Pavel Pavlov Part II Architectural Assistant University of Strathclyde Glasgow, United Kingdom
I. Learning by the Context Conservation/ Education
5. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14.
1. Contextual Background 2. Critical Analysis 3. Study of Existing Housing Stock 4. Proposed New School 5. Inhabited Wall 6. Contextual Transformation
II. Plan Bee Research/ Environment
1. Problem Identification 2. Proposed Solution 3. Masterplanning 4. Siting 5. Legal Requirements 5. Exhibition
19. 20. 22. 24. 28. 30.
III. A House and Grounds for an Art Collector Competition Entry/ LIS
IV. Authorâ€™s Photography Study Trips V. Part I Portfolio Background Information
Learning By The Context
Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Harar Jugol, Ethiopia
Despite the major problems related to an endless cycle of poverty and political conflicts, Africa has gradually become responsive to the needs of its communities. Ethiopia is one of the examples of a democratic country, which has achieved admirable results in the deprioritised sector of education, with over 90% enrolment rate in primary schools. The situation, however, is vastly contrasting outside of the urban centres where rural activities drive the socio-economic mechanism. Harar Jugol is one of the places with a substantial cultural and architectural heritage, which is now vulnerable to contemporary demographical mutations. The project identifies the socio-economic and environmental pressures on the local community in order to explore ways of preserving its cultural identity. It proposes an unconventional, context-specific approach to reaching the learning outcomes of primary education by offering a positive learning environment. The new school suggests a continuous ecosystem, an open spacial network where children are given freedom to move and learn according to their individual interest. A series of interventions intercept the traditional relationship of Harari people with water, re-imagining the threshold of the wall in attempt to re-establish the vital connection between the city and the land beyond it. The objective is to highlight the emerging asset of food production in the form of an agricultural agglomeration which would trigger a cultural shift towards a more resilient community.
The Fortified Historic Town
The fourth Holy city of Islam is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands. Harar Jugol with its surrounding landscape is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, representative of cultural interaction with the environment.
The cultural and physical relationships with the territory have survived till today, but they are also vulnerable to irreversible change under the impact of the modern globalizing world.
The Fortified Historic Town
The City Wall and Gates
The wall helped Harar to maintain the relative peace and security, which allowed it to develop an urban culture, attracting trade and religious learning. The wall has turned into a visual symbol between the urban Harari merchant society and the predominantly Oromo pastoralists outside of the ramparts. The location of the walls was influenced by the topography, the neighbouring rivers and the springs included within the enclosure, and in return influenced the internal urban structure.
Despite of its political and geographical isolation, Harar survived because of its business activity and trade that allowed it to keep vital contacts with the outside world. The preservation and maintenance of Harar’s gates is a result of the presence of market places at each one of them and their continual existence. Because of the business activity, they have remained places that are very much alive, as important for the urban life of the city as town squares for example.
Harvesting chat has become the main driver of the local economy. Socioeconomic and agroecological reasons have influenced its expansion and production, leading to increased market opportunities. It’s producers are also traders and consumers. It is widely used for recreation and family ceremonies, with approximately 4 out of 5 family members being involved in the processes from production to consumption. This, however, has resulted in reduced amount of crops and cereals, subsequently leading to food deficiency.
Each of the five gates of the town was traditionally associated with a spring, which was used for personal hygiene and water provision. Only water for drinking, cooking and washing everyday dishes was allowed within the city ramparts. The vision of a ‘dry’ town has formed a special relationship with the surrounding environment, making the rivers an integral part of the life of the city. What is more, each spring set the beginning of an irrigation system, which sustained a perfect balance between the rate of flow and the quantity of water required for the agricultural area.
Poor refuse management and lack of discipline throughout the inhabitants of the town has led to dreadful scenes of litter. Rubbish contributes to the pollutions of the local rivers and unfortunately has become a feature of the public space. The dumping of industrial and water waste has dramatic consequences on public health (water pollution is the primary cause of infantile mortality) and threatens the survival of the immediate surroundings of Jugol.
