ELITE WINGS MAGAZINE - MAY |JUNE 2023 - Sustainability

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Issue 03 | 2023








W W W . E L I T E - W I N G S . C O M



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Cover Pictures: Bombardier Challenger 3500 © BOMBARDIER




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CONTENTS May | June 2023


Flying the environmentally friendly skies An introduction to the Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Aeronautics (WISA), the world’s leading hub for sustainable aviation research.


Bombardier Spearheading the sustainability revolution in Business Aviation.


Rolls-Royce Powering the industry journey to NetZero .


The Future of Flight Exploring Jekta’s sustainable, electric, and amphibious solution.


One-stop shop for sustainability A review from 4AIR of the industry’s current and future sustainability solutions


Sustainability as a mindset A look at F/List sustainable interior innovations that deliver tangible and pragmatic solutions.


The Business of Sustainability A review from Azzera on the business implications of sustainability


Sustainability Toolbox Exploring Satcom Direct Carbon Offset Module


Flying the environmentally friendly skies Launched in 2021, The Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Aeronautics (WISA) is the world’s leading hub for sustainable aviation and aerospace research, technology, and education.

By Sam Toman and Claire Mastrangelo


WISA brings together more than 150 researchers from all six University faculties. Its advisory committee includes Chris Hadfield, decorated astronaut, author and pilot, and industry experts from organizations including Transport Canada, NAVBLUE, an Airbus company, and the National Research Council among others. WISA researchers are targeting outcomes that apply the latest technology and social science in ways that will have an impact on policy, manufacturing and training.

The Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Aeronautics (WISA)



Introducing Sustainable Aeronautics

For as long as she can remember University of Waterloo Aviation professor Suzanne Kearns dreamed of flying, and at the age of 15, she began training for a career as a pilot. On her 16th birthday — the first day she could legally drive a car — she flew solo for the first time. If it could fly, Kearns was determined to master it. At 17 she slept for months in a Toronto hangar just to get her helicopter license, becoming a wunderkind in her hometown of Wiarton, Ontario. The local paper joked, “Imagine that, flying helicopters and still wearing braces,” she says. Back then Kearns could never have imagined doubting her dream job. But as she, and the world, woke up to the fact that air transport is a key contributor to climate change, an unsettling truth began to sink in. “Given that relatively few people on Earth have the opportunity to fly, aviation’s outsized impact on the planet is unacceptable,” she says. “But, despite its drawbacks, I truly believe that aeronautics is a force for good. So, I have a new dream, and that’s to support aviation's movement towards sustainability.” In fall 2021 that new dream came one step closer with the launch of the Waterloo Institute for Sustainable Aeronautics (WISA), making Waterloo, and Canada, a pioneer in reforming an industry currently accounting for more than 2 per cent of global carbon emissions.


Social Sustainability “Sustainability goes beyond environmental considerations to include social and economic factors,” says Kearns, who first began exploring how sustainability related to aviation several years ago when she created an Aviation Sustainability course in Waterloo’s Faculty of Environment. Social sustainability is possible when the aviation industry has a competent and efficient workforce – a challenge prepandemic as the sector was facing global shortages of pilots, air traffic controllers and maintenance engineers. This shortage was exacerbated by the lack of diversity in the sector, with only about five per cent of pilots being female and fewer People-of-Colour. “I remember what it feels like to be the only woman in the classroom, and to feel like your dream profession doesn’t have a place for you,” Kearns says. “Supporting equity, diversity and a sense of belonging in the industry is a critical sustainability consideration, supporting the viability of the future workforce.” For Kearns, interdisciplinary collaboration is key to WISA. “I have been continually inspired by the passion and talent of my academic colleagues, uniting across disciplines to identify impactful research.” WISA-affiliated researchers include social scientists and psychologists working in tandem with its engineers, technologists and environmentalists. “Social sustainability also includes professional competency which supports safe and efficient operations,” she says. “Today, 70 to 80 per cent of aviation accidents are caused by human error. WISA’s psychologists, vision scientists and kinesiologists examine factors such as eyesight, fatigue and decision-making to build a comprehensive foundation of interdisciplinary research with the goal of passenger safety.” WISA brings together more than 150 researchers from all six University faculties. Its advisory committeeincludes Chris Hadfield, decorated astronaut, author and pilot, and industry experts from organizations including Transport Canada, NAVBLUE, an Airbus company, and the National Research Council among others. WISA researchers are targeting outcomes that apply the latest technology and social science in ways that will have an impact on policy, manufacturing and training. Economic Sustainability Kearns went into teaching at the age of 24 when her career prospects as a commercial pilot evaporated following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. “I know first-hand, a more financially resilient aeronautics sector is better for workers, and better for stabilizing global markets,” says Kearns, who points out that the air transport sector is responsible for more than $6 trillion in international trade. Economic sustainability is more than solvency and job security. “Additive manufacturing, better known as 3D printing, can create new custom-designed plane parts made one at a time, any time and just in time,” she says. “This saves both time and resources. This kind of work is already being done at Waterloo. What WISA does is mobilize that research towards aeronautical challenges.”

Environmental Sustainability “I understand people feeling guilty about flying because of the climate impact,” Kearns says. “But the truth is, it’s a challenging sector to decarbonize and often there just isn’t a substitute to flying. Our delicate COVID-19 vaccines arrived by plane, as do trillions of dollars of goods. And in our now globalized world, air travel is the only feasible way to connect with our loved ones living overseas.” With environmental interventions occurring in the auto, housing and manufacturing industries, aviation’s relative share of global emissions will only grow. Waterloo’s Faculty of Environment, where WISA is housed, is Canada’s largest faculty devoted exclusively to sustainability. Its experts work at the intersection of nature, human behavior and technology. “Environmental sustainability is where WISA’s transdisciplinary DNA really shines,” Kearns says. “We have applied mathematicians using algorithms to improve logistics, engineers improving aerodynamics and chemists innovating batteries and renewable fuels. All of this adds up to lower carbon emissions, which is a central goal of ours.” Future focused Just before the COVID-19 pandemic the global aviation industry was surging — accounting for 87.7 million jobs worldwide, with $3.5 trillion in economic impact, and supporting 4.1 per cent of global GDP. As the pandemic spread across the globe, the aviation industry ground to a halt. “As we’ve emerged from closed borders and lockdowns, aviation has played a critical role in reigniting the global economy by transporting goods and humanitarian aid, and connecting us in person once again,” Kearns says. Additionally, the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Assembly committed to a new aspirational goal for international aviation of net-zero CO2 emissions by 2050. Achieving this aim will require technologies, innovative practices and future leadership to drive environmental, economic and social prosperity. WISA is uniquely positioned to work in partnership with industry and government to address these global challenges. Since launching, the WISA team has taken many steps towards this mission. They’ve developed a new approach to graduate studies through the Collaborative Aeronautics Program, which enables students to add a focus in air transportation research to their studies. Master’s and doctoral students from every faculty joined the program’s first cohort in 2022, marking an important step in the journey towards building a strong talent pipeline of aeronautics leaders. “The big challenges facing the future of air transportation will require collaborative solutions,” Kearns says. “No single institution or field of study can address these issues alone. We must equip future leaders as experts in their chosen academic field with aeronautical training to catalyze innovative research – and foster industry and government partnerships towards impactful solutions.” Partnering with the Waterloo Wellington Flight Centre, WISA also brought Canada’s first commercially available


type-certified electric aircraft to Waterloo. The team conducted their debut test flight at the Region of Waterloo International Airport last June in their first round of circuit testing. Once they complete this stage of the testing process, they hope to validate the use of this low-emission aircraft, with the end goal of supporting other flight schools across Canada in adopting it. “Small electric planes will soon make low-carbon flight possible,” Kearns says. “However, they must be validated in Canadian conditions to explore battery performance in cold weather, pilot training, safety standards and other certification questions. Through our strategic partnerships with the Waterloo Wellington Flight Centre and Transport Canada, we’re working to answer these and other essential questions.” Mobilizing insights External partnerships enable WISA’s researchers and students to apply their expertise to real-world challenges facing the aerospace industry. Through an investment from the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario’s Aerospace Regional Recovery Initiative, the Institute has distributed more than $4 million to support 39 research projects coordinated with partners in industry or government. Topics include applications of solar technologies, motion capture in pilot training, machine learning to predict flight delays and the connection between sustainability ratings and financial performance in aviation. “WISA continues to grow and diversify our team, drawing on a wide spectrum of expertise and lived experience to strengthen our capacity,” Kearns says. “We’re engaged in research projects across campus focused on all three pillars of sustainability, to innovate aviation training, improve environmental practices and drive economic growth in Canada and beyond.” More than 200 industry, government, faculty and student attendees joined the inaugural Sustainable Aeronautics Summit last year to discuss sustainability innovations with WISA researchers and partners. The second annual Summit is scheduled for October 25, with Chris Hadfield as the keynote speaker. While conferences present valuable opportunities to share in-depth insights and new ideas, Kearns, who holds a PhD in instructional design for online learning, also ensures that education is available to industry professionals year-round. Building on the success of her online course in Aviation Fundamentals, Kearns and her team are finalizing two new professional development courses focused on upskilling the aeronautics workforce in the areas of sustainability and climate change. “It’s my hope that these programs will help mobilize more energy, talent and innovation in pursuit of a sustainable future for aeronautics,” Kearns says. “Overall, WISA is taking an important leadership role to drive meaningful, sustainable change within the aviation and aerospace industries. The institute is also scaling at a rate that’s both energizing and inspiring. With four associate directors, more than 150 faculty members, and a growing team of staff, we’re all excited for what’s coming next.”





