Page 1

The Inclusive Pattern Tracing the city fabric of Addis Ababa

Pietro Degli Esposti Research and Design Book Global Housing Graduation Studio 2015/2016 TU Delft, The Netherlands


Prologue

Problem statement

4

The Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa is nowadays one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Despite its economical growth, the city faces an enormous challenge to deliver accommodation to the urban poor. Currently, 80% of housing in Addis Ababa is considered informal, this means that the greatest part of the population lives in inadequate houses with several problems such as bad hygienic conditions, overcrowded spaces and lack of the basic amenities. In order to address the problems of overcrowding and housing shortage, new social housing projects have been built by the government during the last years. These new developments are middle and high rise condominiums able to accommodate a greater number of people and different typologies of bigger and smaller apartments. Despite that, these social housing slabs are revealing not to be a successful strategy because of numerous factors. First of all, these developments are being built mainly at the outskirt of the city, this leads to a tear of social bonds that is negatively influencing the social cohesion and integration of the different communities and social groups. Furthermore, the long distance between the condominium developments and the hearth of the city makes it more complicated and expensive for the citizens to reach their workplaces, which are mainly found in the metropolitan area of Addis Ababa. On top of that, the new condominium apartments are


currently assigned with a lottery system that is privileging people with a basic income and consequently excluding the lowest social groups. On the whole, it is evident that improving the living conditions in the slum areas has to be prioritized. However, it is important to mention that unlike other developing cities around the world, in Addis Ababa the informal settlements are spread throughout the whole city. In this context different social groups live side by side without the systematic creation of urban ghettos as is visible in many other big cities of developing countries. The coexistence of different social groups and type of buildings make Addis Ababa an incredible heterogeneous city where the urban mixity becomes a key factor of inclusiveness. In these terms it is possible to conclude that the city of Addis Ababa has the unique opportunity to become a successful example of an African metropolis. However, in order to be able to face and accommodate its future developments, the city needs to improve the quality of life of its citizens and recognize the value of preserving its urban mixity. Since these two elements form core and strength of the city, a fundamental step forward for the renewal and progress of the city must be an urban redevelopment able to improve first of all the living conditions of the people by providing them with adequate affordable housing combined with restored and new public spaces and facilities. In do-

ing so, it will be crucial to renew the urban environment without relocating its current inhabitants in order to maintain the existing social bonds of the different communities. Such intervention, based on the current urban conformation and respect for the local way of living, would benefit both the city and its inhabitants simultaneously. Without an inclusive urban and architectural strategy, able to deal and adapt according to the existing situation of the city and able to respond to the needs of the rapidly growing population, any programme to improve the urban environment of the city and provide better living conditions to the people will continue to fail. Addis Ababa is calling for new strategies in order to densify the urban fabric and improve the living condition of its inhabitants. At this point, considering the current context of the city, the research question reflects upon how to develop an architectural strategy that corresponds to and improves the current urban and social scenario of the city. At the same time, in order to develop the process it is important to define which guidelines and factors have to be considered in order to guarantee a sustainable and inclusive growth of the city.

5


Project’s Brief

6

In order to plan a strategy which could work for the improvement of both the city environment and of the quality of life of the people, it is necessary to begin from a urban redevelopment which uses cross-cultural and societal inclusive approaches able to address the different layers and actors of the city. With the primary goal of providing adequate housing at a minimal cost to its citizens, Addis Ababa needs to renew the urban tissue of the city starting from its very central areas in order to enhance the existing special and spatial conformations such as the existing local identities and all the different places enriched with social and/or historical values. These places have the important role of qualifying and defining the hierarchies and characters which compose the identity(ies) and the collective memory of the city. In this way the strategy would have the quality of setting the basis for a sustainable growth of the city in synergy with its inhabitants and respectful of the local physical and societal characteristics of the place. In order to be able to test and prove the value of my strategy, I chose a specific part of the city situated in a central area in the north of Addis Ababa as the base for my analysis and design proposal. Choosing a determinate neighborhood of Addis allowed me to shape my design strategy and to adapt it according to the existing dynamics and specific societal, historical, economical and spatial qualities of the area. The chosen area is called “Dejach


Wube” Sefer, a historical neighborhood located in one of the earliest and most central areas of the city. Built on an indigenous settlement structure, the area is characterized by three main building categories: ‘Street-liners’, ‘In-fills’ and historical or/and socially valuable buildings which compose the ‘Local identities ’ of the area. The first ones are linear development of mid-rise, mainly commercial buildings which have the function to relate with the main road system and to accommodate commercial public and private functions. These buildings are placed along and facing the ever-expanding main roads network. The second category are the ‘In-fills’ which are low-rise, mainly residential buildings that compose the inner tissue of the part of the city bordered by the main road system. Nowadays the largest part of the in-fills is composed by informal settlements which, following the organic development of the road networks, are grouped in small compounds. These compounds are visibly shaped according to the traditional Ethiopian way of living which comes from the first indigenous settlements of the city. In this way the houses are grouped around a communal courtyard where all the daily activities are developed. The local identities , third and last category, are strongly embedded with historical or/and social values and represent and preserve the collective identity of a place and the one of its inhabitants; they are

‘places of memory and identity’. My design approach is a reinterpretation of the urban space based on the existing dynamics of the area which are particularly represented by the harmonious coexistence of different social and urban actors such as heterogeneous social groups, Street-liners, In-fills and Local identities . Aiming for a densification of the city fabric and a more clear definition of the urban borders, it has been developed a new basic system able to combine the Street-liner with the In-fill urban figures. This new basic figure, inherited with the qualities of both, will perform as a new inclusive pattern for the city enabling the coexistence and synergy of different architecture typologies and social groups. This new type, beside considerably densifying the area, will introduce new qualities and functions such as generous communal outdoor spaces, amenities, commercial spaces and workshops. Aiming for a sustainable and affordable project, the design will be mainly realized taking advantage of sustainable and local available resources such as earth and bamboo. On top of that, the new ‘hybrid compound type’, will have a system to collect, filter and reuse the rainwater. In this way the project will perform as an efficient and environmentally sustainable system for both its inhabitants and the entire city.

