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Eroding climate apathy

‘Taming Bigfoot’ challenges residents to confront, cut carbon emissions

Landscape connectivity and climate change ‘Adapt, go extinct or move’

Nonprofits teach about the issues

Volunteer opportunities offered

Olympic Mountain glaciers Barometers on a changing climate

Supplement to Sequim Gazette and Port Townsend and Jefferson County Leader


Port Angeles • Sequim Port Townsend • Discovery Bay Kingston • Edmonds • Greyhound Amtrak • Downtown Seattle Sea Tac Airport • Seattle Hospitals Olympic Bus Lines is an independent agent of Greyhound. You can now purchase your Greyhound tickets locally at your only nationwide reservation location on the Olympic Peninsula. board • Providing complimentary home-made chocolate chip cookies from “Cockadoodle Doughnuts” in Port Angeles.

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In Focus 20

7 | Outdoor Recreation Springtime is the perfect time to hit Dungeness Spit

33 | Now & Then A look back at the Port Townsend Boat Haven

10 | Food & Spirits Nourish in Sequim starts from scratch

34 | The Living End Our World, Gaia, is a wonderful place to live


The Sequim Orchestra plays on with adults and kids programs

Vol. 12, Number 1 • Living on the Peninsula is a quarterly publication.

8 | Spring 2016 calendar See what’s in store for the coming springtime months on the peninsula

147 W. Washington St., Sequim, WA 98382 © 2016 Sequim Gazette

9 | Volunteers for change Nonprofits teach about climate-change issues, offer volunteer opportunities 11 | Eroding climate apathy ‘Taming Bigfoot’ challenges citizens to confront, cut carbon emissions 17 | Olympic glaciers Barometers on climate change 28 | Resilience to climate change We look into the local vulnerabilities and strategies for response 31 | Landscape connects to climate change As the earth’s temperatures rise, what will the effect be on all living things? 4 LOP Spring 2016

Terry R. Ward, Publisher Steve Perry, Advertising Manager Editorial: Patricia Morrison Coate, Editor pcoate@sequimgazette.com

On the cover: This photo of Mount Anderson shows the last remnants of the Anderson Glacier in 2004. The photo was taken by geologist Byron Adam to replicate a historical photo of the Anderson Glacier taken in 1936 by Asahel Curtis. The virtual disappearance of this glacier is especially profound, as it was the 12th largest glacier in the Olympic Mountains when they were last measured 35 years ago. Photo courtesy of Olympic National Park

Production: Brenda Hanrahan, Page Designer Laura Lofgren, Page Designer Advertising Sales (360) 683-3311 • (360) 452-2345 226 Adams St. Port Townsend, WA 98368 360-385-2900 Patrick Sullivan: psullivan@ptleader.com © 2015 Port Townsend Leader




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Springtime is a great time to hit

The Spit The trek to the New Dungeness Light Station is an 11-mile round trip, but it’s worth the journey.

Story and photos by Michael Dashiell LIKE MANY OTHER Olympic Peninsula residents, I’m one of those hikers easily fooled into thinking I fully appreciate all the region has to offer. About a half-hour outside of Western Washington slaps me back into reality. That’s why I find it so dumbfounding and humbling each time I revisit the Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, home to bald eagles, harlequin ducks, harbor seals and upwards of 250 species of birds, more than 40 land mammals and marine life aplenty. The three-eighths-mile trail to the spit — at 1.2 million square meters, the longest natural sand spit in the United States — and the 5.5-mile long spit itself is just part of the refuge. The site offers camping (66 sites), horseback riding, fishing and shell fishing, jogging (in certain areas) and more. The Strait of Juan de Fuca side of Dungeness Spit is open to saltwater fishing year-round, except for the area beyond the lighthouse. Tidelands in Dungeness Bay and Harbor, excluding closed areas shown on the refuge map, are open to shellfishing but not until mid-May. The refuge is open daily from 7 a.m. to a halfhour before sunset. ON FOOT For a nice day hike or tromping around by horse, start at parking entrances/trailheads just off Lotzgesell Road or a quarter mile into the refuge on Voice of America Road. Foot trails to the northwest take hikers along the bluffs toward gorgeous views of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and North

Photo courtesy of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge is home to a variety of birds, including waterfowl like brants, above, ducks and geese; shorebirds like dunlins and sanderlings; seabirds like scoters and cormorants; and birds of prey like bald eagles and snowy owls. Olympic Peninsula coastline toward Port Angeles. Equine and foot trails to the northeast meander through the grassy meadow and into densely thickened woods. Or one can use both as a large loop, good for a day hike with varying terrain. I prefer the beach hike, depending on the temperatures and wind. Gusts can get downright blustery on the spit, so make sure you layer properly. Park use is $3 per group — reasonable fare, considering the cost of movie tickets these days — and is payable to park rangers at the refuge’s northernmost parking lot. Youths 15 and younger are free and annual passes are available. Most of the trail toward the water is easy-level grade with plenty of shade and several resting spots — not that most folks will need them. An overlook structure with a free telescope gives views of the lighthouse, nice for those visiting and not interested in making the 11-mile round

Dungeness Spit Factoids > Length: 5.5 miles > Land area: 0.5 square miles > Home to: New Dungeness Lighthouse > Located in: Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge > Named after: New Dungeness, via British explorer George Vancouver > More info: hwww.fws.gov/refuge/dungeness trip by foot to the New Dungeness Light Station. The trail gets steep abruptly and then levels out at the spit itself. To the southwest, a little less than a mile of beach is open for hikers, wildlife watchers and, by reservation, horseback riders.

Spring 2016 LOP 7

Along the Dungeness Spit to the northeast, about five miles of beach is open to hikers and walkers, but only on the north (Strait of Juan de Fuca) side. To the Dungeness Harbor and Graveyard Spit side, the spit is closed to all public access to protect wildlife. DAY HIKING Minus a chilly spring breeze, the spit is a great spot to stretch the legs or take some out-of-town visitors. For my wife Patsene and I, it’s a great default day trip for when a hike in the Olympic’s foothills are too muddy or snowed out. Even on mid-week spring visits we find ourselves on a beach packed with visitors of all ages, many of them doing what we have planned: teetering on the driftwood, taking pictures of impudent seagulls, sharing a picnic

and making rock stacks. Knowing full well we generally won’t make a full trek to the lighthouse, we are content with views from afar. But if you are adventurous and amble the 5.5 miles, you can get a tour of the historical New Dungeness Lighthouse, offered by volunteers of the New Dungeness Lighthouse Association, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. For the most part, the spit is look, but don’t touch. Visitors are asked not to remove any plants, animals, driftwood or other items from the spit. That includes the occasional decaying marine animal carcass, of which we saw more than a few. Despite the crowd, visitors can get that feeling of peaceful solitude watching waves lap against a rockstrewn beach, jockey around the

Photo by Rich Taylor

In waters rough or calm, a popular kayaking adventure is heading out to (or near) the New Dungeness Light Station. sun-bleached logs and have staring contests with one’s seagull hosts. Not a bad day to spend a couple of hours. And here, right in our backyard!

Michael Dashiell is editor of the Sequim Gazette. He talks a pretty good game about hiking but spends way too much time at his desk. Reach him at editor@sequimgazette.com.





• Victorian Heritage Festival, Port Townsend, March 18-20, victorian society-northwest.org. • Old Time Fiddlers Jam, Tri-Area Community Center, Chimacum, March 26. SEQUIM & DUNGENESS VALLEY • Wednesday Morning Bird Walks, Railroad Bridge Park. • Old Time Fiddlers Jam, Sequim Prairie Grange, Macleay Hall, March 12. • Soroptimist Gala Garden Show, Boys & Girls Club, March 19-20. PORT ANGELES • Farmers Market, The Gateway, Saturday mornings. • Port Angeles Symphony Orchestra, Port Angeles High School auditorium, March 12. • Clallam County Home and Lifestyle Show, Port Angeles High School, March 12-13. • Second Weekend Art Event, downtown. WEST END • Quillayute Scholarship Auction, Forks High School, March 19-20.

8 LOP Spring 2016

• Gallery Walk, Port Townsend, first Saturday, April 2. • Quilcene First Saturday Art Walk, various locations. • Port Townsend Community Orchestra Spring Concert, Chimacum High School auditorium, April 24. • Old Time Fiddlers Jam, Tri-Area Community Center, Chimacum, April 23. • Port Townsend Farmers Market reopens, Lawrence and Tyler streets, opens mid-April. SEQUIM & DUNGENESS VALLEY • “Squabbles,” Olympic Theatre Arts, April 8-19. • Olympic BirdFest, Dungeness River Audubon Center, 360-6814076, April 15-17. • First Friday Reception & First Friday Art Walk, April 1. • Wednesday Morning Bird Walks, Railroad Bridge Park. • Old Time Fiddlers Jam, Sequim Prairie Grange, Macleay Hall, April 9. PORT ANGELES • Farmers Market, The Gateway, Saturday mornings. • Second Weekend Art Event,

downtown. • Port Angeles Symphony Orchestra, Port Angeles High School auditorium, April 16. • Free admission day, Olympic National Park, April 18-19. • “Noises Off,” Port Angeles Community Players, April 29-May 15. WEST END • RainFest, multiple venues, April 15-17. • Fabric of the Forest Quilt Show, April 15-17.

MAY PORT TOWNSEND & JEFFERSON COUNTY • Gallery Walk/Artists Receptions, Port Townsend, first Saturday. • Quilcene First Saturday Art Walk, various locations. • Rhody Festival, Port Townsend, May 16-21. • Brinnon ShrimpFest, May 28-29, emeraldtowns.org/shrimpfest. SEQUIM & DUNGENESS VALLEY • First Friday Art Walk, May 6. • Wednesday Morning Bird Walks, Railroad Bridge Park. • Irrigation Festival, May 6-15, sequimirrigationfestival.com. • Port Angeles Symphony Chamber

Orchestra, Sequim Worship Center, May 14. • Old Time Fiddlers Jam, Sequim Prairie Grange, Macleay Hall, May 14. • Sequim Irrigation Festival Grand Parade, May 14. PORT ANGELES • Port Angeles Farmers Market, The Gateway, Saturday mornings. • Second Weekend Art Event, downtown. • Port Angeles Symphony Chamber Orchestra, Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, May 15. • Juan de Fuca Festival of the Arts, multiple venues, May 27-30, jffa.org. • North Olympic Mustang Annual Show, May 7-8. Cruise at 11 a.m. Saturday from Price Ford; registration 9 a.m. Sunday at Gateway Center. WEST END • Annual Kids Fishing Derby, Bogachiel Rearing Pond, May 8. • Forks Logging and Mill Tour, Forks Chamber of Commerce, starts May 25, Wednesdays through Sept. 8. For additional calendar of event information, visit Peninsula Daily News at peninsuladailynews.com, Sequim Gazette at sequimgazette.com and Forks Forum at forksforum.com.

