Nordhavn Temporary Landscape A map of usage and experience
Faculty of Science Department of Geoscience and Natural Resource Management (IGN) University of Copenhagen Master thesis Peter Overgaard, studnr rbq215 Georgios Psychas, studnr nqb739 Supervisor: Lektor Bettina Lamm
In this thesis we’re working with temporarity as the basis of the project. Our thesis case is in Nordhavn because of the development that is happening at the moment and which will continue in the future of the area. The development in Nordhavn covers the harbour little by little and soon urban districts will appear on the site, which is covered by construction sites. Fences and restricted areas are more common during the transformation of the old harbour. Our task is to introduce Nordhavn as a site for public interaction with its present situation as a construction site. We are introducing the site to the public by setting a temporary scene in Nordhavn to highlight the qualities that already exist in the area. To find the special and characteristic spots in Nordhavn we approach it by exploring the area with a romantic perspective. Through tours on a frequent basis we tried to draw Nordhavn’s picturesque atmosphere. The construction sites and restricted areas, which are changing the face of the harbour, are going to be part of the current picture of Nordhavn for many years and should therefore be incorporated. The time frame for the scenes we are creating will be set to follow the development until the city is build. This time frame has not a specific deadline, at it will progress in different faces to cope with the size of Nordhavn. The scenes we’re creating will be presented with specific criteria for which kind of temporary installation they should have, so they will talk to the selected spots and the environment around it.
We would like to thank our supervisor Bettina Lamm for helping the project and our ideas for the thesis on its way, which helped, shape this thesis. The process has been educational in working the thesis in the right direction. The feedbacks we have had from Bettina have been beneficial and helped us in the making of this thesis. We would also like to thank Lars Jensen, for providing us with proper maps material of Nordhavn especially material describing the future development of Nordhavn. Our thanks also goes to Rita Justensen for taking her time for listening to us presenting the thesis and explaining how By & Havn are working with Nordhavn and the development of the area. Through our time working with the thesis we had a midway seminar session where we presented our work for Richard Hare, Peter Lundsgaard and our supervisor Bettina Lamm. It was a very helpful way testing our thoughts at that moment and getting a feedback on the work we had done. Critic and comments from this seminar led the thesis in a good direction and we can thank the participants for that. We have met some different people on our tours through Nordhavn. None of the chats with our acquaintances were arranged and therefor very impulsive and giving. This way of talking with local people having a relation to Nordhavn gave us some thoughtful insights.
Peter Holt Overgaard
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abstract acknowledgment index Intro Manifest, problem formulation History of Nordhavn romanticism Exploring the site Nordhavn Transforming picturesque Nordhavn Landscape Analysis Spots of Nordhavn Creating the paths The paths N 1, N 2, N 3 Nordhavn as an exhibition Conclusion Refrences Image credits o
The project is about creating attractions for the harbour. Nordhavn is under development and gonna become something completely different than it is today. So our project will preserve images of the harbour as we know it today. Highlighting the site and its qualities for the future. The harbour has been going through changes the last 150 years and still continues to change. The new development could become a game changer for Nordhavn because of the visions of creating a new metropolis for Copenhagen. Visions like forming the landscape and making a new urban fabric.
Understanding of temporarity. Temporarity is an idea that takes place everywhere in the ecosystem we live in. But, the larger the changes, the more the timeframe which is needed for them to evolve. Take example of a big natural disaster. Nature needs time and energy to regenerate. On the human time perspective, it creates anxiety, based on the bad timing that someone was a part of a big change or development that he has been forced to adopt in his everyday life. That is the point where we should start looking for solutions. Changes happen everyday. Therefor we should try not to lose ourselves when they happen, but to be part of them.
Nordhavn is an older part of the harbour in Copenhagen. The newest visions of the development of Copenhagen describes this area as a new urban metropolis with 80.000 inhabitants. Construction sites and undergoing development is going to be the main picture here for years to come. We therefore want to show how theory and methods of temporarism can be used to create urban activity in this area meanwhile Nordhavnen is under contraction.
1:50 000 Nordhavn in copenhagen
Nordhavn is Northern Europe’s largest urban development project, and is being developed over the next 40-50 years. The district has a great potential to become a unique city in Copenhagen. Nordhavn is located on a land expansion and has over the last 100 years been extended numerous times. Today the port is still active and the industry in Nordhavn reflects the industrial development in Copenhagen. The district is filled with traces of the port industry. Large cranes, old warehouses and silos testify the district’s maritime history. Some of the existing buildings are been preserved in the development of Nordhavn. In 2005 the Danish government and By & Havn made an agreement on the principles of the urban development in Nordhavn and the plans for Nordhavn were adopted in the parliament in 2007. To start the project a competition brief was launched in 2008 and a year after the results were announced. By & Havn are now working with Nordhavn based on the project “ North islets - Urban Delta ,” which won the international architectural competition for Nordhavn in 2009. Consulting team consists of COBE , SLETH Modernism , Polyform and Rambøll . Islets, holme and channels is the guiding principle in the overall master plan for the area. Nordhavn already have many docks, canals and long piers made for large ships to dock. With the new master plan structures is being rebuild, so it fits better for people. New channels dug, and new islands made. The new urban district in Inner Nordhavn will literally be built on top of old Copenhagen, as Nordhavn has been extended several times over the years using construction rubble and earth from excavations in Copenhagen. Historical maps show how the area has grown over the past 150 years through several land expantion projects. The history of the harbour is also the history of Copenhagen. The various extensions have not only made Copenhagen larger, but have also provided space for thriving businesses that have generated jobs for people in Copenhagen and ensured rapid growth of the city. In the middle of the nineteenth century there were several small local ports along the coast north of Copenhagen. Actual harbour operations took place inside the area defined by Toldbommen (the Customs Barrier). It was not until the last decades of that century that the port of Copenhagen grew towards the north and the areas that are now subject to urban development were established. The area now called Nordbassinet was established in the 1880s. The innermost part of Nordhavn (Inner Nordhavn, Redmolen og Sundmolen) were not built until the late nineteenth century, when the land was reclaimed like other large areas in the port of Copenhagen in order to meet the space requirements of harbour industry and growing shipping trade. The current Nordbassin and the smaller Redhavn basin (now filled in) were
development of nordhavn from 1850-2020
established between 1885 and 1890. Between 1891 and 1894, the first stage of the Free Port was realised. This project was motivated by a German decision to build a canal between Kiel and the Elbe River. The Kiel Canal was to connect Hamburg to the Baltic Sea, making the city a rival of Copenhagen in terms of facilitating transit trade in the Baltic area. The reason for establishing the free port was to retain transit trade in the light of intensified competition because goods would not have to undergo customs clearance as long as they remained in the Free port. The first Free Port area was established to the south of the current inner Nordhavn area, but was extended considerably in the years around the First World War. Nordbassin, Redmolen and Sundmolen were established in 1915- 1918 and included in the Free Port area. Up to 1931, a number of small areas were reclaimed and gradually shaping the area we know today. The rest of the Inner Nordhavn area was reclaimed between 1900 and 1930. With the new areas, the port could be modernised and the Free Port extended, just as it became possible to establish an industrial port and for larger vessels to call at the port. Several well-known enterprises have been located in Nordhavnen over the years, one of them being Nordisk Film company, which built laboratories on the street that was later named Billedvej (’Picture Road’). However, the Rifle Syndicate (later called the Danish Industry Syndicate) is the company that has left the greatest mark on the area, for example in the form of the pentagonal redbrick building located in the western end of Århusgade. In the years after World War II, ships became more sophisticated, faster and bigger. As a result, more land was reclaimed and larger basins created, new and larger cranes and hoists were used, containers replaced general cargo and warehouses, and a new ferry basin was established. From the 1970s, there was a decline in industrial harbour activities, and currently only about half of the area is used for harbour-related activities. (By&Havn 2012)
aerial photos of nordhavn from 1954-20??
