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PU B LISHED SIncE 199 6 No. 8 (287) /2019 ::

........................ 29th economic Forum in Krynica Zdrój

“ In

a nutshell, accreditation eliminates risk in the decisionmaking process.”

........................ regional and economic diplomacy Summit 2019 ........................ 5th poliSh cluSterS congreSS ........................


OlbOrska Director, Polish centre for AccreDitAtion





































e are entering one of the most dangerous periods for the global economy since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The US-Chinese trade war, which was not supposed to happen at all, now dominates media reports. That’s according to a world economy forecast for the third quarter of 2019 by Steen Jakobsen, chief economist of Saxo Bank. This Danish global investment bank, which has been operating since 1992, may be known for its unconventional, even shocking forecasts. But it is also regarded as one of the most trusted brands in the online transaction and investment sector. The way Jakobsen sees it, an economic downturn is right ahead of us. According to Saxo Bank’s projections, it can be expected in China in the third quarter of the year, followed by the US, Britain and Europe in the first or second quarter of 2020. By the summer of 2020, Jakobsen argues, monetarist policies will have been left by the wayside, in favour of extravagant spending which is bound to fuel inflation to levels beyond all expectations, just months after the death of inflation was proclaimed. A number of analysts believe that this may not be a public relations trick. The world economy appears to be at its weakest since July 2008. OECD global economy indicators show a month-on-month decline for the 17th time in a row, and Korea, one of the world's most globalised economies, has been in decline for 23 months now, reaching levels unheard of since early 2012. The only significant global economy which has shown improvement is China. However, this stems from a strong government intervention, and is most likely to affect domestic demand rather than demand on a global scale. In addition, May statistics showed that sales are again on their way down. Many analysts believe that this time, it is not about the ups and downs of the global business cycle. For the past century, the world

has been dominated by the US economy. Its strength tipped the scales in the two world wars, as Washington defeated the Berlin-RomeTokyo axis, and emerged victorious from its rivalry with Moscow. But the US may well be dethroned in the future. If current trends keep up, China is likely to take over as the leading world economic power. It will be interesting to see whether Donald Trump manages to reverse these trends. How to address the US-China rivalry is the number one headache for the newly elected European Union leaders. America’s leadership of the Euro-Atlantic alliance, formalised in NATO, has given this continent 70 years of peace, welfare, and transatlantic trade, which created the world’s largest market. But faced by China, is the US likely to stay committed to Europe, to still regard it as a zone of influence? In what way can Europe bring an element of strength to the transatlantic alliance which Washington insists on? How to sustain Europe’s economic growth and build its strength? Europe used to be the US’ main ally in its rivalry with the USSR. It could become such an ally in its competition with China because of the cultural links and values Europe and America share. So why is Europe no longer perceived as such? Each of the leaders of the EU member states will need to add their own questions to this list. Poland appears to have quite a few of them. It has forged a particularly close relationship with the US, it has offered to host American military bases, it buys US military equipment, it fulfils its financial obligations within NATO. It does it with utmost sincerity, although over the past two centuries, it has often been abandoned by Western allies. Today, the people of Poland want to live in a united Europe, efficiently solving problems which face modern civilisation. At the same time, Poland is keen to develop good political and economic relations with China. All this leaves you with plenty to think about.

Krystyna Woźniak-Trzosek Editor-in-Chief President of Rynek Polski Publishers Co. Ltd.

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PUBLISHER: Oficyna Wydawnicza RYNEK POLSKI Sp. z o.o. (RYNEK POLSKI Publishers Co. Ltd.)

8 (287)/2019

PRESIDENT: Krystyna Woźniak-Trzosek Polish Market :: 8 (287) /2019

VICE - PRESIDENTS: Błażej Grabowski, Grażyna Jaskuła

PU B LISHED SIncE 199 6 No. 8 (287) /2019 ::

........................ 29th economic Forum in Krynica Zdrój

“ In

a nutshell, accreditation eliminates risk in the decisionmaking process.”

........................ regional and economic diplomacy Summit 2019 ........................ 5th poliSh cluSterS congreSS ........................


OlbOrska Director, Polish centre for AccreDitAtion

ADDRESS: ul. Elektoralna 13, 00-137 Warszawa, Poland Phone (+48 22) 620 31 42, 652 95 77 Fax (+48 22) 620 31 37 E-mail: EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Krystyna Woźniak-Trzosek DEPUTY EDITORS-IN-CHIEF: Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś Jerzy Mosoń

Cover: LUCYNA OLBORSKA, Director, Polish Centre for Accreditation

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CONTRIBUTORS: Agnieszka Turakiewicz, Mirosław Wdzięczkowski GRAPHIC DESIGN: Agnieszka Charuba, Joanna Wiktoria Grabowska ARTISTIC PHOTOGRAPHER: Bartosz Maciejewski SALES: Phone (+48 22) 620 38 34, 654 95 77 Marketing Manager: Magdalena Koprowicz DTP: Lili Projekt PRINTING: Zakłady Graficzne TAURUS – Roszkowscy Sp. z o. o., Oficyna Wydawnicza RYNEK POLSKI Sp. z o.o. Nr KRS 0000080385, Sąd Rejonowy dla Warszawy XII Wydział Gospodarczy Kapitał zakładowy 80.000,- zł. REGON 011915685, NIP 526-11-62-572 Published articles represent the authors’ personal views only. The Editor and Publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for their contents. Unsolicited material will not be returned. The editors reserve the right to edit the material for length and content. The editors accept no responsibility whatsoever for the content of advertising material. Reproduction of any material from this magazine requires prior written permission from the Publisher.




egiona l cooperation and collaboration within the EU, security, environmental protection and climate change were in the focus of talks held by the Polish and Slovak Presidents, Andrzej Duda and Zuzana Čaputova, in Warsaw on July 15. During a joint press conference, Andrzej Duda thanked his newly elected Slovak counterpart for visiting Visegrad Group (V4) countries first. "This shows that from the beginning Zuzana Čaputova attaches great importance to what is also important to us, namely, regional cooperation and collaboration within the EU," the Polish president said. Other topics of the meeting included cooperation within the Three Seas project. "I tried to convince President Čaputova to get involved in the Three Seas programme since I believe it is a good project for Central Europe, and that it will bring the countries which lie between the Black Sea, the Adriatic and the Baltic Sea closer together," he added. Security, including the situation in Ukraine, also figured prominently during the talks. "We both believe that it is necessary to support Ukraine in its efforts to reach stability and territorial integrity,” President Duda said, adding that Ukraine should also continue reforms and pro-European steps. Gitanas Nauseda, the newly sworn-in President of Lithuania, paid an official visit to Warsaw on July 16. “The visit is an important

Slovak and Polish Presidents, Zuzana Čaputova and Andrzej Duda

sign of friendship for us,” President Andrzej Duda said during a joint press conference. Talks between the two heads of state touched on cooperation within the EU, the Three Seas Initiative, and plans for the development of regional transport links such as the Rail Baltica, Via Carpatia and Via Baltica road projects.

(Sources:,, PAP)


Without the integration of the Western Balkans, Europe will not be able to breathe easily,” President Andrzej Duda told a Western Balkans summit in Poznań on July 5. He stressed that Poland supports the EU enlargement policy since it supports a Europe of solidarity and openness, instead of a Europe of mutual prejudice which is confined to petty interests and fears. He explained that Poland's commitment to the idea "results from its deep conviction that the Western Balkans are important

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for the stability and development of Europe. They are an integral part of Europe, in view of their geography, culture and history.” The Berlin Process is a Germanled inter-governmental initiative to promote the expansion of the European Union to the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Serbia) and to strengthen regional cooperation. Poland, which joined the project last year, took over its presidency in January.

Energy security was another area of interest for the two leaders. They discussed plans for the development of gas transmission links and power lines between the two countries. "I am glad that there are basically no topics in which there would be any differences between us," said Andrzej Duda.



conference entitled People and Climate – Solidarity and Just Transition, a follow up to last year’s UN climate summit hosted by Poland, was held in Warsaw on July 3. Addressing the conference, President Andrzej Duda said that combating adverse climate change "cannot exclude any society and must take into account the specific features of individual countries." He explained that in the process of achieving climate neutrality, CO2 emissions should be balanced against its absorption, and not "decarbonisation at all costs." Among the tools for combating climate change he mentioned the development of sustainable energy sources, which, on the one hand, will guarantee energy security, and on the other will minimise the negative impact of climate change. According to Andrzej Duda, hydropower could serve both ends, being a stable supply of electricity and at the same time improving water retention.


meant to boost entrepreneurship and improve business opportunities which will lead to job creation. In 2019, the government is to allocate a sum of PLN 300 million for the purpose, and in subsequent years, PLN 800 million each year. “Thanks to this plan, residents of small towns and villages which could not be reached by public transport, will now be able to use bus services to commute to work, school, and to reach health care establishments,” he said. The Polish government is currently implementing a local roads reinstatement and construction programme. A sum of PLN 6 billion has been allocated for this purpose.



nder an expanded 500+ programme, monthly benefits have been introduced for all parents with one child, in addition to an earlier welfare programme whereby families with more than one child received bonuses. This move is to benefit about 3 million children on top of the earlier scheme. Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki described the move as an important trigger to improve education and the quality of life. “We are glad that we can contribute to the happiness of Polish families. The PLN 6,000-a-year bonus is meant to support the family’s various needs, such as the purchase of clothing and tickets to the cinema for the whole family. For millions of Polish families, these are fundamental issues. We now want to provide this form of state support to every child without any exception. It is the best investment in the future of the nation,” stressed the Prime Minister. The benefits are allocated regardless of the family’s income. The government has also adopted a draft law which provides for an additional PLN 500 benefit for persons over 18 years of age who

are in difficult circumstances and unable to function independently. “Responsible economic development leaves no-one behind. We are able to implement this extremely important social project this year. It was our promise and we will keep it,” Prime Minister Morawiecki said. An average allowance of PLN 500 will depend on the amount of old age or disability pension collected by the person entitled to receive the benefit. It will not be taxed. Prime Minister Morawiecki noted that the true measure of humanity is the way in which the most vulnerable citizens are treated. He pointed out that this project is part of the Accessibility Plus package, aimed at eliminating barriers, providing specialist care, as well as the funds for the purchase of medicines. Funding for the disability benefits will be sourced from the Solidarity Support Fund for the Disabled.


A piece of legislation has entered into force, whose aim is to re-establish local bus connections. It is a great opportunity to stimulate another huge wave of Polish capitalism,” Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki told a meeting with local government officials in Warsaw on July 18. He observed that reviving local bus links, half of which have been closed in the past 20 years, is


We will jointly seek to bring about a new opening, build a Europe of compromise, a Europe of common ground on many important issues, such as trade, energy, economy and innovation,” said Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki when greeting President-elect of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen in Warsaw on July 25. He congratulated Ursula von der Leyen on her appointment as head of the European Commission (EC), a post of key importance for the European Union’s future. He said it would be a good, new time for Europe. The meeting with the EC president was held in an atmosphere of mutual understanding of the challenges the EU is facing. In his conversation with Ursula von der Leyen, the prime minister expressed his hope that the new EC president would be implementing the Commission’s policy in the spirit of compromise. Mateusz Morawiecki presented the expectations of the Polish government when it comes to appointments to European Commission posts, putting emphasis on economic matters. He stressed the need of maintaining a geographical balance in awarding the posts. The prime minister proposed Krzysztof Szczerski, head of the Polish President’s Office, for the post of an EU commissioner. 8/2019 polish market



IT IS ANOTHER MILESTONE ON THE WAY TOWARDS REBUILDING THE POTENTIAL OF THE POLISH ARMED FORCES." Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki in the BumarŁabędy defence industry plant in Gliwice



rime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki took part in the signing of a PLN 1.75 billion contract for the modernisation of T-72 tanks on July 22. The contract is to be implemented by the Bumar-Łabędy defence industry plant in Gliwice, part of the PGZ group. Tanks are to be modernised in the years 2019–2025. “It is another milestone on the way towards rebuilding the potential of the Polish armed forces,” the Prime Minister said. “This gives us the possibility to develop our skills and maintain jobs in the Gliwice plant for over 1,000 workers, suppliers and companies which co-operate with the Bumar-Łabędy factory. This contract makes us certain that the Polish armed forces will be better armed and able to defend the country’s territory within the North Atlantic Alliance,” Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki said. “The T-72 tanks, for the overhaul of which the contract has been signed, is part of the equipment of the Polish armed forces. But we are all waiting for a new-generation tank to be manufactured in Polish plans and we are working on it,” said Minister of Defence Mariusz Błaszczak after the signing of the contract for the modernisation of the T-72 tanks.

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ousehold photovoltaic systems are to be subsidised and prosumer electricity generation is to be promoted under the government’s “My Electricity” programme. At a press conference on July 23, Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki stressed that electricity bills paid by those taking part in the programme would be decreasing. “The programme is advantageous not only for the economy, and small and mediumsized businesses, but above all households,” he said. The prime minister said the proposed solutions were in line with the European Union’s climate policy and solutions adopted at the COP24 summit. “Our climate policy serves clean air and the transformation of the energy sector as agreed within international commitments,” he said. The programme will be implemented by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management, which will be distributing subsidies of up to PLN5,000 per household, but no more than 50% of the cost involved in building a 2kW10kW photovoltaic system. The “My Electricity” programme will supplement the “Clean Air” scheme.



PRAGMATIC MOVE Maciej Proliński

The Warsaw Rising against the Nazi occupation broke out 75 years ago, on August 1, 1944. It lasted 63 days. During this time, resistance Home Army fighters, together with Warsaw’s civilian population, tried to gain control of the city. The memory of the Warsaw Rising is still alive in Poland in spite of the passage of time. In this edition of “Polish Market,” we would like to pay tribute to this, one of the most important, and the most tragic, events in Polish 20th century history. You can find out more about the abortive bid for freedom at the Warsaw Rising Museum, an institution which opened 15 years ago. It is regarded as a perfect example of how to tell the story of a bloody and tragic historical event in a modern and captivating way.

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he Warsaw Rising is one of the most dramatic events of World War II. It became the focal point of historical conflicts of the day. In communist Poland, efforts were made to suppress many facts about it, let alone Stalin’s refusal to come to the insurgents’ assistance, even though the Red Army had reached the outskirts of the Polish capital by the time the rising broke out. The consequences of its defeat were dire. Poland’s fate was sealed. A dispute about whether it was a wise decision to go into battle against an overwhelming Nazi war machine continues to this day. On September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany attacked Poland, which marked the beginning of World War II. On September 17, 1939, Poland was attacked from the East by another aggressor, the USSR. On September 27, 1939, after a threeweek defence, Nazi troops entered Warsaw, starting an almost six-year, dark period of occupation. The Warsaw Rising was the biggest resistance armed action in Nazi-occupied Europe. In the fifth year of the brutal occupation, during which 6 million Polish citizens were killed, on August, 1 1944 the resistance Home Army commander Gen. Tadeusz “Bór” Komorowski issued a call to arms. At 5 p.m. - what came to be known as the W-hour - the insurgents attacked Nazi troops. The aim of the rising was to secure control of the Polish capital ahead of the Red Army’s advance. It was planned to last a few days, but it dragged on for two months, to fall on October 3. Between 16,000 and 18,000 Home Army fighters were killed during the struggle. Up to 180,000 civilians were wiped out. The Nazis razed the city down to the ground and expelled the rest of its inhabitants to internment camps. While the rising turned out to be a military disaster, its political significance proved to be enormous. Historians say that the people of Poland demonstrated their strong desire to regain and maintain independence. Jan Nowak Jeziorański, who served as a courier between the Home Army command in Poland and the then Polish government-in-exile in London, and who later became a writer, broadcaster and politician, poignantly wrote that "the fighting was not in vain." The rising made Stalin cautious about Poland. It may have become a Soviet satellite state for over four decades, but unlike other fellow countries behind the Iron Curtain, it could never be Sovietised. Speaking at the Vatican on August 1, 1984, on the 40th anniversary of the Warsaw Rising, Polish-born Pope John Paul II, recalled his earlier remarks made during his first pilgrimage to Poland five years before. "It is impossible to understand this city - which in 1944 decided to launch an unequal fight against the invader, in which it was abandoned by the allied powers - and in which it was buried under a sea of rubble, unless you realise that Christ the Saviour and his cross from (the statute in front of) the church in Krakowskie Przedmieście Street, was also buried under the rubble together with it,” said the Pontiff. In his teachings, John Paul II often said that everyone has a just cause entrusted by God. "Each of you finds your own Westerplatte (the first brave, but failed attempt by a Polish military unit under major Henryk Sucharski to defend an outpost against invading German troops in 1939, ed.) Some duties you must accept and fulfil. You cannot but fight for

a just cause. You must not evade your responsibility. You must not give in. There are some truths and values that you need to defend, just like Westerplatte, to guard them for yourself and for others," said the Holy Father during a visit to Westerplatte on a pilgrimage to Poland in 1987. This message remains topical to this day, also encapsulating the philosophical and ethical dimension of the Warsaw Rising. The eminent British historian Norman Davies wrote in his book “Rising ‘44” that there are things in life which are dearer than life itself. In his view, the rising could have become one of the victorious battles of World War II. At least at the outset, the Home Army stood a chance of winning the fight, provided that American and British diplomacy pressed Stalin hard enough to come to its assistance. These were realistic expectations, according to Davies. The Poles knew what fighting a war was all about, and to decide to start the rising, it was necessary to have a romantic vision. On the 8/2019 polish market



other hand, the rising was a pragmatic move, for it broke out before the Yalta Conference of February 1945, during which post-war Europe was divided up into zones of influence. That is another point Norman Davies raises in his book. In fact, no-one else has done so much to remind the world about the Warsaw Rising, as Prof. Davies has. A huge role in keeping the memory of the rising alive is played by the Warsaw Rising Museum, one of the most important and most visited Polish museums, which was opened on the 60th anniversary of its outbreak. "This institution is a museum of the independence struggle tradition at its most vivid. The Warsaw Rising was the crowning achievement of the Polish independence movement of the first half of the 20th century, but it was also the beginning of the anticommunist struggle of the mid-to late 1940’s, ‘50s, ‘60s and ‘70s, which led to the emergence of the Solidarity movement. Independence is not only a legal and factual status, referring to the state and the nation. It is also the real shape of this nation, its consciousness. That's what legitimises the state, it is something that gives it a moral backbone, which is so crucial

