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Mackintosh School Of Architecture

The Riverside Pooja Suryakumar August 15th 2014 Pathway Tutor: Prof Mark Baines Pathway: Urban Building (Masters in Architecture, Individual Research Project)


Mackintosh School Of Architecture

Riverside Performance

Table of Contents Introduction Performance Architecture Glasgow . Clyde Waterfront Regeneration . Urban Architecture . Merchant city Precedents of Performance Architecture and Design . The Unicorn theatre for Children. Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre Tramway. Urban Building Creates Urban Space Getting towards water The Clyde street Context Program Feasibility Study Conceptual Design Spatial Analysis Design Drawings Bibliography.

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Introduction “Performance architecture is more than a frame to a picture” .In performance, people understand this unconsciously although they rarely speak out .The viewers are largely less aware of the contribution of performance architecture or theatre architecture to their spatial experience. This is different in case with religion. For most churchgoers the architectural atmosphere is as essential to the experience as the words with which the mystery is invoked. One may talk to God anywhere yet all but the hermit require to return to the holy place to rediscover the intensity of faith in the supportive presence of the faithful. Or to move from “sacred” to what some call the “profane”. The shift is deliberate as a sense of ‘place’ is not a solemn idea. (Mackintosh, 1993, p. 2) Theatres, philharmonic orchestras, concert halls and opera houses are among the most topical construction projects. Many Metropolises are complementing their cultural infrastructure by adding buildings of performing arts. Prestigious objects of cities and states, these buildings not only have very attractive interior designs but also shape the cityscape with their unique architecture. At the same time, theatres and concert halls are among the building types who have not strayed away from their ancient origins. While sacral structures have undergone significant changes from medieval basilica, whose basic shape served different purposes in olden days, to modern churches, the buildings for performing arts remained closely linked to their Greek origins.

Riverside Performance Marcellus Theatre , was the first theatre in Rome built entirely on stone. Medevial stage theatre, temporary platform and fittings. In early Renaissance period theatres were temporary wooden structures in exisitng halls, for example Vasari developed a wooden reusable system for a theatre in the Salone Dei Cinquencento Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. The Teatro Farnese Parma was the first building with moving scenery system. Teatro all Scala milan and Teatro “San Carlo” in Naples and Grand Opera House Bordeaux were the model for Opera Houses in 18th and 19th Century. During the Medieval times no new theatres were constructed, as in those days church crossings, stairs of church façade and mobile or improvised stages were used. In the Renaissance theatre construction was a direct continuation of the antique archetype. The most important innovation, however, was surely the roofing of the entire building structure. The plays were performed on shallow stages, while the auditorium was architecturally embellished. One of the most impressive examples is the teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, whose construction was started in 1580 by Palladio and whose essential interior design was completed in1583 by Scamozzi in the Mannerism style. Perspectively reduced alleys extend into the depth of the stage setting. At Jacob van Campen’s Amsterdam theatre this spatial illusion is an almost free-standing smallarchitecture. The illusionary architectural design stages was initially set up with a central perspective effect then segments of diagonally positioned buildings were added .Van Campen’s Palladian Baroque buildings also feature galleries , which were used

(Figure : 1 Left to right : 1. Teatro “San carlo” , Naples 2. Teatro Farnese, Parma 3. Grand Opera House, Bordeaux)

in earlier building for example at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre which was constructed in 1599 on the south bank of the Thames in London. octagon .

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Glasgow

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Mackintosh School Of Architecture

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The Historical Timeline of Glasgow, Lanarkshire

(Fig : 2 Map of 1857)

(Fig:3 Map of 1888)

(Fig:4 Map of 1892-94)

The Tenements has a long record, it is the most predominant Building type. The tenement has accomodated Proletetarian and professional alike, social distinctions were achieved first by vertical gradation within a single building block and later by district location within expanding city. Wordsall definition for “Tenement is a domestic building of more than a single storey, built for multiple occupation accessed by a common entrance”. The characteristic Grid-iron pattern of Glasgow did not occur until last quarter of 18th Century.StockwellGait , Old Wynd, New Wynd and Main Wynd were laid parallel to the Trongate by the Middle of 17th century. This was followed by the Kingstreet and Candleriggs Street was laid perpendicular to the trongate by 1722. Virginia Street was formed in 1753 , followed by Miller street in 1761 and Buchanan Street in 1771. In 1751 Jamaic Street was laid out followed by Hutcheson and the Great Glassford Street in 1780. In 18th Century, Wilson street was laid out substantially broader thn those streets which ran perpendicular to it but its width was deliberately constricted at it’s west and east ends. Ramshorn Church and Cunnigham Mansion stopped the perspectives along Canderleriggs and Ingram Street respectively.1804 plan established the parallelism that exists between the Tradeston network of street and the rectilinear pattern north of the river. Glasgow bridge linked the Fig:5 Trongait Steeple south bank via Jamaica street to city’s main axis i.e Trongate and Argyle city, since 1771.