Interview with Éric Martel,

President and CEO, Bombardier

Can you give us an overview of some of the major sustainability initiatives at Bombardier? EM: Over a decade ago, Bombardier was already thinking ahead, aiming to tackle what has become the industry’s most pressing challenge – sustainability – and started actively working on the aviation of the future. As a business jet OEM, our objective was, and still is, to manufacture and service aircraft with the smallest possible environmental impact. In line with the business aviation sector goals to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, we have put into place an extensive environmental strategy that includes, short-, medium- and long-term solutions to proactively mitigate our environmental footprint now, and in the future. A major sustainability initiative is Bombardier’s recently announced EcoJet research project: an engineering, visionary R&D work that rethinks how aircraft bodies are designed. Through a combination of aerodynamic and propulsion enhancements – conceptualized in what is called a blended-wing-body design – Bombardier’s EcoJet research project has the objective to reduce future aircraft CO2 emissions by up to 50%. And because we trust that this research project, paired with other of our sustainability initiatives, has the potential to shape the future of sustainable aviation, Bombardier evaluated its planned R&D investment trajectory to achieve its target of 50% R&D toward greener aircraft by 2025. In 2022, a significant portion of Bombardier expenditures in R&D were toward greener aircraft, as highlighted in our Environmental, Social and Governance

(ESG) plan. Indeed, complementing the Research and Technology team’s work on the EcoJet research project, the role of Bombardier dedicated Product Sustainability and Strategy team is also instrumental to Bombardier’s environmental strategy. The team’s unique expertise – in the development of standardizable key metrics, data gathering, validation and analysis – that was acquired in the development of the Global 7500 platform led to another major sustainability initiative at Bombardier: Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). The Global 7500 aircraft is the first business jet in history to have received an EPD. Today, it is joined by the Challenger 3500, Global 5500 and Global 6500 business jets, and Bombardier is committed to publishing EPD for all its new aircraft platforms by 2025. EPD stand as public reporting documents. They summarize relevant data from a thorough analysis of waste generation, and resources and energy consumption of a given product throughout its life cycle: that is from sourcing raw materials, to manufacturing each piece of the product, until the disposal of materials, parts, products. Bombardier has invested years of work in developing the analysis methodology leading to this comprehensive report of the environmental impact of its product. The scientific effort behind Bombardier’s first EPD involved the assessment of 200K aircraft parts; collaboration with 45 tier-1 suppliers; and weeks of consultation with key industry players; over the course of 6 years.


Bombardier believes that beyond raising the bar in terms of environmental reporting standards, this holistic exercise allows us – and the whole industry – to gain valuable insights on the environmental impact of our products. Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) will also be an important tool in the decarbonization journey of the aviation industry. Since January 1st, 2023, Bombardier is using Book-andClaim solution to purchase SAF for all its flight operation. This decision will reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions from fuel use in flight operations by approximately 25%. Flight operations include all flights that generate scope 1 emissions: flights to validate that the aircraft meets standards prior to delivery, experimental flight tests, and demonstration and marketing flights. While the blend of 30% SAF and 70% traditional jet fuel used in flight operations corresponds to what is currently available in North America, Bombardier is actively working on increasing future blend ratios and introducing SAF new pathways for the industry. Bombardier believes that beyond raising the bar in terms of environmental reporting standards, this holistic exercise allows us – and the whole industry – to gain valuable insights on the environmental impact of our products.

“Bombardier evaluated its planned R&D investment trajectory to achieve its target of 50% R&D toward greener aircraft by 2025


In 2021, Business aviation leaders pledged to achieve netzero carbon emissions by 2050. Bombardier and other Business Aircraft manufacturers have been heavily investing on innovations and technologies to improve Business Jets fuel efficiency. Can you explain how current Bombardier jets offering are more efficient than ever before? EM: Bombardier’s well-defined environmental leadership is evident through the design and manufacture of its worldclass business jets. Global aircraft, for example, are known for their advanced wing designs and smooth ride technology. Specifically, Global 5500, 6500 and 7500 have all demonstrated dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency with the combination of advanced wing designs – all while also improving high and low speed performance. The importance of wing design is that it allows the aircraft to be efficient at all phases of flight. But it’s especially beneficial during the take-off and landing phases when typically, there are higher power settings and therefore higher emissions. In that vein, the Global 5500 and 6500 combine redesigned wings and brand-new, purpose-built Rolls-Royce Pearl engines, to be up to 13% more efficient than their predecessors and the Global 7500, features everything from a next-generation perspective. Indeed, the technologically advanced and exceptionally efficient Global 7500 aircraft is designed and manufactured with environment in mind. It’s high-speed transonic wing cuts down on drag, reduces fuel burn, and lowers emissions, offering a smooth ride, as well as excellent short-field and high-speed performance. The Global 7500 emits 15% less CO2 than previous generation ultra-long-range aircraft; this is the result of the environmentally conscious decisions that Bombardier made when designing and manufacturing the Global 7500. The Challenger 3500 aircraft was also designed through a sustainable lens with hydroelectricity-powered assembly site and its eco-material offering amongst other aspects.


On June 30, 2020, Bombardier became the first business jet manufacturer to release an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) for the Global 7500 flagship jet. Since then, Bombardier has released EPDs for the Global 5500, Global 6500 and the Challenger 3500. Can you provide us more details on the EPD analysis methodology? EM: There were five main steps to grant the initial Global 7500 aircraft EPD: first- to develop relevant Product Category Rules (PCR); second- to perform Environmental Life Cycle Analysis (LCA); third- to compile information and develop the EPD; fourth- the third-party verification for LCA & EPD; and fifth- the EPD Registration & Publication. Within the first phase of this process – which was completed over the development of the Global 7500 platform – Bombardier’s team led weeks of external consultations with key players from the industry to develop relevant Product Category Rules (PCR) and relevant key metrics. Eventually, Procurement teams were involved, and we collaborated with 45 tier-1 suppliers through the assessment of 200K aircraft parts on the Global 7500 aircraft program to perform the environmental life cycle analysis of this specific aircraft. The LCA is the process used to measure a product's environmental impact at any point, for any activity or use over its whole lifetime (from design to procurement and transportation, to manufacturing, testing, use, maintenance and end-of-life is conducted following ISO 14040 series guidelines and represents the extended analysis published in the EPD. Bombardier's Product Sustainability and Strategy internal team has been driven this initiative for over a decade. To this day, Bombardier also assessed 140K aircraft parts on average on each of the Challenger 3500, Global 5500 and Global 6500 program. Once the LCA of a product has been conducted, a collaborative work is done between engineering, marketing, communication, and management teams to compile information and develop the EPD of the product. Beyond the current industry commitments, Bombardier has set itself the goal to be the leader in sustainable aviation. At EBACE 2022 Bombardier revealed the EcoJet Research Project, with an objective to reduce emissions by up to 50% through a combination of breakthrough aerodynamic and propulsion enhancements. Can you provide us with an update on this project? EM: After several years of research, Bombardier successfully completed its first phase of testing with a small-scale model of a blended-wing-body aircraft, representing approximately 7% of a large business jet. We are now building on the significant knowledge acquired to engage in a second phase of testing with a model twice as large, and which completed its first flight last year to pave the way for this next test campaign.



The EcoJet blended-wingbody research project aims to develop and mature technologies to support a sustainable future for business aviation.

Sustainability from the Cockpit to the Cabin. Sustainability is not a destination, it’s a never-ending journey! Bombardier is enabling its customers to reduce their environmental footprint by offering a large selection of tools and environmental-friendly optional features. Bombardier’s business jets are an extension of customers’ offices and homes and a reflection of their values and identity. In embracing sustainable-minded designs, Bombardier’s eco-design approach focuses on offering high-end products that allow business jet owners to limit their environmental footprint while maintaining high aesthetic and quality standards. Bio-sourced materials, rapidly renewable eucalyptus hardwood veneers, upcycled wool for seat cover options, natural and more locally sourced fibers and blends for carpet options, and other more sustainable cabin interior offerings are available on Bombardier business jets.