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in today's world, something that tells other nations about this nation and state, and shows how the people of Poland and their history are perceived by other nations," said the then Warsaw mayor, and later Polish President Lech Kaczyński, during the official opening of the Warsaw Rising Museum on July 31, 2004. Over the past 15 years, the museum has spread information about the rising far and wide. It was built by the people of Warsaw in tribute to the insurgents. It attracts large numbers of visitors to new exhibitions and enjoys unflagging popularity. Last year it had 700,000 visitors. Jan Ołdakowski has been in charge of the museum from the very beginning. In 2006, he and the museum received a “Polish Market” Honorary Pearl award in the field of patriotic values. The Warsaw Rising Museum is situated in the historic building of the former tram network power station at 28 Przyokopowa Street. Its collection includes over 30,000 exhibits, and the exhibition area covers over 3,000 sq.m. Individual displays are located on three floors, showing the history of the rising through the experiences of its participants. Among the items on show are

letters, documents, maps, personal belongings of insurgents, about 1,500 photographs and over 200 pieces of biographical and historical information, as well as film footage shot in 1944. The museum carries out research activities, and collects memories of the participants of the rising in its Spoken History Archive. The archive contains over 3,300 recordings of stories told by former fighters and civilians. The heart of the museum is a steel monument, which shoots up from the ground floor, cutting across the top floors. The chronology of the rising is recorded on the walls of the museum, which is filled with the sound of a beating heart to symbolise the life of Warsaw in 1944. The ground floor is devoted to the Nazi occupation and the outbreak of the rising itself, the W-hour. In the bright and colourful Little Insurgent’s Room, specially designed for children, the only one of its kind in Poland, children are able to learn stories by watching recreated scenes, and playing the role of boy scouts, girl guides, messengers and paramedics. For the youngest visitors, there are replicas of old toys, board games and puzzles. The focal


point of the Liberator Room is a life-size replica of the Liberator B-24J aircraft. The room also features topical exhibitions, conferences and concerts. In the mezzanine you will find scenes of fighting and everyday life of Warsaw residents in the first month of the rising. Three Home Army newsreels shot by the Information and Propaganda Office, and shown in cinemas during the rising, can be watched at the Palladium cinema. The top floor evokes the fall of the rising and ensuing events - capitulation and forced exodus of the Warsaw population. The Freedom Park, which surrounds the museum, features the Memorial Wall, bearing the names of some 11,000 insurgents who fell in combat in August and September 1944. In the central part of the wall hangs a bell weighing over 200 kilograms, dedicated to Gen. Antoni “Monter” Chruściel, the commander of the Warsaw Rising. The background music was written by Tomasz Stańko, the legendary Polish jazz trumpeter and composer. It is a suite consisting of three pieces for the string orchestra and an enlarged jazz combo. The music accompanies the visitor throughout the tour of the museum. The recording was made in 2004 by the Tomasz Stańko quartet featuring, apart from the composer, Marcin Wasilewski on the piano, Sławomir Kurkiewicz on bass, Michał Miśkiewicz on drums, and accompanied by Tomasz Szukalski on the saxophone, Antymos Apostolis on percussion instruments, Janusz Skowron on keyboards, and a forty-strong Polish Radio String Orchestra under Marcin Nałęcz-Niesiołowski. The instrumentation is by Wojciech Karolak. Tomasz Stańko, Leszek Możdżer, Aga Zaryan, Monika Borzym, the

bands Lao Che, Voo Voo, Jazz Band Młynarski Masecki, are just some of the outstanding Polish artists who have performed at Warsaw Rising anniversary concerts organised by the museum. The institution also brings out CDs by other Polish artists devoted to the rising, or inspired by it. The latest one, which came out on July 26, as part of the Remember '44 series and to mark the 75th anniversary of the Warsaw Rising, is "For Warsaw with Love" by Michał Urbaniak, the internationally renowned Polish jazz violinist and composer. Guest stars on the album include Marcus Miller, David Gilmore and Lenny White. This year, the museum has co-produced a high-budget feature film "The Messenger" directed by Władysław Pasikowski. It is set shortly before the outbreak of the rising, when the Home Army command considers all the pros and cons of taking on the military might of Nazi Germany. 5 years ago, the museum produced another film, "Warsaw Uprising." It uses original newsreel footage from August 1944 to tell the story of two brothers -cinematographers, who documented the course of the rising. Blackand-white footage was computer-coloured, and sound effects and specially written dialogues were added to it. Some of them are fictitious dialogues, but some are genuine. They were recreated based on newsreel footage with the help of lip-reading specialists. The project is described as unprecedented on a global scale. Bartosz Putkiewicz of Cafe Ole, and Marcin Kasiński and Kacper Habisiak of Dreamsound, put the soundtrack together. The film was directed by Jan Komasa. In conjunction with the Warsaw city council, every year the museum organises

anniversary celebrations of the outbreak of the rising. On W-hour on August 1, sirens are sounded, followed by a moment of silence during which life in Warsaw comes to a standstill. During this year’s commemorative events, volunteers, boy scouts and girl guides, took part in the "Freedom Unites" series of events staged in front of Warsaw Rising memorial sites throughout the city, handing out commemorative badges bearing the sign of the Polish wartime resistance movement. In the evening, insurgents’ songs were performed in Piłsudski Square. The museum has also organised new exhibitions and an educational session. A scouting rally and a Remembrance March were held to commemorate the Warsaw residents who were killed during the rising. A meeting of veterans with young people was also held. "When we plan and organise various events, we try to prepare the programme in such a way as to allow the heroes and young people to meet, for the older to pass the torch over to the younger generation. The insurgents talk about what values are important to them, what things matter the most in life. They talk to young people who are keen to listen to them, who want to follow in their footsteps,” said Jan Ołdakowski. On July 27, a concert was held in the museum’s Freedom Park. Following an earlier concert at the Silesian Stadium in Chorzów, which was attended by 40,000 people, rapper and producer Miuosh appeared in Warsaw, accompanied by the FDG Orchestra. Guest performers included guitarist and composer Wojciech Waglewski and vocalists Bela Komoszyńska and Natalia Grosiak. The artists performed tracks from Miuosh’s album "POP," along with a few new pieces written specially for the occasion. •

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August Zamoyski carving in stone in his Paris studio, with a portrait of Serge Lifar in the background, early 1930s.


Efforts made over many years by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, especially director Jacek Miler, the National Museum in Warsaw and the Adam Mickiewicz Literature Museum in Warsaw resulted in the purchase this year of a collection of works made by August Zamoyski (1893-1970), a sculptor and art theorist, one of the most outstanding – though slightly forgotten – Polish artists of the 20th century. The exhibition entitled “The Masterpieces of August Zamoyski. Conservation Work” can be seen at the National Museum until August 25, 2019. Interestingly, visitors to the exhibition have an opportunity to see conservators at work, which is a special opportunity because they usually do their job behind the closed doors of their studios. By the end of August the sculptures will be successively cleaned, washed and restored in front of the visitors’ eyes. Then, the restored pieces will be transported to the Literature Museum where the public will be able to see them again since October 17 at another exhibition entitled “August Zamoyski. Thinking in Stone.”

Maciej Proliński


final 20 years of his life Zamoyski made very expressive religious sculptures inspired by great and timeless subject matter. He had exhibitions in many Polish cities, including Kraków, Warsaw, Poznań and Lwów (now Lviv in Ukraine). Since 1923 he lived in France. He already won recognition from critics and the public before World War II. In the years 1940-1955, Zamoyski stayed in Brazil where he founded and ran sculpture schools – one attached to the Academy of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro, where he made a monument to Chopin in 1944. The other was his own independent school in São Paulo. Since 1955 until his death he lived and worked in France. The fate of August Zamoyski’s sculptures is a reflection of his stormy biography. The collection was stored and displayed in numerous places as the artist frequently travelled and changed his places of residence.

ugust Zamoyski started his education in the village of Jabłoń in the Lublin region where his family had their country estate. From a local blacksmith and carpenter he learned the basics of the crafts. During World War I he worked in Berlin as an assistant to a stoneworker. In 1918, he settled in the Polish mountain resort of Zakopane and joined the local bohemian community. He was one of the founders of the Polish Expressionists group, who called themselves Formists. It was a modern artistic movement active in the years 1917-1922. They proclaimed departure from realism in art and the primacy of form over substance. The influence of this movement was present in his art by the end of the 1920s when he returned to studies from nature and neo-classical realism. In contrast, in the

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Portrait of Maria Walterskirchen, Formist period

Photo: Piotr Ligier / MNW



After his death, a small private museum was established on the initiative of his widow in Prieuré des Granges in the French Pyrenees – in complete isolation, among dense forests and far from other houses. The second part of the artist’s legacy was shown in a former mediaeval Cistercian monastery in Sylvanès, located not far from Prieuré. It is this collection that has been bought and transferred to Warsaw. All the activities which the Ministry of Culture pursued in France with the aim to buy the collection were actively supported by the staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in particular of the Polish Consulate in Lyon. The agreement on the purchase of the sculptures and rights to Zamoyski’s artistic legacy was negotiated for several years and signed at the Polish Embassy in Paris on January 15, 2019. At the end of March, the sculptures arrived in the National Museum in Warsaw. The collection, composed of 93 sculptures, is exceptional and shows a cross-section of the artist’s oeuvre – from his earliest pieces made in Jabłoń to works made in the final years of his life. Among them is a study for “Resurrection,” the sculpture he was preparing for his grave in Saint-Clar-de-Rivière in southern France. The collection also includes such valuable works as “Tear. Portrait of Rita Sacchetto” (1917), a famous Italian dancer and the artist’s first wife, “Two of Them” (several versions in wood and gypsum), “Head of Antoni Słonimski” (1923-1927), “Portrait of Louis Marcoussis” (1923), “Portrait of Serge Lifar” (1933, black Breton granite and gypsum), numerous female nudes in marble of various colour, sculptures from his Brazilian period including studies for the monument to Chopin for Rio de Janeiro, and a study for a monument to Bishop Adam Sapieha for Kraków. Interestingly, Zamoyski exchanged letters about the latter monument with Karol Wojtyła, a future pope who was a cardinal in Kraków at that time. There are also 12 drawings and preparatory sketches in the collection, apart from sculptures. Zamoyski’s biography abounds in many interesting details, not necessarily connected with art. For example, in 1929 and 1930 he was a member of the jury of the Miss Europe contest alongside such famous artists of the day as František Kupka and Kees van Dongen. The space of the exhibition in the National Museum is arranged in a way designed to not only show the depth of thoughts and feelings inspired by Zamoyski’s works but also help the viewer to move back to his studio in SaintClar-de-Rivière. Pictures taken by outstanding photographer Eustachy Kossakowski in 1968, enlarged to gigantic proportions, recreate the atmosphere of the studio. The viewer is surrounded from all sides by sculptures.

Dina Vierny, nude sculpture

Leaning Woman, nude sculpture

Smaller nudes are on shelves and tables. Figures of larger sizes stand on the floor. You can also see a set of sculpting tools. Zamoyski often made his own tools to get out of stone exactly what he wanted. Stone was always a mystery for him, just as it had been for the master of masters Michelangelo – a place of intuition, conveying a message, and a place where you touch a secret. He knew well that sculpture meant first of all the passionate call of the soul. “I am glad that August Zamoyski’s masterpieces have reached the exhibition rooms so quickly to not only delight us with their artistry under the eye of outstanding conservators, but also to let us in on some secrets of the work of a museum conservator,” Prof. Piotr Gliński, deputy prime minister and minister of culture and national heritage, told those present at the unpacking of the artist’s works at the end of March. The minister of culture also stressed that the return of Zamoyski’s sculptures to Poland meant that his dream had come true. Ewa Ziembińska, the curator of the exhibition who is also curator of the Xawery Dunikowski Sculpture Museum Branch of the National Museum in Warsaw, stressed that thanks to the effort and commitment of many persons the art of one of the most outstanding Polish sculptors of the 20th century would be rediscovered. She added it was a time of celebration for sculpture and the National Museum in Warsaw. In the introduction to a publication accompanying the exhibition, Prof. Jerzy Miziołek, director of the National Museum, wrote: “Time is coming for a new wave of research on the entirety of the artist’s oeuvre, including his literary legacy which is pervaded with keen interest in philosophy. Many questions are arising, including the following ones: Will we see Zamoyski as an outstanding artist of religious subject matter? Will he become for us a Polish Michelangelo, in particular thanks to his late religious works in which we can notice – as in the work of the sculptor of Pieta Rondanini - intentional ‘non finito,’ elongation, and a specific sublimation of form?”. Finally, one should ask where the Polish artist drew his inspiration from, apart from Michelangelo’s art? He answered this question himself in one of his texts: “I learned the most in an archaeological museum – this fifth century before Christ and Etruscan art. The source is this wonderful Greco-Egyptian mayonnaise, with the Romanesque, and Lombardo-Tuscan vinaigrette poured over it.” • Photos: National Museum in Warsaw Piotr Jamski

Chopin, study for a monument for Rio de Janeiro

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MAŁGORZATA OLESZCZUK, President of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (PARP)

Enterprises have had a growing impact on the development of the Polish economy in recent years. A steady increase in the number of businesses is translated into a rise in the number of jobs. The value of Polish exports and imports is growing dynamically and the technological advancement of the goods is improving. Polish firms are expanding their contribution to GDP generation, with a special role played in this respect by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. At the same time, their financial situation is improving. The above are the main conclusions of the 22nd edition of the “Report on the State of the SME Sector in Poland” compiled by the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development.


ince its inception the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development has monitored the Polish enterprise sector, with a special focus on micro, small and medium-sized businesses and factors which influence their development and competitiveness. The Agency has also responded to the problems that the businesses are grappling with.

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GROWING IMPORTANCE OF ENTERPRISES FOR THE POLISH ECONOMY The number of enterprises has been growing steadily in Poland in recent years. In 2017, there were nearly 2.1 million of them while back in 2008 their number had not exceeded 1.8 million. A few hundred thousand new firms are established every year. In 2017, a total


of 271,813 business were set up and started operations. Slightly over two in three of the newly established businesses survive the first year of their operations. These changes have contributed to a significant increase in the number of jobs in the business sector. The number has been growing uninterruptedly since 2014 to reach almost 9.9 million by the end of 2017. The contribution of businesses to GDP generation has also been on the rise in recent years. According to the most recent data, available for 2016, their contribution is close to 74%, with the SME sector playing an important role in this respect as it contributes one in two zlotys, or 49.8%, to the GDP. Basic economic indicators which measure the financial situation of businesses have markedly improved. The year 2017 saw a very fast increase in revenue (by 8.2% year on year to PLN4.6 trillion), output (by 11.2% year on year to PLN3.5 trillion) and value added (by 10.8% year on year to PLN1.15 trillion) in businesses. And net return on sales improved from 6.6% to 7.1%.

POLISH BUSINESSES FARE INCREASINGLY WELL ON FOREIGN MARKETS 2017 was a successive year in a row to see a rapid increase in exports and imports of goods and services offered by enterprises: to PLN1.1 trillion for exports and PLN1.0 trillion for imports. At the same time, the percentage of exporters is still relatively low, although an upward trend has been noticeable in the years 2010-2017 in this respect as well. In 2017, 4.7% of enterprises operating in Poland, or 98,100, sold their products abroad while only 1.0% of them, or 20,400, sold their services abroad. In 2010, the figures were respectively 3.5% and 0.7%. Polish exports are increasingly advanced technologically. High and medium technology products now account for nearly half of Polish exports (45.8% in 2017), twice as much as at the initial stage of Poland’s economic transition (24.8% in 1995).

THE DIGITISATION SITUATION OF POLISH ENTERPRISES IS IMPROVING The most recent data – available for 2018 – indicate that the digitisation situation of

IN OUR ANALYSES OF POLISH ENTERPRISES, WE PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE SMALLEST BUSINESSES. THEY ARE THE CORE OF THE SECTOR, BEING THE MOST NUMEROUS AND DIVERSE GROUP OF ENTERPRISES. enterprises is improving. Large companies respond to the challenges of the digital world faster than other businesses. In 2018, more than two thirds of Polish enterprises had their own website. Almost one in three (30%) of them used social media in their activity while nearly 12% used cloud computing services.

MICROBUSINESSES: KEY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION In our analyses of Polish enterprises, we pay special attention to the smallest businesses. They are the core of the sector, being the most numerous and diverse group of enterprises. In the case of Polish microbusinesses, we have to do with a positive development trend. Their number, output, revenue and the number of people they employ has been growing in recent years. Their contribution to the GDP is up to 30% and they provide 40% of all jobs in the business sector. Microbusiness are able to respond to consumers’ changing needs faster than other firms and fill market niches which are not attractive for large companies. As a result, they have a significant impact on innovation in the economy. However, their development requires institutional support, especially advisory and financial one. PARP supports businesses at every stage of their development. • 8/2019 polish market



CLUSTERS ARE A DEVELOPMENT POLICY INSTRUMENT, BUT YOU HAVE TO KNOW HOW TO USE IT KRZYSZTOF KRYSTOWSKI, President of the Employers’ Association Polish Clusters, talks to Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś. This year, the Congress of Polish Clusters will be held for the fifth time. The first one took place in 2013. What is your view of the achievements in promoting the development of Polish clusters over these several years? The recent years have been very difficult for clusters. We started the 1st Congress, as a newly established Association of Polish Clusters, with great optimism and hopes. It was 2013, the year which marked the end of the previous EU financial period 2007-2013 and prospects for the next one: 2014-2020. In the 2007-2013 budgetary period, Polish clusters received little financial support because they were a relatively new phenomenon in economic policy. But in 2013 we held talks with the Ministry of Economy (now Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology) and the Polish Enterprise Development Agency (PARP). A working group was even established and it deliberated about what support instruments should be offered to clusters. PM

Is anything left of these hopes and talks? 2014 turned out to be a year of great disappointment for the cluster community because an overwhelming majority of our proposals, agreed on with the government, was not taken into consideration in support schemes and operational programmes. The only thing that was done was selecting key national clusters and adopting a programme for supporting them, however, only in the area of their foreign activity, like for example participation in missions to other countries and trade fairs. And this is definitely not enough for the cluster community. Successive Congresses were increasingly sad and the number of participating entities was increasingly small as well. PM


It is now 2019. We are getting ready for the new EU financial plan for the years 2020-2026.

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And our hopes have been revived. There is some optimism again. As the Association of Clusters, we have not wasted these past years. We strongly asserted the rights of small and medium-sized businesses, which are the main members of clusters and benefit from their activity. Clusters are a very effective tool in supporting the development of small and medium-sized businesses and consequently the development of the national and regional economies. Let’s remember that most of the businesses operating in Poland are small and medium-sized.

ahead. The event accompanies the Regional and Economic Diplomacy Summit 2019. Indeed. This time the Congress is associated with another event, a conference organised by the Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology. I have to admit this is no coincidence. The topic of the Summit is close to clusters and what they really are. PM

The theme of the Congress is “Clusters. For Themselves or Others?” Definitely for others.

Speaking about the subject matter, you mean cooperation among science, business and local government. The goal set for the Summit is bringing together three communities: of science, local government and business. This is what clusters are about. By definition, a cluster is a group of businesses operating in a specific sector, in a defined geographical area and benefiting from its unique advantages like transport, natural resources or access to knowledge. When we learned about the initiative of the Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology we immediately recognised that what we do corresponds very well with the guidelines for the Regional and Economic Diplomacy Summit. We are not only the organiser of the 5th Congress of Polish Clusters, but also a substantive partner of the Summit. I would like the 5th Congress to correspond directly with the topic of the Summit and become another opportunity for a new opening for Poland’s cluster policy. PM

Perhaps the lack of support was due to the incomprehension of what the activity of clusters is all about? I think so. The lack of real support for clusters results from incomprehension: those who distribute funding have assumed that clusters seek it for themselves. Perhaps we failed to explain it well enough, perhaps the other side did not listen to us carefully enough? Either way, the result is bad. It is bad for regional development, not for clusters. Over the past years some clusters discontinued their activity while others, despite the lack of support, operate dynamically for the benefit of their members. Most of them are key national clusters. But do you know what a dynamically operating cluster means in Polish conditions? PM

I don’t. Let me inform you that the best-staffed cluster in Poland employs 10 persons. Only 10 persons. Key clusters employ five people on average. Cluster managers often do their job as volunteers and receive no pay. Meanwhile, the other side thinks that supporting clusters may mean money spent in a bad way or even extravagantly. PM


This indeed does not sound optimistically. But the 5th Congress of Polish Clusters is

You are an optimist, after all. I am not naïve, but my attitude is still optimistic. A few years have passed, we acquired more experience, we conduct dialogue with public partners and operate on a European scale. During the conference “Connecting Ecosystems: Bridge. Inspire. Change,” held in Bucharest in May, 10 cluster PM



associations signed a declaration and agreed to join forces for common activities in Europe. The Employers’ Association Polish Clusters also signed this declaration. By doing so we have confirmed our presence in the European Alliance of National Cluster Associations. How will the membership of this European organisation be translated into the functioning of Polish clusters? It gives us an opportunity to talk not only with our government, but also the European Commission. Our government has cited, among other reasons, objections voiced by the European Commission to explain the lack of support for us so far. We have drawn conclusions from this. We are now conducting dialogue with the Polish government, local governments and the European Commission simultaneously. It seems a change of attitude has taken place on the part of representatives of all these levels: EU, national and local government ones. I believe there is a chance for clusters to do even more for their members. PM

As you said, you are holding talks with three entities. But it is probably local governments that are interested the most in the operation of clusters. I have to surprise you. Although this should be the case, the situation is, surprisingly, different in Poland. Most local governments in Poland, apart from a few, have actually no support instruments for clusters. This is indicated by the report on the cluster policy pursued in regions in the years 2014-2019 compiled for the needs of the working group for cluster policy. The group, of which I am a member, has been established by the Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology. The PM

situation is disastrous. Local governments have not realised that clusters are an instrument for promoting local economies and regions. This is probably so because at the time when regional programmes were planned clusters were indeed not visible very well and many local governments could have simply overlooked them. As I said, we have started to work actively again, and resumed dialogue with the central government and local governments. And I hope that this will produce concrete results and that we will be working together to support economic development. Clusters are a useful tool for the development of innovative economy. Industry 4.0 is now a very trendy topic. It is not a question of being trendy, but a question of necessity. Thanks to the rapid development of information and telecommunications technologies, the global economy is entering the fourth industrial revolution. Some countries, like the United States, Germany and Japan, are in the vanguard. Unfortunately, it should be stated clearly that Poland is not among these countries. We have built the competitive advantage of our economy relying mainly on low costs of labour. Meanwhile, the fourth industrial revolution eliminates or reduces its importance. Consequently, it strikes a blow to the foundations of our competitiveness. There is no other way: Polish industry has to become part of this revolution. PM

Do clusters see a role for themselves in this process as well? Businesses operating in clusters are more competitive, expand faster, create more jobs and so on. They are better in every respect. They PM

exploit the potential of scale. They participate in the process of knowledge building and cooperating with research units. It is easier to implement new technologies in clusters. As clusters, we have immediately joined in the undertakings aimed at implementing Industry 4.0 in the Polish economy because it is a very important factor in building our competitive advantage. Is brand Poland helpful in building our competitive advantage? Sadly, I have to say that brand Poland does not function. We hold many international talks and do not have the impression that brand Poland exists in the consciousness of our partners. I think that joint effort is needed on the part of government, business, science and the public to build such a brand. Clusters are trying to do so during trade missions, conferences and fairs. Promoting Poland’s image is easier for us than for a single company. There is a long way ahead of us. Successive programmes designed to promote our country do appear and it could seem that this will solve the problem, but this is absolutely not the case. We do not have a well-thought-out brand-building programme based on the understanding that it is a team work. Building a positive image of Poland is like a symphony orchestra performing a piece of music. Everyone makes its own contribution and the state, in conjunction with business organisations, should agree on the "music score" and then “lead the orchestra.” In my view, the promotional efforts undertaken so far are like the conductor trying to play the composition single-handedly. But as we know, a conductor alone is unable to play any composition. • PM

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Jerzy Mosoń

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The Regional and Economic Diplomacy Summit 2019 will be held in Warsaw September 9-10. It will provide an excellent opportunity to look at ways in which individual levels of economic diplomacy can contribute to the development of regions. What is the reason why some places attract investors, while others are still struggling?



egions vary in terms of how much investment they are able to attract. This is determined by a number of factors - from infrastructure, geological conditions, to local business culture and traditions. Differences between individual regions can be evened out through targeted education, particularly vocational education, and effective economic diplomacy.