Analysing Nordhavn temporality from the view point of a painter, a person who highlight and interfere with the strong elements of the landscape.
goodrich Castle on the Wye
Nordhavn is a space full of contrasts, where nature tries to find its way to step into the landscape. Even though the work load that is taking place on the area, has created scenes that discourage any kind of interaction for its possible visitors/pilgrims, our role as explorers of the area gave us the impression that the landscape hides important values which could be highlighted and create a map of experiences who will rotate in accordance with the development plan of the region. The visits and explorations of the area encouraged our opinion that the site evolves in rhythms that sometimes is somewhat difficult to describe. But the general idea could simply be imprinted and transferred to a calendar of space transformation. The opportunity and challenge given to us through the idea to analyse and play with a landscape in transition, contrasts with the romantic approach that is reflected in our profiles.
A romantic comes in absolute link to the forms that analyses. Stays and gives them the form and the time they deserve. Many times he is exaggerating to make his statement more bombastic, more powerful. Looking in depth and captures this depth on the result of his work. One of the fundamentals of Romanticism is the belief in the natural goodness of man, the idea that man in a state of nature would behave well but is hindered by civilization (Rousseau -“man is born free and everywhere he is in chains”). The idea of man’s natural goodness and the stress on emotion also contributed to the development of Romantic individualism, that is, the belief that what is special in a man is to be valued over what is representative (the latter oftentimes connected with the conventions imposed on man by “civilized society.”
If a man may properly express his unique emotional self because its essence is good, he is also likely to assume also that its conflicts and corruptions are a matter of great import and a source of fascination to himself and others. So, the Romantic delights in self-analysis. Both William Wordsworth (in The Prelude) and Lord Byron (in Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage), poets very different from one another, felt the need to write lengthy poems of self-dramatization. The self that Byron dramatized, a projection not identical with his own personality, was especially dear to the Romantic mind: the outcast wanderer, heroic by accursed, often on some desperate quest, in the tradition of Cain or the Flying Dutchman. S. T. Coleridge’s Mariner and Herman Melville’s Ahab are similar Romantic pilgrims. (Steven 2010)
exploring the site
To find out what Nordhavn is and what this place consists of we want to experience the area without having done any research before we start to explore it. Itâ€™s a phenomenological approach to the analysis. Weâ€™ll then get an understanding of Nordhavn without any constraints of former knowledge or predetermined images. Therefore we can create a more personal relation to Nordhavn. Finding as much as possible on an instinctive base.
exploring the site Århusgade and the new terminal Entering Nordhavn at the low part of Århusgade where Kalkbrænderihavnsgade leeds traffic in and out of Copenhagen. Through the opening in the fence and into Århusgadekvarteret. Brick houses not that tall and narrow openings between the houses give you the feeling like you’re in an old part of town. The area is split in two by the street Århusgade which is supposed to be a new connection between Nordhavn and Østerbro when the first stage of the development is finished. On the right side of the street the old buildings are housing offices and businesses of more recent date. You see the reuse of the old harbour buildings add life to the area with that old atmosphere kept from back when it all started. On the other side the buildings are bigger, not taller, but definitely used for storage. The building materials are brick, metal and wooden similar to the offices. Moving through the area you find smaller spaces inside the build area, especially in between the buildings on the left side of Århusgade. A smaller yard left without a purpose for long. Long enough for everybody to leave their make on the buildings. Moving through the area you always notice the tall skyscrapers/landmarks next to these smaller area. The landmarks rise up from the flat and open space in the middle of Århusgadekvarteret. The buildings are in perfect contrast to the one to three story buildings in size and appearance. The surface is mono-colour concrete only broken by holes for windows and doors. The ground level is being used for construction work around the former silos to build offices to attach on the outside of them. The construction face in the development of Nordhavn is visible in the area. Piles of gravel and tar create small hills and cranes takes its place. The newly constructed ship terminal in the northern part of Nordhavn creates a new area of Nordhavn by reclamation of land. The terminal extends 1 km in a lineal direction northeast. From the lower part of the new bay the skyline of Nordhavn is revealed and along the edge fishermen have found their spot.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: old silo for storing corn, the three landmarks, Århusgade under construction, hidden back yard, pile of tar, land reclamation by the new terminal, view to south from the new terminal, fishers doing their job, new terminal buildings.
exploring the site design zone old Skudehavn The design zone is the second pier from the bottom and the area slightly smaller than Århusgadekvartert. It’s the area in Nordhavn with the highest building mass taking up over 1/3 of that area. The dimensions of the buildings are some of the biggest in Nordhavn. Long strengths of warehouses originally used for storage and transit of goods have been reused for commercial use orientated around design. Distances between the buildings and warehouses vary from the spaces made for trucks and transportation to the more narrow gabs in between the blocks where the buildings stop. Streets and building are scaled for big vehicles and not for pedestrians. The shape of the pier is seen in the structure of the buildings with a clear orientation along the edge of the pier and the water. There’s a clear view all through the area in contrast to the old part of Århusgadekvarteret. You have a clear view to the rest of Nordhavn from each side of the pier, to the south the silos, north the cranes and containers of Frihavnen and in west Svanemølleværket. The old Skudehavn is located approx. in the middle of Nordhavn hidden in between private building lots and fences. The site used to be a small harbour for the fishermen of Copenhagen. Some left overs like boat bridges can still be found. The water and the surrounding building close to the edge of the water close in the space. Plants and bushes grow wild and help to create small spaces. Simple setup with a bench, table and a fireplace creates a still atmosphere for recreation and silence. You won’t even notice you’re in the middle of an active harbour. The buildings in the area are low and let you see the cranes in the distance of the container port.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: Warehouse opening, Buildings old writing, Silos appearing Through an opening, Water and pier, Old Skudehavn pond, Bench in the right spot, hidden path, View from Old Skudehavn, Berries growing in Nordhavn.
exploring the site Frihavn the Container port The legislations of a free harbour make clear the definition of borders. Clear fencing and clear entrances/exits. Buildings in the area are all related to the company of CMP (Copenhagen MalmĂś Port) and is office buildings with long facades only broken by windows and doors and materials of steel and concrete creates the hard texture of the site. The little number of buildings makes the few ones stand out in the area. The infrastructure is divided in two parts. Thereâ€™s easy access for trucks and public outside the pier/easy flow of cranes and trucks inside the fenced area. The many containers of different colours make the area a unique site. Watching from a distance or aerial photos still shows the spaces in between containers which creates forms related to an urban context.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: View from the design pier, Crane for loading and unloading ships, Frihavnen through a warehouse, The cranes in the horizon, Containers creating spaces, Restricted area.