7


Methods & Analysis

8

The Global Housing Studio offers the opportunity to explore and deal with global issues which are becoming day by day more important due to the emerging problems of world population growth and the uncontrolled expansion of cities and urban areas. I consider my proposal as the result of an intriguing learning and experimenting process developed during my participation to the Global Housing Studio. Personally, I am convinced that my strategy proves how, the awareness and respect of the existing conditions and complexities of a city, allow the definition of valuable strategies to improve the urban and social scenario of our built environments. In these terms, it is possible to affirm that the design approach adopted for this project, can also be seen as a model of reference for other similar contexts in different parts of the world.


9


Contents

Intro: -Global awareness -Why Africa? -Why Ethiopia?

Part 1: Research -Addis Ababa: historical background -Addis Ababa: one city, numerous challenges, numerous opportunities. Current situation -Case study: Dom HÊlder Câmara, Usina, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Part 2: Project -Reflections towards the project -Site survey : Dejach Wube Sefer -Statement -The inclusive pattern, tracing the city fabric of Addis Ababa, design strategy


12


13


Intro


Global awareness

16

Our world is rapidly changing. Even if this (as natural course of evolution) is a circumstance which keeps on happening century after century, generation after generation, I am personally convinced that we arrived to an important turning point of our history. It is my aim to underline the fact that we arrived to a stage in which our way of living (meaning the human impact on the environment) is not sustainable anymore and furthermore it is revealing to be counterproductive and dangerous for our future. Thanks to the numerous progresses in all the different fields of science and technology, we obtained the possibility to have a better and global overview of the problems, limits and possibilities of our environment. After centuries invested on constantly trying to surmount our limits we arrived to a critical point in which our environment (and human natural rhythm) can not bear this incessant run. This theory is demonstrated by numerous data, which can be very helpful to draw a profile of the current situation of our world and specifically of our urban environment. This analysis would aim to a more clear definition of the priorities that architects and urban planners together with the political and social institutions should follow in order


to draw new solutions able to guarantee a sustainable and inclusive evolution of our cities. As starting point for this analysis I would like to look at the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the General Assembly of United Nations on 25 September 2015. These goals, also referred to as the ‘Global Goals’ , drawn by United Nation as representative of many and many countries and organizations, can be seen as a global strategy in order to improve the living conditions of all the people and to save indeed our planet from its rapid destruction caused by the uncontrolled and intensive exploitation of natural resources by man. More precisely, these goals represents “ a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. “ (United Nations General Assembly act, (A/70/L.1)] )

17


18


The 17 Sustainable Development Goals are respectively: Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts Goal 14. Conserve and sustainable use the

oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainable manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development The Global Goals can only be achieved if people and organizations from all sectors are taking action.

For the sake of my research, it is particularly relevant to focus on the goal number 11.

19


Goal 11. ‘Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’

20

United Nation goal n. 11, is particularly focused on cities, human settlements and the improvement of these in a sustainable and inclusive way. These concepts are very important for both my research and my design proposal, for this reason I will use this n. 11 United Nation goal as starting point of my research and as confirmation of the global relevance of my project.


11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums 11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons 11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries 11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations 11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita

environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management 11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities 11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning 11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels 11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials.

21


Population growth and concentration in cities

22

Talking about cities and human settlement we should start analyzing the world population addressing in particular the pressing issues of global population growth and concentration of population in urban settlements. According to the results of the 2015 Revision of the World Population Prospects published by United Nations, in 2015 the world's population reached 7.3 billion, implying that the world has added approximately one billion people in the span of the last twelve years. By 2030, it is predicted that the world population will reach around 8.5 billion people, and around 9.7 billion by 2050. (World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, United Nations) The world’s population is increasingly concentrated in urban settlements, presenting both opportunities for and challenges to sustainable development. Nowadays, more than one half of the world population lives in urban areas, furthermore, all countries of the world are becoming increasingly urbanized. Worldwide, cities are attracting more and more people, especially from the rural areas, this is because these big urban agglomerations drive economic and social development as they work as economical, social and political centers. So people are continuously migrating from the rural areas to cities searching for better life conditions.


This is a global phenomenon whose trends are changing the landscape of human settlement, and the way people are densifying, perceiving and changing the environment with significant implications for living conditions, in different parts of the world.

23


24


Why Africa?

Africa continues to experience very high rates of population growth. In fact, between 2015 and 2050, more than half of global population growth is expected to occur in Africa where, during this time span, the populations of 28 African countries are projected to increase more than double. This makes Africa the fastest-growing area of the world regarding population growth with an increase of 2.55 per cent annually (calculated between 2010 and 2015 by United Nations). Consequently, of the additional 2.4 billion people projected to be added to the global population between 2015 and 2050, 1.3 billion will be added in Africa. In addition to that, Africa faces tremendous problems regarding the state of the built environments in particular talking about housing. The housing conditions are quite bad,effectively, in Africa, 61.7 percent of the urban population lives in slums. Analyzing these data it is surely clear the fact that Africa is being protagonist of an uncontrolled development and growth which could cause disastrous consequences both for the African and the world population itself. Being aware of this it is a global responsibility to contrib-

ute to find new sustainable solutions in order to preserve a better future for everyone. Furthermore, despite all the negatives aspect linked to this unstable situation, it is possible to consider it as an extremely interesting opportunity in order to study and improve our built environment. At the same time it is important to acknowledge that the African built environment and traditions are extremely rich thanks to their social and historical values. I am strongly convinced that while dealing with themes like the relationship between private, semi-private and public spaces, individuality versus collectivism, or even formal versus informal spaces, it is possible to learn a lot from the African experience.

