PhotoED Magazine Spring/Summer 2017 - Celebrating Canada

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spring/summer 2017




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contents 9 Ten WOMEN in

Canadian Photo History Everyone Should Know About

60 PhotoEd PLATFORM by Rita Godlevskis

62 What makes Canada a great place for photographers?

by Laura Jones



Canadians at Work /Canadiens au travail

26 Naomi Harris OH CANADA! by Beverley Laing

35 Rediscovering DON NEWLANDS by Dolores Gubasta



Woodworkers Along the Salish Sea By Cece M. Scott

48 COSMOPOLIS by Colin Boyd Shafer

52 ARIANNE CLÉMENT 100 Ans, Âge de Beauté by Mehreen Shahid

58 Elijah Monroe’s IDENTITY

by Chris Pepper

66 The Future of Canadian Photography by Alexis Marie Chute




74 WILLIAM NOTMAN’S CANADA by Robert G. Wilson

78 PHOTOCHROMS Canada in Colour by John Morden


The First 360-Degree Panoramic Camera by Cassandra Rowbotham

82 Benjamin Baltzly

Top left: Chris Pepper Top right: Elijah Monroe Bottom: Bouche Photography/ Cover photo: Our cover photo featuring Stompin’ Tom Connors by Don Newlands was taken as part of a Maclean’s photo shoot in 1972. Don Newlands/KlixPix

A 19th Century Photographer by Robert G. Wilson


This project has been made possible in part by the Government of Canada.

editor’s note Welcome to our first ever digital edition! If you like what you’re seeing online - BUY the print version online or at your local newsstand. After 16 years and 49 issues the time has come for me to leave this post, so this will be my last note as the Editor. PhotoEd magazine was founded in the spirit of educating, motivating, and inspiring people who are passionate about photography. It has been a labour of love and has nourished my own passion for image-making. We have featured too many photographers to list here, and I have the greatest respect for their generosity and willingness to share their passion and talent. I want to thank all the PhotoEd contributors that I have worked with over the years who wrote articles and shared their images, stories and techniques. Thanks to our copy editor, Deborah Cooper-Bullock, for making PhotoEd and the PhotoEd GUIDE to Photography look great. Rita Godlevskis who has contributed to 48 of the past 49 issues, is the creative behind the professional look of the magazine. She has been much more than an art director and has contributed greatly to the publication’s success. Rita will now be taking over as editor and I wish her continued success. Of course, a special thank you to my wife, Yolanda, for her patience, help, and support. A huge thank you to our advertisers, who have shared our belief in the power of Canadian photography in print, and it goes without saying that the support and encouragement of our readers has been crucial in all PhotoEd endeavours. Felix Russo/




spring/summer 2017 - Issue 49 ISSN 1708-282X Editor Art Director

Felix Russo Rita Godlevskis

Contributing Art Director

Ruth Alves

Contributing Writers

Colin Boyd Shafer Alexis Marie Chute Dolores Gubasta Laura Jones Beverley Laing John Morden Chris Pepper Cassandra Rowbotham Mehreen Shahid Robert G. Wilson

Copy Editor

Deborah Cooper-Bullock


Ad Sales

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PHOTO HISTORY EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT Women’s contributions in history have often been dismissed. In terms of Canadian photographic history, these omissions have provided us with a somewhat one-sided vision of our country’s history. With the digitization of collections in archives across the country and the creation of easily searchable online resources, the work of female photographers has slowly but surely been unearthed and shared. By no means is our short list of women in photography comprehensive, but it’s a start. It’s about time that these female photographers were acknowledged and credited. BY LAURA JONES

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Hannah Maynard 1834-1918

Born in England, Hannah Hatherly married Richard Maynard at 18 and moved to Bowmanville, Ontario. While Richard travelled around Canada as a prospector, Hannah learned photography. When the family moved to Victoria, British Columbia, she set up her own business as, “Mrs. R. Maynard, Photographic Artist and Dealer in All Kinds of Photographic Materials.” By 1880, Victoria’s growing tourist trade enabled Maynard to move into a larger studio and hire an apprentice. In 1897, she became Victoria’s official police photographer. Anyone arrested was taken to her studio for a mug shot. Besides operating a successful business and raising five children, Maynard experimented with her medium in a way that was not only creatively ahead of her time, but technically superior to the work of her contemporaries. Her signature works include photomontages, multiple exposures, and photosculptures. Her multiple exposures and montage images were revolutionary. She used various techniques to create new kinds of images. Her photomontages sometimes involved thousands of images. Maynard created The Gems of British Columbia series annually between 1881 and 1895. She made the final image into a New Year’s greeting card, sending it to all the mothers of the children she had photographed in the preceding year. She carefully cut out each portrait, pasted them together, and re-photographed the result on glass. To make a photosculpture, Maynard covered her subject with white powder and black cloth, took a picture, and then superimposed it onto an image of a papier mâché bust or figure. Maynard used mirrors and partial glass negative exposures to create unique narratives about herself and surreal tributes to the deceased.

Left page; F-02852; Top: F-05084; Bottom left: F-05957; Bottom right: F-02851. All courtesy of the Royal BC Museum and Archives.

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In 1969, Ron D’Altroy entered a weathered storage shed in Beaton, British Columbia. Inside the damp shed, among rat feces, he found something unexpected: 200 of Mattie Gunterman’s glass plate negatives. After months of careful treatment, the negatives were saved. The shed was revealed to have been Gunterman’s darkroom. Mattie was born Ida Madeline Werner in La Crosse, Wisconsin. At age 17, she moved to Seattle, Washington. While employed in a hotel, she met her husband-to-be, candy maker William Gunterman. In 1892, they had a son, Henry. A few years later, she was diagnosed with tuberculosis and the Guntermans headed north for a dryer climate. They purchased land in Thomson’s Landing (Beaton), British Columbia. The Guntermans and their dog Nero walked a thousand kilometres, hunting, trapping, fishing, and working as cooks in mining, logging, and railroad camps along the way.

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1872- 1945

At the time, most amateurs used fixedfocus simple film cameras. Gunterman used a 4×5 inch glass plate camera. This gave her the advantage of a larger negative, more precise focus, and a choice of shutter speeds. Using an extra-long cable release, she would include herself in her photos. Once in Beaton, Gunterman spent winter months developing her plates and making prints. Her photographs show some of the difficulties of pioneer life and the joys of leisure time. She photographed the men at work in the Nettie L. Mine, including the deceased miners as they were being shipped back to their Nova Scotia homes for burial.

William (Bill), Madeline (Mattie), Henry, and dog ‘Nero’. The passage took place in 1902 according to the book Flapjacks and Photographs by Henri Robideau (1995). Image courtesy of Vancouver Public Library, Accession Number 2213, circa 1902.



Madame Gagné


Annie McDougall 1866-1952 Annie Grey McDougall was born in Trois-Rivières, Quebec. In her mid-twenties she purchased a camera and learned photography at William Notman’s studio in Montreal. McDougall worked as a librarian at the Fraser Institute for 47 years, starting in 1898. She became devoted to the library’s survival through the Depression and World War I, often doing the work of two people. In 1940, she attempted to resign but was kept on until the end of World War II.

Georgiana (Eugenie) Gagné worked in the photography business in Montreal, Quebec, with her husband Édouard. Over time, they ran three studio locations. Gagne’s 1890 portrait of Mrs. Wing Sing and her son is unusual for the time, as studio portraits of immigrant families were uncommon. Typically, studios such as Notman’s focused on portraits of the established upper class. MP-1974.129.98 Three ladies haying. Drummondville, QC, circa 1900. © McCord Museum

Between 1886 and 1890, Gagné produced 4¼ × 6½ inch photographs on cabinet cards. They are similar to cartes de visite but larger, mounted on sturdier board, and higher in quality. Some were even hand-coloured. The front of Gagné’s cards were imprinted with her name and address. Gagné’s husband was still in business in 1891, but it is not clear if Gagné was.

Her leisure time was spent with her sister, Ida, and Ida’s family. Ida’s husband, Charles Howard Millar, was an avid amateur photographer. He began with tintypes and proceeded to work with newer processes. McDougall and Millar both extensively photographed Ida and the six Millar children. McDougall used glass plates for her earlier photographs and later used nitrate negatives. These negatives were found among a collection donated to the McCord Museum in Montreal. The nitrate negatives were curled up tight like little pencils and had been stored in a cardboard chocolate box. Now they are properly conserved. Most of McDougall’s film negatives have not been catalogued. The McCord collection, which includes McDougall’s and Millar’s photographs, also contains photographic postcards of Quebec, letters, bills, and receipts (including bills for photography supplies).

MP-1984.44.1.2 Mrs. Wing Sing and son, Montreal, QC, 1890-95 © McCord Museum.

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Geraldine Moodie 1854 -1945 Geraldine Moodie was born in Toronto, Ontario. Her entry into photography began when she photographed and hand coloured her mother’s flora drawings for her great aunt Catherine Parr Trail’s books. In 1878 Geraldine married John Douglas (J.D.) Moodie. They moved to Calgary in 1886 when Douglas became an inspector with the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) tasked with mapping a trail to the Yukon. As early as 1895, Moodie copyrighted her negatives, indicating her awareness of their importance. That same year, she documented the annual Cree Sun Dance and Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell commissioned Moodie to document locations relating to the Riel Rebellion. While her husband’s career advanced (he became the governor of Hudson Bay in the eastern arctic district), Moodie did not sit idly by. She worked as a professional photographer for over a decade. She ran studios in Battleford and Maple Creek, Saskatchewan, and in Medicine Hat, Alberta. She operated this successful business while raising five children. In 1904, Moodie travelled to the North West Territories with her husband aboard the ship Arctic as a secretary. Her husband attempted to acquire official photographer status for her. The request was denied but her photos continued to be sent with reports, including correspondence to Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier. In 1911, Moodie photographed a NWMP contingent leaving for the coronation of King George V. When her husband retired, she continued her photography in Maple Creek. To date, more than 600 of Moodie’s photographs have been collected. They can be viewed online thanks to the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, Alberta.

Images courtesy of Glenbow Archives. Top: ND-44-30, Portrait of Inuit woman, Ooktook, with a small child. Fullerton Harbour, Nunavut. (1904–1905) Ooktook, wearing an elaborately-beaded attigi, looks down at the child holding her hand. Ooktook was commonly called “Hattie” by the

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Moodies. This image was created from an 8x10 inch glass plate negative. Bottom, left: NC-81-31, J. Douglas Moodie with white horse, probably taken at the NWMP barracks, Maple Creek, Saskatchewan. (1896–1900) This image was created from a 5x7 inch glass plate negative.

Bottom, right: NC81-10, Self-portrait of photographer Geraldine Moodie, Battleford, Saskatchewan. (ca. 1895–1896) This image was created from a 5x7 inch glass plate negative.


Gladys Reeves 1890 - 1971

Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Alberta Left: Image by Gladys Reeves Right: Gladys Reeves working with the Ernest Brown Collection.

Gladys Reeves was born in England. Her family settled in Edmonton, Alberta, in 1904. One year later, 15-year-old Gladys Reeves worked as a receptionist, then a retoucher, and then a photographer, in Ernest Brown’s photo studio. Reeves hadn’t intended to become a photographer. The original job was meant for her older sister. But Brown and Reeves ended up working together for nearly 50 years. In 1911, Brown, motivated by a decade of success, built and moved into a new building complete with studio, office, store, and rental units. As the economy sank during World War I, Brown’s business deteriorated. In 1920, he was evicted. Everything except his photos were seized. He stopped photographing for about seven years but helped Reeves establish her own business. Disaster hit Reeves when a fire ruined her studio. Roughly 5000 prints, including many of

Brown’s, were destroyed. Brown helped Reeves open another photography business. This one operated until about 1950. Brown and Reeves were interested in increasing awareness of pioneer life. In the 1930s, they created the Birth of the West photo series for use in public schools. Brown willed his photographs and his collection to the Province of Alberta. Reeves was hired to organize and document its contents of over 10 000 photographs. Reeves’s photographs are in the Brown collection. Reeves has been recognized for her extensive contributions to the City of Edmonton. Beyond her photographs, she was interested in horticulture and worked tirelessly to beautify the city. A 2009 Edmonton Fringe Festival performance, The Unmarried Wife, was loosely based on Brown and Reeves. PhotoEd • 15



Sally Elizabeth Wood 1857-1928 Born in Brome Township, Quebec, Sally Elizabeth Wood learned her trade as an apprentice at Notman’s studio in Montreal. She began taking portraits for John A. Wheeler in his studios at Knowlton and Cowansville, Quebec. Upon Wheeler’s retirement in 1897, Wood established her own business.



