Page 1

The Bandhani of The Bandhani of Kachchh: Ties Across Time Kachchh: Ties Across Time

1


2


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY KANGRA

CO-ORDINATED BY: DR. Anunita Rangra(Course Co-ordinator, Textile Design) Mr. Vinod K Sharma(Cluster Initiative Co-ordinator)

Core Student Team: Dhruva Rao Kumari Manisha Pooja Kushwaha Rohit Kumar Shailza Sharma

Faculty sign: .......................................

3


4


We take this opportunity to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. Apart from our effort, the success of this documentation dependent upon the encouragement and guidelines of many others, to whom we are highly obliged. First of all, we want to convey our sincere reverence to our honorable director Prof. S. K. Bala Sidhartha for serving as the backbone of our support and inspiration channel. Also our heartfelt gratitude to course coordinator, Dr. Anunita Rangra and cluster initiative coordinator, Mr. Vinod K Sharma, who presented us with this unique opportunity to document this paradise like BANDHANI OF KACHCHH which, even after being the home for such heritage, has been missing from the craft map of India. We express our gratitude to our senior batch; their earlier work and documentation was a yardstick for us. Last, but not the least, we would like to give a sincere gratitude to the people of Bhuj , especially the craftsmen and artisans, who accommodated our requests and shared their knowledge of skill and expertise with us. We sincerely hope that this endeavor of ours will benefit these people whose deft hands are sustaining the real India.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

5


6


This document is a beginning of an ending craft . It describes the the bandhani and other crafts, the tools and techniques applied and their different processes . It also briefs about the families associated with these crafts and their lifestyles that tales us to a totally different world which exists with our own fast and busy life. The document gives an account of the beautiful land of Kutch . Though it is a land of few people but it is also known among some as a land of palaces, forts, colorful dressage, bird rich marshes marketed and propagated to the surroundings world to maintain the throng of tourists to the Rann of Kutch . It is an experience of unending journey. The document also suggests that we need to be much more open to questioning our economics, history, business practices and the future associated with them. It also talks about how in these communities still exists the real India which makes it different from rest of the world.

PREFACE

7


17

HISTORY

INTRODUCTION 11

8

FESTIVALS 25

27

47

BANDHANI

PRESENT SCENARIO

PROCESS 37

ARTISAN PROFILE 51


61

79

MUSEUM AND PLACES CHALLENGES

OTHER CRAFT 71

87

91

CONCLUSION

REFRENCES

OUR EXPERIENCE 85

GLOSSARY 88

CONTENT 9


10

RANN OF KUTCH


Kutch district is the second largest district of India in Gujarat State . It literally means something which intermittently becomes wet and dry, a larger part of the district is known as Rann of Kutch which is shallow wetland which submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during the other seasons and becomes dry during the other seasons. Kutch lies rather isolated from the rest of Gujarat is divided into two main parts, being Little Rann of Kutch and Big Rann . The two names are derived from the river Rann that floods large parts of the area during the monsoon. The good thing about this is that it attracts a lot of special water birds. The great and Little Rann of Kutch are the breeding ground of flamingo, pelican and Avocet and the home of the rare Indian wild Ass which is now a protected species

INTRODUCTION

11


12


GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT KUTCH- BHUJ State

Gujarat

Total population

2090313

Male population

1096343

Female population

993970

Total Area

45652 Sq.Kms

Rural Area

19129 Sq.Kms

Urban Area

349.5 Sq.Kms

Literacy

71.58%

Languages

Gujarati, Hindi and local dialects like Kutchi

Total villages

949

Talukas

Bhuj, Anjar, Mandvi, Mundra,Abdasa-Nalia, Lakhpat, Rapar, Bhachau and Nakhatrana

Education

89.59%

Medical

50.79%

Drinking water

100%

Post and telegraph

59.95%

Communication

93.55%

Power supply

96.49%

Forest area

183600 Hect.

Irrigated area

71000 Hect.

Unirrigated area

662600 Hect. 13


GEOGRAPHY Kutch District is surrounded by the Gulf of Kachchh and the Arabian Sea in the south and west , while northern and eastern part are surrounded by the great and small Rann (seasonal wetlands of Kutch ) . The great Rann of Kutch dominates a major port line of the district. Kutch occupies almost one fourth of the geographical area of the Gujarat state, it accounts for nearly 60 percent of the drought prone area of the state. It has a vast coastline of 352 Kms with Arabian Sea that binds the District on the south-west. The administrative Headquarter is in Bhuj which is geographically in the center of the district. Other main towns are Gandhidham, Rapar, Nakhatrana, Anjar, Mandvi, Madhapar and Mundra. Kachchh is virtually an island, as it is surrounded by the Arabian Sea in the west; the Gulf of Kachchh in south and southeast and Rann of Kachchh in north and northeast. The border with Pakistan lies along the northern edge of the Rann of Kachchh of the Siri creek. The Kachchh peninsula is an example of active fold and thrust tectonics . In Central Kachchh there are four major east-west hill ranges characterized by fault propagation folds with steeply dipping northern limbs and gently dipping southern limbs. From the gradual increasing dimension of the linear chain of hillocks towards the west along the Kachchh mainland fault and the epicenter of the earthquake of 2001 lying at the eastern extreme of Kachchh mainland fault, it is suggested that the eastern part of the Kachchh mainland fault is progressively emerging upward. It can be suggested from the absence of distinct surface rupture both during the 1956 Anjar earthquake and 2001 Bhuj earthquake, that movements have taken place along a blind thrust. Villages situated on the blind thrust in the eastern part of Kachchh mainland hill range (viz. Jawahar nagar, Khirsara, Devisar, Amarsar and Bandhdi) were completely erased during the 2001 earthquake

14


WILDLIFE SANCTURIES AND RESERVES IN KUTCH

From the city of Bhuj various ecologically rich and wildlife conservation areas of the Kutch / Kachchh district can be visited such as Indian

Wild Ass Sanctuary , Kutch Desert Wildlife sanctuary , Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary , Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Banni Grasslands Reserve and Chari –Dhand Wetland Conservation Reserve etc.

WILDLIFE SANCTURIES

15


16


Kutch was formerly an independent state, founded in the late 13th century Samma Rajput named Jada , from which the name the Jadeja Rajputs drive their patronise . In 1815 Kutch became a British protectorate and ultimately a princely state, whose local ruler acknowledged British sovereignty in return for local autonomy . Bhuj was the capital of princely state of Kutch . One surviving relic of the princely era is the beautiful Aina Mahal (“Mirror palace� ) , built in the 1760s at Bhuj for the Maharao of Kutch by Ramsingh Malam who had learnt glass, enamel and the tile work from the Dutch. Alongwith that during that period Kutch had its own currency , while the rest of British India was using rupees. The Maharao also had built at his expense the Kutch state state railway. A few major towns of the Indus valley civilization are located in Kachchh. Dholaveera , locally known as Kotada Timba , is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological site in India belonging to the Indus valley civilization. Upon the independence of India in 1947, Kachchh acceded into the dominion of India and vast constituted as independent commissionerate. On the partition of India in1947, the prominence of Sindh , including the port of Karachi , become part of Pakistan . The Indian Government constructed a modern port at Kandla in Kutch to serve as a port for western India in lieu of Karachi.