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Clyde Waterfront Regeneration

The Clyde Street was laid out above the Northern bank between old bridge and new as an additional thoroughfare and stimulus for the new development in 1773.The existing Glasgow Urban redevelopment has seen major changes by connecting Tradeston to the growing Glasgow International Financial Services District in the Broomielaw on the opposite riverbank. Further east, the historic merchant city, the high street and Glasgow Green represent crucial components in the regeneration of the river. The Clyde waterfront between the Bridge street and the Stockwell street was an important location in terms of transitional point for trade and commerce in earlier times. Around 1857, the block was the entry point and hence housed the Clyde hotel and temperance hotel for the visitors and around the late 1800’s it gradually got converted into office as trade and commerce flourished the need for many retail and commercial spaces gradually increased and this was also important location in close proximity of then St. Enoch Station. The economic and financial value of this area grew as this was connected both by land and water. In the present day scenario the Clyde Street remains very inactive and unsafe for pedestrians and is only accessed by vehicular traffic. The aim of the research is to activate the Clyde Street by introducing an urban building at this site that runs twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week. This in turn would activate the commercial and retail activities along Clyde Street and the waterfront along the same street, thus making it more accessible for the public. Finally, it brings the life from the city towards the river 7


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“Anyone who has become entranced by the sound of the dripping water in the darkness of a ruin can attest to the extraordinary capacity of the ear to carve a volume into the void of the darkness.The space traced by the ear in the darkness becomes cavity sculpted directly in the interior of the mind� Juhani Pallasmaa. The Eyes of the skin:Architecture of the Senses.Chichester 2005.p-50

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Urban Architecture Urban architecture means “architecture that responds and contributes positively to its context and to the definition of the public realm”. The concern of ‘object buildings’ and ‘textures/fabrics’ suggests that , while the building fabric gives an image of continuity , of expansiveness , stretching to infinity the object is an closed element , finite , comprehensible as an entity . Standing out against a background, it concentrates visual attention. Where buildings are embedded within an urban block, the front façade may take on an object role, forming an object façade. Von Meiss uses the concept of ‘radiance’ to discuss spatial impact:

ing objects’ in space should therefore properly be occasional exceptions. This section concentrates on the design of the facades-some of which, depending on their radiance or purpose, can beseen as building-facades. The Recognition problems of ‘repetitive, boring elevations, prefabricated for speedy erection’, Buchanan (1988b, 25-27) (M.Carmona, T.Heath, T.OC, S.Tiesdall, Pp. 150) argued that they should be following the below norms:

1. They should create a sense of place. “A freestanding sculpture or buildings exerts radiance which defines a more or less precise field around it”. 2. Mediating between inside and out and between private and public space, providing gradations between the two. The beginning of a spatial experience is when one enter the field of influence of an object. While the building –façade has a radiance onto public space, 3. Suggesting the potential presence of people by having windows and the building’s other three sides are embed in the general fabric. The extent those that reveal internal life and frame them of radiance depends on the nature and the size of the object or façade; the context; and/or the design of the surrounding space. ( (Camron, et al., n.d., 4. Having character and coherence that will acknowledge conventions and p. 149) make opportunities for dialogue with adjacent buildings Urban buildings are also more difficult to design successfully than those buildings which present only their main façade to public space since they 5. Having compositions that crate sense of repose and rhythm and hold are viewed, and therefore subject to aesthetic critique, from many points. the attention. Rejecting the concept of buildings as freestanding sculptural objects, Sitte (Camron, et al., n.d., p.149) saw a building’s principle aesthetic concern as 6. Having a sense of mass and materials expressive of the form of conthe manner in which its facade defined the limits to aspace and how it is seen struction. from within the space. Since the freestanding buildings would inevitably be overexposed, like a ‘cake on a serving-platter’, and moreover, would involve 7. Having substantial, tactile and decorative natural materials, this shall the additional ‘expense of finishing lengthy facades’, he argues that it was weather gracefully. greatly to the client’s advantage for the building to be embedded within an urban block, since its main façade could then be carried out in marble from 8. Having decoration that distracts, delights and intrigues. top to bottom ‘(Sitte, from Collins and Collins, 1965, 28). As the aesthetics effect of the urban buildings works by contrast with the fabric (i.e. the object needs a ground to stand out against), the design of structures as ‘freestand9


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The Merchant city Context

Fig:6 The drawing maps the notable theatres and galleries in glasgow city centre.