For her early work, Wood used an 8x10 inch glass plate camera and photographed exteriors of homes, stores, and schools. Besides portraits and architecture, she documented landscapes and domestic life. In 1905, James Valentine and Sons published a series of her photographs as postcards.

1882- 1971

Photographer Elsie Holloway was in business in St. John’s, Newfoundland, for 40 years. In 1914, she photographed hundreds of enlisted men in the Newfoundland Regiment. For years, the Holloway Studio was also popular for children and family portraits.

Wood photographed until 1907. Her work is identified with the signature Miss. S.E. Wood.

Holloway and her brother, Bert, learned photography from their father, a founder of the Photography Society for Amateurs. In 1908, two years after their father died, the siblings opened the Holloway Studio. Elsie took most of the studio portraits while Bert focused his attention on outdoor scenes. Holloway continued the business after her brother died in World War I. As business increased, her staff included eight assistants. Holloway’s career highlights included meeting and photographing Amelia Earhart in 1932 at Harbour Grace. In 1939, the photographer’s presence was noted when King George VI and Queen Elizabeth stopped on their royal tour. Some questions remain as to who took which pictures: Elsie, her father, her brother, or other photographers. Most are simply stamped “Holloway.” For a time Holloway’s glass negatives had been incorporated into a greenhouse. Those that survived are in the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Image courtesy The Rooms Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.

MP-1994.32.4, Constance Clare Bancroft, Knowlton, QC, 1899, Sally Eliza Wood © McCord Museum.

9 Rosetta E. Carr


Rosetta Ernestine Watson was born in Drummond Township (Perth), Ontario, the daughter of Henry Watson and Rosetta Goodall. She became a successful portrait photographer after training in the United States and at William Notman’s studio in Ottawa. Watson married, becoming Rosetta Carr, and moved to Winnipeg. She purchased a photo business from George Searl, changing its name from Searl and Company to American Art Gallery. This was Winnipeg’s largest portrait studio and the only Winnipeg photo business run by a woman at the time. She used dry glass plate negatives. Out of the three common processes in use at the time — carbon, silver, and platinum — Carr preferred the quality of the platinum. In part, Carr’s 16-year business was successful because she promoted her studio with incentives, such as children’s discounts, coupons, displays, and music. One review stated that her business showed “the progress of our civilization.” Carr photographed many prominent people, including members of the Manitoba Legislature. Competitors reacted to Carr’s ambition and success. When she was given exclusive rights to photograph the Winnipeg Industrial Exhibition, other photographers (men) boycotted the photography competitions taking place at the Exhibition. She took advantage of this, exhibited her photographs, and won every single prize.

Carr and Dukelow images courtesy of Robert Wilson.



Miss Dukelow (Mrs. Bryant) 1864 -1947 It was by chance that Margaret Jane (M.J.) Dukelow changed her plans to become a teacher and developed skills as a photographer. Her career began with seven years of employment in a photo studio in Thousand Islands, Ontario. Dukelow’s first studio was in Iroquois, Ontario. On the back of her cabinet cards, she claimed to be the “only Lady Photographer in Canada.” She promoted her skills with new processes, fast exposures, multiple copies in various sizes, and hand-colouring. Dukelow was also a member of the Photographic Association of Canada, a rarity for a woman at that time. At age 28, she married Harry H. Bryant, a sales agent in Brockville, Ontario. The Belleville Directory from 1899 lists Mrs. Harry H. Bryant as the owner of the Quinte Studio. In 1902, they moved to Winnipeg and worked together at the Bryant Studio until 1910. Bryant was said to be the first woman photographer in the west and to be one of the first to use dry plates.

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Women working at a fish packing plant in Lamèque , New Brunswick.

Photographs and text © Vincenzo Pietroapolo


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Virtually every minute of our waking hours we are inundated with photographs. Think of all the photographs that you saw in the last 24 hours: on your cellphone, computer, or iPad; in newspapers, magazines, books, advertising on food and other products; and even in your family’s photo albums. Now think of how many of these images depicted workers at work. In all probability, very few, and possibly none. That’s astonishing when you think that most working people spend more time at work than at home or with family or friends. Growing up in a working class family, I was fascinated by the notion of work from an early age. When I became a documentary photographer, I quickly developed an interest in recording workers and their culture. I photographed immigrant workers on construction sites and garment factories, foreign migrant farm workers who come to Canada annually on temporary permits, and child workers.

Left: Dougald Westhaver painting a ship ready to be launched, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

In 1999 I was invited to undertake one of the most important projects in my career. The Canadian Auto Workers union (which has since merged with another union and become Unifor) asked me produce a book on workers across Canada as a way of marking the millennium. I travelled from coast to coast, documenting work life in over 100 locations in the 13 provinces and territories. Working in 35mm with black and white film, I shot some 575 rolls of film. Of these, from self-made contact sheets, I selected about 1500 shots and had a professional lab make them into 8 × 10 inch work prints, which I slowly reduced to the 200 images that make up the book, Canadians at Work. A separate edition, Canadiens au travail, was published simultaneously in French. It was printed in Toronto on heavy gloss stock, in duotone. I oversaw the printing and signed off on each sheet at the printing press. From start to finish, the project took 18 months to complete. The introductory essay is by Sam Gindin. I commissioned a small number of pictures from other photographers: Denyse Gérin-Lajoie and Iva Zimová in Quebec, Schuster Gindin in Ontario, George Webber in Alberta, and Ursula Heller in British Columbia. PhotoEd • 21

The book was produced at arm’s length; that is, I made artistic decisions independently of the sponsor. A copy was sent to everyone whose picture appeared in the book, to main libraries across the country, and also to the library of every town represented. This book has been a voyage of photography, an exploration into the hidden landscape of workplaces and workers’ faces that defines Canada as much as anything could. One of the misconceptions that I had about the modern workplace is that workers worked together. Despite great advances in technology, most workers end up working alone, with minimal or no possibility of conversation or interaction with others. The nature of most industrial work is that an individual is merely a cog in an elaborate setup, such as a worker’s role in a football field–sized auto plant where her every move has been predetermined by an efficiency plan or the preset speed of a conveyor belt. In most cases, workers have no time to talk to anyone, for they must concentrate on their specific task, whether it is selecting herring fillets in Marystown, Newfoundland; inspecting freshly blown glass bottles in suburban Toronto; wiring cars in Oshawa, Ontario; or mucking ore at 975 metres below ground in a nickel mine in Vancouver. Workers are usually alone with their machines.

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Left: Sue Carley, checking engine equipment in an auto parts plant, Whitby, Ontario. Right: Keith and Lloyd Sullivan, crab harvesters from Calvert, Newfoundland, unloading their catch on the open seas a few hours travel time from St. John’s.

I met them at the wharf in St. John’s. Lloyd Sullivan, a crab harvester, had invited me to join him and his sons, Brent and Keith, to check their snow crab traps in the North Atlantic. They loaded ice, and we set out at 5:00 a.m. in total darkness. Any romantic notion that I may have had about fishing was shattered right there and then. The boat was simply known as “131948” and was fewer than 10 metres long. We travelled a few hours in very rough seas, cutting through patches of fog in the early morning. The boat tosed and turned furiously for the nine hours that we were out. I marvelled at the calmness of my

hosts, who were worried sick about me, fresh from Toronto, as I struggled to maintain my balance with cameras dangling from my neck, drenched from the spray. I put on a brave smile whenever I could and, in retrospect, the fact that I had not had time for breakfast before setting off was a blessing in disguise. The crab harvest involved locating three traplines about an hour’s travel away from one another by using longitude and latitude records kept in a logbook. Once the specially marked buoy was identified, a winch was used to hoist the large, cylindrical steel traps from

the ocean floor 175 metres below. After the trap breached the ocean, the process began: empty the trap on the deck, sort the crab, toss the females and juveniles back into the ocean, place the harvested crab in the ice below deck, reset the trap with squid as bait, set it back into position on the winch, and lower it into the water. This operation was repeated 30 times on each line. After emptying 90 traps, the boat became very crowded, but everyone worked in practiced coordination. It was choreography on the open seas, with no breaks until the job was done.

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Being photographed seemed to validate the workers. They had always seen “the other” in camera images. Now it would be their turn to be witnessed by the camera. Some could not contain the sheer glee they felt in that moment and reacted in curiously bizarre ways. They would self-mockingly make derisive comments, such as “Good luck finding any one of us actually working around here!” or “What makes you think we work here?” Their comments were ironic because moments later they would be back at their conveyor belt, or in their truck, or inside an airplane engine, or another work station, digging, packaging, sorting, cooking, sweeping, washing, welding, painting, sewing, bolting, cutting, loading, driving, boring into bedrock, producing, working … working. The experience of photographing someone in a collaborative way — with the consent of the worker (or other person in front of the camera) — becomes an act of solidarity between two humans. If the conditions are right and there is honest rapport between the person in front of the camera and the person behind the camera, I believe that the picture already exists, as if it were a gift, and the photographer merely has to receive it. The power of a photograph is that the moment it captures outlasts the passage of time. One day, I had focused my camera on James Cave, a welder working in an auto parts factory. He was wearing a bubble mask that completely covered his face and neck. A flexible hose connected the mask to an overhead pipe that carried a supply of oxygen. As a result, he was completely tethered to his workstation, unable to talk to anyone or relate to anything except production. He looked as if he were from outer space. I managed to make eye contact with him through his bubble, and putting his welding gun down and removing his gloves and mask, he revealed a satisfied, youthful face. He understood the nature of the project well. With pride, he said, “You are a worker too. Let me take your picture.” No greater compliment could have been offered me. I handed him my camera, and the tables were turned, with me being the one standing in front of the camera.

Vincenzo Pietropaolo’s latest book project, Ritual, is published by Black Dog Publishing. In Ritual, Pietropaolo brings together a collection of 150 photographs, spanning 46 years (1969-2015). The book is a documentation of the Good Friday procession—an elaborate event that takes place annually in Toronto’s Little Italy. Pietropaolo has attended the event for over four decades, and has created a document of social history that reflects the acculturation of an immigrant community of humble origins into a dynamic lifeforce of their city. The event is the high point of the community, and in his text and photographs Pietropaolo connects the links between working class culture and spirituality. Autographed copies are available through his web site.

VINCEPIETROPAOLO.COM Left page, top: Shirley Kisoun, an airline worker in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Bottom: Rick Rowell removing yeast inside a beer fermentation tank, Barrie, Ontario.

This page, Top: Juliana Ohene Adu rests during her coffee break in a cookie factory, Toronto, Ontario. Middle: Deodato Reis and Steve Leslie, auto parts workers in a casting factory, Brantford, Ontario.

Bottom: Vincenzo Pietropaolo at work, photographing in a casting factory. Photo by James Cave.

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Naomi Harris


Naomi Harris set off on the Trans Canada Highway in the summer of 2011 in a car she bought on eBay. She had a Canada Council for the Arts grant for her project Oh Canada! Her plan was to drive from coast to coast, photographing Canadians — the ordinary and the extraordinary. We asked her how she decided who to approach and how she made her approaches. “Frankly, if you live in Canada, you are a Canadian, right?” she replied. “I simply said I was doing a road trip from coast to coast to make portraits of Canadians and could I kindly photograph them and include them in the project.”

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Harris explains, “I wanted to try to be as inclusive as possible of people from all walks of life and make sure the project wasn’t just a bunch of white, apple-cheeked people.” She had an ambitious idea: start in Victoria and keep heading east; get to events such as the Spock Days festival in Vulcan, Alberta; photograph the oldest living Canadian (Pearl Lutzko of Ituna, Saskatchewan); and end the trip in St John’s, Newfoundland by Labour Day. “Most of my subjects I just stumbled upon along the way, which to me is the nicest way to meet people,” she says.

Left page: Sikh Motorcycle Club, Vancouver, BC. This page, Top left: Albino Identical Twins, Acadia Hutterite Colony, MB. Top right: World’s Largest Dinosaur, Drumheller, AB. Bottom left: Self-portrait with Mum, Fantasyland Hotel, West Edmonton Mall, West Edmonton, AB. Bottom right: Young Couple, Sioux Valley Pow Wow, Sioux Valley, MB.