HISTORY

17


PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES Kutch district is inhabitated by various groups and communities. Any of these have reach this region after centuries of migration from neighbouring regions of Marwar(Western Rajasthan), Sindh , Afghanistan and further. Even today one can find various nomadic , semi- nomadic and artisans group living in Kutch.

18

RABARI COMMUNITY


The majoy groups such as Lohana , Kapdi , Jadeja, Darbar, Kathis , Rajputs, Malis samaj , Leva Patel , Kadva Patel , Brahmins , Nagar Brahmins , Nadvana Brahins , Khatris , Rabaris , Shah, Rajgor , Bhanushali , Jains ( Visa and Dasa oswal ), Kutch Gurjar , kshatriyas , Mistris , Kharwa , Meghwals , Wankars , Vankaras , Ahirs , and many others have adopted a settled lifestyle and have struck a life rhythym close to that of modern-day terms . The great Rabari groups spread over the western plains of India from Kutch to Rajasthan. They are Hindu cattle-breeders and shepherds , falling into three endogamous groups- those of Kutch, Rajasthan and Central Gujarat. The other main groups of pastoralists consist of two dozen Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Muslim groups who trace their routes from Sindh and beyond. The Jath are the largest such group. The others are smaller and live in Banni area and close to the salt marshes of the Great Rann of kutch , and also in the surrounding areas . The Jaths are thed Nomadic community spread over Kutch. They appear to have started the migration to this area, from Sindh , some 400 years ago . There is a great concentration of Ahirs in Kutch .

GROUP OF RABARI WOMEN

19


COSTUMES Kutchi costumes are unique and some of the embroidered are very costly. The mirror work and embroidery work forms an integral part of Kutchi handicrafts irrespective of the community or ethnic group to which they belong, however the workmanship differs. Infact the various communities can be identified by the pattern of handicraft and dress or costumes they wear. For instance, the Garcia Jat women wear only red or black chunis while Rabari women wear black open blouses or cholis with odhnis to cover head. In the rural areas, women wear Chaniya Choli’s during the whole year, Chaniya Choli’s are of many designs and fashion. Typical Kutchi costume is incomplete without ‘Abha’ and ‘Kanjari’. ‘Abha’ is the name of typical choli worn by women folk and ‘Kanjari’ is long blouse beautifully embroidered with mirror work. Most men in Kutch wear loose trousers, a long-sleeve under-jacket, a short coat, a plain or silk-bordered cloth. Normally men prefer white clothes except the Muslims who prefer colored clothes.

20

TRADITIONAL COSTUMES


CULTURE AND RELIGION The different tribal groups that now live in Kutch have migrated there from countries as diverse as present day Pakistan , Afghanistan , Russia, Iran and other areas in the Middle East and Central Asia. As far as religion goes, remarkable amity amongst different religious groups has been traditional in Kutch. The Kutch rulers paid equal reverences at temple, mosques and darghas and though being Hindu and the good portion of the army was Muslim. The Kutch Darbars also gave protection and facilities to pilgrims going Mecca. As per the 2011 Census the district population was 20,90,313 of which around a third are Muslims . the Muslims are mostly concentrated in the north along the border with Pakistan. The remainder of the population adhere to mostly Hinduism and Jainism. There are also some Sikhs and Gurudwara is also situated in Kutch at Lakhpat. The Swaminarayan Sampraday has a huge following in this region . The main temple in this district is Shree Swaminarayan Mandir, Bhuj. Anjar city is the really famous also as Swaminarayana Mandir and Sawaminarayanians.

RANNOTSAV

21


FOOD AND DRINKS The majority of the population is vegetarians. Jains, Buddhism and some other caste perform strict vegetarianism. Hindus perform various degree of vegetarianism but certainly do not eat beef. In the villages, staple foods include bajra and milk; bajra na rotla with curd and butter milk is very common food for all the Gujarati people. They also extensively drink buttermilk during lunch. Milk is considered to be sacred food and offering it to somebody is considered a gesture of friendship and welcoming. In the Kutchi engagement ceremony, the bride’s family offers milk to the groom’s relatives as a symbol of accepting their relationship. Tea is the most popular drink in the region and is enjoyed irrespective of sex, caste, religion or social status. Tea stalls where groups of people chat over tea are invariable sights of every village or town entrance from early morning to late evening. Alcoholic liquor is another popular drink, though it has been illegal to drink or possess since Kutch was incorporated within Gujarat. Most of the liquor drunk in this region is distilled from molasses by local people in villages. As a rule, women do not drink alcohol. Some of the notable Gujarati food items are Chakli, Daal Parantha, Dal dhokli, Gujarati Kadhi, Khaman, Khandvi, Khichu, Kakdi Nu Raitu, Khajoor Na Ghugra, Osaman, Ringan Nu Shaak, Chhundo, Gunda, Masala Puri, Shrikand, Undhiyo, Asoondi, Makai Na Bharta, Leelva Nu Bhaat, Toor daal

22

MARCHA NU SHAAK


DABELI

KHAKHRA

23


24 NAVRATRI


A visit to Kutch Desert Festival offers an insight into the region which comprises of extensive wastelands and eerie landscapes to the excitement of a large number of tourists who come to visit Gujarat. Kutch is a large inundated section of land bearing similarities with the American wild west. Kutch can also be equated with deserts in some terrains. Kutch gets displayed in all its potential, beauty and vigor, with a large number of connoisseurs to comment on the colorful and vibrant lifestyles of the people in Kutch through the Kutch festival. Kutch festival is celebrated near the days when Shivratri is celebrated in Gujarat. During the festival celebrations colorfully attired dancers, music, Langa desert music and shops selling embroideries and jewellery are too the hallmarks of Kutch desert festival. The other festivals celebrated are Navaratri. Kite flying (Maker Sakranti), Deepavali, Shiv ratri, Janmasthmi, holi and a number of small festivals.

FESTIVALS

25


26


Bandhana and bandha are Sanskrit words meaning to ‘to tie’ (and it is from this Indian word that the English name for a spotted handkerchief, ‘bandanna ‘, derives), but this tieand- dye technique is internationally known by its Malay-Indonesian name, plangi. The term bandhani refers both to the technique and to the finished cloth. By pinching up and resist tying area of the fabric before dyeing, circular designs maybe produced. Rajasthan and Gujarat are famed for their production of fine and prolific bandhani. Coarser bandhani is worked in Sind and Madhya Pradesh. The traditional garb of the rural women of western India includes the odhni shawls, made with the bandhani method. These shawls are of striking, swirling yellow or white dots, set in stylized floral patterns against a bright red or deep red ground. As part of the traditional set of choli, gaghra and odhni, the bandhani odhni looks stunningly colourful.