Rolls-Royce is one of the leading engine suppliers for business aviation, powering some of the largest, fastest and longest-range business jets available. Can you walk us through how Rolls-Royce business aviation engines' efficiency improved over time? Outstanding efficiency has always been one of the key features of our engines – with their unique combination of performance, efficiency and reliability they enabled a new market for ultra-long range aircraft. Over time the improvement rate in specific fuel consumption was roughly about 1% per year. If we take the Pearl engine family, the leading engine family in this market, we introduced technology that enables for example the Pearl 700 (powering Gulfstream’s G700 and G800 aircraft) to have an eight per cent increase in take-off thrust at 18,250lbf compared to the already class-leading BR725 engine. Despite those increased thrust levels the engine offers a five per cent higher efficiency, while also maintaining its class-leading low noise and emissions performance. It’s a perfect combination – a highly efficient engine, but also able to propel customers to speeds up to Mach 0.925. The Pearl family brings together innovative technologies derived from the Rolls-Royce Advance2 demonstrator programme and proven features to deliver world-class environmental performance. This includes a highlyefficient blisked fan; a high pressure compressor with a market-leading pressure ratio and six blisked stages; an ultra-low emissions combustor; a two-stage shroudless high pressure turbine as well as an enhanced four-stage low pressure turbine that is one of the most efficient and compact in the industry.

Engines efficiency improvement can translate directly to carbon emission reduction, what about non-carbon emission improvement?

Fuel consumption is one of the key items for an engine and as you know this is directly linked to it’s carbon emissions. However, Rolls-Royce is not only looking to improve sfc, but the whole environmental of our products. The Pearl engine family and its environmental performance - classleading low noise levels and emissions - is a perfect example for this. One example: a key features of the Pearl 10X, powering Dassault’s new flagship Falcon 10X, are 3D-printed combustor tiles, manufactured by an advanced Additive Layer Manufacturing process. This pioneering technology, which supports the exceptional environmental performance of the engine, has been developed and extensively tested as part of our Advance2 programme. This new ultra-low emissions ALM combustor is compatible with 100% Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) and tackles directly the NOx emissions of the engine. Another positive effect of the ALM tiles and the advanced cooling is that we are able to reduce temperature hot spots down the hot air stream, which will further increase robustness of the turbine.

Pearl 10X 3D-printed combustor tiles


SAF has the potential to reduce net CO2 lifecycle emissions by more than 75% compared to conventional jet fuel

Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) are essential for achieving the decarbonization of business aviation and Rolls-Royce has pioneered SAF certification as a drop-in fuel. Can you tell us the activities involved in SAF certification and your current engine status? Sustainable Aviation Fuels play an important role in the decarbonization of aviation, especially when it comes to longrange missions. While we are also working on the electrification (eg eVTOLs, eCommuter) or hydrogen, which will contribute at a shorter range, the combination of ultra-efficient engines and SAF will be the dominant contributor. SAF has the potential to reduce net CO2 lifecycle emissions by more than 75% compared to conventional jet fuel, with the possibility of further reductions in future. Already today, blends of up to 50% with conventional jet fuel can be used on all current Rolls-Royce engines. But Rolls-Royce is not stopping here. By the end of 2023 we will have demonstrated that our current engines for large civil and business jet applications can operate with 100% SAF as a full “drop-in” option, laying the groundwork for moving this type of fuel towards certification. We are working closely with our airframer partners with current focus on demonstrating compatibility with 100% SAF. However, there is a lot of work still to be done within the industry to ensure that 100% SAFs (both drop-in and non drop-in) get fully certified and become routine. The supply of SAF is currently facing a lot of constraints, can you tell us RR's vision on how some of these constraints can be addressed?


Rolls-Royce is at the forefront of decarbonising the skies and making critical next steps on the journey to commercial scalability of SAF production. There are already schemes and incentives being introduced worldwide to stimulate the SAF market. This includes the Sustainable Skies Act in the US or REFuelEU in the European Union. We are working closely with our partners with the current focus on demonstrating compatibility with 100% SAF. And, we have launched a new service called SAFinity to enable Business Aviation customers to invest directly in SAF and operate their flights more sustainably. A key challenge to rapid commercial deployment of SAF is the limited amount of economically viable supply sites vis-à-vis growing demand. SAF is often simply out of reach for potential customers. A solution to the logistical challenges is Book & Claim, as it provides a solution of bringing SAF to market and to effectively transfer sustainability claims to customers. It allows customers to purchase SAF without being physically connected to a SAF supply site, and to offtake up to 100% SAF via book & claim transactions. While the customer is not technically flying on SAF, their purchase demonstrates market demand and supports the development of SAF supply globally. In turn they can claim their SAF emissions reduction purchase towards their GHG reduction goals. We are also stimulating demand as we have agreed to use a 10% SAF blend for our own engine at our European sites in Derby, Bristol and Dahlewitz. We want to encourage the use of SAF throughout the aviation industry and this agreement is an example of the firm commitments fuel producers require to support their continued production investment.

Rolls-Royce is at the forefront of the research and development of alternative technologies such as Hybridelectric and Hydrogen powered engines, how and when do you see these breakthrough technologies changing the game in business aviation? As one of the leading players in aviation power Rolls-Royce is indeed at the forefront of the journey to reach NetZero. (Hybrid)Electric propulsion and hydrogen will play a part in this and therefore we are also focusing on this area. While electrification in aerospace is already a reality – we are already seeing the first players market moving towards certification – we are focusing on the Advanced Air Mobility market (Urban Air Mobility & Regional Air Mobility). Electrical power and propulsion systems will lead the way for Advanced Air Mobility (AAM), enabling silent short and vertical take-off and landing capabilities while lowering emissions and reducing fuel consumption. These aircraft will nor replace eg long-range business jets, but they can complement the journey to and from the airports. Also, hydrogen will undoubtedly play a role in global decarbonization as it offers the potential of zero carbon or true


zero emissions flight. However, there are a significant number of challenges to be overcome - economic, technical and political. But the opportunities this technology represents could be game changing. That’s why Rolls-Royce has announced its leadingedge hydrogen programme in 2022. We have planned a comprehensive series of rig and engine tests to prove the fuel can safely and efficiently deliver power for small-mid size aircraft from the mid-2030s onwards. We have further ambitions to move this on to a flight test phase as part of the programme in the long term. Two ground tests have been planned, one on a AE2100 engine in the UK (already done) and a Rolls-Royce Pearl 15 jet engine at a future date - a range of location options are being assessed for this including the Rolls-Royce test facility in Mississippi, USA. This will build on hydrogen combustion tests already well underway in partnership with Loughborough University and German research insititute DLR, with Cranfield University’s input on fuel system management.


FUTURE OF FLIGHT Sustainable, Electric….and Amphibious By George Alafinov, CEO of Jekta


Aviation has undergone transformative changes throughout history that revolutionized how we travel and explore the skies. Technological advances and today have powered each new era, we are about to enter the next new era, electric aviation. Electric motors are already demonstrating power and reliability suitable for aircraft applications. Yet, hydrogen fuel cells and battery power are still maturing, and we anticipate there will be as yet, unforeseen technologies that will enable electric propulsion. Sustainability is the primary driver and at Jekta, our inspiration is to apply the already extensive knowledge we have of manufacturing amphibious aircraft to enable greater access to air transport for communities living close to, around or by water. We are developing an electric amphibious flying boat, we see a future of rich opportunity enabled by the new technologies. There is a romance and nostalgia often associated with flying boats. They played a pivotal role in the dawn of aviation, connecting remote locations and traversing vast bodies of water. With the advent of electric propulsion, new materials, and ever-advancing avionics, the seaplane and flying boats are experiencing a resurgence in interest. With the evolving technologies, existing infrastructure, and established regulations, in combination with the low maintenance and fuel costs and minimal aviation

A new amphibious flying era is dawning and we are excited by the technology that allows us to be a part of it

infrastructure requirements, position the PHA-ZE 100 flying boat will be an essential addition to the global air transport network. This might be for communities that need access to air transport at affordable prices, island nations needing environmentally friendly commuter aircraft, and for more established countries where commuting by air is prohibited due to environmental pollution and noise regulations. We are optimizing the PHA-ZE 100 to serve coastal, island and water-located communities by delivering sustainable services without the need for expensive land infrastructure. Our aircraft, and a growing number of seaplane options, will add a realistic and necessary link to existing aviation routes, but more importantly they will enable new and as yet unexplored routes where water has restricted the options for flight. The reduced weight and enhanced efficiency of electric motors make them ideal for powering waterborne aircraft. A combination of electric aviation’s benefits and electric flying boats' flexible aquatic operations will release intriguing opportunities for short-range connections between water bodies where other forms of transport are complex or environmental restrictions prevent regular flight.


