, malleable metal that can be easily cut, bent and shaped by hand tools to fit any awkward roofing or cladding detail and provide an unrivalled long-term, maintenance-free weatherproofing performance. In fact, that’s the problem with lead sheet: it appears to be so easy to use many people wonder why they need to bother with a specialist. After all, everyone knows about lead sheet and its historical dominance in our built heritage, protecting many of our most significant buildings. We know that it lasts for more than 100 years and when it is finally replaced, the old lead sheet can be melted down and 100% recycled into new sheet. But because of the unique soft and malleable properties of lead sheet, the skills and knowledge of a specialist are essential so that the product is used – not abused – to ensure that the client gets the absolute optimum performance from their investment.
But how does the architect or their client know that the design and installation are correct? The answer is simply to use a specialist – an LCA contractor who is regularly checked and policed by a recognised body to ensure quality standards are maintained. LCA members must work in accordance with the current Code of Practice (BS6915) and the recommendations of the Lead Sheet Association, detailed and illustrated in The Lead Sheet Manual, and will be happy to work with the architect and main contractor regarding the roof detailing. They are vetted on a regular basis through an annual on-site inspection programme, involving a member of the LCA council visiting three projects, going onto the roof to inspect the design and workmanship at close quarters and lifting the sheet where necessary to check the sizing and fixing detail that is essential for long-term performance. Any faults identified during this programme must
St Paul’s caps it! n
What started as a family business in 1968 is now known throughout the country as one of the premier companies specialising in lead and traditional pitched roofing works. JH&RR Mundy Roofing Ltd – known colloquially as Mundy Roofing, is part of the Mundy Group. As such it has the versatility to execute contracts ranging from minor ornamental leadwork repairs to £1m-plus major contracts. One such contract undertaken was Grey’s Court in Henley-onThames, a National Heritage Flagship Property. It involved the reroofing of the entire structure using hand-made clay peg tiles, including all new lead and zincwork on the flat roof areas and all lead flashings. The most prestigious ecclesiastical project was on St Paul’s Cathedral. It involved new sand-cast lead weathering on the clock tower and bell tower roofs, along with new leadwork to the cornice drip edges. Mundy Roofing also undertook the restoration of the roof of St Pancras Chambers (pictured). The project included using slate, lead, zinc and copper. In situ lead gargoyles and lions were constructed for the clock-tower, as well as ornamental lead coverings to the gutters and dormer cheeks. q
Lead Contractors Association
be corrected by the LCA member within a set deadline and at their own expense, in order to retain their membership. The LCA also requires its membership to guarantee their work through an independent 25 year Guarantee Scheme, financed by a ring-fenced trust fund, underwritten through Lloyds of London. With such rigorous policing of quality standards, why would anyone not use a member of the LCA for any project that involves a significant amount of lead sheet in its design? Most commonly, the answer is the bottom line argument of price. Pre-tender, an LCA member is often used to check design details and often gives free technical advice on the drawings provided. They will also query any detail that does not comply with recommended practice. Many LCA members, however, then subsequently lose out at the tender stage, finding themselves undercut by a general roofing contractor who claims they can carry out the same work cheaper. Unfortunately, it is all too often the case that a cheaper price means corners are cut, the design may be changed and the installation is not carried out as it should be; or the contractor, having secured the work, promptly introduces a number of items not covered in the price and requires a series of “extras” to be approved. Worst of all, the job when completed may look perfect and, being lead sheet, may well perform adequately for several years before the first signs of any problem start to materialise, by which time it is far too late for any recourse against the installing contractor and leaving the client with a leaking roof. So why then, aren’t all contractors that work in lead sheet part of the Lead Contractors Association? Perhaps a few myths need to be exploded: • It’s a closed shop – a club we can’t get into Any contracting firm can apply to join the LCA, whether sole trader, partnership or limited company. Everyone has to put forward three projects for inspection in which they have obtained and installed the lead sheet in accordance with BS6915 and the recommendations of the Lead Sheet Association, as evidenced by the Lead Sheet Manual. Those projects will be inspected by a member of the LCA council and, provided each project complies, the contractor will be recommended for membership to the LCA. So perhaps the more accurate complaint is: “It’s a closed shop based on technical standards that we’re not good enough to get into.” • Membership is too expensive Members pay an annual subscription (determined by the size of contracts they are able to undertake) which can be as little as £275, plus £300 to have an entry on the LCA website and appear in a superb full-colour annual directory which is circulated free to 16,000 architects, specifiers and surveyors. The only other cost is an annual contribution to the guarantee scheme trust fund, which is again based upon the size of the contractor and can be as little as £150. • You don’t need to be a member to get work This isn’t really a myth, because there are some contractors that have regular work through the same main contractor or client base and have no aspiration to improve their knowledge and standard of workmanship and never have their work inspected by an expert. Such contractors will state they work in accordance with current recommended practice; but who is to verify such a statement?
• There’s no point using an LCA member because I have an unusual roof that won’t conform to normal standards Because of the fantastic longevity of lead sheet there are literally thousands of lead roofs in the UK that are so old that the detailing was designed long before any recommended Code of Practice was drafted. This is precisely when an LCA member should be used. If you use an LCA member you may even find your property entered for the Murdoch Award, the industry’s ultimate accolade in leadwork excellence. Sponsored by Associated Lead Mills in support of the LCA’s quality standards ethic, the Murdoch Award has been presented annually since 1996 to the LCA member that has, in the opinion of an expert panel of judges, demonstrated the best design and installation workmanship in lead – effectively the very best of the best. In 2006 Associated Lead Mills introduced the Murdoch Sponsor’s Award to enable the judging panel to also recognise the smaller project (up to five tonnes) which, while perhaps not containing the same wide variety and complexity of detailing as some of the larger entries, had nevertheless been completed to an exceptional standard. For further details of the Lead Contractors Association contact the secretary on 01342 317888; email firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.lca.gb.com. q
Entries for this year’s Natural Stone Awards, organised by Stone Federation Great Britain, have now closed and are in the process of being judged. The awards are the “Oscars” of the natural stone industry and are divided into five categories: new build, repair and restoration, interiors, landscaping and craftsmanship. The entries are being judged by a panel of architects, supported by a stonemasonry expert. A winner in the repair and restoration category last year was the Garrison House in Millport (pictured). “They will be looking for excellence in the design and execution of the stonework, sympathy of scale to any surrounding buildings or features and the relationship
to existing street patterns,” explained the federation’s chief executive Jane Buxey. “The judges will also look for an understanding of the requirements of stone detailing and weathering to give a clean and minimum maintenance building or landscape development. They will be seeking innovative use of stone and there will be a big emphasis on sustainability, which entrants are invited to highlight.” The awards are open to all, with the main criteria being that the project – which can be any size – must be in the United Kingdom and construction work must have been completed within the three-year period ending 2 April this year. The awards provide winners with an unrivalled opportunity for promotional activity and the industry as a whole the
chance to demonstrate to a wide audience why stone continues to be the preferred choice of some of the world’s most discerning architects and designers. The award categories demonstrate just how versatile a product nature has produced in stone, with its huge range of colours, textures, finishes, sizes and uses. And they show that the skills of the mason are as finely honed today as ever they were, complemented by sophisticated computer-controlled machinery to make the modern stone industry capable of meeting the exacting requirements of the modern construction industry and the innovative designs of the most imaginative architects of our time. Winners will be announced at a ceremony in London in November. q
SFGB and Historic Scotland take to the floor n
A course on the design and installation of natural stone flooring is being run by Stone Federation Great Britain in London on 30 June. It will cover the latest guidance and advice on all aspects of stone selection, design, installation and maintenance. It will also set out details of the latest British and European codes and standards, the requirements of the building regulations and of the health, safety and welfare regulations. Speakers will form a technical panel at the end of the presentations in order to answer questions. The event is for federation members only and takes place at the Strand Palace Hotel. The fee of £150 plus vat includes a copy of the federation’s Code of Practice for the Design and Installation of Internal Flooring. For further information contact Stone Federation Great Britain on 01303 856123; email email@example.com; or visit www.stonefed.org.uk. Meanwhile, stone floors are the subject of a new Inform booklet from Historic Scotland. The booklets carry information for traditional building owners and include advice on cleaning, repairing and on-going maintenance. According to the booklet: “Stone floors have been an important feature in traditional Scottish buildings for centuries and contribute much to the feel of a period building. They are extremely hard wearing and durable, and require little maintenance.” q
The wait begins to find out the Stone Award winners
Masons design restoration work at medieval masterpiece
Successful restoration projects often require a partnership approach between the architect and the craftsmen. Oldham-based Maysand’s recent work on the Grade Onelisted St Mary’s Church in Nantwich is lasting memorial to that alliance. Tragically, the church architect Anthony Blacklay died during the course of the project, but even when he was seriously ill he ensured the job was handed over safely. His wishes were carried out and the result is a lasting tribute to all involved. St Mary’s is widely acknowledged to be one of the finest medieval churches in England. It’s certainly one of the great architectural treasures of Cheshire, attracting some 50,000 visitors a year. The church is cruciform in shape with a large octagonal tower built in red sandstone. It boasts a rare 14th-century stone pulpit and chancel with “lierne” vaulting, intricately carved stone crocketed gables and highly decorative buttresses and pinnacles. The nine-month project included external façade work to the west elevation – including the replacement of crocketed pinnacles – and south clerestory. But what made the job unique was the fact that the philosophy of how the stone would be repaired was worked out on the scaffold. “All the masonry work had to match the existing mottled Hollington sandstone and pointing was made with a compatible lime mortar mix, as a result of a mortar analysis test,” said Mick Fowles, Maysand’s masonry surveyor. “Repointing was also completed using hand-held non-mechanical masonry tools. This was a very prestigious and interesting project for Maysand to add to their portfolio.” Maysand also completed cleaning of the façade using low-tomedium pressured water to remove superficial dirt, taking extra care not to damage the soft carvings, and fit matching stainless steel. The other element of the project involved internal work. That included fitting disabled access to the south porch and electrically operated glass doors, as well as disabled lift access and restoration to the south porch’s historic geometric clay floor tiles. Based in Royton in Oldham, Maysand has worked on a wide range of restoration, regeneration and preservation projects, like Chester City Walls, Manchester City Art Gallery, Dunham Massey, the Port of Liverpool Building and Chethams School of Music. R