BANDHANI

27


When simply tied, bandhani textiles are inexpensive and this is one of the cheapest ways for women of the poorer communities to dress in a colourful fashion. When tied with many fine knots, The price of bandhani rises steeply and is then the preserve of the richer classes. In Gujarat very fine bandhani odhnis tied on silk or fine quality cotton are worn as wedding garments by the women of the richer communities of merchants, landlords and the higher class of craftsmen, A bandhani sari that is traditionally worn for Gujarati weddings, and one that has become increasingly popular, is the gharchola. This is patterned with a gridwork of small bandhani squares of yellow dots against a bright red background, with motifs of lotus flowers, dancing women and elephants. The centres for this fine work, as well as for much of the simpler work, are in Kutch and Saurashtra. Bhuj is a town with a great many bandhani workers, and in Abdasa Taluka and at Anjar, too, bandhani textiles are made; but it is in the beautiful old coastal port of Mandvi that some of the finest bandhani in India is tied. Kutchi bandhani patterns and colours tend to be more traditional, as they still have a local market to serve, though most Kutchi bandhani is commissioned by the the merchants of Jamnagar, where it is often taken for the final dying process which adds red to the colours of the clothes. The water around Jamnagar is reputed to bring out the brightest red. The largest bandhani workshops are in Saurashtra, especially at Jamnagar, though bandhani is also made at Porbandar, Morvi, Rajkot and at Wadwahan. surendranagar. Simpler bandhani is made around Ahmedabad and Pethapur and at Deesa, in north Gujarat. All these towns have good river water available for dying and rinsing. The material used is thin-mill made clothes, either a loosely woven silk known as ‘georgette’ or cotton known as mal-mal. The white, generally unbleached cloth is folded into four or more layers before the tying commences. The traditional technique of laying out the pattern-in pins or nails set in a wooden block upto which dampened cloth is placed and then pinched up in between the nails with thumb nd four finger- has long fallen into disuse. A rangara( colourer first marks off the fields with a cord dipped in a fugitive mixtures, which in Kutch is known as Geru.

28


BANDHANI SAREE

29


TOOLS USED FOR TYEING NAKHLI ‘Nakh’ is a term used for an artificial nail made of plastic or metal worn on the ring finger. The point on the nakhli facilities intricate tyeing of bandhanis.

BHUNGLI A thin small funnel like pipe used for a better grip while tying the knot on the fabric is known as Bhungli. It is generally made of plastic & glass. The thread used for tyeing is made to pass through the bhungli and thus the knot is tied.

NEEDLES Needles are used to make the stitch resist pattern like “kodi’s”

30

NAKHLI

NEEDLES


PERFORATED POLYTHENE SHEETS Nowadays wooden blocks are replaced by perforated polythene sheets. Patters are made with tiny holes perforation to facilitate printing throughout polythene sheets.

THREADS (DORI) They are generally used to mark straight lines, borders and pallus. It is dipped geru, Robin blue and is placed on the fabric and thus the imprint is obtained.

GERU The red paste used for the printing in a solution of red oxide clay is known as geru.

ROBIN BLUE It is substitute for geru used for printing.

POLYTHENE SHEET

THREAD

GERU

31


COLOURS The art of Bandhani is highly skilled process. The technique involves dyeing a fabric which is tied tightly with a thread at several points,thus producing a variety of patterns like Leheriya, Mothra, Ekdali and Shikari depending on the manner in which the cloth is tied. The main colours used in Bandhani are yellow, red,blue, green and black. Bandhani work, after the processing is over, results into a variety of symbols including, dots, squares, waves and strips. Bandhani pieces can be dyed by natural and artificial colors. The main colours used in Bandhani are natural. In fact all colours in bandhani are dark, no light colour is used, and the background is mostly in black / red cloth.

32

BANDHANI IN VARIOUS COLOURS


TOOLS USED FOR DYEING AND FINISHING: Wooden sticks are used to stir the solution. Rubber gloves, metal utensils ( Tapela, Tagara, Buckets) mugs, gas stove are also used. Dyeing machine and washing machines are used to rinse the extra water and for washing the finished bandhani.

DYEING TANK

DYEING GLOVES

33


DYES AND CHEMICALS The dyes used for dyeing the tied fabrics are as follows:

DYES FOR COTTON: Direct dyes are used with common salt to dye basic cotton fabric. Congo Red Chlorozol yellow CGS Chlorozol fast orange RS Cholrozol blue SC Chlorozol brown

DYE USED FOR BANDHANI

Reactive dyes are also used with solution of Common Salt, Soda ash and Lisopol D solution. The colours are: Procion Red Procion turquoise blue Indochrome brillian orange Indochrome brillian yellow Napthol dyes are dissolved with chemicals like Caustic soda, Sodium Nitrite, Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Acetate. The colours are locally named as: Napthol AS Napthol ASSW Napthol ASG 34


DYES FOR SILK Silk is always dyed in Acid dyes and the chemicals used are Commonsalt, Sulphuric Acid and Acetic Acid. The colours include: Navillion Yellow Navillion Orange Sandolal NBL Komose Blue Navillion Red R.S. Brown ZRL The various color combinations are made by normally mixing different dyes. These dyes and chemicals are purchased from the local market as well as from Ahmedabad, Bombay and Surat. They are manufactured by CIB, Hoechst as well as local manufacturers.

NATURAL DYES

35


36


PREPARATION OF THE FABRIC The fabric obtained for bandhani is usually in yardage. It is then cut into different sizes as per requirements. Gharcholas and sarees are generally woven in pieces of 5 to 6 mts. The various measurements of the variety of items made are as follows: Dupatta (Odhani )-

21/2 to 3 mts.

Dress materials-

5 mts, - 36” width 4 ½ mts – 46” width

Sarees-

5 to 6 mts.

Dhoti-

6 yards

Turban-

24 yards (original size) Width 28 cms.

PROCESS

37


The material is folded twice and reduced to 1/4 its sizes into a square or a rectangle piece. Cotton pieces are folded into 4 layers (2 halves) where as silk is generally folded in 2 layers width wise. In case of very intricate design, tying is done on a single layer of silk & maximum 2 layers on cotton. The prepared piece is the spread on wooden table and the desired designs are marked with the help of wooden blocks using geru (clay) or robin blue mixed with water or kerosene. Nowadays a modern method of making designs is often used to make the work easy & quick. The design are first drawn on a polythene sheet and then tiny holes are made on the drawn design. This allows the printing solution to pass through and thus print the design. Then the dyes are applied the help of a boot polish brush.

STEP 1

38

STEP 4

STEP 3

STEP 2

STEP 5


TYEING After making the designs, the fabric is handed over to the tying karigars . Karigars are the specialized people for tyeing the marked position into tiny knots. First, knots are tied in lighter colors and then dyed in the second colors. Then the fabric is dyed again. Intricate tyeing of a sari takes minimum 3 months whereas the medium bandhani takes 4 to 5days. The bandhani made for the wholesale markets take nearly 2 to 3 hours to complete one piece. When tying is done in layers, the clarity of the design is maximum on the top layer and comparatively reduces in the subsequent layers.

TYEING

39


DYEING OF THE TYED FABRIC After the fabric is tied, it is dyed into the colors as per requirements. The colors used are according to the design. Initially the fabric is dyed into lightest shade and gradually in darker colors. The process depend on the colors required. For example: A yellow & red bandhani would be tied & first dyed in yellow and then in red. This would create white & yellow bandhani dots with red background.