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Left page, Top left: Tree planter, Brookmere, BC. Bottom left: Fjallkona Gudrun Viola Bjarnason Hilton, Winnipeg, MB Top right: BC Bhangra Girls, Surrey, BC. Centre right: RCMP Musical Ride, Woodstock, NB. Bottom right: Ruth May Kells, radio operator for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, with her dog Robie, Dartmouth, NS. This page: Carol LaFayette-Boyd, Masters World Champion, Regina, SK.

“Frankly, if you live in Canada, you are a Canadian, right?” Harris’s portraits have a gravitas and dignity, presented with respect and a calm clarity. They suggest stories we would like to hear and people we would like to talk to, about the very different ways we are or have become Canadians. Through her images and between her words, you get a sense that Harris cherishes the stories she’s been told. She met Ruth Kells, now 92, at a veterans’ event in Halifax, and now counts her as a dear friend. When Ruth was 18 in the early 1940s, she signed up to the RCAF as a wireless operator. For a woman to go to the war in Europe, she’d have to be 21, so she worked from Canada and travelled after the war, a bold ambition for a woman at that time. “She even had a motorbike!” says Harris. “Part of my experience as a photographer is that you get to spend a brief moment in time with people and capture it in a photograph, but then move on to the next adventure,” Harris shares. Another road-side acquaintance that has stuck with her – and

still travels with her now – was the result of choosing a back road in Saskatchewan. “I looked on a map and saw that a hamlet called Kandahar wasn’t too far away. Since I would never go to Kandahar, Afghanistan, why not go to Kandahar, Canada? There were two different routes I could take, one on a highway that took me a little bit out of the way or one that was more direct, but on a dirt road that went through the Poor Man First Nation Reserve. If you know Saskatchewan roads at all, you know that they are the worst in the nation; paved or unpaved, your shocks are going to take a beating. I decided to take the unpaved but more direct route.” Halfway along that road, driving alone in the baking sun, Harris saw a hitchhiker. She’d never picked up a hitchhiker before. She says, “Maybe it was the heat and the fact that the reservation was 15 kilometres away, but something urged me to give this man a lift. I think he was surprised too when the car backed up, the window rolled down, and this lone woman PhotoEd • 29

This page, top left: Tickie Higashi, Japanese Internment Camp Survivor, Greenwood, BC. Top right: Drum Majors, Victoria Day, Victoria, BC. Bottom left: Mother and Sons, AB. Bottom right: Baby Koodea, Abu Bakar and Children, Calgary, AB. Opposite page, left: Miss Manito Ahbee, Sioux Valley Pow Wow, Sioux Valley, MB. Top right: Me and Maggie, Ituna Motel, Ituna, SK.

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“ Part of my experience as a photographer is that you get to spend a brief moment in time with people and capture it in a photograph, but then move on to the next adventure.” offered him a lift. He quietly got into the car. We made small talk and, when we got to the turn off, I asked if I could come and photograph his family, to which he replied, ‘Sure.’ I had never been on a reservation before; I don’t know too many people from Toronto who have been. But it was honestly sadder than anything I expected: bleak pre-fab homes with no landscaping, dirt roads, broken down cars in yards among other garbage, stray dogs roaming the streets and, to top it off, a tornado had torn through the community the summer before. While I waited for his parents to return home so I could photograph the family, I began talking with the hitchhiker’s younger sisters. Out of nowhere this horrible, tick-ridden, dreadlocked, muddy, wretched creature waddled up to us. Instinctively they kicked it away, to which I was like ‘Whoa! What are you doing?’ They simply replied it was a ‘Rez’ dog, so it didn’t matter. I wanted to prove to them that under that horrible coat was a sweet creature so I went to my car to get some scissors and began giving the dog a haircut. She immediately rolled over in submission and let me cut off all of the matted hair. I asked the girls to get a bucket of warm, soapy water so we could give her a bath. By the time we were done, they were all excited by how sweet this dog was. Underneath that mess was a purebred Shih Tzu. She had a cherry eye

that required surgery and scabs from the ticks but seemed okay otherwise.” Harris asked if she could take the dog with her, as no one owned it. “As I drove away, I felt guilty that I was taking a dog away with me instead of being able to do something for the family I just left.” Her new four-legged friend Maggie turned out to be anaemic and heavily pregnant. Harris consulted a vet and, through a friend she met on Tumblr, found “an incredible woman who said she’d keep Maggie, help deliver the puppies, find homes for all of them, and then deliver Maggie to me when I was done the trip. Just before I pulled out of Winnipeg, Maggie gave birth to six puppies … and true to the woman’s word, all the puppies found good homes.” Two months later after the end of the roadtrip, Maggie was flown to Toronto. Harris picked her up from the airport. “I set the carrier down in the airport parking lot, opened the hatch, and Maggie flew out! Confused from the ordeal of the trip, she looked around and suddenly there was a distinct look of recognition in her eyes, like ‘It’s you, the one who rescued me!’ She jumped up and down and licked me excitedly.”

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Anna Higashi, Japanese Internment Camp Survivor and Canada’s First Female Plumber, Greenwood, BC.

A chance meeting in a remote town and a connection online: these networks of people and fate reveal the ways we intersect, support, connect, and contact strangers, friends, and family. This is a part of what Oh Canada! shares. Has she finished? Did Harris find Canada in her coast-to-coast adventures? “I would say it isn’t a complete project. I’d like to return to the road again sometime in the future and fill the gaps in and go to places I didn’t get a chance to visit the first time round.” We asked what advice she would give to new and emerging photographers. What has she learned, and what would she pass on? “How we choose to photograph people [has] repercussions. We also have a responsibility to our subjects to share their stories and likeness in a way they would want to be portrayed. I tend to like to photograph ‘real’ people and, in a way, that isn’t always the most flattering. But I think pictures can have elements of peculiarity, awkwardness, and absurdity to them… it’s your intentions that are important. Are you capturing a bizarre moment in time or are you intentionally trying to mock or ridicule your subject? I think photographers have to ask themselves what their intent is, and what the consequences of their photos will be. I feel like I’m still learning about myself all the time. Like right now I’m trying to figure out how much longer I can sustain 32 • PhotoEd

this lifestyle. Don’t get me wrong, I love photography and the experiences I’ve had through it, but financially this isn’t sustainable anymore. Now whether that means I’ll get a day job but continue doing photography in the form of personal projects remains to be seen. But this is the best piece of advice I can give to young photographers. That you don’t have to make a living out of being a photographer, because surviving off of photography alone is really, really hard. There is no shame in having a ‘real’ job to make ends meet. In fact, it can be a plus, because it’s easier to be creative when you aren’t in debt or stressed out about how to pay your rent.” Harris shows a deft awareness of the networks that connect people and of the ways photographers can share stories of great diversity, with respect and curiosity. She is on the road again now, this time in the United States, with Maggie, documenting America during the first 100 days of Trump’s presidency. Stay tuned, as whatever she finds on this road trip, it is sure to be interesting. * If you’re in the Toronto area April 25–June 4, 2017 check out Naomi Harris’ Oh Canada! work @ the North York Centre, part of the CONTACT Festival exhbitions.

FOCUS ON CANADA Petra Collins, Anna and Kathleen, 2016.






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Don Newlands’s work defined Canadian photojournalism and documentary photography for close to two decades. Newlands worked as a photographer and photo editor during the 1960s and early 1970s for many nationally and internationally significant publications, including The Canadian, Weekend, Maclean’s, Black Star, Time, Life, and Paris Match. BY DOLORES GUBASTA Dolores Gubasta is a photo editor and owner of the KlixPix photography agency in Toronto, Ontario. She produces editorial projects nationally and internationally and is the agent for the Don Newlands image collection. PhotoEd • 35


I first laid eyes on Don Newlands’s photography when researching images for a Maclean’s feature book about Pierre Trudeau in 2000. Newlands had incredible images of a young Trudeau attempting to row to Cuba in 1960. Trudeau is pictured with two friends in a canoe on the high seas on the Gulf of Mexico wearing a white turban around his head. I started my career at the Canadian Press picture department, where I washed and dried thousands of pictures, many of Trudeau. These Cuba pictures were taken long before he became prime minister. I was curious to meet Newlands and to ask my burning question: “How did you end up on that trip?” When I finally got my chance, I asked the question and Newlands replied, “Pierre kept threatening to row to Cuba. I told him to call me when you do it.”

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A young Pierre Trudeau (in a white turban) on an ill-fated attempt to row to Cuba. The sea was too rough, so his meeting with Fidel Castro would have to wait until he became the Prime Minister of Canada on an official visit. This image was published in John English’s 2006 book: Citizen of the World The Life and Times of Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

Don Newlands was born in 1927 and grew up in the wealthy Westmount neighbourhood of Montreal, Quebec. The only child of a beautiful mother and a handsome father who was the president of a typewriter company. He was pampered and well schooled, especially in the arts. During this time, Newlands befriended a racy pack of intellectuals, including Pierre Trudeau, musicians and poets such as Leonard Cohen, artists, writers, and wealthy businesspeople. Montreal was an exciting city fuelled by creativity. As a budding photographer at the time, Newlands was called on by his friend Trudeau to photograph his author’s portrait for his first published book. His talent was obvious. By early 1961, he had moved to Toronto and was shooting freelance for all the big magazines of the day. He was also the only photographer for Black Star in Canada. Black Star, based in New York, specialized in photojournalism and was closely identified with Time, Life, and Paris Match magazines.

Top left: “Boy Striding.” From Maclean’s: November 2nd, 1964. Original caption: “Like this boy in Port Aux Basques, all Newfoundlanders face the dilemma of whether to accept contended poverty or risk the still-alien mainland.” Top right: “Hot Wheels”—Don Newlands had a passion for fast cars. Here, he captures curious Montrealers as they surround a GT40 while on a press tour to promote the newly released car. Bottom left: “Faint Parade”—Everyone loves a parade and Newlands photographed many of them in smaller centres across the country, capturing colourful snippets of Canadians in celebration. Bottom right: “Rockin’ Ronnie Hawkins on King Street in Toronto.” Hawkins owned the Yonge Street night club Le Coq D’Or where The Band, then known as The Hawks, got their legendary start.

Around 2001, I pressed Newlands to show me what else he had in his collection of images. A long-time photo editor and researcher for magazines and Canadian history books, I was surprised I had not come across his work earlier. Newlands had kept his body of work stored in the basement of his home near Colborne, Ontario. While his contemporaries had sold their image collections to the National Archives, he wanted none of that. He had concerns that once his collection was tucked away in an archive, the images would not see the light of day. At this time, I was running my own photo assignment agency and working extensively with Time magazine. They were interested in reflecting our Canadian heritage back to us. At one point, a history of Canadian photography book was proposed and, for some reason, the publisher had hired Time magazine editors in New York to put it together. I was asked to contribute, and that is why, Newlands’s images found their way to my office.

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Top row from left: Oscar Peterson, Gordie Howe (circa 1963), singer Shawne Jackson. Centre left: K.C Irving (circa 1964). Right: Christopher Plummer. Bottom right: William Shatner with kids.



“Anne Murray in Moccasins”: A disputable image. “While curating an exhibition of Don Newlands’s work 2005 for the Toronto CONTACT festival, Newlands asked me to take out this portrait, because an art director set up this shot for him. He felt the image represented the beginning of the end for him as a documentarian.” —Dolores Gubasta From a Maclean’s photo shoot, May 1972.

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Images this page; Leonard Cohen in the entrance of a Montreal club circa 1969. Right: Quebec actress, Fernande Giroux.