St Mary’s Church in Nantwich
Thomas Whitehead clearly has an aptitude for stonemasonry. Just one month after starting his apprenticeship with Albion Stone Plc at Portland he has won this year’s UK Masonry Skills Challenge, organised by Stone Federation Great Britain. Thomas represented Weymouth College and with team-mate Jamie Harris finishing as runner up, Weymouth repeated last year’s success in providing the top two competitors. Thomas wins a cheque for £300, with cheques for £200 and £100 going to the runner-up and third placed competitors respectively. The competition is open to teams of three apprentices from UK stonemasonry colleges and 26 apprentices from nine colleges in England, Scotland and Wales took part in this year’s competition. Levi Bavester from Moulton College was third and helped Moulton – which hosted this year’s event – win the team award. They will be presented with the Peter Ellis Shield and each team member receives a trophy and cheque for £50. Bristol-born Thomas studied for an arts foundation diploma at Filton College and it was there that a lecturer noted his skill in carving and suggested stonemasonry as a career. “I was very nervous for about a week before the competition but once it got started I loved it,” said Thomas. “I managed to finish the project with about fifty minutes to spare, so spent the time just tidying it up. I have only just started the apprenticeship so there’s plenty of time to make my mind up about the future.” Competitors had to complete a specific project in an agreed time. They were given a drawing, a piece of Portland Stone donated by Corinthian South Wales Ltd and the materials necessary for making moulds and templates. The stone then had to be worked with a traditional mallet and chisel and no mechanical tools were allowed. Their work was judged by Andy Maclean, a former apprentice
A helping hand across the sea
himself who formed his own business, Stewart Design (UK), in 1995, and by Sean Collins, who has been managing director of Boden and Ward Stonemasons for the past 10 years and is also a mason. Stone Federation GB chief executive Jane Buxey UK Masonry Skills Challenge commented: “This competition winner Thomas Whitehead demonstrates the wealth of talent that exists among stonemasonry apprentices and it is reassuring to see this traditional craft still being taught to such a high standard in UK colleges. “It is important that we continue to train the natural stone craftsmen of the future and the high standard of this competition demonstrates that we have some very talented individuals entering the industry.” The top eight individual competitors qualified to enter Britain’s biggest skills competition, Skillbuild, which takes place at Coleg Menai in Wales in September. q
Historic Scotland stonemasons travelled to the United States recently to help train young people in Harlem, New York. Kenny McCaffrey from Cupar and Malcolm Hutcheon from Insch worked with young people learning masonry and preservation skills through the Abyssinian Development Corporation (ADC). One of the key aims of ADC is to achieve revitalisation of the community through focussing on the physical infrastructure. To help achieve this, ADC has implemented YOUTHBUILD, a nationally recognised workforce development initiative providing training for ‘at risk’ youth. As part of the trip, which was organised by Historic Scotland, workshops were held at the Cathedral of St John the Divine, where the Scottish team worked with Chris Pellitteri, the cathedral’s stone carver in residence, to share advice and expertise on stonemasonry with local young people. Malcolm Hutcheon said: “We did two skills workshops in Harlem which were really well attended, and it was fantastic to be able to work with the guys to help them learn more about traditional building crafts. “The programme is about helping to give young people more confidence and it was great to see that they really appreciated what we were teaching them and I hope that it inspires them moving forward.” q
Thomas carves out an early advantage
Gently does it – for over 20 years n
A list of buildings cleaned using Stonehealth’s TORC and DOFF systems reads almost like a Pevsner Guide.
The many notable buildings include cathedrals (Canterbury, Salisbury,
have suffered fire damage Stonehealth has recently restructured, with Sue Bilney – who was previously office administrator – promoted to general manager with
Exeter, Peterborough, Lincoln, Hereford, Chester and others), Westminster
overall responsibility for the company’s offices and workshop in Dursley,
Abbey, Harrods Store, various Oxford and Cambridge colleges, the Albert
Gloucestershire. Newly joined is Phil Ellis, who has taken up the role
Memorial, Royal Palaces, St Pancras Railway Station, The Church of St
of technical executive with special responsibility for new product
Martin in the Fields, Trafalgar Square, the French Embassy, Tower of
London and many other historically important, sensitive buildings not only
Stonehealth were for many years known for their innovative ideas
in the UK and Ireland but increasingly overseas, especially in the USA and
and developments, but in latter years lost that impetus. The new
Canada. A notable recent project for TORC in America was the cleaning of
structure is proving to be most encouraging as many innovative ideas
one of the world’s largest Masonic temples in Philadelphia.
and developments are now in place. One such development is a flexible
Stonehealth introduced the original swirling vortex cleaning system
modular nebulous spray system that will be known as ‘Nebspray’ and
which was originally known as Jos into the UK market over 20 years ago.
which will give the market an additional cleaning option. There are other
The TORC system is not a typical abrasive cleaning system. It can be
exciting ideas in the pipe-line that will be launched in due course.
sensitively controlled to meet the most exacting conservation demands in
In addition to these mechanical systems there are a number of chemical
removing carbon sulphation, limescale and other unwanted matter while
products that are user and environmentally friendly. Stonehealth’s
retaining the patina in keeping with the historic heritage of buildings.
philosophy is first to provide mechanical non-chemical methods; if it is
The DOFF system, which uses superheated water at 150oC in a highlycontrollable sensitive manner, can remove many paints and biological growth without the need to use chemicals. Re-growth of biological
necessary to go along a chemical route they have to be non-hazardous to both man and the environment. Stonehealth have developed a reputation for assisting both their
matter seems to take longer after being cleaned with DOFF as opposed to
contractor customers and specifiers and while they do not carry out the
actual cleaning they are frequently commissioned to carry out feasibility
Another product, known as Clean-film – which is a latex based dry method of internal cleaning – can be carried out while the building is still in use and has been particularly useful for cleaning buildings that
studies and assist in the preparation of specifications. When a new system is sold Stonehealth carries out an induction programme resulting in, if standards are met, that customer/operator being included on the Stonehealth Approved List. That list has gone some way to improving standards of cleaning buildings. Specifiers increasingly want contractors and particularly their operatives to be checked out before a contract is awarded. They want evidence of training and competence in operator abilities. To assist, Stonehealth are reviewing the procedures and maintenance of their Approved List. A sample of responsible contractors have indicated their approval and have encouraged Stonehealth to tighten up the list further, including a regular review of each operative’s competence. Stonehealth do not derive any financial benefit from the maintenance of the Approved List, neither do they receive or desire any royalty or commission from contractors whose work has been referred, as the company wish to maintain an impartial position. All the company ask is that contractors and operators have their systems maintained by the company and that they use Stonehealth-approved materials. q
The National Heritage Training Group (NHTG) has been awarded the largest single amount of funding of the 54 successful projects in the £17m Heritage Lottery Fund Skills for the Future programme, at £932,000. The money will provide high-quality, work-based training and skills development opportunities in England to equip people for a career in the built heritage sector or for those already working in the sector to expand and improve their knowledge and skills sets. It will be achieved by the NHTG working with English Heritage, The National Trust, ConstructionSkills and regional partners in England. The project will offer 60 variable-length traditional building craft skills placements, which will greatly enhance the capacity of
the built heritage sector to deliver sustainable training and share good practice through a range of training: taster courses, heritage specialist apprenticeship programmes and mentoring, leading to recognised heritage skills qualifications. Training and site-based work experience will be available for people from new entrants and career changers to those looking to up-skill from mainstream construction, covering beginners right up to the pinnacle of master crafts status. Mike Moody, chairman of the National Heritage Training Group, said: “As an employer who has long invested in training and skills development, I know how important this funding is – particularly in the current economic climate – to help train and qualify a wider pool of people to work in this important sector. I am delighted that
the NHTG has secured this funding and this allows us to deliver an even more ambitious programme of training opportunities to benefit individual craftspeople, employers and the whole built heritage sector by having a suitably skilled workforce now and for the future.” Simon Thurley, chief executive of English Heritage, added: “Traditional building crafts and skills are the lifeblood if we are to conserve the rich heritage of England’s buildings. Since 2005, when we first highlighted the shortage of such skills, a lot has been done through working with partners to solve the problem. We are very pleased that this latest project will present opportunities for young people, career changers and others in these difficult times.” q
An exciting new course has been scheduled by West Dean College as part of its CPD programme for conservators. Care and Conservation of Historic Floors will run from 11-14 October 2010 by Jane Fawcett, who will be leading participants in a rare opportunity to hear from experts about the care and conservation of historic floors. The three-day course will cover some of the problems created by the steady erosion of all types of historic floor and will consider some of the solutions available for their protection and conservation. We are all aware of the steady damage inflicted by daily use on decorative pavements and the contribution made by mosaics, tiles, parquetry, marble, stone, ledger stones and engraved slabs to an
historic interior, whether ecclesiastical or secular. However, the increasing loss of historical evidence, particularly in ecclesiastical buildings, is little understood and the methods of recording it are often inadequate. In many cases it is now too late and the destruction has been total. On the course leading authorities will attempt to answer some of these questions, to weigh the demands of tourism against those of conservation and to provide examples of what has been done, and how, where, when and what the future holds. There will be site visits to Uppark, Chichester Cathedral and Fishbourne Roman Palace. For more information contact the continuing professional development co-ordinator on 01243 818219; email firstname.lastname@example.org. q
Flooring course will aid understanding n
Funding will boost
Digging out history in the crypt at Bow n
In 2006 Museum of London Archaeology
carried out a comprehensive building survey of the crypts of St Mary-le-Bow Church in the heart of the City of London, as part of the first phase of developing a conservation management plan. The church, rebuilt after the Great Fire, was comprehensively restored after being gutted during the Second World War, but it still
construction of a new road
contains large parts of its 11th-
and the demolition of the
century fabric in the crypts.