25


26


Why Ethiopia?

Taking into account the global population growth, it is extraordinary to underline the fact that statistics indicate that nine countries are expected to account for more than half of the world’s projected population increase over the period 2015-2050. This countries are respectively: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, the United Republic of Tanzania, the United States of America, Indonesia, and Uganda, listed according to the size of their contribution to global population growth. From this data it is immediate to understand the role of Ethiopia in the world population growth, furthermore, if we decide to focus on the African Continent, it is visible that Ethiopia, together with the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria, is responsible for a large part of the population growth in Africa. In addition, it is important to mention that Ethiopia has never experienced urbanism in this scale and in this complexity; during the last two decades of rapid growth, its housing shortage increased dramatically. Despite that, Ethiopia has one of the lowest proportions of citizens living in urban areas: only 16.7

percent. However, things are changing and the country is now urbanizing at an annual growth rate of 3.49 percent. The combination of high population and urban growth rates, coupled with a high prevalence of urban poverty, has placed enormous strain on Ethiopian cities, especially when it comes to affordable housing. Because of these, it is possible to say that nowadays Ethiopia faces an enormous challenge to deliver accommodation for the urban poor. I am strongly convinced that studying the Ethiopian case can enable infinite opportunities to create innovative architecture able to change positively the way developing countries are participating in transforming our built environment. Ethiopia can become indeed an incredible model and lesson of positive urban and social change for the African continent and the entire World.

27


Part 1: Research


Addis Ababa, historical background

31


“The new flower”

32

Addis Ababa, or “New Flower” in Amharic, is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It was founded in 1886 by the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II (King of Shoa, 1866– 1889; Emperor of Ethiopia, 1889–1913) and his wife Empress Taytu Betul. After residing in a series of semi-permanent capitals, Menelik II in 1881 moved his residence to the foothills of the Entoto mountains located in the central part of the country and north of the current location of Addis Ababa. Thanks to the strategic position of the Entoto mountains, situated in the hearth of the country on an higher level (up to 3200 meters above the sea level), Menelik II managed to unite and have a better control of the southern and northern parts of its empire. The first settlement in the Entoto hills was little more than a temporary military encampment, in november 1886, while the Emperor was off in a distant corner of the Empire, his wife Taitu Bitul moved the encampment from the hills down to the current site of Addis Ababa. She reportedly left the Entoto mountain camp because of the unpleasantly cool temperatures at that high elevation and was drawn to the new site by the Fel Weha hot springs in the Finfinne region. More important than the comforts of the Addis Ababa site was its potential for expansion. The name of the capital was Empress Taytu’s choice: she had been stunned by a beautiful flower she had never seen before, hence she named the


city Addis Ababa, or “New Flower” in Amharic. Upon his return, Menelik apparently became fond of the new location and decided to proclaim Addis Ababa (New Flower), the permanent capital of the Empire. Addis Ababa was the residence of the Emperor, the seat of his court and the headquarters of his army. The Emperor quarter, called ‘Gebbi’ was surrounded by the camps of its military chiefs, called ‘Safars’. The city was composed of the chiefs´safar , and also dotted with other safar designated after an ethnic group who occupied an area.

33


ENTOTO

Compound, Ras palace Compound, Ras palace

PALACE

Compound, Ras palace Compound, Ras palace FINFINNI

Addis Ababa, spacial structure diagram of the first settlements

34


Overview, compounds settlements, Gebbi Palace

35


The ‘Tukul’ Most of the dwellings were humble huts resembling the traditional tukul. These traditional huts have all the same circular or elliptical form with a conical roof.

Tukul floor plan configuration and exterior sharing space

36


‘Tukul’ traditional dwelling typology

37


Urban development of the city

The city of Addis Ababa was characterized by different urban transformation over time. At the moment of its foundation, the city lacked very basic infrastructure. In general, there were only few paths connecting the different Ras palaces to the central part of the city and the Gebbi Palace. Despite all the urban transformations, it is possible to affirm that Addis Ababa is the only large African city that was never colonized by the western countries over time. As it is true that the Italians ruled in the city by force between 1936 and 1941, they did not colonized the country but they rather occupied it. Because of this it is correct to talk about an Italian ‘occupation’ more that an Italian ‘colonization’ of Ethiopia.

38


river ntyketu Ba

Gebbi

Kebena river

rket a ma Arad

mela river Ga

Entoto mountains

Finfinni plain (hotsprings)

Addis Ababa. First city configuration.

39


Further developments over time

40

Some events, like the transformation of land ownership or the construction of the railway, had a strong impact on the population growth. In general, construction works produced an influx of population, particularly from the South. In the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth the number of migrants grew in size. These people usually inhabited temporary dwellings. The construction of bridges allowed the farmers of the countryside to be in closer contact with the city life. As a result, they became more aware of the advantages of cash crop. At the beginning, bridges were made of wood. The first bridge made of stone was built by Russian Engineers in 1904, the second one was constructed two years later by Ras Makonnen. As the drawings shows, social practices started to be carried out also in proximity of infrastructure. Between 1906 and 1911, St. George Church was rebuilt by the Italian engineer Castagna and the Greek architect Orphanaides. Compared to the previous building, the new one adopted a more solid architecture. The Ethiopian features were abandoned in favor of a stronger European taste. As the images show, the plan had evolved from a circular into and octagonal one. The three concentric sections were typical features of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.