He arrived at my office screeching into the driveway in his duct-taped Firebird with a flaming bird decal on the hood. He brought me a selection of his favourite images, about a hundred 11 x 14 inch black and white fibre-based prints. They were dog-eared, crop-marked with grease pencil, and stamped with dates and notes from publishers. As a photo researcher who had leafed through thousands of old photo files at every newspaper in town, I was in awe of the scope of his talent. His imagery had a raw honesty equal to that of some of the best international photographers of the day. Yet, he was largely unknown. In all my years as a photo editor, I had not seen such real work about Canada. His photo essays documented Canadians: from a large New Brunswick family lined up in front of their rundown farmhouse, to Inuit people on the shores of James Bay, to

portraits of the elite Quebec intelligentsia, to powerful Ottawa politicians, to photos of hippie musicians singing in Yorkville, Toronto. The breadth and quality of the work was impressive. Newlands documented Canada’s coming of age during the 1960s and early ’70s. He photographed creative cultural icons, including Sylvia and Ian Tyson, Gordon Lightfoot, Ronnie Hawkins, Anne Murray, and Christopher Plummer. He had connections with politicians, including Joey Smallwood, Paul Martin Senior, and Preston Manning. As well, his ties in the business community gave him access to K.C. Irving and important families such as the McCains. He also had a vast collection of social documentary work about everyday people: a large man on a bulldozer building roads through the Rockies; rodeo goers at the Calgary Stampede; PhotoEd • 39


I HAD NOT SEEN SUCH REAL WORK ABOUT CANADA.” children balancing on floating logs in B.C. logging camps; kids playing on the colourful streets of St. John’s; young rural Quebec teens riding their banana bikes with separatist gang logos on the backs of their vests. Unfortunately, the history of Canadian photography book never materialized. Newlands was a passionate character who had the patience to wait for the decisive moment to trip the shutter. He was stunningly good-looking with an incredible ability to charm and disarm male and female portrait subjects. Newlands had the luxury of spending time getting to know his subjects, capturing them in natural environmental portraits. His images rendered a true sense of his subjects, showing who they were and what they did. In a rare and beautiful photo essay documenting the quintessential power of New Brunswick businessman K.C. Irving, Newlands spent several days documenting Irving and his sons travelling from their offices and home to Irving oil refineries, wilderness logging camps, sawmills, paper mills, and newspaper offices. Newlands lost interest in photographing people in the early 1970s, when art directors started to go along on portrait shoots to personally set up lights and pose people. After an incredible career that ranged from the great era of photojournalism and documentary style photo spreads to the posed set up portraiture still common today, Newlands became disenchanted. Following his next great obsession, he became an avid ham radio operator from his home in Colborne, Ontario. He loved to speak with people all over the world, despite living a secluded and solitary life.

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Quebec City, circa 1960. Newlands extensively documented life in Quebec, including families living in poverty, political unrest, and the separatist movement.

Newlands was intensely private and he rebuked many of my attempts to go see him and his collection. We did, in time, share stories and experiences about Canadian photography and journalism. Eventually, we became friends. Sadly, our friendship had a time limit. Newlands had been diagnosed with terminal cancer. He once said to me, “You can’t believe how amazing every blade of grass and each new bud on a tree is when you’ve only been given a month to live.” His joie de vivre kept him alive for another five years. Because of his illness, I was worried about him living alone. I was relieved when he called me to tell me he had been reunited with his ex-wife Pauline. Undeniably, they were the great loves of each other’s lives. She took him into her home, fed him with her amazing cooking, and kept him healthy. After the 2006 book launch of John English’s Citizen of the World - The Life and Times of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, featuring Newlands’s first portrait of Trudeau as the cover image, I was invited for a meal at Pauline’s house. I saw how much love, admiration, and fun they had at this late stage of life. I realized that Newlands’s story went way beyond his photographic work. When the Colborne house was sold, the couple brought the rest of Newlands’s pictures to me. I became the keeper of the Don Newlands Collection. Newlands work won many art and photography awards in Canada, the United States, and Europe. Sadly, now there are but a few remaining art directors, photographers, and friends who knew him and his photographs. To me and to those who knew him, he was a legend and a vibrant character, well worthy of note as a contributor to Canadian photojournalism history.

Top: Women sunning themselves on the beach in Vancouver, BC. Damage to the original transparency has dramatically changed the image from its original form, creating an entirely new interpretation. Bottom: An intimate moment of a couple kissing by a ship. Many of the black and white prints have been damaged over time.

THE DON NEWLANDS COLLECTION NOW & IN THE FUTURE: Over the last 15 years, I have exhibited key images from the Don Newlands Collection. In 2005, I curated an exhibition of his work for the CONTACT Festival of Photography in Toronto. With the dedicated help of Kamelia Pezeshki and Rita Godlevskis, I have been working to digitize, preserve, and share the archive. The collection consists of over 1000 black and white fibre-based prints and thousands of colour 35mm & 120 format transparencies. Sadly, some of Newlands work has become damaged in poor storage conditions. Some of these images have transformed themselves. The patina of time has created new unintentional compositions. As Newlands documented Canada’s coming of age, Canada’s 150th celebration is the ideal time to share his work with all Canadians.




WOODWORKERS ALONG THE SALISH SEA BY CECE M. SCOTT Dale Roth and Michele Ramberg (R&R) are photography partners. Roth, based in Vancouver, and Ramberg, situated in Calgary, founded their company in 1993, with a mission to evolve their craft and grow a portfolio that embraces diverse genres of photography, challenging their creativity and ability. “We founded our company with the loose business plan of ‘work hard and have fun doing it,’ and the rest would take care of itself,” Ramberg says. “After 25 years in business, these are still our goals, with the addition of creating trust in our ability and our brand.”

Dino Vieria stands amidst the tools of his trade in his workshop full of log pole outdoor furniture in various stages of completion. The benches and swings he builds by hand are sturdy and durable, meant to last a lifetime.

One of this photo team’s key proficiencies centres on portraits, shooting everyday people with an intimate, natural, and expressive approach. They seek interesting subjects who do not fit into the mainstream mould. “It’s hard to explain “interesting,” but it is something about appearance (young and vibrant, old with great character, attractive, tattooed), or a demeanour and confidence that attracts us,” Roth says. “As far as capturing spirit, I guess what makes us good at it comes from years of photographing people. Eventually most subjects relax while we shoot and feel confident and comfortable, or even vulnerable at times. That movement of honesty usually leans to the best photo. In the end, we want our subjects to forget they are being photographed,” Ramberg adds.

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A project that has been gaining strong interest and visibility for R&R is their recent bookwork, Woodworkers Along the Salish Sea, featuring artists who carve and their stories, inspirations, visions, and creative processes. The area along the Salish Sea, near Sooke, British Columbia, is inspirational to a wide diversity of people: weird, helpful, and friendly characters who understand and appreciate the beauty of the smells, sights, and sounds of the forests and the beaches. This region provides a mystical backdrop to the stories behind the woodworkers and their craft. It is also still relatively untouched by aggressive development. Artists are drawn here to lose themselves in the inherent wild spirituality. “The woodworkers were chosen for this photography project primarily because of their location,” Ramberg says. “We wanted to photograph a diversity of end products — bowls, masks, furniture, ships, guitars, etc. — as well as source different cultural backgrounds and genders. After the first one or two portraits, we realized each woodworker’s shop was a reflection of the woodcutter’s personality and also represented their work. Mike, for example, has a shop that is uncannily meticulous. Every tool has a specific spot, and every machine is clean and shiny. The bowls he made were an extension of himself, just like his shop.” The artists’ carving sheds and workshops are each unique because of the tools they use, how woods are sourced and seasoned, and how the artists design, create, and produce uniquely beautiful products. The scope of the Woodworkers project is one of evolution: the original shoot encompassed 15 woodcarvers and woodworkers in the area, with another eight still to be photographed. The R&R team say that there are at least another 25 to 30 exceptional wood artists in the Sooke area, including carvers, luthiers, shipwrights, log house builders, wood turners, and surf board makers, most of whom are over 50 years old. The photography duo is also working with writer Pirjo Raits and project organizer Phoebe Dunbar to produce this work. “They (the woodworkers) have many skills and life experiences to bring to their craft and art. They also are very aware of where and how to source woods. Our carvers have been fortunate in that some of the timber companies have been willing to let the carvers go up onto their tree farm licences and salvage wood. We have good carving woods around — especially cedar — and it is compelling and ‘inspiriting’ to use woods native to our coast. It is relatively easy in our area to seek knowledge and ‘wood wisdom’ from mentors and other woodworkers. There is a willingness to share,” Dunbar says. Mike Downey’s woodshed is full of the raw materials he needs for his woodturning projects. He fashions bowls, vessels, and containers with precision while still allowing the character of wood to dictate the end result.

The R&R team photographed the woodworkers in black and white to highlight each carvers unique character; however, the artists’ work involves a rich spectrum of colours, so currently there is a dilemma around the look of the final book. “It may be a mixture of both if we can make it work,” Roth says. PhotoEd • 45

David Cunningham finds the spirit of First Nations people in the masks he carves. With deep respect to the Northwest Coast First Nations culture, he studied their techniques with a master carver while teaching in New Aiyansh in the Nass Valley, north of Terrace, British Columbia.


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Rusty Sage sits at his shaving bench in his workshop high above the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Sage makes traditional furniture starting with a draw knife enabling him to follow the grain of the wood lending the piece strength and thoughtful lines.

Roth and Ramberg agree that making a living as photographers is getting harder and harder because virtually everyone has a camera built into their phone. They advise aspiring photographers to hone their lighting skills as a tool for differentiating their work. “Photography is ever-changing and the new photographer has to adapt and be nimble, looking for opportunities where their skills can be combined with others to create a successful business,” the team state. “We are constantly trying new ideas and photo techniques, whether it be lighting or Photoshop. We stay on top of social media to make sure our brand is presented in a positive way, and we make sure we are connected with our photography community to promote creativity and professionalism.”



When I decided to photograph someone from every country in the world without leaving Toronto, I had no idea how timely this series of portraits would be. I first came up with the idea: knowing the importance of diversity in society and believing in the power of photography and personal storytelling. I couldn’t have foreseen the extent to which nationalist politics would rise in Europe. I didn’t predict the resulting rejection and expulsion of refugeees or the lack of collective effort from countries and entities that could have helped them. I certainly didn’t predict Donald Trump’s presidential win. When I started this project in 2013, I didn’t believe the average North American knew the meaning of xenophobia. Now it seems to be in the news, on social media, and in the kitchen table conversations taking place in our homes. It seems, as portrayed through the media, that the world doesn’t think diversity works. I now realize that Canada’s perspective on diversity is an important concept that we need to share. I crowd-funded my project on Indiegogo. I had never done anything like that before, and I quickly realized it wasn’t going to be easy. Crowdfunding was one of the hardest things I’ve ever done. It isn’t easy reaching out to people and asking for contributions. It was a process that definitely pushed me outside of my comfort zone. I’m so grateful to the people who helped make my campaign successful. 48 • PhotoEd

Top row: This piece of coral from the Maldives reminds Yasser of his family and the support they offered him when he began the next chapter of his life in Canada. Like the ocean, he believes love ebbs into our lives indiscriminately, wherever we make room for it. Bottom row: While drinking Rwandan coffee in her distillery district condo, Beni can reflect on how far she has come since fleeing the genocide at age 12.


I assembled a team of people who believed in the project’s objectives. A German advertising agency called Marcellini made the website; former student Anna Sabrina helped to create the logo; the very organized Vanessa Tamburro joined the team as project manager; publicist Christine Liber helped with the media; Lanrick Bennett Jr. at the Toronto Centre for the Arts provided space for the first exhibition; and a few key interns also helped in many ways. Without all of this support, Cosmopolis Toronto couldn’t have been a success.

Top right: Cindy’s grandmother fed and clothed her seven children by selling homemade food in Indonesia. Now Cindy has started her own Indonesian street food company called Babi & Co., which sells many of the dishes, such as risoles, that her grandmother used to make.

Bottom right: Marko’s mother brought her family safely to Canada from Yugoslavia, but tragically lost her life to cancer. Marko honours her memory by working as a pharmacist at Women’s College Hospital, the place where his mother received treatment.