SINGLE ECONOMIC ZONE In the past year or so, Poland has undergone a thorough reform of its special economic zones. In place of many such individual zones, the entire country has become a convenient place to invest. Currently, within the Polish Investment Zone, small and medium-sized companies can benefit from tax breaks for investors throughout Poland. Thus there is no longer any need to place your operations in specific zones, and invest away from your area of activity or place of residence. Poland has become a single investment area, thanks to which not only large corporations, but also smaller, mainly Polish firms, can count on better tax conditions. This change affects the nature and scope of competitive advantages. It should also encourage local government bodies to be even more active in their efforts to attract investment.

THE ROLE OF THE STATE Under Poland’s political system, the responsibilities of province governors (known as voivodes) and marshals (chairmen of provincial administrations) overlap to a certain extent. When it comes to the management of regions, this can cause difficulties resulting from disputes over the scope of responsibilities. But in the promotion of regions, it may prove to be an advantage. Imagine that the efforts made by marshals, whose aim is to present districts as attractive places to invest, would be supported by corresponding economic diplomacy, with the state’s responsibilities discharged by individual province governors. Perhaps a joint strategy can be developed at the forthcoming summit, to be implemented by local government and central authorities, along with better communication and more enticing terms offered to investors. In a recent “Polish Market” interview, Secretary of State at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Szymon Andrzej Szynkowski vel Sęk, spoke about the need for a modern diplomatic offensive. How necessary it is to build the country’s image is something exporters are very aware of. They constantly need to look for new markets for their products. Those who count on attracting investment capital and tourists, may gain the most from joint activities pursued by local government and state administration.

WHY THIS REGION? There are a number of reasons why the Podkarpackie region has come to be known as the Aviation Valley, which

attracts investors from this particular industry. But the most important reasons seem to be historical tradition and support offered by the authorities. The proximity of universities which educate specialists in required fields is just as crucial, because without skilled workers you cannot count on the interest of large companies. For the same reason, the automotive industry is keen to invest in places like Jawor, Wrocław, Boryszew, Biskupice, Bielsko Biała and Toruń. Poland may no longer be a manufacturer of motor cars under its own brands, but its automotive industry still accounts for some 8% of the GDP and employs 10% of industrial crews. Sentimental and prosaic reasons also decide about where investments are made. Investors often opt for locations which lie within easy reach from where they live, or places where they were born. Thus, if a region has a good university where highly qualified specialists are educated, some of those who have left their place of residence may well return home in the future to invest there. In the wake of Brexit, a number of Poles now resident in the UK may decide to come back home, and it would be good to convince them to invest in particular regions. “Though I originally picked Lublin because it’s the city I come from, it has also proved to be a strategic location for our company, as well as for others,” says Bogdan Łukasik, chairman of the board of the Modern-Expo Group. “But you need to exploit all the opportunities. The development of the region and of the individual company are interlinked, thus mutual support is essential,” emphasises the expert.

THE ROLE OF CITIES AND REGIONS According to Łukasik, cities and regions should support investors on two levels. “The basic level can be described using the Latin medical term primum non nocere, which means ‘firstly, do no harm.’ Then comes the advanced level, where local authorities are able to adjust their support to the development phase of companies present in their area. Such advanced help may be available through the development and maintenance of infrastructure and logistics facilities (zoned areas, roads, railway lines, airports and access to utilities). It may also include assistance in acquiring and training manpower or obtaining financing for certain aspects of development,” the expert adds. “While communicating with investors, it is always worth quoting natural advantages such as location, infrastructure and tax breaks. But the success stories of specific companies from a given area are the best showcase of the region - as a shining example of local opportunities,” says Łukasik. “The development of the region is synonymous with the development of companies which are based there. The international scope of business activities conducted by individual companies and their high profile within particular industries, help foreign business circles perceive particular regions as business-friendly areas,” observes • Łukasik. 8/2019 polish market




DECISIONS TADEUSZ FERENC, Mayor of Rzeszów, talks to “Polish Market” about the development of the city and cooperation with its residents. Rzeszów regularly appears in high positions in various league tables. The “Gazeta Wyborcza” daily has recently conducted a survey among residents of the 21 largest Polish cities. Rzeszów came in first place in two categories. What contributed to this good result? In the survey you have mentioned, 92% of the surveyed residents of Rzeszów said our city was a very good or rather good place to live. It was the best result in Poland. In this respect, we were ahead of Gdańsk and Warsaw, among other cities. Our city also had the highest score in terms of the quality of education. 82% of the surveyed residents had a positive opinion of it, which gave us the top place among the cities. These high scores motivate me to further work. The purpose of all the decisions I take is the good of the residents and I am glad that they support our efforts. We are building new kindergartens, expanding schools and constructing new buildings. I am very happy that the residents of Rzeszów notice and appreciate that. PM

Another opinion-forming newspaper, a member of the Financial Times Group, has published its latest “Polish Cities of the Future 2019/2020” report. Rzeszów again took a high position in the league table. How are you able to combine technological development and efforts to benefit society? Technological development involves opening new businesses. Consequently, new jobs are being created in Rzeszów. Graduates of the city’s higher educational institutions easily find employment with the best and largest companies operating in the aerospace, IT and many other industries. In turn, the city’s role is to ensure complete transport and education infrastructure for the residents, something which we have been doing on an ongoing basis and consistently. PM

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You have been nominated for the Leader with a Vocation title in the category Leader of the 21st century by the international magazine “Why Story.” What is your vocation in your work as mayor of Rzeszów? Definitely, the residents. The city has changed thanks to them. Every year I meet residents of all housing estates in the city to ask them what investment projects they expect. The fact that they have elected me to a fifth mayoral term is for me a sign of their support for my policy to expand the city and to support successive investment projects. Of course, I sometimes have to take risky decisions, which trigger a wave of criticism. But I believe that the development of the city requires taking such decisions. Managing a city means a huge responsibility on the one hand and a great passion on the other. I feel great satisfaction with the results of the work done not only by myself, but also my associates. My role, as administrator, is seeing to it that there is order in the city and that it is clean. PM

Rzeszów, the capital of the Podkarpackie province, is regarded as one of the fastest developing Polish cities. They say it is thanks to investment projects, which are the apple of your eye. The first electric buses have appeared on the streets of Rzeszów this year. We have PM

bought 10 such vehicles for now. We want to buy another 50 in the following years. We will also continue to make efforts to have the city’s southern ring road constructed. It is a key project as it will ease congestion in the centre of the city. Additionally, we have already started the revitalisation of the main promenades in the Old Town. We have completed the modernisation of 3 Maja and Kościuszki Streets. We want Mickiewicza and Grunwaldzka Streets to have an equally good appearance. For years Rzeszów has been a member of the Union of Polish Metropolitan Areas. Does it mean that it is a metropolitan area? Definitely so. When I started my first term as mayor in 2002 Rzeszów was a small and unknown city. Thanks to its rapid expansion, Rzeszów grew to become a city of almost 200,000 inhabitants, a city spoken about not only in Poland but also abroad. This year we have collected in Cannes an international award granted to us by the economic magazine “Financial Times.” In the “Cities of the Future 2019/2020” ranking, Rzeszów topped the league table in two categories: “Creating Friendly Conditions for the Development of Business,” and “Human Capital and Lifestyle.” • PM

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KAMIL SZYMAŃSKI, President of the 60 Million Congress – Global Polonia Summit and the G2A Arena Exhibition and Congress Centre of the Podkarpackie Province in Rzeszów, talks to Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś. The 60 Million Congress – Global Polonia Summit is designed to integrate Polish business communities at home and abroad. The name of the Congress is an allusion to the total number of Polish people living in the world. Four 2019 editions of the Congress have already been held and the next one, in Rzeszów, south-eastern Poland, is forthcoming. What can we expect of it? Indeed. We are about to hold the 5th edition of the Congress this year. After Miami, London, Berlin and Buffalo, time has come for Rzeszów. The city plays a special role because it brings together all Polish diaspora groups. The purpose of the edition in Rzeszów is to unite the people who have participated in the previous Congresses held in various countries. Apart from a dozen or so panel discussions, we plan such events as the 60mln Golf Cup tournament and regattas on Solińskie Lake. Additionally, this year we are going to invite the participants to Kraków where we will be talking about the economic potential of the city and will then encourage them to watch the play “Polish Brothers from the Vistula River.” It will be performed by the Kraków Comedy Theatre aboard a boat moored on the Vistula at the foot of the Wawel Castle. PM

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We would like the Congress to be always alive. This is why, between its individual editions, we organise meetings called 60 Million – Get Together! The most recent meetings were held in the Złota 44 tower in Warsaw and New York. Why Rzeszów? Is it because Rzeszów is one of the most dynamically developing cities in Poland? Absolutely. The Podkarpackie Province, in general, has made huge progress, which is noticeable to expatriate Poles as well. Many people have noticed the enormous difference between what the province looked like in the 1990s and even in first decade of the 21st Century. I mean its fields of smart specialisation, like the Aviation Valley, automotive industry and IT cluster, and even the quality of life and organic products. I have to admit that the idea of the 60 Million Congress was born between Rzeszów and New York. To be exact: in one of polish restaurant at Manhattan Avenue in Brooklyn of New York and the G2A Arena Exhibition and Congress Centre of the Podkarpackie Province, of which I am president. It is in Rzeszów where the Polish-American Diaspora Congress has just been held. Rzeszów is also PM

a venue for International Folklore Festivals of Polish Diaspora Ensembles. Podkarpackie is a region where relations with expatriate Poles are really cared for. Many people from our region had to leave Podkarpackie and many settled abroad. All these reasons make Rzeszów a natural venue for a diaspora summit. As you said, the Congress has already been held in Miami, Buffalo, London, Berlin and Rzeszów. When will time come for other cities, or other countries? The editions we have organised so far were in countries with the largest Polish diasporas. Remember that the first three Congresses were held in 2018. They attracted so much interest that we planned six editions for 2019. Next year, two new destinations will be added: Chicago in the United States and Milan in Italy. PM

There are around 1.5 million Poles living in Chicago. It is a natural venue. I have to admit I was surprised that the city was not the first to be taken into account. The 60 Million Congress is organised in cities were the bottom-up initiative of the local Polish community is the strongest. PM


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The choice of Chicago as a venue for next year is a result of the presence of a Chicago diaspora delegation at the Congresses in Miami and Buffalo. They signalled to us that time had come to consider organising the event in Chicago. And we have already received proposals for organising the 60 Million Congress in 2021 in Sidney, Singapore and Toronto. All in good time. Despite the large number of meetings held, we would like the discussions to keep their high standard. We do not want to lose anything of their quality. We have to prepare carefully for each event, not only when it comes to topics for discussion, but also organisational matters and logistics. Apart from panel discussions, there are networking meetings. We need to have time to plan an event wisely. I am convinced that time will come for new destinations, new parts of the world, but the expansion has to be well-thought-out. What is the common conclusion of the discussions, irrespective of the country? A common denominator is the great need to integrate Polish diaspora communities, link Polish business with diaspora business, and hold meetings of this kind. We feel that what we have built makes sense. Another common denominator is insufficient awareness and knowledge on the part of Polish expatriate communities about how much Poland has changed. There is lack of awareness of many Polish brands which function in the international arena. This is why we present those Polish brands and Polish businesses as well-developed firms looking for prospective partners and links where they can generate a common value. This is the common conclusion: communicating to the diaspora what the Polish economy is like today and what Poland has managed to achieve after 30 years of economic transformation. Talking about the condition of Polish businesses is our mantra. We invite to our meetings representatives of such companies as G2A, Star and ComArch, which are present on international markets, but members of the Polish diaspora are not aware that these companies are Polish. They may support Polish firms, if only a sign of economic patriotism. In the 1990s, this was unthinkable. We admired Western brands. Businesses were set up with foreignsounding names. Now, it is different. PM


But has the situation really changed? The saying “The grass is always greener on

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the other side of the fence” still holds good. We still admire foreign brands and products, and undervalue products made in Poland. I think it’s more a matter of habit. Conscious consumers, and there are more and more of them, do not do that anymore. I was a victim of this habit myself. I think that a good suit is business armour. In the past, I looked for foreign brands because I considered them to be of higher quality. Today, I buy only products of Polish brands, like Vistula, Lancerto and Bytom. The quality of the suits is very good, their workmanship is excellent and they are in keeping with the latest trends. There is no reason why we should be interested only in foreign brands. I try to convince members of the Polish diaspora to discover Polish brands and buy the products. I talked to Krzysztof Krystowski, the president of the Employers’ Association Polish Clusters, some time ago and asked him about brand Poland. Unfortunately, he said with regret that brand Poland does not function. What is your view? At the Congress in Rzeszów, we plan a special panel discussion devoted to brand Poland. We want to talk at both institutional and business level and seek answers to the question how we can effectively promote brand Poland associated with quality. PM

And what is your view? How to promote brand Poland? Like other countries’ brands. It is necessary to devise appropriate campaigns for individual sectors of the economy. It is possible through cooperation between institutions and business. We have to work together - business people, central government and local government officials – so that all sectors of the Polish economy could build brand Poland in synergy at international events, fairs and economic congresses. We should also listen attentively to the voice of expatriate Poles so as to strengthen the presence of Polish products on markets where the Polish diaspora is strong. PM


Speaking about networking, I wonder if anything comes out of these meetings. Are letters of intent and agreements on cooperation signed with businesses run by members of the Polish diaspora? Does this Congress really contribute to business cooperation?

We immediately see results of our activities. Business meetings take place during individual editions and are then followed by recommendations and cooperation between Polish and diaspora entrepreneurs or between diaspora entrepreneurs from various cities or countries. A good example is a meeting in Buffalo between Buffalo Airport and Polish Airlines Lot. In this case, the invitation to take part in the meeting was accepted by Minister of Investment and Economic Development Jerzy Kwieciński and Senator Tim Kennedy. Another example is the decision of Metropolitan Investment SA, a company offering investment on the commercial real estate market, to open an office in Miami. You are president of not only 60 Million Congress, but also G2A Arena Exhibition and Congress Centre. After three years of operations, G2A Arena can boast of the following statistics: around 300,000 visitors, almost 3,500 exhibitors and 350 events, including 250 congresses and conferences, and 100 fairs. Are you proud? I am especially proud of this project because we have developed it from scratch. Initially, there was only a building, into which we managed to breathe life. Of no small importance was the fact that the Podkarpackie Province did not have a meeting place of this kind. So we are creating a congress and exhibition tradition. The province has made great progress and G2A Arena is part of it. PM

The centre reflects this change. Absolutely. The region is developing very rapidly and so are the surroundings of G2A Arena. The construction of a Holiday Inn hotel, located in the immediate vicinity of the Arena, is nearing completion. Work on the construction of the Łukasiewicz Science Centre is to begin soon. Plans for the near future include the extension of the urban rail system, which will facilitate transport between G2A Arena and the centre of the city. I would also like to broaden the scope of what G2A Arena offers. For the time being, it is a place for exhibitions and congresses. My dream is to maximise the use of G2A Arena and make it a venue for not only business meetings and fairs, but also a place for the local community where concerts and sporting events can be held. PM


I wish you success.




or nearly 30 years Marma Polskie Folie has built its experience and position on the market thanks to cooperation with its clients throughout Europe. Today, Marma is a group of companies with five manufacturing plants in southern Poland, including Lenko SA. The Group’s present position is a result of its steady expansion and location advantages in terms of logistics. The expansion of the group is a natural and consistent process of broadening its product line, thanks to which Marma is able to offer its customers a wide range of products. This has made Marma Group a leader among plastics manufacturers in Europe. Marma Group is divided into divisions responsible for specific product segments. The plant in Kańczuga makes films for agriculture and horticulture, including seven-layer films, flexographic printing, box packaging, paper-starch laminates and modern packaging for the food and chemical industry. In Nowa Dęba, the Group manufactures vapourpermeable roofing underlays in the Dachowa family and construction screens. The plant in Kędzierzyn-Koźle produces shrink films, selfsupporting packaging, valve sacks and polyolefin netting for various applications. And the plants in Bielsko-Biała and Wilkowice manufacture textiles made of artificial fibres for use in industry, construction and gardening. With this full product range, the Group has an attractive offering for buyers. Irrespective of whether they grow vegetables, build a house or use our packaging for their products, the clients receive full service and a complete range of the materials they need. The Group is an important and one of the biggest plastics manufacturers in Europe, providing employment to around 1,000 well-qualified workers, including high-class specialists in technologies needed, among others, in the production of polyethylene, insulation in construction, and flexo printing. Environmental protection is a matter of utmost importance in the strategy of Marma Group. Owing to their unique properties, plastic products have become indispensable and irreplaceable in many spheres of our life, like for example medicine, aviation, construction and the IT sector. The Group has focused for years on issues involved in the effective recycling of products. It works, in conjunction with scientific research centres, on technologies for the recovery of materials. A recycled product can again be used by consumers. Marma applies the latest solutions in the area of automation, control and computer support for business. They help the Group to maximise production efficiency and environmental protection. The Group is keen to start cooperation with people who are ambitious and open to new challenges. Let’s be partners. Marma Group has received many distinctions and prestigious titles for its activity as a manufacturer as well as socially responsible organisation. We are especially proud of the Patron of Culture 2018 title, Reliable Enterprise certificate, being a distinction for companies which observe rules of ethical conduct in business, and the Superwiktoria – Entrepreneurs’ Quality Emblem. London Stock Exchange Group is one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges and one of the largest when it comes to turnover. For three years it has compiled a list of the fastest expanding companies. In this year’s report the list of the 1,000 most inspiring firms includes 30 from Poland. Among them is Marma Polskie Folie. •

Office: 17 850 66 00 Human Resources: 17 850 66 07 Customer Service: 16 642 38 26



IS THE ONLY CERTAIN THING ZYGMUNT BERDYCHOWSKI, Chairman of the Programme Council of the Economic Forum in Krynica, talks to Błażej Grabowski. The themes of the past five editions of the Economic Forum in Krynica were devoted to discussion about the future of Europe. Are we doomed to a never-ending search for a road for Europe? We are. Never before have Europeans carried out an equally ambitious political, social and economic project. It is all taking place in front of our eyes, we are witnessing ongoing change. We are not able to plan every political or economic event. Brexit, for instance. No one took it seriously, but it is now taking place in front of our eyes. This is why I think that the question about Europe’s future is still valid and looking for answers is quite a normal thing. PM

Which means you are not pessimistic and are not part of the chorus of commentators who prophesy the end of the European project? Such foreboding fears have accompanied the process of European integration since the very beginning. But despite that, we can say now after several decades that never before did Europe experience such a long period of relative peace and growing prosperity. The present situation is the most clear proof that the decisions taken by Europeans are right. PM


This year, the Economic Forum in Krynica will be held at a very interesting political and economic moment. We have a new president of the European Commission and a new president of

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Ukraine. Will it be a new opening for Europe? Considering that a new head of the European Commission is chosen once in five years, it definitely is a qualitatively new situation. In the past several decades we have never had the situation where the European Commission is headed by a person representing the largest and most important European economy. This indeed means a new quality in the context of leadership in the EU. And when it comes to Ukraine, I think that the need for change was huge. The election of Volodymyr Zelensky as president is a sign of distrust on the part of Ukrainian people towards their elites, of which they are very critical. Does it mean a thorough change in Ukrainian policy? It seems to me it doesn’t. And what can we expect of Ursula von der Leyen, the new president of the European Commission? First of all, it is worth remembering that she is a person who has co-created German policy and had a significant influence on the attitude of the federal government. Looking for allies in Europe – apart from the Visegrad Group, which is a natural point of reference for us – Poles should first of all seek understanding with German partners. We have to talk with our partners from Germany so that they later talk with other partners. And not only us - everyone in Europe, thanks to this situation, can talk directly with German politicians. This creates a comfortable PM

situation where those who have the most to say in the EU bear the most responsibility for its fate. They will succeed or fail. If they manage our common matters badly they will not use this kind of solution again. In his book “21 Lessons for the 21st Century,” Israeli thinker Yuval Noah Harari asks the question whether we are ready for a biotechnological and technological revolution, artificial intelligence and environmental catastrophe, which he indicates as the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Meanwhile, we in Europe are talking endlessly about Brexit or whether or not one likes Donald Trump. Is there room for new topics in these discussions about Europe? I think so. European elites and the European economy are ready for discussion about a technological revolution and cyberspace. Fifth-generation military aircraft are not yet fully operational and Europeans are already working on the sixth generation. Europe is not lagging behind the United States, China or Russia when it comes to thinking about the future of technology. But we are talking about Brexit constantly because it is a very important development, one which inevitably attracts the attention of all those who have something to say in politics and economy. PM


Brexit is a shocking development for the whole European Union. But isn’t it the



reason why we lack time to get ready for what may happen over a longer horizon? I do not share this opinion. I think that, alongside the discussion about Brexit and the dynamically changing situation in Europe, large corporations conduct research and spend huge amounts of money on innovative solutions. One does not exclude the other. But considering that for a very long time it was the United States that was synonymous with development, innovation and progress, reaching this level of innovation simply has to cost Europeans a lot. Will Europe be on a par with the United States and China? I am not convinced about it. But a flagship American corporation, which now occupies a special place in the IT industry, may turn out in a few years to be unable to compete on the market. PM

Which means the only certain thing is change. Yes, indeed. I remember the year 1997 in Poland and discussions about changes in the mining industry. More than 200,000 miners were employed in the sector at that time. Jobs had to be provided to them and it was necessary to accept the existence of an inefficient sector of the economy. Then, two years passed, and 100,000 people left the industry as a result of a peaceful process. This change was possible. Even such a revolutionary change as the one PM

in 1989 turned out to be possible. We had thought that the communist system would never collapse. Then, one year passed and everything collapsed. So change is the only certain thing.

ambitious plans will certainly not be carried out. We are not able to pursue many largescale economic policy goals simultaneously. It is simply impossible. So I think an open discussion is necessary.