Fig :7 The drawing mapping the third places in merchant city.

The King’s theatre and Theatre royal and Pavillion theatres are not only the prominent theatre’s but also one of the oldest in the city. It dates back to the time when the only source of entertainment for people of glasgow were to watch plays and musicals at these theatres. This is also one of the reaons for the popularity of Pre-theatre course dinner at many restaraunts. Back in 1860, the owner of theatre royal felt cowcaddens was far too north of the city and hence proposed a for a theatre in dunlop street. Oldenberg emphasises again the importance of the character of the third spaces and how it leads to various human interactions based on the neutral ground ,as a leveler where “Conversation is the main activity”.He quotes “ Third places conversations is typically engrossing.Consciousness of times and condition slips away amid its lively flow”. (Oldenberg, 1999,p 30)

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The Unicorn theatre for Children, London, UK Keith William Architects

Fig:8 The Unicorn Theatre

Riverside Performance This theatre is situated in the backstreets of London borough of Southwark’s, with a purpose of attracting ‘Younger audience’. It is one of the pioneer projects and one of the first new theatre dedicated to children,this naturally brought many design challenges. Unicorn theatre for children survived its nomadic existence until 1960s from Buckinghamshire to Hertfordshire and other places in UK. This theatre achieved a reputation for nurturing young talents and producing performances for children in 1999 when it shared space with Arts centre in Leicester Square. The sensitivity to the issue of “winning the hearts and minds of the children is the key part”, quotes the architect. The project had other challenges as well; it was located in a part of London that was already undergoing major regeneration and falling within the master plan created by Foster and partners. Thesite is on the south side of Tooley Street which runs parallel to the River Thames. This section of river bank is home to Foster’s city hall and other major office buildings seven to ten floors high. The buildings on Tooley Street are at a smaller scale, and the Unicorn bounding a pedestrianized spine connecting the Tooley Street to the river forms a link between the two relative sizes of building. (Hammond, 2006, 140) The primary requirements were a 350 seat theatre a 120-seat studio space, a rehearsal room, foyers and cafes. There was ample freedom to William (the architect) to use his imagination as this was the only arts building in the block but the constrained footprint meant a dense development. William strongly felt that the building should be as transparent as possible at ground level to tempt

Fig:9 Image on left bottom shows the site plan of the theatre.(Hammond,2006, p. 140)

the passer-by. This gave rise to the idea on jacking the auditorium up to the first-floor level above the ground, the studio space snuggles under the theatre and is acoustically separate, the form of the main auditorium “in a copper covered box” floating above the foyer is an inspiration by that of classical amphitheatre. This is reached by a theatrical journey up stairs through various levels. A large window allows views into the studio, where workshops are held. William quotes that “theatre is challenging in many ways to children and we wanted the architecture to be an echo of that. We had never intended it to be ‘childlike’ but more sculptural”. (Hammond, 2006, 143)

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Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre, Dallas, Texas, USA Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) ( (Uffelen, 2010, p. 269)

The compact, vertical orientation of the 12 story high Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre stacks supporting spaces, such as the foyer, ticket counters and backstage facilities, above and beneath the auditorium, instead of having them wrap around it. This re-imagining of the theatre typology exposes the auditorium to the city on all sides.Shakespeare can be performed in a hermetic container, or by simply opening the blackout blinds along the exterior glass walls-with the city of Dallas as a backdrop. The form also facilitates innovation in the theatre’s mechanics: theconventional fly tower above the stage has been vertically extended and can pull up both scenery and seating.quite a challenge Fig :10 Image on top left shows the building section and organisation Fig :11-13 Different Seating Arrangement