exploring the site Skudehavn and the habitat In the northwest corner of Nordhavn we have the small harbour community Skudehavn which moved here from the old Skudehavn in the middle of Nordhavn. The area is build up around the harbour with all the motorboats and ships with masts. Small container like sheds structured in dense blocks in different height that vary from 2-4 meters. The blocks form narrow streets, which run, through the small shed city and into the harbour area with bridges into the water and the boats anchored on each side. The atmosphere and the feel of the area is of another nature than Nordhavn. Moving from the south through Nordhavn with its active parts and all the way up to Skudehavn is “miles apart”. It’s two separate parts. A little west from Skudehavn along the coast is an area called Nordhavnstippen. This small area scheduled for urban development. The organisms living here have migrated and created overgrown grassland like habitat. The vegetation is relatively low and dense around the two lakes in the area, which are from earlier land reclamations. At this spot you’re at the end of Nordhavn with a view out on Øresund and the large-scale landfill project. In the south darker silhouettes of the characteristic cranes mark the location of Frihavnen and the building block of Unicef keeps you orientated.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: Skudehavn harbour, Sheds of Skudehavn, streets through the build area, Bridge for anchoring, A fireplace by the water, Path along the water, The pond at Nordhavnstippen, Natural paths towards Unicef building View towards the Frihavn.
exploring the site Landfill and the active harbour Visiting the northeastern part of Nordhavn, which is the biggest part of the development in the new part of Copenhagen project. The project is in this part of the harbour land reclamation to extent the existing Nordhavn with extra approx. 80 ha, so that the container port in the future can be moved from its current location and out to a new container terminal. The site is lays low in the terrain and have areas with water in the surfaces. The active part of the harbour is the western part facing the coast north of Copenhagen. This area is still an functioning harbour with noisy and heavy work going on. This side of Nordhavn and the environment is build and scaled to fit trucks driving through loading and unloading. Storing of cargo and heavy material. Simpler and more office based work is also part of the area. Materials from the construction work on the Ă˜resund tunnel was been manufactured and stored here.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: Open field of the landfill, Truck unloading, The edge of the reclamation, Shaping of the land, Storage area in the active harbour, View along the edge of the active harbour, Birdseye from the active harbour.
exploring the site Kalkbrænderihavn The area closest to the main entrance to Nordhavn by car is Kalkbrænderihavn. This neat area is composed by a small harbour area and surrounding buildings. Companies like the law firm Kromann Reumert have their offices here. The architecture is in this area is characterised by buildings drawn by Jørgen and Kim Utzon. The building masses surrounding the harbour is 4-5 stories which keeps the noise from the highly trafficked road into Nordhavn Sundkrogsgade and the main road Kalkbrænderihavnsgade at a minimum. With the tall buildings working as borders the view along the harbour have its qualities with Svanemølleværket located at the entrance to the harbour area. The coast north along Nordhavn leads out of Kalkbrænderihavn and into the active part of Nordhavn.
Pictures from the top and in the reading direction: The harbour of Kalkbrænderihavn, Svanemølleværket behind next the the harbour, Streets along the harbour, two Examples of facades in the area, Paustian House, Sculpture, Original Utzon building style, Pavement types, View towards the active part of the Harbour.
registering the transformation
Changes in the landscape from 2009 and until 2014
Århusgade towards Østerbro
The new terminal construction
the changing landscape
The challenge comes on the changes. How can a landscape architect be there when they take place. What is temporary/permanent? Nordhavn is a clear case of urban transmission. What is there will be reconstructed, distorted, give its place to something new. And this procedure has already started. Streets are blocked, new constructions pop-up. New forms are added to the skyline. Every dimension is being transformed. Changes come also on abandonment. Many buildings and the space around them, are facing the lack of action that human absence has created. Walls and ceilings falling apart, natural elements grow up. Analysing an urban landscape in transmission, applies the same principles that are implemented on a natural landscape regenaration analysis. New elements need to be isolated so they can develop untouched, new forms of life/usage appear and the early forms of life/action are the ones which will create the first fertile scenery for other to join. The frequency is changing on the scale perspective. The mind of an engineer could understand the importance of the construction formalities. On our analysis, we start with the past forms of Nordhavn, focusing on excisting elements(history,infrastructure, architecture, commercial usage, borders, fences). The present situation is the transaction point. Here we have a landscape that is reforming once again. Starting from now and following the future plans, we try to analyse and describe a form of a stressful procedure. On this analysis we will base our approach of introducing the under-development area to its future users.
Situation plan of Nordhavn 1:15000
picturesque Nordhavn Through Gilpinâ€™s book â€˜ Three essays on the picturesque â€˜ we discovered the necessary principles for creating drawings which will sufficiently show the morphology of landscape, the feelings that were created during our visits to the site, as well as the rules that should be followed so that the scenery revealed to be attributed in the best possible way. The picturesque traveler is seldom disappointed with pure nature. (Gilpin 1792)In the case of our quest, we replace pure nature with heavy industrial items that have endured over time, and have been absorbed from their surroundings. These styles are popular for the explorers of the landscape. Nordhavn is a place which mainly because of its size, conceals a variety of sets that can be considered unique although the strongest elements fulfil practical purposes a commercially active area. The contrasts created between natural and artificial forms, the open setting sky that usually occupies two-thirds of a picture, the time which has left its mark in all materials and elements of the landscape, the absence of the human body as an interactive piece of landscape, are key elements that are rendered in the paintings we created. From then on, every point was chosen to ascribe the sense of the wider region, the contrast of heavy materials and nature, the variety of forms and shapes, the size of the landscape and their interaction with the elements that are on the horizon. The tracking of the object. Love for the novelty is the basis of this pleasure. Each remote setting promises and something new. Our intention is more to convey these pictures for the readers without trying to deceive them but also reflect our feelings on them. According to Gilpin: In landscape universally, the rougher objects are admired. The beauty of catching lights arises from the roughness of objects. The province of the picturesque eye is to survey nature and not to anatomize matter. The stronger the features are, the stronger the effect of imitation. Sense is a vague idea and so is beauty. With these principles in mind we will describe and analyze the senses and the morphology of our chosen images.(Gilpin 1792)
Capturing Beautiful and Sublime with Picturesque
The effort of explorers and philosophers to captivate nature, capture time and deconstruct the particles which are contained into a landscape, has developed several approaches which analyse the position of the one towards the grandeur. Kant and Burke have distinguished Beautiful from the Sublime. The Sublime dwells to the greatness which can sometimes cause pain while Beautiful can stay to the small and pleasing. The roughness of the Sublime stands on simplicity. The Beautiful is founded on pleasure and acts by relaxing the solids of the whole system and so is the cause of all positive pleasure. Kant not only distinguishes the sublime from the beautiful like Burke, but also distinguishes between two aspects of the sublime. The dynamically sublime is the means by which we ‘become conscious of our superiority over nature within and thus also over nature without us’. The mathematically sublime reveals a faculty for considering not only ‘ourselves’ but also nature as inferior to the ideas of reason in the realms of the ideational and the rational above, as it were, the transcendental and extra-terrestrial. This aspect of the sublime is especially important when considering the history of communication technologies, including photography, as they involve transcending the earthly into the extraterrestrial. (Giblett 2012) Our effort to introduce our impression and the aesthetics of Nordhavn through a picturesque approach, is not intending to filter the existing situation through an approach which will trick the reader, but to give all the impressions and emotions we got through our visits, and also to reflect the aesthetics and morphology a soon former industrial ‘under transition’ area can give to its future users.