VOLUNTEERS FOR CHANGE Nonprofits teach about climate-change issues, offer volunteer opportunities Story by Allison Arthur and Patrick Sullivan

Photo courtesy Washington State University Jefferson County Extension

Jeff Adams of Washington Sea Grant holds a crab and talks about intertidal life during a beach naturalist class. IF YOU WANT to do something about climate change, climb aboard the historic schooner Adventuress, take a walk on a beach, hike in the forest, listen to a lecture, learn to be citizen scientist — and volunteer to teach others how to mitigate the impacts of climate change. There are a number of nonprofit organizations around the Olympic Peninsula that offer education and volunteer opportunities. SOUND EXPERIENCE Take the 103-year-old Adventuress for a fun and educational sail on Puget Sound, and for the day or two that you are on the historic ship, you’ll actually be taking action to lower your carbon footprint. That’s because the small environment on the schooner compels you to use less water than you would if you were living on land. “We use an average of 3 gallons a day on board and on land, typically, people use about 100 gallons a day,” explained Zoe Ballering, membership and public programs coordinator for Sound Experience, which uses the Adventuress to get people out on the water and on the Salish Sea. One other tidbit about the ship

related to climate change is that the Adventuress has a vegetarian galley, Ballering noted. “Eating red meat is not bad, but it does have more of a carbon footprint. We are trying to eat lower on the food chain,” she said. And if you want to keep your kids engaged in learning while also having fun on the water for six days, consider Sound Experience’s six-day Fantastic Voyage program for teens this summer, which teaches them how to set sail, how to care for a boat and how CO2 impacts the ocean. Want to understand climate change and its impact on the Salish Sea? The ship’s crew does that, too, in an easy-to-understand way. “We test the pH of the water by taking a glass of water and blowing air into it through a straw, which is like blowing CO2 into it, and then we test it,” said Ballering. “It makes a really big concept (like climate change) understandable and visible.” Ballering said she did the test recently with a cup of water from Puget Sound. The water tested 7.6 on a pH scale, which is neutral. “Then we blew into it for 30 seconds and it changed color, from blue to clear green, and the pH went to 6.6 (which is heading in the direction

Photo courtesy of Sound Experience

Sound Experience winter program coordinator Megan Addison holds up a blue test tube (in her left hand) containing Puget Sound water, which measures about 7.7 on the pH scale, as well as a light-colored test tube that contains water that had CO2 added by her blowing into the water with a straw, which made the water acidic. CO2 contributes to ocean acidification, which harms marine life by making it more difficult for them to fully form. of acid). So with that little addition of carbon dioxide, it became more acidic.” Sound Experience’s mission is to

“educate, inspire and empower an inclusive community to make a difference for the future of our marine environment.”

Spring 2016 LOP 9

Cost of a six-day adventure on the Adventuress in the San Juan Islands runs from $785 for members to $925 for nonmembers. A Girls at the Helm program, which focuses on leadership development as well as preparing young women to become advocates for Puget Sound, costs $525 for members and $615 for nonmembers. For more information, go to soundexp.org or call 360-379-0438. WSU EXTENSION For landlubbers or those who simply enjoy dry land — especially the beach and the forest —the Washington State University Jefferson County Extension has two programs to teach you about ecosystems. Olympic region water resource specialist Bob Simmons, who knows the ins and outs of building a rain garden and more, said there are two six-week programs that teach people about becoming stewards of watersheds and beaches. In the past, the program had been offered as one class, but was divided into two to make it easier for people to attend. Climate change and ocean acidification are discussed in the beach naturalist program, which starts in March and focuses on the basics of shoreline geology and how the shoreline changes based on wind and wave action. Through this program, there’s an opportunity to volunteer to become a citizen scientist. Beach naturalists who have completed the course have helped in salmon spawning surveys with the North Olympic Salmon Coalition, served as docents

Photos by Nicholas Johnson

Above: Aboard the Adventuress, people learn about the marine environment up close on an educational trip to Protection Island in 2015. Below: Before volunteering to be a beach steward or explain climate change to people at the Port Townsend Marine Science Center, volunteers are encouraged to learn the science. And for those who do that aboard the schooner Adventuress, there’s an opportunity to learn the nuances of plankton life as well as about ocean acidification. with the Port Townsend Marine Science Center, organized programs and helped out with the annual Wooden Boat Festival as well as worked to save habitat for Olympia oysters. A six-week watershed steward class is set for the fall and it will focus on how trees sequester carbon and the impacts of land use on the watershed. It combines classroom

lectures with field trips and is for anyone interested in streams, salmon and watershed resources. Like beach stewards, watershed stewards get their hands dirty and their feet wet, if they want to, by taking water quality samples, helping to install rain gardens and volunteering at festivals where education is promoted. Cost of the beach naturalist class, which runs for six Thursdays, starting on March 31 and continuing until May 5, is $140. Call 360-379-5610 for more information. A side note for the DIY climatechange person: If you are interested in drought-resistant plants, look no further than the WSU website for a free publication that lists plants, sites, soils and hardscapes for drought-tolerant landscape. The publication, by Charles Brun, is free and available in PDF format from ext.100.wsu.edu/jefferson. MARINE SCIENCE CENTER If you think you’ve gone green and done enough for the terrestrial environment, the Port Townsend Marine Science Center, at Fort Worden State Park, offers a way to dive into the Go Blue Initiative. “Going green is earth-based. To go blue is to remember you are helping

the earth, but the ocean is part of the environment, too,” said Alison Riley, marketing and development coordinator. The Go Blue Initiative is about raising awareness and “inspiring collective action to improve the health of the Salish Sea.” A winter lecture series has brought in professors and educators to talk about the future of oceans, technology and emerging research that scientists are using to learn about orcas, eelgrass restoration and the depths of the ocean. Cost of individual lectures is $5 for members, $10 for nonmembers. The last lecture is set for Sunday, April 10. Professor John Barross of the University of Washington is scheduled to talk about “Life in Extreme Ocean Environments.” See ptmsc.org for details. “All of those lectures circle around climate change and human impact on the ocean, diving deeper into what’s happening,” Riley said of the lectures. A new “Go Blue” exhibit aims to help people become ocean literate and be as comfortable talking about plankton as about plastics. Volunteers who can speak the language of the ocean are needed to help guide people through exhibits.

There are 48 shifts to fill each week, Riley noted, and all of those people need to be able to engage people and answer questions. There’s no time commitment, so someone could volunteer once a week or once a month. The center also invites visitors to take part in a study by going out on a pier in front of the center and taking a cellphone photograph of the shoreline, then e-mailing that photo to the center, which is collecting the digital photos to show how the shoreline is changing. And much like what is done on the Adventuress, visitors to the Marine Science Center also can take the pH test of Puget Sound water and learn about ocean acidification, which is impacting sea life. “All of these projects are intended to make people ocean literate and make an easy opportunity to have an entry into science,” Riley said. For information about volunteering at the center, contact Amy Johnson at ajohnson@ptmsc.org. Or check out ptmsc.org for classes, volunteer opportunities and the Go Blue Initiative. NORTH OLYMPIC SALMON COALITION During the year, North Olympic Salmon Coalition hosts a variety of volunteer opportunities that put people close to natural habitat. The coalition, founded in 1990, is a non-regulatory nonprofit organization that works with willing landowners and government agencies to perform salmon habitat restoration on the North Olympic Peninsula. Early this year, the Jefferson Land Trust and the North Olympic Salmon Coalition collaborated on a tree planting on the Land Trust’s 73-acre Upper Snow Creek Forest Preserve. Over the past several years, substantial volunteer effort has been recorded on the Maynard Beach area of Discovery Bay with the planting of dune grass. Shoreline plantings minimize erosion and help protect many organisms, including salmon, which use the nearshore environment. The NOSC has annual events, too. Each spring, the NOSC celebrates the end of tree-planting season by holding a work party at its native plant nursery in Chimacum. The trees and shrubs spend the next year building strong roots and robust foliage, and are then planted to create future salmon habitat during

the upcoming planting season. The coho salmon survey of Chimacum Creek involves walking the creek during the coho salmon run each fall, counting live and dead fish, and taking scale samples. Being a survey volunteer entails a commitment of from three to four hours per week, starting with the training and lasting through the end of the year. The coalition supplies all the necessary gear and survey equipment. No prior experience is needed, just a willingness to support the NOSC’s mission to protect wild salmon and their habitat. Volunteers must be physically able to hike through the woods in somewhat challenging conditions. Learn more about volunteer opportunities at nosc.org. NORTHWEST WATERSHED INSTITUTE The Northwest Watershed Institute is busy with annual projects at the Tarboo Wildlife Preserve, near Dabob Bay, and along Hood Canal. Each February, more than 150 adults, teenagers and schoolchildren participate in the Plant-A-Thon. The Plant-A-Thon is an education and outreach effort coordinated by NWI as part of the Tarboo Watershed Program, a long-term effort involving 40 organizational partners to protect and restore salmon and wildlife habitat from headwaters to bay in the Tarboo-Dabob watershed. Since 2004, more than 2,000 acres have been preserved and more than 600 acres have been re-meandered, replanted and restored. Innovative planting methods used successfully in 2014 were expanded in 2015, said Jude Rubin, NWI director of stewardship. The methods include live-staking willows through cardboard to shade out the invasive reed canary grass. Rubin said another technique being used is based on the natural example of conifers growing on nurse logs in wetland forests. Volunteers planted spruce and cedar in hollow log rounds and constructed planter boxes to establish trees above the wet soils. NWI is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation founded in 2001. NWI’s mission is to provide scientific and technical support to protect and restore fish and wildlife habitats and watershed ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. Learn more by contacting Rubin at 385-5358 or jude@nwwatershed.org. Allison Arthur is a reporter with the Jefferson County & Port Townsend Leader.