STEP 2- DYEING

40

STEP 1- BOILING DYE

STEP 3- WASHING


WASHING THE TIE & DYE FABRIC After the fabric has gone through the dyeing process, the tie dye fabric is thoroughly washed in clear water and rinsed to remove the excess dye. Now-a-days it is washed & dried in washing machines also.

DRYING & UNTEYING ‘Sukhomi’ is the drying process where the tie-dyed fabric is allowed to dry in the sunlight. The knots are kept intact till the bandhani is sold in order to ensure the customer that it is not a printed fabric but a genuine handicraft product. To remove the Knots the fabric diagonally. However, when sold, the piece is either roll or hand pressed.

DRYING OF BANDHANI CLOTHES

41


TYPES OF TRADITIONAL BANDHANI

GHARCHOLA Although the splendid silk sarees and odhnis decorated with the Geometrical forms, Peacock, Flowers, Dancers or a Rasmandala designs or used as festive dress. The most highly priced type of bandhani is most frequently made of cotton. The cotton –mulmul is divided into compartments by woven stripes of gold brocade and the gold checked fabric. The main Gharchola designs are called bar bhaag (twelve sections) or baavan bhaag (fifty two sections) depending on the number of motifs and squares in order to save cost, the design maybe tye dyed onto a plain red cotton cloth without the gold brocade but if the buyers can afford it in the in zari chowk.(gold squares saree is more desirable) The Gharchola is given to a girl by her husband to be at the time of the marriage. The Gharchola fabric is always in the auspicious red colour associated with the weddings and marital life.

42

GHARCHOLA SAREE


PICHWAI BANDHANI The motifs of elephants and dancers as well as lotus flowers( kamal fool) and leafy patterns( Amba veil, mango branch) are frequently found in silk sarees and odhanis.These designs are not usually specifically ceremonial,although a silk bandhani pichhwai a hanging for a Krishna temple in Calico Museum Of Textiles, Ahmedabad is a rare exception. It is closely realised in style of the figurative saree, but shows a scene of Krishna with his adorning cowheards or groups. The silk sarees would be worn by middle class, well of ladies Mahajan commercial communities on special occasions.

PICHWAI BANDHANI SAREE

43


CHANDROKHONI The tye dyed silk textiles worn by the Khatri muslims themselves are very Islamic tradition forbids the representation of living creatures, the decoration is entirely geometric with no embellishment of dancing ladies or even peacocks and elephants. The Khatri odhanis all confirm to a simple basic design of a tral medallion with four smaller one around it with a white

cenborder,

sometimes even wider than the field, often made up of several bands of decorations. Within this basic scheme, spectacularly intricate and finally knotted patterns are created usually in a narrow color scheme of red and black gives a name Chandrokhoni (like the moon) because of the central circular medallion against a black ground. According to Francoise Cousin the Chandrakhoni is worn by the bride groom when he comes to bride’s house prior to the wedding. The bride wears it as a part of a wedding outfit, especially when she first goes to her new home. This squarish Chandrokhoni odhanis are usually made up of two identical halves joined up at the centre, a common method of making wide pieces, and sometimes embellished with a stripe of gold ribbon sewn along the seam. 44

CHANDRAKHONI SAREE


TRADITIONAL KHATRI BANDHANIS The Khatri type of bandhani is also the only one to be specifically designed in the form of tailored garments. The Khatri women wears a dress called an Aba or Abo, of which the front and back are identically patterned in a finally knotted design in a shield shaped pointing down to a trefoil. Here the colour scheme used is wider than that of black and red Chandrokhani, the only constraint being that the Abha for a bride must be red. A bridal dress is often heavily embroidered with metal ribbon rather than tie dyed, or the two may be combined. She must also wear trousers (ejar) of the same material, frequently embroidered at the cuffs, also sometimes tie dyed.

KHATRI SAREE

45


46


CONTEMPORARY USAGE The charm of Bandhani has given rise to its commercialization apart from being a skillful piece of art. This gave to a wide range of raw material and articles being used to this form of art. Initially restricted to saris and odhanis, this traditional craft has now turned into a lot more like bandhani on georgette, nylon and other blends, rather than cotton, gazi and silk. Pillow cover, dupattas, folder, bags, purses and garments like shirts are now into the art market.

GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY In this world of cut throat competition and commercialization where each artisans aim to earn, the government boosts their capability and skill by giving them national awards and hence encouraging them to go ahead. Socieies like Shrujan Hastkala Nigam, Handicraft Board, Calico Rural Corporation, Vivekanand Research and Training Institute help in showing them new direction and usage of their skill and thus coming out with best results.

PRESENT SCENARIO

47


WAGE STRUCTURE The process of preparing a Bandhani is divided into various stages and hence the wages are divided accordingly. The wages structure can be understood as under:

TYEING The tyeing of designs printed is done by the Karigars who are paid Rs. 15 per piece. It again depends on kind and amount of work to be done. The amount given for tyeing a sari is much more than that of an odhani. Few of the designs which are of special intricate tying are done by craftsmen themselves and not given to Karigars.

TIKANDI In this tikka process, the darker shades are applied first, with the help of a special stick and this work is done by small boys who earn about Rs. 2 to 3 per piece of dupatta. They usually finish 10 to 12 dupattas per day thus earning of Rs.30 to 35 at the end of the day. These boys are usually uneducated and do this job to help their families financially.

DYEING It is usually done by special dyers or by the makers of Bandhani themselves. But sometimes workers are kept and are paid wages on per piece basis. 48


BANDHANI: IN WORLD OF FASHION Fashion designer Sabyasachi Mukherjee and Ritu Kumar and brand like eleven eleven are one of the patrons of Bandhani and has become the hot favorite with the Hindi film actresses because of his gorgeous creations. He uses unusual fabrics, texture and detailing, ‘fusion’ of styles, ‘patchwork’ with embellishments in vibrant colors.

ELEVEN ELEVEN

ELEVEN ELEVEN 49


50


ARTISAN PROFILE

51


MAIN ARTISANS NAME: Abdul Jabbar Bhai Khatri EXPERTISE: Traditional to contemporary art form of bandhani AGE: 32 ADDRESS: Salayavalamatam, Fish market CONTACT NO. : 09879499891

Jabbar Bhai Khatri started this ancestral business of bandhani at the age of 20. Then he has been engaged in the profession of making bandhani and further interest in exploring it. He used cotton, silk, habu tai, chiffon, georgette, arisol, crepe etc. He get the silk and habu tai fabrics from Bombay, Surat and other places. All the tying and dyeing is done in their workshops. He works mainly on order bases. He also works for Designers like RAHUL MISHRA, AMIT ARORA, ELEVEN ELEVEN , HIMANSHU SAHANI ABDUL JABBAR BHAI KHATRI

52


53


NAME: Daud Bhai Khatri NATIONAL AWARD WINNER

Daud Bhai Khatri started this ancestral business of bandhani at the age of 8 years. Ever since then he has been engaged in the profession of making bandhani. He learnt the art of bandhani from is grandfather Umar Ibrahim. He does bandhani work only on order basis .He gets the required materials from the clients and gives it for tying on “majoori� basis. He does the dyeing work himself. He has also worked for RITU KUMAR, GITANJALI KASHYAP and other well known designers. He helps other workers to get loans and has opened school under government contact to teach this art of tying of bandhani.