It is impossible for someone not to notice this formulation of four towering buildings while passing by from Ă…rhusgadekvarteter. The two round silos transforming into a mix of residential and commercial apartments and the two square abandoned buildings soon to be renovated as residences. Their size overcomes their forms, making the visitor realise the scale and their strong presence almost touching the sky. A lot of people will have possibly thought how the view is
from up there. The sky colours are reflecting on the walls. Movement is almost unnoticeable. While the constructions are processing, the way the cranes move interject the sky line. The ground level is continuously transforming. While the area is transforming, piles of tar and gravel conduct new paths around the buildings. You want to climb up so at least feel closer to the top.
Someone can realize the variety of ages. The first buildings of the area lying next to warehouses which have been left unused for several years. Everything serves a special purpose. Or used to. Colours and material combine together. Wood and concrete, red grey and pales of green. The silos stand on the background. We feel isolated in an area surrounded by construction works. We can hear the sound of the excavators and see the cranes moving. Humidity lets life
grow and expand. The absence of the human form wasnâ€™t a problem for us to imagine an area revived to an active district. As we try to get into the abandoned warehouses, we can see time in action. Pallets, construction material, broken glass and fallen ceilings. Window frames out of their position placed in the courtyard covered by climbing plants and shrubbery. Natural elements hold the area alive, highlighting the past, feeling strange about the future.
View towards the UN building
There is a barrier. A distance where you are not able to move forward, get closer to the water. In the background stays the formal building of the United Nations Organisation. Another monument of the first world. A statement of power. Its surroundings are under construction. Parts of the city are visible. Parts of Langelinie as well. Everything is blur and the sun light very strong. Even the area is open,
there are no alternative ways to move. Only where the construction company allows to. It looks like a beachside from our perspective. The gravel aligns with water. The formation of the skyline is very strict. The sky is open. Tones of grey blue and green format the scenery.
New view from the design pier
Ă…rhusgade pier is being revealed completely. The new plan asks for some of the buildings to be removed. The view towards the city is more open. You can identify parts and neighbourhoods of Copenhagen. Marmokirken, Christianshavn are being revealed as the building is being demolished. It is a spot where one can see the process of the planned development. The frame is equally divided. Water, buildings, sky. It is the point where you first understand the
depth of the background. The distance between Nordhavn and the inner city of Copenhagen. The reflections on the water show the tremendous size of the silos and the warehouses lying there. We have a clear view of the area. So clear that whenever we notice a person moving, we get more excited about the proportions.
View towards Frihavn
Every detail is visible. Every particle, small or big, can be described. There is continuity, repetition. Every part stands there for a specific reason. Practicality in large scale. Action takes place only when a cargo ship needs to be unloaded. Restricted area, carries a big load of Denmarkâ€™s commercial activity. From our view point everything seems so small. Lines standing horizontally and vertically. An area undiscovered. A place which transforms frequently. Colours are used to
identify. Everything is artificial. The human overcame on nature. But still so magnificent when you see the proportions, when you can identify the human figure using the area. It looked like a section, a clear cut in motion. We were trying to recall some scenes from Wes Anderson’s ‘The Life Aquatic’, where the director had created a section of Steve Zissou’s ship, ‘Belafonte’. The practical life of a harbour.
The terrain formed by the pipes used as water blockage, has created a colourful environment aligned next to water. The area is not so active anymore. The cranes are rusting and one can tell the affection on their surface by lying next to the sea all this time. Materials which have fulfilled their purpose and lay waiting for their next possible mission. Even if not, their formation still gives potential.
old Skudehavnâ€™s pond
Behind Frihavn, a pond left untouched to grow and expand has created a nature like environment which tries to hide the forms of the cranes and containers. Shrubs and trees have been left free to grow, lying next to the water. The sun light creates shadows of different shapes and density. The cranes lay behind a dense planted area. There one can feel isolated. This awkwardness that nature and heavy materials produce, can still identify the overcome of human civilisation against nature. But the way that the natural elements have expanded, creates a harmonic coexistence. Here you can left time go by and just explore this special combination. Recreation on rust and green.
The old Jet Ski Club
Reaching the first boundaries of the new parts of Nordhavn. A deserted area that has just been mapped. Existing abandoned elements lying next to new piles of ground. Borders are not clear, only fenced areas create spaces. Close to a moon landscape which is ready to be concurred. The small floating cabin can tell that there was a kind of activity in the past. We can feel the dust in the air. We can see that we are getting closer to the expansion. Grey and blue. The sky is open.
The point where nature has prevailed. A grazing field has grown up, surrounding the pond. A refuge for birds. The wind plays with the meadow. The expansion works fade out in the background. It is the part where you can see the first visitors. Everybody come here to get some traces of life. A pocket natural refuge. The water seems clear. Blue-green .The sky is open and the sunlight reflects so clearly in the water. The terrain is rising up around the water. Tree lines form the borders hiding the buildings that lay in the background.
Every single spot has a story to tell. A praise to individualism. We decided to imprint that feeling in our sketch. The houses align like the fishing boats behind us. The small streets lead you to a district where every house or container tell the story of their owner. Local activities. Ship maintenance, rust and brine. DIY constructions.
Undefined forms of land. Tons of gravel coming from Copenhagenâ€™s underground layer. Grey and green intruding the water. The excavators add movement in the scenery. Anticipation and need to get there. To see the result. The northern greener parts of the city add a contrast
The new viewpoint to the city. A long straight line fades out into the horizon, almost touching the city. Simple lines describe the skyline. Straight lines connect new port with Copenhagen inner city. RefshaleĂ¸en, churches, wind generators, towers. Whenever the sun appears, everything is blur. A huge construction ready to be the cityâ€™s new terminal. Blue and grey, Tar, water and plastic.
The previous description gave and introduction to the places and spaces. By exploring the site on foot and watching the Nordhavn in eye height we get to understand how spaces and atmospheres work physically on the body. Determining how the Nordhavn is composed is descripted in a different scale. To analysis the landscape we zoom out and go to a grater scale to grasp everything in one map. In the composition we detect how Nordhavn can be visualized with four different themes. Each theme is drawn on to separate maps and combining the layers creates Nordhavn as a whole. Analysing the build structures gives an image of the space and density created by the buildings. The infrastructure of streets and paths through the harbour show the connections through the area. The borders has both the physical borders which a building or fence creates but also the restricted parts that create a mental border. The accessibility layer gives a clear picture of how and where your can move around in Nordhavn.
The ouTLiNe of NordhavN, describes a pracTicaL LaNdscape, curved To serve The Needs of The commerciaL acTiviTies
compariNg To iTs scaLe The deNsiTy of The buiLdiNgs is very Low. The earLy parTs seem To be more deNse, aNd The deveLopmeNT evoLves as The area expaNds.
big aNd opeN iNfrasTrucTure, fuLLfiLs The Needs of heavy vehicLes To drive arouNd The area
The borders are creaTed basicaLy from The resTricTioNs of a ToLL harbour, The privaTe properTies aNd The areas uNder coNsTrucTioN
This iLLusTraTioN describes The accesibLe parTs of The harbour. opeN areas iNside aNd beTweeN The feNces.
choosing the special spots of Nordhavn â€œThe perceived world is not only my world, but the one in which I see the behaviour of other people take shape, for their behaviour equally aims at this world, which is the correlative not only of my consciousness, but of any consciousness which I can possibly encounter. ... It is true that I see what I do see only from a certain angle, and I concede that a spectator differently placed sees what I can only conjecture. But these other spectacles are implied in mine at this moment.â€?(Boetzkes 2010)
Criteria Why are we using these areas? It reflects the cultural heritage of the site. It is a unique area amongst the general feeling of the site. Encapsulates material which could be used as ingredients for temporary installations. It is included to the future development of the area, or it is a viewpoint where people can observe the overall area and the progress of the constructions.