The traditional houses comprise a major part of the cityâ€™s architectural heritage and are a symbol of the local identity. Their owners still take great pride in them, maintaining them through history. There are approximately 5115 houses within the ramparts. Ge Abad /the compound/
Traditionally, the residence accommodated members of a single family. The floor plan and the elevations are typical and have successfully endured through history. Ge Gar /townhouse/ A principal rectangular unit, comprising of three spaces on the ground floor and a single room upstairs. The services of the house are located alongside the compound, but are not directly adjoined to the main unit. The Courtyard This is the main gathering space. It is a shared space which accommodates various activities and acts as a distribution area, organised by two successive thresholds: the main gate, separating the public from the private space, and the access to the Ge Gar, often defined by plants or a step. The latter indicates the passage from semipublic to an intimate, private space of residence.
The second architectural type of house that the city of Harar presents is the Indian House built by Indian merchants who came after Hararâ€™s conquest in 1887. The majority of these house have been built on the ridge - the cityâ€™s highest point. They have a regular two-storey floor plan with first floor wooden veranda as a main feature which overlooks either the street or the courtyard. Their high roofs dominate the landscape of the city. The most famous house is the french poet Rimbaudâ€™s house which was built in the beginning of the 20th century and now functions as a cultural center and a library. The main difference from the traditional Harari house is that the Indian house is widely opened to the landscape as opposed to the Harari one which is a very introverted enclosed space. Any rehabilitation to the city must acknowledge the Harari, the Indian and the Mixed housing heritage.
Ground Floor Plan page_10
An Agglomeration for Primary
The new school proposes an unconventional path towards reaching the learning outcomes of primary education by introducing the children to an environment which prepares them for the new day challenges of the world. It aims to re-establish neglected traditional activities as catalysts for cultural comprehension whilst acting as a model for resolving local issues. In its architectural form, the school respects the urban structure of the town and â€˜floodsâ€™ the space between the footprints of existing buildings with a free learning environment. Traditional building techniques and elements are implemented in its physical form. The objective is to provide a traditional environment for the ethnically diverse community of Kebele 5, which would establish an identity of Harari citizens and allow for a unified development amongst the youngest.
Shifting the current khat culture by promoting the emerging asset of food production.
A continuous landscape which offers freedom of movement, choice of activities and peer learning through interaction. page_16
A Traditional Harari House; Authorâ€™s Photograph. page_17
The Synthetic Apiary Honey bees are some of the most amazing, yet often underappreciated insects. They are one of the hardest working creatures on the planet, literally working themselves to death, and because of their laborious work ethic people are able to live in the world as it is today. Honeybees, along with other types of bees, are responsible for pollinating about one sixth of the flowering plant species worldwide and approximate net ÂŁ690 million worth of crops every year in the UK itself. It is estimated that it would cost at least ÂŁ1.8 billion a year to mechanically pollinate Britainâ€™s cultivated land, and even then the production would be of lower quality. Despite of its contribution, bee population has been reported declining worldwide and Britain has not managed to reverse this trend for the past 50 years. Factors ranging from climate change, viruses and harmful pesticide use are alarmingly threatening these little invaluable gems. What is more, multiple bee wipe-outs have been reported in the past years, with the UK suffering a large loss in the early 1990s due to the Varroa mite followed by a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder in the beginning of the 21st century which affected bee colonies worldwide. For instance, Northern Ireland projected bee decline above 50%. As a result, the cultivation of bees, the knowledge about their health and the development of non-standard environments and technologies has become increasingly important for their survival, and for ours.
The rapid development in technology creates opportunities for exploration of alternative, innovative ways to deal with the challenges facing humanity. The project investigates the idea of an unorthodox solution to the reduced honey bee population by embracing this technological advantage. The proposed facility will: â€˘Study â€˘Develop â€˘Generate autonomous robotic bees and their artificial intelligence. The primary objective of the project would be to reverse the decline of honey bee population by introducing manmade organisms into the bee colonies and provoking a symbiosis between natural and cyborg bees. In case the new bees fail to achieve their objective and honey bees become extinct, the facility will ensure that pollination is sustained by the new bees.
how can we solve the bee threats
The New Bees will be able to detect any mites in the hive and alarm the beekeepers. That would allow for adequate measures to be taken in time.
VARROA MITE - Varroa mites are external parasites that attack both honey bees and brood. They suck the blood from both the adults and developing brood, especially drone brood. This weakens and shortens the bee’s life.