Second the new program needed to be flexible and multi-form at low cost. The Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre overcomes the above challenges by their innovations and turning around of conventional theatre design. The functions that are generally stacked in front of the house and back of the house around the auditorium and fly tower, these are stacked above and below in Wyly theatre. This change in strategy transforms the building into a huge machine. The theatre can be transformed into wide variety of configurations- like the thrust, proscenium and flatfloor at the push of a button. This frees the director and scenic designers to choose the most conducivestage-audience configuration that fulfils the given set of artistic desires. In order to encourage alterations ,the performance chambers is consciously made ofnon-precious materials In a limited cost the stagecan be cut, welded and sawed n glued. By Wyly theatre provides for artistic directors freedom to determine the whole package of theatre experience since the infrastructure allows ready transformation and thus liberates the performance chamber’s perimeter.This project is based on learning and improvingupon earlier DTC’s arts district theatre.

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Tramway, Glasgow, Scotland ZM Architecture, Glasgow

Fig:8 Image source: (ZMArchitecture,n.d.)

Riverside Performance Tramway is located well outside Glasgow’s city centre on the South side of the River Clyde in an area that is bounded by various railways lines, which in the past was an industrial non-habited land between the residential area of Pollockshields and the less fashionable areas of the Gorbals and Govanhill. It requires an effort to arrive there by public transport. It is situated in less fashionable areas of the Gorbals and Govanhill. It is far from any other palace of culture, distanced from both the cluster of theatres in the city centre and by at least a mile from its nearest theatrical neighbour, the Citizens’ Theatre. In many ways the image that once existed, of a shabby, less fashionable theatre has been taken over by welcoming and unintimidating building. Tramway is a proud industrial building which has retained most of the functional and simple sense of a factory, even though it has been in cultural usesince last thirty years.

The building houses both the gallery/foyer and the main performance space that one can enter Fig : 9 Images showing the tramway in past and presthrough some small makeshift spaces. The main gallery runs into a bar, which is 54.5 metres long ent source ZM architects accessed on and 25 metres wide and 8 metres high. The walls are covered by plasterboard and painted brick. 10-04-2014 The galleries are located on the either end of building just below the roof level. One of the galleries is used for receptions and for lighting of events in the galleries and is reached through the Tramway offices. Above these gallery spaces is a low serrated roof made of wood and glass. (Cameron, 1992) The main performance spaces is as much as mystery as the gallery The audience is made to enter through the spaces which gives the sense of makeshift box and they arrive into an echoing , low-lit hollow interior , this change of sense of spatial experience can be described as the chameleon-like quality. The performance spaces is markedly flexible , wherein the audience have stood and sat, in a conventional proscenium style configuration , in the thrust and in the flat floor consciously designed for the specific act. Sometimes the configuration spilled out into areas around the pools of water and in boxes which even occupied spaces out of the gallery and then into hidden gardens at the back of the building. 13


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Riverside Performance “The Urban Building creates the Urban Space” - (Camron, et al., n.d.) The research question along the building level focusses on the concept of street as an artery and a means of orientation. These street-like passage create a sense of city-centre within the urban building. This must be fashioned such that, it is relatively narrow. The passer-by must be able to cast an eye over all the spaces around without perpetually having to cross from one side of the street to other. This passage must be cautiously designed since it is disadvantageous to provide exactly the street frontage like a shopping arcade. (Krier, 1979, 20) In the given context the street-like space is the heart of the building that creates a communication link between the fox street and the Clyde Street and in turn the river. This also creates activity along the riverfront of Clyde Street, as well. Thus it creates a visual promenade in front of the urban building. At a differential level, the flexibility of “performing houses” is an important factor that provides for the artist to use the facility in accordance with artist requirements and economic affordability. The flexibility questions the need to satisfy all possible configurations. Experiments have shown that the more the seats, the less flexible theatres will be, a modular system must be designed to make the transition from one configuration to another smooth and efficient. Maachiel Spaan quotes that every buildings and every spaces has its own particular sound in the book Music, Space and Architecture. This examines the spatial experience in relation to architecture and music at different scales. The experimental facet of the relation between music and space and architecture are highlighted in various contributions. The article further along explains via four essays on how architecture illuminates the relation between architecture and music and how space mediates between them.