Habitats Pipes landfill Piles/ old jet ski club
Old Skudehavn water basin
Why are these areas special, and how can they reflect their qualities Århusgadekvarteret/silos
The new urban district expansion starts from this point, passer-by’s first visual contact with the construction works. Århusgadekvarteret’s architecture reflects the historical background of Nordhavn. Warehouses, abandoned courtyards, amongst engineering offices and other active companies, create great potentials for mixing up temporary uses on a mixed urban district.
It is an active part of the area. Except of the cruise terminal, many businesses involved with designing, have their base into the ole buildings of this pier. Modern culture and design meets old architecture. It is included to the future development and going to be divided into smaller islands.
The toll harbour is a restricted area, an area where instant urbanism applications can take place. The vision of interacting with a temporary urban grid created by containers, was the first thought that came up to our minds. The potentials that this whole of materials and tools creates, is exciting, but only from a utopian perspective.
Old Skudehavn water basin
A unique area surrounded by the active parts of Nordhavn. Not easily accessible, since most of the private companies lie their fences very close to the coast line. An area where natural elements have been left untouched for some years. The water is polluted and the soil possibly, but it is possible to harvest berries during autumn.
A part of the old harbour where the pipes used for water-blocking constructions lie down. An open view towards the northern suburbs of Copenhagen. An interesting terrain created by these piles of rusted over-scaled materials, combined with the presence of cranes, incite a playful atmosphere.
Sailors, fishermen, kayak clubs, sailing clubs, have created a special environment, with respect to each otherâ€™s identity. Containers lie upon another, have created a dense small scale district where individuality is highlighted on each property.
Piles/ old jet ski club
A former functioning area. Where big piles of gravel combine with abandoned cabins and industrial tools. The first open view to the new land expansion. Plenty of materials and potentials. An area where the openness is being interrupted by the piles of gravel.
One of the few spots with a strong nature like feeling.
An open futuristic landscape. A space with no definition, transforming almost every day. The base ground of the future plan.
Lying at the edges of the piers, or at the furthest points of Nordhavn, each viewpoint provides visual connection with Copenhagens suburbs, providing also to the viewer uppdates of the ongoing development.
Workflow on creating the paths The following methodology supports the quest of quality in the landscape, implemented by the specific criteria made. A first step was to locate the spots which fulfil the criteria we premised earlier. Areas with special characteristics and energy which could be special attraction points, due to their uniqueness, history and form. Thinking outside of the broad landscape and its restrictions. Discovering and highlighting points where someone could create an experience. Where there is a chance for future implementations and transformation. According to the criteria, we came up to fourteen areas/spots. These are going to be the attraction points of the paths, where one can simply identify and relate with.
rendering of the broad landscape. Nordhavn seems to divide into three sub areas: The three peers facing the city, a mix of urban constructions, monuments, modern culture and heavy shipping works. The active port, a place where most of the present commercial activities of the harbour are taking place. An area which contains the most unique spots, comparing to the general feeling of Nordhavn. Where water would be used a clear border for the pathsâ€™ engraving. The landfill area, a moon landscape. This area represents the future development of Nordhavn and it is a unique landscape for the broader area of Scandinavia.
Formating the paths The challenge of creating a map of experiences in Nordhavn, drove us through the analysis to realize that the area according to its present situation, is divided into three different spaces, defined by their present use characteristics, their level of transformation and accessibility. The connection between the attraction spots weâ€™ve chosen earlier, is going to be according to where they are placed. The forms that the paths are going to have, are following the principles the existing landscape has created. Here comes our willing to break and play
with the borders, debate with the present conditions. It is the first approach of introducing the future plan of the area to its base ground. Create new connections, take down fences and take a peek to the restrictions and formalities.
compariNg The iNfrasTrucTures
As we described earlier, the infrastructure of the present situation, is helping the commercial needs of the harbour. Trucks and heavy machinery drive around the area, either loading and unloading piles of gravel, concrete, tarnac and mud, materials needed for the land expansion and the progress of the construction works, or loading containers of ware directed for the commercial public of Denmark. This network gives the freedom to the drivers to drive in a high speed. areas like Skudehavn and Ă…rhusgadekvarteter with more dense infrastructure are providing an escape from the noise and speed. Inbetween the main infrastructure and the fences are small paths that can lead towards the coastline. Comparing the existing infrastructure with the one given from the future masterplan, we see that the wide open roads are going to be replaced from a dense network that will give the chance to pedestrians. There are four districts connected by the metro line. The planners are giving their main focus on public transportation. Reading the description of the future development, we discovered that the plan is also adding alternative ways of transpostation, promoting the liquid element which surrounds the area. These principles are giving us the opportunity, since we are standing on the transition point, to introduce them to the people of Copenhagen as alternative ways of exploring the site.
nordhavn present path system
nordhavn future path system
possible routes based on the present situation
The way to explore the area is totaly defined by the borders and the elements lying around. Access is depended on privacy when we walk/cycle. Even the open areas have elements that limit the ease of access. The path going through the site reflects an infrastructure based on a landscape of indstrial purpose. The landscape we are going to create a route for is having itâ€™s qualities highlighted. Compared with other landscapes and urban sites the existing route through Nordhavn is limited to and infrastucture for cars. The path system of Nordhavn is been compared to the urban areas of NY, Paris and South Sweden.
NY urban path grid,
paris urban path system,
south sweden landscape system of paths, in a rural landscape
Which principles we take into consideration on designing the path which is going to connect the spots? Has to involve pedestrians and cyclists, crossing the main infrastructure to give the extra option for the users to use alternative ways of transportation Has to interact with the artificial and natural environment It has to be able to transform and adjust to the future development It has to interact with the points which are under construction It has to introduce the future ways the area is going to be used There would be deactivated parts of the path system which could be accessible for special occasions
The three paths connectingthe spots
Letâ€™s follow the paths
No1: The form of the route which is going to connect Ă…rhusgadekvarteret, the Design Pier and Frihavn, is based on a mix between the existing morphology of the area, the borders created from the construction activities taking place there and the master plan of the future development. The master plan of the future development shows that the area will transform into a residential district whose infrastructure will promote new connections and borders between land and water.