I spent a year crisscrossing Toronto in the snow, rain, and sunshine. While sipping wine made in a Moldovan’s garage, sharing beers in Filipino Town, or having coffee at a Portuguese bakery, I learned a little bit about each individual’s migration story. Portraits were taken at the place in the city where participants felt most at home. In a second photograph, I asked them to hold an object that connected them with their past. When I put the call out for participants, I didn’t require that the immigrants be exceptional in any particular way. The only qualification was that the person needed to have been born in a particular country but now call Toronto home. I connected with 195 people from all over the globe. After hearing their stories, I feel all of the individuals I met are incredible. I would PhotoEd • 49


argue that they have given much more to Canada than Canada has given to them. Finding participants for the project wouldn’t have been possible without social media. I spent hundreds of hours messaging strangers, hoping to find people from particularly small countries. My efforts got me kicked off of Facebook for a while. I guess the company thought my messages were spam. Media attention helped me to make contacts. Each time my story appeared in print, on the radio, or on television, I would be contacted by someone who knew an individual from a country not yet represented in my project. It was beautiful to see people wanting to help and share their stories. The more people I photographed, the more support I received for completing the project, as the people already involved wanted to help to find other missing countries of birth. With each exhibition or event associated

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with the project, people from growing numbers of countries would come together and share stories. As the remaining countries were narrowed down, participants and I stood downtown, in the cold, with signs saying “Are you from Tuvalu, Palau, etc-?” I have built some incredible friendships with the people featured in this project and will forever be grateful that they allowed me into their lives. One key element of the project was its participatory nature. All 195 people were involved in telling their stories, and I just helped document them. We worked with the team at Myseum. This Toronto museum project creates conversations around important, current issues affecting the city. When Myseum expressed interest in creating a large-scale exhibition of my project, I was more than excited. Together, we reached out to the

Top: While touring in Japan, Yosvani was overheard by a Cuban official criticizing how his country mishandled Earthquake Gustav. Warned that his return would mean punishment, he decided to stay in Canada while on layover in Toronto. Bottom left: Veronica came to Canada from Malawi at age 5, but stays connected to the continent of Africa through the thriving clothing business she co-founded called Kuwala. Her brand promotes the work of young African enterprises involved in socially responsible fashion. Above, right: Kamal’s memoir Intolerable, which sheds light on what it was like growing up gay in a conservative Muslim society, was a finalist for CBC’s Canada Reads. Through his books and his teaching at Ryerson University, Kamal continues to make others feel that they belong, regardless of their sexuality or ethnicity.

Top left: John couldn’t speak English when he arrived in Canada from South Korea at the age of 11. Today he advocates for those without a voice through his work as a criminal lawyer. Top right: Back in Poland, Marta remembers standing in line for hours alternating shifts with her father just to get a bag of sugar. Seeking a better life for their children, Marta’s parents sacrificed a lot to come to Canada. Marta’s past experiences help her to connect with the diverse group of grade 6 students she now teaches. Bottom left: Sahar’s divorce from an abusive husband catalyzed a new beginning, including moving to Canada and making a career change. Today she is the project coordinator for the Canadian Council of Muslim Women and is an important advocate in her community. Bottom right: Colin Boyd Shafer at an exhibition of this project in Kitchener, Ontario.

Toronto Public Library to exhibit the work. The library system was a perfect venue for making these stories accessible. The project included 18 uniquely themed exhibitions, such as belief, as seen in Keeping the Faith, or food, as seen in A Matter of Taste. Alongside the exhibitions, Myseum and I organized a number of panel discussions, film screenings, and activities focused on migration and diversity. The first edition of the book sold out, and I would love to make a second edition. I would also be thrilled to see the project exhibited outside of Toronto, especially in less diverse parts of Canada. This coming year I will be continuing to work on my project INTERLOVE, featuring interfaith couples in North America, and starting a new series called Finding American, which will tell stories of immigration in all states of the USA.

Doing this project caused me to reflect on how I came to be Canadian and what really makes this country so special. If this is what Justin Trudeau meant when he referred to Canada as the world’s first postnational state, I’m proud. Canada was built on the backs of immigrants and they continue to contribute to its success. Our country took in an estimated 300 000 newcomers in 2016, including 48 000 refugees, and 85 percent of immigrants with permanent resident status will become citizens. The individuals I photographed are a testament to how much migration has benefited Canadian society. In the words of Barack Obama, “the world needs more Canada.” We must share the fact that diversity is not a liability, but rather a great national asset.


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Arianne Clément tells the story of beauty stilled by time: beauty layered by decades of toil and turmoil, joy and celebration, charm and feminism. “I wanted to tell a story about women,” she says, explaining how she came up with the idea of photographing female centenarians in her community of Montérégie, Quebec. “I wanted to meet the oldest women of my community, as they are the ones who have seen the most changes of women’s conditions.”

“For me, beauty is the reflection of the moon on the lake. This image of my youth remains ingrained in me.” — Anne-Marie Pronovost, 100 years old, Sutton, 2016.

When Clément started shooting, she could not decide on a precise direction to take with the project. “Back in the day, [women] were rarely photographed, and when it happened, it was considered an event,” she says. Clément’s path became clear when the women asked to prepare themselves before being photographed. Using as much natural light as possible, she captured participants in intimate moments as they got ready and beautified themselves. “The idea of the rituals of beauty came easily because the women I photographed all wanted to groom themselves for the shoot,” she says. “I took a lot of pictures of them, of their beauty rituals, and of the things they considered beautiful.” But that wasn’t what made the project special for Clément. She received the most joy from listening to the subjects’ stories about youth, old age, feminism, sexuality, charm, appearance, and love. She hopes sharing these memories made the women joyful, too. There was a lot of laughing and crying through the process. “The experience was very intimate for them as well as for me,” says Clément.

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Conversations revealed varied self-views, from a centenarian seeing herself as “la fraîche” (the trendy lady), to others perceiving themselves as ugly and faded, but still looking to enjoy life. Clément hopes these portraits will help people to question society’s obsession with youth and beauty. She also seeks to give a voice to these women whose beauty is rarely acknowledged. “I feel [elderly people] are under-represented in society,” she says. “People who have a hundred years of age today are tremendously interesting. They went through a century of accelerated changes, and they have experienced so much.” What centenarians have to share is amazing, adds Clément: “I used to travel a lot in search of different visions of the world, but I realize now there is no need to go far to encounter people with values and logic that are different than mine. This is extremely enriching.” Clément began her career in photography as a journalist in Nunavut. Inspired by the experience, she went on to attain a master’s degree in photojournalism at the University of the Arts London in England. During her trips abroad, she developed a photographic style that combines art and documentary. From the Great North to the West Coast, the Amazon to Eastern Europe, and Argentina to Ireland, Clément’s recurrent theme of exploration has been that of the forgotten ones, the excluded, and the marginalized. Attracted to rough, coarse, and grainy textures, she is constantly on the lookout for powerful contrasts: lightness and dark, past and present, attractive and unsavoury, serenity and calamity, and life’s beauty and cold cruelty. “I like that

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Top left: “My father was a painter and craftsman and he shared his love of art with me. I believe that everything that is artistic is beautiful: theatre, picture frames, poems, paintings, flowers, songs. In a person, it’s the character, the silhouette, the smile, and the eyes that count. That said, my biggest regret is not getting an education. Doors open for you when you’re educated. Otherwise you feel shame. Regardless of the situation, I would advise young women to educate themselves.” — Marie-Berthe Paquette, 102 years old, Montreal QC, 2016. Top right: “As a young lady, I could not afford to be frivolous. We were poor and had to work all the time. We had to take part in day-to-day chores, pick the raspberries, take care of the babies, cook, help with the harvest, do housework, and

bathe the children… and all of that without electricity. We didn’t have time to think about beauty.” — Solange Racine, 101 years old, Granby QC, 2016. Bottom: “Even though we constantly told her that she was beautiful, my mom had always found herself ugly. She often said that she had a monkey face and that she didn’t like her plumpness. My mother regularly dieted. There were stretches where we went without potatoes, bread, or desserts. She also tried different weight loss pills. She wore girdles and corsets that she’d buy at Mrs. Dinovitzer’s store. I think her weight had always been her biggest fixation.” — Lise Provost (right) about her mother, Laure Saucier (left) who passed away in 2016 at age 101, Acton Vale QC, 2016.

Top left: “I personally find myself beautiful, and when I don’t, I do my best anyways! I like to have my hair neatly styled and wear dresses, jewellery and other accessories. I’ve always paid attention to my appearance. In fact, I’m known as ‘la fraîche’ (the trendy lady).” — Marie-Berthe Paquette, 102 years old, Montreal, 2016. Top right: “When I was young, like all women, I wanted to be attractive. I curled my hair, wore the beautiful outfits my mom made for me and suffered in high heels. Still, I never wore makeup; I felt like it was fake. I married my husband because he was handsome, which I ended up regretting. He wasn’t a very good partner and I ended up kicking him out.” — Madeleine Beaugrand Champagne, 101 ans, St-Bruno de Montarville, 2016. Bottom: “When I was young I had long hair, nice legs, and curves. Young ladies today all strive to be skinny, but I think that real beauty is natural beauty. We are who we are, and that’s all that matters.” — Anne-Marie Pronovost, 100 years old, Sutton QC, 2016.

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Left: “Of course I’d rather be good-looking than ugly! But back when I was young, I couldn’t be bothered with beauty. It was vanity. It was a sin. What really mattered was the family, putting food on the table, and making sure that the children were bathed and clothed. I am blessed because my daughter is the one now taking care of me. She welcomed me in her home 20 years ago and I am still there. Family is all that really matters.” — Isabelle Gagné, 103 years old, Clermont QC, 2016. Bottom: “The word beauty invokes great classic French authors, and music. When I was young, I always had my nose in a book and I wrote. I don’t mean to brag, but people envied my writing skills. I like Mozart a lot, but it’s Beethoven who really makes my heart sing.”

the passage of time tells a story,” says Clément. “I have always been attracted to old houses, boats, trees, and people. Nothing seems more beautiful to me than the things that have been transformed, afflicted, crystallized, solidified, or decayed by time and the elements.” It’s no different when it comes to people, she explains: “They have seen so much, worked so much, experienced so much. Their bodies express that.” In this sesquicentennial year of Canada’s unification, Clément sees a special connection between her subjects and the country. To her, this unique bond is incredible, making these centenarians the core bearers of the nation’s heritage and history. “They are among the oldest in the country. They are the ones who have seen the most of Canada and all of its changes in the last century,” she says. “I can’t start to imagine how much they had to adjust to: they went through two world wars, the Great Depression, the right to vote for women, the baby boom, the arrival of television, the Quiet Revolution, the sexual revolution, the technology revolution, etcetera.” Using a grant from the Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec, Clément hopes to continue her endeavours. She has easily formed intimate and personal connections with her subjects. The hard part, Clément states, is performing administrative tasks, such as writing grant proposals; submitting work to contests, festivals, and magazines; and finding exhibitors. However, receiving recognition from her peers has made this work worthwhile. Clément aims to push her project further, documenting more and more centenarians elsewhere in Canada and even around the world.

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— Madeleine Beaugrand Champagne, 101 years old, Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, QC, 2016.

Georgian College

Georgian College, Barrie Campus One Georgian Dr., Barrie ON L4M 3X9 Contact: Terry Hrynyk PROGRAM: Digital Photography and Imaging LENGTH: Two years CREDENTIAL Diploma ISSUED:

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Elijah Monroe’s

IDENTITY Elijah Monroe’s Identity series investigates the malleability of identity through fictional characters. The artist constructs identities and transforms himself. Rather than representing the artist’s identity, the images project personas deeply embedded in our contemporary cultural imagination. Monroe assumes multiple roles as part of this practice: photographer, model, psychiatrist, stylist, makeup artist, Photoshop maven, and hairstylist. By occupying all of these roles, he playfully reveals the multiplicity of identity. Inspired and influenced by Cindy Sherman, Monroe uses his personal take on staged self-portraiture to speak to the strength and power of the tradition of exploring one’s own identity through fictional role play. As a member of the Cayuga First Nation, Monroe was raised on the Grand River Reserve #40 of the Six Nations, in Ontario. This work was produced as part of his coursework in the Sheridan College, Bachelor of Photography program in 2016. PhotoEd • 59

project: NOURISH

A PLACE FOR EMERGING CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPHERS ONLINE BY PROJECT FOUNDER RITA GODLEVSKIS PhotoEd PLATFORM Project founder Rita Godlevskis has worked on PhotoEd Magazine for the past 16 years as the art director and online producer with editorial input in 48 issues. Godlevskis has more than 10 years of experience in commercial creative media work as a photo editor in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Upon returning to Canada, after having worked in a wide range of commercial photography and publishing contexts internationally, it has been really interesting for me to see what has changed since I left and what has stayed the same. On the one hand, fortunately, the level of passion for creative image-making and the quality of work by emerging photography practitioners has remained consistent. Working on PhotoEd Magazine while abroad kept me in touch with what was going on, online. Being back in the country has proved that so much more happens offline.