Ras Mekonnen bridge in the 1900s

41


A modern bridge on River Kebena unfolds the possibility of social practices.

42


St. George’s cathedral rebuilt 1919

43


Noble Residencies

44

The administration of justice of the different areas of the city was usually carried out by noblemen who were nominated by the King. Because of their position, these people were living in luxurious houses which were usually simple wooden construction with an open veranda. In general, the space around these buildings often promoted social interaction so people were informally gathering around these buildings. Some of these historical buildings were preserved over time and they are still present in the historical part of the city.


Residence of a dignity

45


Examples of noble Residences.

46


47


mela river Ga

French embassy Negradas IgasĂš Ras Micael

Italian embassy

Ras Maconen Degiacc BurĂš

Russian Hospital

3

H

Arada market

5 British embassy

Dajazmac Taffari

6

Kebena r

1

iver

St. George Church

German embassy

2 4

Elfin Gabriel Church Finfinni plain hotsprings

Addis Ababa. 1890s.

48


Addis Ababa, 1940 Italian developments

49


Addis Ababa, 1975.

50


51


Addis Ababa: one city, numerous challenges, numerous opportunities. Current situation.

53


54


55


Addis Ababa, overview

56

The Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa is nowadays one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Because of that, it has the unique opportunity to become a successful example of African metropolis able to exploit the advantages of its growth in favor of both the image and progress of the city and of its citizens especially the poor who are populating and being protagonist of great part of the city urban tissue.


Addis Ababa

57


Informal housing

Despite its economical growth, the city faces an enormous challenge to deliver accommodation to the urban poor. Currently, 80% of housing in Addis Ababa is considered informal, this means that the greatest part of the population lives in inadequate houses with several problems such as bad hygienic conditions, overcrowded spaces and lack of the basic amenities. On the whole, it is evident that improving the living conditions in the slum areas has to be prioritized. However, it is important to mention that unlike other developing cities around the world, in Addis Ababa the informal settlements are spread throughout the whole city. In this context different social groups live side by side without the systematic creation of urban ghettos as is visible in many other big cities of developing countries.

58


59


The coexistence of different social groups and type of buildings make Addis Ababa an incredible heterogeneous city where the urban mixity becomes a key factor of inclusiveness. This character of the city allow the development of different social activities and social interactions. In the city, the space around the houses becomes public space. This space is used by the people for both social and commercial activities such

Mixed use: living and commercial activities 60

as informal markets, playgrounds, gathering points etc. People often work and live in the same place so the dwellings can be used as shops or workshops as well. Either way, income is generated within the dwelling.


Mixed use: living and commercial activities 61


Street vendors 62


Walking salesmen 63


The Integrated Housing Development Programme

64

In order to address the problems of overcrowding and housing shortage, new social housing projects have been built by the government during the last years. These new developments are middle and high rise condominiums able to accommodate a greater number of people and different typologies of bigger and smaller apartments. Despite that, these social housing slabs are revealing not to be a successful strategy because of numerous factors. First of all, these developments are being built mainly at the outskirt of the city, this leads to a tear of social bonds that is negatively influencing the social cohesion and integration of the different communities and social groups. Furthermore, the long distance between the condominium developments and the hearth of the city makes it more complicated and expensive for the citizens to reach their workplaces, which are mainly found in the metropolitan area of Addis Ababa. On top of that, the new condominium apartments are currently assigned with a lottery system that is privileging people with a basic income and consequently excluding the lowest social groups.


65


Condominium development sites in Addis Abeba

66


Condominium development under construction

67


Target group: low-income group Height: G+1 / G+2 House type: only studio (31 sqm)

10/90 Scheme

down-payment

2,000 USD

Target group: low- and middle-income group Height: G+4 / G+7 / G+12 House type:1-bedroom (50 sqm) / 2-bedroom (70 sqm) / 3-bedroom (85 sqm) Other program: 10% commercial space

20/80 Scheme

down-payment

6,200 USD

Target group: high-income group Height: high-rise with lift House type:1-bedroom (55 sqm) / 2-bedroom (75 sqm) / 3-bedroom (100 sqm) Other program: 20% commercial space

40/60 Scheme

down-payment

Comparison of 10/90 20/80 40/60 Condominium Schemes

68

19,000 USD


No clear definition of the borders and of the communal areas

69


Case study: Dom HĂŠlder Camara Usina 2006-12 | Jandira, SĂŁo Paulo | Brazil

71


Project overview

72

The Comuna Urbana D. Helder Camara, located in the city of Jandira (SĂŁo Paulo) is the first urban settlement of the MST (Movimento dos Sem-Terra, The Landless Movement). It was formed from the reunion of families evicted by the SĂŁo Paulo Metropolitan Train Company (CPTM) and organized by the Pastoral da Moradia with the MST. This congregation, experienced over a year in the occupation of an abandoned building, formulated the proposal of a community that would be organized in space through a set of collective ownership that included housing, jobs, leisure, education and culture. Organized in a gradient of public-private relationship, ten dwellings are articulated around cores, creating small squares without car access and balconies facing them, thus resonating with the very organization of social nuclei. On this scale , the shared everyday life is conformed. These squares express the ethos of the project,in the open doors where children move from house to house and neighbors share the everyday life. This project can be considered as a striking example of a urban renewal started from the existing context of the site considering its social and morphological peculiarities. Using the communal courtyards as cores and reference points of the project, enabled the possibility to create a valuable architectural strategy able to contribute and improve the social cohesion of its inhabitants.