When speaking about the mining industry you have anticipated my next question. Ursula von der Leyen said she would like Europe to become environmentally neutral by 2050. The issue of key importance is how we are going to compensate the economies which now largely rely on coal to phase out this fuel. How to fairly distribute the costs of abandoning coal so that we are able to really carry out this process. For everyone is aware that this process has to be carried out. But when there is talk that this process should be carried out in all member states at the same pace we must take into account the situation in individual countries. Poland has just come out of central planning, inefficient economy, and a near-total dependence on coal. The situation is different in France, where 88% of energy comes from nuclear power plants, and Germany, which is an affluent country and has started to invest in the renewable energy sector much earlier. If the process of reaching environmental neutrality is to be the same for all EU economies, then of course it will never be implemented. It is necessary to begin talks on compensations, about how the Polish economy could be supported in this transition process. Without such support, the

Tough, but necessary. There is no other way. At present, most energy in Poland comes from coal. It is hard to imagine us being able to change all that within a very short time: replace one kind of energy industry with another. It is impossible. It involves such huge financial outlays that it is really impossible. And without external sources and some compensation we are unable to carry out these processes.



To end our conversation, can you indicate five topics which will be most important at this year’s Economic Forum in Krynica? I would be afraid to talk about it in these terms. We try to prepare a selection of as topical subjects as possible. But whether the participants accept them is quite a different matter. One can expect topics associated with the IT industry and cybersecurity. For the first time we will be talking about agriculture, agri-food processing and Polish food exports. There will also be a range of topics associated with the energy sector, local government and health. But I think that panel discussions concerning Europe’s security will attract interest as well, just as they did in previous • years. PM

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WOMEN Marta Wolańska, President of the Board PEKAO LEASING

Since 1989 the leasing sector has actively supported the development and modernisation of the Polish economy. Over the past 25 years the Polish leasing industry financed PLN628.2 billion worth of investment projects in the business sector. Risk minimisation, a transparent form of cooperation and favourable financial conditions are the undoubted advantages of the leasing services we offer. In our constant development combined with responding to market needs, we are now aiming to strengthen the position of women on the labour market and to boost their purchasing power on the consumer market.

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BUILDING INNOVATIVE RELATIONS WITH CLIENTS The leasing sector bases its activity to a large extent on reliable relations it has worked out with clients, relations resulting from confidence between the bank and the client. The role of the human factor in this process is key, but our business reality has significantly accelerated in the past 25 years and is still subject to dynamic change. To meet its clients’ expectations halfway, Pekao Leasing is now implementing many processes designed to automate the company’s internal procedures. In other words, these are practical solutions which will facilitate and speed up the entirety of customer service. This is not meant to replace direct contact with the client. Rather, we are trying to optimise the role of the human factor by means of innovative technologies. We are a modern company, open not only to technological trends, but also rapid changes taking place on the Polish labour market. We notice the strength of teams made up of women and men. The role of women is of paramount importance in our firm, especially in building long-term relations. Women are naturally oriented at creating positive networking. I am an advocate of corporate leadership which enables us to think about the future long-term and raise the standard of our life. Building organisations in which diverse teams can work – I mean ones combining feminine and masculine traits - enhances in many cases the efficiency of the firms. As a country, we are among European leaders with the smallest gap between women’s and men’s earnings. At Pekao Leasing, women account for more than 60% of the total staff and hold managerial posts in departments responsible for building relations with clients. The number of female managers in our firm is similar to the number of male managers. Women actively influence decisions taken at Pekao Leasing. We want to create similar conditions for all women for fulfilling their career and life potential by launching new financial products designed specifically for them.

STRENGTH OF A WELL-KNOWN BRAND A significant competitive advantage of Pekao Leasing is a strong brand, with its recognisability and credibility. Credibility, in particular is a factor of strategic importance in our sphere of activity, a factor on which the success of many of our undertakings depends. It is also worth noting that our position on the market is strengthened by support from a strong Polish bank (Pekao) and our membership of the PZU Group. Cooperation between our firm and Polish businesses is a typical win-win relation: we help Polish businesses to develop and modernise while they contribute to strengthening the Polish financial sector. Now we want to employ our advantages to create new opportunities for all women, both those who run a business and those who would like to actively decide about the shape of their life.

WE PLAN TO LAUNCH FINANCIAL PRODUCTS TARGETED AT WOMEN. THANKS TO THESE PRODUCTS, THEY WILL BE ABLE TO DEVELOP THEIR BUSINESS, INCREASE THEIR PURCHASING POWER AND ACTIVELY TAKE PART IN DECISIONMAKING. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES – THE FUTURE OF THE LEASING SECTOR Change is an indispensable element of the time we live in. It takes place in almost every sphere of our social life. The expected transport revolution coupled with the development of electromobility undoubtedly creates many opportunities for the leasing sector. At international level, agreements signed to remove customs duties in trade between the European Union and Canada, Japan and Mercosur will contribute to an even larger extent to accelerating the processes which are taking place in the supply chain. This, in turn, will directly increase the needs of not only transport businesses, but also those which operate within the global supply chain. And it is here that the automation of procedures for cooperation with customers, something I have already mentioned, will be an important part of a leasing product’s competitive advantage - a part which will make it possible for the customer to receive means in a key moment. I perceive the trend for women’s growing activity on the labour market as business owners, managers and specialists as a chance for the leasing sector. We plan to launch financial products targeted at women. Thanks to these products, they will be able to develop their business, increase their purchasing power and actively take part in decision-making. Ahead of us there are many new challenges, which I see as an opportunity to further enhance the competitiveness of the Polish economy. • 8/2019 polish market



The director of the Polish Centre for Accreditation (PCA) LUCYNA OLBORSKA talks to “Polish Market’s” Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś.


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ECONOMY We last spoke in October 2018. What has changed since then? We live at a time when change is part and parcel of the surrounding reality, in the economic, social, cultural and political spheres. To a certain extent, accreditation influences and regulates issues related to each of these spheres, but its impact on the economy is the greatest. As a tool, accreditation is designed to respond to change, in order to ensure liquidity, transparency and to minimise risk in international trade and the exchange of services. It is indispensable to make the right decisions. PM

How many new accreditations have been granted over the past year? In 2018, we granted 50 new accreditations and we processed 1,340 applications to update the scope of an existing accreditation, which means that almost each our client submitted an application. PM

What are your plans for this year? We started 2019 with a plan to promote the idea of accreditation among business communities. It is not a random step, but it stems from a newly adopted communication strategy, which is in reaction to changes which are currently taking place. This strategy is directly linked with the steadily growing role of accreditation in international trade, and changes in the structure of international co-operation concerning the flow of goods and services. It is not a coincidence that this year's World Accreditation Day was celebrated under the motto "Accreditation - added value in the supply chain," which is closely associated with global trade. In the macroeconomic dimension, the escalating trade war between the United States and China has many implications. One of the most positive developments is the increase in imports from the European Union to China. When it comes to the EU, this year's round anniversary of Poland's accession to the European Union provides a good reason to highlight the values of jointly developed standards, which during the past 15 years PM

of operation within the single market, have contributed to this country’s growth. Is there anything which is likely to increase the role of accreditation in trade this year? In my opinion, a unique and unprecedented fact is the finalisation of negotiations on a trade agreement between the EU and the South American Mercosur organisation (Mercado Comun del Sur). This agreement practically means the abolition of trade barriers for over 800 million people. It is the most significant deal in terms of the value of abolished excise duties to have been concluded by the EU. In view of such global processes, the role of accreditation keeps growing. It is a guarantee of making correct and informed decisions in a complex and increasingly interdependent economic reality. PM

Does accreditation give individual companies a competitive advantage? The accreditation system creates a universal regulatory framework which positively affects international trade, and occupies an important position among a company’s intangible assets. Even though the accreditation system is not directly part of a company’s intangible assets (such as a brand and social capital), it does have a significant impact on their final shape and further functioning. Basically, the role of accreditation in a company’s operation can be best described by using a quote from a seasoned tennis player. In one of the interviews he was asked what makes him the best. He answered that the idea is not to run toward where the ball is right now, but toward where it’s going to be in a moment. Accreditation plays the role of forward thinking. It fits into and complements the entire business strategy. It allows you to anticipate situations in which business processes are likely to occur, and to prevent possible risks at the planning stage. PM


So accreditation is a form of strategic response to potential threats, isn’t it?

That’s right. In a way, accreditation allows an organisation to avoid the trial-and-error approach. It enables it to use a range of proven standards which show how to eliminate potential threats at the planning stage. Accreditation is thus an excellent form of crisis management because it prevents crises from arising. The system of standards strictly connected with accreditation is indispensable for the development of the organisation in virtually all economic sectors. Certain standards regulate not only the functioning of a given corporate structure, but also create a competitive advantage, while strengthening the brand of a given product or organisation. The application of standards also has a strictly economic dimension, for example, through the reduction of transaction costs, or through the forging of links which contribute to higher production efficiency. What advantages does accreditation offer the consumer? The accreditation of entities which assess compliance with standards in testing, calibration, inspection and certification of products, processes and services, is now widely used as a basic tool to build trust regarding the safety and quality of products and services. A reliable company is keen to obtain external confirmations of the quality and safety of its products and services, to be able to assure potential clients that they meet all required standards. In a nutshell, accreditation eliminates risk in each consumer’s decision-making process. It serves as a guarantee of the quality of products and services. PM

Could you give some practical examples? To illustrate the importance of accreditation, let me quote an example of accredited laboratories which check water quality. Thanks to the accreditation of such laboratories, everyone who uses tap water to drink or take a bath, or takes a dip in a swimming pool, can be certain that the information regarding water quality provided by the supplier is correct. PM





Does accreditation work across the board? Absolutely. It is worth noting that one of the key advantages of the compliance and accreditation system is that they can be used in almost every industrial sector and business context - from food safety to environmental safety, construction to processes related to the functioning of the supply chain. There are currently thousands of different compliance assessment standards which are subject to accreditation. In a number of industries, accreditation is a legal requirement, which means that the use of "voluntary standards" becomes the norm. Standards are necessary for the development of organisations in virtually all sectors of the economy. They regulate not only the way it functions, but also give it a competitive edge and strengthen the brand of a given product or organisation. Accreditation is, essentially, an indispensable tool which enables safe and confident navigation through the increasingly complex spheres of our lives as consumers. In other words, through accreditation, we can make informed choices which, as we know, are the basis for the functioning of a consumer culture, which is now present virtually everywhere. PM

Are accreditation bodies objective on a global scale? Of course, they are. Accreditation activities are carried out by accreditation bodies with impartiality and independence. Accreditation bodies do not compete with the conformity assessment bodies and, in principle, do not compete with each other. The activities of accreditation bodies are harmonised through their regular stringent evaluations by international regional accreditation organisations, like for example the European co-operation for Accreditation (EA). The activities of regional accreditation organisations are also subject to harmonisation and evaluation by relevant organisations which operate on a global scale – the International Accreditation Forum (IAF) and the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). In macro terms, some 80% of trade activities involves elements of testing, calibration, inspection and certification activities, so a PCA accreditation is binding in most countries which are signatories to international agreements concluded within the framework of EA, IAF and ILAC. PM

What are the prospects for accreditation in view of economic changes which are now taking place all over the world? Following the signing of the CETA free trade agreement with Canada in 2016 and a similar agreement with Japan in 2018, the European Union is now in the forefront of strengthening economic co-operation on a global scale. As opportunities and benefits stemming from free trade grow, one of the clear signs of the increasing role of accreditation is a tripartite agreement between the EU, EFTA and EA, which was signed on April 10, 2019. The purpose of the agreement is to actively support policies PM

Is an accreditation granted by the Polish Centre for Accreditation valid in the international market? At numerous expert panels in which I have the opportunity to present the advantages of accreditation, I emphasise that only an accredited compliance assessment is in practice widely recognised all over the world, and forms the basis for the free flow of goods and services in the market sphere. What's more, you cannot overestimate the fact that the international accreditation system is a complete system from the point of view of achieving the goals you have set for yourself. PM

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and regulations which enhance free trade within the European Union by, among others, developing co-operation in the field of accreditation. In the coming years, EA members intend to develop the format of the agreement, and thus the role of accreditation as the main tool of enhancing trade. Do you have plans to strengthen your relationship with the business environment? We are planning to further strengthen our co-operation with business. We are already involved in it through the expert platform of the Entrepreneur's Vademecum, which was implemented at the beginning of the year. The umbrella campaign Entrepreneur's Vademecum serves to present the advantages of accreditation in particular business areas. In the next stage, we have plans to invite business representatives to jointly work with us on the subject matter of the Vademecum, so that it fully meets the needs of entrepreneurs, and opens up fields for joint dialogue, and in the next stage, for the continued modernisation of the accreditation system. I am convinced that it is a solid foundation to develop closer relations with entrepreneurs. Besides, in June this year, in conjunction with the Polish Committee for Standardisation and the Central Office of Measures, we organised the first Polish conference on reference materials, a tool which enables the calibration of measurement systems and devices used in process lines. What are our further plans? We definitely wish to carry on the development of the accreditation system. We are hoping to involve other regulators and entrepreneurs, to strengthen the system of standards which allow us all to make flawless decisions, and thus contribute to building a better world for future generations. • PM


ECONOMIC TRANSITION: SUCCESS STORIES AND VICTIMS This year marks the 30th anniversary of Poland’s transition from communism to a market economy. The changes initiated in 1989 following the Round Table talks between the democratic opposition and the then communist rulers, brought fresh opportunities for the development of the Polish economy. For many, however, they proved to be a tough challenge. The following are a few examples of Polish companies whose rise – or fall – has been in the spotlight of public interest in the past three decades. Jerzy Mosoń


n 1989, Poland faced the dilemma whether state-owned enterprises should be privatised, and which of them should be left in state hands. How to compete with Western giants? Do you want to open up the Polish market or apply transitional periods for certain branches of the economy? Full market liberalisation, some analysts pointed out, would mean the bankruptcy of many former monopolists. On the other hand, too many curbs on free competition would deepen the crisis in which the Polish economy was at the time. There was also the problem of a staggering foreign debt. In terms of cadres, Poland seemed hardly ready for a new opening – workers’ qualifications did not reflect the needs of the market economy. Eventually, the new cabinet under Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki decided to launch bold reforms, known as the Balcerowicz Plan, after its originator Prof. Leszek Balcerowicz. Some regard the plan as controversial.


Economic reforms kicked off on January 1, 1990. In the autumn of the previous year, a working group had been formed under Prof. Balcerowicz, whose task was to draft a programme of changes. It included Stanisław Gomułka, Ph.D., Stefan Kawalec, Ph.D., and Wojciech Misiąg, Ph.D. The experts based their plan on ideas proposed by Prof. Jeffrey Sachs, an eminent American economist and adviser to the Solidarity trade union. His approach was shock therapy, which was meant as

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a remedy to the crisis that had plagued the Polish economy for a decade. While in crisisstricken Bolivia, whose government Prof. Sachs also assisted, shock therapy meant an artificial regulation of petrol prices, in Poland it led to the rapid dismantling of the Soviet-style centrally planned economy. This necessitated the closure of many factories, which the reformers believed, were unable to compete with Western companies. For a time, Polish society had to deal with a phenomenon which had not existed under communism, rising unemployment.


In 1988, Poland had around 6,250 large and medium-sized industrial plants. During the post-1989 economic transformation, according to a Polish Industrial Lobby report entitled "Losses in the potential of Polish industry and its imperfect transformation since 1989. A vision of modern reindustrialisation of Poland," at least a third of all large and medium-sized industrial plants in Poland, i.e. those which employed a crew of over 100, ceased to exist. Among those enterprises there were those which had been set up before WWII, and thus enjoyed an established position and reputation in society. Their accumulated manufacturing potential accounted for up to 40% of Poland’s industrial output. Their collapse caused the loss of almost 2,000,000 jobs. The effects of the economic reform were also felt by the Polish countryside, especially by small and

medium-sized farms, although the most difficult times for them were yet to come. At the same time, small companies started mushrooming, including family businesses. The Polish market absorbed almost everything that importing companies brought in. Former giants faced mounting problems.


Although, as some argue, the main problem of Poland’s economic transformation were mistakes made during the privatisation of state-owned enterprises, whose value was often deflated, the use of neoliberal fiscal tools appears to have proved equally harmful. These tools were meant to make the market ready for private investment. The authorities made state-owned companies pay corporate tax and dividends, and forced them to freeze wages. Combined with a steep rise in retail prices, this caused workers to resign from their old factories and start their own business. Another headache for state-owned companies were high-interest loans as well as unsuccessful investments. Despite this, not all companies went downhill.


Following the overhaul of the Polish economy, Warsaw’s FSO automotive plant continued to manufacture a popular, yet badly outdated, Polonez family car. Its modernised Caro version made the plant hopeful about the future of the automotive industry in Poland.




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The Polish automotive industry was never particularly strong, but in the late 1940s the communist authorities decided to build a family car factory. It proved impossible to launch the production of cars under licence from Fiat, but eventually the assembly of new cars began. Instead of relatively modern Italian-designed cars, the Sovietdesigned Pobeda M20 started rolling off the FSO assembly line, paving way for the later Warszawa M-20. In the following years, the two-stroke Syrena car reigned supreme, a 100% Polish product. In the late 1960s Polish car makers got into partnership with Fiat. Finally, the Polonez, which was described as one of the world’s worst cars, became FSO’s main product.

It was obvious, however, that even the modernised Caro would not win the competition against tens of thousands of used cars imported into the open Polish market from the West. It was necessary to find a strategic investor who would introduce the necessary innovations, otherwise FSO was doomed to failure. A similar dilemma was faced by the Czech automotive industry with its flagship Skoda, and by the Romanian makers of Dacia cars. The first ideas how to rescue the FSO plant appeared not so bad. In 1994, General Motors began the assembly of Opel Astra I at FSO. A prototype of the FSO Polonez Analog was also built, followed by a small batch of actual cars. But a year later, FSO was privatised, and sold off to the Korean tiger, the Daewoo Group. The investment paid off, as Lanos, Tico, Matiz, Nubira, Espero, and even the expensive Leganza, became market hits in Poland. But this was not enough to keep Daewoo afloat internationally, and the car maker finally went under in 2008. It turned out that the Czech Republic’s Skoda, which decided to look for a European investor, Volkswagen, hit the jackpot. In Romania, with a substantial injection of Renault funding, Dacia is now one of the fastest growing brands. The Polish company was taken over by the Ukrainian company AvtoZAZ, which took over DaewooFSO debts from Polish banks, and became the majority stakeholder in FSO. For some time Chevrolet cars were assembled in Warsaw, but eventually FSO collapsed.


1919 saw the emergence of the PKP Polish rail company in the wake of WWI. Prior to that there had been three railway systems on Polish

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territories in the Russian, Prussian and AustroHungarian zones of occupation. During the inter-war period, PKP earned a good reputation of being modern, comfortable and reliable, and the railwayman’s job was regarded as one of the most prestigious. In communist Poland, PKP assets fell into disrepair, but travelling by rail became the most popular means of transport.