On the other hand, it’s frustrating to see that some other things haven’t changed. I thought I would find more innovation in commercial sales and rights for artists. While CAPIC and PPOC’s lobbying activities with the federal government resulted in some great changes in copyright law for image-makers in 2012 (see:, I see many of the same established institutions and organizations repeating themselves with strategies for working with emerging artists. In the same way that Alexis Marie Chute and Aaron Chute began the InFocus Photo Exhibition in Alberta (see page 62 in this issue), the PhotoEd PLATFORM Project began because of frustration with the gallery system catch-22. Connecting with emerging artists to get their work published is one of PhotoEd publications’ top priorities. In 2016, we published our regular three issues, as well as the PhotoEd GUIDE to Photography textbook. While working on the textbook, Top left: Ursha Rajah Centre: Jill Tonini, Top right: Brandon Titaro Bottom left: Linda Briskin, Bottom right: Emily Wells

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I searched for emerging talents to showcase their work. One recent graduate student had what I thought was the perfect image. She was quick to reply via email (an influential factor for projects on a deadline); but, sadly, she was unprepared for a potential sale. Her website and messaging was solid, and she appeared professional — as do many photographers online. However, she had gaps in her knowledge regarding licensing her work for commercial use. Another frequent occurrence I have seen is the exploitation of eager emerging artists with promises of payment in the form of “exposure.” Sadly, student loans and rent cannot be paid with exposure as currency. Working with emerging artists is a cost-effective solution to raise money for great causes, however, often this effort costs artists money (in the form of printing and framing expenses) with very little return. Bearing witness to this made me wonder: What if we could find a way to raise money for a charity without costing artists anything? What if we could create an online offering? What if the offering could be made affordable to more people? The PhotoEd Platform Project originated from these combined ideas. The website promotes Canadian photographers by creating an online gallery for their work that collectively elevates their images in a commercial marketplace, supported by a philanthropic and educational ethos.

PhotoEd PLATFORM ARTISTS INCLUDE: Calgarian KEVIN J. MELLIS swapped a digital camera for large format film apparatus in 2012. Mellis is a medical social worker in the largest trauma centre in Southern Alberta. Having witnessed thousands of deaths since joining the trauma team, he finds solace in the photographic process, meticulously crafting images exploring life’s forgotten or overlooked details.

By purchasing a print or licensing a photo for commercial use, YOU contribute to helping a new generation of image-makers grow. The PhotoEd Platform Project sparks relationships between new photography practitioners, the community, and the commercial creative industry. Submissions to the PhotoEd Platform Project are free for photographers. The first PhotoEd Platform Project collection was based on the theme, Nourish. Images were selected by an expert jury including art directors, photographers, and photo editors from across Canada. Photographers shared images of what nourished their bodies, minds, and spirits. The collection as a whole speaks to a beautiful national contemporary vision of what visually nourishes us. By purchasing a digital photo for personal screen use, anyone can contribute to the work of Food Banks Canada. During the Food Banks donation period, 100 percent of the proceeds from every screen-use download ($5) goes to Food Banks Canada. What nourishes us all can nourish the community. Images are also available on the website for digital commercial use and as fine-art print sales. By purchasing a print or licensing a photo for commercial use, you contribute to helping a new generation of imagemakers grow.

Canadian photographers can watch out for future Call for Submissions announcements by signing up for the PhotoEd Magazine e-newsletter or by following us via social media at:

@photoedmagazine @PhotoEd PLATFORM @photoed PLATFORM

KASHA SEQUOIA SLAVNER is a photographer who has produced a feature documentary film on global citizenship called The Sunrise Storyteller ©. She is a contributor to National Geographic Learning, a public speaker and 5x UN delegate. She is also a teenager from Toronto.

CAMERAS FOR HEALING is a not-for-profit, volunteer-based organization founded by New Brunswick photographer MAURICE HENRI. The program provides Moncton youth aged 10 to 16 with cameras to guide their personal development. Photography is used as a vehicle to facilitate selfdiscovery and to develop self-worth and belonging within the community. PhotoEd • 61

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Year after year, I travel throughout Canada from the east to the west coast looking for that perfect shot. What is it that keeps me looking for “that shot” in Canada specifically? Is it the comfort of knowing that travel is relatively safe and accepted? Or do Canada’s majestic landscapes and true beauty captivate my mind and calm my inner soul? Or is it the friendly Canadians who go out of their way to say hello or perform random acts of kindness? Maybe it is the unique plethora of wildlife thriving throughout Canada’s four seasons? All of these things are key elements in my love for exploring and photographing this amazing country.

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Alberta offers picturesque mountain landscapes in both the Banff and Lake Louise areas. The mountains appear as though they were hand carved to perfection, just for our viewing pleasure. This glorious panorama of beauty is perfect for any photographer. At the base of these magnificent mountains lie spring- and glacier-fed lakes and streams, so crystal clear that you can see every pebble and fish along the bottom. The combination of the mountain shelter and the pristine freshwater creates an ecosystem where wildlife thrives: an added bonus for many a photographer. The only drawback to these locations is the heavy number of tourists. By planning your trip on the shoulder seasons of summer, you may avoid this issue and have locations all to yourself. Annual trips to the Yukon allow me to escape from my hectic daily life. The slower pace in the north lowers my stress level and helps me achieve a creative frame of mind. The vast but sparsely populated Yukon has a magnificence and beauty that can be appreciated only in person. Canada’s five tallest mountains and the world’s largest ice fields below the Arctic all reside in this diverse territory. Carcross, Dawson City, Ogilvie Ridge, and Haines Junction are some of my favourite locations. This territory offers jaw-dropping mountains, breathtaking Northern Lights displays, diverse cultures, and one of the few locations in Canada where wildlife outnumbers humans, likely fifty to one. British Columbia’s towering mountain ranges, rich forests, and rugged coastlines tug on my heartstrings every time I visit. I enjoy the coastal viewing pleasures of Vancouver Island and the strait of the mainland. It is a feast my eyes build hunger for! The coastline boasts wildlife, such as whales, grizzly bears, black bears, coastal wolves, eagles, owls, and many other sea mammals. They are all ready to be framed with some of the best backdrops that Canada has to offer. The coastal weather along the mountains keeps vegetation lush and green. The fog and rain help to invoke mood in these settings, which are ever-changing.

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Ontario — my home — is a province I have explored every corner of. Its diverse landscape has many ecoregions. The Carolinian forest has more than a hundred beautiful waterfalls and mixed vegetation that offers spectacular fall colour displays. Mixed forests cover the south central and forty-ninth parallel areas, creating homes for many birds and animals. Algonquin Park is a personal favourite of mine. The boreal forest, or taiga, region sits along the Canadian Shield and has very little human imprint. What was once an area of heavy mining and logging is now abandoned. Many untouched lakes and pristine landscapes are waiting to be explored and captured. The tundra, where the permafrost is still heavy in the ground, is an amazing location. Animals such as snowy owls, polar bears, and arctic fox live in this region. The diversity across Ontario offers many opportunities for adventurous photographers who enjoy varied natural backdrops.

Top row from left: Carcross, Yukon, Canadian Rockies, A great horned owl, Lighthouse in Grand Bend, Ontario. Bottom row: Tombstone Territorial Park, Yukon, White beauty in Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan offers a true prairie experience. In the south, be prepared to see canola fields that go on for miles and miles. The simplicity of a huge field and a big sky can result in vibrant photos that captivate with minimalistic beauty. Moving to the north, at Prince Albert National Park the landscape changes to vast meadows littered with spruce and birch trees. Black bears, bison, and deer are common photography targets in the park. On a clear night, you have one-in-three odds of witnessing the Northern Lights. Saskatchewan’s rolling hills and roaming wildlife help one feel wonderfully small in the grand scheme of things. In area by square kilometre, Canada is the second-largest country in the world, so there is a lot of gorgeous ground to cover. From the Rocky Mountains to east coast seascapes, from tricky-to-access locations in the wilderness to the beauty in your own backyard, the best way to explore Canada’s beauty is to get out there and photograph it yourself. PhotoEd • 65


Left: Mark Meer Stare by Curtis Trent Right: Untitled by Ann Mansolino

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Snag by Wes Bell

“ A skilled photographer is able to translate an idea, not only by capturing a moment in time, but by having the artistic sensibility to set up a shot that will provoke a reaction from the viewer.” — Rachel Bouchard Back in 2014, I was sitting in a restaurant with my husband and fellow photographer, Aaron Chute. It was at that table where we discussed the need for opportunities that promoted and celebrated innovative, thoughtful, and provocative photography created by Canadians. We envisioned an annual exhibit that welcomed photographers from across the nation, including students, enthusiasts, amateurs, and professionals alike. It was there that InFocus Photography Exhibition was born. During my early years as an artist and photographer I experienced many roadblocks in my professional career. I distinctly remember one gallery I approached with my art telling me that they loved what they saw. Unfortunately, however, they couldn’t show my work because my CV confessed that I did not have many major galleries under my belt at that time. It was a Catch-22. How could I get the big galleries on my resumé if they declined my art on that basis? I began submitting to every call for submissions I could find. This effort was met with much success, but I was showing in alternative venues, not in the galleries that I so craved for my work. While I am immensely grateful for all those opportunities – and they did eventually lead to more noteworthy exhibition spaces – it took years to establish myself. My early professional experience sparked a passion in me to help others navigate, and hopefully fast-track, that process. As a mentor and coach of budding creatives, I repeatedly heard about the challenges of getting one’s art out into the world and shown in venues that propel one’s career forward. I felt the urge to help these talented individuals find their public platform.

On top of coaching, a tangible way I do this is through InFocus. The first year Aaron and I launched the InFocus Photography Exhibition, we announced the call for submissions to Edmonton and area photographers. We began the journey in our local community and showed the work of 30 photographers in the Annex at Harcourt House Artist Run Centre in Edmonton, Alberta. The following year we expanded both our territory and square footage. We were hosted at dc3 Art Projects, founded by David Candler, and showed some of the best photography in Alberta. Finally, this year, we have fulfilled our original vision. The 2017 exhibit of InFocus was a national showcase. The Front Gallery in Edmonton, with forward-thinking owner Rachel Bouchard, came on board to help Aaron and I bring InFocus to life. “I believe photography is art,” emphasizes Bouchard. “A skilled photographer is able to translate an idea, not only by capturing a moment in time, but by having the artistic sensibility to set up a shot that will provoke a reaction from the viewer. And because of that, InFocus is truly a noteworthy exhibition not only for Edmonton, but for photographers across the country as well.” The theme of the 2017 InFocus Exhibit was, “The Future.” As the curator, it was visually intriguing to witness the plethora of diverse perspectives on this theme according to each photographer. This year, the show featured 27 image-makers from coast to coast, represented with 45 photographs. J.T. Rehill, a photographer from Kelowna, British Columbia,

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Curator Alexis Marie Chute at The Front Gallery in Edmonton, AB.

Density by Kevin Tuong

“ Serious photographers, as they progress, will learn that pictures work the same way (as writing), by finding a sensible form and an intelligible understanding together, intertwined and inseparable.” — Jerry L. Thompson,Why Photography Matters

Belleville, Ontario resident, Vanessa Tignanelli, tells stories through her own style of artistic photojournalism. “As an artist, I am committed to capturing human connection in an age where technology has hindered face-to-face communication.” Her photograph in the exhibit comes from a series of photographs of a homeless man named Julian Holman and his sole possession, an iPad on which he consumes information, to the detriment of his mental health.

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Left: Sunset at Abraham by Al Dixon Right: To Pearl Island by Curtis Trent

had two images included in InFocus, though his photographs looked more akin to illustrations. Graphic planes of bold blue divided the frames, where small figures stood motionless on the horizon line. “I am interested in making images that can hold relatively little substance, yet speak of humanity,” says Rehill. “How is it that in an ever-connected world, we are still divided, abandoned, and left to make it on our own?” While others shared Rehill’s existential view, another portion of photographers in the show presented a more optimistic perspective on the future. “When we are at our best – shaped by the values of multiculturalism and community – our creative vision can engage hearts and minds,” said Toronto photographer, Henry VanderSpek, “and lead the world away from a troubled past, to a future where peace and understanding can thrive.” VanderSpek’s images feature urban landscapes with lone individuals walking through the frame, almost blended into their busy backgrounds of advertisements, signage, and graphic surfaces. InFocus also features a People’s Choice Award competition with the prize courtesy of Vistek. The competition accepts world-wide voting in the month prior to the exhibit’s opening reception, where the winner is named. This year, over 8000 votes were cast, and Alberta photographer, Wes Bell, was chosen for his triptych entitled, “Snag.” The goal of the People’s Choice Award is to increase the exposure of InFocus photographers and to stimulate dialogue about contemporary photography. Commenting on his images, which feature plastic bags snagged on perfectly parallel lines of barbed wire, Bell states: “The photographs elevate the unseen and unrecognized passage of time as man encroaches on nature, and nature returns the favour. They contain the past, the present, and the future.”