vestry, and inside the church
All Saints, West Ham
At All Saints, West
as new underfloor heating was installed. Records were made of significant numbers
Ham, Museum of London
of burials, seven burial vaults,
headstones in the churchyard
excavations outside the
and memorial slabs within the
church in advance of the
Who controls the present, controls the past n
Any member of a PCC, or indeed anyone with responsibility for the care and maintenance of an historic building, will recognise the need to balance the demands of modern life with preservation of the buildingâ€™s historical integrity. This is particularly the case where restoration, refurbishment or enlargement will involve disturbing the existing fabric of the building or below ground excavation. The Heritage Network Ltd has considerable experience of working with the owners and custodians of churches and other listed buildings, to help them meet the requirements of faculty or listed building consent that demand archaeological intervention. The practice designs and manages archaeological investigation and recording schemes covering remedial works such as renovation, repointing, and the installation of French drains, and improvement works such as extensions, internal re-ordering and the installation of kitchens, toilets and heating systems. Using innovative techniques such as ground radar and photogrammetry, the Heritage Network works closely with its clients to ensure that its approach is as cost-effective as possible and is achieved with the minimum of disruption, both to the operation of the building and to the schedules of other contractors. The practice is registered with the Institute for Archaeologists, and is monitored on a regular basis to ensure that its work meets the highest professional standards. q
Queen’s honour for Bournemouth archaeologist n
One of the world’s leading authorities on Stonehenge and prehistoric Britain has been awarded an OBE in the 2010 Queen’s Birthday Honours List. Bournemouth University’s Prof Timothy Darvill has been recognised by Her Majesty for services to archaeology. He is the first serving academic at the university to receive a Queen’s Honour and is one of very few academics from ‘new’ universities to be honoured in this way. “It is a great privilege for me to receive this honour from The Queen,” said Professor Darvill. “I am grateful to the many colleagues, friends and members of my family who have helped me throughout my career to date. I have always been passionate about archaeology and feel fortunate to have contributed to so many amazing projects that have revealed such a great deal about our nation’s history and heritage.” The author of over 20 books and 200 papers and articles, Professor Darvill is best known for his expertise on the Neolithic period in North West Europe and for leading extensive archaeological surveys and excavations in England, Wales and the Isle of Man. In April 2008 he famously co-directed the first excavations within the stone circle at Stonehenge for over 40 years, examining the early stone structures on the site with Professor Geoffrey Wainwright. The work featured in a BBC Timewatch programme, which examined the theory that Stonehenge was a prehistoric centre of healing. After completing a PhD at Southampton University on the Neolithic of Wales and the West of England, Professor Darvill worked with the Western Archaeological Trust and the Council for British Archaeology before establishing a private practice offering consultancy services in the field of archaeological resource management. In October 1991 Professor Darvill was appointed to the Chair of Archaeology in the newly-established archaeology group at Bournemouth University. Until recently he was director of the university’s Centre for Archaeology, Anthropology and Heritage in the School of Conservation Sciences, and celebrated the university’s rise in 2008 to become the top new UK University for Archaeology research following the results of the national Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). In the mid-1990s Professor Darvill led the extensive Monuments at Risk Survey, commissioned by English Heritage. The survey, one of the largest archaeological projects undertaken by BU, studied the changing state of England’s archaeological resource and provided recommendations for the monitoring of future change at hundreds of historic sites. Internationally, Professor Darvill has worked in Russia, Malta,
Greece and Germany. In 2006 he won the prestigious National Award for the protection of the archaeological heritage of Russia from the Russian Archaeological Heritage Foundation for his high level of scientific archaeological research. Throughout his career, Professor Darvill has been at the forefront of major organisations linked to the preservation of the nation’s heritage. He has served as chairman of the Institute of Field Archaeologists and was a nominated Member of the Council of the National Trust representing archaeological interests. He is currently chairman of the board of directors of Cotswold Archaeology – one of the top archaeological companies in the UK – and Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of London. His current research interests focus on archaeological resource management and the Neolithic of North West Europe. The Vice-Chancellor of Bournemouth University, Professor Paul Curran, said: “I am immensely proud of the scholarly contribution Professor Darvill has made to archaeology and to Bournemouth University. He is the first serving member of our staff to receive such an honour from the Queen, which is richly deserved, and we are delighted for him. As well as a great honour for Professor Darvill personally, it is further evidence of the quality of work produced by the university’s centres of excellence.” q
by BOB BENNETT
We have just experienced one of the wettest cold winters for a long time: one that lasted beyond Easter and only warmed up a few weeks ago. As almost all the building problems that I was asked to investigate this year involved frost damage, the following case studies may help to explain the problem. Towards the end of last year rendering and building jobs were nearing completion as the temperature started to decline. The builders’ merchants noticed an increase in the sales of hessian rolls and polythene sheeting as autumn turned to winter. A couple of contractors were talking of adding antifreeze to the mortar mix. When I explained that the ethylene glycol in antifreeze actually retards the setting process, they abandoned the idea.
The manufacturers of both cement and lime products advise the need for the temperature to be +5oC and rising with no risk of frost for at least four weeks if damage is to be avoided. The solution is simple; stick to the advice given by the manufacturers. The client may try to keep the project running by suggesting a protective cover. During this last winter I came across one layer of hessian covered with one sheet of polythene and a lot of damaged render. Try taking your clothes off on a very damp, cold day and wrap yourself in one sheet of hessian surrounded by one sheet of polythene. Stand still for five minutes and tell me that you are comfortable and warm!
You will find that it takes a large number of sheets of hessian to keep the cold out. The polythene keeps the protective hessian dry, but it also stops the transfer of moisture out of the mortar. The curing process is now inhibited. If you do attempt to protect a mortar with hessian or other thermal blanket, be aware that whenever the temperature rises above +5oC you need to remove all the protection and allow the mortar to breathe. A few minutes later, when the temperature drops, the protection has to be put back – an unnecessary and tedious job. The solution is not to allow the client to ‘run the job’. If you do, delegate the responsibility for applying and removing the protection. Whether you’re working with cement, lime, gypsum, casting plaster or any of a variety of building products that require the addition of water, watch out for the ‘freeze/thaw cycle’. This cycle has no wheels, pedals or brakes, but it can cause chaos with your building programme. Sad to say, almost all the mortar failures I was asked to examine this spring were the direct result of frost. As water freezes it increases in volume by up to 9%. Not only does it rupture the mortar, but the pressure exerted can dislodge quite heavy masonry elements. In the photograph on the left the inadequate ‘brick on edge’ capping has allowed rain into the mortar below, which has expanded and moved the bricks, some of which fell to the ground. The disruption of the mortar can be clearly seen at the top of the wall. Furthermore, the mortar in both the first and second courses of brick has also been affected. Most of the flintwork has survived, but even at this level there are signs of damage to small areas of mortar that protrude beyond the vertical face of the wall. In this case the solution is obvious. A brick-on-edge detail seldom offers sufficient protection to the underlying masonry. I am often challenged when talking about buildings and the need for ‘a good pair of boots and a waterproof hat’. The fact remains that, without paying due attention to those parts of a building, damage will occur. By contrast, the next photograph shows a traditional brick-on-edge holding a tile creasing in place. The moss and algae shows the age of the wall, but the ‘hat’ is working well.
Weather and water cause problems when building with
Over the past 30 years there has been a great resurgence of
perform predictably with known aggregates and pozzolans as required.
interest and appreciation of the qualities of lime mortars and
This was not always so: experience and knowledge are needed to
renders. There has also arisen a kind of ‘blind faith’ that if we use lime on old buildings, everything will turn out fine.
identify the right product and the appropriate method. There are many naturally hydraulic limes available now which may
It can be hard for us to understand the depth and thoroughness of the working knowledge that guided builders centuries ago: we at Bosence & Co now approach repair work to buildings with an
provide the answer to a mason’s prayer but the system of classification for this natural product is crude and performance can be unpredictable. Buildings in some areas seem to have used little or no lime in their
awareness not only of that original construction, but of events over
plasters. That is likely to be due to the practical difficulty or cost of
time that have affected the building and changed physical and
obtaining lime in an area distant from any limestone for burning.
chemical constituents of the materials used.
However, the early builders’ ingenuity always impresses us when we see
Putty lime mortar today is a pure and consistent product that will
what was achieved with simple, usually local, materials. q
For fully qualified advice or for experienced sitework with lime mortars and plasters, please contact:
Oliver Bosence MA DipBldgCons(RICS) 01626 821609 Covering Devon and Cornwall E: email@example.com W: www.bosenceandco.com STRUCTURAL 28
Most of Hampshire is chalk downland and it is that material that was used to build many of the early dwellings. The foundations were built up usually with flint and occasionally either stone or brick, using lime mortar until clear of the ‘groundwater’. The chalk was then piled up and compacted under foot. The simple timber roof was covered in thatch. Building with chalk cob is so simple that I recently showed a group of five-year-old children at an infants’ school how to build with chalk.
External renders are also very vulnerable to frost damage as the photograph above shows. The problem is once again the brickon-edge detail that does not provide ‘overhang protection’ to the underlying face of the wall. The contractor will have little difficulty in removing the bricks on top of the wall as all the mortar has been ruptured by the frost and they can be lifted off by hand. The solution is the provision of a more effective coping with a generous overhang. q Bob Bennett MBE is a masonry consultant based at The Lime Centre, Winchester
The two pictures above – which were regrettably ‘lifted’ from film – show the wall that the children built between 09.30 and 14.30 on one day. By looking closely at the base of the wall you can see the flint foundation keeping the wall above ‘groundwater’. The folks that built those houses had the sense to avoid areas of high water table or the risk of flooding, which would destroy the chalk walls. However, I was recently asked to look at a chalk cob cottage with a damp problem at ground level. Road works and other adjustments had altered the flow of water past the house,
which was built on a gently sloping site. The owners had been offered the usual ‘damp company’ help with injected damp-proof course and metre-high waterproof plaster at internal floor level. Fortunately, the client declined to go down that route. The solution was really quite simple: a ‘French drain’ across the upper side of the house and down both sides, linked into one drain diverting the water away from the house.