In the pre-war period, it was said that clocks could be set according to the passing trains, because they always ran on schedule. A modern PKP steam locomotive, the Pm36-1, which was first manufactured in 1937, won the gold medal at a Paris industrial fair.

In the 1990s, things turned sour. There were management problems, the company operated at a loss, the infrastructure and tracks were badly in need of an upgrade. As a result, public trust in Polish rail was lost. In 2001, a very difficult reform of the railway system began. It included the restructuring and privatisation of railway companies. Some of its unused real estate was sold off. Railway infrastructure, such as tracks and overhead cables, was transferred into the Treasury’s care. The changes were to be financed by a massive loan, which was to be paid off from the company's privatisation gains. In the following years, the PKP SA company was set up, and individual railway operators became joint stock companies. An arduous period of financial and property transformations began. The number of railway employees gradually went down from around 340,000 in 1992 to 69,000 at the end of 2017. The Fundusz Własności Pracowniczej fund, which made employees part-owners of the rail companies, was also established. The Przewozy Regionalne company became the responsibility of local government bodies. Some railway lines were taken over by communes and districts, but it was not enough to save all of them. In many cases, especially at the time of the collapse of state-owned enterprises and rising unemployment, some regional lines were closed down, even though they were important for individual communities. Despite problems faced by Polish railways, passengers did not turn their backs on them. Some elements of the 2001 reform began to bring desired results in terms of better services and new high-speed trains.


The first years of existence of PKP Intercity, a company established in 2001, made passengers hopeful for the rapid development of mainline services, but a decision to take over regional connections as well reversed the trend. The decline in the number of passengers was only checked in 2016, when the company recorded a profit of PLN 48.6 million. From then on, things started looking up. In 2017, profits increased to PLN 307.9 million, thanks to modern Italian Pendolino and Polish Dart trains, the latter produced by Pesa Bydgoszcz. Thanks to better travel comfort and shorter travel time, in 2018 PKP Intercity won a 15% market share measured in terms of passenger numbers, the third best result in Poland. The development of PKP Intercity, which has been going on for several years now, seems to indicate that Polish railways have not suffered too much during the period of economic transformation. It will be interesting to see whether their reputation will once again be as good as in the old days. Railway passenger transport faces competition from air travel and cheap coach services, which might prove difficult to beat in the long run. The mobility of ordinary Polish citizens keeps growing. What does PKP Intercity have to say to that? Marek Chraniuk - President of PKP Intercity “Railway development is of key importance for Poland's economic progress. It comes in response to the growing mobility of Poles. In order to be able to successfully carry out its mission, Polish railways have required substantial investments in both infrastructure and rolling stock. As the largest long-distance national carrier, we are proud of what we have already achieved. The good financial condition of the company in the last three years enables us to effectively implement the most comprehensive investment programme

ECONOMY in history. It is called "PKP Intercity – time for major investment." It covers the 2016-2020 period with an outlook to 2023, and is worth about PLN 7 billion. By 2023, 80% of rail links, including new lines which will connect the planned central airport hub with major cities, will be served by new or modernised rolling stock. The first results are already visible. Since 2015, the number of passengers has kept growing. As many as 46 million train tickets were sold in 2018, which is proof that we are getting closer to fulfilling our promise of a fast, modern and competitive railway.


This year marks the 90th anniversary of LOT Airlines. Since 1989, LOT had to face not only strong competition from foreign airlines, but it also needed to replace its Soviet-made fleet with aircraft manufactured in the West. In April 1989, Boeing aircraft were purchased. Since 1991, the fleet has been joined by FrenchItalian ATR 72-200s, followed by more Boeing jet liners. In 1992, LOT was transformed into a joint-stock company, and at the end of the 1990s the company introduced Brazilianmanufactured Embraer aircraft. However, the most important move came in 2003 when LOT joined the Star Alliance. 2012 saw the biggest crisis in the company’s history and it was forced to apply for public aid to the tune of PLN 1 billion. There were many reasons for it. Things were so bad that it had to sell all its assets for fear of an imminent collapse. It was saved by a PLN 400 million state loan granted in December 2012, followed by a European Commission probe into whether public aid granted to LOT was justified. After many ups and downs, the company’s performance started to improve. A breakthrough came in 2014, and since then LOT has been getting stronger.


LOT was the first airline in Europe to introduce the Boeing 787 Dreamliner into its fleet. The third LOT Dreamliner (SP-LSC) received a special livery to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the regaining of independence by Poland.


Just like Miele in Germany, the reliable Polish Zelmer small household appliance brand once reigned in Poland. Not anymore. The origins of the brand date back to 1937 when a branch of the H. Cegielski machine tool company was set up in the city of Rzeszów. Under the Nazi occupation, appliances produced there were sold in the

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Third Reich. The company was reactivated after WWII. In 1951, it became a factory of bicycles and prams, to change its profile to household appliance production in 1953. In 1967 it was renamed Zelmer. Following the collapse of communism, in 1992 the company changed its name again, this time to Zelmer Household Appliances. Its increasingly modern and reliable food processors and vacuum cleaners entered the market, and Polish customers remained faithful to the brand which boldly competed with Western appliances. In 2001 the company was commercialised, and a few years later it went public. In 2006, it was split into several companies. Then things started to go from bad to worse. The world financial crisis caused production to be suspended in 2009. Zelmer managed to pick up, which was reflected in its 2011 investment in a new factory in the Rogoźnica Special Economic Zone some 11 km from Rzeszów. But two years later the company's fate was sealed. It was taken over by BSH Hausgeräte GmbH, which produces household appliances under Bosch and Siemens brands as a competitor of the Polish manufacturer. Subsequently, BSH, as the sole owner, pulled Zelmer out from the stock exchange. The production of vacuum cleaners was started at the factory in Rogoźnica under the Bosch and Siemens brands, as well of meat grinders under the Bosch brand. At the end of May, BSH decided to discontinue the production of small household appliances under the Zelmer brand.


In the final part of this "Polish Market" case study, let us focus on the largest employer in the Świętokrzyskie Province, namely the power boiler manufacturer SEFAKO. In 2012 the "Puls Biznesu" newspaper and the TNS Pentor polling company picked SEFAKO as one of the Pillars of the Polish Economy. How did SEFAKO manage to succeed, provided it is part of a sector which was strongly affected during the transition to a market economy, which saw the collapse of Polish steelworks and shipyards? Firstly, the SEFAKO factory is located in the Suchedniów sub-zone of the Starachowice Special Economic Zone, which covers an area of 17.1 hectares. Within the zone the company has enjoyed tax breaks and the interest of potential investors. Its ownership and management model has proved its worth. In January 2013, 95.97% of SEFAKO shares was taken over by the MS TFI Mutual Funds Company associated with the ARP Industry Development Agency. But most importantly, the company became part of the PGZ Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa defence industry group. Recently there have been changes in the composition of the SEFAKO board, which are meant to secure the company’s further development.

Andrzej Wójcik, Vice-President of F.K. SEFAKO S.A. I started my career in FAKOP in Sosnowiec, the oldest Polish producer of power boilers. FAKOP was privatised in 1993 and has been functioning perfectly for years. As of May 2018, SEFAKO, which is based in Sędziszów, has been a state-owned company as part of the TF Silesia group. Although there have been ups and downs, SEFAKO, which is celebrating its 45th anniversary this year, is now able to perfectly function on the domestic and European market, facing great prospects. It is proof that both state-owned and private companies have their place in the economy. The conditions in which a business operates are the same for state-owned companies and private companies. State-owned entities are subject to the same rules and regulations as all companies. If they are well managed, both will bring profits, and if they are badly managed, they will bring losses." Poland’s economic transformation is a story of success and failures of many companies. Worthy of note are two banks, both of which celebrate round anniversaries this year, PKO Bank Polski and Pekao S.A. The latter is back in Polish hands, having been previously owned by an Italian financial group. Strong public emotions have been generated by the struggles of the PZU insurance company. It has remained afloat as part of Poland’s financial sector, and • its principal stakeholder is the Treasury.

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olpharma's strategy is based on the idea of sustainable development, whereby the sense of social responsibility determines the management philosophy and decision making. This philosophy lies at the root of the Polpharma Scientific Foundation which was set up in 2001. Polpharma is not just the founder, but also the sole sponsor of the Foundation. The company has already allocated a sum of over PLN 22 million from its budget for the statutory activity of the Foundation. The Foundation's goal is to support Polish scientists, and contribute to the development of pharmaceutical and medical sciences by financing home-grown research. The Foundation's first and most important programme, which is continued to this day, is a competition for financing research projects in the field of medicine and pharmacy organised since 2002. In its 17 editions, the Scientific Council of the Foundation and reviewers rated 661 research studies. 72 research teams received grants. In 2018, the topic of the 17th edition of the competition were epigenetic modifications in human diseases. Financial grants

to the tune of PLN 1,148,840 for the implementation of research studies were received by Prof. Marek Niedoszytko of the Medical University of Gdańsk for the implementation of the project “A study of the importance of epigenetic processes in the pathogenesis of mastocytosis in new therapeutic options.” Prof. Tomasz Sarnowski of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw received a grant for a study entitled “Identification of epigenetic mechanisms regulating the expression of key tumour suppressors in clear cell renal carcinoma.” The winners of the Foundation's competitions received grants, scholarships and prizes during a ceremony in Warsaw on June 12. Prizes were also awarded to ten laureates of the 7th edition of a competition for a doctoral scholarship. The Foundation launched the scholarship programme in 2006 to promote and reward the most talented doctoral students. So far, the Foundation has awarded 57 scholarships with a total value of PLN 570,000. For 14 years the Foundation has been the founder of prizes in the National Competition for M.Sc. Theses at Pharmacy Faculties organised


CULTURE by the Polish Pharmaceutical Society. During the ceremony, the Foundation awarded prizes for the best master's theses in the academic year 2017/2018. Late last year, the Foundation organised a new competition in the field of e-health under the motto "The use of mobile technology in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of lifestyle diseases." Wojciech Kuźmierkiewicz, president of the Foundation's board, said that the Foundation decided to hold this competition because its authorities, as well as Jerzy Starak, chairman of the Supervisory Board of Polpharma, share the view that e-health solutions, if used effectively, provide a more personalised, patient-oriented approach to healthcare. They enable better adjustment to patients’ needs, greater effectiveness of therapy, as well as helping to improve the quality of patients’ lives. “I’m sure that mobile technologies will be crucial in promoting the principles of prevention and improving treatment results. And all of this is bound to lead to savings for the health care system. That is why I’m very happy that the Foundation's competition meets with so much interest, both from the scientific and medical community, as well as from enthusiasts of modern technologies and the originators of start-ups. The solutions which we have decided to reward are not only innovative and very creative, but can also bring real benefits to patients,” said Jerzy Starak. According to Agata Łapińska, vicepresident of the Foundation's board, “new technologies are changing the face of medicine. Progress is huge and noticeable for societies. All over the world, big corporations are looking for interesting ideas to invest in. Polpharma wants to do the same when it comes to the Polish medical industry. We hope that thanks to our activities it will develop faster, and thanks to new technologies we will be closer to patients.” 45 mobile applications were entered for the competition. The originators of the best three apps received financial prizes. According to the members of the Scientific Council, the most interesting project was submitted by Norbert Żołek, D.Sc., Ph.D., who developed an app monitoring the development of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's, using a simple test / game. In second place came two projects: AioCare, a mobile telemedicine diagnostic system for monitoring and treatment of patients with lung diseases by Łukasz Kołtowski, M.D., Ph.D., and "Time is brain" by Izabela Rozmiłowska M.D., Ph.D., -a new tool for the prevention of strokes. The application is dedicated to patients who have already suffered a stroke, and patients with high stroke risk factors. •

Winners of the 7th edition of the scholarship competition

Prof. Janina Stępińska, member of the Foundation's Scientific Council and Wojciech Kuźmierkiewicz, president of the Foundation's board with laureates of the Mobile Technology competition

Jerzy Starak, chairman of the Supervisory Board of Polpharma and Prof. Marek Niedoszytko, winner of the 17th edition of the grant competition


TOUGH TRAINING MEANS SHORT FIGHT PIOTR W YCHOWAŃSKI, MD, PhD, physician and dentist, specialist in dental surgery, assistant professor and deputy head of the Department of Dental Surgery Medical University of Warsaw, talks to Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś. 46  polish market 


There is now more and more talk about the placement of implants. You yourself have already spoken in the columns of “Polish Market” about micro-invasive dental implant procedures. Have implants come into fashion? It is not a question of fashion, but of progress and the quality of life. Just a few years ago implants were seen like “a Lexus for a whimsical person.” Now, it is a recognised method - and the best one with our current medical knowledge - of substituting for lost teeth. If someone loses their teeth or have never had them since birth it is necessary to substitute for them not only for reasons of aesthetics, but also function. There are two options: making a removable dental prosthesis or a fixed restoration. In the past, missing teeth were replaced with a removable prosthesis. It was composed, apart from the replacement teeth, of an extensive denture base and clasps. This kind of restoration is not only quite uncomfortable, but also unhealthy for the periodontium of the remaining teeth and gums. The solution was later improved a bit as fixed restorations started to be made in the form of bridges attached to adjacent teeth. However, this involves the need of tooth preparation for crowns and puts excessive stress on the abutment teeth, with its negative health consequences. An implant is a prosthesis of not only the tooth crown but also the root. As I said, it is important for functional reasons. For a person who has had a missing tooth replaced it is important to be able to use the prosthesis to chew in a similarly effective way as with the original tooth, which means transferring the biting force to the bone without putting too much stress on the adjacent teeth. If we use an implant we have a chance to achieve this effect and stop the loss of the surrounding jaw bone. PM

As you said, an implant is a prosthesis. Can a body reject an implant? Indeed, an implant placement may fail. An implant is an allogenic foreign body inserted into bone, which is then subject to biting force. A dental implant procedure performed in the right way is followed by the process of osseointegration, in which the body accepts the metal and the surrounding tissues bond with the screw. The ability of the tissues to bond functionally with an implant is what implantology hinges on. One should remember that an implant procedure should be the final stage of a comprehensive dental treatment plan rather than being a goal in itself. An implant, even though it is the most ideal restoration, will not fully make up for the function and aesthetics of the lost teeth. PM

You stress that replacing a missing tooth is a treatment procedure rather than a whim. Indeed. I treat dental implantology as my mission whose goal is to improve the quality of life for my patients. The importance of the profession we practice depends on ourselves. How much we respect our profession determines its importance. What an implant surgeon does is not simply placing implants in a patient. Their job is to provide treatment for problems resulting from the loss or lack of teeth by means of dental implants. And this is what I teach students at the Department of Dental Surgery Medical University of Warsaw.

of oral hygiene and health, and remain under the care of an implant surgeon and a qualified dental hygienist. In such a case, the implants will last for many years. We need all teeth, both those at the front and at the back of the mouth. But why? It seems necessary to replace a missing front tooth, if only for aesthetic reasons. But a molar? And why does man have 10 toes? Wouldn’t nine be all right? No, and it’s not just about aesthetic reasons, it’s about the right body posture. The same is the case with teeth. The loss of a tooth causes the dislocation of other teeth, problems with the bite and periodontal diseases, which may lead to the loss of further teeth. It is worth using one’s teeth properly. The loss of the first tooth may accelerate the loss of another one. PM


Having an implant placement changes the perception of one’s daily oral hygiene and care. The patients’ health awareness improves greatly. People who undergo an implant procedure should know how to take care PM

What new developments can we expect in dentistry? 3D-printed implants? As a research worker of the Department of Dental Surgery Medical University of Warsaw, I have worked in conjunction with a team of scientists led by Prof. Jarosław Mizera, the dean of the Materials Engineering Department Warsaw University of Technology. We have patented the world’s first bioactive dental implants. They are 3D-printed of titanium and their porosity and internal structure resemble the structure of a patient’s spongy bone. What is more, thanks to a system of internal tubules, it make it possible to deliver growth factors, and anti-inflammatory, analgesic and bactericidal drugs to the surrounding bone. We have already conducted research using a large animal model and are entering the phase of clinical trials. We hope the implants will become widely available to commercial patients in two or three years. PM





So how to achieve perfection? We will never achieve it. Our constant progress and development depends on the world of business and science. Hybrid implants, which I offer my patients, are now the best and technologically most advanced solution available on the dental implantology market. PM

How do hybrid implants differ from the conventional ones? Dental implantology is a relatively young field. The first dental implants were made using milling machines and their surface was smooth, which means it didn’t induce osseointegration very strongly and the area of contact between the implant and bone was small. By means of surface engineering, methods were developed for expanding the surface area of implants and making them rough. This significantly increased the speed of bone tissue growth on the implant, but turned out to be treacherous in some conditions. If the rough surface of the implant becomes exposed to the oral cavity the implant is quickly colonised by bacteria, which causes inflammation of the tissues surrounding the implant. Called peri-implantitis, it is one of the main causes of dental implant loss. PM

Can it be avoided? There are now many treatment methods, but none of them is 100% effective. Our experience shows that a smooth surface is not the best solution because it bonds slowly with bone. In turn, a rough surface is dangerous. The best thing is to make an implant with a rough surface at the bottom and a smooth one at the top. PM

Is this the hybrid implant? Exactly. In my Implant Surgery Clinic Wychowański Stomatologia I practically use only hybrid implants now. My experience from trials led by Prof. Andrzej Wojtowicz of the Medical University of Warsaw, conducted in conjunction with Prof. Massimo Simion of the University of Milan and the Polish Association of Dental Implantology (OSIS), on the first hybrid implants launched on the market by the IRES company has shown an excellent improvement in the aesthetic results and safety of immediate dental implantation, especially in the case of limited bone availability. The smooth surface may be covered with hyaluronic acid to accelerate the growth of soft tissue. Hybrid implants promise implant longevity. Their surface is smooth at the top and there is no room for bacterial colonisation. With these implants it is easier to remove PM

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possible local inflammation in the future. The rough lower surface promotes the effective and fast integration of the implant with the patient’s tissue. In cooperation with Prof. Andrzej Wojtowicz and Prof. Myron Nevins of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, I have successfully used IRES hybrid implants while implementing my concept of microinvasive palatal procedures. Hybrid implant placements are a cuttingedge method. It is used to shorten the time of treatment. Additionally, it enables the patient to avoid extensive restoration procedures, which eliminate them for a long time from social and professional life. More and more patients opt for this method. Everyone wants to have an immediate result. Of course. No one wants to have a front tooth extracted and then wait several months for the next procedure, which will eventually lead to the restoration of the lost tooth after a year or so. PM

Perhaps individualisation is the right development direction? Perhaps 3D printers will change the situation and will be present in every dentist’s office? Equipment needed to make implants costs hundreds of thousands of zlotys. A surgeon with a very good practice is able to perform only a few dental implant procedures a day. From the business point of view, having such equipment in your surgery only makes sense if it works for many surgeons. PM

You have raised the topic of treatment costs. They are high, but competitive in Poland. Flash estimates from Statistics Poland indicate that in 2017 the number of foreign medical tourists in Poland amounted to 172,000, of which 75,000 underwent dental treatments. An overwhelming majority asked for implant placements. It’s true. Many foreigners are interested in implant procedures. Prices of these services are not excessively high in Poland and their PM

quality does not differ from the quality of services in the West. Having considered the total cost of treatment, patients choose Poland because treatment in Poland is cheaper and equally good. Treatment with the use of implants is expected to be durable. The quality of treatment offered by Polish surgeons is not inferior to that provided by world-class implant specialists. I am sometimes invited to Western clinics to perform a procedure and foreign patients come to us. Our standards do not differ in any respect from Western dental clinics. Every patient is properly diagnosed. The diagnostic process takes longer than the procedure itself. Patients expect precise, micro-invasive, short and well-prepared procedures. To meet these expectations, the surgeon spends more time on preparing for the procedure than the procedure itself. What is the goal of dental medicine for coming years? The mission of dental surgery is, first of all, constant development for the good of the patient. When I was graduating from the Medical University of Warsaw dental surgery offered patients exclusively resection procedures. Prof. Andrzej Wojtowicz made an epoch-making change, switching from thinking in terms of resection - meaning tooth extraction, root resection, the excision of pathologies and so on - into the idea of restorative dental surgery. He introduced growth factors to the clinic and the idea of regeneration and restoration of lost tissue. As his continuator, my mission is to take a further step forward. The implant methods I have developed are designed to prevent bone and gum loss in patients after surgical procedures, like for example tooth extraction. At present many patients need restorative procedures. Around 90% of them have bone and gum losses as a result of standard dental treatments. It’s because many of my colleagues do not use modern treatment methods. PM

It is a horrible statistic. I am not criticising my colleagues. We are setting a new development direction as the needs and requirements of our patients grow. As a research worker, I think my role is to show that you can practice your profession in a different way and better. I would like my students to help patients. Perhaps one of them will move one step further. The role of the master is to be surpassed by the student. I would like to open a further door to progress for my younger colleagues, something that I myself owe to my teachers • and mentors. PM

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A team of Polish scientists from READ-GENE SA R&D Center and Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin discovered for the first time very strong correlation between cancer risk in females and arsenic blood concentration.