The weight and drag of the alighting gear compromise all floatplanes; the optimal solution for operating an aircraft rests with the flying boat. At Jekta, our electric flying boat design incorporates standard retractable landing gear. The electrically powered amphibious flying boat will be certified to EASA CS-23 and US FAA FAR-23 standards for fixed-wing passenger aircraft. An all-composite construction, it features a single-step, planning hull, strutbraced, high-aspect-ratio tapered wings ending in dragreducing upturned, swept wingtips, and wheeled, retractable tricycle landing gear. Power comes from ten electric motors supplied with energy from batteries, hydrogen fuel cells or other zeroemission sources. Engines reach 400KW at peak operations (15-20 sec), and work at 160KW-180KW during the cruise phase. Initial flight endurance on battery power is projected at one hour, with a 30-minute reserve, but we anticipate as battery technology increases so will range. The interior will also reflect the sustainable aspect by using bio-based materials, sustainable components, and full lifecycle materials. Flexible configurations, including 19-seat all-economy commuter, mixed economy/freight, VIP, and ambulance options, optimize the PHA-ZE 100’s spacious, stand-up cabin will all be available. We are optimizing technology to reduce cost in five key areas. The aim is to reduce the per-passenger-per hour cost of existing similar category aircraft by up to 70%. How is the technology enabling this? Maintenance costs: The maintenance for existing seaplanes is considerably higher as the operators have to cover the costs of maintaining PT6-type engines operating in an aquatic environment, which is made harsher by salty waters. This means that engines and aircraft can take up to six hours a day to be cleaned. The PHA-ZE 100 will be made of composite materials that are not subject to rust and corrosion like metal. The metal component also makes the aircraft heavier which requires more fuel and oil to run than the Jekta airframe. The PHA-ZE 100 will be powered by electricity which can be generated from renewable sources. We are also exploring all fuel options that are zero-emission. Running costs: The PHA-ZE 100 electric propulsion system


significantly reduces running costs making it a more economical option for airlines and other operators. Electric-powered aircraft have lower fuel and maintenance costs compared to traditional combustion engines. Moreover, as the cost of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, continues to decrease, and hydrocarbon fuel prices increase the cost of operating zeroemission aircraft will continue to become even more affordable. Electric-powered engines have fewer moving parts than traditional combustion engines, resulting in less wear and tear and fewer maintenance requirements which translates to fewer maintenance expenses, lower downtime, and higher aircraft availability, allowing operators to maximize their revenue potential. Environmental regulations: Noise, pollution and infrastructure are all concerns for environmental regulators and the PHA-ZE 100 addresses these. Noise is significantly reduced with electric motors, and without the need for fuel or oil there are minimal pollutants or emissions. There is no need for the destruction of land to build airports which in regions where the environment is an asset, for example the African national parks, the PHA-ZE 100 addresses these issues which broadens the scope of opportunities. Operational limits: existing amphibian aircraft face challenges operating the dated aircraft in high waves. Seaplanes with floats cannot operate in high-waves, and have limited maneuverability, which limits operating parameters. The PHA-ZE 100 design which uses the belly of the airframe as the “landing gear” greatly increases operational opportunities. The PHA-ZE 100 can turn around its own axis and reverse which brings increased range of movement. With its amphibious nature it can also shore for embarking/disembarking passengers on land, as well as water which will address some issues presented in tidal zones or on rivers where turning-circles are small. Human resources: Of course pilots will always need to be certified as per the regulations, but the ground teams can be trained effectively to repair the aircraft should it be damaged, to operate the charging facilities and to serve the communities in which they live. This brings a real social element and potentially introduces hundreds of new members to the aerospace community.

However, the transition to electric aviation has its challenges, but we believe over the next few years, the technology will have improved sufficiently to enable aircraft with up to 19 seats to operate commercially. Operators are eager for change as many amphibious fleets are operating aircraft that were designed more than sixty years ago. We have spoken with many organizations seeking to renew their fleets with modern, efficient aircraft, yet are currently restricted to working with derivatives of older designs. We saw evidence of this at the Paris International Air Show, where De Havilland Canada launched its DHC-6 Twin Otter Classic-300G, adding modern avionics, a new cabin and airframe improvements to a design first introduced in 1969. Orders swiftly followed signifying the pent up demand from the sector. The Twin Otter is significant as it is one of a few aircraft in this category optimizing floats. It shares the possibility of exchanging its fixed, wheeled landing gear for large floats with other familiar seaplanes, including the Cessna Caravan and de Havilland Canada Beaver, the subject of an electric motor conversion for Canada’s Harbour Air. Many regions, from the Canadian bush to the African deltas, remain isolated by limited terrestrial networks. At the same time, parts of Africa and India could be simply connected with amphibious aircraft linking the myriad of bodies of water. In the Amazon, for example, populations rely on complex and time-consuming water delivery routes or visits by floatplane or helicopter for supplies, medical support, and other critical services. The logistics of providing avgas or jet fuel at these locations are challenging, while environmental sensitivities can mean the noise of a turboprop or helicopter operation is unwelcome. In a world with the PHA-ZE 100, these areas can be served by a quiet, electric amphibious aircraft with minimal environmental impact to create a whole new sustainable network of routes The airframe is expected to last up to 50 years with minor repairs, yet we know that the propulsion technology will continue to develop so while the initial range is just an hour we’re designing for the future. We have included a lavatory, we are adding in large windows, all the latest connectivity for our executive/VIP models so that when we can fly farther the aircraft is already designed to meet those needs. This will also support the growing and discerning experiential travellers seeking out experiences not to be found on google.

We have already confirmed our first Letter of Intent for ten aircraft from Gayo Aviation. The Dubai-based aviation charter business with decades of experience supporting the aviation needs of its global customers is planning to introduce the benefits of the airframe to the growing sector of elite travellers seeking alternative, premium travel experiences. The trend for the top end of the tourism community is towards sustainable, experiential travel, so Gayo Aviation has confirmed its interest as it seeks to be ahead of the curve and first in line to serve this evolving sector. The PHA-ZE 100 opens more opportunities to supply sustainable tourism options, and Gayo is committed to supporting this demand. We plan to make the most of its spacious cabin, with a lavatory already part of the configuration, to support new commuter routes in 19-seat format and enable corporate or VIP travel in ten-seat executive and six-seat VIP cabins to provide passengers with immersive journeys. Imagine the genuine possibility of comfortable, fast, on-demand city connections, VIP experiential sightseeing, or flying between island resorts in a quiet, spacious flying boat, responsibly and sensitively. In our Experiential format configuration we have designed a comfortable cabin that includes space for “toys”. As an unpressurized aircraft we can load up scuba tanks and fly to dive sites that are either inaccessible. By boats or would take many hours to reach. Imagine landing on the water, enjoying a potentially first ever dive site, then boarding the aircraft to return to a private resort, island or luxury accommodation, we are making door to door diving with no environmental impact a possibility. The cabin can also hold kayaks, paddle boards, or bicycles to enhance any remote adventure. We are also exploring other opportunities. The Indian government has designated more than thirty new air/water routes to serve its populace, but without operators, they are not being optimised so there is huge opportunity here. MEHAIR has spotted this and placed a firm order for 10 PHA-ZE 100 aircraft, with a further 40 options. The plan is to connect the disconnected and to maximise the aircraft’s multiple operating parameters for tourism services. We’re also receiving interest from areas that haven’t always been associated with aviation as part of the service offering. For example, as cruise liners are entering an era where they need to be carbon neutral, the opportunity to use zero-emission amphibious aircraft will add a new string to their bow. We also plan to create cargo and medevac options to maximize the potential of flying wherever there is water or land.





Can you just explain to us what is 4AIR’s vision for achieving Business Aviation sustainability? The key message we have been telling the business aviation community is this is going to be a journey! We don't have a perfect solution, or the one solution that will get us there. There will be difficulties, there will be problems and there will be some sustainability limitations with all the solutions we have today: with SAF, with offsets, with hydrogen, with electric…. etc. These limitations are not unique to our space, as other spaces, are facing also facing their own limitations. For instance, electric cars have their own issues in terms of where the power comes from, where you get the raw materials from, whether there is enough lithium to scale up production... etc. So, these are the kinds of problems, aviation will face as well. So, I think it's important to not get dismayed by thinking about these solutions not being perfect. So, the key message again is that we can't let perfection be the enemy, and sustainability for aviation will be a long-term journey! The solutions however will get better and more robust over time. So, to answer your question, I think, we will see SAF first because we are pretty much there, we are seeing more supply coming to the market and we need to be responsible in the SAF that we do use. Make sure it's certified, and make sure it comes from truly sustainable sources. There's so much demand so quickly that may cause potential issues in terms of where we're getting the SAF from. So, this is where we need to be very careful, but SAF will be definitively the biggest solution for business aviation through 2050. Hydrogen and electric will play a small portion by 2050, but I don't believe their contribution will be that large. And the main reason is that the aircraft we have flying today will still be flying in 2050. So, the solutions we have to achieve our 2050 goals have to address current aircraft. Now 2100, that's a different conversation! I think that we have opened up things, quite a bit more. And what I think you'll see over the next few years is a broadening of the discussion from carbon to include non-carbon as well. So again, aviation is unique because our non-carbon footprint is much larger than our carbon footprint. In most industries, that's not true, but because we're at higher altitudes and because we produce contrails, these have outsized impacts relative to ground-based emissions that are similar in terms of particles. And the big focus will be how we do if that warming impact is larger than our carbon piece, that's something we can't ignore. But it's also something we can address more easily. So, contrails are short-lived, they are a little bit difficult to quantify, but we fairly understand the weather model to predict where they are. Getting the data to predict that is the challenge. So, there are different models out there, and understanding which ones are the best and how we can validate these models and make sure we have robust predictions and methodologies in order to create some avoidance tactics will be important.