Let your building breathe: here’s how by PAUL WATTS of Mike Wye & Associates
Many of us live in traditional buildings and have a duty to help keep at least some of them for the generations to follow. Just imagine for a moment how less interesting our world would be if the magnificent Taj Mahal, York Minster, the Great Wall or the wonderful stave churches of Norway had been lost due to incorrect maintenance or neglect. Britain’s grandest buildings are quite rightly largely pampered, admired and maintained on behalf of the nation; our more humble or vernacular buildings are sometimes left to the vagaries of the individual homeowner or developer’s whims, despite in some cases listed building status and the best efforts of conservation officers. Although those buildings, and the likes of Windsor Castle and Blenheim Palace, are rightly held up as wonderful examples of our built heritage, they are extremes and are not representative of the heritage of Britain as a whole. It could be argued that the more significant buildings to our culture and heritage are our parish churches and more humble dwellings, like the two up/two down terraced houses that were cleared wholesale during the 1960’s. Many buildings or their historic features have been lost due to ignorance on behalf
Learning pointing at a Mike Wye & Associates Lime in Building course
of well-meaning builders and homeowners or the greed of some developers. Education is the key: education of architects and surveyors all the way down to DIYers. Far too many people responsible for the
maintenance of older buildings have little idea how much damage can be caused by the simple act of using cement instead of lime or acrylic based paints instead of breathable ones. There is no end of potential sources of information to help the budding decorator or builder in their quest to make their or their client’s home the envy of all who enter it. Mike Wye & Associates have long been offering practical courses in Devon and now offer one-day seminars in many areas of the UK. SPAB and Bob Bennett’s Lime Centre have also long offered advice and courses in an attempt to help people understand what the older building needs. Magazines such as Ecclesiastical and Heritage World are another source of information, but perhaps the most influential educational medium currently available to the masses are the large number of TV property programmes that we all love to watch. As somebody with a professional interest in traditional buildings I sometimes find myself
The tools for the job n
The use of lime mortars for repointing generally suggests work of a conservation or heritage nature, with traditional skills and specialist knowledge often to the fore. But that need not disqualify the use of modern tools. While raking sensitive structures with percussive tools might be highly inappropriate, the use of low impact cutting systems such as the Arbortech saw and dust-free raking facilities such as the PWM C-Tec can be both relevant and welcome on many contracts. Similarly, refilling lime mortar joints need not be the preserve of hand tools. The Quikpoint drill-driven mortar gun has many fans in the heritage world, being clean, fast and kind to the wrists. Modifying a mortar to suit the delivery system is hardly desirable; the good news is that the Quikpoint’s auger-feed permits the use of firm mortars – often with fine grade aggregates – to be delivered at a speed controlled by the operator’s finger on the trigger. Deep-filling joints in stages to allow progressive tamping of the mortar is easily achieved, and with five nozzles delivered as standard there is usually a size and shape to suit. Steve Hills of SJ Specialist Brickwork advises that, since the Quikpoint gun can cover a large area relatively quickly, an organised approach to dampening the brickwork is essential, particularly in the summer months. PWM provides a wide range of construction-related tools and systems, with a strong focus on dust-free solutions. For further details call 01794 830 841; or visit www.brickworktools. co.uk. q
ranting at the TV as a smiling presenter tells us that the pointing has all recently been renewed – ‘so this is all good’ – even though cement was used. Or a complete renovation is taking place with new gypsum plaster or cement render. It is very rare indeed that viewers are told how much harm can be caused by the use of inappropriate materials. As well as entertaining, TV property programmes have an obligation to educate as well. If the viewer is being advised on how best to increase the value of a property, surely that should include mentioning that the wrong product might destroy the fabric of that property? Over the centuries the nation’s castles have been bombarded with cannon balls, whereas for the past century or so nearly all less grandiose buildings have had to endure a sometimes equally devastating onslaught from cement, non-breathing paints and botched ‘improvements’. Something as simple as using a modern everyday acrylic emulsion can trap moisture within a traditionally-built solid wall that can start a chain reaction of events. If a solid wall cannot get the moisture out due to some kind of seal, that can allow the moisture to build up. A damp wall will push the sealing paint off in blisters; at the same time the extra moisture trapped within the wall significantly reduces the insulation value of the wall. That will create a cold building and increase condensation and mould. The usual response to the resultant problem is often to inject a damp-proof course and apply tanking to the inside of the wall. That error would be compounded greatly by either cement pointing/render or a modern masonry paint applied to the outside of the wall. It is also often the case that valuers of buildings, be they for mortgage companies or estate agents, don’t pick up on the potential problems. That is a shame because there is a possibility that insurance
companies could consider the introduction of the wrong materials as neglect or inappropriate maintenance and reduce payouts as they see fit. It would not be unreasonable for insurance companies to take that line as they expect the policyholder to make repairs as required. If an earth structure such as cob becomes saturated, the whole building is at risk of collapse. Due to the huge weights involved, this might even result in injury or even loss of life to passers by as well as the risk to the occupiers. If we are to be effective custodians of our heritage then we need to have a better understanding of what we are entrusted with. It would be helpful if the building industry, in it’s widest sense, informed in a positive and practical way. Period buildings of solid wall construction need to ‘breathe’. Moisture in the walls needs to evaporate away through traditional lime based products, not become trapped by cement mortars and acrylic paints. It is not the intention of this article to
frighten the reader into immediately ripping all modern materials from the building; indeed that can sometimes be worse than leaving them in situ. It is hoped that people charged with the maintenance of traditionally built properties may at least seek further information before slapping on the wrong product in blissful ignorance. To that end, Mike Wye & Associates, who are one of the countries leading lime specialists, have produced a practical guide as a basic introduction to the maintenance of period properties. The guide covers the issue of dampness, as well as offering advice on the practical application of lime in most situations that might arise in the maintenance of a traditional building. The guide is free to download at www.mikewye.co.uk, or you can call their office for a free guide to be posted on 01409-281644. By maintaining your period building correctly you are preserving its value, making your time there more enjoyable and helping to ensure that others that follow you are able to do so as well. R
The use of inappropriate materials or poor technique can produce catastrophic results
SPAB spreads the word to owners and contractors alike n
Virtually all our old buildings were constructed using lime and the fact that so many of them are still standing is a tribute to the materialâ€™s unique durability and versatility. Even today, in the 21st century, 20% of existing British buildings were constructed using lime. Actually, it might surprise you to know that the UK has the oldest housing stock in Europe. That is largely due to the fact that the population shift from rural to urban areas caused by the Industrial Revolution occurred earlier here, so the use of lime in construction is not confined to our great castles and cathedrals or to traditional dwellings in the countryside. Historically, the word â€˜limeâ€™ refers to quicklime or slaked lime, widely used to form the binder for mortars, plasters, renders, lime concrete, lime-ash mixes and limewashes. Quicklime is produced when limestone is heated in a kiln. Slaked lime is obtained when the resulting substance is combined with water to create a putty. Throughout the country that was used in conjunction with different materials according to regional styles and practices. Most brick, stone, earth and timber-framed buildings relied on lime as a vital ingredient in mortar, render, plaster and even decoration before the widespread use of cement and gypsum became more common from the mid19th century onwards.
A SPAB lime course
Building with lime was a slower process, requiring skill and patience. Cement and gypsum made it possible to build at a faster rate and demand for mass housing led to a gradual transformation of building technology.
A SPAB lime course
But lime had its own distinct advantages. In a building constructed with lime, damp was allowed to evaporate harmlessly and the soft but tough materials worked in harmony with seasonal changes in humidity and temperature. Put simply, the building was allowed to breathe and move. Cement and gypsum set very hard and are impervious to damp: their success relies on rigidity. Once movements occur they are likely to crack and any moisture drawn in through even tiny cracks will be trapped and may cause serious problems. That is most likely to happen where hard and brittle modern materials are applied to an older building, whose original structure is of softer, more flexible lime construction. Mixing these two entirely different building technologies almost always leads to problems sooner or later. Today, cement, gypsum plaster and plastic paints are available in DIY shops and builders’ merchants everywhere and there are very few old buildings where they have not been used. Consequently, there are also very few old buildings without some problems in the form of damp, peeling paint, crumbling plaster or flaking render. Repairing lime-based buildings with lime-based materials can rectify many of these problems and prevent more from developing. Something as simple as removing impervious plastic paint and replacing it with limewash can often solve damp and condensation, providing the original lime plaster is in reasonable condition. Current interest in ‘doing up’ old buildings – especially for domestic use – has led to increased interest in the use of lime. Many homeowners working on period properties look for contractors who
Pointing with lime
For further information on lime, including details of suppliers, courses, publications and technical advice, contact SPAB on 020 7377 1644; or visit www.spab.org.uk. q
can plaster, point and render using lime, but discover that very few people have the skill to satisfy this growing market. Marianne Suhr of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) runs regular courses for builders interested in finding out more about using lime. Marianne appeared as one of the two ‘ruin detectives’ on BBC’s popular Restoration series. She explains: “Unlike modern products, lime-based materials let structures ‘breathe’ and move gently – essential properties with old buildings. They also contribute to their characteristic soft texture. But despite those advantages, building with lime demands knowledge and patience. That led to the widespread use of ‘faster’ alternative materials including Portland cement, gypsum, plaster and plastic paints. “Now we can see that these have shortcomings of their own and can seriously harm historic fabric. Consequently, lime is enjoying a revival, but there just aren’t enough people with the skill to work with it.” Topics covered in a typical lime course run by Marianne include: • Why lime is best for pre-WWI houses • How to mix and repoint with lime mortars • How to deal with damp • Applying lime plasters • How to mix and apply a lime wash • Different types of lime Lime in Building – A Practical Guide, by Jane Schofield, is an excellent introduction to the subject. It is available from SPAB at £4 plus 75p postage and packing.
The church of the Holy Cross in Uckfield
church clock stops, the When the
whole town notices it n
A perfect example of the importance of public clocks to their communities is the clock of the church of the Holy Cross in Uckfield. The church has recently launched an appeal in the town to restore the clock. As the honorary treasurer put it: “If it should stop or show an incorrect time you can be sure the Rector receives a telephone call so it is hoped that many people in the town will feel that they would like to be associated with its restoration.” It is many years since the clock was last cleaned and overhauled and it is now in need of urgent attention before it literally grinds to a halt. The clock mechanism itself needs to be cleaned and overhauled, a pendulum regulator and possibly a clock strike night silencer fitted and – most importantly – converted to auto-winding.