ERODING climate

APATHY Story and photos by Nicholas Johnson

Ninety-seven percent of climate scientists agree our planet is warming due to human activities and many governments already have taken heed. Governments in Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend in 2011 adopted a climate action plan, committing to reduce carbon emissions to 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050. But how do we get there? How do we get started? Does change begin at the top, with industry and government, or can individual people have a meaningful impact? “There’s this sense of uncertainty,” said Bob Bindschadler, who retired to Quilcene three years ago after 30 years as a NASA scientist studying glaciers. “Somebody might feel guilt or some responsibility that they should be doing something, but what and will it matter? We all felt that was a pretty pervasive position people had — desire, but also confusion.” A carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gas emissions a person or organization produces. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, causing the climate to warm, according to the federal Environmental Protection Agency. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and fluorinated gases, among others. Of all greenhouse gas emissions in 2013, carbon dioxide made up 82 percent, according to the EPA. While industry and government have a greater capacity to reduce overall carbon emissions, Bindschadler said that won’t happen

“I think people will see that transportation is a huge sector in Taming Bigfoot.” Bob Bindschadler Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group without pressure from people, without engaging the grassroots. “That’s really where the power lies,” he said. Apathy, however, remains the greatest challenge to leveraging that power, he said. “One of the ways we react when we don’t know what to do, when we feel paralyzed and helpless, is we disconnect,” said Laura Tucker, a Port Townsend resident who has spent much of her adult life educating both teachers and students about climate change. ‘TAMING BIGFOOT’ Tucker, Bindschadler and six others have taken it upon themselves to fight that apathy. They make up East Jefferson County’s Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group, which this year launched a carbon footprint reduction competition, dubbed “Taming Bigfoot,” aimed at engaging the community and empowering people to confront their own carbon consumption.

continues on page 14

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“It’s going to boil down to food, water and shelter, ultimately.”

Laura Tucker Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group “If we can get people feeling empowered, feeling informed, feeling that we’re all working on this together — not just themselves and their elected representatives, but themselves and their neighbors and their community — I think that will make progress go much faster.” More than 60 people, representing some 16 teams of eight, gathered in January in Port Townsend to kick off the competition, which concludes in April on Earth Day. Over the course of the competition, teams track their personal behaviors within specific areas — home energy and water use, transportation, garbage production, food consumption and shopping. In the end, participants are better able to see how and where they can make the greatest reductions in their own carbon consumption, Bindschadler said. “It makes it personal,” he said. “It gives people a tool to see their own behavior. There’s that strong individual aspect so you don’t get overwhelmed with the scale of the issue and the idea that the paper mill is there and it’s all about the paper mill. “No, it really is about how you can see what difference any particular choice you make will have and then actually put a number on it.” For the competition, Bindschadler created from scratch a carbon footprint calculator, or set of conversion factors, specific to Jefferson County. That not only allows participants to evaluate their own lifestyles, it can compel them to question local utility services and transportation systems, he said. “I expect those who will be the veterans of Taming Bigfoot will feel more empowered to be engaged in the political decisions made in this county when it comes to public transit, for example,” Bindschadler said. “I think people will see that

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During a kick-off event at the Cotton Building in downtown Port Townsend, Bob Bindschadler, a member of Jefferson County’s Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group, explains Jan. 11 how participants in the Taming Bigfoot competition can analyze by category their carbon consumption as they track it through Earth Day. transportation is a huge sector in Taming Bigfoot. The pressure then to improve public transit is going to increase, I expect, and it would be from a more informed basis. People will have much more confidence.” OVERCOME APATHY Outreach group member David Wilkinson said it’s easy for any one person to feel discouraged or overwhelmed in the face of a global phenomenon like climate change. Much like voter apathy, that kind of thinking is unproductive, he said. “Anything you do is going to help, and we have a lot to do,” he said. “Now, if I don’t do something, you’ve got to do twice as much, so everything we do matters.” Tucker said individual Americans, whether driving less or pushing for policy changes, have a greater potential to cut carbon emissions relative to people in many other countries, especially non-industrialized ones. “Our carbon footprint per capita now is 17 tons per year, down from 19.1 in 2006,” said Tucker, who attended the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris in December 2015. “But France is 5.2 and Great Britain is 7 and Germany is 8, so we’re still double them and they have a pretty nice life.

Laura Tucker, a member of Jefferson County’s Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group, addresses participants in the Taming Bigfoot competition Jan. 11 during a kick-off event at the Cotton Building in downtown Port Townsend.

The outreach I do to kids is because we’re No. 1 and anything we do makes a bigger difference than say somebody in Zambia who is 0.2 tons versus our 17. Zambians can reduce their carbon footprint by half and you wouldn’t even notice it.” The competition’s organizers agreed that, for many, apathy arises from the notion that the goal of reducing carbon emissions is ultimately to stop climate change. “It’s not possible,” said Julia Cochrane, a member of the outreach group. “We can lessen our impact and we can lessen the amount of insanity that’s going to happen, but there is no way my grandchildren are going to see live lions and tigers and bears in nature, period — or giraffes or elephants, but maybe they’ll be able to see a monkey.” Wilkinson said while reducing emissions is key to mitigating the effects of climate change, people also must learn to adapt to anticipated changes. “We’re doing two things,” he said. “One is we’re doing outreach to get people to generate fewer greenhouse gases; but the other thing we’re trying to do is give people the tools to protect themselves, to survive it. It’s like, get prepared, or suffer.” OLYMPIC PENINSULA Tucker said in many ways people on the Olympic Peninsula are ahead of the curve. For example, cultural and political support of local agriculture promotes food security, she said. “It’s going to boil down to food, water and shelter, ultimately,” Tucker said. “I wouldn’t say that we’re better prepared than maybe a lot of communities, but we’re better prepared than a good number.” In February, the North Olympic Peninsula Resource Conservation & Development Council released a report projecting climate change impacts to the North Olympic Peninsula. The report took more than a year to produce and included more than 175 representatives of local governments, utility service providers, nonprofits, academic institutions and private businesses. “Everyone gets it,” said Wilkinson, who participated in a series of workshops to prepare the report. “Everyone knows it. There’s no dissension among all of those people that are actually managing all of our infrastructure.” The report not only assesses the region’s vulnerability to climate change, it offers ideas for adapting.

More than 60 people gathered Jan. 11 at the Cotton Building in downtown Port Townsend to kick off the Taming Bigfoot carbon reduction competition, which runs through Earth Day. Here, Jefferson County commissioner Kathleen Kler, who is participating in the competition, addresses fellow participants. Some 16 teams of eight are tracking their individual carbon emissions in five categories as part of the competition, created by Jefferson County’s Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group.

“ ... the other thing we’re trying to do is give people the tools to protect themselves, to survive it. It’s like, get prepared, or suffer.” David Wilkinson Local 20/20 Climate Action Outreach Group “I think this report is a good first step,” said Cindy Jayne, an outreach group member who served as project manager in assembling the report. “But I’ve been trying to make it clear to everyone that it’s just a report. It does not make us more resilient unless we implement the things in the report.” The report projects summers will continue to grow drier and winters wetter, with less and less snowpack in the Olympic Mountains. Forests and those who live near them face an increasing threat of wildfire in the summer as farmers adjust irrigation strategies due to decreasing groundwater levels. And compared to other cities, Port Townsend faces the greatest threat to infrastructure due to projected sea level rise. PLANNING AHEAD Among many ideas for adapting, the report suggests planting drought-tolerant species and encourages governments to increase capacity for water storage and update codes and plans to account for climate change projections, not just historical trends. “We certainly are particularly sensitive being on a peninsula and having sea level rise being an issue, as well as our water supplies,”

Jayne said. “To me, this competition was another method to generally raise awareness of climate change because it’s important that we both mitigate and adapt.” Bindschadler said although the Taming Bigfoot competition forces people to take a hard look at their own lifestyles and behaviors, it also promotes collaboration, ultimately making communities more resilient. “We’re all in this together and we’re not competing against each other,” he said. “In terms of documents and plans, we are beyond the mean, but there will be large infrastructure investments that have to be made and we’re not going to be showered with money to achieve all of that, so the big investments are going to be hard and take time.” Tucker said policy changes can make a big difference, but it’s unlikely those with their hands on the levers will endorse those changes without a groundswell of interest from voters. “If there was a carbon tax implemented on a nationwide basis tomorrow, that would make a huge, huge difference,” Tucker said. “However, until the grassroots pushes our policymakers to that point, it’s not going to happen. They’re both very important and I still push hard

on the policy level, but there is that day-to-day, more tangible level where we may get more traction.” Cochrane said the competition aims to cast a wide net, touching even those who aren’t participating directly. “To become more aware and make every decision consciously is a step forward,” she said. “Whether or not that one bag less of garbage a week makes a difference in the big scheme of things, if that person is awake, they’re making a difference in a thousand ways.” While presenting the results of the council’s report to the Jefferson County Chamber of Commerce, director Kate Dean, who also is participating in the outreach group’s competition, said the peninsula can expect to see an increase in climate migrants due to the region’s relatively temperate, Pacific Oceancooled climate. Wilkinson said not only does Port Townsend in particular have an opportunity to prepare itself, it’s well positioned to influence tourists visiting from around the world. “This tiny community has a massive outreach opportunity,” he said. “Thousands and thousands of people come through here and then they come back. Many of us watched Port Townsend before we could come and participate. You can see that Port Townsend has adopted these goals because it’s trying to take care of itself and also because it’s trying to survive. We can really help ourselves by being a good example to all those people coming through.” Nicholas Johnson is a reporter at the Jefferson County & Port Townsend Leader.

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1936 Comparison photographs show the dramatic retreat of Anderson Glacier, located in a cirque south of Mount Anderson in the Olympic Mountains and Olympic National Park.