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We start our new series profiling foreign diplomats posted in Warsaw with an interview with HE the Indonesian Ambassador to Poland SITI NUGRAHA MAULUDIAH. She tells Rafał Kiepuszewski that interest in her country is growing in Poland in terms of business and investment opportunities, R&D co-operation in tech industries, tourism and culture.


On a visit to Indonesia late last year, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Jacek Czaputowicz stressed that it was his first Asian destination since his inauguration. Would you say this reflects the present state of Polish-Indonesian relations? Yes, certainly. We were honoured to host him in Jakarta last November. Relations between Indonesia and Poland have been very good. They have been increasing over the past five years in terms of the exchange of visits by state officials, trade, investment as well peopleto-people contacts. It clearly shows that Poland now pays more interest to that part of the world. We are a vibrant region, we like to call it an engine of growth. Almost all our economies feature positive growth. South-East Asia is a huge market, our ten countries have a combined population of some 600 million. There is plenty of potential that could be tapped in relations between Poland and the region. PM

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Indonesia is the largest country in the region. Last year’s visit by your country’s Minister of Foreign Affairs has pushed forward our cooperation, and I have been able to notice it since I arrived in Poland. I have been meeting with your officials, heads of chambers of commerce, academics and leading businessmen, and there are many people who are interested in boosting relations with Indonesia. Do Polish businessmen realise what a powerhouse Indonesia is, and what rich pickings await them there? There is certainly room for improvement. My country enjoys a trade surplus with Poland, which is only now realising how big a market Indonesia is. Polish business circles are beginning to notice that it is not just a market for exports but also investment. And in Indonesia we also have big companies which have already invested a lot in South-East Asia, India and PM

China, and are now looking for investment opportunities further afield, also in your region. Polish and Indonesian trade statistics differ. How much two-way trade with Poland have you recorded in the past year? It’s in the range of USD 500 million. Twothirds of it are exports from Indonesia to Poland, and one third are Polish exports to Indonesia. Two-way trade between our two countries certainly lags behind other countries in SouthEast Asia. Mind you, the figures do not fully reflect the real scope of our trade relations. There are many more Indonesian products that make their way into Poland through third parties. They are mostly marketed via Singapore, but they are also imported by intermediaries based in Western Europe. Products and commodities we export to Poland are mainly food and beverages, textiles, medicine, electronics parts and raw materials such as coal and rubber. PM



Two Polish trade events have been held in Indonesia this year – Polish Tech Days, which took place in Jakarta in March, and the Polish Festival, which was mainly devoted to the promotion of Polish food and beverages. A Foreign Trade Office run by the Polish Investment and Trade Agency (PAIH) has opened in your capital. It is now focusing on developing co-operation in the extraction industry, but also in more advanced areas like R&D, and defence. All these areas are of interest to us. We are also looking at expanding our co-operation in the areas of shipping and railway transport, cosmetics industry, agriculture, and very importantly, creative economy. An educational application developed by a Polish start-up is now used by 26 million Indonesians. With the digital economy, geography is meaningless. We now have quite a number of Indonesian students in Poland. Half of them are in science and IT study programmes. You have a good education system, and in science and technology you are more advanced than us. When Indonesian students come back home, they are familiar with the structure of the digital economy here, so I am sure that this bridge is going to be beneficial for future co-operation. All the more so that our Ministry of the Economy and the Ministry of Information and Communications have created a programme to nurture start-ups which are looking for investment from countries with developed tech industries such as Poland. Your country is moving in the same direction. There are so many Indonesian millennials who are very innovative, three in six of what are known as South-Asian unicorns, are from Indonesia. PM

We are planning a workshop in Poland in October to find ways of collaboration, but also focus on investment opportunities. It’s important for businessmen to be aware of the cultural context in which they operate. The Polish Investment and Trade Agency has recently organised a seminar to explain the importance of Halal certification for those interested in food exports to Indonesia. I’ve had meetings with national and regional Polish chambers of commerce, the PolandAsia Chamber of Commerce, and I was glad to learn that they have launched activities to promote awareness of the fact that Muslims account for 92% of Indonesia’s population. Consumers would not be interested in Polish food products unless they are Halal certified. In Asia and Europe we have different ways of business communication, building confidence and drafting contracts, and seminars devoted to that are designed to help Polish companies. PM

Much of outgoing Polish tourism now goes toward Thailand, India and Sri Lanka, not so much toward Indonesia. What to do to promote it as a destination for Polish holidaymakers? We are promoting Indonesia not only to individual tourists, but we also reach out to tour operators and companies which organise incentive tours, training workshops and business events. We have been talking to LOT Polish Airlines. LOT already flies to Singapore, and the number of flights is to be increased to daily flights by the end of the year. There is a six to seven hour layover in Singapore, while PM

it only takes an hour and a half to reach Jakarta from there. So the plane could make another hop, not necessarily to Jakarta, but perhaps take tourists to the islands of Bali or Lombok. There are some charter flights, but we would like to have a scheduled flight as well. In the future, we believe that once Poland’s new central airport hub is built, Indonesia’s Garuda airline has no choice but to fly there, because it will be a transit point for the whole Central and Eastern European region. Culture is a space where nations meet. Poles may have heard about Indonesia’s historical treasures, but what are your plans to help them find out more about your country’s rich and diverse culture? Among events in the pipeline are two fashion shows featuring Indonesia’s top designers. It will be combined with a two-day coffee promotion in the city of Krakow. On Indonesian National Day we will organise cultural events in Warsaw and in Toruń, which will be the first of many events which we are planning outside Warsaw. We also combine business promotions with culture. Indonesian artists recently performed at the Ptak centre, and we are also going to feature Indonesian culture at the Polagra fair in Poznań. We are in touch with some 400 Polish alumni of Indonesian government cultural scholarships, which are available to 15-20 Polish students each year. The young Poles spend up to a year in Indonesia, and when they come back, they act as our ambassadors in Poland. They have set up an association called Persahabatan, which means friendship in Indonesian, and which helps us • in different cities with organising events. PM

8/2019 polish market





ANDRZEJ WÓJCIK, new president of PolChambers, an independent association which co-ordinates the worldwide network of Polish chambers of commerce and business organisations, talks to Jerzy Mosoń. First of all, may I congratulate you on taking over the presidency of PolChambers. What are your goals? Thank you. PolChambers is a young association of chambers of commerce scattered around the world. That’s why, above all, I would like to carry on the process of pooling together to promote Polish companies and Polish entrepreneurship abroad. I would also like to use my experience gained during many years of co-operation with French business circles, to help Polish entrepreneurs find their feet in foreign markets, and to achieve successes in relations with foreign companies which operate in Poland. To improve their chances, it is necessary to encourage those who have already succeeded to work in partnership with those who are yet to succeed. PM

Your predecessor Hanna Stypułkowska stressed her links with France. You also come from the French-Polish Chamber of Commerce. It is just a coincidence, or do relations between Poland and France play a special role in helping Polish business make inroads into other markets? I have introduced Auchan, Leroy Merlin and Decathlon to the Polish market. I also work in the Polish and French real estate sectors. I know French entrepreneurs. The chamber, which celebrates its 25th anniversary this year, is very efficient. The key factor is that it is very active, and thus it enjoys a high profile among PolChambers members. We know our area of operations very well, and we can boast of a number of projects which have been implemented. PM

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French business in Poland is very visible, but it doesn’t quite work the same way the other way round, even though Polish businessmen are working dynamically in France. What’s the reason for this and what to do to change it? That’s exactly what motivates me even more to bring Polish business circles abroad even closer together. I feel it’s wrong for some Polish investors to have a very individualistic approach. They need to realise that strength lies in joint action. Working together is conducive to development. French businessmen who work in Poland are doing just that. PM

I can see one more reason, SMEs account for a large proportion of Polish business, and it’s probably more difficult for small firms to speak with one voice than for big corporations. In a way, Polish business in France is a mirror image of the Polish market, in which small and medium-sized firms are dominant. We do not have too many giants, though it is worth mentioning those which are becoming more and more visible on the French market: Solaris, Nowy Styl and Okno Plus. It is obviously more important for smaller firms to achieve good economic results as soon as possible, rather than to raise their profile, and this is where the Chamber comes in. PM


A large player has enough resources to study a foreign market before taking the plunge. A small player must take

a risk, unless help is available from a larger player. Is the chamber involved in such match-making? It is our goal to support co-operation between large players and SMEs on foreign markets. It's beneficial for both parties, all the more so that in many countries some sectors of the economy are very well penetrated by Polish business. In France, construction is one of them. The amended EU Posted Workers Directive is giving Polish entrepreneurs headaches, because it runs contrary to the interests of Polish drivers, logisticians and construction workers in France and other EU member states. Has the chamber taken actions to reduce its negative impact? We have been taking appropriate measures addressed to institutions and the French state for a long time, we are lobbying on the issue, and we are calling for respect for labour rights on the single market. We are also addressing Brussels on this matter. PM

Can you feel support from the Polish state in this respect? Yes, we can, but of course we would like more, especially because we are aware of how much support French entrepreneurs receive from their state. We are also ready to provide support. The PolChambers initiative may also provide invaluable support for Polish economic diplomacy in pursuing political objectives. Our strength lies in unity. • PM


INEVITABLE TRANSFORMATION The 2019 Energy Transformation Forum was the first in a series of conferences implemented by the Prof. Krzysztof Żmijewski Association for Efficiency.

The 1st debate on the optimal rate of energy transformation


ue to the ongoing key changes affecting the transformation process of the energy sector, i.e. the consequences of EU Directives and the directions of national strategic documents (Energy Policy, National Energy and Climate Plans), the current challenges must be addressed in a systemic way. As emphasised by those who participated in the Forum’s debates – both the government and representatives of the sector – energy exerts a huge influence on Polish industry and building the competitiveness of the national economy at large. The official opening was presented by Minister of Entrepreneurship and Technology Jadwiga Emilewicz. Speakers at the opening included Małgorzata Zielińska, Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Investment and Economic Development, and Waldemar Łagoda, Deputy Director of the Electrical Energy and Heating Department of the Ministry of Energy. We need to remember, as Minister Emilewicz stressed, that there is still a lot of ground to cover when it comes to energy transformation in Poland. Our energy resources are based on coal, which was not our sovereign decision, but as a country we are not afraid of taking up the challenge of a fair energy transformation.

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JADWIGA EMILEWICZ, Minister of Entrepreneurship and Technology: In terms of energy transformation, Poland has a lot to cover. Our energy resources are based on coal, but this was not our choice. That is why fair transformation is the basic condition for us... At the same time, we have to conduct an intercultural dialogue, as we know that some countries are planning to increase their climate goals. The energy industry is responsible for the majority of emissions in Europe, which is why the plan assumes an increase in energy efficiency and attempts at establishing a circular economy. Poland is not a typical European country in this respect, so the Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology is working on the National Low Emissions Strategy, which will specify the objectives and scenarios for our energy transformation. Achieving zero emissions seems difficult, but we are gradually pushing in this direction with offshore energy and prosumer energy. Prosumer energy is important, as it is going to contribute to achieving the renewable energy objective for 2020 and help fill in the blank spots on Poland’s energy map, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To summarise, as a country we are not afraid to take up challenges in fair energy transformation.

ENERGY JADWIGA EMILEWICZ, Minister of Entrepreneurship and Technology

MAŁGORZATA ZIELIŃSKA, Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Investment and Economic Development: The Ministry of Investment and Economic Development manages the Infrastructure and Environment Operational Programme, which has earmarked PLN 12 billion for this purpose during the current EU financial period... Both the Polish government and the EU have chosen to protect the climate and clean air. The negotiation procedure is progressing at a rapid pace and all signs suggest that low-emission energy sources will be preferred. The so-called Juncker Plan will also be continued, involving at least EUR 500 billion worth of financial resources for public and private investment projects. The Ministry of Investment and Economic Development is the managing body of the Connecting Europe Facility – a financial instrument which supports development in three fields: transport, energy and telecommunications networks. This facility also involves large amounts of money for the energy sector.

WALDEMAR ŁAGODA, Deputy Director of the Electrical Energy and Heating Department of the Ministry of Energy: The Ministry of Energy has a hugely important role to play in the process of energy transformation. It also involves building awareness that the Polish economy is looking at significant development opportunities. These opportunities could be explored in the sustainable transformation of the energy sector. The Ministry attaches a lot of importance to the work on creating Poland’s energy strategy, considering that the energy sector is the key element of a working economy and Poland’s security. Two strategic projects have been consulted during the last six-month period: the Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 and the National Energy and Climate Plan for 2021-2030. Ensuring the effective and permanent energy transformation requires a clear vision and a long-term strategy featuring plans for specific actions both in various sectors and across the economy. This also involves allocating funds to priority investment areas to facilitate the modernisation and transformation of the Polish energy sector. For over a dozen years the energy sector in Poland has been under the constant influence of climate-related, technological and business trends. Such rapid development is a huge challenge, but it also opens up a number of growth opportunities for Polish businesses, regions and economy. The evolution of the Polish energy sector has already begun, and its continued transformation will require wide-ranging investments in the generation capacity and transmission infrastructure of electrical energy, heat and gas in the energy storage system, energy efficiency, and also

investments fostering the low-emission growth of industry, transport and construction. Our activities in the coming years should focus on ensuring energy security, and guaranteeing stable and reliable supplies of fuels and energy, while fostering the continued and sustainable economic development of the country. During the 1st debate on the optimal rate of energy transformation, JACEK KOŚCIELNIAK, Vice-President of the Management Board of Energa S.A., said: The Energa Group has chosen the path of developing renewable energy sources and further diversifying its product base, and it occupies a strong position in this field, with a push to boost it even further. In addition to wind farms, hydroelectric energy will be another major field of investment. Several weeks ago a new Przykona wind farm project began operation. This 30MW farm is located in a former brown coal open cast mine (Adamów). Taking into account the potential of the area designated for the wind farm, there are also plans to build a solar power plant with energy storage in this location in the future. This project forms part of the revitalisation of post-industrial areas with the use of green energy. At the same time, Energa keeps investing in coal assets to comply with BAT conclusions and to gain time for transformation, which involves developing renewable energy assets. Involvement in green energy and electromobility was also discussed by JÓZEF WĘGRECKI, Vice-President of the Management Board of PKN Orlen S.A.: Orlen has two major objectives: developing the petrochemical and energy sector. When it comes to electromobility, charging stations are being installed all over Poland and other lowemission energy sources, such as hydrogen, are being considered. Our energy networks in cities are designed to charge 20 million cars, so hydrogen should also be an important element of low-emission transport. The production of

hydrogen will cover areas based on traditional fuel (petrol, diesel), which will be dwindling. In terms of broadly-understood renewable energy sources, speaking of energy generation, we must remember that coal currently makes up 80% of our energy mix, but this will gradually change. Technological progress in photovoltaics and wind turbines is so rapid that it will soon become a green and inexpensive alternative for the market. Orlen sees the opportunity of using Polish energy sources, such as biogas, and is exploring the possibility of building biogas plants across the country – a plan is under way. Both debates demonstrated that energy transformation is inevitable. The Ministry of Energy emphasised that for more than a dozen years now the energy sector in Poland has been influenced by climate-related, technological and business trends, and that the focus in the coming years should be on ensuring energy security, and on guaranteeing stable and reliable supplies of fuels and energy, while fostering sustainable economic development. An important part of the discussions was to demonstrate that Poland will not be excluded from the development of renewable energy sources and that this country will be increasingly able to afford green investments. As an energy consumer, Polish industry wants to be more and more eco-friendly to keep up with international competition. During the discussion it was stressed that conventional energy and renewables must be more effectively aligned to achieve success at the respective stages of the transformation process. According to the debate’s main conclusion, which was also expressed by its organiser – Rafał Czaja, President of the Association, we should do everything we can to turn energy transformation into an opportunity to develop the sector and the whole economy. •

Source: The Prof. Krzysztof Żmijewski Association for Efficiency

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The 2nd edition of the Economic Development Vision Forum was held in the Baltic port city of Gdynia June 24-25. This largest economic event in northern Poland took place at the Naval Academy. It included 100 panels attended by 500 experts.

he highlight of the first day was an address by Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki. “The Forum devoted to vision and economic development will set new directions for changes in our homeland. We need this forum as a meeting place for discussion and an exchange of views. We need a vision to achieve seemingly unrealistic goals in the years to come,” he said. The address was followed by a series of panels on key topics for the Polish economy. The opening session entitled "Factors which stimulate investments" attracted plenty of interest. “Right from the start, Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego has supported social and economic development and it is still its mission today,” said Beata Daszyńska-Muzyczka, President of Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego. “The Polish economy is accelerating, also thanks to funds which are channelled to entrepreneurs via our bank,” she pointed out. “There are three components that underpin our chance for further development: the size of the domestic market, openness to international trade and human capital,” emphasised Mateusz A. Bonca, President of the LOTOS Group. “Investments in clean fuel projects have

already taken place. We are considering a broader involvement in the development of alternative fuels,” he said. During the Forum, much attention was paid to energy. A lot of interest was generated by the Partnership Forum, during which the takeover of the LOTOS Group by PKN Orlen was discussed. A series of honorary economic awards was announced at the forum. They went to Adamed Pharma, KGHM Polska Miedź, ENERGA, Transition Technologies, PIAP Space, Hydromega and the LOTOS Group. To mark the 100th anniversary of Poland’s return to the map of Europe as an independent state in the wake of World War I, a special award, Vision for Development, was presented to PKN Orlen. The award was granted by a competition jury which made its pick from among companies nominated by some 200 institutions. On the second day of the forum, there were sessions on national security, economic development and what is known as the silver economy. The programme also included panels within a Partner Forum block. The CEMT Significant Technical Achievement 2018 prize was presented to the Crist Shipyard and the StoGda design office. “The panellists and moderators have done a great job. The forum is a big success,” said Andrzej Michalak, President of Fundacja Wizja Rozwoju, the organiser of the event.

“Those who have attended the Forum appear to be satisfied. You can hear it both in comments by our partners and participants of various panel discussions,” he noted. One of the highlights of the forum was the Hackathon finale – the climax of a programming marathon which began on the first day of the event. 70 participants took part in the competition. The first prize was awarded to the Zion team. The second and third places went to Slavic Monsters and Eco-Sort, respectively. The 2nd Economic Development Vision Forum ended with a concert by the PolishGreek artist Eleni, who performed her greatest hits at the plenary hall. The main sponsor of the event was PKN Orlen. The strategic partners were Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego, KGHM Polska Miedź and LOTOS Group. The main partners were ENERGA, Fundacja KGHM Polska Miedź and Totalizator Sportowy. Bank PKO BP was the Partner + of the event. Other partners included ARP Industrial Development Agency, DGT, Gas Storage Poland, JSW, PGNiG Obrót Detaliczny, PAIH, Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, Polish Development Fund, PHN Group, Pomeranian Special Economic Zone, Port of Gdansk Authority and the Port of Gdynia Authority. Railway partners were PKP and • Przewozy Regionalne.




There are more and more electric vehicles (EV) on Polish roads, but their share in the market is still relatively low. Although the development of electromobility is a priority of the Polish government, the support instruments applied so far have not brought about a turning point on the market. Draft laws on financial support for buyers of electric vehicles do not inspire optimism either. How to effectively increase the popularity of zero-emission vehicles in Poland?


he Electromobility Counter launched by the Polish Alternative Fuels Association (PSPA) and the Polish Automotive Industry Association (PZPM) indicates that 6,092 electric vehicles were licensed for use on the roads in Poland at the end of June 2019. A total of 1,836 all-electric (battery only) vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) were newly registered in Poland in the first half of 2019, over 850 more than a year earlier. The above data show that Polish drivers are increasingly interested in electromobility. However, Poland still lags behind many Western European countries in terms of the number of newly registered electric vehicles. According to the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA), in the first three months of 2019 alone as many as 23,326 passenger electric vehicles were newly registered in Germany, 14,579 in Britain, 14,503 in France and 9,806 in Sweden. The European leader is Norway, with 23,405 electric cars newly registered in the three months to the end of March. The disparities between electric vehicle statistics in these countries and Poland are largely due to differences in their affluence levels, but their policies on supporting electromobility also play a major role. Poland lacks a system of effective financial incentives to buy electric vehicles. The only incentive provided for by the law on electromobility and alternative fuels, which came into force on February 22, 2018, is exemption from excise tax, something which should be deemed as a purely symbolic instrument given the prices of electric vehicles in car showrooms. The government is now preparing to launch subsidies from the Low-Emission Transport Fund. It is definitely a step in the right direction on the road to popularising electric vehicles, but the proposed secondary legislation raises serious doubts. A draft order of the Minister of Energy on specific conditions for granting and accounting

JAN WIŚNIEWSKI, expert of the Polish Alternative Fuels Association for aid for private individuals who do not conduct business activity was submitted for public consultation in mid-July this year. Under the draft, the highest subsidy for the purchase of an electric vehicle is to account for 30% of the purchase price, but no more than PLN37,500. Subsidies are to be available only for vehicles whose price does not exceed PLN125,000. It should be stressed that this amount is inclusive of VAT. Most of the battery electric vehicles offered on the Polish and European market are significantly more expensive. None of the top 10 best-selling electric vehicles on the Polish market is within the limit proposed by the Ministry of Energy. As a result, financial support would only be granted for the purchase of a few smallest and cheapest models while the most popular zero-emission cars which are subsidised in other European countries are to be excluded from the scheme. According to the Polish Alternative Fuel Association, one should not expect a sudden surge in electric vehicle sales after the order becomes effective and the Low-Emission Transport Fund starts distributing the subsidies. In the initial stage of the development of the Polish market for electric vehicles, it is necessary to raise the limits set by the draft order. Otherwise, sales of zeroemission vehicles will stay at as low a level as now. On the basis of the “Polish EV Outlook” report compiled by the PSPA and the international business consulting firm Frost & Sullivan, and on condition that the money from the LowEmission Transport Fund is used in an optimal way, the number of electric vehicles on Polish roads is projected to grow from the present 6,000 to 300,000 in 2025. However, the governmentproposed draft regulation means that no more than 60,000 battery electric vehicles would be registered by 2025. In this case, one can hardly talk about the development of electromobility on a large scale. Additionally, there are also serious obstacles to the expansion of the charging infrastructure.