NOx emissions have been a very serious issue for commercial aviation, especially for areas surrounding major airports, in the 1990s engine manufacturers introduced a lot of combustor technologies to highly reduce NOx emissions. It's interesting to note that the impact of NOx at high altitudes is complex to predict because of conflicting effects. So, you have some interaction with the ozone layer and atmospheric methane. And it can be sometimes beneficial with a cooling effect or sometimes a global warming effect. So, we don’t understand well yet the total impact of NOx high altitude emissions. We are pretty sure it's warming, but there's some uncertainty about that as well. But we know that NOx is the big number three issue to address behind contrails and carbon emissions. These are the issues; the industry will be addressing in the next 10 years. SAF will be definitively a priority for achieving business aviation sustainability targets, but the big question is how much supply will be available for the industry’s growing demand, especially with commercial aviation also relying on SAF to achieve its own goals. I think there will be competition between business aviation and commercial aviation for supply. but I think a lot of commercial aviation committed demand is for years down the road. For now, very few airlines are using SAF. There are a lot of announcements and big commitments, but most of it is for future offtake and will only start in 2025. So, I believe the commercial aviation demand will only really ramp up if the production of SAF is highly increased in the coming years. So, I don't think, it's going to be like commercial aviation will take over all SAF supply and there will be none available for business aviation. We will still be able to get access to supply, and there is already a good availability of SAF fuel today. It's limited because it is still sensitive to production issues, for instance, today if a refinery goes down for maintenance, it’s quickly having a very big impact on supply because there are not that many. As we ramp up and as we expand these production facilities, we will see that these supply shortages will get much smoother to handle, but I believe we will always see enough SAF supply for business aviation. What we see today is also some competition with the mandates, and that's a bigger piece. For instance, with the EU refuel mandate, we are seeing some producers and some fuel suppliers holding the fuel to meet their own compliance requirements. And there will be still a few other issues like if you use the fuel for refueling, you probably can't sell that as a SAF thereafter. So, the issue I believe is that a lot of the fuel will end up meeting those blending mandates because this will stretch some of the supply in the early years. I think it is very important for Business aviation operators today, to show demand and long-term commitments to SAF, to get more fuel suppliers to invest and ramp up production.

But this will be still a relatively easy issue to address. So, Carbon will be through SAF and then the last non-carbon will be Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and that one will be the most difficult to address.


What kind of premium is SAF trading for?

and used as biomass.

SAF pricing today is highly dependent on geography and the incentives you have with it. So, within California, we see about a dollar, a dollar 75, over the cost of jet A fuel, that pricing went up recently, as competition for feedstock raised, and Jet A fuel got cheaper, so the difference in economics has driven the price apart a little bit. SAF is getting more expensive relative to it, but SAF pricing is still reasonable in California. Outside of California, you will see much more expensive SAF prices, mostly because you have to transport SAF outside of California and you start losing the LCFS credits that you have within California. The pricing in the UK is similar to what we see in California, but then the pricing in the rest of Europe gets more expensive as well. Prices are still very variable even for the same SAF, the same blending percentages, and the same producer, we see very different prices based on the geography and where you buy it. Are there any innovations in SAF production and feedstock sources? I like to think about SAF in versions. So right now, we're on version one. We're using primarily used cooking oil and animal fat waste. These are waste products that we are able to secure. In version two, we will be expanding these wastes more to biomass and waste biomass. So, things like agricultural waste, corn stalks after you harvest corn, and inedible portions of the corn or sugar that otherwise will just be burned in the field. Or when you commercially manage forests, there are scraps that are usually burned as well. These can be collected

These two sources, waste biomass, and agricultural wastes can fulfill most of the US’s USA’s fuel demand. The other benefit of these sources is that there are no current commercial alternatives. so, the price stability around them is going to be better than what we have for tallow and used cooking oil or animal fat waste today, and the availability of these new feedstocks is much broader than current sources. Version three for SAF will be when we will get access to municipal solid waste, municipal wet waste, and more advanced biomass-like energy crops. These are the ones where you can plant the crops on nonarable land or in between normal crop rotations, so you're not taking up lands that could be used for food production. The energy crops still oftentimes will get to carbon negativity because they are able to sequester carbon in the soil as they grow, and you end up harvesting more biomasses underneath the ground than what you harvest above the ground. So that will be another expansion of availability and actually making the fuel even more sustainable. And then you get to version four which is your power to liquids. These still have some more question marks around their efficiency. Today they take a lot of energy to produce that unit of fuel and can become quickly an energy-negative process. The amount of renewable energy you need is very high, so the price point is still very high. I believe with the current version and Version version two of SAF and maybe a little of Version version three, the industry will be able to meet its 2050 commitments.


With the increase in SAF production and growing sustainability initiatives, we may see a significant drop in fossil fuel pricing, which may induce a loss of pricing parity with SAF. Is that a concern in the industry? The price parity between fossil fuel and SAF is still technically achievable. However, I think SAF, especially with the new feedstocks, can get much cheaper and will become even more competitive with fossil-based jet fuel. But cost parity will be very difficult to maintain because as we transition the demand from fossil to SAF, there will be inherently a drop in the pricing of fossil crude oil, and it will be more and more difficult to achieve parity. But again, over the long term, there are certainly ways to achieve parity through government incentives. I think these incentives will also be key to helping the industry during the transition phase. Aviation is using fossil fuels mainly because of the efficiency and safety characteristics of jet fuels. Will it be just more efficient for the industry to offset its carbon emissions to less demanding carbon-emitting sources like ground transportation and continue using proven jet fuels? So, all the aircraft flying today have to be able to use Jet A. We don't really want to make a new standard for fuel called SAF, because we will need separate infrastructure, trucks, and even separate aircraft. So, we will always need SAF to be certified as Jet A really, the drop-in piece of SAF is actually the key element as it takes quite a long safety approval process to get a fuel certified for jet engine usage. Offsets are not the final solutions for business aviation, because, if we return back to that sustainability journey concept, I think they are an important tool to help us get there today. And they will be a key part of the solutions for years down the road as well, just because SAF isn’t a hundred percent better unless until we get to versions three or greater of SAF, and even then, we will still have residual emissions that we're not fully eliminating just through the use of SAF and we will need to find ways to address that. And that's likely going to be through offsets. So, I think what we will see is offsets evolving. Today most people have the vision of offsets just as planting trees or protecting a forest, but technologies are already much broader than that. We will continue to see the evolution of offsets to more robust and longer-term carbon sequestrations. Today, there are already a few mineralization projects, and ocean carbon projects that are looking to sequester carbon in rocks and minerals at the bottom of the ocean through different and various methods as these are longer-term storages of carbon. In the future, we will see more of that, like direct air capture, and obviously, these types of carbon offset technologies are a key part of the sustainability journey. These are obviously still more expensive than the cost of reducing carbon emissions through SAF, but I believe that offsets cost may evolve in the future especially if direct air capture becomes cheaper than SAF, but for now, it is still hard to get to the same cost-effectiveness that SAF can bring. So SAF and offsets will stay as a combination of a joint sustainability strategy.