OLYMPIC GLACIERS: barometers on climate change Story by Patricia Morrison Coate Photos courtesy of Olympic National Park

The summer of 2015 on the Olympic Peninsula was one to remember — no hint of the customary “Junuary,” no waiting until July 5 for the official welcoming of summer. It also was a year of drought brought on neither by El Niño nor global warming, according to climatologist Cliff Mass of the University of Washington. Instead, a never-before-seen phenomena of very warm water off the Pacific coast changed weather patterns, heated up the atmosphere, shifted air currents and caused the unusual winter and summer in 2015 on the peninsula. Spring 2016 LOP 17

Given the moniker “The Blob” by scientists, this occurrence led to warmer and drier than average conditions to the Pacific Northwest with average temperature rises of 2-4 degrees — a small difference, yet one that impacts one of the peninsula’s most important sources of fresh water during summer months — the glaciers and snowpack of the Olympic Mountains. GLACIERS: WHY WORRY? “Why care about glaciers?” asked Bill Baccus, Olympic National Park’s physical scientist and a field scientist for the North Coast and Cascades Network, which monitors snowpack and glaciers. “From a natural resources standpoint, changes in glaciers affect unique habitat at high elevations for certain species. Most importantly, they provide a reservoir of cold, fresh water to rivers and streams during dry summer months. Glaciers and snowpack are very important to aquatic organisms as sources of this water,” Baccus said. “Glaciers also are truly great integrators of temperatures changing — when it’s warm, they shrink and when it’s cold, they grow. Their existence relies on the right amount of precipitation at the right temperatures.” Baccus explained that “the only thing about a glacier that is different from a permanent ice field is that it’s moving — it’s a big chunk of permanent ice, moving downhill by gravity. The depth is going to vary a lot — it can be deep or shallow and in different shapes due to factors such as how much snow, how snow is deposited and how steep the topography is.” As an example, he noted that Lake Crescent, some 600 feet deep, was formed by a continental glacier in a U-shaped valley, what he called “bath tub-like,” and that they can be miles across in other places in the world. CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLACIERS According to Dr. T.J. Fudge, a glaciologist from the University of Washington, “As Earth’s climate

View the difference between Blue Glacier on Mount Olympus in 1899 (top) and 2006 (bottom), where it has lost massive amounts of ice volume at the lower section. This glacier feeds the Hoh Watershed. warms, rapid loss of glacial ice is being documented around the world. Olympic is no different; in fact temperatures at higher elevations and latitudes are warming the fastest. “As a result, more of the precipitation that used to fall as snow, feeding the glaciers, is now falling as rain. Because they grow or shrink in response to snowfall and snowmelt, glaciers are sensitive indicators of changes in regional and global climate.” “Recently there’s been a lot of public interest in climate change. Scientists had documented decreases to glaciers in other areas of the Pacific Northwest, but guys like me climbing on Olympic glaciers for the past 30 years weren’t able to quantify losses until our 2010 study,” Baccus said. “Between 1982-2009, the Olympics lost 82 glaciers and many more shrank dramatically. That’s a 34 percent decrease in glacierized areas in 30 years. It was a surprise to me and startling for all of us (scientists). I expected more like 20 percent. South-facing glaciers lost much more than northfacing ones — aspect plays a major role due to

direct sun and greater melting. The Olympics had 266 glaciers in 1984 and had 184 by 2009.” The remaining Olympic Mountain glaciers still feed the following watersheds: Big Quilcene, Dosewallips, Duckabush, Dungeness, Elwha, Hamma Hamma, Hoh, Queets, Quinalt and Skokomish. A STUDY OF TWO VALLEY GLACIERS Since the last study of Olympic glaciers in 2010, the scientists of the North Coast and Cascades Network wanted to look more closely at the difference in glacier change in the Olympics, where they are receding faster when compared to other Northwest mountain ranges. “That opportunity arrived two years ago with a grant from the Washington National Park Fund,” Baccus said. “Individual and corporate donations through the Fund support a huge number of projects in the park, including (glacier) mass studies. In April, when the snowpack is typically the deepest, we measure the snowpack and how much water is held in the snow (density).

Inset: Scientist Bill Baccus Left: Sharon Brady is a scientist with the National Park Service. She uses a steam drill to create a hole in through the winter snowpack and past layers of ice on the surface of the Eel Glacier. Once the hole is created, the team inserts a 35-foot “ablation stake,” which has markings in tenths of feet. When team members return to the glacier at the end of the summer melt season, the amount the stake is extending from the snow and ice, indicates how much snow melted and/or how much snow remains to be turned into future layers of ice.

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“We place ablation stakes, which are 35-foot PVC pipes with point measurements, which we we drill into the snowpack. Typically, we find 1030 feet of snow on the glacier’s surface that time of year.” Baccus further explained, “We then insert them through the winter snowpack and into several meters of the ice. We come back in the fall and measure the length of stake which is sticking out. This tells us how much snow and ice has melted (mass balance).” This balance between snow accumulation at the glacier’s head (highest reach) and “ablation,” the melting at its terminus (lowest reach) is critical. A few degrees warmer and precipitation falls as rain instead of snow so the reserve of snowpack diminishes from a glacier’s surface. The runoff is removed from the higher elevations before it can replenish rivers downstream in the summer months when it is most needed. “Glaciers are like your spare gas tank,” Baccus said, “and in 2015 it was empty.” Baccus observed that 2015 was a really bad year for glaciers but a fantastic year for this type of study. “It was the lowest snowpack since 1948 due to winter temperatures being about 4 degrees higher than normal. There was plenty of precipitation (93 percent of normal), but it was too warm to snow. In 2014 and 2015, we were able to measure mass balance (the amount of snow that fell and melted) on two glaciers in the park (Blue Glacier on Mount Olympus and Eel Glacier on

Some glacier and icecap facts • Glaciers store about 69 percent of the world’s freshwater and if all land ice melted, the seas would rise about 230 feet. • During the last ice age, when glaciers covered more land area than today, the sea level was about 400 feet lower than it is today. At that time, glaciers covered almost one-third of the land. • During the last warm spell 125,000 years ago, the seas were about 18 feet higher than they are today. About 3 million years ago the seas could have been up to 165 feet higher. • North America’s longest glacier is the Bering Glacier in Alaska, measuring 127 miles long. • Glacial ice can be very old — in some Canadian Arctic icecaps, ice at the base is over 100,000 years old. • The land underneath parts of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet may be up to 1.5 miles below sea level, due to the weight of the ice. • Antarctic ice shelves may calve icebergs that are over 50 miles long. • The Kutiah Glacier in Pakistan holds the record for the fastest glacial surge. In 1953, it raced more than 7.45 miles in 3 months, averaging about 0.07 mile per day. — Courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey (http://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthglacier.html) Mount Anderson),” Baccus said. “Data from the glaciers helps us understand

Almond Carrot Cake Recipe


From scratch to the kitchen Nourish Sequim, 101 Provence View Lane, is a farm to table restaurant, sitting on the remaining acreage of one of the oldest farms in Sequim (also a previous herb and lavender farm). Our restaurant is dedicated to serving delicious fine, casual food. Everything is prepared from scratch in our kitchen — even the ketchup! We do this because we care about the food we serve and the customers we serve it to. Many people today are afflicted with serious food allergies, digestive restrictions and dietary constraints or choices; making it challenging for them to eat in restaurants serving industry standard food. Daily, we hear customers’ appreciation when they find they can eat anything on the menu. Nourish serves pasture-raised meat, wild fish, organic, non-GMO

how these features are likely to respond to a changing climate. 2014 was a fairly typical year. 2015 was very unusual due to the high temperatures in winter and spring. In fact, 2015 conditions were similar to the conditions that climate scientists expect us to have in the future, say 2050.” Baccus reported that what his team’s studies showed “was that lower elevation areas of glaciers and most snow-covered areas in the Olympics (below 6,500 feet elevation) received very little snow in 2015. Upper areas on Mount Olympus (above 6,500 feet) stayed cold enough that a normal amount of snow accumulated (but only at the very top elevations). So overall, it was a very bad year for these glaciers. What this tells us about the future is that many of the glaciers in the park will continue to recede and disappear unless they have large areas above this elevation.” Baccus added, “We also found that in a year like 2015, glaciers provided a larger portion of the water to our rivers. For instance, in a typical year about 5 percent of summer flow in the Hoh River is from glaciers. “In 2015, over 25 percent was from the glaciers. This was due to the lack of snow in the mountains. Much of the river flow in the Hoh was being maintained by ice and snow laid down on glaciers many years ago.” If the Earth’s climate continues to become warmer — from a multitude of causes, natural and human — Baccus warns, “Fifty years from now, 2015 will look like a normal year.”

produce and all is gluten-free. Some produce is grown in our own gardens and other ingredients are sourced as locally as we can. Our menu changes seasonally; while daily specials depend on the weather, which affects the farmers and the fishermen. Nourish’s focus is on nurturing our community and economy; showcasing local food artisans and farmers, as well as musicians and artists, also training youth in the kitchen and dining room; aiming to provide them with career and life skills. We strive to run a sustainable business by: sending waste food to local pigs or to our garden compost, building our own furniture and fixtures using recycled materials, recycling all our bottles, paper and plastic, reusing cloth hand towels and napkins to reduce waste.

This is a daily dessert at Nourish. It is dairy-free, gluten-free, low in sugar, moist and delicious. We like it best when we make it with Nash’s Organic Produce sweet carrots. The Mix 12 ounces organic carrots, peeled and grated 8 ounces almond meal (also known as ground almonds or almond flour) 6 to 8 ounces organic cane sugar (depending how sweet you like) 3 eggs (fresh farm eggs best) 2 teaspoons baking powder The Method 350F oven for 35-40 minutes Prepare an 8-inch spring form pan, lining the base with parchment paper to allow easy removal. Mix carrots and sugar in a bowl and let sit while measuring other ingredients. In a mixing bowl lightly beat your eggs, add almond meal and

baking powder and then mix in carrots and sugar. Pour the mix into prepared pan, put on a baking sheet and place in pre-warmed oven until ready – about 35-40 minutes. Let cake cool, remove from pan. When we serve this dessert we like to add a little fresh whipped cream on top with a little sprinkle of grated carrot … in season we add a carrot top to our wedge of cake for a cute carrot look!