Fig : 14 Street-like Character

Jan Gehl talks about cities in his Book Life between buildings where he quotes that Living cities, therefore one sin which people can interact with one another, are always stimulating, because they are rich in experiences, in contrast to lifeless cities, which can scarcely avoid being poor in experience and thus dull no matter how many colours and variations of shape in buildings are introduced. While consciously analysing the conflict of why the a space is designed for a particular purpose or a function usually ends up being under-utilised or vacant , Jan Gehl points that people are attracted to other people. They gather with and move about with others and seek to place themselves near others. New activities begin in the vicinity of events that are already in progress.

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Riverside Performance At a differential level, the flexibility of “performing houses” is an important factor that provides for the artist to use the facility in accordance with artist requirements and economic affordibility. The flexibilty questions the need to satisfy all possible configurations. Experiments have shown that the more the seats, the less flexible theatres will be, a modular system must be designed to make the transition from one configuration to another smooth and efficient. (Stephen A. Kliment & Hardy, 2006) Fig :10 mage shows diagrams by Yale professor emeritus Ming Cho Lee. Cho Lee constituted the planning team for new space designed for student work as the Yale school of drama.

Images showing the street activity in Glasgow

This hypothesis is justified by investigations of seating in a number of squares in Central Copenha-Top : The musicians playing on Sauchiehall Street gen where benches with a view of the most trafficked pedestrian routes are used most while benchesBottom : The balloon artist on Buchanan Street oriented towards the planted areas of the squares are used less frequently. By far the greatest number of people stop to watch other people and events. Lewis Mumford describes the third spaces as “a collective effort to live a private life.” The first and foremost important function of the third places is that of uniting the neighbourhood. Third spaces can be described as a public space which serve virtually everybody , soon create an environment in which everybody just knows everybody .Oldenburg Ray in the book character of third spaces which act as “ Port of entry” for visitors, the concept of neutral ground wherein no one is burdened by the role of the host or the guest. Third places often serve to bring together for the first time, people who will create other forms of associations later. These places are an escape or time out from life’s duties and drudgeries. It is that places that is accessible to the general public, leveller by nature and does not set formal criteria of membership and exclusion.

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“Getting towards the Water�

Fig 15-17 showing Merchant city Before and present context

The diagram shows the desired routes to get towards the water ; one is directly coming from Buchanan street to St. Enoch’s square Via Dixon Street another one is the Stockwell street which continues from Glassford street and Italian centre. The secondary axes are the Maxwell Street and Dunlop Street. The latter ones are very less significant when considered to connect the city centre towards the water and across the river Clyde. The concept proposal for this site consists of adding a desired route from the site towards the water and across the Portland street suspension bridge to connect to Carlton. This desire route is a very important pedestrian axis that connects the northern to the southern city centre across the Clyde. The performance Space along the river, situated at the termination of one of the important axis also allows it to become a part of the skyline and be one of landmark building.

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“The beautiful thing about the architect’s endeavour is the ability to divest oneself totally of one’s work. The architect transfers to the building an instrumental condition, one of use.” Rafael Moneo in his Interiew on Public spaces , 2010

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The Clyde street context

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Urban Edge

Light Shade and Shadow

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Feasibility study 1– Young’s Centre for Performing Arts, Toronto, Canada KPMB Architects This Building is an example for new prototype which combine teaching and live performances under one roof. The idea behind the project was to develop a clear plan order such that it maximises the building performance, said the architects, KPMB. The design creates a common platform for the performance and teaching to be conducted hand-in-glove and it creates a cycle of events which are interdependent and grow mutually along each other. It is said to incorporate Old and new modes of Interactivity for teaching and performance to successfully co-exist . Technically speaking this space was created between two tank houses with massive timber trusses that span the historic load bearing walls. The place is characterised by a “raw warm industrial aesthetics” – as quoted by the Architectural Record magazine, November 2007 issue. This exercise was performed to test the program and scale of the building on the chosen urban site. ((KPMB)Architects, 2006)

Fig: 18 Images Fig : 19 Left bottom : Ground floor Fig: 20 Master plan

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Feasibility study 2 – Byre Theatre, St Andrews (Unbuilt) – Richard Murphy Architects

Images : Right : The study of the buidling on the site. Top : The proposed plan of Byre’s Theatre

This project along with other two theatre projects is known to emphasize the obsession with the idea of expressing the semi-circular plan form of auditorium within the foyer; which they (architect) calls it, “a building within the building.” The Architects say the idea has it’s lineage from Aalto’s early projects for theatre, all up to Palladio’s Teatro Olympia, Vicenza. Here in this project, the foyer would by default be an internal piece of the city as they would have been urban shortcuts. Byre’s theatre grew out of a converted farm shed, its front of the house was located off the one of many pedestrians’ wynds in St. Andrews. The idea was to have two front doors such that it connects the theatre to both sides of the town. (Artifice Books on Architecture , 2012, 274)

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Aerial View of the Project

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Program

Based on the precedents and Feasibility studies the pogram was thus formed. Image showing the axonometric view of conceptual design.