Starting from Billedgade the visual connection with the towers lying by the water will lead us there. Walking through piles of tar heavy materials and constructions we end up to the edge of the pier. There is the option of going down the pier to enjoy the view towards the city and the building or cross the first Pontoon Bridge. Pontoon bridge or floating bridge or bridge of boats is a bridge that floats on water and in which barge- or boat-like pontoons support the bridge deck and its dynamic loads. While pontoon bridges are usually temporary structures, some are used for long periods of time. Permanent floating bridges are useful for sheltered water-crossings where it is not considered economically feasible to suspend a bridge from anchored piers. Such bridges can require a section that is elevated, or can be raised or removed, to allow ships to pass. (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontoon_bridge) Getting to the Design Pier we can follow the line of the buildings and take a look to the vitrines of the design companies which reside there, ending up to the observatory which is the second view point of the route. This is a view point which one can observe the progress of the constructions going on Ă…rhusgadekvarteret. We use the second Pontoon bridge to cross the water towards Frihavn. The access to Frihavn is given basically to explore forms which stay close to an urban environment. The scenes created by the presence of human forms on a restricted but still very close to an urban context space, will break this awkwardness and will give Frihavn traces from its future condition. The main goal is to fit all the spots selected into a route of alternative experiences and lengths. One can choose and walk all the way to the container pier or just try to enjoy the view points towards the city, take a break from reality and explore the open sky. The routes are made mostly from traces of the existing elements, pavements, streets, piles of gravel, interacting with the ongoing development. During our visits, we noticed the present level of constructions. The part of the pier towards the round silos is further not accessible, Ă…rhusgade was being excavated for the sewer and communications network. The rectangle silos were being emptied, leaving huge piles of materials lying around. That area is presently carrying a very intense load of constructions, giving also materials and space for alternative use.
using path no1
through the towers
on the bridge
on the way to frihavn
No2: Our goal through this route is to connect Old Skudehavn with New Skudehavn by using a path of which the water will stay on one of the sides on the biggest part of its length. This path will try to break any borders that finds on its way, mainly created by private spaces. The users will have the chance to experience what is going on through the active part of Nordhavn. An area conducted mostly by active companies whose one side of their land is laying by the water. Starting from old Skudehavn, an area unique which combines nature and rust, the visitor will head through private properties to the northwest part of Nordhavn. From there one can follow this promenade all the way up to the north. A part of the route where water stays on the left side, while the right side is full of out scaled elements, like ruins of a former civilization. Pipes,
cranes, containers, piles of recyclable materials, wood and steel. All the parts of the path are visible through the whole way down to New Skudehavn. After making the round of the port, the visitor is close to New Skudehavn, the special neighbourhood of Nordhavn. The architecture is unique, people are friendly, the small harbour is peaceful, the view to the northern suburbs of Copenhagen is becomes more clear. Our intentions are to create a walk through the active but still historical part of Nordhavn. The materials lying around combined with the continuous presence
using path no2
of the sea, create a playful atmosphere. It is a part of Nordhavn preserved by its present owners/stakeholders, people able to use heavy machinery but also handy and practical. Any kind of interventions that will stand by the routes, will try to highlight the industrial atmosphere, its forms and size. Mostly with a playful approach, this out of scale playground will try to promote the history of the local businesses, giving a sort of a tribute to their contribution on the area and its present form.
from old skudehavn
on the way to new skudehavn
No3 ‘Parks exist before they are finished, they remain carriers of the unexpected and of contradiction on all levels of human activity, be it social, political, or natural.’ (Smithson 1979). This part from ‘The Writings of Robert Smithson’ inspired us to see this side of Nordhavn as the most unclear and undefined morphology, since it is the earliest piece of the harbour and it still expands with parts of Copenhagen’s underground. This route stays into its own context. Placed basically in the backwoods of Nordhavn, getting there might be a bit challenging. The main infrastructure network can lead there. There are different ways getting into and experiencing the area, as in an urban park. One can first go on the northwest, explore the
habitats, the landfill and end up at the new port. It is also possible the other way around. As you can see on the map the entrances differ. The habitats have been described as an area which can attract small forms of wildlife. The area is peaceful and accessible. The two ponds where the jetski club used to activate, have formed an area on hold, meaning that there are waiting for the new development to arrive. The northeast part, where the landfill is taking place, is a very tense construction site, where on the same time
using path no3
Nordhavn expands and the New Port terminal is being constructed. Our goal is to work with an open landscape, defined by the positions of temporary elements. Piles of gravel, DIY installations and artwork will form an area open for exploration and experimentations. The placement of the four ponds inspired us to create a path system based on organic forms which are going to intersect, giving alternative potentials of experiences.
from the ponds
exlporing the landfill
to the new port
Paths applied on the map 1:15000
Nordhavn as an exhibition space with no deadline
The goal of this part of our assignment is to identify and clarify the goals and principles of an ongoing exhibition of artwork installations which are going to stand while the development of the broad area takes place. Areas with different characteristics will be chosen to communicate the aesthetics discovered through our analysis. Our mission is to preserve a continuous interaction between artistic expression and urban development. We want this kind of interaction to create an early attachment between the area and its future users.
The selected spots as parts of the designed paths
Selecting spots which have the potential of becoming open exhibition spaces and programming the strategies that need to be applied was a combination of site analysis with the result of the conceptual paths design. Each route reflects different qualities and ways of exploration. These experiences drove us to the conclusion that it was not necessary for each path to have its own spot. The spots stay out of the paths from the perspective of using them as independent spaces which are going to express the principles we want to communicate through them. But they stay in line with what the paths represent on the level of quality and aesthetics they include. Nordhavn contains buildings, open areas and materials which can provide an open canvas for creativity. Through our picturesque reflections, we defined the relation of the explorer/observer with the forms and morphology of the broad area. By creating paths we managed to give the ideal way to experience the qualities of the site. Now we are going to describe the conditions which every single spot can develop a basis where public art could applied. Public art has a broad scope with many possibilities for the form, function, materials and degree of permanency of the artwork. It can include any one or more of the following forms:
Stand Alone: freestanding artworks that are not part of a building or other structure, such as sculptures and objects. Applied: artwork that is applied to a surface, such as artworks applied to building facades, or murals on walls. Integrated: artwork that is successfully integrated into the design and function of a place, through the collaboration of an artist with the design team. Industrial: artwork that serves an operational function within the built environment, such as seating, bike racks, paving, fencing or lighting that has been designed by an artist. Heritage / Memorial: artwork designed to recognise the history or cultural heritage of a place, or to commemorate a person or past event. Interactive: artwork that the public can interact with, beyond merely touching the work, such as works incorporating sound, lighting or movement that respond to public or environmental interaction. Multimedia: artwork produced or displayed through the use of technical media such as digital imagery, film, video, and photography or projection art. Temporary: artwork designed to be installed for a short time frame (e.g. 1 week to 1 year), such as artwork in a seasonal program or art made with materials that are intended to only last for a limited time. Ephemeral: art that is transitory in nature, usually designed as an experience or event and lasting for only a short period, such as performance art, music, dance or exhibitions. Indigenous Art: cultural, heritage or contemporary artworks that are specifically commissioned to be created by indigenous artists and/or to have involvement of local indigenous people. Community Art: artwork that is created with the involvement of community members or groups, such as local residents or school students. Community art is usually produced through collaboration between a qualified artist and the community group. These different forms of expression could be easily applied as a canal to imply the history, culture, present and future state of the area. The term temporary though, will stand as a priority to our approach, since the planned constructions will transform Nordhavn in many levels. (MRA 2012)
This part of Ă…rhugade quarter contains abandoned warehouses of different sizes and versatilities. Most of the commercial activities moved out of the area, since the planned constructions have already surrounded the district. The buildings have been left empty and inactive for many months and years. They will stay on this situation before they get renovated or demolished. According to the master plan of the constructions, this area will keep its present form but it will be transformed into residential buildings.