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And the orchestra plays on Sequim Community Orchestra: Perform, Inspire, Educate Story and photos by Mary Powell “DON’T EVER LET SOMEBODY TELL YOU, YOU CAN’T DO SOMETHING. IF YOU WANT SOMETHING, GO GET IT. PERIOD.” — Will Smith as Christopher Gardner, “The Pursuit of Happyness”

There are, of course, a fair number of quotes from famous, infamous and not so famous folks with the same message: only you can fulfill your dreams. That’s pretty much how Lilias Green lives her life and how she gets what she wants. One of her dreams was to have a symphonic orchestra in Sequim. If you live in say, Seattle, Philadelphia, Cleveland or Boston, it’s a given there will be plenty of symphony venues to attend. For those living in smaller, rural communities, taking in an orchestral symphonic concert might mean traveling to the nearest larger city, sometimes a two-hour or more drive. Before 2012, that was the case in Sequim, before Green, with her go-get-it attitude, decided she wanted to start a community orchestra. Oh, yes, there already was a fantastic city band, initiated in 1992. But bands don’t have string sections. And, there was an excellent symphonic orchestra in Port Angeles, but again, an excursion sometimes difficult to make. Green, a violinist since she was 6 years old, moved to

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A cello section adds depth to the orchestra, here rehearsing at the James Center for Performing Arts in Sequim. Sequim in 2005. She noticed right off there were few options in her own backyard for violin-playing. A formidable woman, Green kept the dream alive until it became reality in February 2012. Although Green had done her homework and knew there were those in the area interested in forming an orchestra, when it was announced, she was stunned at the number of musicians who came out of the woodwork. “We had a lot of support from the (Port Angeles) symphony to form an orchestra,”

Green recalled of those early days. “We had nearly 30 people show up for the first meeting.” With the help of a community foundation, the orchestra was given nonprofit status. “I knew nothing about running a nonprofit,” Green said. But she plowed through and today the Sequim Community Orchestra is approved by the Internal Revenue Service as a charitable organization under the section 501(c)(3) code. Under the direction of Phil Morgan-Ellis, an accomplished violinist and director of both

youth and adult orchestras throughout Utah, Montana, Washington and Costa Rica (yes, you read that right), the orchestra is in its fourth year and boasts nearly 50 musicians, including a large strings section. If it’s Tuesday evening, you’ll find Morgan-Ellis, baton in hand, and his band of 50 — make that his orchestra of 50 — rehearsing at the James Center for the Performing Arts. Rehearsals are both fun and serious. There is a lot of chatting, catching up and tuning up and the musicians unzip cases, get out music and find their seats before Morgan-Ellis takes his place on the podium and calls for a warm-up. On this particular Tuesday, the group was rehearsing for its February concert, which included a piece from Georges Bizet’s opera, “The Pearl Fishers.” I was amazed at how professional the orchestra sounded, especially difficult since they were accompanying the outstanding vocalists Dr. Joel Yellend and Robin Reed (both members of the Peninsula Singers). Morgan-Ellis expects a great deal from the players and they give him their best. He jokingly calls the group a training rehearsal, not a performing orchestra. “The largest demographic here started playing at (age) 50, or as kids but haven’t played in a while,” he said, while a few in the violin section smirk a bit. “This is a training orchestra with gray hair.”

“This is a training orchestra with gray hair.” — Phil Morgan-Ellis, director and conductor of the Sequim Community Orchestra It’s true a good majority of the players were in their youth members of orchestras, but for various reasons, put their instruments away. “Most of us studied music in school, then moved into a career and now are returning to and rediscovering our love for orchestral music,” Green said of the orchestra members and herself. “Many of us who picked up our instrument at a more advanced age are pursuing a desire to something we’ve always wanted to.” Morgan-Ellis agrees, saying he “marvels at the glory of the group, some of whom have only played for two years.” When frustration sets in, as is wont to do with an amateur group, Morgan-Ellis tells them the answers are right in front of them. “I often tell my kids, if you were given a test and the answers were handed out with the test, would you use the answer sheet?,” said MorganEllis, who is really quite patient with his musicians. “Well, you have the answers on your music, use them.” Consider the first concert the orchestra performed on June 29, 2012. There were 39 musicians and they performed “Andante” and “Allegro” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, a Haydn symphony and other pieces. Green was a soloist at the concert, conducted by Morgan-Ellis. By February 20, 2015, the orchestra grew to 43 and the music, a bit more difficult, featured non other than the “1812 Overture” by Tchaikovsky. I forgot to ask if there were actual cannons shot off during the ending notes of the piece. I’m guessing not, the bass drums can usually accomplish the loud sounds of a cannon. The orchestra performs for the community once or twice

Above: Randa Wintermute, who plays flute with the Sequim Community Orchestra and works with students in the strings program, shows Zoe Moore a little about flute-playing at the family concert in February 2015. Photo courtesy of Sequim Community Orchestra.

Right: Lilias Green is the founder of Sequim Community Orchestra. a year. These concerts feature performances by the youth strings group, as well, a treat for their parents and the audience. Other than entertaining the community, the orchestra also is committed to supporting a string education program for students in the Sequim area schools (see accompanying story, “For the Love of Music”). A good number of SCO members volunteer as teachers and helpers for the strings program.

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There are young musicians who play with the SCO, those who want to augment their school orchestra experience, or are homeschool students. “We are their orchestra,” Green said, adding in any and all cases the orchestra welcomes and encourages musicians of all ages to enjoy

rehearsing and performing orchestral music. “This orchestra is designed for orchestra musicians of intermediate skill,” said Green, the original designer of the SCO, “Our focus is on learning and growing as musicians.” And to that, the 50 or so members say amen. “It’s what makes us happy, why we do it.” The Sequim Community Orchestra rehearsals are held from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the James Center for the Performing Arts, 202 N. Blake Ave., Sequim. Any and all are welcome. On a personal note, I enjoy music of all genres, but I have a deep attachment to classical music, most especially symphonic and opera. I think if I had to choose between losing my sight or my hearing, it would be sight. When I was in the fourth grade (a long time ago), a music specialist visited our classroom and brought with him quite a few instruments. I went home and told my parents I wanted to play the violin. After the lecture about practicing and attending classes, they rented a half-size violin from the local music shop. Did I love it? Not at first. Wanted to quit, but promised my parents I

would give it a year. By then I was pretty much hooked. When the time came, my father took me to a violin maker in Seattle and together we picked out a beautiful (and I assume) expensive violin, full-size this time. Long story short, I did stick with it, took private lessons, got razzed for being a nerd while in high school, but went on to play with the Seattle Symphony Youth Orchestra. Like those in the story, life eventually got in the way and I put the violin away. I still have that violin, my late husband once had it restored for me, but now it needs restoring again. I’m almost afraid to open the case, for fear of little creatures who might have found a home in the bow hairs. But I do regret that I didn’t keep at it, and who knows, one of these rehearsals I might just show up, refurbished violin and all. It was a privilege for me to write this story — I was awed by the talent and hope I did you all justice. And thank goodness for the likes of Lilias Green, Phil Morgan-Ellis and the teachers in the student groups. — Mary Powell

FOR THE LOVE OF MUSIC continues on 25

Who, what and where

> Sequim Community Orchestra, youth strings program. > Helen Haller Elementary School. > Open to all Sequim School District students. >Greywolf students will be transported by school bus to Helen Haller. > No fees, instruction by qualified music educators provided by the SCO. > Parents are responsible for providing instruments and music books; however, some scholarships are available. > Rehearsals for the Sequim Community Orchestra are from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Tuesdays at the James Center for Performing Arts in Sequim. > For further information visit www.sequim communityorchestra.org, email info@ sequimcommunityorchestra or phone 360-681-5469.

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For the love of music . . .

Sequim Community Orchestra, youth strings program thriving Story and photos by Mary Powell Sometimes it’s difficult to persuade youngsters to do something a bit unlike that of their friends or classmates, something like taking up the violin or cello, for instance. Yet, right here in Sequim there are upwards of 45 students learning how to make music on a violin, viola, cello and even a harp — and they are enthusiastic and eager to do so. Talk to students in the first-, second- and third-year string classes and it quickly becomes apparent these budding musicians take their craft seriously. That’s not to say they have given up kid-hood. On the contrary, most especially the first-years, who are mostly fourth-graders, ages 9 and 10. That means it takes a few minutes of settling down time before the Tuesday or Friday afternoon class begins, down a snack, get out instruments, tune them, rosin bows and whatever else 9- and 10-year-olds like to get out of their system before settling down to business. Settling down to business means listening to Miss Bunica, the beginning class instructor. And listen, they do, everyone at the ready to play a first note. For having played a stringed instrument for only a few months, the group sounded pretty good. Miss Bunica, Kriszti for those us non-students, is one of three teachers working with the strings program. Emma Mitchell and Phil Morgan-Ellis are the other two; Mitchell teaches the intermediate group and Morgan-Ellis the middle school students. “Stand nice and tall,” Bunica tells her students. “No elevator

Students in the intermediate after school strings program class practice for the Feb. 19 concert. Ten students, most violinists and cellists, are in the class, taught by Emma Mitchell, a cellist and private music teacher. elbows,” to the violinists. This is Bunica’s first year to teach, both in the Port Townsend school district and the after school program in Sequim. Her speciality, she says, is beginners. “We do a lot of ‘rehab’ teaching the beginners,” which means learning the correct stance when playing a violin or cello and infusing a sense of excitement to learn how to play an instrument as intricate as a violin. With beginners under her wing, Bunica uses two methods of teaching: the Kodaly method and the Sassmannshaus method, both named after the men who developed the process. Suffice it to say, both teaching methods are geared toward young

children, using a child-development approach, colorful symbols and generally making learning a fun experience, with concepts reinforced through games, movement, songs and exercises. Unlike myself while observing the class, the students knew exactly what Miss Bunica meant, walking between moving bows of violins sounding every bit as though speaking a foreign language: ti-ti, ta-a-a-a, ta-o, which again, for us non-students, are ways of teaching note values. AN ORCHESTRA IS BORN “The initial enrollment for the beginning class was 28, but now is between 20 and 25, depending on the day,” explains Lilias Green,

founder of both the Sequim Community Orchestra and the Sequim youth strings program. Throughout her 70-some years, Green has pretty much been there, done that, at least when it comes to music; however, she describes her musical journey as “off and on.” The daughter of a pianist, Green became interested in music as a very young child and began playing the violin at the age of six. She grew up in Southern California and attended the University of California, Los Angeles, where she joined the orchestra. From there, Green was accepted at the Julliard School, by now being an exceptional violinist. (That’s a must for acceptance to Julliard,)