Taking time to care by BOB BETTS, Managing Director of Smith of Derby
Imagine a world without ‘time’! Getting to work would make for an interesting exercise; if work existed at all!
Buildings without time are a little easier to imagine; but then, where would we be without the glorious timepieces of Big Ben, St Paul’s Cathedral and St Pancras International Station. Think how bare your own town hall or parish church would be: the community would be without its heartbeat. Creating timepieces today is just as rewarding as it was for our first generation in 1856. Today we are creating possibly the world’s greatest mechanical clock movement in China, driving hands more than 7m in length. The exquisite movement will be on public display, making this tower clock quite unique. Churches and public buildings are under attack in these worrying days from vandalism, theft and heartbreaking fire and arson. We have responded by creating ChurchCAM, a CCTV and mobile phone text solution which deters and protects and is affordable on a weekly payment plan for the smallest of our precious buildings and heritage. That is only one example of our innovation in action. In 2009 we were the smallest of 1,000 global companies to sign the Copenhagen Communiqué on Climate Change. The communiqué is widely recognised as the definitive progressive statement from the international business community on climate change and is supported by HRH The Prince of Wales. q
The clock was made in 1883, and although on the clock’s setting dial it bears the name of a local man, Toogood, and the word Uckfield, it was in fact made by Thwaites and Reed of Clerkenwell. It is typical of their design at that time and very similar to their clock in the Knightsbridge Barracks, London. According to the church website: “The clock features dials that are unusually placed, being on the out-built mountings on the sides of the spire. Likewise the clock itself is also unusually mounted because it is above the bell-frame in the belfry and on a level with base of the spire. “Although constructed in 1883 it is of a particularly good design and the materials and workmanship are also uniformly good in quality.” q
In the last issue of Ecclesiastical and Heritage World we reported that the Southbank Centre had been given the go-ahead by the Heritage Lottery Fund to develop an application for a grant for the restoration of its organ. The centre has now announced that a grant of £950,000 has been approved. The project is expected to be completed in 2013 at a cost of over £2m and will see the organ put back to its rightful place and original location at the heart of the Royal Festival Hall auditorium in time for the organ’s 60th anniversary celebration in 2014. With 7,866 pipes, the Royal Festival Hall organ forms the architectural centrepiece of Sir Leslie Martin’s concert auditorium
and is the largest ever built by Harrison and Harrison. Conceived in the spirit of radical thought at the heart of the 1951 Festival of Britain, it was the largest music project in the country at the time, and was designed to serve classical and baroque repertoires alongside the full range of organ and orchestral musical repertoires. As such it gave rise to a totally new school of organ building known as English Organ Reform. Its open plan design and eclectic tone had a massive impact on English organ construction and its influence was felt across the world. In addition to the vital restoration and re-installation work that will see the refurbishment of the Royal Festival Hall finally ‘complete’, a community learning and
Turret Clock Group n
The Turret Clock Group is a specialist group within the Antiquarian Horological Society that functions to promote knowledge about turret clocks: those large clocks found on buildings and in public places and places of worship. The group holds four meetings each year, which take a variety of formats in different venues. Lectures, visits to turret clocks and seminar-type meetings are held. The group’s Summer Tour has always been very popular, giving members the chance to visit turret clocks in churches, towers or in private estates rarely accessible to the public. The group answers many enquiries each year, with quite a number coming from overseas. Membership is open only to members of the AHS and covers a wide spectrum, from those just starting to experienced experts. Some members are turret clock advisers in their local diocese, others are historians, restorers or professional makers and restorers. q
engagement programme will be carried out enabling people of all ages to experience the organ for free. These will include monthly free recitals in collaboration with the Royal College of Music and Royal Academy of Music, plus provision for two new apprentices to work with Harrison and Harrison in addition to an organ scholar placement. A major fundraising campaign will be launched in September to complete the funding required for the work. Su Bowers, head of HLF for London, said: “We are delighted that the Royal Festival Hall will soon be complete and this amazing internationally important organ back in its rightful place for people of all ages to learn from, experience and enjoy.” The Southbank Centre’s chief executive declared: “I would like to thank the Heritage Lottery Fund for their significant contribution to the full restoration of the great organ of the Royal Festival Hall for the next generation. This is a major boost ahead of our fundraising campaign, which we will launch in September, announcing how the public can also support the completion of the organ project.” q
Organ refurbishment gets £950,000 grant
Academy promotes SAFE working and an awareness of asbestos n
Since the implementation of the Control of Asbestos
are an independent builder or a large construction company SAFE
Regulations 2006, asbestos awareness training is now
will ensure your specific asbestos awareness training requirements
a mandatory requirement for those who work on the fabric of buildings – and their supervisors – where asbestos may be found. It
are met. SAFE trainers have a wealth of industry experience, together
can be present in buildings built prior to 2000, including schools,
with both technical and teaching qualifications, ensuring the best
colleges, universities, offices, factories, hospitals, domestic houses
possible learning experience is provided. Training will help to assist
and many other public and private premises.
your workforce in avoiding the risks from exposure to asbestos
With approximately 4,000 people dying from asbestos-related
and the potential delays it may cause to your construction project,
diseases annually and continuing to rise, the HSE devised the
with guidance provided on what to do in the event of accidental
successful ‘hidden killer’ campaign to raise awareness of the issue
within the UK construction industry. Training for tradespeople, who
Many organisations will expect their contractors and supply
may potentially be exposed to asbestos through their daily work,
chains to have asbestos awareness training, including those who
has never been so important. It is essential that tradespeople, at
are working as subcontractors and principle contractors. In fact,
all levels, working for contractors or principle contractors, have
approximately 1.8 million people in the UK are identified as
adequate asbestos awareness training to remain compliant with
requiring asbestos awareness training.
current regulations. The Silverdell Academy for Excellence (SAFE) supplies asbestos training to businesses of all sizes throughout the UK; whether you
• SAFE is a member of UKATA (United Kingdom Asbestos Awareness Training Association). By using a UKATA member to provide training you can ensure that the training provider has the facilities, knowledge and industry experience and qualifications to
“Whatever the tools in your toolbox, ensure that you have adequate asbestos awareness training.”
undertake that training properly. To discuss the provision of asbestos awareness training, contact SAFE on 020 8591 6677 or visit www.silverdellacademy.co.uk. q
January saw the publication of the new guide for asbestos surveying. Asbestos: The Survey Guide replaces the previous MDHS100 document. There is a lot more emphasis on clients/ dutyholders deciding what type of survey is required, what to expect from a competent surveyor and also what the client should provide to the surveyor to enable the survey to be carried out to a satisfactory standard. There is new terminology in relation to types of asbestos surveys: gone are the type one, two and three surveys, these have been replaced with management surveys and refurbishment/demolition surveys. That makes it easier to select a survey which is fit for purpose. The survey types are defined better with comments being highlighted for management surveys such as:
Management surveys “All ACMs should be identified as far as is reasonably practicable. The areas inspected should include: underfloor coverings, above false ceilings (ceiling voids), lofts, inside risers, service ducts and lift shafts, basements, cellars, underground rooms, undercrofts (this list is not exhaustive).”
Refurbishment/demolition surveys “Refurbishment surveys will be required for all work which disturbs the fabric of the building in areas where the management survey has not been intrusive. The dutyholder will need to make the decision but probably with help from others.”
Comments such as this make the document easier to use and easier to understand from everybody’s perspective and should encourage better surveyor/client communication, which in turn will make the surveying process better. There are specific guidance notes for clients as well as surveyors in the form of highlighted summary boxes which highlight specific duties and expectations, as well as advice on how to complete certain tasks. A major part of the guide now looks at competency and quality assurance of surveyors. The HSE has taken a strong view on that by stating they strongly recommend the use of UKAS-accredited companies or ABICS-certified surveyors for asbestos survey work. If followed, that would ensure that clients will appoint surveyors that meet certain standards who have already been proven through UKAS accreditation or ABICS certification. The survey report must be clear and concise to the end user. There should be an executive summary of the survey findings, as well as all other relevant survey data in the report. The survey plans must be clear and concise as to where the asbestos is located and also highlight any areas which were not accessed during the survey. The report must be a site-specific document and contain relevant information only. Pages and pages of general caveats are not acceptable; however specific caveats which have already been agreed with the client must be placed into the report and good practice would be to highlight those on the plans. q
Time for change: MDHS100 HSG264
decentralisation measures welcomed n
The Institute for Historic Building Research (IHBC) – the professional body for built and historic environment conservation specialists – welcomed measures in The Queen’s Speech to introduce ‘localism’ into the planning system, and the opportunities that it will provide to support and develop essential local conservation services, but also raised concerns over the proposals that may mean less effective strategic planning. IHBC chair Dave Chetwyn said of the proposed Bill: “We’re very hopeful about the key principles of the ‘localism’ agenda, given the way it can help people shape the management of their local historic environment, and conservation officers have a central role to play in that management; but there are also widespread concerns over the potential loss of the infrastructure for more strategic planning, with insufficient recognition of the role it has played in underpinning integrated planning across regions.”
Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles said: “This important Bill would shift power from the central state back into the hands of individuals, communities and councils. It will empower local people giving them more power over local government. It will free local government from central and regional control so that they can ensure services are delivered according to local needs.” Some of the coalition agreement commitments would be legislated through the Localism Bill including: • Returning decision-making powers on housing and planning to local councils by abolishing Regional Spatial Strategies • New powers for communities to help save local facilities and services threatened with closure, and the right to bid to take over local state-run services • Giving councils a general power of competence • Giving residents the power to instigate
local referendums on any local issue and the power to veto excessive council tax increases • Greater financial autonomy to local government and community groups • Outright abolition of Home Improvement Packs • Creation of Local Enterprise Partnerships: joint local authority/business bodies to promote local economic development Greg Clark, Minister for Decentralisation, added: “This Bill would reverse years of creeping state control and return power to people, communities and councils. We have an optimistic vision that supports people to work in the interests of their communities, rather than telling them what to do. “When you decentralise power you unlock creativity and dynamism that gets better results, better services and better value for money. The state alone is often too monolithic and clumsy to tackle our deepest social problems and we believe that the best ideas come from the ground up, not the top down.” q
Student awards scheme goes online n
The IHBC has launched a new website for its celebrated annual Gus Astley Student Award, helping raise awareness of the IHBC’s support for students across the historic and built environment disciplines that underpin conservation. The website reviews the recent growth in the awards, documenting their impact, while also noting the most successful submissions. It also explains to students how the awards work, and how to make submissions using the IHBC’s website resources. Since the inception of the awards, Devon DeCelles, IHBC’s outgoing membership services officer, has guided applicants and overseen their presentations. They take place at the IHBC’s ‘Fringe School’, the open and free forum linked to the IHBC’s Annual School, where selected candidates present and discuss their work with fellow students and established conservation professionals. Devon DeCelles said: “It’s been a pleasure and a privilege to be part of this IHBC initiative. I know first hand, through my work with contributors, just how much the award has meant to them, whether winners or not. It’s helped students focus on their work, yet there is almost no interruption to their on-going studies as applicants simply submit their original course work. “Tutors and course directors also appreciate the fact that their students’ efforts are rewarded at a national and professional level, while as tutors they have no additional administrative duties arising from it; and of course the IHBC gets to raise its profile with, and
enjoy the work of, up-and-coming conservation professionals.” IHBC president Eddie Booth said: “Gus gave so much to the IHBC, particularly through his encouragement of newer members. The ‘Astleys’, as the awards are becoming known, are a fitting way for us to remember Gus and to invest in the future of conservation.” Bob Kindred MBE, chair of the Gus Astley Fund Trustees, said: “I am delighted that the Gus Astley Student Awards scheme has established itself so quickly and is attracting such a high calibre of submissions in what is now its third year. This demonstrates that, even in these difficult times, the sector is attracting new practitioners of great potential and ability. We hope that the awards are also a valuable stimulation for conservation education. All this would have delighted Gus, who was so assiduous in supporting and encouraging those in the early stages of their careers.” q
Institute for Historic Building Conservation
Institute for Historic Building Conservation
Historypin welcomed by IHBC boss n
IHBC director Seán O’Reilly has welcomed the launch of Historypin, a web-based image gathering initiative developed by social development organisation We Are What We Do, in partnership with Google. It creates ‘a digital time machine that allows people to view and share history in a totally new way’. Seán O’Reilly said: “We’re hugely impressed with Historypin’s developing ‘Wiki’-style image collection system, and its potential to reveal the extraordinary in our ordinary places by introducing visual, personal and historical dimensions across time. Historypin gives the idea of the ‘how’ and ‘why’ we manage places a distinctly 21st-century presence through partnering with Google, making it at once global and local, personal and public. It’s like the Facebook of ‘place’. “While Historypin is first and foremost a community resource, the ability to match images of places across old and new may well make it an essential tool for the conservation professional of the future, while it will certainly grow into an invaluable resource for communities that want to show why and what they value about the places where they live and work.” Historypin says: “Using Google Maps and Street View technology, Historypin aims to become the largest user-generated archive of the world’s historical images and stories. Historypin invites the public to dig out, upload and pin their own old photos, as well as the stories
behind them, onto the Historypin map. Uniquely, Historypin allows users to layer their old images onto modern Street View scenes, revealing a series of windows into the past.” We Are What We Do has created Historypin as a simple way for different generations to share their history and digital know-how, as part of its new campaign to get generations talking more, sharing more and coming together more often. To find out more, visit wearewhatwedo.org/generations. q
Specialist contracts awarded for
Historic Scotland has awarded a series of specialist contracts for its on-going Stirling Castle Palace Project. The contracts are part of a £12m scheme that will see the royal palace of James V returned to how it may have looked in its mid16th century heyday. The latest round of contracts involve everything from fabrics to joinery, metalwork and stained glass. Together they will help recreate the splendour and luxury of a great renaissance royal residence. Project manager Peter Buchanan said: “We are very pleased to have been able to award the specialist contracts for the furnishings, fittings and decoration of the palace. The Historic Scotland team is looking forward to working with all of the companies involved as they create everything from fine carpets, oak furniture and wall hangings through to ceiling bosses, stained glass and iron firedogs. These will play a key role in recreating the look and atmosphere of the renaissance royal palace for when it reopens to the public in 2011. “Much of the work involves the use of high-quality traditional skills and techniques, and we are delighted that the project is helping to maintain highly skilled arts and crafts which have been practised for many centuries.” The total value of the contracts, which were awarded on the basis of competitive tendering, is £1.55m. • Stirling Castle was one of James V’s favourite residences. It had everything the king needed. There was the Great Hall for national festivities and a Chapel Royal for important religious ceremonies. There were fine gardens and excellent hunting nearby. All this made it an ideal place to hold court and indulge the young king’s love of display, pageantry and bloodsports. R
Funerals and burials
Funeral trade body ensures sensitivity n
Founded in 1905, the National Association of Funeral Directors (NAFD) represents the interests of the entire spectrum of funeral directing businesses – including independent firms, the co-operative movement and all major funeral groups. Between them they conduct in excess of 80% of UK funerals. Operating on a ‘one member, one vote’ basis, it is a fully inclusive and democratic trade association and provides members with general business and industry specific support services so that they can focus on their core objectives: meeting the needs of the bereaved. With a membership which also includes international funeral directing businesses and a variety of suppliers to the profession both in the UK and overseas – from crematoria and coffin manufacturers to vehicle distributors, clothing specialists and printers – the NAFD is widely acknowledged as the ‘voice of the profession’. Through its membership of the European Federation of Funeral Services (EFFS) and the International Federation of Thanatologists Associations (FIAT/IFTA), the NAFD is able to represent the interests of UK funeral businesses on a global basis.
Professional standards The NAFD is committed to setting and maintaining the highest professional standards, so that families can be confident the funeral business they choose will deliver the very best service. To that end the association produces the Manual of Funeral Directing, an invaluable reference tool for funeral service professionals as well as students studying for professional or vocational qualifications, and ensures
members abide by a strict Code of Practice. The NAFD Code of Practice sets out what bereaved families can expect in their dealings with an NAFD member firm, including key requirements in respect of the funeral director’s professional conduct, and is reviewed and updated regularly to ensure it remains relevant. It is also monitored and enforced by a team of standards and quality managers, who inspect members’ premises and assess all new applicants’ facilities prior to them being approved for membership of the NAFD.
Professional development The NAFD is the driving force behind education and training in the funeral sector, having spearheaded the development of a series of professional qualifications. They include the Diploma in Funeral Directing, which is universally recognised as the ‘Gold Standard’. In September 2008 the NAFD launched the Foundation Degree in Funeral Services, in association with the Centre for Death & Society (CDAS) at the University of Bath – the UK’s only centre devoted to the study and research of social aspects of death, dying and bereavement – of which the Association is the principal sponsor.
businesses comply with a client’s wish to proceed to conciliation or arbitration under the Funeral Arbitration Scheme and abide by its rulings.
Representing the bereaved and the sector
Bereavement Advice Centre
The government consults regularly with the NAFD on all matters relating to the funeral sector. It is in the unique position of being the only trade association that maintains close links with four Parliamentary groups: the All Party Parliamentary Funerals and Bereavement Group at Westminster, the Scottish Cross Party Group for the Funeral and Bereavement Service, the Welsh Cross Party Funeral Group and the All Party Assembly Group on Funerals and Bereavement in the Northern Ireland Assembly. Through its work with Parliamentarians and government agencies, the NAFD is able to highlight matters of concern to funeral directors and the bereaved families they serve, provide informed opinion on key issues and lobby for legislative change. The NAFD also enjoys strong links with Parliamentarians and officials in the European Union through its Brussels Liaison Group.
The NAFD is the principal partner in the Bereavement Advice Centre, a not-for-profit initiative developed by a consortium of organisations working in the funeral sector that provides a single contact point where people can access information and guidance. Support is available via the freephone helpline, 0800 634 9494, while comprehensive information on a wide range of subjects, including what to do first when someone dies, probate and other legal procedures and coping after a death, is online at www.bereavementadvice.org.
Funeral Arbitration Scheme Most funerals are completed in a highly satisfactory manner, but on occasion things do go wrong; so the NAFD established the Funeral Arbitration Scheme to protect the interests of both its members and their clients. Developed in conjunction with the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, the Funeral Arbitration Scheme is an independent conciliation and arbitration scheme providing a simple, three- stage process for the resolution of disputes which cannot be settled by negotiation between the funeral business and the family. It is a condition of membership of the National Association of Funeral Directors that funeral directing
National Funeral Exhibition In 2007 the NAFD instigated the National Funeral Exhibition – the UK’s only national funeral trade exhibition – which showcases a huge variety of funeral products and services. Staged every two years, the National Funeral Exhibition is now an established fixture in the European funeral exhibition calendar and brings together businesses from all over the world as UK funeral directors seize the opportunity to update their knowledge and suppliers seek to develop business opportunities. Further information is available from The National Association of Funeral Directors, 618 Warwick Road, Solihull, West Midlands B91 3QG; tel 0845 230 1343; email firstname.lastname@example.org; or visit www.nafd.org.uk. q
Funerals and burials
The NAFD has also introduced flexible learning options in the shape of vocational qualifications accredited by Edexcel, to help meet its members’ staff training requirements.