The New Bees will be able to monitor chemical use on pollinated crops and alarm in case of a threat. This would also record a database which will allow for analysis of pesticides side effects.
PESTICIDES - Insecticides can either get in direct contact with the foraging in the field bees and kill them immidiately or be even more harmful and contaminate the bees, which affects the entire colony.
The New Bees will be able to monitor climate change and accordingly the behaviour of honey bees.
The New Bees will be able to execute any predators threatening the honey bees.
STRESS - Weather is perhaps the greatest potential source of colony stress. Inclement conditions slow down or stop altogether flow of nectar and pollen into a colony, which leads to starvation.
DISEASES - There are two common and devastating honeybee diseases: deformed wing virus (DWV)—which causes wing and abdominal deformities in honeybees, and Nosema ceranae, a fungus that causes intestinal inflammation, among other problems.
PREDATORS - Researchers believe the yellow legged or Asian hornet – a predator of honey bees and other beneficial insects which lurks outside hives to kill bees when they return from foraging – could rapidly colonise Britain.
A Bee Sanctuary Inspired by the Synthetic Apiary project, the highlight of the building becomes a controlled space, a botanical garden which allows honey bees to thrive year-round. As a result, the functioning of the building would not be affected by seasonal or climate changes and will allow for a consistent observation of the cooperation between the natural and the synthetic bees. The only conditions required for the space to function are light, humidity and temperature. The base of the building accommodates a research and manufacturing facility, which offers spaces for a complete production chain of the new bees: from observing and recording the data to developing the algorithms for the bee AI and manufacturing of the microchips. The whole facility is to be operated by the new community of Govan, therefore visitors can experience, acknowledge and actively participate in the project in various forms. It offers opportunities for urban beekeeping food production. The artificial spring conditions make the botanical garden an ideal public space.
The Motherboard A Metaphor of the Automation
The motherboard project looks at Govan as a complete working system. The blocks form the microchips of the board, the routes are the links where the energy generated by the new residents of Govan flows. page_22
A Post-Work Society Deprived communities like the one in Govan are the first to suffer the consequences of the rising automation. What is the community supposed to do when jobs are no longer necessary and we are given the opportunity to dictate our lifestyles free of financial burdens? Based on the evolution of technology across generations, the new masterplan for Govan predicts that around the year 2067, a new society can be established. It proposes a multi-stage development which would create a technology advanced, self-sustained town which allows its community to strive for its own perception of excellence. The Synthetic Apiary will replace a former warehouse, part of the Shipyard. It sits on one of the main avenues of ‘Govan 2067’ , connecting the technology-oriented belt with the green Northern belt. The symbiosis that it generates turns it into a symbol of the clash between organic and artificial. The new facility will invert the polluting nature of the former industry into a positive environmental contributor.
4. generate the Superblock grid and introduce activity belts ○ as housing stock degrades, gradually replace with superblock based perimeter blocks ○ this attempts to retain existing community ties ○ Northern and Southern belts become hubs for cultural and technological projects respectively ○ educational facilities to put the knowledge foundations of the new society in place
3. key civic buildings & connecting avenues
○ the proposed facilities reflect the different aspects of the new lifestyle ○ group’s facilities are anchored to the new avenues and become the focal points of new Govan ○ three main avenues are introduced to connect the Southern and Northern belts
2. retained architectural heritage
○ the new layout for Govan respects the important historical buildings and spreads accordingly ○ use existing features and infrastructure as boundaries for the masterplan ○ multiple historical buildings to be repurposed in order to fit the new lifestyle
1. original Govan site
○ Govan in it’s prime projected a good housing density of perimeter blocks ○ large part of the housing stock is now vacant and multiple buildings have been demolished but not replaced which leaves a fragmented Govan ○ the latest infrastructure changes of Govan disrupted the historic centre’s routes and pattern. page_23
Orchard ○ the Synthetic Apiary will be responsible for pollinating all flowering species not only in Govan, but the majority of Glasgow.
Water Recycling ○ the dock will be converted into a water recycling plant, which will distribute clean water to the surrounding facilities. The surface will be covered with landscaping in order to create a continuous promenade on the riverfront. Vertical Farming ○ the remaining shipyard warehouse will be repurposed into vertical farms. Contextual Situation ○ the building is placed on the south edge of the existing dock, which eliminates any potential overshading. Perimeter Blocks ○ the residential area of Govan will be redensified with modern perimeter block-type of housing. Elder Park ○ the park is one of the cultural heritages of Govan and will be preserved in its current shape. ○ new, flowering type of vegetation will be introduced in its grounds, which will contribute to the production of the Synthetic Apiary.