Spring 2016 LOP 25

“So long as the human spirit thrives on this planet, music in some living form will accompany and sustain it and give it expressive meaning.” — Aaron Copland, American composer, 1900-1990 After working in New York for a time, which included playing at the Metropolitan Opera House, Green traveled to Europe, mostly Germany and Rome, where she met her husband. She worked for an Italian theater company where she compiled documentaries, not playing the violin as much as she had been. However, when she arrived back in the states — California again — she began giving private lessons. After her husband’s death, she decided to give Sequim a try, and has called the city home since 2005. “When I moved up here I started looking for students to teach,” she remembers. She also joined the Port Angeles Symphony and continues to play with the group. At that time there was no orchestra at all in Sequim, and “no place for students to play violins or stringed instruments,” Green recalled. She knew there was a large youth orchestra in Port Angeles, that students in the Port Angeles School District had the option of an orchestra elective during the school day. That’s when she met Phil Morgan-Ellis. It was her lucky day — and Sequim’s as well. By 2012, Green decided it was time for Sequim to have its own orchestra. She asked Morgan-Ellis if she started an orchestra would he direct and conduct it. The answer was yes, and he continues to conduct the orchestra today. THE MUSIC MAN It only takes a few minutes to realize how important music is to Phil Morgan-Ellis’s well-being. Indeed, music has been an integral part of his life since he was a child. He grew up in Ogden, Utah, where he was a violinist in the

26 LOP Spring 2016

Golden Spike Youth Symphony. He began college at Weber State University in Ogden, studying composite music education, and graduated from Washington State University in Pullman, Wash., after which he moved to the Seattle area. He performed and taught with the Thalia Symphony Orchestra, one of the oldest community orchestras in Seattle. Then it was on to Missoula, Mont., where he worked with grade school students and the Missoula Youth Orchestra. He performed with the Missoula Civic Symphony and the Little Symphony at the University of Montana. In 1971 he moved to Port Angeles, where he taught orchestra, band and computer science at the Port Angeles School District. In 1979, Morgan-Ellis and his wife started a youth symphonies program, which they managed and conducted for 25 years, and for which they received several community commendations. Today, the two offer summer workshops for string players. “Port Angeles has had a beginning strings program since I showed up,” he says about opportunities for music programs in the area. According to Morgan-

Ellis, between 600 and 700 youth are involved in some sort of string program in Port Angeles, which is incredible for a smallish city. Morgan-Ellis was the principal violist for the Port Angeles Symphony until he moved from Washington state to Costa Rica in 2006. Again, he found himself teaching and conducting, specifically the National Youth Orchestra. But after four years he returned to Port Angeles and began what he called Mr. Phil’s Strings, a group of after school orchestras for elementary and middle school string students. And if that isn’t enough, Mr Phil, the music man, continues to teach private violin and viola lessons. This is his fourth year conducting the Sequim Community Orchestra, which he thoroughly enjoys. His favorite music? Russian classics composed by the likes of Prokofiev, Stravinsky, Tchaikovsky, which is often reflected in his choice of concert pieces. STUDENT PROGRAM IS BORN Once the community orchestra was organized, the next step for Green was to provide something

Did you know? > Students who learn an instrument improve reading and math skills, and musical training helps develop language and reasoning. > Students who practice with musical instruments can improve hand-eye coordination. > Learning to play pieces of music with an instrument gives a sense of achievement. > Music builds imagination and intellectual curiosity. > Kids who study music can learn to think creatively. Source: National Association for Music Education

for the students. In the fall of 2013, she started an after school strings class, which attracted 23 students. The program was first held at Greywolf Elementary School, but has now moved to Helen Haller. Students in the beginning and intermediate classes are bused from Greywolf to Helen Haller for classes. While separate from the orchestra, the strings program is like the orchestra’s little sister (or brother). Several orchestra members volunteer to teach or help during classes. Twice a year, the SCO performs a family concert, during which the strings students perform a concert of their own. While the orchestra is funded by member dues, the strings program is funded entirely by donations, with facilities provided by the Sequim School District. In late 2014, the program received a $4,000 grant from the Charlotte Y. Martin Foundation. The SCO board and community members have donated about $2,000 to support the classes for this year. The classes are free for students, a godsend for parents, many whom have told Green that had the the classes not been free, their children would not have been able to participate, Green relates. And of course, violins, violas and cellos are not inexpensive. Community members and SCO members have donated instruments and there is a rental shop in Port Angeles. However, Green adds, “we need more half-size and quarter-size instruments.” Nine-and 10-yearold fingers and hands cannot manipulate the full-size violins well enough to enable learning.

There is a 40-minute gap between the end of the school day and the start of the strings class, but the good news is the Boys & Girls Club is directly adjacent to Helen Haller, which gives the kids a safe and comfortable place to hang out before their music lesson. While the three strings classes are successful and draw a good number of students, the dream for Green, Bunica, Mitchell, Morgan-Ellis and plenty of parents and students is to build a fulltime program with a part-time or full-time teacher. The Sequim High School has a good chorus and band program, but no orchestra, says Green. The problem with the strings program is after middle school there is nothing left, save for private lessons. “The Sequim School District has been extremely supportive of the program, giving us facilities and busing the kids between schools,” Green says. But, adds Bunica, “there is a gap. Once these students are out of middle school there is nothing for them” regarding any sort of orchestra opportunities. Port Angeles students are a bit luckier. First the school district is larger and the schools are not as lacking in space as are the Sequim schools. And the Port Angeles High School has a spacious performing arts center. The strings program in Sequim is held in classrooms that must be set up with music stands and whatnot, and then returned as was. “A lot of students (from Port Angeles) go on to careers in music or major in music in college,” Green says. That’s not to say Sequim’s students are any less talented or committed to their music education. But for now, space is squeezed to its limits, according to the Sequim superintendent’s office. “There is simply no room,” laments Superintendent Gary Neal. “We have 120 band students during the zero hour in the band room, and more students wanting to take the class.” Neal’s philosophy is to have a

Fayth Lymangrovin, left, and Kathryn Folstrom, 9, say they enjoy playing the violin and look forward to the class, held Tuesdays and Thursdays. student-driven prospectus when it comes to activities such as elective opportunities. “Whenever possible we’re never going to get in the way of what kids want,” he says. That’s the good news. The bad news is the Sequim does not have enough teachers to allow for a full-time orchestra instructor. Plus, Neal points out, in order to build up a band or an orchestra, there has be a beginning band that will then feed into the more advanced band. Again, not enough teachers or room. “To say we will never have an orchestra is not true,” he asserts, adding he is supportive of music programs and believes there is a need to have more elective opportunities. In the meantime, Sequim will continue to provide what they can to students interested in playing a stringed instrument. SPEAKING OF STUDENTS … Emma Mitchell, like her cohorts, is enthusiastic about music, but especially about teaching students the art of playing a stringed instrument. A cellist, Mitchell teaches the second-year students, of which there are eight this year. Seven are aspiring violinists and one a cellist. Mitchell admits she began her musical interest by playing the violin, but only lasted a week before switch-

ing to the cello. “I didn’t want to stand, I wanted to sit down,” she laughed. There is a marked difference in the level of musicality between the beginning and intermediate string class. Which means the program is working, students are listening and intent on improving their skills, thanks to the teachers and volunteers working with these kids. “The program exceeded our expectation in the quality of instruction we have,” Green points out. “The fifth-grade instruction has been taken over by Emma Mitchell, an experienced private studio teacher who has assisted as a volunteer instructor for the two previous years.” Mitchell is a Port Angeles native, is married and has two young children. She is also principal cellist in the SCO. But at 3:30 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays, you will find her directing her protégés in a classroom at Helen Haller Elementary School. Like the beginners, the intermediate students, burst into the classroom carrying their backpacks and violins, have a snack, chat a bit with one another, and get on with it. Mitchell calls them eager to please. When asked how many thought they might make music a part of their professional life as

an adult, most weren’t sure. Over in the beginner’s class, 9-year-old Kathryn Folstrom said she would be a writer and a musician when she grew up, while Kika Oldham, 10, said she would play basketball or volleyball. Both play violin — for now. A short walk to the middle school finds the third-year group, now narrowed down to six students. These 11- and 12-yearolds, mentored by Morgan-Ellis, are learning more advanced methods and more attuned to their instruments (pun intended). When I asked cellist Henry Hughes, 12, if he knows who Yo Yo Ma is, he did. I was impressed. Beginning and intermediate students — not in their realm of academia quite yet. By the time the students reach middle school, there are many more activities that draw them away from orchestra, says Morgan-Ellis. Green agrees, reiterating string classes during the regular school day would “greatly improve retention.” The good news — many promising musicians return to their instruments once the teen years are behind them. And who knows? We may be looking right now at a future Itzak Perlman, Andre Rieu, Jascha Heifetz, or Hilary Hahn, a 36-year-old virtuoso who often performs with the Seattle Symphony. Or, of course, Yo Yo Ma, for our young cellists. Unless you are young Gabe Jensen, a 10-year-old cellist in the beginning class. When asked why he chose to play cello, he said he was inspired by The Piano Guys. I confess, I had to look on YouTube to check them out, wondering why a cello player would care about piano players. Turns out, this group consists of two fantastic cellists, a wild piano player, and a percussionist, who produce classical crossovers, a mash-up of popular and classical songs. A rock meets Rachmaninoff sort of approach, if you will. A great inspiration for the younger set, and terrific entertainment for the older set, me included. Gabe gets it. Move over, Yo Yo.