DAUD BHAI KHATRI

54


55


NAME: Ali Mohammed Isha EXPERTISE: Traditional and unique technique of Shibori AGE: 60

Ali Mohammed Isha started ancestral business of bandhani at the 9 years. Along with the learning of this art, he completed his graduation. Ali Mohammed and his son Mustak do the work of dyeing and printing with the help of their karigars where as females of the family do the integrate tying work. They do not do on cotton but only silk, chiffon, gajji etc. His work is usually sold in the markets of Ahmedabad, Delhi and other few cities. He works mainly on order bases. He also works for RITU KUMAR in Delhi.

ALI MOHAMMAD ISHA

56


57


NAME: Khatri Mohammad Arif Osman EXPERTISE: Traditional and contemporary bandhani Age: 48 Arif Osman is a dyer. He is doing his job for many years in his home and dyeing fabric according to his order. But now-a-days he is exploring varities of dyes with different fabrics.

KHATRI ARIF OSMAN

58


59


60


MUSEUMS AND PLACES 61


AAINA MAHAL The heritage of kutch art and culture is displayed in Madansinghji Museum (AAINAMAHAL ) Bhuj. The last ruler of Kutch Maharao Madansinghji established the “ Maharao of Kutch Aaina Mahal Trust�. A part from picture gallery and another part is the Kala Atari picture Gallery and another part magnificient old palace called Aaina Mahal. Aaina Mahal means the palace of mirrors. It was created by the artists Ramsingh and Gaidhar Devshi in the period of Maharao Lakhpatiji was a lover of music and culture . He has left his mark on the history of Kutch. The Maharao was extremely intelligent .He was always eager for news from outside world and welcomed foreigners to his court. Fortune brought to him , a man after his own heart , it was the remarkably versatile, genius Ramsingh Malam , whose abiding influence can still be traced in so much that is characteristic of Kutchi architecture, enamel work,jewellery , tile work and interior decoration. The great masterpiece of Ramsingh , is the Hall of Mirrors , in the Aina Mahal. The walls are white marble covered , with mirrors , which are separated by glided ornaments. The hall is lit by elaborate pendant candelabras with shades of venetian glass, many of which are brought to Bhuj by Ramsingh himself.

62


AAINA MAHAL

63


THE KUTCH MUSEUM The Kutch Museum at Bhuj ,initially formed part of the School of Art .Established by Maharao Khengarji on 1st july ,1877. It is the oldest Museum of Gujarat. When he married , an exhibition of Kutch crafts was organised . Here 5897 items were exhibited. Hence on 14, Nov, 1884 . The foundation stone for the present museum building was laid by the Governor of Bombay , Sir Fergusson .The two storey building was designed by the state engineer, Mc Lelland and was constructed, at the cost of Rs. 32000. The Museum is situated almost on the banks of the Hamirsar lake and just opposite the Nazar Baugh Garden. It also has fine collection of Kutch silver, golden and enamelling work , textiles , wood work, coins, old utensils , arms and other archaeological objects and a section on the communications of the district.

64

THE KUTCH MUSEUM


BHARTIYA SANSKRUTI DARSHAN Mr. Ramsinghji K. Rathod ,a scholar of the folk art of Kutch and the winner of many state Government awards has founded a museum in Bhuj. It is called Bhartiya Sanskruti Darshan-Kutch. After retiring from the Government service, in 1977, Ramsingji who came from Anjar , completely devoted his time and energy to the study and exploration of Kutchi art and literature. The museum epitomises the rustic lifestyles of Kutch villager. The Ethnological section , the Sahitya Chitra, in the central hall. Here rare works of literature can be found . In other sections are interesting articrafts , such as leather embroidery, paintings , bead-work , stone carvings , musical instruments , knives and swords and silver-work.

BHARTIYA SANSKRUTI DARSHAN

65


PRAG MAHAL Prag mahal is 19th century palace which is located in bhuj. Construction of prag mahal took almost 14 years. In 1865 construction was started by Rao pragmalji 2 (bija) and it was completed in 1879. Construction of prag mahal is done in Italian style and in this construction many Italians are involved. Total cost of construction of prag mahal is 3 million rupees. Prag mahal is attraction of bhuj city and number of tourists come here to see the beauty of prag mahal.

66

PRAG MAHAL


SWAMI NARAYAN TEMPLE Swaminarayan, the founder of the Swaminarayan Sampraday, established temples, known as mandirs. He constructed nine temples in the following cities, like Ahmedabad, Bhuj, Muli, Vadtal, Junagadh, Dholera, Dholka, Gadhpur & Jetalpur.

SWAMI NARAYAN TEMPLE

67


VIJAY VILAS PALACE Vijaya Vilas Palace is the famous one time summer palace of Jadeja Rajas of Kutch located on sea-beach of Mandvi in Kutch, Gujarat, India. The palace was built during reign of Maharao Shri Khengarji III, the Maharao of Kutch, as a summer resort for the use of his son & heir to the kingdom, the Yuvraj Shri Vijayaraji and is therefore, named after him as Vijay Vilas Palace.

68

VIJAY VILAS PALACE


MANDVI BEACH Mandvi is a city and a municipality in the Kachchh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was once a major port of the region and summer retreat for Maharao (king) of the Kachchh. The old city was enclosed in the fort wall and remains of the fort wall can still be seen. The city has a four hundred year old ship building industry, which was started by the caste of Kharva that still builds small ships

MANDVI BEACH

69


70


OTHER CRAFTS

71


For the lovers and critics of arts and crafts KUTCH has varied items to offer. Folk dances, music, art, rural embroidery, wall paintings etc. are very rich and attractive, but not well preserved. Kutch is also noted for its handicrafts. Themes for carvings and paintings as well as for embroidering are derived from paurans and nature. Their colour-scheme is very interesting. Cow-dung besmearing art is the real tone of Kutch people, wherein they have tried their best to bring oneness with nature’s beauty. KUTCH ornaments (known as Kutch work) are also very popular for its variety. These folk-items, though not sophisticated or refined are very rich with their rhyme and rhythm.

HANDICRAFT OF KUTCH Kutch is considered to be an abode of numerous Handicrafts which are carried from generation to generation. The traditional basis of its prosperity has been its foreign trade in various handi-works. The artifacts of Kutch moved not only around the country but also went overseas. The main handicrafts of the district are Embroidery of ethnic styles, Patch work, Tie and dye, Handprinted Textiles, Wood work, Terra-cotta, Pen-Knives, Nut crackers etc. A brief note on the various crafts has been furnished below.

72


EMBROIDERY The name of Kutch has become famous with its variety of embroideries. Women folk produce utility articles with an elegance and grace in their leisure. Women of Kutch knit their colourful dreams with the help of needles. The technique of producing variety of rich embroideries in ethnic style is handed over from the mother to the daughter from generation to generation. Banni embroidery has also earned an unforgettable name among the art connoisseurs all over the world. Each community has its own distinctive style of needle work such as Ari, Rabari, Ahir, Mutwa, Lohana, Banni etc..