Iconic conservation n
Icon has announced the third round of its Conservation Awards. The Conservation Awards have been the most important event within conservation since their inception in 1993. They celebrate excellence in conservation treatment, training and research and development, and since 2004, the new field of digital preservation. They highlight the achievements of a sector which, although vital to the effective care of our heritage, rarely receives public recognition. They contribute to the raising of professional standards and promote sustainability and care for the environment. By focusing on best practice and the dissemination of new ideas, they provide a wider social benefit in supporting the effective preservation of artefacts both new and old. This year the awards have been titled the Valuing Excellence Conservation Awards. As in previous years, they are generously supported by Sir Paul McCartney and are sponsored by The Pilgrim Trust. The Digital Preservation Award is sponsored by The Digital Preservation Coalition and The Research and Innovation Award by The Anna Plowden Trust. The winners will be announced at a ceremony in London on 1 December to be held at the Royal Institution. The deadline for applications is 30 July. • Icon is the lead voice for the conservation of cultural heritage in the UK. Its membership embraces the wider conservation community, incorporating not only professional conservators in all disciplines, but all others who share a commitment to improving understanding of and access to our cultural heritage. q
Bricks and Mortar
Traditionally, of course, we think of natural stone as the material of choice for church buildings. But the boom in church building in the 19th century made great use of the ‘modern’ building material of the time: brick. And now brick is proving to be more environmentally friendly than previously thought. According to a report by the Brick Development Association: “Forget ‘brick is beautiful’; ignore its popularity with designers and planners. Brick as a modern building material now stands firmly on its environmental credentials. In the BRE Green guide to specification the material has been given the highest possible accreditation – A+ – for every external wall rated containing brickwork.” And a brick building is brought to life by the imaginitive use of mortars. Nowadays many different colours are available. According to the Mortar Industry Association: “Coloured mortar is much more than the medium for bonding bricks and blocks. It can also be an architectural tool, accentuating or subduing brick colours and textures. “They can make the most of clever brick patterns or bring light relief to what might otherwise be monotonous. While one colour can be chosen to harmonise with the brick, another offers a contrast. “There are a variety of other factors that affect the visual appeal of the finished face, such as brick texture, pointing type, local exposure and the prevailing lighting conditions.” For more information visit www.mortar.org.uk. q
Heritage sites are among this country’s most precious assets. Their contribution
Director Jan Mills said “Managing risks,
with Canterbury Cathedral, Cundiff & Mills
whether health and safety, reputational or any
are ideally placed to lend their expertise
to tourism is immense and their importance
other kind, doesn’t have to be heavy-handed,
to heritage sites. From scaffold audits to
to our national culture is incalculable.
intrusive or expensive. Some of the most
workshops on corporate manslaughter for
However, just one or two instances of poor
effective management controls cost nothing
your senior people, Cundiff & Mills can offer
management could severely damage their
except time and a little change in how people
as much or as little help as you need.
reputation and have a massive impact on
their long-term economic viability. Whether or not your site could suffer such a
With a strong reputation for listening to their clients and experience of working
Visit their website at www.candmconsulting. co.uk; or call 01795 599989 to find out what Cundiff & Mills can offer you. q
blow is a question that only you can answer. If you are not clear what the risks threatening your site are, then you probably have no plans in place to protect the site from them – and that’s a very dangerous position to be in. Cundiff & Mills Consulting is part of risk specialist The Bradley Group. They offer a wide-ranging service that is very discreet and, importantly, sensitive to the unique needs of heritage sites.
Protecting Britain’s heritage from unforseen threats
Singing in the rain n
Most people may think of a rainwater system as simply a functional system that collects and discharges a property’s
rainwater. Daniel Hopkins, the managing director of specialist distributor Rainclear Systems, disagrees. He believes the right system can dramatically enhance the external appearance of any heritage property. Says Daniel: “Most customers are unaware that cast-iron gutters can be supplied in many different profiles and sizes: half-round, Victorian ogee, half-round beaded and moulded. The downpipes to complement these profiles can be supplied in either circular, square or rectangular and there are various decorative special options to personalise your rainwater system, on either the gutters or downpipes, the hopper heads, downpipe sockets or holder bats. “So, whether it is a date of construction, family name or crest, all of these special castings can be achieved with a cast-iron rainwater system. Any pattern can be made to make a radius gutter, unusual size or even to exactly match a sample that the client provides.” Pre-painted cast-iron rainwater systems are now becoming popular, with all profiles available with a pre-finished semi-gloss black coating. It is applied under factory conditions using modern spraying techniques and delivered to site safely packaged and ready for immediate installation, without the need for any further on-site painting. If you would like to talk further about cast-iron rainwater systems, call
Rainclear Systems’ technical sales team on 0844 414 22 66. q
Cast-iron solutions n
While there are many reproduction products that try to copy the aesthetics of traditional cast iron, none are able to
provide the benefits offered by the real thing. Cast iron provides one of the most sustainable and durable materials for rainwater systems, with minimal noise transmission and excellent fire resistance. And while the cheap PVC alternatives may claim to save money on a project, most people would be surprised to know that the whole-life cost of cast-iron rainwater products is a third of that of PVC and aluminium over a 100-year lifecycle. In addition, cast iron’s infinite design possibilities allow it to replicate traditional ornamental rainwater features and unique gutter profiles. Cast iron is renowned for its strength and longevity to provide a low maintenance solution for rainwater systems. The popularity of using cast iron for rainwater systems dates back to the 19th century and traditional and unique profiles for the replacement of failed sections of original rainwater systems have been replicated by specialist supplier Tuscan Foundry Products. In total, Tuscan Foundry Products offers 19 profiles, three different pipe profiles and over 60 ornamental rainwater hopper heads, with a full range of brackets to support both gutters and pipes.
For more information or a copy of the company’s report, Comparing the merits of material used for rainwater products, visit www.tuscanfoundry.co.uk; email info@tuscanfoundry. co.uk; tel 0800 174 093. q
Recreating a great ironfounder’s work
One of a clutch of Scottish architectural ironfounders which came to prominence in the 19th century was Walter MacFarlane & Company, whose history is told in detail by the Scottish Ironwork Foundation (www.scottishironwork.org). The foundation says: “While they might be considered late entrants, they quickly matched and eventually surpassed their rivals to become the most prolific architectural ironfounders the world has seen. “The distribution of their products throughout the world is simply astounding. Even now, when much architectural ironwork has been removed from the landscape, it is still possible to find the distinctive diamond trademark of the company on everything from benches to rainwater goods, fountains to buildings, bridges, glasshouses, palaces, railway stations and bandstands. “While much of the ironwork has been swept away or fallen into disrepair, a new appreciation of such features has meant that many are being conserved and restored, and are appreciated again for the high level of craft which their production required.” The story began in the winter of 1849/1850 when Walter MacFarlane went into Partnership with his brother-in-law Thomas Russell and his friend James Marshall. In 1851 the company took over an old disused brass foundry in Saracen Lane in Glasgow, adopting the street name for the foundry. By 1861 MacFarlane & Co employed 120 people. After eleven years they outgrew the premises and relocated to a building in Washington Street in 1862, while still keeping the name Saracen Foundry. Again, according to the Scottish Ironwork Foundation: “The success of the company was such that a decision was made to move to what was at that time a green field site on the outskirts of the city. This was to be the third and final Saracen Foundry, built and expanded to a vast scale. “The foundry continued in operation in the early 20th Century, but saw a decline in the industry and demand for such ornamental cast ironwork. The company became part of Allied Ironfounders in 1965, and was absorbed into Glynwed in 1966. The foundry at Possilpark eventually closed in 1967. The company name was bought by
Glasgow firm Heritage Engineering in 1993.” Fortunately many pattern books survive and are rich in detail of what the company produced. They are used by Heritage Engineering to produce many of the original designs. q
Removal of remains
THE CONCEPT ‘rest in peace’ has had to take on a very different meaning in the world of the exhumer than in that of the majority. Rest in peace means rest to the soul, not rest to our mortal remains. Increasingly, the need is arising for a variety of reasons to remove and to re-inter human remains and Phoenix Exhumation Ltd has been involved in this sensitive practice for a number of years. From an individual point of view, exhumations can occur if there have been suspicious circumstances surrounding the death and the police may request an exhumation so that the cause of death can be determined. Unknown burials, either not identified or misidentified when buried, can be reburied if their identification comes to light and surviving kin so wish. The removal of human remains en masse can occur when redundant cemeteries are bought in areas where space is of a premium and the land developed for reasons such as housing, creating new roads etc, or on the relocation of a cemetery. Remains may be exhumed in order to be re-interred at a more appropriate location, such as Father Lester, Major Forbes and Mrs Forbes and Cardinal Vaughan. Cemeteries have a limited number of plots in which to bury the dead. Once all plots are full, older remains may be moved to an ossuary to accommodate more bodies; thus enabling archaeologists
to analyse the remains in order to gain a greater understanding of human culture. Exhumations are generally rare; they cannot happen without having the necessary legal authorisation. It is important to point out that it is unlawful to disturb any human remains (this also includes any cremated remains) without first obtaining the necessary lawful authority. There are generally two types of licences that are used for exhumation. They are a Home Office licence or a bishop’s faculty. The licence needed is dependant on where the remains are at present and where they are going to be re-interred. If the remains are to be removed from a grave in a consecrated section of a cemetery and are to be re-buried into another consecrated section then only a bishop’s faculty is required. If the exhumation is from consecrated ground to be re-buried in the same grave or they are to go to an unconsecrated section, both a Home Office licence and bishop’s faculty will be required. If the exhumation is from unconsecrated ground and the subsequent reburial is in unconsecrated ground, then only a Home Office licence is needed. Phoenix Exhumations Ltd are national experts in the field of exhumation and are happy to offer confidential advice. q Based on a dissertation by Janine Knighton BSc (Hons)
disturbing the dead
by PETER MITCHELL of Peter Mitchell Associates (www.PeterMitchell.org)
The greatest number of bodies is exhumed in the course of mass exhumations for some sort of redevelopment work. That often reflects the decline of church congregations and the use of the church site for something altogether different. For example, I once arranged the clearance of a church so that a range of shops could be built. Similarly, I project-managed the exhumations of part of a churchyard to enable St Pancras Station to be adapted for Eurostar. However, there are instances where it is the thriving church that wants exhumation to enable expansion and development of their facilities. It often pays dividends to have a desk-top study completed by local archaeologists, which is often required at
the planning application stage. Old maps and records or earlier excavation work can provide vital clues as to the location and extent of the burials. An unusual bonus is to find a plan showing the location of the burials. However, it never ceases to amaze me that the words ‘Burial Ground’ on an old map are missed. Later maps omit them and modern readers seem to be satisfied that the absence of such words must mean that there are no bodies left on the site: that is often not the case. Archaeologists may be involved on a watching brief basis. These costs and potential impacts on project duration also need factoring in. The exhumation team should be suitably vetted to ensure that they are competent
to complete the task with the minimum of disruption and the maximum of professionalism. Unfortunately, there is no ‘Guild of Master Exhumers’ and the client must use their own discretion in satisfying themselves that the exhumation team has a history of satisfied clients and an absence of negative media coverage. As with all other elements of a project, the lowest cost does not necessarily mean the best value for money. It doesn’t matter how old buried human remains may be, they deserve respectful treatment. When meeting exhumation specialists on site, ask yourself: “Would I let these people exhume my relative?” If you wouldn’t, then why employ them to move anyone else? q Taken from an article first published in 2009
Take care when
Churches in Scotland
New churches n
reflect changing times
In the heady days of Corporation Housing Development in the 1950s and 60s, the north east of Glasgow saw two new ‘schemes’ of council housing developed: Easterhouse and, slightly to the west, Garthamlock and Craigend East. In both areas the Church of Scotland constructed new churches on land set aside by the then-Glasgow Corporation. By the late 1990s both church buildings were showing their age. Testing of materials highlighted that, in due course, the best option would be replacement. The areas around the churches were scheduled for major housing redevelopment and that, along with the church buildings reaching the end of their construction life, led to the development of proposals for new churches. Financed through the Church of Scotland Priority Areas Committee, with the design and construction phase led by the Central Properties Department (CPD), the preparation of a brief began in earnest in 2008. The design team was carefully selected to respond to the challenges. James F Stephen Architects were appointed as the design team leaders. Previous working partnership experience would be essential in the projects to maximise the potential outcome for both developments. It is the practice for CPD to work with the congregation to develop the brief and determine the actual needs, then to work with that information to prepare a brief for the architect that will respond to the present and future needs of the congregation. In the case of these two projects it was imperative to maximise floor space against budget availability. That necessitated the acceptance of fully multi-purpose designs which could be utilised not only as the church, but also as a community resource. It should be noted that from the outset the option of utilising the same design for both buildings was not an option.