As a curator and photographer, not to mention an avid consumer of culture, I have many observations about the future of photography. I recognize what I call a “spirit of experimentation” characterizing current image-makers. Photographers are pushing the boundaries of their medium in new and inventive ways. This includes embracing multi-media components, three dimensions, word-and-image, and visual storytelling. Not only is the ever-progressing photographic technology a revolution of its own merit, but I also appreciate the contemporary movement towards imagery with a distinct voice, that has something to say. I believe that aesthetics alone do not define truly great art. In his book, Why Photography Matters, Jerry L. Thompson writes, “Serious photographers, as they progress, will learn that pictures work the same way (as writing), by finding a sensible form and an intelligible understanding together, intertwined and inseparable.” This, I believe, is the exciting, global future of photography. My goal with InFocus is to make Canadian imagery a part of this international conversation. What Canadian photographers bring to the creative table is a thoughtfulness that determines both the technical execution and significant connotations of their work. These are two quintessential qualities that I look for when curating InFocus, which this year, also included portfolio reviews with distinguished photographers and educators Larry Louie, Curtis Trent, and Akemi Matsubuchi. InFocus 2018 call for submissions will go out later this year with the deadline in early October, 2017. InFocus takes place every February during the Exposure Photography Festival. PhotoEd • 69



The North Shore is, above all, colour. It is a large band of blue, the St. Lawrence River, and the white of the sea ice that breaks up early in the spring. It is the grey of asphalt from Route 138: a long stroke that separates the blue of the water from the green of the forest. This scar on the natural tapestry of Quebec comes to an abrupt end. Dotted with cities, communities, and wideopen spaces, the end of this vast land is punctuated with a sign, saying “FIN.” Beyond the road, all is white. What lies beyond that point is a new journey into the wild. After that point, there is no road for hundreds of kilometres until Labrador, where Route 138 reappears to connect Vieux-Fort and Blanc-Sablon. What does it mean today to live on the North 70 • PhotoEd

Shore? Who are the men and women who live there? What is their way of life and their way of thinking? The everyday spaces we inhabit often go unnoticed. Buildings and objects reveal the personalities of the people who inhabit a place. In small moments, at the mercy of chance meetings and happy accidents, I have observed people, places, and objects in contemplation of what is at the true heart of the North Shore. The North Shore is a land of struggle. Against the elements, against each other in political struggles past and present, for the environment, and for identity, Québécois, Aboriginal, anglophone, francophone, or Acadian.


Left: The view of the bay in Vieux-Fort, where Route 138 reappears for another 69 km. The cross of Jacques Cartier stands before the Baie-des-Rochers. Cartier is said to have stopped here in 1534 during his first voyage to the Americas before arriving in Gaspé. This village, settled by the Basque, Bretons, and Newfoundlanders, is one of the oldest in Quebec and throughout Canada. According to some historians, VieuxFort is the location of the mysterious ancient Breton fishing capital of Brest. Right: Bernard is a native of Cacouna. He came to the North Shore in the 1950s as a locomotive engineer. Anglophones then ran the industry and francophones suffered discrimination. He joined the metal workers’ union and eventually became its president. During his first term, the union held a 45-day strike and during his second a 73-day strike. He succeeded in ensuring that francophones were treated as equals with their anglophone counterparts. The iron cross he wears around his neck was made by the strikers and is a reminder of his Christian faith. He is especially proud of the photograph he is holding, in which he is seen posing with former premier René Lévesque.

Top left: Ira Ferquet has always lived in Vieux-Fort. He is a fisherman, lumberjack, hunter, gatherer, and trapper. He has left his town many times over the years to work up north as a construction worker, carpenter, canoe maker, and fishing guide. Ira has witnessed the collapse of the cod fishery and the decline of his village. However, his desire for a peaceful way of life has always brought him back home. Bottom left: Dana, originally from La Tabatière, has been living in Vieux-Fort since 2010 with her husband and two children.

She would like to see Route 138 extended so that all the inhabitants of the North Shore could benefit from road access. Her hometown is accessible only by snowmobile during the winter months and by boat or plane in the warmer months. A return flight to visit her parents costs $1000. Bottom right: Jean-Claude’s greatgrandfather, an Acadian from the Magdalen Islands, was one of the founders of Natashquan in 1855. For 40 years Jean-Claude has been a snow crab fisherman in Natashquan, which he considers to be his own paradise.


GEORGE BROWN COLLEGE Centre for Arts, Design and Information Technology A PLACE TO CREATE If you’re a creative person and want to develop your talent and tap into your imagination, the George Brown College Centre for Arts, Design and Information Technology is the place to help you unlock your creative potential. Located in Toronto, the creative capital of Canada, the Centre exposes students to state-of-the-art facilities, well-connected professors and partnerships with industry leaders.

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The Centre is home to Canada’s first YouTube creator space—one of only nine such spaces in the world—that offers training, networking and production opportunities to people who want to create content for the website’s audience of one billion users.

IMMERSE YOURSELF At the School of Design, George Brown College, you’ll not only learn design, you will live and breathe it. Here you’ll be immersed in the design community, and expected to apply

your natural skills to actual design projects. We will help you focus your imagination and perfect your talent for a successful career in design.

LIVE YOUR PASSION Whether you dream of a career behind the camera, in front of the camera, or creating worlds with words or visuals, the School of Media and Performing Arts, George Brown College, offers a diverse range of programs for you.

TRANSFORM YOUR FUTURE Our Foundation programs deliver transformative experiences where students explore new paths and create portfolios to help them take the next step in their creative careers. Courses prepare students for future study in the fields of art, design and media by teaching the skills necessary to succeed in our diploma and advanced diploma programs. Both Foundation programs include dedicated photography classes taught by industry professionals.

ART AND DESIGN FOUNDATION 1 year (2 semesters) Ontario College Certificate Develop a portfolio that demonstrates a mix of traditional and digital skills through courses in design, drawing, photography, digital media, colour theory, 3-d materials, storytelling and art history. The Art Showcase lecture series brings top creative talent into the classroom.

MEDIA FOUNDATION* 1 year (2 semesters) Ontario College Certificate This program emphasizes film, audio production, interactive media, visual storytelling, drawing, photography and image manipulation techniques to build a portfolio of digital work.

“ George Brown College, School of Design gave me the tools and opportunities that prepared me for the real world. Whether it was networking with industry professionals, field placement, working on IN magazine, organizing the Year End Show, or attending workshops, the faculty and staff really made an effort to nurture my skills and engage me in Toronto’s creative community so I would be workforce ready when I graduated.”

- Meaghan Chapin Graphic Design graduate (2016) Graphic Designer, Gravity Inc.




“ While exploring my creative abilities in drawing, colour theory, 3D object-making and photography, I developed my digital skills learning creative software applications. Nearing the end of my year in Art & Design Foundation, I reached my goal of creating a collection of strong work, supported in both hand rendered and digital media. I was able to assemble it all into a polished, professional presentation – after months of hard work, my application portfolio was complete!”

- Savanna Jackson, Art & Design Foundation graduate (2015), currently studying medical illustration at university

In addition to programs in game, graphic, and interaction design, in 2016-17, the Centre for Arts, Design and Information Technology will launch new programs that reflect the growing demand for skills and training in design and media production. CONCEPT ART FOR ENTERTAINMENT* 1 year (3 semesters) Ontario College Graduate Certificate @designGBC GBC.Arts.Design George Brown College

VIDEO DESIGN AND PRODUCTION* 2 years (4 semesters) Ontario College Diploma VISUAL EFFECTS* 1 year (3 semesters) Ontario College Graduate Certificate ACTING FOR MEDIA* 2 years (4 semesters) Ontario College Diploma *New programs announced for 2016-2017

Arts Design &

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NO OTHER NINETEENTH-CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHER DOCUMENTED CANADA FROM COAST-TO-COAST AS EXTENSIVELY AS WILLIAM NOTMAN. Notman’s work painted a picture of the Canadian landscape, industry, leaders, and pioneers that established and shaped much of our early national visual narrative. From the 1850s to the 1880s, Notman’s work placed him at the forefront of Canadian photography and laid the groundwork for future generations of photographers. All images are from the collection of the author. Arch on Bonsecours Pier, Montreal, QC. For Reception of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. [W. Notman, Stereo No. 539, August 25, 1860.] Left page: Ross Peak and Loop. [Wm. Notman & Son, View No. 2119, 1889.]

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In mid-1856 at age 30, Notman came to Canada from Scotland and started to work for a Montreal dry-goods firm. In late 1856 when business was slow, he used his time to open a photographic studio. Soon he had taken both his regular and stereoscopic cameras outside the studio to record the city and countryside. His first big break came in 1858 when he got a contract to photograph the construction of the Victoria Bridge, a new railway bridge spanning the St. Lawrence River. By 1860 he had taken his cameras from Quebec City to London, stopping in Ottawa, Kingston, Hamilton, Toronto, and Niagara Falls along the way. Later in 1860, when Queen Victoria’s son, Edward Albert, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, came to Canada to officially open the Victoria Bridge, Notman was there to record the laying of the last stone and the celebrations that surrounded the Prince’s visit. For the Royal visit, he produced an extensive series of his photographs housed in an elaborate maple box to be presented to the Prince.

Notman’s initial photographs of the first Canadian provinces were completed in 1869 when one of his photographers visited Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Notman would never have thought of photographing Western Canada until the railway to British Columbia was being planned. Then in 1871, he sent Benjamin Baltzly, one of his photographers, with the first expedition of the Geological Survey of Canada through British Columbia. In 1884, when the railway was nearly completed, Notman’s eldest son, William McFarlane Notman, made the first of eight trips documenting the west. What made Notman’s stereoscopic cards and large format images so popular at the time was that they allowed the citizens of Montreal to see other Canadian locations at a time when images of remote places were only available as woodcuts in the local papers. Those who visited Montreal could take Notman images home with them as souvenirs of their trip. While Notman’s scenic views were an important part of his business, the mainstay of all photographic studios was

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Left page: Mountain Creek Bridge Containing 1 500 000 Timber Feet on the Canadian Pacific Railway. [Wm. Notman & Son, View No. 2098, 1889.] Right: Detail from “Skating Party.” [W. Notman, Half Stereo, Detail of Notman & Sandham Composite Photograph, 1881.] Bottom: Portrait of Two Boys in a Studio Set Up as a Winter Scene. [Wm. Notman & Son, c1885.]

portraiture. In Montreal, he developed a reputation for producing quality, innovative images and his services were much in demand. Local residents as well visiting dignitaries regularly visited the Notman Studio. He produced simple “head and shoulder” images, but he also made portraits with elaborate studio setups that included a table and chairs in front of a painted backdrop. One of his studios was set up as a snowy outdoor scene. He also produced “composite” photographs, which sometimes included up to several hundred people. For these, he posed each individual in the studio in a position that he had planned for the composite. He then physically cut and pasted the individual photographs onto a painted background to produce the final image, which he re-photographed. When Notman started to work in photography, he would have taken all of the photographs himself. However, as business expanded, he hired other photographers and artists to work in the studio and to travel for him, many of whom eventually left the firm to open successful studios of their own. To expand his business, Notman opened studios in other cities. In 1868

he opened one in Ottawa which was run by William Topley, and another in Toronto which was run in partnership with the artist John A. Fraser. In 1869 Notman expanded into Halifax and in the early 1870s he opened studios in Saint John, New Brunswick, and several cities in the Northeastern United States. William Notman continued to be involved in the studios until his death in 1891. Then Notman’s eldest son, William McFarlane Notman, ran the business until his death in 1913, when William’s youngest son, Charles, took over the operation. In 1935, when Charles was ready to retire, he sold the studio to Associated Screen News. The studio was kept operating until 1993, still using the Wm. Notman & Son name. By that time, the only Notman studio still operating was in Montreal. However, earlier, in 1955, Associated Screen News had reorganized and had sold the historical section of the studio, which included 400 000 Notman negatives, prints, and studio records. It was bought by a consortium of Maclean’s magazine and several other contributors, who donated it to McGill University. The collection now resides in the McCord Museum of Canadian History in Montreal and is available for researchers today. PhotoEd • 77


The nineteenth century saw a major interest in developing colour photography technology that provided reproducible and inexpensive colour images. In the late 1880s, a method was developed by the Photoglob Company in Zurich. Its postcards became known as photochrom prints. These images started with black and white photographic negatives that were ingeniously enhanced with an ink-based photolithographic process. The process used lithographic limestone coated with a lightsensitive layer of purified bitumen. A reversed half-tone negative was laid over the coating and exposed to daylight for between 10 minutes to several hours. The areas on the stone of bitumen exposed to light would harden and become permanent, but the unexposed areas of bitumen would be cleaned away with turpentine. Once a positive black and white skeleton for the image was established, additional stones would be created with bitumen to create tonal range in the image. Each colour in a landscape would need a separate stone; the finished print would need from 6 to 15 stones to provide a full range of colour. Images would then be printed using a sequential lithographic method to create completed postcards.