EMBROIDERED HANDBAGS

73


HAND BLOCK PRINTING Kutch is the home land of a variety of hand printed textiles. Important among them are Ajrakh prints, Batik prints, Rogan printing.

74

BLOCK PRINTING


BATIK PRINTING It is one of the most attractive and important crafts of Kutch. In this printing, paraffin-wax is used as resist material. Mundra, Bhujpur,Anjar and Bhuj in the Kutch district are the main production centres of this craft. There are about 200 craftspersons engaged in this craft. Printing with the vegetable origin dyes is the traditional art of the district. Dyes such as Indidgo( Indigofers Tinctoria), Katho ( Acaciacarechu), Lalkas, Harda ( Terminalia chebula), Majitha (Rubia cradifolia), Padvas (Temarics Indian), Kaiyo ( type of clay). Discharge prints are recently developed techniques used in Kutch. The cloth is dyed in the desired colour and then the design is printed on the dyed cloth with the help of wooden blocks by using dischargeable colour mixed with gum. While steaming, the ground colour discharge and the colour printed with black discharges the place by creating a design

BATIK PRINTING

75


WOOLLEN NAMDA Woollen namadas are very attractive item prepared by the Pinjara community of Kutch making use of locally available desi wool). The impurities from the locally purchased wool are removed by hand spun and dyed in yellow, orange red, maroon, blue and black colours. Then the wool is twisted into ropes by rolling on the surface of the pot kept in it reversed position covered with a cloth. The thick cloth( waxed cloth) is spread on a even surface of the floor. The desired design (generally geometrical and floral) are worked out by placing the coloured threads on the cloth sprinkling little water for proper setting of the rope on between the coloured ropes (which acts as the outlines of the design) wool is placed to serve as fillings. Then it is wrapped by placing a wooden rod in the middle of cloth spread on the floor. Applying pressure by hand, the wool sets properly in the cloth and then the cloth is removed. The edges are then folded in a reversed fashion and once again in the back portion of it and wool is filled to serve as support to the deigned namada. Thereafter, the foam of washing soap is smeared on the back portion. Later excess portion if any are cut and sun dried. Attractive wall hangings, horses and camel saddles, galicha, toran, cap, floor covering etc. are the items produced. Todia Gagodar and Mundra were the craft pockets where in 25 crafts persons produced articles.

76

STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3


MASHROO WEAVING The Mashroo textile was woven for Muslim communities, who believed that silk should not touch a person’s skin. Crafting a solution that enabled people to honor this belief while still appearing dressed in the finest clothing, weavers mixed silk and cotton threads to create a textile that was simple cotton on one side and rich silk on the other. The meaning of Mashroo is “this is allowed.” The port town of Mandvi is at the center of Mashroo legacy in Kachchh, historically creating luxurious bolts of the fabric that Muslims and Hindus enjoyed. In the regions of Saurashtra and Kachchh , women stitch mashroo kanjari (backless blouses), skirts, and cholis. Mashroo helped weave communities together. The Ahir Patels (farmers) produced cotton, which was handspun and then given the the weavers. Rabari and Ahir women did embroidery and mirror work to create even more distinctive versions of mashroo. Mashroo was a royal craft, produced in large quantities until the 1900’s for local elite and export markets. Till recently, the Maheshwari weavers practiced the craft.

MASHROO WEAVING

77


LEATHER WORK Kachchhi leather was so well treated and durable that it could hold water. As such, it was made into long-lasting items like shoes, water bottles, horse saddles and water jugs. It is said that artisans once used real silver thread to bind pieces of leather together.

78

LEATHER FOOTWEARS


Bandhani, on which people have written various books, and documents, is actually surviving because of the craftsmen who have carried forth the profession of there fore fathers, even after facing many hardships. With the changing scenario of the market preferences for bandhani, the craftsmen have also done variations based on the commercial needs. While having discussions with the craftsmen, we realized the amount of difficulties they have been facing. Gulmehandi craft is dying, the reason being the diminishing market and poor earning of the craft people, which can hardly fulfil there basic needs of survival.

MAJOR FACTORS SOCIAL The intermediates, like the traders is living a smooth life, sells the craft to the buyers and earns enough profit by which he can live in luxury. Whereas the actual craftsmen who has put all his time and sweat in creating the craft pieces, spends days without even the basics. The craftsmen faces a lot of hardship, by spending days with no water for living. In a place like surendarnagar where the temperature is always high, the local craftsmen and there families spend there day time mostly without electricity. existence.

CHALLENGES

79


ECONOMICS Due to the diminishing market, a lot of the master crafts people have either changed there profession or have taken up a labours job under the traders, where the wages that they are paid on the work basis. If the craftsmen creates only 2 pieces or doesn’t produce any at all, he will not be paid only. Due to these factors a lot of craftsmen decide to take some loan. But unfortunately, they are not given loans from the bank, because they are not able to give any security to them. So, they have to be dependent on the trader for money and work.

POLITICALW The main complaint that the craftsmen have is about the government facilities and aid. While talking to us they told us about hw ignorant the government is towards here upliftment. They even told us about various NGO’s who come n promise them work and better wages, but in the end extract profit from the craft and leave them the way they were. As students wee believe that if something is not done soon enough to improve their conditions and to save this dying draft, it will certainly loose its

80


ORGANISATION TAKING INITIATIVE FOR ARTISANS

Founded in 2005, Khamir is an organization that works to strengthen and promote the rich artisanal traditions of Kutch district, which was greatly affected by the 2001 earthquake. Khamir means ‘intrinsic pride’ in Kachchhi, the local language. The organization works with artisans at the grassroot level and gives them a platform to develop traditional arts and crafts. We spoke to Meera Goradia, director of Khamir Craft Resource Centre to know more about the organization and how designers can become a part of the initiative:

What inspired the formulation of Khamir? It was in the aftermath of the 2001 earthquake in Kutch that many organizations and individuals came together for rehabilitation. Handicrafts being one of the mainstays of the economy was badly affected. Before the earthquake, organizations like Shrujan, Kalaraksha and Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan were doing pioneering work with the embroidery artisans who were primarily women. A number of other crafts like hand weaving, block printing, metalwork, leather, pottery, silver smithy, woodcarving, etc. are family run and operated as micro business units. Compared to the extent of embroidery artisans, these are fewer in number but practice very high skills. Since all artisans were affected after the earthquake, the need of creating a platform for the crafts and cultural practices of Kutch for the long run was felt and subsequently promoted by Kutch Nav Nirman Abhiyan (KNNA) and Nehru Foundation for Development (NFD). KNNA was the moving collaborative force for much of the earthquake related rehabilitation and set up Khamir as a collaborative space along with NFD.

How receptive and open were the artisans towards the idea? They were extremely open and positive and they felt it was much needed both at that time and now. The needs and ground reality has of course changed today and we have to address new challenges. designers.