Ground Floor Plan
The ground floor is mainly dedicated to the development centre and takes any visitors on an upward journey. page_26
First Floor Plan
The first floor becomes the meeting point for public and private and offers a variety of activities to contribute to the new life. page_27
All CLT panels for phase 2 construction to be prefabricated and installed on site according to: BS EN 14951:2006. All glue-laminated timber beams to meet the requirements set out in: BS EN 13377:2002.
Foundations: (BS EN 1997-1:2004)
Foundations to be designed in a way to ensure stability for the large loadbearing structure. Pile foundations might be appropriate below huge glue-laminated columns. Soil to be investigated to confirm appropriate support for the scale of the facility.
CIBSE Technical Memorandum 37 (TM 37)
Timber structure to be implemented into Solar Shading Control strategy in order to improve thermal performance in controlled environment.
U-value Compensation (TH 6.A.1)
Due to the specific demands of the botanical garden, a good balance between the U-value and Solar Factor of glazing is proposed to ensure optimal energy efficiency.
•for snow loadings, BS EN 1991-1-3:2003 (Eurocode 1) •for wind loadings, BS EN 1991-1-4:2005 (Eurocode 1)
Due to the complexity of the proposed structure, a further investigation into the following aspects must be processed: •constructability and structural integrity with structural engineers •health and safety appraisal for construction and occupation stages with H&S Executive What is more, an appropriate management of parks and public spaces in cooperation with Glasgow City Council, as well as a cooperation with the Scottish Beekeepers Association would ensure the safe exploitation of the facility.
Vertical Circulation (4.3) The spiralling staircase surrounding the observation tower is designed and to be constructed in a way, which ensures safe access to each floor of the apiary. All staircase aspects to meet the outlined regulations in section 4.3 of the building standards. All steelwork to be designed according to BS EN 19931-1:2005+A1:2014
Botanical Garden (SPP 11)
The proposed botanical garden is designed according to the planning policy for Open Spaces, and following of considerations outlined in PAN 65
All solid timber elements to be treated with preservative against decay and insect attack (NHBC Part 2.3), as well as to ensure relevant fire resistance (EN 1995-1-2 (2004) (English): Eurocode 5).
The building is designed and will be constructed in such a way that: •1.2 - disproportionate collapse: ensure no damage to small areas of the structure can result in major collapse •risk to be assessed according to: BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 •building falls under risk group 2B (Categorisation of consequence classes of BS EN 1991-1-7: 2006, table A.1) •6.9 - all building fabric to meet relevant U-Value standards. •EPC certificate to be produced along Building Warrant application.
Professional Studies Assignment
page_29 Extract from considerations for Statutory Approval
three stories of galleries will exhibit the three different methods of honeycomb architecture: gravity pressure centrifugal
A study of the organic beehive structure. MIT Media Lab
A House and Grounds for an Art Collector LIS Design Competition
The house and grounds for an art collector is a competition entry, strongly influenced by the response to the shape and topography of the site, its context and a decision from the outset that design would be an iterative process within our small team. Both disciplines, architects and landscape architects, worked closely together to create a holistic design idea that would integrate the house and grounds within the surrounding landscape.
Museum Island, Berlin, Germany
Torre Blancas, Francisco Javier Sรกenz de Oiza,
Corrosive Resilience, Venice, Italy
A New Media House DR, Aarhus, Denmark
The section is a result of the transformation and development of an existing building. It is a summary of the process of preserving but yet evolving and adapting an industrial precedent from Aarhus Harbour. The great volume of the building was determined as a leading quality to the concept. The existing columns are then used as a tool to emphasize the space. The building is divided into a public and a private part. The present steel shafts are to be transformed and used as a source of natural light for the void. In order to accentuate on the void even further, the roof of the building is divided into platforms that are rearranged.
for more info: part I portfolio
Pavel Pavlov Architecture Portfolio, RIBA Part 2 University of Strathclyde, Architecture Studies (K100)