At the end of June 2019, Poland had 752 charging stations for electric vehicles, with a total of 1,395 charging units. 33% of the stations were direct current (DC) rapid charging stations while the remaining 67% were alternating current (AC) slow chargers with a power output of 22kW or less. It is inspiring that increasingly efficient stations are being built in the country. GreenWay Polska, the largest electric vehicle infrastructure operator in Poland, doubled the power output of its first two stations from 50kW to 100kW. They now provide more efficient services for a successive generation of electric vehicles, which are gradually entering the market. The company has plans to raise the power output of its further stations. Additionally, GreenWay Polska is going to install Poland’s first ultra-fast chargers with a power output of up to 350kW at the Malankowo service area of the A1 motorway on its stretch between the cities of Grudziądz and Toruń in both directions. Further stations of this kind are to be launched by the end of the year on other motorway stretches. However, the efforts of operators who are expanding electric vehicle charging infrastructure in Poland encounter a serious obstacle in the form of a lengthy process of getting connected to an electricity distribution system. This significantly delays the installation of new charging stations and makes it difficult for leading European operators to enter the Polish market. A good example is Ionity, a joint venture established by Volkswagen Group (with Audi and Porsche), BMW AG, Daimler and Ford. By 2020 the company is going to open ultra-fast charging stations with a power output of up to 350kW in 400 European locations, including in Poland. But considering the protracted processes of connecting charging stations to the electricity network, the installation of Ionity chargers in Poland will most likely be delayed. • 8/2019 polish market





CASE worked in partnership with Michelin to develop concept tires

"Polish Market" was Poland’s only business magazine to be invited to a CNH Industrial press conference held at the CNH Industrial Village to the north of Turin, Italy. The conference was devoted to alternative fuels, and in particular to a new concept methane-powered wheel loader developed by CASE Construction Equipment named TETRA Project. The loader had its premiere at the Bauma fair in Munich. Ewelina Janczylik-Foryś


ven though the CASE loader is still in its design stage, it is a functioning vehicle. Yet, it is still just a concept. The company is working to make it a viable market proposition. Several global companies are apparently interested in the project.

THE CONCEPT The name TETRA ( which means four in Greek) refers to four hydrogen atoms which combine with a single carbon atom to form a methane molecule (CH4) as well as to its quadrangle shape. The designers have replaced the idea of an engine using fossil fuels with one powered by renewable energy sources. These play a crucial role in the closed circuit cycle, in which a methane-powered loader produces fuel from waste and renewable sources which are eventually used to drive it. It releases 95% less CO2 using bio methane, 90% less nitrogen dioxide and 99% less particulate matter, compared to its diesel equivalent, which means an 80% reduction in total emissions.

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HOW IT WORKS Bio methane is produced in a cyclical, CO2neutral system from a mixture of household organic waste, food waste from industrial food processing plants, restaurants, canteens, as well as from biomass, such as wood chips, animal waste, energy crops and municipal waste. All these are processed in a fermentation chamber. They are heated in a sealed tank, where they are biologically decomposed by bacteria, similarly as in a composter. During these reactions, biogas, including bio methane, is released in a two-stage fermentation process which lasts about 60 days. Fuel-grade bio methane, which can be used to power the loader, is obtained through further treatment. What is known as the post-fermentation mass, which is a mixture of liquid and solid residue left in the fermentation tank at the end of the biogas production cycle, has a high nutritional value, and can be used as a fertiliser in gardening and agri-tourism. According to CASE, in this way farmers can produce their own CO2-neutral fuel, while at the same time being shielded against oil price fluctuations.

They will also be able to make significant savings in operating costs, ranging from 10 to 30% compared to the cost of diesel fuel. This concept allows enough fuel to be provided for an entire working day. Refuelling a wheel loader from a ground level distributor is as easy as filling up with diesel oil, and takes roughly just as long.

WHAT IS IT FOR? The focus on alternative fuels is nothing new for CNH Industrial as a global company. CNH Industrial brands have been commercialising gas-fuelled vehicles for a number of years. For 20 years, FPT Industrial, a CNH Industrial brand, has produced more than 40,000 natural gas-powered engines, using both CNG and LNG fuel. About 28,000 natural gas-powered vehicles, trucks and buses manufactured respectively by Iveco and Iveco Bus, roll down the roads around the world. It was only a matter of time before these achievements could be applied in other CNH Industrial companies. CASE Construction Equipment

CONSTRUCTION has capitalised on the experience it has gained to unveil the design of a methane-powered loader. It has thus become the world leader in the implementation of new environment-friendly technologies.

STYLISH DESIGN The main features emphasise the overall design style, including the cabin position, 360° visibility glazing (16% more than a standard wheel loader), a panoramic roof which gives the operator an unobstructed view of the bucket in the entire loading cycle, and the industry's most advanced sliding doors. A complete LED lighting package that provides unsurpassed visibility, includes a trademark light bar, headlamps built into the load arms and front fenders, front and rear roof lights, dynamic lights on the rear fenders, and brake lights on the rear counterweight. The operator can choose either an automatic mode, in which all lights are automatically activated in a poorly lit working environment, or a manual mode in which he himself decides which lights to use. Highly resistant materials have been selected for the cabin interior, which enables quick cleaning of upholstery. A hard-wearing stone floor is another feature that makes the design practical, coupled with protective aluminium covers and floor mats. Adding to this swish modern look are aluminium handles and carbon fibre fenders. The loader is built with extraordinary attention to detail. Polish designer Jakub Sulikowski is part of the graphic design team responsible for this design. The vehicle surface has a metallic satin coating. The anthracite powder finish on the external metal elements is weatherand-dirt resistant. It also protects the stylish coating. Once the loader door is opened, the chair sliding and turning function is activated, which makes it easy for the operator to get in and assume the working position as soon as he sits down. The seat is equipped with integrated heating and cooling systems, which cool the operator down in high temperatures, and keep him warm in colder weather. Another feature which increases user comfort is active suspension with a weight detection function, as well as adjustable lumbar support.

Overall machine stability enhances operational versatility and jobsite safety

PACKED WITH HIGH TECH What would the new concept loader using alternative fuels, and featuring an exclusive finish, be if it were not for technological novelties? And that's how it is here. Let us start with getting in and starting the loader. Access to the vehicle and its activation is possible using a biometric face recognition system. The door sensor scans the operator's face on approach. Once inside the cabin, another scan is carried out by a sensor built into the armrest monitor, followed by authorisation and activation of the start sequence. The design of the vehicle includes features coming from the CNH Industrial autonomous vehicle programme. Operator safety is ensured by an advanced obstacle detection technology, which automatically stops the vehicle when it encounters an obstacle, and informs the operator about it. A voice control function is provided by a device built into the roof of the cabin, which uses Internet of Things technology to operate individual features using verbal commands. This system enables the operator to control cabin temperature, select music, make and receive phone calls and dictate messages. Controls on the operator’s screen display data such as target load and current bucket load via sensors mounted on the arm. A site map is also displayed, tracking incoming trucks and indicating the fastest route to the selected dig area, as well as general information about the layout of the site. On-screen displays also feature machine operating parameters, including speed, engine revolutions, fuel level, engine and oil temperature, selected gear, engine run time and time of day. Cabin cameras do the

The interactive colour touchscreen on the armrest enables control of all key machine parameters

job of traditional side mirrors, and the display is automatically adjusted to the direction the loader moves in. The conceptual wheel loader can be used with a full range of tyres, so that the machine's operation is efficient, regardless of the working environment. Tyre technology is key to machine performance, which is why the CNH Industrial and Michelin® teams have worked together to develop advanced concept airless tyres. They are made entirely of rubber and a patented composite material, which is why they are resistant to extreme conditions prevailing in the construction environment.

IN THE MAKING It can be said with conviction that the designers have focused not just on loader operator comfort, modern technologies and eco trends, but they have also made the vehicle into a luxurious work environment.

Nevertheless, the project may still be subject to further improvements. For now, there are still a few question marks. Will users have good access to natural gas? Will they need to invest in their own compression station where natural gas is compressed into fuel-grade gas? Is existing infrastructure sufficient? How to service such vehicles? And last, but not least, what price will this exciting novelty come at? These questions are yet to be answered. It will be interesting to see how soon. • 8/2019 polish market




Marek Tukiendorf (1964-2019) We were devastated to find out that Professor Marek Tukiendorf, Rector of the Opole University of Technology, died suddenly and, for us, unexpectedly. As a kind, wise and warm person, who was always open to cooperation, he was our friend and advisor, as well as an expert, author and co-author of "Polish Market’s" special editions devoted to economic, scientific and cultural relations between Poland and China. It is thanks to him that in our work on such special editions, partially published in Chinese, we could be assisted by top translators from the Opole University of Technology’s Confucius Institute he had helped launch. We will miss him very much. He passed away on 17 July at the age of 55. Krystyna Woźniak-Trzosek Publisher and Editor-in-Chief & the "Polish Market" Team

Marek Tukiendorf was born in Polska Cerekiew in the Opole region in 1964. In 2009, he was one of the youngest scientists in Poland to receive the title of full professor of agricultural sciences. In the years 2005-2012, he served as Vice-Rector for Science at the Opole University of Technology. In 2012, he was elected the university’s rector. In 2016, his term was extended with over 90% of the university senate votes cast in his favour. Together with the city of Opole and province-level local authorities, Professor Tukiendorf organised a series of international conferences, including the Polish-German BRIDGE conference, and the Polish-Chinese One Belt One Road conference. ALighT, one of the largest projects in the history of Opole University of Technology, was implemented in partnership with the City Science and Technology Park. Professor Tukiendorf co-ordinated the formation of the Poland-China Cooperation Centre - the Confucius Institute in Opole, which was the first such institution in Poland operating at a university of technology. In 2014, on his initiative, the Poland-India Cooperation Centre, the Institute of Yoga and Ayurveda, was set up to offer postgraduate studies. In 2017, together with university rectors from Beijing and Chongqing, Prof. Marek Tukiendorf took part in the formation, and later assumed the management of, the first Polish-Chinese consortium One Belt One Road, whose goal is to jointly apply for high-profile Chinese government projects to develop convenient transport links between China and Europe. DISTINCTIONS AND AWARDS In 2009, Prof. Tukiendorf received the Gregor Johann Mendel medal awarded by the Mendelova Zemêdêlská and Lesnicka Univerzita in Brno in the Czech Republic, for the development of R&D cooperation. He was the first foreign academic to receive a medal from the Technology Institute in Bragança in Portugal, for his contribution to the development of international cooperation. In 2010, he was awarded the Silver Laurel of Skills and Competence by the Opole Chamber of Commerce, for supporting the development of the market economy and educating cadres for the needs of companies. In 2014, he received the Golden Laurel in the same category. In January 2016, he was awarded the Platinum Laurel in the pro bono category. For his activities, he also received the Medal of the National Education Commission. In December 2016, he received a prestigious distinction from China’s HANBAN Office for Chinese Language Promotion, for his outstanding and invaluable contribution to the activities of the Confucius Institute, and a year later he was awarded the title of Honorary Professor by the Beijing University of Technology. He was also honoured with the Citizen of Merit titles of the city of Opole and of the Polska Cerekiew commune. Professor Marek Tukiendorf published about 200 studies. Source: Opole University of Technology

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Jan Macieja (1932-2019) Professor Jan Macieja, economist, former Head of the Business Monitoring Lab (PMP) at the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), originator and co-author of our “Pearls of the Polish Economy” ranking, passed away on 27 July at the age of 87. Early in 2002, Professor Jan Macieja came to our editor’s office together with Professor Zbigniew Hockuba, the then Head of PAN’s Economic Sciences Institute (INE PAN). The two gentlemen asked whether we would like to organise an economic ranking – one that was to be unique in that it would be based on completely different economic criteria than most rankings in Poland at that time. Of course, we accepted offer and proudly and happily. And this way, for seventeen years now we have organised the Pearls of the Polish Economy Gala at the Royal Castle in Warsaw to announce the results of each year’s ranking of top Polish businesses. When the Professor’s health started to deteriorate a few years ago, and he eventually left the Institute, we decided to continue his work. We let the economists from the SGH Warsaw School of Economics handle the process of redesigning the ranking to give it a slightly different form, adjusted to meet the demands of the changing economic situation. But the idea behind it stayed the same, just as thought up by Professor Macieja – the Pearls are awarded on the basis of not only the generated revenue but primarily, efficiency and robustness in economic performance. Thank you, Professor, for all those years we worked together on the Ranking. Thank you for your wisdom, perseverance and excellent personal standards. Krystyna Woźniak-Trzosek Publisher and Editor-in-Chief & the "Polish Market" Team

Jan Macieja was one of the excellent economists actively involved in the transformation of the Polish economy after the collapse of the communist regime. Graduate of the SGH Warsaw School of Economics (then SGPiS) in 1958, he also defended his PhD thesis there (1965). Immediately upon his graduation, he started working for SGPiS, first as Assistant Lecturer, later as Reader, and then as Assistant Professor. He worked at the School until 1978. He held the post of deputy Director (1973-74) and then Director (1974-75) of SGPiS’ Institute of Economic Development. He went on placements/internships to the Chicago University and the Carnegie-Mellon University, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union’s Institute of Economic Sciences, the Seton Hall University, and the Manchester University. In 1976, he worked as a visiting professor at the Columbia University. He also served an advisory role with the US Office of Education to assess economic university programmes. Between 1980 and 1981, he was Head of the Government IT Centre. When PAN established its Institute of Economic Sciences in 1982, he became its research fellow and held this position for many years. He co-authored “The List of 500 Largest Companies.” In 2002-2010, he managed such research projects as “The Key Microeconomic Growth Drivers of the Polish Economy” and “The Pearls of the Polish Economy.” To apply his knowledge in practice, in 1989 he became involved with the transformation of Poland’s economic system, and more specifically, the reform of the mining industry. In Tadeusz Mazowiecki’s government, he held the position of Director General at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, and was responsible for the power industry (1989–1990). At the time, mining was in decline and Jan Macieja can be largely credited for its restructuring. One of the things he helped achieve was to make mines more independent. Later he served as an expert advisor to consecutive governments. He actively commented on economic policies related to the mining industry and its functioning. Professor Macieja had free-market views and was very active, so it was only natural to make him a member of the Society of Polish Economists (TEP), set up by a group of economists. In TEP’s formative years, he served as the Society’s Vice President. Outside of work, he was very passionate about chess and, starting in 1990, he spent a lot of his time and energy to make this game more popular in Poland. Over the last 30 years, he significantly contributed to the revival and strong position of Poland in chess. He was Vice President of the Polish Chess Association (PZS) between 2003 and 2004, and President of the Polonia Warszawa Chess Club. Source: Society of Polish Economists, Polish Chess Association (PZS)

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CM A modern double-deck barge named Wisława is moored off the west bank of the Vistula river, near the iconic Mermaid statue in Warsaw. The barge is owned by the Comedy Club and Cafe Kulturalna. On board you will find concerts, DJ parties, improvised performances, literary cabaret performances and film screenings. The Comedy Club invites intriguing Polish artists to its improvised performances. In August they will include caricaturist Marek Raczkowski, actor and satirist Jacek Fedorowicz, and Michał Rusinek, literary scholar, translator, writer, former personal secretary to the Polish Nobel Prize winner in literature Wisława Szymborska. Perhaps the barge is named after her? On the Vistula barge you can sample Korean cuisine cooked to perfection by the Bam Korean Street Food. Most events on the Vistula barge are free of charge. The Wisława barge is open every evening from 6 p.m.


The 25th edition of the International Open Jazz Festival kicked off in Warsaw’s Old Town on July 6. The festival is described as the Polish capital’s showcase events. It is one of the longest-running jazz festivals in Europe. It lasts for two months, with concerts scheduled each Saturday in July and August. Guests of the festival are a true galaxy of Polish, European and American performers. This month’s featured artists are the new Terje Rypdal Quartet led by the icon of Scandinavian jazz - guitarist and composer. Another new project assembled by the American trumpeter and composer Gary Guthman Quartet will also appear in Warsaw in August. The legendary band set up by saxophonist Courtney Pine, one of the most influential European musicians, is to play some excellent tracks from the "House of Legends" album. Leading Polish jazz artists will also be represented. The Adam Bałdych Quartet, formed by one of the most exciting violinists of today's Polish jazz scene, will play tracks from the album "Sacrum Profanum,” the quartet’s latest project, recorded for the German ACT Music label. The idea is to "transport the beauty of church music into modern times," as the band leader describes the release. Aga Zaryan, one of the most important Polish jazz vocalists who excels in each jazz genre will be performing tracks from her "High & Low" album released this year, in which many songs feature Aga’s own lyrics, and the music is by top jazzmen Michał Tokaj, David Dorůžka, Dariusz Oleszkiewicz and Marcin Wasilewski. The new songs sit on the album next to classics by Carla Bley, Paul Simon, and Stevie Wonder.


A series of “Summer with the Radio” road shows is organised by the country’s national broadcaster Radio One each year. The road show takes its name from a popular radio show for holidaymakers, and features some of Poland’s biggest stars, including rock, pop and folk artists, as well classical music performers. Two road shows will be held in August, in Krakow and Stalowa Wola. You can follow most of the road shows live on the Polish Radio streaming page and on social media, and for the more traditional audiences, you can also hear them on Radio One. The events are also covered on several other shows broadcast by the station, as well as on Radio Three. In the music, family and relaxation zones, there is something for everyone: meetings with stars, DJs, educational games for children and radio workshops. In Stalowa Wola on August 9-10, the star attraction is the Polish rock band Perfect, whose cult songs with veiled subversive anti-communist lyrics lifted the spirits of young Poles during the dark 1980s. The Polish fusion folk band Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa, the Chopin University Big Band and vocalist Sławek Uniatowski also feature on the bill. A royal musical feast awaits audiences in Krakow on August 30-31, the last of the "Summer with Radio" road shows for this season. During the two days there will be eighteen concerts and other attractions in various parts of the city. Friday will be devoted to rock, with headlining artists performing songs from their latest albums: Katarzyna Nosowska ("Basta"), Fisz Emade Tworzywo ("Radar"), and Voo Voo ("Za niebawem"). On Saturday, the Polish Radio orchestra, Chopin University Big Band, and popular Polish singers Anita Lipnicka, Mela Koteluk, Julia Pietrucha and Daria Zawiałow, will complete the line-up.

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WRATISLAVIA CANTANS FESTIVAL 2019 The Wratislavia Cantans international festival has been billed as “a festival without borders” since its inception. Oratorio, cantata, symphonic and chamber concerts and instrumental recitals are scheduled in some of the finest historical settings in Wroclaw and its surroundings. The festival was launched in 1966 by the leading Polish conductor Andrzej Markowski (1924-1986). The 54th edition of the festival under the Polish-English title "Południe/South" will be held September 6-15. One of its biggest stars this year will be Zubin Mehta, who will be conducting the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra. They will perform Mahler's Symphony No. 3, accompanied by the Boys' Choir of the National Music Forum. There will also be a concert by the French composer Marcel Peres of the Ensemble Organum and Moroccan artists. Italian music will be strongly represented. "Together with the Il Giardino Armonico and soloists, I will be performing Vivaldi's oratorio 'Juditha triumphans,' which was last heard at the Wratislavia Cantans festival a few decades ago, in the 1970s," says Italian conductor Giovanni Antonini, who has been the festival’s artistic director since 2013. Concerts dedicated to works by Neapolitan composers, including the Scarlatti family, are also scheduled. Apart from the Mediterranean themes, the programme will include Polish works by Mikołaj Zieleński. A concert of traditional folk music is also scheduled. It will feature several ensembles, including the Song Theatre and an ensemble which performs the music of the highlander ethnic group, the Lemkos, otherwise known as the Ruthenians. Apart from the National Music Forum, the venues will include the collegiate church of the Holy Cross and St. Bartholomew on the island of Ostrów Tumski on the Odra river, and the White Stork Synagogue.