Morphological reduction: Mass and void analysis

Public outdoor spaces combined with the built environment.

Stairs and pedestrian paths

73


Composition of the dwelling units and blocks: main stamp, core of the project, patterns.

The main core of the project is composed by a combination of 10 dwellings framing an inner courtyard shared by the users of the dwelling units.

74

This main core, stamp is then repeated in order to give shape to the project. The topography of the area characterized by a long slope allow the dwelling to be built on different levels.


The natural topography of the area makes possible to design several private and public terraces and squares along the hill.

75


76


Dwelling variations In the project it is possible to identify 4 dwellings variations.

type D2

type D1 type B type C

type A

Type A

Ground floor

First floor

2m

5m

10m

77


Part 2: Project


80


Reflection towards the project

As architects, first of all, we are asked to understand a place; this is the unmovable condition from which every work of architecture has to start from. I personally don’t believe in architecture without context neither one that would not consider the needs of its users as part of the design process and as crucial parameters for any further decision during the development of the project. In order to show what I found and I consider forming the context and ‘needs’ of the place of my case study, I will analyze carefully its historical, physical and social peculiarities.

81


82


83


Site survey : Dejach Wube Sefer

85


86


Localization of the area

The chosen area is the “Dejach Wube” sefer, a historical neighborhood located in one of the most central areas of the north of Addis Ababa in the Arada district. In order to be able to test and prove the value of my strategy, I chose a specific part of the city situated in a central area in the north of Addis Ababa as the base for my analysis and design proposal. Choosing a determinate neighborhood of Addis allowed me to shape my design strategy and to adapt it according to the existing dynamics and specific societal, historical, economical and spatial qualities of the area. The chosen area is called “Dejach Wube” Sefer, a historical neighborhood located in one of the earliest and most central areas of the city.

87


Gulele Yeka Arada

Ketema Lideta Kolfe Keranyo

Cherkos Bole

Nefas Silk

Akaki Kaliti

Gulele

Ketema

Arada

Lideta Cherkos

Addis Ababa is subdivided in ten urban districts. The Arada district is situated in the northern part of the city.

88


Gulele

Ketema

Arada

Lideta Cherkos

Dejach Wube Sefer

The Dejach Wube Sefer is located in the hearth of the Arada district.

89


Indigenous settlement: An enduring special conformation which becomes heritage and model for the future

90

Taking the Dejach Wube case as example, it is still clearly visible how the urban fabric of the city survived over time and it is still built on an indigenous settlement structure. The characteristics of this indigenous settlement structure are particularly visible if we look at the structure of the greatest part of the urban area of the city where the space is divided in many clusters by an organic system of larger and smaller roads and narrow pedestrian paths. This roads are indeed the veins of the city along which many commercial and daily life activities take place. The road system is composed by main and secondary roads, the first category are the main circulation arteries of the city and they connect the different urban areas. The secondary roads are narrower than the main ones and they draw a complex street network which links the rest of the smaller parts of the city bordered by the main street network. In general it is possible to observe that both the two road systems are used by both pedestrian and cars without a clear definition of the borders. Nonetheless, the growth of the city fabric over time brought to a unique relationship between streets and built environment.


Mass and void

Roads network

91


Characteristics of the built environment: ‘Street-liners’, ‘In-fills’ and ‘Local Identities’ , overall perspective

92

Looking at the built environment of the area, it is possible to distinguish three main building categories: ‘Street-liners’, ‘In-fills’ and historical or/and socially valuable buildings which compose the ‘Local Identities ’ of the area. The first ones are linear development of mid-rise, mainly commercial buildings which have the function to relate with the main road system and to accommodate commercial public and private functions. These buildings are placed along and facing the ever-expanding main roads network. The second category are the ‘In-fills’ which are low-rise, mainly residential buildings that compose the inner tissue of the part of the city bordered by the main road system. Nowadays the largest part of the in-fills is composed by informal settlements which, following the organic development of the road networks, are grouped in small compounds. These compounds are visibly shaped according to the traditional Ethiopian way of living which comes from the first indigenous settlements of the city. In this way the houses are grouped around a communal courtyard where all the daily activities are developed. The Local Identities , third and last category, are strongly embedded with historical or/and social values and represent and preserve the collective identity of a place and the one of its inhabitants; they are ‘places of memory and identity’.


Street-liners

In-fills

Local Identities 93


Street-liners

94


95


‘Street-liners’

96

The street-liners are the linear development of midrise, mainly commercial buildings. These developments generally accommodate modern urban functions, like shops, hotels, cinemas, administration, workshops, etc. Due to the expansion of the city and the transformations caused by the Addis Ababa Structure Plan of 2002, the urban tissue calls for a new generation of Street-liners in order to accommodate new public and private functions. As Addis Ababa resisted the western notion of centrality the indigenous structure of the urban tissue of Addis Ababa has basically remained the same. Looking at the street-liners it can be observed that the linear space along the large streets in Addis Ababa has a purely functional use as opposed to the Western notion of public space in which streets have particular qualities to invite people to enjoy leisure time outdoors. An example from Addis Ababa: instead of one central building market, many small and specialized building material suppliers are located along one street. The open space is used for display and workshops.


Typical Street-liner conformation

97


In-fills

98


99


‘In-fills’

100

The In-fills are low-rise, mainly residential buildings that compose the inner tissue of the part of the city bordered by the main road system. Nowadays the largest part of the in-fills is composed by informal settlements which, following the organic development of the road networks, are grouped in small compounds. These compounds are visibly shaped according to the traditional Ethiopian way of living which comes from the first indigenous settlements of the city. In this way the houses are grouped around a communal courtyard where all the daily activities are developed.