4AIR target primarily the business aviation space and help operators build their sustainability programs. 4AIR is currently offering four levels of sustainability standards that we will set operators up to. First, we ask operators to tell us how much they fly, what they fly, and how sustainable they want to become, and then we take care of all the rest. The first level we offer is a 100% offset. The second level is 300% and includes non-carbon impact. Level three is around using SAF to achieve at least a 5% reduction, in operators’ base emissions and then offsetting the remainder. And then level four is around new technologies, helping drive, research around sustainability, and committing funds to university research projects by linking operators to the universities that are leading research around new propulsion, operational improvements, and things like that. 4AIR is helping operators with their voluntary reporting and also regulatory compliance, helping them build smart sustainability programs. But at the end of the day, we want to make sustainability a turnkey solution and make it even more accessible and really be the sustainability expert for business aviation operators. What are 4AIR typical business aviation customers? 4AIR works with every type of customer. Management companies will offer our programs to their managed aircraft customers, we have operators who will adopt the program for all their aircraft, we have charter brokers who offer our programs as an opt-in option on a per-trip basis, and we have individuals who own their own aircraft, who come to us and ask us to do a sustainability program for them. Corporations who own their own aircraft similarly will also need corporate reporting and need their aircraft to comply with their corporate ESG requirements. We also work with OEMs that want to offer our programs as a sales incentive or on their own demo fleets, we've been also helping FBOs to achieve carbon-neutral certification. So, we end up basically working with everybody across the industry. There are still big challenges today around SAF usage and Book & Claim documentation. How do you address that? When claiming SAF against a regulatory program like UK ETS or EU ETS where SAF can reduce compliance obligations, there is a need for certain documents, and getting these may be difficult, especially getting the correct version of this data may be sometimes challenging. 4AIR has been doing that physically for about two years, like manually collecting data, recording it, and then claiming it. 4AIR is now putting in place the technology to completely automate that. Our new platform will get the information directly from fuel suppliers and then automatically transfer that data into the operator's account. So, whether it was a physical uplift or book & claim, we're able to verify that there was a single claim to that fuel and that you have the right to claim it and have all the documents, and all the information you need to substantiate that claim.

What is 4AIR offering today to help operators?


Success Story

Elevating Private Aviation with Environmental Responsibility

In private aviation, comfort, high-quality service, and environmental responsibility often seem at odds; however, Volato embarked on a journey to redefine the industry not only through its innovative jet card and fractional programs but to establish new benchmarks in efficiency. Through its strategic partnership with 4AIR, Volato has delivered on its significant commitment to reduce its environmental impact environment. This is their success story.

The Challenge, Pair Private Aviation with Sustainability Volato was founded on a simple idea—to elevate the private aviation experience. However, the company recognized the growing concerns about the environmental impact of aviation, especially with climate change at the forefront of global discussions. They were faced with a unique challenge: how to provide unparalleled private jet services while also being conscious of its environmental impact and minimizing that impact where possible. The Solution: Collaborating for Change Enter 4AIR, a company that specializes in comprehensive and seamless sustainability programs that are easy to implement into any size of operations. Volato leverages 4AIR’s Carbon Neutral rating to provide its clients with the peace of mind of knowing that 100% of the CO2 emissions generated by their HondaJet fractional fleet are offset through real and verified offset programs.


The commitment unfolds on multiple fronts: Carbon Offset Programs: Volato works with 4AIR to calculate the carbon footprint across their fractional HondaJet fleet. To maximize integrity, Volato provides 4AIR the total gallons of fuel used each month –not simply the hours flown– and 4AIR calculates the offset required. For each flight, 100% of the CO2 emissions are offset. Offsets are generated through carbon credits from projects that reduce or avoid carbon emissions, such as reforestation projects and renewable energy initiatives. Each year, Volato receives a certificate for the amount of CO2 that was retired on their behalf. Fleet Makeup: Volato’s fleet consists of modern HondaJets. The HondaJet was chosen specifically, as it is the most fuel-efficient aircraft of its class. The HondaJet is optimized for four or fewer passenger missions flying up to two hours. Volato’s fleet of soonto-be-launched Gulfstream G280’s were also specifically chosen, as they offer exceptional performance and fuel efficiency.

The Results: A Win-Win Scenario The partnership between Volato and 4AIR has yielded exceptional outcomes: Environmental Impact: Since their partnership with 4AIR began in 2022, Volato has offset over 12,500 metric tons of CO2 through carbon credit projects. Some of those project examples include helping make the transition from fossil-based power generation to renewable sources and projects like the protection of over 8,600 acres of forest in Tennessee. This emphasizes Volato’s commitment to environmental stewardship and sets a high standard in the industry. Customer Loyalty: The sustainability initiatives resonate with Volato's clientele. Its fliers have the opportunity to cover the cost of the offset for their flight, and the uptake has been strong. Travelers who value private aviation experiences now have the added satisfaction of knowing their journeys are offset through real, verified, and audited carbon credits. A Brighter Future: With the help of 4AIR, Volato is pushing the boundaries and setting new benchmarks for sustainability in private aviation travel. Its success story is a testament to the transformative power of partnerships combining business growth with environmental impact considerations. Through the collaborative effort with 4Air, Volato is elevating the private aviation travel industry and contributing to a more sustainable and harmonious world for future generations.

4AIR offers free online sustainability calculators that allow for carbon footprint evaluation and SAF usage impact simulation, the website offers also a SAF locator tool showing airports and FBOs with physical SAF supply.




Sustainability as a mindset


For many, the sustainability conversation begins and ends with fuel and fuel alternatives. Sustainability is a mindset for F/LIST, a company characterized by a revolutionary spirit that has allowed it to blaze new trails and create ingenious products for aircraft cabins. It is ingrained from product conception to product delivery. Since its inception some seventy years ago, F/LIST craftspeople have optimized natural materials to achieve each product's maximum form and function. The Austriaheadquartered business worked sustainably long before sustainability became a familiar and necessary part of aviation parlance. F/LIST recognized the significance of strategically implementing a holistic, sustainable approach to meet a lower carbon future early. An in-house sustainability team ensures all processes, products and methods are viewed through a sustainability lens. As business aviation continues to adhere to its commitment to reduce carbon emissions, F/LIST is devising products and concepts to support this critical industry focus. To do this, F/LIST is thinking differently, as is typical of this forward-leaning business. It is harnessing a potent mix of innovation, imaginative thinking, and technological understanding in response to the call from an industry seeking to reduce its carbon impact. This commitment has spawned the creation of a singular industry tactic, the result of the F/LIST future lab, and known as F/LAB. Epitomizing the company’s future vision, the F/LAB draws on decades of proficiency, tradition, and innovation at the highest level to fuse craftsmanship and technology to evolve outstanding materials and sustainable processes. Lateral thinking, combined with individual commitment and expertise, forms the foundations of the research and

development team that always looks to the future. The mission is to deliver inspirational, imaginative ideas to customers that underpin a redefined concept of the cabin interior, which incorporates sustainable materials and environmentally friendly options as the norm. Launched during the pandemic, the cross-department incubator is home to a multi-disciplinary team that disrupts the status quo and challenges conventional thoughts about using space in a cabin. “We are committed to rethinking and transforming spatial dimensions in the cabin. Weight is always an issue, so if we could evolve multi-functional furniture while retaining a business aviation aesthetic, we’d be enhancing the passenger experience while reducing fuel burn,” explains Melanie Prince, head of innovation. The F/LAB team began a rigorous and iterative process, where failure was accepted as part of the development mechanism to modify existing spatial usage and create space where it didn’t exist. “We began to think about how we could defy physics by creating concepts that morphed according to the required function. This informed the creative process, as we used alternative thinking to make the seemingly impossible a reality,” explains Prince. It was the genesis of the F/LIST Shapeshifter concept. The prototype from the team centres around a credenza, which is at once a storage unit with wooden doors that curve around the frame to avoid taking up cabin space. With the touch of an app one end of the credenza rises to create a workspace. “It has to be seen to be believed,” states Prince, talking about its seemingly magical properties.


Achieving the F/LAB goals required developing intricate, miniature electronic components and evolving a portfolio of new materials with the necessary properties to turn vision into reality. The result is a magnificent portfolio of elegant, durable, and completely customizable biobased materials. Each of the F/LAB Aenigma, Linfinium and Whisper Leather products are durable, elegant, customizable and achieve the quality expected by aircraft owners and operators. The materials integrate plant fibres instead of synthetic fibres and incorporate high-end remnants from exclusive sectors. Mother-of-pearl from a clothes designer, marble dust by-product from F/LIST’s facility, and precious-metal fragments all feature. The results are solid yet light pieces that form cabin frameworks and enable the F/LIST Shapeshifter ideas.

Materials, weight, and aircraft component design are individually essential elements, and aggregating them into one offering allows OEMs and designers to minimize the environmental footprint of cabin interiors. F/LIST is leading the way by generating products that add real advantages by enabling inspirational, elegant cabins that are also sustainable. “Passengers spend inordinate amounts of time in business cabins; it is an opportunity to influence how they think about what surrounds them, and we want to be ambassadors for the environment. We believe F/LIST’s sustainable strategy will inspire end users to think broadly about wider concepts of sustainability,” says Prince.

“ Our strategy is to encourage designers

“Our experts in the F/LAB have pushed the boundaries of technology while adhering to our heritage of working with natural products to create a portfolio of environmentally friendly materials that can be recycled at the end of life,” explains Prince. “The team uses a forward-thinking design approach to transform the form and function of exclusive materials to defy physics by making wood bend, metal fold and stone curve. Our goal is to surprise and delight our customers with environmentally friendly concepts that will add inherent value to the customer experience and the asset itself,” says Prince. F/LAB is also a think tank for sustainability, exploring eco-friendly alternatives and strategies that will protect the planet's longevity through intelligent application of nature. The F/LAB implements energy-efficient systems and eco-conscious manufacturing processes.


to optimize our materials and technology to create interiors that stimulate dialogue about materials, space, form, and function so that seeking sustainable options becomes the norm.