Spring 2016 LOP 27

Resilience to climate change Local vulnerabilities and strategies for response

By Alana Linderoth Climate change is a global phenomenon, but the changes it’s projected to bring are unique to every region and each community. To better understand the anticipated changes for the North Olympic Peninsula with a local focus on the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Hood Canal side of Jefferson and Clallam counties, a collaborative effort began nearly two years ago. The effort, spearheaded by the North Olympic Peninsula Resource Conservation & Development (NOPRC&D) and grant funded by the Washington Departments of Commerce and Ecology, resulted in a localized report released in late 2015 “Climate Change Preparedness Plan for the North Olympic Peninsula.” The 87-page document, coinciding appendices and supplementary information provide the relevant science, tools and strategies to build traction and direction toward the next steps needed to adapt locally to climate change. “The goal was to create a climate change preparedness plan for our little slice of the world,” Ian Miller, project partner and coastal hazards specialist for Washington Sea Grant and faculty member at Peninsula College, said. “The idea being to inform comprehensive and strategic, adaptation planning processes.” The project brought together a diverse representation of the North Olympic Peninsula with more than 175 participants from federal, state, local and tribal governments, nonprofits, academic institutions and private businesses. Additionally, a “Core Team” with representatives from Green Crow Corporation, Puget

28 LOP Spring 2016

Sequim Gazette photo by Alana Linderoth

Ian Miller, coastal hazards specialist for Washington Sea Grant and faculty member at Peninsula College, and Cindy Jayne, North Olympic Peninsula Resource Conservation & Development project manager, were among the primary partners leading the multi-year project to produce a localized climate change adaptation plan. Sound Partnership, Port Angeles City Council, Clallam County, Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Port Townsend Marine Science Center, Makah Nation, Port Townsend City Council, City of Port Townsend, Olympic Climate Action and a peninsula citizen, collaborated monthly to help guide and refine the project. The project also sought input

and assistance from experts with Adaptation International, a consultant firm aimed at helping communities become more climate resilient. “It was really a diverse group of people that contributed to this project,” Miller said. “This made it as powerful as it is in hopefully kick starting some adaptation implementation in our community.”

CLIMATE CHANGE OVERVIEW “Our communities, our societies premise in a lot of ways on this idea that long-term climate is essentially stable and that we can have perturbations around a mean or an average condition, but they happen within this known range and we can plan for them,” Miller said. “Well, the idea of climate change is that assumption may no longer be valid and that we’re working in a situation where we have changing mean conditions.” The physical properties of carbon dioxide, a naturally occurring gas vital for life on earth, along with the addition of other greenhouse gases, has a large role in anthropogenic (human) influences of the climate. Since at least the 1800s scientists have studied carbon dioxide and its ability to absorb heat energy. By 1864, scientist Svante Arrhenius “connected the dots” between the burning of fossil fuels during the Industrial Revolution and the ability of atmospheric carbon dioxide to retain heat energy, Miller said. The science and fundamental forces driving climate change may be well-known, but the “big uncertainty of climate change is how we evolve in the future,” he said. “As we look forward and try to know what the future may be like, we have to use difference scenarios, or ‘potential stories.’” The stories are created through modeling, which consider a variety of assumptions, like the amount of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere, technology and fossil fuel supplies, Cindy Jayne, NOPRC&D project manager, said. Those stories are then used to help communities plan and predict climate change impacts.

continues on page 30

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EXPECTED IMPACTS According to the plan on the North Olympic Peninsula some noticeable impacts of climate change include a diminishing snowpack; lower river flows in response to snowmelt; extension of the summer drought season; shifts in the timing and type of precipitation; unseasonably high river flows; ongoing sea level rise driving coastal flooding; saltwater inundation and shoreline erosion; extended warm temperatures and an increase in ocean acidification from the ongoing absorption of human emissions of carbon dioxide. “These changes will affect the natural resources and livelihoods of the people of the North Olympic Peninsula, as well as the entire regional economy,” according to the plan. Already, some regional changes have been observed, Miller said. Between 1895 and 2011 the Pacific Northwest warmed an average of 1.3 degrees (Fahrenheit), experienced an increase in nighttime heat events and a decrease in its snowpack and glaciers. Based on future projections outlined in the plan, by the 2050s the average temperature of the Pacific Northwest is expected to increase between 4.3-5.8 degrees (Fahrenheit), experience up to eight more days greater than 90 degrees, a longer frost-free season, drier summers, continued decline in snowpack with a “significant loss of snowpack in the Olympics by 2080” and an increase in heavy rain events. The plan considers sea level rise through probabilities because of the “uncertainty” surrounding the science on sea level rise — especially the relationship between it and the melting of large masses of land-based ice, like Greenland and Antartica, Miller said. Given both Clallam and Jefferson counties have coastal communities influenced by tectonics, Miller said, the plan for local adaptation also considers vertical land movement. “We see very different patterns of vertical land movement as you head out west where the land is actually rising up due primarily to tectonics and then you see this inflection somewhere around Sequim and then you see subsidence in Port Townsend and Seattle,” he said. Considering the uncertainty of sea level rise coupled with local research on vertical land movements, the plan predicts a 50 percent chance the sea level at Neah Bay will rise 1.3 feet by 2100, 1.9 feet in Port Angeles and 2.4 feet in Port Townsend. Although ocean acidification is a chemical interaction between the air and the ocean and not related to heat, Miller said, “changes in the pH (acidity) in our coastal waters could have changes on our shellfish that are both culturally and economically valuable to our region.” “We are viewed as being an area particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification largely because we live in a part of the Pacific that sees some of the older waters upwelled to our coast,” he said. “Those older waters are already rich in carbon dioxide.” Beyond temperature, precipitation and coastal, other potential impacts worthy of consideration,

30 LOP Spring 2016

include things like crop yields, pollen production and movement of people, Miller said. “More and more we’re seeing this idea that people might be looking at the Northwest as a very attractive place to move to as other parts of the nation become less attractive,” he said. “That could have negative consequences due to development, but potentially a lot of economic positives.” VULNERABILITIES Last summer, “We saw issues with (river) flows, drop in soil moisture and increase in temperature, and you can’t of course blame the last summer specifically on climate change,” Jayne said. “But, the kinds of things we saw are consistent with the projections.” By collaborating with the broad group of local stakeholders, NOPRC&D officials and project partners were able to identify the areas most sensitive to climate change via a vulnerability assessment. “Take the changes in snowpack, for example,” Jayne said. “Well, we know which of our water systems are dependent on snowpack and which aren’t so we knew there was a vulnerability there, so that was flagged as a high vulnerability area.” The “key focus areas” targeted as vulnerable under the plan are ecosystems, water supplies and critical infrastructure. In determining the vulnerabilities, the project partners took into account what resources are available to respond and where energy already is being spent. “We didn’t want to focus on areas that were already being taken care of,” Jayne said. “For instance, the state already has a Blue Ribbon Panel looking at ocean acidification.” Under ecosystems, the plan narrows its focus on the nearshore environment, watersheds, agriculture and forestry. “Agriculture is interesting because it’s one of those areas where there’s a little bit of a mix,” Jayne said. “Plants like C02 so the little more C02 in the air is actually good for plants.” Whereas, the “water supply issue is a potential concern,” she said. “If we don’t have enough water for agriculture, that can drive the negative (impacts), but having a longer growing season is an opportunity.” Under water supplies, the plan addresses surface water and groundwater supplies, water quantity and availability. “Key exposures to climate change in our water supplies are things like lower stream flows for extended periods, particularly during the summer due to change in snowfall or change in intense and extreme precipitation events, causing flooding,” Jayne said. “Groundwater supplies, salinization of coastal ground water tables, increased water demand for agriculture with longer growing seasons and increased wildfires.” When exploring critical infrastructure, the plan addresses potential impacts to downtowns, ports, coastlines, floodplains, stormwater, sewer and septic systems.

RESPONSE Having identified the exposures, “the next piece was determining what our ability for response is and what do we do about it,” Jayne said. To help illuminate the likely future and thus guide steps toward community resilience to climate change, the plan provides strategies for adapting to the potential impacts. Through workshops and seemingly countless hours of deliberation, the project partners came up with a variety of strategies for adaptation and prioritized each by assigning a 1-20 score based on “timeframe, flexibility, technical, social and political feasibility and alignment with community goals,” Jayne said, with 20 being the most critical. “We have about 30 strategies for each of the three (ecosystem, water supplies and critical infrastructure) focus areas,” she said. Each strategy is then broken down by score, type, timeframe of implementation, lead group or groups, opportunities or concerns and focus area co-benefits. For example, for critical infrastructure, a strategy to “update emergency management and response planning to include climate change where needed” has a score of 20; type of strategy is “planning,” timeframe of implementation is “near term,” lead groups are “emergency managers,” opportunities or concerns include “highly adaptive with very good political support for this strategy” and no co-benefits are listed. The strategies encompassed a wide range ways of to adapt to climate change, from education and policy to planning. “The plan is a great starting point, but it doesn’t make us any more resilient to climate change,” Jayne said. Recognizing the plan is intended to be a tool, both Jayne and Miller emphasis the importance of “engagement.” “Preparing for the impacts of a changing climate and building resilience is a process and not an outcome,” according to the plan. “By participating in the development of this preparedness plan, appendices and supplementary information, all of the partners involved have initiated this resilience building process.” The focus of the plan is on adaptation, with a planning emphasis and not on mitigation, but the mitigation side is equally important, Jayne said. Although “the project wasn’t about reducing carbon dioxide in communities,” Miller said. “Still, that might be an outcome of some of the activities associated with the project.” Going beyond public education and continuing to encourage engagement at all levels, NOPRC&D officials and project partners expect to build on the project and monitor the progress toward achieving the adaptation strategies, as well as pursue funding to support this continued effort. See the full climate change report, appendices, including all strategies and supplemental information, at noprcd.org. Or call 360-301-1750 for more information. Alana Linderoth is a reporter at the Sequim Gazette.

The link between landscape and climate change Story and photos by Christi Baron As the Earth’s temperatures rise, what will the effect be on all living things? Most humans can move to escape, but for other species, will there be changes in migration? Will species seen in a specific area for centuries not be seen in that area in the future? Can man facilitate the movement of bugs and animals through connecting green spaces — and finally, will the banana slug survive? On Jan. 29, at the Olympic Natural Resources Center in Forks, Caitlin Littlefield presented preliminary findings from her research that addressed some of these questions. Littlefield is a doctoral student in Dr. Joshua Lawler’s Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology Lab within the University of Washington’s School of Environmental and Forest Sciences. She is interested in tree species range dynamics and populations’ persistence under climate change, particularly in mountainous environments.   After attending Middlebury College in Vermont, Littlefield received her master’s degree at the University of Vermont, researching the structural and carbon impacts of forest bioenergy harvesting.  She then served on a Rainforest Alliance field verification team for forest carbon projects and taught in various capacities before moving to Seattle.