Typical In-fill conformation

101


Local Identities


Local Identities

104

The Local Identities, third and last category, are composed by those figures (including both built and void spaces) which are strongly embedded with historical or/and social values. These elements, being significant buildings, gathering points, gardens, squares or pathways, represent and preserve the collective identity of a place and the one of its inhabitants. For these reasons it is possible to define the local identities as ‘places of memory and collective identity’.


Wu

be

Re

Dejach Wube Residence as example of Local Identity

105


106


107


The essential urban matrix: ‘The compound’

If we look in detail the urban tissue of the area, we can notice that space us divided once more in even smaller portions of land. This division is operated by walls and fences and results whit the creation of many different compounds which represent indeed the primordial matrix and essence of the city. Each compound is inhabited by different households and all the inhabitants of each compound usually share one or more outdoor spaces. These spaces provide the access to the different dwellings, furthermore they work as gathering point and accommodate different activities.

108


Compounds

Walls and fences 109


Walls and fences divide the space and are the main borders of the compounds

110


Generic current compound conformation

111


The courtyard

Daily activities take place in the common spaces of the compounds. In this way the communal spaces become the main living areas of the community.

112


113


‘The wall’ and ‘the street’.

The external walls define the borders of the compound and are used to develop small commercial activities.

114


115


116


Reflection:

The city of Addis Ababa is characterized by a complex and a just the same interesting urban tissue. Its physical, social and historical peculiarities are unique and provide an equally unique opportunity to develop new urban and architectural strategies able to improve the living conditions of the people and, at the same time, to learn from the valuable urban and cultural phenomenas that the city has been able to develop over time.

117


Statement

118

The city of Addis Ababa has the unique opportunity to become a successful example of an African metropolis. However, in order to be able to face and accommodate its future developments, the city needs to improve the quality of life of its citizens and recognize the value of preserving its urban mixity. Since these two elements form core and strength of the city, a fundamental step forward for the renewal and progress of the city must be an urban redevelopment able to improve first of all the living conditions of the people by providing them with adequate affordable housing combined with restored and new public spaces and facilities. In doing so, it will be crucial to renew the urban environment without relocating its current inhabitants in order to maintain the existing social bonds of the different communities. Such intervention, based on the current urban conformation and respect for the local way of living, would benefit both the city and its inhabitants simultaneously. Without an inclusive urban and architectural strategy, able to deal and adapt according to the existing situation of the city and able to respond to the needs of the rapidly growing population, any programme to improve the urban environment of the city and provide better living conditions to the people will continue to fail. Addis Ababa is calling for new strategies in order to densify the urban fabric and improve the living condition of its inhabitants.


At this point, considering the current context of the city, the research question reflects upon how to develop an architectural strategy that corresponds to and improves the current urban and social scenario of the city. At the same time, in order to develop the process it is important to define which guidelines and factors have to be considered in order to guarantee a sustainable and inclusive growth of the city.

119


The inclusive pattern Tracing the city fabric of Addis Ababa

Design strategy


122


Reflection towards the project

Taking advantage of the informations from my research and the impressions during the field trip, it is my aim to transport and translate the result and conclusion I obtain from my research into an urban architectural and social project. It is my intention to transport the values of history, compound settlement, street liners and infills in my project. This approach to me mean to take advantage of the current qualities of the place and respecting its historical, physical and social identities. At the same time I will introduce new qualities in order to respond to the needs of its current and future inhabitants.

123


Chapter one: Urban Strategy and Master plan, a composition of elements

125


Choosing the area The choice of the area for me represent already an important design choice. Choosing a particular area means that its special characteristic will be fundamental for the project, for this reason it is necessary to collect as many information as possible about its context and its urban, social and historical peculiarities. The chosen area is a portion of the Dejach Wube Sefer. It it situated in the very hearth of the neighborhood and it is unique thanks to some historical buildings as the Dejach Wube Palace and residence which used to belong to Dejach Wube, the noble man who was chosen by the king in order to rule and control the area. Nowadays the palace and the residence changed their function and they became re-

spectively the ‘Addis Ababa Restaurant’ and a small weaving factory. Besides the historical importance of the area, my choice was driven by my personal experience that I had in visiting the site. This area, characterized by both narrow pedestrian paths and larger car roads, ‘informal squares’, historical buildings, colonial villas, informal settlements surrounded by a lively atmosphere given by street vendors and kids playing on the street; represents a very heterogeneous and interesting case study. Thanks to its peculiarities, it is a great occasion to reflect and work upon themes as global housing, informal settlements, urban renewals and preservation of the fundamental qualities of the city.

Addis Ababa Restaurant, Dejach Wube Ras House

126


127


The chosen area is including the three elements of: Street-liners, In-fills, Local Identities

Street-liners

128

In-fills

Local Identities


My design approach is a reinterpretation of the urban space based on the existing dynamics of the area which are particularly represented by the harmonious coexistence

of different social and urban actors such as heterogeneous social groups, Street-liners, In-fills and Local Identities.

+

Street-liners

+

In-fills

Local Identities

?

Composition overlap

129


+

+

Local Identities

131


The Local Identities of the place

132

The existing Local Identities of the place will perform as guidelines for the design. This respond to the need of preserving the identities of the place and to find valuable guidelines which would take into account the historical and social context of the place. The Local Identities of the area have been chosen according to their historical, architectural and/or social values.