F/LIST’s mission is to manufacture tangible and pragmatic innovations that support the sustainability narrative.

“We know that the longevity of our markets, offerings, and industry will only be sustainable if the company strategy contributes to improving the environment instead of burdening it,” concludes Prince. As an international business, F/LIST is describing, shaping, and forming an environmentally friendly future cabin and is acting as a guidepost for decisionmaking to drive industry values and ethics for a lower carbon future.

Melanie Prince Head of innovation F/LIST


The BUSINESS of making

Aviation Sustainable By Puja Mahajan and Sebastien Lacube,


The aviation industry, a critical enabler of global connectivity and trade, is currently undergoing a significant shift toward sustainability. It is perhaps the greatest technical and financial challenge aviation has ever faced. The urgency to reduce carbon emissions and minimize the environmental footprint of air travel has propelled a commitment to net-zero emissions by 2050. Indeed, airlines and aircraft manufacturers are investing substantially in initiatives aimed at making aviation more environmentally friendly while ensuring profitability. And while the decarbonization strategies for OEMs and large commercial airlines are well documented, the path forward for smaller players in the business aviation ecosystem can seem daunting and overwhelming. This article delves into key sustainability measures in business aviation, focusing on specific actions Aircraft Operators, Fixed-Base Operators (FBOs), and Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MROs) can take to make their operations more climate-friendly.

For Business Aviation players, introducing sustainability today is often perceived as an unwelcome undertaking. Business owners and leaders often equate sustainable actions with burdensome costs and heightened complexities. Despite these perceptions, the mounting pressure to adopt sustainable practices cannot be overlooked. Europe, for instance, is witnessing rising concerns over climate-motivated disturbances and unrest that are intended to highlight the urgency of sustainable measures. Furthermore, governments and regulators world-wide are introducing taxation and compliance schemes aimed specifically at accelerating aviation sector decarbonization. At the same time, consumers, investors, and financing institutions are increasingly favoring businesses demonstrating robust ecoconscious principles. In this evolving landscape, the aviation sector finds itself not isolated but propelled into the spotlight as a crucial player in the broader battle against climate change. Thus, sustainability is no longer merely commendable—it has transitioned into an imperative for the aviation industry. Not unsurprisingly, the business aviation sector has taken a leadership role in defining a path towards sustainable aviation. As early as 2009, industry organizations such as the

Puja Mahajan CEO Azzera

Sebastien Lacube Chief Science Officer, Azzera

International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) and the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) established a comprehensive roadmap known as the “Business Aviation Commitment against Climate Change”, which was renewed and revised in May of 2023. This strategic framework offers a structured approach for businesses in the sector to effectively mitigate their environmental impact and work towards achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. The roadmap encompasses a range of initiatives, including technological advancements, operational enhancements, and policy advocacy. Certainly, as an industry, progress has been realized. For example, the initial target for carbon neutral growth from 2010 to 2020 has been achieved and is now renewed for 2020 through 2030. Much of the roadmap addresses effective action for OEMs to undertake to drive the industry forward sustainably. Practically speaking, it is Aircraft Operators, Fixed-Base Operators (FBOs), and Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) facilities that are facing the daily onslaught of public, shareholder, and market pressure. Adding upcoming regulatory compliance concerns, it becomes a complex problem to unravel and determine a clear path forward.


How do businesses in the aviation ecosystem initiate an effective and low-cost sustainability strategy? It starts with Emissions Measurements The entire aviation ecosystem contributes to the industry's overall emissions. Operators, FBO and MRO facilities, and even charter sales companies can easily initiate sustainable actions into their operations by understanding and quantifying the emissions produced by their business. This first step is often referred to as the business greenhouse (GHG) gas footprint or GHG accounting. Measuring emissions is a key exercise that allows businesses to clearly identify opportunities for emissions reduction.

Figure 1: Breakdown of an international FBO GHG footprint | FLIGHT MOVEMENTS ARE EXCLUDED

It is clear, studying both typical breakdowns of a midsized operator and international FBO (Figure 1 & 2), that in-flight fuel-based emissions are the primary driver of greenhouse gas emissions in aviation. When applying the standards of accounting frameworks, those flight emissions are accounted for in the direct emissions of operators (scope 1, in the mobile combustion category) but in the indirect emissions (scope 3) of FBOs. This is specifically important as the reporting responsibility goes to scope 1 emitter, in that case the operator. Figures 1 and 2 present a general breakdown of GHG emissions for those two case studies. From the operator’s point of view, flight related emissions account for 69% of total emissions while they account for close to 99% for an FBO (therefore removed for visibility) – the size of the company being the largest factor here. Thus, reducing flight emissions is the first item to tackle. Business owners looking to introduce achievable short-term reduction targets should consider other contributing factors beyond fuel. For instance, ground operations and


Ideally, a company will measure emissions from all three areas of their carbon footprint; Scope 1 (direct), Scope 2 (indirect from purchased electricity) and Scope 3 (indirect, supply chain). Companies can seek guidance from extensively used and internationally recognized frameworks such as the GHG Protocol and ISO 14065.3 Canadian and Swiss-based company, Azzera, has produced custom frameworks designed specifically to help business aviation companies get started with this process, which can typically take between 8-12 weeks, depending on the volume of data to gather and analyze.

Figure 2: Breakdown of a midsize operator’s GHG footprint, including flight emissions

maintenance activities, in addition to the production and transportation of aviation fuels also contribute to the industry’s overall emissions. For FBOs, Ground Support Equipment, de-icing services and maintenance activities are the second largest emitters. On the other hand, this place is fulfilled by maintenance, and fuel-related activities for operators and MROs. In both our case studies, it is clear that businesses can quickly identify reduction opportunities upon the remaining non-flight related emissions; examples include incentivizing sustainable alternatives for employee commuting, promoting online meetings when business travel is not necessary, or setting up a sustainable procurement policy within the company. While reducing the number of flights is an obvious answer, it is not a business solution and neither is fueling entirely with sustainable aviation fuel, which is cost prohibitive in all cases, even for business jet owners. Before mitigation, however, operators have a more pressing concern, emissions compliance.

Emissions Compliance: a necessary burden. Operators today are subject to compliance requirements from European Emissions Trading Schemes (EU-ETS, UK-ETS, Swiss-ETS) and now international regulation from IATA’s Carbon Offsetting and Reporting Scheme for International Operators (CORSIA). Such operating regulations drive the need to establish new internal processes to measure flight emissions or risk facing financial penalties. Furthermore, operators must file audited reports to regulating bodies for

each respective compliance scheme, and eventually access carbon markets to secure necessary carbon allowances (example EUAs) or carbon credits. Certainly, for aircraft operators, even single aircraft operations, emissions compliance requires additional time and resources, and is essential to ensure operational continuity and avoid penalties.

CELESTE is a pioneering instrument introduced by Azzera for all aircraft operators to act against climate change. It addresses all challenges of emission compliance in a single platform removing the burden of reporting through automated calculations, providing trustworthy access to sustainable aviation fuel and derisking carbon credit investments. Users can directly access Sustainable Aviation Fuel credits, compliance allowances, or credits and voluntary carbon credits. It saves hundreds of hours of time in compliance reporting and allows operators to be in full control of their sustainable actions. Whether automated or manual, once flight emissions have been calculated and identified, operators and owners of aircraft can easily begin to mitigate their emissions depending on objectives.