Our vision is to create a vivid ‘urban island’. An area which is going to be the transition point for Århusgade quarter. Surrounded by heavy construction works, it will try to transfer the area’s present and past experiences to the future final form of Nordhavn. We want a social and yet experiencing temporary concept which shows how the impact of time can leave its traces to the relationship between the human figure and abandoned spaces.
Guidelines for installations
The principles that we want this area to reflect are staying mostly on how nature reclaims an abandoned former ‘civilised’ area. The space of the warehouses will be open for creative people to reflect these principles into temporary installations which will stay until the area needs to be evacuated. By that time (approx. from today until 2016?) the area will be transformed into a living exhibition district gallery to its open and closed spaces, open to creativity and interaction.
References Inside a crumbling building (property the Latvian Museum of Contemporary Art), the duo of fashion designers Mareunrol’s, together with Austrian scenographer Rüdolfs Bekics, light artist Krišjanis Strazditis and sound designer Kaspars Groševs created an unusual installation called Eden: a road to a luscious forest growing inside the structure. While the building was left unused for years, trees grew there on their own. With the help of Mareunrol’s and team, this abandoned space became a temporary shelter from the constant noise and hum of the outside world. After conquering a labyrinth of claustrophobic, somber corridors, the visitors entered a wild indoor microcosm, an urban garden of Eden. (Drenga 2010)
Hungary unveiled the design for their pavilion for next year’s Shanghai World Expo, designed by Tamás Lévai. Gömböc, as a Hungarian invention, is the central element of the exhibition, a two meter high solid Plexiglas moving object. What is Gömböc (pronounced as ‘goemboets‘)? ‘Gömböc’ is the first known homogenous object with one stable and one unstable equilibrium point, thus with two equilibria altogether on a horizontal surface. It can be proven that no object with less than two equilibria exists. The discovery of the inaccessible path has led to the idea of GÖMBÖC. The pavilion as wood is intended to represent this path, and since it is of immaterial nature, we are trying to evoke it with nonmaterials: empty space, light and sounds. (Jordana 2009)
Container City Description of space
Frihavn is a restricted flat area. How the cargo containers lay is the only way there could be any interest on creating a terrain. The line-up changes very frequently. Cargo ships and trucks load and load in an everyday basis.
The Danish Parliament has already started working with the legislations which are going to release the area where Frihavn lays, so the development could progress further to the northern parts on Nordhavn. There, from the time the harbour needs to empty and before the new plan for the area will be decided,
there is a period full of potentials and room for experimentation. We present the Small Temporary Great Urban Landscape. An area open for experiments concerning urban scale and interactions between buildings and open spaces. Containers can replace the forms of buildings, giving the potential of imitating existing urban morphologies. Festivals, workshops will take place into this temporary district, which will try to represent all different movements of urban temporality. Architects, designers and academics will create a forum where the future form of Nordhavn can be replicated and used.
Guidelines for installations
Forms of tactical or temporary installations, DIY constructions will form parts of this city replica.
Land Reclamation Description of space
As it has been described earlier, the ongoing land fill that is taking place at the northeast side of Nordhavn, has created an open, continuously transforming terrain. It is a clear impact of engineering, invading the sea to provide a new blank space for human development. This space with no past, a very intense present, is going to provide the ground for Copenhagen future progress.
After reading â€˜The Ethics of Earth Artâ€™ we concluded on what Boetzkes states. Earth artists take an ethical stance that counters both the instrumental view that seeks to master nature and the Romantic view that posits a return to a mythical state of unencumbered continuity with nature. This values need to be communicated through this process. Mediating between the ecologist and the industrialist, the site will hold artworks which will define the progress of the works and express the need for reconnecting with nature. Even though it seems almost hypocritical, we believe that art is worth when it makes a statement. Beyus states: â€˜Everyone should participate in the shaping of society and in so
doing, every person should realize his or her potential to be an artist’. As in the previous exhibition spots, all the interventions aim to be the starting points of societies in growth. But the point of departure on every spot is in a different level. Billedgade has a past that is going to be preserved on the future development. Frihavn will transform completely. The Land Reclamation is an infancy of contemporary human social evolution.
Guidelines for installations.
Smithson on his essay on the ‘Spiral Jetty’(Smithson 1979), quotes very artfully: ... . the earth’s history seems at times like a story recorded in a book each page of which is torn into small pieces. Many of the pages and some of the pieces of each page are missing….?
This description led us to the decision of proposing this ground to be also a canvas for creation which is going to symbolise this intrusion. An out of scale piece of land art. His statement stays basically on the complexity of nature. This is where we need to stay noble and respectful. The artworks need to pass this message. Lay by the constructions and remind this greatness to everyone who is involved and also to the future users of the area. Like a pin point on time. A timeline of this progress.
Jaakko Pernu is a Finnish sculptor and artist who uses natural materials to create massive structures that illustrate the relationship between nature and its inhabitants. Pernu grew up helping his father build wooden boats, and used those skills to build grand homages to nature. Pernu then leaves his sculptures to the elements, allowing them to degrade naturally so that the materials return to the earth. The artistâ€™s work will probably remind you of Jaehyo Lee, whom we interviewed about his own environmental sculptures. (Turto 2008)
chair for the big family
The Central Atlantic Shelf is an approximately 15,000 kilometer-long mountain range, mostly hidden at the bottom of the ocean. From the geological point of view it forms the dividing line between Europe and America. Today we know that the Central Atlantic Shelf is part of a bigger system which circles the entire globe for nearly 70,000 kilometers. It goes from Iceland to the north between Spitzbergen and Greenland, continuing through the Arctic Ocean to the mouth of the Lena River in Siberia. Iceland is the only place where the Central Atlantic Shelf goes above the sea. (JetelavĂĄ 1992) Central Atlantic Shelf
â€œI smelled the earth, the stones, the freshly struck wood. I built the nest walls high and twisted the soil of the nest. From the height of the edge of the nest I looked down on the forest soil, up into the branch work of the trees and into the sky. I heard the singing of the birds and felt the breath of the wind. In the dawn I began to freeze. The nest was not finished yet. I thought, high above on the edge of the nest squatting: I build myself a house, it sinks silently past the tops of the trees on the forest soil, openly to the cold night sky and nevertheless warmly and softly, deeply into the dark earth dug.â€? (Udo 1978)
the nest from a bird view
Along the three paths ligh rooms will be placed in locations chosen for creating a respite from darkness through winter and bad weather.
Light Rooms are constructed of translucent polycarbonate panels, enclosing simple benches for up to twelve people. A full-spectrum, ten-thousand-lux light source bounces light off one opaque wall, simultaneously flooding the interior with light and creating a glowing neighborhood beacon. (Moskow 2010)
As in the previous exhibition spots, all the interventions aim to be the starting points of societies in growth. But the point of departure on every spot is in a different level. Billedgade has a past that is going to be preserved on the future development. Frihavn will transform completely. The Land Reclamation is an infancy of contemporary human social evolution.