1

2

1. Paths 2. Built spaces with pertinent outdoor spaces

133


Addis Ababa Restaurant

Textile factory

Public square

134


Regency Hotel

Historical colonial house

Public square

135


+

+

Street-liners

137


Street liners and the street profile: Reconsidering the arteries of the city

138

Take into consideration the needs of expansion and densification of the city. The area is considerably fulfilled with existing public, private and Governmental functions, so in addition to a renewal of these, it is necessary to reconsider the important arteries for the city. The main roads will continue to have their primary role but the secondary ones will gain more importance and will have an important role in accommodating the further developments of the area. (Considering both public and private functions with both economical and residential characters). Assigning a more important role to the secondary road system gives the opportunity to introduce new Street-liners along the main arteries of the city.


Reconsidering the arteries of the city: main and secondary roads

The existing public, private and Governmental functions are occupying a large part of land along the main roads.

139


The street-liners represent a fundamental step for the project since they perform in different ways: First of all they delimit the different areas and the borders of the compounds. At the same time they define the street profile exploiting all its possible advantages like its commercial potential thanks to their advantageous position facing the principal circulation paths of the city. In this matter the street-liners are active borders which activate the street profile and connect the inner parts of the city with the other ones. The street-liners will accommodate both commercial spaces and dwellings.

140


141


Street-liners, defining the street profile according to the city fabric

The system meaning the street liners developments themselves, will adapt in high (number of floors) according to the width, the space available and character of the different roads.

Three and four storeys Street-liners (G+2 and G+3) will be facing along the more narrow secondary roads (from 5 to 8 meters wide).

Five and six storeys Street-liners will face the widest secondary roads (8 to 12 meters wide) as well as the main roads of the area (12 to 20 meters wide).

142


The maximum number of buildible floors has been fix to six because of a local regulation that does not allow the construction of buildings which would be higher than the municipality building located in the proximity of the Dejach Wube Sefer, few meter souther of the St. George Cathedral. In addition, being Dejach Wube an historical neighborhood, I consider appropriate to limit the construction of massive buildings which would risk to damage the image and the historical value of the place.

Regency Hotel

Weaving Factory

Meakelawi Police Department Dejac Wube Ras House, (Addis Ababa Restaurant)

Telecommunication- Arada Branch

New Era public school

Hager Fikir Theatre

St. George’s Cathedral

Menelik II square

Gebbi Palace Merkato

143


The Street-liners design has been adapted taking into consideration the current urban situation and the building regulations of the area. The higher and lower developments are represented respectively with a thick and a thin line.

144


145


+

Street-liners

146

Local Identities


Design strategy: the street liners will be shaped and interrupted in order to accommodate the Local Identities

147


+

+

In-fills

149


In-fills developments

150

The in-fills will represent the framework for the communities giving shape to courtyards, inner streets and small squares. The inner courtyard will have a more ’domestic’ use; the other spaces outside the compounds will represent the public realm characterized by lively atmosphere thanks to the commercial activities and gathering points that will be accommodated in these areas.


151


+

Street-liners

152

+

In-fills

Local Identities


A new composition will be created combining the Street-liners and In-fills figures. The new urban pattern inherited with the qualities of both, will perform as a new inclusive pattern for the city enabling the coexistence and synergy of different architecture typologies and social groups. This new type, inserted in the urban context will be enriched by

new qualities coming from the combination of the Street-liners and In-fills typologies at it will adapt according to its context.

+

Master plan composition

153


Master plan, Ground floor Plan


Edges of the area, street profile

156

The Street-liners represent the ‘framework’ of the composition. These developments define the edges of the area and perform as active borders accommodating different functions such as commercial spaces, public and private activities and dwellings. Facing the street network, the Street-liners also have the role to define the accesses to the inner pedestrian area.


157


Direct connection with the street

158


Defining the accesses to the inner pedestrian area

159


The domestic, sharing the communal spaces

160

The inner part of the area it is mainly pedestrian and represents the hearth of the domestic daily life of the communities. Within this part of the master plan, Street-liners and Infills are put in relation in order to create the urban figure of the urban compound. Center of the compound are the communal courtyard which are shared by the inhabitants of the compound. The interaction between the compounds and the Local Identities allows the creation of different communal outdoor spaces and services for the inhabitants.


*63XEOLVKHU(QJLQH

161


The urban compounds

162


163


The urban compounds

164


165


Public spaces created by the synergy between the urban compounds and Local Identities

166


167


Public spaces created by the synergy between the urban compounds and Local Identities

168


169


The Street-liners developments adapt to the context and they interrupt in order to allow the visibility of the Local Identities and to create main and secondary entrances for the area.

North urban section of the area

170


171


East urban section of the area

172


173


Transversal urban section of the inner pedestrian area of the master plan. In-fills and Local identities are bordered by the street-liners developments. The different elements of the projects are adapted according to the scale of the urban context.

Transversal urban section of the area

174


175


Master plan overview

176


Local Identities

177


Street-liners

178


In-fills

179


The public square

182


The market

183


The shopping promenade

184


The courtyard

185


The historical site

186


187


Chapter two: The compound

189


Local identities

Street-liners

190

In-fills


Compound ground floor plan

191


Street-liner

193


Street-liner street profile, south elevation


The street-liner has the function to accommodate mayor and minor commercial activities and workshops at the ground floor while the upper floors will accommodate different types of dwellings in order to meet the requirements of different social groups. The far end sides of the street-liners perform as mayor commercial activities on every floor.