Top, from left to right: Migratory birds will have a better chance at surviving warmer temperatures — even now certain bird species are being seen farther north than their regular habitat areas. As the earth warms certain species will not be able to migrate to their preferred habitat — the banana slug will most likely not do well with warmer temperatures. Some species, such as elk, can benefit from wildlife crossing structures over busy highways. Though she misses the northern hardwoods of Vermont, Littlefield is excited to explore the larger trees and mountains of the Pacific Northwest. The title of her topic for the ONRC Evening Talk was Landscape Connectivity: Addressing Climate Change — tracking climates through time and space.   Climate change already is impacting the distributions of many terrestrial organisms. A major conserva-

tion concern is whether species will be able to move across human-dominated landscapes to track changes in climate. Consequently, increasing the connectivity of landscapes is one of the most-often recommended adaptation strategies for protecting biodiversity in a changing climate. Littlefield and her research colleagues at the University of Washington have used the concept of

analogous or comparable climates to trace routes through space that track current climate conditions to their future locations in western North America. Using connectivity tools based on electrical circuit theory, she’s evaluated the accessibility of these climate “destinations” in light of landscape intactness — or how much humans have modified the natural environment.  

Spring 2016 LOP 31

“Adapt, go extinct or move.”

These connectivity analyses highlight potential barriers to and, conversely, pinchpoints in species’ movements for tracking suitable climate into the future. Littlefield’s Caitlin Littlefield results identify potential climate refugia (an area in which a population of organisms (trees) may help facilitate species’ movement to a new can survive through a period of unfavorable suitable climate. Assisted migration also is a conditions); and critical areas for movement in hot but controversial topic. western North America to ensure that suitable Although Littlefield’s findings are preliminary climates in the future are within reach for a they give much food for thought. She reminded range of terrestrial plants and animals. the audience that there were once the ancesLittlefield’s research looked at what species tors of alligators and palm trees in the Arctic. are most vulnerable. How things are situated ONRC provides scientific information to adcan affect the flow of species; landscapes can dress critical issues and solve problems concernfacilitate or impede species’ access to food ing forestry and marine sciences in the region. It sources. Things like wildlife habitat corridors serves as a catalyst for interdisciplinary and colcan work like stepping stones to get wildlife to laborative work, bringing together expertise from suitable climate habitat, she explained. forest resources and ocean and fishery sciences. Littlefield looked at vulnerability of species to By integrating research with education and warmer temperatures. Some species can hanoutreach, it unites researchers, students, prodle 78 degrees, some can’t — and in the future fessionals and the public. heat sensitive species may no longer exist — it Evening Talks at ONRC is funded through the Courtesy of Caitlin Littlefield will depend on their adaptive capacities. Some Rosmond Forestry Education Fund, an endowCaitlin Littlefield works in the field. species with long reproductive cycles may not ment that honors the contributions of Fred survive well with climate change. Evolution Rosmond and his family to forestry and the Forks community.  adaption is not an option for many species, Littlefield said. The Olympic Natural Resources Center is honoring the lifelong work of Warmer temperatures also bring more potential for increased wildfires, Fred Rosmond with the creation of an endowed fund to support educational also leaving many species more vulnerable. programs in forestry to local communities. The programs will emphasize sil“What are the options?” Littlefield asked. “Adapt, go extinct or move.” viculture — the art and science of growing trees — with attention to human Recent bird counts show many birds are showing up 35-100 miles farther needs and objectives. north than they have been seen in the past. Landscape resistance can be modified by humans — removing barriers and providing wildlife corridors Christi Baron is the editor of the Forks Forum.


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Burdette Redding photo, courtesy Port of Port Townsend

Port Townsend Boat Haven in the late 1950s. Kah Tai Lagoon originally was connected to the bay, which changed by 1931 when the boat basin was constructed. For many years, the large building across the street was the DeLeo Brothers Building Supply; it was removed in 1990, and the Harborside Inn was built. The Port Townsend Safeway is today located in the upper left of this photo.

Leader 2014 photo by Patrick J. Sullivan, flight by Wyvern Air

The Port Townsend Boat Haven offers moorage, storage and is a center for marine trades of all types. The boat haven was expanded to this size in 1964. The City of Port Townsend created Kah Tai Lagoon Nature Park on fill material pumped across the highway when the boat basin was enlarged.

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In Port Townsend’s pioneer settlement days, Kah Tai Lagoon was a broad salt marsh that connected to Port Townsend Bay. In 1891, the first of two bridges was built across the lagoon. The bridges, built with beach logs, were mostly unusable by 1910. Railroad work also was progressing during the boom period of the early 1890s and that included partial filling of the lagoon nearest the bay, with some of the area to be taken up by the proposed railroad terminus facilities. By 1930, Sims Way — the new main road in and out of town — was extended across the Kah Tai “flats,” which removed tidal influence on the lagoon. The highway was more of a causeway, with water on both sides. The Port of Port Townsend, in 1931-1932, had a boat basin built at the end of what is Benedict Street and there was more in-fill added between Sims Way and the bay. In 1964, the boat haven was expanded. An estimated 349,000 cubic yards of material were dredged and dumped into the lagoon in the project, more than tripling the size of the present boat haven while reducing the lagoon’s size. The boat haven expansion was necessary, but many people did not like what was happening to the lagoon. By the end of 1964, 8 acres of sand covered the lagoon’s southern area. In 1969, the port proposed a commercial development on port-owned property along Sims Way. It was the first of several such commercial proposals. In the late 1970s, approval was given to allow Safeway to build a 40,000-square-foot grocery on fill that had been the lagoon’s southern end. After much opposition, including a legal challenge heard by the state Supreme Court, the store was approved. The new Safeway opened in 1981. Public sentiment still favored some preservation of the lagoon, and in 1985, the city dedicated Kah Tai Nature Lagoon Park. Meanwhile, the port’s industrial buildings gradually expanded along the shoreline, although several studies about expanding the boat haven were never carried out.


Our Home, Gaia By the Rev. Pam Douglas-Smith HUMANITY’S HOME IS a magnificent orb of blue and green with white clouds floating in the atmosphere above and an infinite variety of forms infilling it with life in animal, plant and mineral kingdoms. As we walk upon this earth, we see the places in which we live daily and experience other distinctive cultures through travel. As we look around our environment, our perception is of limited time and space in most moments. As we look above, we see sky that shifts in light from day to night, filled with shimmering stars and distant planets. But, Earth seen from above, it gives us a far different perspective. Do you remember the first time you saw a color photograph of Earth taken from outer space? This view transformed our consciousness, making us aware that we all abide on one distinctive planet that is a living presence itself. It has a fiery heart at its core, solid formations of earth taking various shapes, flowing water circulating between all the seeming edges of land and the breathing lungs of air and sky. We see all our home … Gaia: named for the Greek goddess who was Creator of the Universe, Birther of the World of Totality and Mother of All. Our Mother Earth’s rich beauty and our interconnectedness in the natural world are eloquently expressed in words sometimes attributed to Chief Seattle of our Pacific Northwest First Peoples: “Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every tender shore, every vapor in the dark woods, every clearing and every humming insect are holy in the memory and experience of my people … All things are connected. Whatever befalls the earth, be-

34 LOP Spring 2016

falls the sons and daughters of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.” In “Blackfoot Physics: A Journey into the Native American Universe,” F. David Peat reveals this profound, resonant truth in the common ground between world views of indigenous peoples and modern Quantum physicists. Firstly, knowing there exists a natural link between the one and the whole … a holographic universe. Secondly, realizing the intricate, enfolded order of life reveals evidence of a deeper reality … the realm of neutrinos and quarks. Thirdly, perceiving that the elements of creation are not just atoms but rather moving energies at boundaries where potentiality expresses … particles, waves and spirals. And finally, embracing a deep awareness that nature is not a collection of objects simply interacting, but instead an interwoven flux of creative processes … as found with the Higgs boson “God Particle” which is life’s infinite generative spark of Light. All of this leads to a profound realization that the complexities of Earth life are interconnected completely and masterfully. Exactly the wisdom expressed by Chief Seattle … oneness, interconnectedness, energetic mutuality and unfolding creation deeply affected by our actions. Over a 100 years ago, the Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, Black Elk, foretold of the time when the native peoples who honored the earth would heal from the devastating effects of the European migration. In his vision, the Sacred Hoop of Life had been broken but that it would be mended in seven generations. At last, humankind would finally honor the natural realm,

realize the essential need to be in relationship with it and begin doing the sacred work of tender, loving care that comes from deep respect. We are now living in the time of the seventh generation. We are the ones sent to do this practical and holy work. Now is the time to deepen our connections to nature and her creations. Allow yourself the gift of discovering your own personal nature totem. This can be any natural object, animal or being whose essence you closely resonate with. Consider what animal has crossed your path at a significant moment, entered your dreamtime with a message or perhaps fascinated you since childhood. Explore the world of minerals with its rocks, shells and crystals to find one that captures your imagination and desire to connect with life at more depth. Search the forests, beaches and gardens for plants, flowers and trees that deepens your own growth cycle grounded in earth and visibly expressed. When you find your totem, ask what it uniquely means for you and for your evolving path at this moment. Let this become your symbolic link to the world and your touchstone for your dedication to protect it. In “Blackfoot Physics,” we are reminded that, “Indigenous metaphysics offers us an alternative approach, a way of being within the world that does not analyze and categorize, control and intervene, but rather admits the openness of

the circle, accepts the unexpected, acknowledges obligations and seeks harmony, balance and equilibrium.” Diverse oneness dancing upon Gaia. All of those with ancient earth wisdom who came before remind to us to be aware and to care. All of those present in the world now invite us to shift from a consciousness of dominion into one of being entrusted with nature. All of those yet to come are calling us to create a world that will be not only safe and honored but also beautiful and celebrated. For Gaia is home to all of us. We must unite across time and space to heal the Sacred Hoop of Life now. As we go forth to care for our planet, its life forms and all of humanity, let us take inspiration from another of Black Elk’s visions. For this is what is possible for us all … “And I was seeing in a sacred manner the shapes of all things in Spirit, and the shape of all shapes as they must live together like one being. And I saw that the sacred hoop of my people was one of the many hoops that made one circle, wide as daylight and as starlight, and in the center there grew one mighty flowering tree to shelter all the children of one mother and one father. And I saw that it was holy.” The Rev. Pam Douglas-Smith is the minister at the Unity Spiritual Enrichment Center in Port Townsend who leads international spiritual pilgrimages. Contact her at revpam@unitypt.org.

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Profile for Sound Publishing

Special Sections - Living on the Peninsula March 2016  


Special Sections - Living on the Peninsula March 2016