81


Do you have a team of designers who work with the artisans? We have had many designers associated with us at different periods of time and were related to various crafts. Khamir does not work with the embroidery crafts and for now it focuses on weaving, block printing, leather work, metal bell making, lacquer wood, pottery, etc. Depending on the need, certain initiatives have been planned for each craft. We also get a lot of design interns from IICD, Banasthali, Pearl Academy, NIFT and NID. However, we have learnt over time that in order to get the best from a designer, one must have a rooted-ness and deep understanding of the craft practice. It must also ensure the participation of the artisan in the design process. You can say we are now maturing in our work with design/designer.

On what model does Khamir work? How sustainable/viable is the model? Khamir operates on both grants and revenue. Currently our revenues contribute 60% while grants contribute 40%. In the long run, we would like revenue to support 80% of our activities. The programs themselves seek to develop and support craft entrepreneurs. They eventually become independent and sustainable themselves. This indirectly affects Khamir’s sustainability because we are then constantly investing in new artisans. And this is what we want so we are not complaining about it. Do you emphasize on preserving and improvising on the age old techniques and materials? Or is the emphasis of finding solutions which are modern and contemporary? Our approach is more futuristic. We are looking at creating sustainable ecosystems in the changed environment. Crafts always developed in mutually enhancing ecosystems in the past. Some of our innovation projects aspire to do this. A case in point is our kala cotton initiative which developed the short staple organically grown cotton in Kutch into yarn for the weavers and hand-woven fabrics for the printers and dyers. This benefits all the small producers – the farmers, spinners, dyers and weavers. It also created a new raw material resource with a USP in the region which entrepreneurial artisans could work with and could create more value in their products.

82


How has the response been ? What opportunities do you have for the designers? Honestly, if market is the measure for success then the market has just happened without much effort from our end. We’ve been busy at the backend and setting up the Khamir campus as a vibrant craft engagement complex. We are not very happy with our products even though we’ve had good sales and people love them. We have much, much higher to go. Designers have many opportunities with us. If they want to work with master artisans, we’re happy to link them together and market their limited edition collections with co-branding for all. If they want to work with artisans in a controlled space, we have studio facilities for dyeing (both natural and chemical), various looms for weaving, and pottery studio with firing facilities and a tailoring unit on campus. Other crafts such as leather work, metal bells, lacquer wood, felt making, etc. can be organized in short term workshops at the campus too. We also offer business partnerships to designers who have their own enterprises. Is it possible to implement a mass production model with crafts? And will this approach help or hinder the development of artisans? One needs to rethink this mass obsession. It is not natural or healthy. There can be a critical mass and there can be mass with customized differentiation according to skill and region.

83


84


As Einstein has said, “what is important is not knowledge but imagination�. Previously we felt that knowledge was more important, but after having this beautiful and unique experience in Kutch with the crafts person , our feelings have totally changed. Our way of looking at things has changed. It was a rare experience which touched us deeply and we shall treasure it throughout our lifetime.

OUR EXPERIENCE 85


86


There are about 100 such workshops in Bhuj today and a good 1000 people are still engaged in this craft here. Interestingly the designs have peculiar names such as shikaari, kabootarkhana etc. Bandhani is as popular today as it has always been. These tie anddye motifs for one will never go out of fashion for the simple reason that womenfolk all over the country identity themselves with it. From draping the newly wed bride to becoming a constant companion as a chunri or odhani, these myriad Bandhani patterns run skin deep till they absorbed by the soul. From the present study it is concluded that the bandhani craft of Bhuj has undergone a number of changes. Colonies of tiers and dyers still continue continue this traditional craft and pass it to their successors trying their level best to keep pace with the customer demands. There are modifications and adaptions in technique of dyeing, tying and designing and also there is a change in selection criteria for motifs of design so as to meet the demand of the consumers who are from various socio economic positions. New designs are customer and sales oriented. New designs are customer and sale oriented. Ease in making the designs is also influential factor. The complicated designs have given way to more contemporary stylized geometric designs. All these modifications artisans have learned by trial and error method striving to meet the costumer choices. No formal training is given to them. They are dependent on the traders for the sale as well as for the raw material who make the best of the profit. An insight into this traditional art makes one realize the importance of these artisans in a big way.

CONCLUSION

87


Aba, abo : dress worn by Khatri muslim women over loose trousers (ejar) Aamba daal – mango branch Bund: tie-dyed material for use as handkerchief Baar bhag- twelve sections Bawan bhag – fifty-two sections Chandrokhoni- like a moon Chorsa: Head cover Geru : red ochre Ejar or ezar : trousers worn by Muslim women, especially of Khatri community Gajji: satin- weave silk , used mainly in Gujarat Gharcholu – house dress Kachcha: ‘raw’ fugitive, of dyes Kamli , Kambli, Kambal : wollen blanket Kanwal phool- lotus flower Kasum , Kasumba : red dye from the petals of safflower Kauri , Kodi : cowry shell. A pear shaped tie-dyed motif Mahajan: a merchant or a money lender

GLOSSARY 88


Malmal: fine cotton Matka : low grade silk cloth made up of pierced mulberry cocoons . favoured by jains because the worm has left the cocoon before boiling . Odhani : from odhna , to cover up. A large square or rectangular cloth worn by women which covers the head and hangs down the back. One end is often tucked into the waist-band of the skirt. Worn mostly in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Pakka : ‘secure’ ‘ permanent’. Fast (of dyes) Panetar : white silk with red tie dyed decoration , worn by gujarati brides under the Gharcholu. Pichwai-temple hangings Rasamandala , raaslila : ‘dance circle’ or ‘dance play’. Krishna’s dance with the cowgirls (gopis) . The name given to the tie dyed pattern of dancing girls in circle. Tribundhi: three dot Veera Bhet Bhat- brother’s gift pattern Zari , jari : gold thread brocade or embroidery. Zari chowk- gold square

89


90


BOOKS Tie –dyed textiles of India- Traditional and Trade, Author- Victoria Murphy and Rosemary Crill, ISBN No. – 0-944142-30-3 Indian Textiles, Author- John Gillow and Nicholas Barnard, ISBN No. – 978-81-87108-70-2 Shibori- The Inventive Art of Japanese Shaped Resist Dyeing, Author- Lynne Caldwell, ISBN No. – 978-1-57990-659-7 Kutch- Untouched colourful treasure of craft, Author- W. London, ISBN- 81-85026-48-3 Bandhani of Kutch and Saurashtra, Author- Rachna Mulchandani

WEBSITES http://www.asanjokutch.com/content/bandhani.asp?main_cat=handicrafts http://www.indianetzone.com/44/history_bandhani.htm http://www.khamir.org/crafts/bandhani http://www.craftrevival.org/CraftArt.asp?CountryCode=india&CraftCode=003718 http://theindiacrafthouse.blogspot.in/2012/01/history-of-bandhani-or-indian-tie-dye.html

REFRENCES

91


92


National Institute OF Fashion Technology, NIFT Kangra CRAFT DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Artisan’s Name - ....................................................................... 2. Contact Number - .................................................................... 3. Artisan’s Address- .................................................................. 4. Artisan’s Age- ........................................................................... 5. Artisan’s Sex- ............................................................................ (i) Male (