"KRZYSZTOF KOMEDA AT POLISH RADIO VOL. 8 - SUPPLEMENT" - POLISH RADIO - CD Pianist and composer Krzysztof Komeda Trzciński (1931-1969) is an icon of Polish jazz and Polish culture. A self-taught musician who left Poland to live in the US, he was actually an ear, nose and throat specialist by profession. He is best known for his score to Roman Polanski’s classic “Rosemary’s Baby.” Prof. Marek Hendrykowski, an outstanding Polish film historian and theoretician thus describes Komeda’s contribution to jazz. "For Komeda jazz was a metaphor of human life. It captured the desire for personal freedom and was a journey of self-discovery, and finding out about the outside world, through art." Recognised by music critics as a pioneer of modern Polish jazz, he most often performed with his own sextet. In 1965, he recorded the album "Astigmatic," which is considered one of the best jazz albums ever released in Poland. He also wrote music for about 70 films. His first score was for Roman Polanski’s "Two Men and a Wardrobe", and the last one, written shortly before the composer’s premature death, was for "Rosemary's Baby," featuring the famous "Lullaby." “Krzysztof Komeda at Polish Radio vol. 8 – Supplement” is the final album in this excellent series. It features early radio recordings made by the Komeda Sextet in 1956, the artist’s first project. There is also an excerpt from a concert at the International Youth and Students Festival in Moscow in 1957, Komeda Trio’s "Fourth" recorded in 1963, and the song "I Do not Want To Sleep" performed by actress Kalina Jędrusik with the Komeda band, recorded in Warsaw in 1967. An added bonus is Magdalena Konopka’s radio interview with Komeda in the same year. The album which contains all those unforgettable classics is a real gem.


Michał Urbaniak (born 1943) is another icon of Polish jazz. Often described as an ambassador of Polish art, he is an instrumentalist, composer and arranger. His favourite instruments are the violin and saxophone. In 1973 he made New York his home, and he has lived and worked there ever since. His inspiration with Polish folk music (e.g. the mazurkas) gained him the recognition of leading American jazzmen 40 years ago, as well as opening up fresh avenues for many other musicians. Urbaniak has played with stars such as the Weather Report, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea and Billy Cobham. In 1985, he took part in the famous recording session with Miles Davis for the album "Tutu." As the artist himself says, he was one of the first musicians in New York to realise that fledgling hip-hop was jazz. "Back in 1987, I had a black poet in the band, so it all turned into rap. The Urbanator team was founded in 1989," he says. Urbaniak's latest album is part of the “We Remember '44” series marking the 75th anniversary of the Warsaw Rising against the Nazis during WWII. The music is a fusion of jazz with hip-hop, electronic music, as well as NuJazz and UrbJazz. Guest musicians who took part in the recording sessions for the album include bassist Marcus Miller, guitarist David Gilmore and drummer Lenny White. On the album you can hear the artist’s own pieces, as well as his versions of classics by jazz giants Thelenious Monk, Bill Evans and Miles Davis. “"For Warsaw with Love" is my musical journey filled with the love of black jazz, blues and hip-hop, groove and rhythm, people and cities, dedicated to those who are no longer among us, those who are here now and those who are yet to come," declares Michał Urbaniak. 8/2019 polish market



emotions NO FAKE Maciej Proliński

That’s the motto of Jan Gołębiewski (born 1944), a fire officer by education, a painter by passion. He is a resident of the Warsaw suburb of Pruszków. He retired in the rank of brigadier in 1996. He served as the curator of the Fire Services Museum in Warsaw for the last three years of his professional career. He became interested in drawing as a child, and he has been painting watercolours for over four decades. His colourful works show plenty of emotions. Join us on a trip into these colourful and creative worlds conjured up by this self-taught artist. They are bound to put you in a good mood of peaceful and joyful holidays set in Polish tradition, the love of life and nature.


ainting is a constant need for Jan Gołębiewski, who is a bit of a romantic, because painting is not his main source of income. He has had a number of exhibitions, including, six one-man exhibitions at the Stara Kordegarda gallery in the Royal Łazienki Park in Warsaw. "It’s a great joy and distinction for me, because Royal Łazienki is

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a great place to show paintings. Genuine art lovers, art critics and enthusiasts come here," says the artist. As a student at the Tomasz Zan high school in Pruszków, he met a wonderful teacher, prof. Wacław Prusak. "The professor graduated from the St. Petersburg Arts Academy, along with top Polish painters Henry Siemiradzki, Stanisław Żukowski, and many others. The

academy prepared him perfectly for a lifetime of drawing and painting. Another of my teachers, Polish language teacher Stanisława Ostrowska, taught us that we need to think, speak and live in a coherent way. Otherwise, it makes no sense. My parents had spiritual needs which influenced me from an early age. Patriotism was among my family’s supreme values. We cherished works by 19th century

CULTURE artists Artur Grottger and Jan Matejko, who portrayed key moments in Polish history" says Jan Gołębiewski. The work of artists, and not just painters, but also musicians and poets, is imbued with emotion. It is important to experience it to understand their spiritual outlook. It is also important to ask yourself whether human beings can still notice each other in this day and age, what their expectations are, what exactly do they look out for. After all, the artist’s tool does not decide about all this, Jan Gołębiewski argues. “Man is in the focus, his story, imagination and emotions. It opens up a space our dreams, feelings, memories, and art can fit into. Logic and wisdom are one thing, imagination is another. The former will lead us from point A to B, the latter from point A to anywhere you want. Over the past 75 years of my life, I have met hundreds, maybe thousands of people. When I send an invitation to one of my exhibitions to a friend of mine, a fire service officer, I always say, Julek come to my show, it will take you to a higher level of emotions, without having to climb a ladder. Our emotions are directly translated into shapes, colour and themes. Art is such a vast area that it is often useless to search for definitions, to assess the value of an art work, to provide ready-made recipes. Everything changes like a man who gets on in life, or like the weather," points out Jan Gołębiewski. "Wandering around the nooks and crannies of the soul, thinking about everything that happens to us, talking about it, means more than it could seem. In his book ‘The Eye and Hand of a Painter,’ 20th-century Polish painter, illustrator and art critic Ignacy Witz, described the relationship between what an artist sees and what he paints. He also noticed that to understand art, one must first understand life. This wonderful book will help you understand the meaning of fine arts and will help you discover that the human being matters the most. So if you add a pinch of reason, warmth and sincerity to emotions condensed into watercolours, your paintings will reflect all that," adds Gołębiewski. The artist has painted several thousand watercolours, mostly landscapes and portraits. "Eyes are the mirror of the soul. In the eyes lies the secret of beauty, temperament, and the mystery of each portrait. The sky is the soul of the landscape, the colour of the sky is the mirror of emotions. I watch nature, take pictures, sketch, and then capture it in watercolours. I’m convinced that my paintings do not just imitate nature. I try to convey an impression of the landscape, and not a copy of it. I travel all over Poland. Through all these years, I have visited

Jan Gołębiewski, self-portrait

hundreds of places - from the Hel peninsula on the Baltic Sea to the Tatra mountain range. Especially the wild and desolate Bieszczady mountain range is an inexhaustible source of inspiration. I’m also fascinated by wonderful wooden architecture, but the choice of topics is a secondary matter. It’s all about your take on an idea, the ability to capture the atmosphere," he adds. According to the artist, watercolours are among the most refined forms of expression. “Watercolours cannot be soulless. A special role in my watercolours is played by light and shadow, I use them to set the mood, but also to show the way I perceive things,” says Gołębiewski. What about the artist’s masters and fascinations? "The most important one for me is Leon Wyczółkowski, one of the leading Polish artists of the realist period. You just can’t reach his heights. Another leading

artist, Stanisław Witkiewicz, once wrote to Wyczółkowski: ‘I love you because you play with your art.’ But to have fun with art, you must have a really good grasp of artistic skills. And this is only possible to achieve by trial and error. My other masters are Polish painters Piotr Michałowski, Michał Andriolli, and many others. Being familiar with their work is extremely helpful in your own painting,” admits Gołębiewski. The artist’s motto is his favourite quote from another artist: "If a painter is honest, his intentions are clearly visible, and viewers can easily pick up on them." The same need seems to lie at the root of the artist’s book of memoirs from his childhood, travels around Poland and recollections of seemingly insignificant moments in his life. Apart from his paintings, the self-published book entitled "Crumbs" offers its readers a glimpse into the artist’s intimate world. • 8/2019 polish market



BARTOSZ MACIEJEWSKI, an up-and-coming and influential Polish photographer, talks to Jerzy Mosoń.


INVISIBLE What are you doing in Tuscany? I haven’t been in Italy for 10 years, which I regret because being here enables me to completely reset myself. I am carrying out a project here, trying to combine it with a family holiday. I also want to do street photography in Florence and Bologna. PM

Will all your holiday be busy? Yes. And immediately afterwards there is another challenge for me, but this time in the Netherlands. Then, I will return to Israel where I have already been this year. PM

How does it feel when a well-known person from another country calls you and asks for a photo shoot? It never has been and never will be a routine for me. It’s a marvellous gift that I can go to different places to do what I love doing and do it as a profession. I am grateful that I can live this way and I will never take it for granted. I am aware that not everyone is so lucky. PM


What is it like to do projects with influential people, the managers, CEOs of

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large corporations, actors, musicians and celebrities who need to cooperate with you at a photo shoot otherwise nothing would come out of your joint work?? It can be challenging to build a bond with the people being photographed, to convince them that we have to do the job together, but under my guidance. To achieve this I try to shorten the distance between us as quickly as possible. I take this risk, but it is the only way. If there is a barrier between the photographer and the model, it might be very difficult to take a good picture.

For the famous photographer Ansel Adams the only human aspect about a photograph was the photographer and the viewer. But he was a master of landscape. It is probably opposite with you: the human is the most important. Isn’t this so? It all changes in my case. I was once inspired by man, then by the city. Now, I am interested in shade and light, form more than substance. So in this context, Adams’ words fit with where I am currently. But it doesn’t mean that when I discover something new in photography, something that attracts PM

me more at that moment, I abandon what I have done before. I return to my earlier paths and techniques, enrich them with new ones. What counts is what is here and now, what inspires me in a given moment, person, place, lights, shade or structure.

What is so fascinating about urban photography? The atmosphere? A person placed in a context? The architecture? Do you wait for a decisive moment like Henri Cartier Bresson did? Or perhaps you look for unchanging elements? In urban space, I look for contrasts, light and shade. People may appear somewhere in the frames, but they are not the most important element. I try not to mix the two worlds. In a portrait, I look for man and who he or she is. In my street art, I am fascinated more with fixed elements of the city, I focus on its universality. This is perhaps why I look for inspiration mainly abroad. Polish cities are constantly changing, expanding and evolving. Someone once offered to buy my collection of photographs of Warsaw. I checked what I had and it turned out that I only had just a few photos. Perhaps this will change soon. I’m more and more into the idea PM

CULTURE of focusing on Polish cites. But for now these are tentative plans. Now I understand why you have abandoned New York for London. One of your exhibitions was dedicated to Harlem NY. This is what you called it - „disappearing Harlem”. Is this place really undergoing such great change that it ceases to be an inspiration? New York is changing in front of our eyes. Crime rates, for example, are not as high now as they used to be. On the other hand, the old atmosphere is vanishing. Social contrasts are fading away because living standards are more equal or perhaps because the way of life is becoming more universal. We photographers usually don’t like it. Perhaps with the exception of where the old meets the new. I don’t know how much longer this time will last and this is what I’ve tried to capture, hence my series of New York. I also wanted to show what may soon disappear. But I am not going to give up on New York completely. You simply cannot get tired of this city. I return there once in a while and I will keep on doing so. London, especially East London, has enchanted me with its colourfulness and its mixture of cultures. It is surprising: both old – much older than New York – and



modern. In some way, London is a bit like another New York, but a European one. It is a metropolis that you cannot fully grasp. Was your project „London Outsider” about it? No, „London Outsider” was a project about silence. The main theme was telling people that, although London is a fast city where there is lots going on, you can find tranquility in it. PM


Looking at your city projects, I have the impression that you are more inspired by poverty and loneliness. Neither East London nor Harlem are the safest areas. Meanwhile,

as war reporter Robert Capa used to say, to take a good photograph you have to be as close to the centre of events as possible. I can’t always achieve this. It’s not that I am afraid of meeting other people, who don’t necessarily want to be photographed. I simply do not always have time to melt into the community, settle somewhere and live like the locals. Instead, I try to see a lot. The key thing in my street photography is to remain invisible. I don’t fake it, it’s just reality. I take pictures by surprise. And how is it possible that we feel we are going back in time while looking at your photographs of the contemporary world? It is not planned or directed this way. What you can see in the pictures is what interests me the most: the fixed urban elements and the focus on the universal character of a city. Walking in a city, I sometimes even wonder what the street looked like in the 1950s. I imagine old cars and people from that period. This is perhaps the reason why I do not focus on photographing what is modern and contemporary. Perhaps I unconsciously eliminate all that is not permanent and this gives me a chance to stop time in my pictures and adjust the shot in such a way that it is not quite clear what period it comes from. But I do not do that intentionally. • PM

"London Outsider" exhibition, 2018

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PASSION... AND ADRENALINE AFTER HOURS ANNA WICHA, Adecco Poland Managing Director, talks to Jerzy Mosoń.

Work and professional success are not all there is to life. Only family, friends and passion allow you to enjoy life to the full. Let’s talk about passion. I hear that playing tennis is very important to you ... It’s my true passion and a great adventure. I've only been playing tennis for 13 years, it's a relatively short time when it comes to this particular sport. But I've been practising sports all my life - from primary school to college. I’ve tried my hand at handball, basketball and volleyball. I was a team captain for many years. But it gradually fizzled out. Some team members were unable to carry on playing, and in sports you need to be part of a team. I began to feel I wasn’t being physically active enough. So an individual sport came up, which is tennis. PM

Why tennis? It was quite by chance. My brother paid for a tennis lesson for me with a recognised coach. He said jokingly that if I caught the bug like him we would be able to take part in tournaments together. I was instantly hooked and, unlike him, I still constantly take part in tennis tournaments. PM

What’s the attraction? The adrenaline rush, competing against other players and, most importantly, the need to constantly improve your skills. In tennis, there is always something to improve on. You need to work on your skills all the time, just like in life and business. PM


Does competition in sports have anything to do with business competition?

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There are a lot of similarities. In sport and business, you need to be consistent and diligent, there’s a need for self-improvement and decision-making. In both cases, you work against time, you focus on targets, and you need to succeed. In both cases, you have adrenaline pumping through your veins. When I play one-on-one I rely on myself and my skills. As the captain of Adecco, I also need to make quick and tough decisions myself. When I play mixed doubles usually with my son – the partner’s skills count. Success in business also requires teamwork. You need to know the strengths of your team members. But I can assure you that each victory, each success and each hurdle you overcome both on the tennis court and at Adecco - tastes the same. Tennis is your family passion. How does it feel to play with your own kid? My son is 25, he has just got his university degree, he has been working for a long time. He’s almost two metres tall and he is a much better player than me. I’m very proud of him. We are a great team. Over the past few years, we have won many tournaments together - including the Amateur Polish Tournament and Family Cup Tennis Tournaments. Interestingly, that’s where the famous Polish tennis champions Agnieszka Radwańska and her sister started their careers. We always try to do our best. We never give up, we support each other. On some occasions, we even won when it seemed impossible because our opponents were too strong.

asked for makeup breaks, they pretended they were about to pass out, and called for medical assistance. Well, to me fair play is a must. You win some, you lose some, but you always need to play fair. Have you set any goals for yourself in sports? I take part in fewer tournaments than I used to. I've won general amateur tennis qualifiers five times in a row. I now focus on individual events. I pick only a few, such as last year's Amateur World Championships, where I managed to win two rounds, made it to the Top 32 and faced the former world runner-up Olga Shaposhnikova. The Polish Amateur Championships are now approaching and this is my next goal. PM


Who has been your most challenging opponent on the other side of the court? There are those players whose class and good manners make them ideal opponents everyone would love to face up to, and there are those you’d rather avoid. During the Black Diamonds tournament, I managed to beat three tennis coaches in a row. It was so satisfying. But sometimes I’ve played against those who wanted to get an edge over me using different ruses. They PM

Can you imagine your life without tennis? No, I can’t. Passion is really important to me, and sport strengthens your mind and body. It allows you to work better in business. Both fields are governed by the same laws and principles. In addition to the fact that I actively play tennis, I’m also involved in the promotion of sports and a healthy lifestyle. I used to be in charge of the women's section of the Polish Tennis Association. I am a member of the Council of the Polish Olympic Committee. Together with the Adecco team, I take part in the Win4You campaign, during which we practise sports together - we collect kilometres and hours to help young people who enter the labour market. PM

How do you find the time to do all this? It is a perfect personal discipline and daily time & priorities management. • PM


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daytime snack, especially a healthy one, which is full of valuable nutrients, is perfect food for travellers, astronauts and go-getters. Ideally, it should be made of vegetables, linseed, fruit and selected seasoning. Wraps, which perfectly suit this description, are handmade by Papagrin, a firm which is a member of the Polish Ecology

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Association. Wraps, tortillas and pita bread are available in healthy portions, in which the presence of linseed (in the BIO gluten-free golden vegetable tortilla) is a good reason to reach for this particular snack. Linseed contains valuable omega 3 acids, vitamin E, zinc and polyphenol lignans, which are known as plant hormones. Combined with fruit and vegetables, it is a filling snack that gives



• Wellness area (swimming pool, dry sauna, jacuzzi) • Relaxation Zone • SPA parlours • Gym and mini gym • Beach volleyball courts • Tennis courts • Scenic Castle Park • Amazing walks, cycle tracks and horse riding trails The Castle SPA & Wellness Centre perfectly complements active recreation at Kliczków Castle. Relaxing and de-stressing treatments will make you perfectly relaxed, and a carefully selected menu in the FIT option will positively affect your well-being. In the wellness centre you will be taken care of by qualified and experienced staff who apply world-class products and offer an extensive range of body and facial treatments. In the Kliczków Castle beauty zone we offer numerous rejuvenating and beauty bio-treatments. To cater for the diverse needs of our clients, we have developed an extensive range of package offers, where everyone will find something just for them.

you plenty of energy. It is important to maintain just the right production temperature, and at Papagrin, it does not exceed 42°C. Why? President of the health food company Iwona Olszewska explains: "We use the method of drying at up to 42°C, because in this way all nutritional values are preserved. The use of 100% organic ingredients, and the fact that the snack is made by hand, means that the product is tasty and good for your health. We use no chemicals, preservatives and improvers, because the best way to make a great snack is to carefully select just the right kind of ingredients. This also holds true about the Red Tortilla, which contains nutrient-packed beetroot, garlic and powerful spices: ginger, cumin, coriander and pepper." Among the healthy snacks, there are many delicacies, such as BIO cocoa granola. It is more than just a mix of dried fruit and nuts. Granola has become the perfect alternative to cornflakes eaten with milk or yoghurt. This granola’s base is Poland’s favourite: buckwheat, with added apple, sunflower seeds, linseed, raisins, apple juice concentrate, dried dates and cocoa (3%). They all have an eco- certificate. Other products in this range are a gluten-free granola bar with goji berries and fig granola with coconut. Linseed crispbreads, also in a gluten-free version, are definitely worth a try. A snack like this should be savoured at your leisure. "The basic idea behind Papagrin is to preserve all the nutrients,” says President Iwona Olszewska. “It’s a step toward slow life. As the originator of the slow food idea, Carlo Petrini said: slow food combines the pleasure of responsible eating, sustainable development and harmony with nature. I choose slow food, because if you want to change the world, first you need to change your menu. Through our activities, we intend to support the idea of innovative, healthy, and at the same time tasty products. Our products are prepared with utmost care, and the ingredients we use are carefully selected. Manual production means that we employ quite a few workers, which makes our products unique," said Iwona Olszewska. Healthy snacks, especially organic ones, look set to elbow out junk food from school canteens. Papagrin's initiatives leave us hopeful that this could be achieved. The healthy snack market is growing by leaps and bounds. •

72  polish market 

Polish Market :: 8 (287) /2019


Profile for Polish Market

Polish Market No.8 (287)/2019  

"Polish Market” is a prestigious English-language magazine published since 1996. In its pages, it promotes the Polish economy, businesses,...

Polish Market No.8 (287)/2019  

"Polish Market” is a prestigious English-language magazine published since 1996. In its pages, it promotes the Polish economy, businesses,...