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Conceptual Sketch

Cly

de

Str

ee

t

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Spatial Analysis

Performance Spaces

Gallery Spaces

Cafe/Restaurant

Services

Studio

Accomodation

Circulation

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“First life, then spaces, then buildings – the other way around never works.” Jan Gehl in Public Spaces-Public Life

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Builing line starts right at the same level as street to enforce the connection of the building along the city urban scape. the terrace of the Studio opens out ot the river. and the main central circulation opens to the River, all this together create a dialouge between the north and south of the site. The building along the Clyde Street attempts to balance the existing skyline- 13 storied residential apartment along east and 7 storied mixed-use building on the west. The Long-bar Restaraunt along the street is a conscious attempt in activating pedestrain activity along the Clyde street and thus connecting either side of the street. The Galleries along the Fox Street and Clyde Street are placed in an attempt to give the residential elevation along Fox Street a new lease by creating a sense of mystery. The residential block is placed along the Maxwell Street such that it is placed well receded in quiet place with its view to the river. The building conceptualises to be extrovert in an attempt to create a balance and create a strong dialogue between the Fox Street and Clyde Street.

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PERFROMANCE SPACE

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The Various Seating Arrangements

End Stage

Traverse

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The Various Seating Arrangements

Arena

Thrust

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LEVEL ONE

6 2

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REHERSAL SPACE GALLERY 7

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1. PERFORMANCE SPACE 2. GALLERY 3. RESTAURAUNT 5.THE GREEN ROOM 6.THE DRESSING ROOM 7.REHERSAL STUDIO

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LEVEL TWO

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REHERSAL SPACE GALLERY

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LEVEL 0

6

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5

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1. PERFORMANCE SPACE 2. GALLERY 3. RESTAURAUNT 4 THE STREET 5.THE GREEN ROOM 6.THE DRESSING ROOM 7.REHERSAL STUDIO

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LEVEL THREE

REHERSAL SPACE GALLERY

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LEVEL FOUR

REHERSAL SPACE GALLERY

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LEVEL SIX

ACCOMODATION SPACE

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The restaraunt on First Floor overlooking the restaraunt and the Performance space and looking out to the Suspension Bridge.

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The studio overlooking the Suspension Bridge

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Bibliography Andreu, P., 2008. National Grand Theater of China. [Online] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/1218/national-grand-theater-of-china-paul-andreu/ [Accessed 10 04 2014]. Cameron, A., 1992. Glasgow’s Tramway: Little Diagilevs and Large Ambitions.. Theatre Research International, 17(02), pp. 146-155. Glenn.D.Lowry, 2004. Designing The New Museum of Modern Art-New York. 1 ed. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Hammond, M., 2006. Performing Architecture Opera Houses, Theatres and Concert Halls for the twentyFirst Century. 1 ed. London Newyork: Merrell. Klaske Havik, H. T. a. G. T., 2013. Building Atmosphere - Juhani Pallasmaa, Peter Zumthor. OASE Journal for Architecture, December, p. 003. M.Camron, T. T. S., n.d. Public spaces Urban Spaces. s.l.:s.n. Mackintosh, I., 1993. Architector, Actor and Audience. 1 ed. London: Routledge Publications. Mason, G., n.d. Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus, UNESCO. [Online] Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/491/gallery/ [Accessed 10 04 2014]. Moneo, R., 2001. The freedom Of the Architect. 1 ed. Michigan: The University of Michigan . OMAl, R., 2011. Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre. [Online] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/37736/dee-and-charles-wyly-theatre-rex-oma/ [Accessed 10 04 2014]. Uffelen, C. V., 2010. Masterpieces Performance Architecture+Design. 1 ed. Deutsche: Braun Publishing AG. ZMArchitecture, n.d. www.zmarchitecture.co.uk. [Online] Available at: http://www.zmarchitecture.co.uk/case-studies/tramway/tramway1.html [Accessed 10 04 2014].

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