)

(ii) Female (

)

6. Is this is a generation work or you are doing it as your hobby/interest - ....................................... 7. Education level of Artisan’s? (i) Illiterate (

)

(iii) Secondary (

)

(ii) Primary (

)

(iv) College (

)

8. Language known – Comprehend..........................Read.........................Write......................... 9. Size of the family unit? (i) Male (

)

(ii) Female (

)

(iii) Children ( below 13 ) (

)

10. What craft are you associated with?

APPENDIX

93


11. For how many years the craft has been practiced by family? (i) 0 – 5 yrs (

)

(ii) 5 – 10 yrs (

(iii) 10 – 15 yrs (

)

)

(iv) beyond 50 yrs (

)

12.Family members participating in craft? Male (

)

Female (

)

13. Average number of hours devoted to the craft per weekMale (

)

Female (

)

14. No. of months for which artisans is involve in craft related activity: 1. 3-6 months (

)

2. 6-9 months (

)

3. Throughout the year (

15. Are you engaged in any other activity apart from the handicraft? (i) Yes (

)

(ii) No (

)

If yes, specify the occupation…………………. 16. Any month/months in the year that is high in demand for craft17. Has there been a change in the location or area of the craft? If yes, specify original………………… 18. Are you member of any following organization? 1. SHGs (

)

3. Society (

)

5. None (

2. Cooperative (

)

4. any other (

)

)

19.Are you planning to train your children in your traditional craft practices? 1.yes ( 94

)

2.No (

)

Give reasons for your choice………………………….

)


INCOME RELATED QUESTIONS 20. Current monthly incomeof the artisians: 1. Rs. 2500-5000 (

)

3. Rs 7500-10,000 (

2. Rs.5000-7500 ( )

)

4. More than Rs. 10,000 (

)

From other sources……….. 21. Do you have a saving account in the: 1. Bank (

)

2. Post Office (

3. Any other (

)

4. No (

)

)

ASSETS 22. Dwelling 1. Own house (

)

2. Rented house (

)

23. Type of House 1. Kachha (

)

2. Pakka (

)

3. Semi - pakka (

)

24. If own House, did you 1. Purchase (

)

2. Constructed (

)

3. Inherited (

)

. If rented house, what is monthly rent…………………… 25. In the last two years, have you purchashed/ changed oa added any of the followings: 1. Land (

)

2. Cattle (

)

3. Two-wheeler (

)

5. Electronics (TV/ Radio/ Mixer/ Grinder/ Music system/ Etc.) ( 7. Gas connection (

)

8. Computer (

)

4. Four-wheeler (

)

)

)

9. Any other item (

6. Mobile ( )

10. None (

)

95


MEDICAL FACILITY 26. Are there any occupational health hazard/ diseases, linked with your craft practice? 1. Yes (

)

2. No (

)

If yes, please specify…………………. 27. Do you have health/life insurance policy? 1. Yes (

)

2. No (

)

DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 28. Are you working on – 1. Traditional design (

)

2. Latest design (

)

3. Market demand design (

)

29. Who gives the design? 1. Own (

)

2. Trader/Agent (

)

3. Old patterns (

)

4. Designers (

)

30. Has there been an adoption of new techniques in development of craft because of any change of location? If yes, specify……………… 31. Have you developed any new products in last two years? 1. …………………………………… 2…………………………………….. 32. Have you explored new raw materials other than traditional? 1. yes (

)

2. No (

)

If yes, specify reason1. Better pricing (

)

2. Non availability (

5. Any other…………………….. 96

1. Yes (

)

2. No (

)

)

3. Creative persuasion (

)

4. Market demand (

)


33. Identify the skill level of the artisans (as per the artisan’s perception), with respect to the handicraft only: 1. Unskilled (

)

2. Semi-skilled (

)

3. Skilled (

)

4. Master craftsmen (

3. Packaging (

)

4. Marketing (

)

34. Are you self employedYes (

)

No (

)

If no, specify place……………………….. 35. Which would you like to strengthen for your growth 1. Production (

)

2. Design (

)

)

5. Any other (

)

TRAINING 36. Have you received any training recently for upgrading your skills? 1. Yes (

)

2. No (

)

If yes, specify the kind – 37. Are these kind of training good for your work opportunity? Yes (

)

No (

)

38. Do you need further training? Yes (

)

No (

)

39.In which of the following areas would you want to be trained? 1. Skill development

2. Capacity building

3. Design Innovation

4. Better Quality

5. Marketing

6. Any other

97


40. Do you know how to use computer? Yes (

)

No (

)

41. Do you use internet? Yes (

)

No (

)

If yes, what do you use it for? 1. Personal

2. Business purpose

3. Both

42. Have you benefited in any way by the you of internet? Yes (

)

No (

)

If yes, specify…………………………… PRICING 43. Who or what decides the pricing of your products? 1. Self (

)

2. Trader/Agent (

5. Labour Cost (

)

)

3. Raw materials (

6. Any other (

)

4. Local Market Demand (

)

)

44. Are you satisfied with the present system of the pricing? Yes (

)

No (

)

If no then give suggestions………………….. 45. Where do you procure raw material from? 1. Local market (

)

2.Agents (

)

46. Do you have any problem in buying of raw materials: Yes (

)

No (

If yes, then specify98

)

3. Near by market (

)

4. Far away market (

)


1. Often (

)

2. Sometimes (

)

3. Rarely (

)

47. How can this problem be eliminated? (Give suggestion) ………………………………………….. 48. Do you get any subsidy from the Government while procuring raw materials? Yes (

)

No (

)

If yes then specify………………………… MARKETING 49. How do you sell your products? 1. Directly to customers ( 5. Local market (

)

)

2. Melas and Festivals (

6. Trade fairs (

)

)

3. Delers/Agent network (

7. Any other (

)

4. Exports (

)

)

50. Are you facing any difficulty in marketing your products? Yes (

)

No (

)

If yes, what are the main reasons? 1. Distance from your unit to market ( 4.Lack of domestic/Local market (

) )

2. Transportation ( 5. Any other (

)

3. Middlemen/Agent (

)

)

STUDENT’S NAME: COURCE AND SEMESTER: CLUSTER: DATE: 99


MOTIF AND DESIGNS 100


MAKING OF BANDHANI

101


102


SAMPLES

103


104


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, GANDHINAGAR

KHAMIR CRAFT RESOURCE CENTRE Behind BMCB social society, Lakhond- Kukma crossroads Post village Kukma, Taluka Bhuj, Kachchh, gujarat 370105 Contact: +91 02832- 271272/422

HIRALAKSHMI MEMORIAL CRAFTPARK Bhujodi, Taluka Bhuj, Kachchh

CREDITS

105

Profile for Pooja Kushwaha

The Bandhani of Kachchh: Ties across time  

The book describes the bandhani, the tools and techniques applied and about its different processes. It also briefs about the families assoc...

The Bandhani of Kachchh: Ties across time  

The book describes the bandhani, the tools and techniques applied and about its different processes. It also briefs about the families assoc...

Advertisement