196


Mayor commercial activities

Mixed use: workshops and shops

Mayor commercial activities

Ground floor street-liner: workshops and commercial activities

197


Ground floor street-liner: workshops and commercial activities 1:100 scale

198


199


First floor street-liner: dwellings and mayor commercial activities

200


Mayor commercial activities

Dwellings

Mayor commercial activities

201


First floor street-liner dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

202


203


Second floor street-liner dwelling typologies

204


Mayor commercial activities

Dwellings

Mayor commercial activities

205


Second floor street-liner dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

206


207


Third floor street-liner dwelling typologies

208


Mayor commercial activities

Dwellings

Mayor commercial activities

209


Third floor street-liner dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

210


211


Top floor street-liner dwelling typologies

212


Mayor commercial activities

Dwellings

Mayor commercial activities

213


Top floor street-liner dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

214


215


Car road

Shopping promenade

Shop

Workshop


Street-liner overall view

Communal courtyard


In-fills

219


In-fills north facade elevation


The In-fills have the function to accommodate dwellings and the services for the communities.

Services for the community

222

Dwellings


223


‘Active nodes’

224

The services are placed at the corners of the in-fill, because of this part of the building perform as ‘active nodes’. Because of their functions, the active nodes perform also as urban and social connectors.


225


Dwellings

226

The dwellings have different apartment units in order to accommodate different target groups. The dwellings are grouped around a communal courtyard in which daily activities take place.


In-fills ground floor plan

227


Ground floor In-fills dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

228


229


In-fills first floor plan

230


First floor in-fills dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

231


232


233


In-fills second floor plan

234


Second floor in-fills dwelling typologies 1:100 scale

235


236


237


In-fills, overall view

238


239


The urban compound, Overall view of the system

240


241


242


243


Design building technology

245


Concept

246

Aiming for a sustainable and affordable project, the design will be mainly realized taking advantage of sustainable and local available resources such as earth and bamboo. On top of that, the new ‘hybrid compound type’, will have a system to collect, filter and reuse the rainwater. In this way the project will perform as an efficient and environmentally sustainable system for both its inhabitants and the entire city.


Compound load bearing structure, overall view

247


Street-liners construction system

248

The structure is characterized by a reinforced concrete frame filled with earth bricks. This type of construction system allows the realization of multistory buildings with large opening suitable for both housing and commercial spaces. Thanks to the employment of load bearing concrete columns, which occupy only a small portion of the floor area, the interior spaces result to be highly flexible in use and easily adaptable over time. This character of the street-liner developments is particularly visible at the ground floor where the different modules, based on a 480cm vertical grid, can be customized in order to accommodate different types of public and private activities.


Load bearing structure

480 cm

Multipurpose-flexible spaces

Offices, mayor commercial activities

Workshops, shops

Offices, mayor commercial activities

249


Materiality

The street-liners are realized combining the technique of concrete load bearing structure with the one of earth blocks walls. The qualities of durability and strength of the concrete, together with the sustainable and local available character of the earth blocks, are both included in the construction of the street-liners. Furthermore, the technique of concrete load bearing structure, is currently employed for the construction of the condominiums all around the city of Addis Ababa. This makes possible the availability of local workers able to construct using this technique.

Construction using the technique of concrete load bearing structure.

250


Reinforced concrete framework

Plastered earth

Bamboo canes

Earth bricks

251


Water management

252

Recycling water, uses: -flushing toilets -watering the plants of the courtyard -activities in the communal courtyard as washing clothes, workshops etc.


clean water filter

waste water

clean water

water tank

253


In-fills construction system

254

The structure is realized using rammed earth load bearing walls combined with bamboo, earth and concrete horizontal lintels. The secondary structure is composed by earth blocks and bamboo canes. The use of earth and bamboo comes from the choice of using local techniques and availabilities in order to create affordable and sustainable living spaces. Furthermore, the use of local materials enables the possibility to create spaces with a ‘local appearance’ which, besides being respectful of the context, they also perform as attractive points for tourists. The local resources employed for the design reflect the traditions and the culture of the inhabitants, this gives to the project an embedded and unique social value which facilitates the collective responsibility of the place.


Load bearing structure

480 cm

255


In-fills structural scheme

256

1: Load bearing wall 2: Stability elements (walls and lintels) 3: Earth blocks, bamboo canes 4: Load bearing bamboo beams 5: Secondary beams 6: Halved bamboo canes, earth, vapor barrier, floor tiles 7: Roof structure: bamboo columns, beams and trusses 8: Roof top layer: halved bamboo columns 9: Earth blocks, plastered earth


8 7

5 4 6

2

2

1

9

9

3

257


In-fills construction section


260

In-fills facade fragment


Splints fixed to the bamboo columns

Second layer of Halved bamboo columns

Galvanized wire

Splint Ridge

First layer of Halved bamboo columns

Roof top covering layer detail

261


Ridge

Rafter

King Post

Detail: Bamboo truss joint detail

262


Detail: Bamboo truss joint detail with bamboo covering

263


Construction detail A

264


Construction detail D

265


Construction detail C

266


Construction detail B

267


Water management

268

Recycling water, uses: -flushing toilets -watering the plants of the courtyard -activities in the communal courtyard as washing clothes, workshops etc.


clean water

waste water

water tank filter rain

269


Crossed ventilation and ventilated roof system

270

The interior spaces can be naturally ventilated taking advantage of the dwellings configuration. The roof has been designed as a natural chimney in order to contribute as well to the ventilation of the building.


271


272


273


274


275


276


277


278


279


280


281


Global Housing Graduation Studio 2015/2016 by Pietro Degli Esposti under the supervision of: Prof. Ir. Dick van Gameren Prof. Dr. Ir. Nelson Mota Prof. Ir. Sjap Holst 7th November 2016

282


283


"The Inclusive Pattern, Tracing the city fabric of Addis Ababa". Pietro Degli Esposti _Architecture  

Architecture Master Thesis. Global Housing Design Studio. TU Delft University of technology, Faculty of Architecture, Delft, The Netherlands...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you