Pushing our knowledge and background towards the field of a curator. Our work was focused in discovering on site qualities and trying to create stories. These stories are going to be the start of a discussion. Is a landscape under construction able to receive the presence of the human form? From which level can urban planning start using temporary installations? Since landscape planners and architects are able to read and analyse spaces, how would it beafter receiving the appropriate knowledge-to curate outdoor art installations? Through Smithsonâ€™s writings we discovered that a land artist, as most of the artists, is difficult to create after request. Thatâ€™s why they become curators of their work. The impact of their art towards the landscape could be big, on levels where one can say that they work also as landscape architects. Temporary installations are a strategic key for understanding peopleâ€™s needs and applying them under new urban plans and strategies. An area which is going to be ready in thirty years approximately, it could use temporality to get through this whole period also as a space of experimental applications. People are trying to discover new uses on the spaces created between the buildings. We managed to overcome all the questions raised during the work of the past 6 months and we provide a guide as a base field for future implementations. Gathering all the necessary informations to create stories which have not be filtered in order to attract. Nordhavn has been transforming since the late 19th century. The frequency of the development has been raised the past two years and it will go on through the years coming. This contingency can take advantage of these needs and create life and values even before the new district is ready to receive its new users. The heart of a romantic is always trying to find its safe spot so it can observe and receive. This approach gave us the free mind to receive everything that Nordhavn was giving to us. So we could communicate all the present values through this paper and define the specific spots where a story is waiting to be told again. And also we managed to provide the space and describe the principles where the three different levels of urban antiquity can use temporality to create new stories, new values and start relating their future users with the development of the area.
References Boetzkes, A (2010) Ethics of Earth Art, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis USA By & Havn i/s, cobe, sleth, polyform, rambĂ¸ll (2012) inner Nordhavn - from idea to project, udviklingsselvskabet by & havn i/s. Giblett, R, Tolonen, J (2012) Photography and landscape, Intellect, The University of Chicago Press Gilpin, W (1792) Three essays on the picturesque, R. Blamire in the strand, London Moskow, K & Linn, R (2010). small scale creative solutions for better city living, princeton architectural press, p57 MRA, Metropolitan Redevelopment Authority (2012) Perth waterfront Public art strategy, Government of western Australia, http://media.mra.wa.gov.au/Documents/ Elizabeth-Quay/13682_41052_Elizabeth-Quay-Public-Art-Strategy.pdf, p3-4, last accessed 24 Feb 2014 Smithson, R (1979) The Writings of Robert Smithson: Essays with Illustrations, New York University Press
Drenga, O (2010) Forest I Carry Inside, viewed 24 Feb 2014, http://coilhouse. net/2010/10/forest-i-carry-inside Jetelovรก, M (1992) Iceland, viewed 25 Feb 2014, http://www.jetelova.de/project/ iceland-1992 Jordana, S (2009) Hungarian Pavillion for Shanghai Expo 2010, viewed 24 Feb 2014, http://www.archdaily.com/?p=33339 Steven, S (2010) The history guide, viewed 19 Dec 2013, http://www. historyguide.org/intellect/romanticism.html Turto, L (2008) Jaakko Pernu, viewed 25 Feb 2014, http://www.environmentalart. net/pernu Udo, N (1978) The Nest, viewed, 26 Feb 2014, http://greenmuseum.org/content/ work_index/img_id-293__prev_size-0__artist_id-36__work_id-66.html
Image credits Page 7
Aerial photo of Nordhavn 1:50 000 Orthophoto: COWI FOT®LAND 2013 Development of Nordhavn From 1850-20?? Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Aerial photos of Nordhavn from 1954-2013 Orthophoto: COWI DDO®LAND 1954, 1995, 1999 COWI DDO®CITY 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 COWI FOT®LAND 2013 Masterplan of Nordhavn Plan: By & Havn
Goodrich castle on the wye, viewed 19 Dec 2013, Image: http://www.rc.umd.edu/sites/default/files/ galleryOriginals/ 4544deff3d0764a1ee8c5e8ee55bdc51.jpg Swanage, viewed 19 Dec 13, Image: http://www.rc.umd.edu/sites/default/files/ galleryOriginals/ c53e656d9b57888761960a6b486becfb_0.jpg Tintern Abbey, viewed 19 Dec 2013, Image: http://www.rc.umd.edu/sites/default/files/ styles/gallery_node/public/galleryOriginals/ 42fcf492693168138691bde56ff2b8f0.jpg?itok=_pcMBaW7
Page 17, 19, 21, 23, 25 & 27
Collages of photos from each area in Nordhavn: Århusagdekvarteret, Designpier, Frihavn, Kalkbrænderihavn, Active Harbour, Old Skudehavn, Skudehavn, Landfill area, Habitats and the New Terminal. All photos taken over a period of five months. Photos: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Page 28 & 29
June 2009 Photo: Google Streetview Sep 2013 & Jan 2014 Photos: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Pages 30 & 31
Jun 2009 Photo: Google Streetview Sep 2013 & Jan 2014 Photos: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Pages 32 & 33
Jun 2009 Photo: Google Streetview Oct 2013 Photo: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Page 34 & 35
Sep 2013 & Jan 2014-03-04 Photos: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Page 36 & 37
Oct 2013, Jan 2014 & Oct 2013 Photos: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Situation Plan Plan: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Picturesque representation of sites in Nordhavn: Silos, Århusgade district, View towards the UN building, New view from the design pier, View towards Frihavn, The pipes, Old Skudehavn’s pond, the old jetski club, Habitats, Skudehavn, Land reclamation & New port. Illustrations: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
The outline, building, infrastructure, borders & accesible parts Illustrations: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas Overview map of Nordhavn with spots locations Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Nordhavn sub divided in three area Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Nordhavn present path system & future path system Illustrations: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Possible routes based on the present situation Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Representation of urban path system from New York, Paris & Skaane Illustrations: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
The three paths connected with the spots Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Path No1 1:8000 Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Using Path No1, Through the towers, Crossing the bridge & On the way to Frihavn Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Path No2 1:8000 Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Using path No2, From old Skudehavn, On the way to Skudehavn & Skudehavn
Path No3 1:10000 Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Using path No3, From the ponds, Exploring the landfill & To the new port Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Plan of Nordhavn with the paths Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Paths applied on the map 1:15000 Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Pages 106 & 107
Billedvej, Århusgadekvarteret Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Eden, viewed 24 Feb 2014 Photo: http://coilhouse.net/wp-content/uploads/ 2010/10/mareunrols-eden.jpg
Gömböc, viewed 24 Feb2014 Photo: http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/ uploads/2009/08/ 1251389040-dia-095-inner-structure-with-artificial-light-952x900.jpg
Pages 110 & 111
Container city Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Pages 112 & 113
Land reclamation Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Chair of willow, viewed 24 Feb 2014
Photo: http://www.environmentalart.net/pernu/ for%2Bthe%2Bbig%2Bfamily,%2Bkorkeus%2B6,5%2Bmw.jpg Iceland, viewed 24 Feb 2014 Photo: http://www.jetelova.de/project/ wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Iceland-08.jpg
The nest, viewed 24 Feb 2014 Photo: http://deepspacearts.com/wp-content/ uploads/2011/08/nils-udo1.jpeg
The nest at the land reclamation of Nordhavn Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Light rooms in Nordhavn Illustration: Peter Overgaard and Georgios Psychas
Light room Illustration: Moskow, K & Linn, R (2010). small scale creative solutions for better city living, princeton architectural press, p57
This is the thesis of Georgios Psychas and Peter Holt Overgaard.