With both areas in the process of substantial redevelopment in regard to housing provision – and in a traditional form – the options for radical design were limited, as the planning authorities were keen that materials similar to that of the housing were used in the designs. The challenge was therefore to develop designs that, although using more traditional materials for external finishes, still had significance in the manner in which the buildings presented themselves to the community. Generally of timber frame construction, with facing brick and concrete tile externally, the buildings are of a robust nature externally, while internally the careful use of space has provided multi-roomed buildings with sanctuaries that will provide the dignity for worship yet provide activity space for a variety of purposes. Communication is a key aspect within any church building. The use of the latest audiovisual technologies provides a vision and acoustic experience throughout the buildings. It was hoped to use ground-source heat pumps for effective heating, but the ground conditions dictated otherwise. With some disappointment, the more traditional route of gas-fired boilers had to be followed. However, the insulation specification was increased beyond that required by Building Regulations, so lower rated heating plant could be specified. The closeness of the two projects had enabled the tendering process to offer the projects individually or as a pair. That provided a significant financial benefit to the Church of Scotland and a welcome boost to a prospective contractor in these difficult trading times. Following the tender process, both contracts were let to Stewart Milne Construction. Work commenced on both sites on 14 September last year with a 42-week contract at Garthamlock and Craigend East and a 46-week contract at Easterhouse. Work progressed well despite the harsh winter, although time delays due to weather were inevitable – particularly due to the extreme low temperatures which required site operatives to take regular breaks. Despite the challenge of the weather, the projects are only slightly delayed and may yet be completed on time. Looking forward to completion, the fit-out phase will be undertaken by CPD. The ethos is to provide a complete building and all furnishings have been specified in conjunction with the congregations. When completed, the new buildings will provide a focus for the congregations and the communities, bringing opportunities for the future that the original buildings had over 50 years ago. q
Churches in Scotland
Prayers are answered with new hall n
Some years ago St Silas Episcopal Church in Glasgow, like many other churches, had few children and young people, so a group of the older members decided to pray that God would bring more kids into the congregation. Since 2000, it is reckoned that 95 children have been born to St Silas families and at one point there were eight or nine clearly pregnant women at the same time. Although it is a lovely and good sized building which had seen many changes, particularly over the previous 25 years, it was not well supplied with rooms or spaces for childrenâ€™s work, staff offices or community activities. So about 10 years ago the congregation decided that its next development priority had to be a new hall.
St Silas has a history of development and adaptation since its commissioning in 1864. The church itself was designed by John Honeyman, a well known architect whose practice was joined by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, the later hall being the work of Miles Gibson, about whom much less is known. The hall was disproportionately small in relation to the size of the church and its L-shaped layout and the position of doors and windows made subdividing impractical. In addition, it often felt cold and damp and the sandstone was constantly shedding, causing problems with dust. The church had already worked with Don McLean and Craig Govan at McLean Architects on a couple of projects, so they were asked to come up with a design. The design was declined because of the â€˜Bâ€™ listing of the building; however, convinced for many reasons that they had a good case, the church employed a planning consultant to help put their case. Interestingly, the person appointed was from Keppie Planning, an offshoot of the original Honeyman and Keppie practice!
In June 2006 permission was granted by Historic Scotland to replace the hall subject to various conditions. With the design team in place, the detailed design was completed and the church was able to get an indicative elemental cost from QS Armour Construction Consultants in June 2007. Main contractor Flemings started on site in mid-September and it has been exciting to see things developing, first with the demolition of the hall and then the steel frame going up and now the roof and walls being completed. q
United Kingdom Cast Stone Association
Cast stone is a firm favourite for conservation and refurbishment work. ANDY COTTON chair of UKCSA explains the reasons why.
Since Georgian times, cast stone has been a familiar and much-used alternative to expensive natural stone. Its classical details are used to enhance entrances, openings and gables, adding distinction and value out of all proportion to cost. Cast stone evokes a sense of timelessness which fits in with any type of massive construction, from domestic housing to cathedrals. It’s a highly versatile material, ideal for period and contemporary styles, stone and reconstructed stone buildings, and it complements brickwork and render. All types of architectural stonework can be produced – large, small and structurally reinforced – and cast stone’s ability to form complex shapes makes it ideal for ornate detailing. Cast stone is a special form of simulated stone, a high quality facing material synonymous with reconstructed stone. Its origins date back to ancient Rome and the first architecturally significant use of simulated stone in Britain was Coadstone, used for classical detailing by Robert Adam and John Nash. According to the UKCSA, cast stone is ‘any material made with natural aggregates and cementitious binder that is intended to resemble and be used in a similar way to natural stone’. The material is regularly used in areas of sensitive planning constraints or where stone is a predominant material. Its use in restoration and conservation includes the replacement or repair of natural stonework damaged by exposure or neglect. One recent example is Princess Park Manor in north London. A Victorian hospital building has been converted into luxury apartments, using a wide range of cast stone details to re-create the Italianate splendour of the original elevations. Manufactured by PD Edenhall, the details include columns and their entablatures, plinths, quoins, cornices, dentril string courses, window surrounds and balustrading. Although bespoke, the degree of repetition on the mouldings led to economies of scale. In Essex, cast stone from Procter Cast Stone had made a significant contribution to the conversion and restoration of a Grade Two-listed former hospital at Brentwood, into 130 homes. Cast stone was extensively used to replace damaged Portland stone details on the mullioned windows, gables and octagonal tower of the existing Victorian Gothic building as well as for
extensions and new buildings. Meanwhile, Haddonstone has created numerous bespoke details for the restoration and extension of church and heritage buildings throughout the UK, including an impressive three light window surround for an extension to St Mary’s church in Loughton. The company also created cast stone pinnacles to replace decayed stonework on the chapel at Malvern College. As with any building material, it’s important you can trust the manufacturer. When it comes to cast stone, the UKCSA is the guardian of quality and its logo guarantees that you’re getting the best. The association sets high performance standards and members must go through a strict vetting procedure. Their levels of quality-controlled manufacture ensure the strongest cast stone available – at least 40% stronger than the basic British Standard requirement. This means outstanding durability, better site handling and better buildability. UKCSA members also take service seriously, with design and technical advice, proper packaging and reliable delivery. q The association’s website www.ukcsa.co.uk shows everything you need to know about this popular material and provides a sound basis for its specification. The site also provides information about UKCSA and its members – the UK’s leading cast stone manufacturers: Bradstone, Broadmead Renaissance Cast Stone, Forticrete, Haddonstone, PD Edenhall, Plean Precast, Procter Cast Stone and Woodside Cast Stone.
United Kingdom Cast Stone Association
Victorian hospitals get new lease of life; cast stone helps preserve their looks O
The quality of bespoke cast stone from UKCSA member Procter Cast Stone has made a significant contribution to the restoration and conversion of a Grade Two-listed Victorian former hospital into 130 homes. Essex-based housebuilder City & Country Group won top property industry accolades for the development, The Galleries in Brentwood, Essex. Cast stone was extensively used to replace damaged Portland stone details on the mullioned windows, gables and octagonal tower of the existing Victorian Gothic building as well as for extensions and new buildings. The cast stone dressings included window and door surrounds, plinth and string courses, buttress stones, steps, bay windows, copings and gable vents. Procter’s staff worked closely with Brewster Bye Architects and the developer from preliminary meetings, achieving planning approval for the use of cast stone on a listed building, correct colour matching and the production of CAD drawings. Deliveries to site were phased to meet the developer’s requirements and hundreds of cast stone elements were individually labelled for easy identification. Mark Jones of City & Country Construction thanked the Procter team for their “...excellent service and commitment and for the significant contribution that the quality of your products has offered this prestigious development”. In April Procter Cast Stone became the latest full member of the UK Cast Stone Association (UKCSA), the guardian of quality for cast stone and representing the leading manufacturers.
Procter’s managing director Jeremy Procter said: “Over many years we have built a strong reputation for the quality of our products and exceptional standards of customer service. Now our full membership of UKCSA gives customers even greater confidence in our abilities. Moreover, it demonstrates that we maintain the highest standards in the industry, whether customers are buying from our standard range or we are manufacturing bespoke units to an architect’s designs.” Meanwhile, another Victorian hospital building – this time at Friern Barnet in Middlesex – has been sympathetically converted into luxury apartments by developer Comer Homes. A wide range of cast stone architectural details from UKCSA member PD Edenhall was used to re-create the Italianate splendour of the original elevations. The cast stone details – which include columns and their entablatures, plinths, quoins, cornices, dentil string courses, window surrounds and balustrading – were designed in conjunction with the developer’s architect. Although bespoke, the degree of repetition on the mouldings led to economies of scale. R