The cost of Net Zero Flight Once a business GHG footprint has been established, short term actions to reduce emissions identified and emissions compliance addressed, Operators, MROs and FBOs are often faced with the immediate dilemma of addressing flight emissions without reducing the number of flights. While the industry is paving a way to reduce flight-related emissions through new aircraft technologies such as electric batteries, liquid-hydrogen, methane or ammonia, most studies conclude that these technologies will not be mature enough until after 2040 for long-haul flights.4 Still, certain actions can be taken today with minimum investment such as driving demand to scale sustainable aviation fuels and compensating emissions by contributing to mitigating global emissions (offsetting). The first and most powerful approach is to reduce flight emissions by directly fueling the aircraft with a blend of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) and conventional fuel. The maximum reduction potential compared to conventional fuel is around 85%. It should also be noted that using Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) contributes to compliance with various emission reduction schemes like CORSIA, allowing airlines to effectively meet their emissions reduction targets. Using SAFs that contributes to compliance can in turn help operators fall under the threshold for having to buy approvals or carbon credits. As interesting as this sounds, it poses two problems: cost and availability. SAF is currently sold at a price two to five times higher than conventional JetA today5 making it cost prohibitive to fully fuel all flights with SAF. This cost concern is amplified as readily available SAF is not easy to find. Building production infrastructures will require time and investment, and transporting low-carbon fuel on trucks or ships long distances goes against the initial emission reduction logic. Adding to the limitations due to cost and availability, commercial aviation has the financial power and volume demands to secure off-take agreements for several years into the future. This leaves low-volume business aviation needs without available resources for physical SAF. An alternative has risen in recent years through the Book and Claim ledger model, which allows the decoupling of the physical use of fuel from its environmental attributes. The Book and Claim system allows one aircraft to use SAF where locally accessible, paying for conventional fuel without claiming any reduction, while another company uses conventional fuel, paying for SAF and claiming its environmental benefit for their scope 1 or 3 emissions – depending on their usage. When correctly implemented, secured and audited, Book and Claim ledgers are the best alternative today to help scale production. After procuring SAF or SAF certificates via a book and claim system, the next step is compensation of unavoidable flight emissions, or out of sector market-based measures. Compensating emissions is an accessible and legitimate


sustainable action when done with proper due diligence and understanding. In order to compensate their calculated flight emissions, companies can procure audited and verified carbon credits issued by independent third parties and linked to emission reductions– or GHG removal – activities outside of the aviation industry. Examples of these out of sector activities include installing renewable energy in coal-dominated countries, capturing landfill methane gas to produce heat and electricity, participating in reforestation projects, or protecting threatened ecosystems and much more. There is no doubt that compensation is more impactful than business as usual, but companies willing to participate should perform enough due diligence to reduce their own emissions before any purchase. It is strongly advised to procure carbon credits from internationally recognized standards such as the Gold Standard and seek additional co-benefits and certifications linked to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Several companies provide rating systems that allow for transparent reporting of a project’s current and future achievements, such as the Azzera Impact Score, ensuring peace-of-mind that the monetary investment is really making a difference. Today, the best approach to mitigate flight emissions would be to combine both a SAF and compensation solution. Looking at typical and modern day short, medium, and longhaul flights shows that the cost of a 2% reduction via SAF book and claim and the full compensation of the remaining emissions through high-quality nature-based6 carbon credits ($20 per Tonne) would only add a 2% premium to the total flight costs. This premium is notably marginal compared to the associated benefits. This is in line with a recent 2023 study from McKinsey that demonstrates that cargo, corporate and leisure customers have signaled a growing propensity to pay for decarbonization measures. According to the study, 85 percent of travelers globally said they were willing to pay 2 percent or more for carbon-neutral flight tickets. This is a significant increase compared to previous years where in 2019 and 2021, a survey showed consumers’ willingness to pay more for carbon-neutral flight tickets was 46 and 39 percent, respectively.7




CONCLUSION Aircraft operators, FBOs and MROs in business aviation face growing concerns about climate change, coupled with regulatory pressures and the preferences of consumers, investors, and financial institutions, emphasizing the need for sustainable practices. Sustainability initiatives are no longer a choice for aviation companies; they are a necessity for both survival and growth. The path to a greener aviation industry is

challenging, but not inconceivable. Business aviation players can easily begin by understanding business GHG footprint as a baseline and taking progressive subsequent action. By focusing on sustainability initiatives in the short, mid, and long term, aviation companies can meet regulatory compliance, exceed stakeholder expectations, achieve operational efficiency, and secure their place in a sustainable future. Indeed, the benefits of participating in the business aviation commitment to net-zero far outweigh the costs, paving the way for a resilient and environmentally responsible sector.


BUSINESS AVIATION SUSTAINABILITY TOOLBOX Introducing Satcom Direct carbon module


The business aviation sector has sought solutions to reduce carbon emissions for over a decade. Ambitious carbon neutrality goals, increased awareness of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) benefits, optimized technology to reduce fuel burn and more efficient aircraft engines all play a valuable part. A plethora of programs for new classes of airframes to be powered by electricity and hydrogen are also in the offing, but not yet here. The fact is that today’s options for a carbon-neutral flight are limited. Switching to SAF is a good choice, but it is only available at a limited number of airports. Where it is, commercial airlines uplift the majority of the capacity, leaving scarce drops for business aviation. Foodstocks for SAF also remain lean, which suggests that an industry powered by SAF is still decades away. Additionally, SAF still emits greenhouse gases when burned. The most immediate, practical solution is purchasing carbon credit offsets, which when purchased from valid schemes, support programs that either reduce CO2 emissions or extract and store the CO2. Recently, revelations of invalid programs have compromised trust in these schemes. The importance of buying from certified schemes has garnered attention. CORSIA – the carbon offsetting and reduction scheme for international aviation - mandates that aviation can only buy from programs launched after 2016 to mitigate the risk of acquiring ineffective offsets. The imperative of environmental responsibility is increasing pressure on flight departments to spend time calculating emissions and subsequently seeking authentic carbon offset programmes. It is time-consuming and distracts from the core focus of managing a busy department, crew and scheduling and planning flights. It is, however, an essential component of the future of aviation, which is why Satcom

Direct has applied its technological know-how, aviation expertise, and commitment to raising industry standards to develop an emission reporting tool that dovetails with flight operations. The SD carbon module is integrated with the SD Pro® operating system and automatically generates carbon emission reports for subscribing operators and owners. The new tool has been driven by necessity as an increasing number of SD customers seek a reliable system that efficiently complies with the requirements of diverse international mandates. “Our customers were telling us they needed a tool that would simplify the calculation process, so we responded by developing a module that efficiently supports operators navigating the carbon reduction path,” says Chris Moore, president SD. The program leverages real-time data generated by SD’s FlightDeck Freedom® datalink service to capture fuel burn accurately; the system calculates each flight’s carbon emissions and presents operators with authenticated emissions data based on the amount of fuel burned, fuel type and blend. The new module streamlines the computations relating to mandatory and voluntary emission reporting and offsetting, and the automation makes it easier for operators to create precise reports.

“We have produced a system that delivers emissions data for an individual aircraft, an entire fleet over a specified period, or for a selected flight. The automation saves time and ensures that all of an operator’s flight departments, no matter where they are, use the same standard to ensure consistent calculations,”


The emissions data is run through a refined calculation developed to comply with all regulatory standards to determine the amount of carbon emitted. The reports display a variety of metrics, including how much CO2 has been generated, in which airspace it was produced, and how this compares to previous or other similar trips. Information is presented graphically and can be used to generate carbon certificates, transactional records for purchased credits, and authenticated tracking information. Once the reports have been generated, flight departments have seamless access to qualified carbon credits via approved registries, and can be transacted via the carbon offsetting platform Patch, which is integrated with SD Pro. For a diverse carbon removal portfolio, Patch has collated a network of 160 projects spanning six continents, including nature-based and human-engineered solutions. All projects are vetted and augmented with third-party analysis, and with transparent pricing, customers are never exposed to hidden credit costs. “Our commitment is always to enhance and simplify operations; we know our customers will welcome the simplicity and convenience.” The carbon reporting tool especially benefits those managing ESG initiatives and ensuring compliance with ever-evolving standards as different regions issue different mandates. “With the SD carbon module, users can depend on the system to generate reliable reporting while they focus on operating flights. Carbon reduction is a complex landscape, and we’re pleased to be able to support our customers in achieving industry goals,” states Moore. SD runs an active flight department and continues evolving its sustainability strategy. In January 2023, a new 65,000 sq ft solar power farm began generating enough energy to power the daily needs of its corporate headquarters in Melbourne, Florida. “We create products that help our clients to work smarter, and we apply the same philosophy to our operations,” explains Moore about the rationale for the installation. “Renewable energy benefits everyone, and the solar farm will play a significant part


in powering our business more efficiently. The solar farm is just one of several initiatives we are implementing as we work towards carbon neutrality for ourselves and the industry.” And in a nod to the importance of a cleaner environment, SD has signed up as a partner with Oceanbottle.co, a charity focused on preventing plastic from entering the planet's oceans by preventing bottles entering the rivers and waterways that lead to the oceans and seas. For each reusable water bottle SD acquires, Ocean Bottle’s collectors retrieve 11.4kg of plastic, the equivalent of 1000 water bottles, from riversides, creeks, estuaries and more. The collectors are active worldwide, retrieving plastic from Haiti's shores to the Philippines' streams. In exchange for plastic, the workers are given cash and access to social resources, including healthcare, education, financial security and mental wellbeing support. “We reviewed many programs and selected One Bottle for its holistic approach to supporting the planet and its people. We all must commit to preserving the planet for future generations, and projects like One Bottle have a high impact at many levels. We’re proud to be working with them,” concludes Moore.

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ELITE WINGS The Information you need….When you need it! The Trusted Source for Timely and Structured Business Aviation Intelligence 41 | ELITE WINGS MAGAZINE


Issue 03 | 2023





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