Top: Parliament Buildings from Major’s Hill Park, Ottawa, ON. Bottom: Crevasse formation in Illecillewaet Glacier, Selkirk Mountains. Right page, top left: Horseshoe Falls from Goat Island, Niagara, ON. Top right: Cascade Mountain, Alberta. Bottom: Toronto from the bay.

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The Photoglob Company gave an exclusive licence covering the United States for the photolithographic technique to the Detroit Photographic Company in the mid-1890s. In 1898, the US Congress passed the Private Mailing Act, which let private publishers produce postcards with postage stamps already printed on them. This accelerated the public consumption of postcards, as the postal rate for these cards was one cent each, while the regular letter rate was two cents. Before this reduction in the cost of mailing, postcards had mainly fed a fashion for collecting instead of being used as an alternative to the letter and envelope. Such increasing demand resulted in the Detroit Photographic Company producing as many as seven million photochrom prints per year in the following period, with a choice of 10 to 30 thousand different views for the discerning customer.

“They seemingly aimed for an idealized Canada that was breathtakingly expansive but in the process of being restrained by technology and human endeavour. ”

High-resolution, royalty free images of many Canadian photochroms can be obtained from the Library of Congress website: Search: Detroit Publishing Company Canada. (Note: The Detroit Photographic Company changed its name to the Detroit Publishing Company in 1905. It went into receivership in 1924.)

Between 1898 and 1903, the Detroit Photographic Company produced approximately 75 photochroms of Canadian scenes. In other parts of the world, Canada was considered to be as exotic a destination for travel as Africa or Asia. Travel as leisure was conspicuous consumption, marking prosperity for the ambitious growing middle class. Citizens of the British Empire were interested in seeing the colonies; populations in the United States and Canada took advantage of increasingly affordable and reliable rail systems that could move them around the continent in comfort. Niagara Falls was one of the most popular photochrom images, accounting for over half of all Canadian postcards. The next largest group of images captured the mountains and lakes of Alberta and British Columbia. Of the urban centres, Quebec City led in popularity, followed by Montreal, Ottawa, and finally Toronto. Canadian photochroms were selective in nature, taken only of specific locations, to emphasize the majesty and tranquility of the nation. The images idealized Canada as breathtakingly expansive but also showed it in the process of being restrained by technology and human endeavour. Individual photographers for the postcards are almost consistently impossible to determine. This could be because the Detroit Photographic Company might have bought the rights to any photographs sold to them, or because the company could have hired photographers to produce images exclusively for the company’s use. To add to the confusion, the lithographic colouring process for the postcards was undertaken by an artist, printmaker, or technologist other than the original photographer. As the foundation photograph for the postcard would have been in black and white, the colourist would have had to imagine the colours that he or she imposed on the image, invariably introducing another layer of fantasy to Canada’s global image. PhotoEd • 79


The First 360-Degree Panoramic Camera BY CASSANDRA ROWBOTHAM

John Robert Connon, of Elora, Ontario, patented the first revolving, panoramic, 360-degree camera. The invention was launched in 1887 and used roll film, allowing for the capture of panoramas in a single exposure. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were transitional and innovative periods in the field of photography. Prior to the time of Connon’s invention, photographers had been limited to using metal or glass photographic plates to capture fine detail in their subjects. While they also had the option of using the paper negative process, this was considered an inferior method as it resulted in a lower resolution image. After its invention in 1851, the collodion process was preferable because of its reproducibility and clear results, but the use of glass plates made the process cumbersome, particularly when photographing outside of the studio. Panoramic photography was affected by the same restrictions. Photographic panoramas made by a single exposure involved the use of a curved emulsion support and usually entailed large, unwieldy view cameras incapable of capturing a view of more than 150 degrees. Overcoming the materials’ physical limitations while striving for a reproducible and high-quality photographic process was a challenge for many panorama photographers. Although a variety of innovative solutions were patented, the invention of flexible film solved the issues that had hindered panoramic photography’s development. 80 • PhotoEd

Photographers did not initially accept the flexible roll films made by the George Eastman Company. Early versions had inconsistencies and did not match the image quality of glass plates. However, Connon was an early adoptor of this new method of making negatives; he had experimented with semitransparent sensitized paper as an assistant in his father’s traditional photography studio business. His early dedication to this new material was a key factor in the design and development of his full circle camera. In addition to this enthusiastic start, other advantages helped Connon to execute his idea. New flexible films were available and Connon had a thorough understanding of camera lenses and mechanics. With a few simple experiments, he learned the pivot point of his camera lens: that is, the point from which he needed to rotate his camera to capture an undistorted image. After knowing this point, he created a swivel style camera with a swinging lens, comparable to earlier panoramic cameras. But this design was not good enough for Connon because it would not have captured a full 360 degrees. Knowing the mechanics of the roll-holder in his camera, Connon built his fixed-focus camera to advance the film as the camera was turned around its optical centre on a tripod. Before his invention, no one had had the ability to synchronize the rotation of the camera lens with the progression of the negative surface.

Left page: Brooklyn Bridge, New York. Archives Canada, MIKAN no. 4663849.

Connon’s camera never enjoyed great commercial success because it was ahead of its time. Photographers and consumers were not yet aware of the possibilities for the panoramic format. Soon his camera design was outdone by similar and improved versions patented by other inventors. Because of this, Connon felt his idea had been stolen from him. He often wrote corrections to newspapers that referred to cameras other than his own as being the first with 360-degree image capabilities. His attempts were largely overlooked and he has had little or no historical recognition for his contributions to the field of panoramic photography. Most of what is known about him is tucked away in archives across Ontario. Throughout history, panoramic photographers have challenged the limitations of technology. Photography collections contain multiplate daguerreotype panoramas created with separate exposures, and other segmented panorama prints. Some photographers arranged and overlapped negatives to create a continuous single image that could then be re-photographed and made into a single print. Other techniques that attempted to create a panorama in a single exposure required swinging lenses, curved negatives, globular water-filled lenses, and other cumbersome and complicated operations. Connon’s invention provided a solution to these obstacles and contributed to the panoramic photography field by, for the first time, allowing photographers to capture a full 360-degree image (or larger) in a single exposure.

Top left: A page from the patent application for the panoramic camera. 1888. Library and Archives Canada / e003495743. MIKAN no. 4628414. Top right: Thomas Connon, [John R. Connon posed in studio with camera], circa. 1885. Connon family fonds, C 286-1-0-11-9, Archives of Ontario. Bottom: Thomas or John R. Connon, [John Connon’s whole circuit panorama camera, patented in Britain and the United States in 1887 and Canada in 1888. Camera set up on a river, likely the Elora Gorge.], ca. 1887. Connon family fonds, C 286-5-0-9, Archives of Ontario.

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A Nineteenth Century Photographer by Robert G. Wilson

Benjamin Baltzly produced some of the earliest images of the interior of British Columbia that are important from a historical perspective, exhibiting both technical and artisitic merit. At Confederation, in 1867, Canada included four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. British Columbia agreed to join the Dominion in 1871 provided a railway was built to join it to the eastern provinces. In the summer of 1871, a railway survey party was sent to British Columbia to explore the best route through the mountains. The Geological Survey of Canada also sent a party to assess geological features; this group included Benjamin Baltzly. Baltzly was born in 1835 and grew up in Ohio. He opened his first photographic studio in Wooster, Ohio, around 1861. He made tintypes and small photographic portraits called cartes de visite, and sold frames and albums. He remained in Wooster until 1865 when he was forced to leave under suspicious circumstances. He then moved to Montreal, Quebec.

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In Montreal, Baltzly worked in the studio of J.G. Parks until June 1868 when he opened his own studio. There he produced cartes de visite and gave lantern slide presentations. In April 1870 a fire destroyed his studio, which he never rebuilt. Later he worked for William Notman, a well-established Montreal photographer. During his employment with Notman, Baltzly was given the opportunity to photograph interior British Columbia. On June 26, 1871, he left Montreal with the Geological Survey party and travelled to Victoria via San Francisco. There they organized an expedition that travelled into interior British Columbia through Kamloops and north on the North Thompson River, nearly reaching present-day Alberta before the coming winter forced them to turn back. Along the way, Baltzly photographed many features of the province. They retraced their steps, returning to Montreal on December 26, 1871 with a set of 36, 8x10 and 89 stereographic views documenting the expedition and the land.

A more detailed account of the life of Benjamin Baltzly is documented in the book, Secure the Shadow: The Life of Benjamin Franklin Baltzly, available from the Photographic Historical Society of Canada at (from the “Press” menu).

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gallery submissions by our readers

William Ducklow • Stratford Camera Club Above: Northern Night Sky - North Shore Lake Superior Left: Standing on the Rock - Algonquin Provincial Park

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Scott Foster • Banff National Park • @ ScottyTrees

John Wallace • Memories of the Past, St. Lunaire NFLD • 2015 • •



Leib Kopman • Tunnel through time • Toronto • 2016

One of the most beautiful trees in Canada, and certainly one of the largest, is the San Juan Spruce near Port Renfrew, BC. This tree is an ecosystem in itself. Covered in a garden of moss and ferns, it serves as a perch for bald eagles above the San Juan River. Sadly, the vast majority of the mighty ancient Sitka spruce trees on BC’s southern coast have now been logged. • TJ Watt • Mitchell Brown • Windswept Pines • Star Lake, Ontario • 2017 •

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Patricia McCairen • Snow Geese Landing in Fog • Delta Photo Club

Cece Scott • Lighting the way on the St. Lawrence River •

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Ian Logie • Delta Photo Club

Antje Danielson • ‘Ferns’ (B&W Infrared) • 2017 • Delta Photo Club •

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Self declared “Reputable since 1955”, the Vesta Lunch has long been a Toronto late night institution. Behind the long counter on a busy Friday night, Myriam reflects on the business, customers, the community that binds them, and the magic of the place. Running Time: 2m40s

Alvin Paringit • Untitled • Calgary •



Shayne Gray • Canadian Flag •

George Socka • Tied up

SD Debrosse • Parliament of Canada

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Christy Turner Photography • Captured from a flight to Nice, France from Calgary somewhere over the Arctic circle, Oct 10, 2014. This was the in-flight movie for my mother and I for 3 hours of the flight. • • IG: @ aurorachaseryyc

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A memorial parade for fallen RCMP officers at the RCMP depot training academy, 2014 • Chad Letain •

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Valerie Hider • Welcoming Inukshuk at English Bay • Delta Photo Club • @Valerie_Hider_Photos



George Pierce • Westham Island Red Gate • Delta, BC • Delta Photo Club

Louise Quinby • Anaheim Lake Rodeo, British Columbia, celebrates year 79 on the circuit as Canada turns 150 years strong.

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What makes a great shot? A trained eye. Photography Studies at The Chang School. Where talent meets skill.

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GET THE GUIDE The PhotoEd GUIDE to Photography is a 128-page magazine-format learning and teaching resource. The GUIDE provides a quick start to basic tools & techniques, and ideas for new explorations.

get it online: 96 • PhotoEd


Find Your True North!

Nikon D5600 body Nikon DX VR 18-300mm f3.5-6.3 Nikon AF-S DX 35mm f1.8G Nikon 10x50 A211 Aculon Binocular

Roots 73 Flannel Backpack Manfrotto BeFree Travel Tripod Campervan Frame Cameron ND Filters (52mm and 67mm)




Photo: Sara Swinden

Honours Bachelor of Photography Sheridan’s Honours Bachelor of Photography program develops talented artists and helps them bring their creative vision to life. As Canada turns 150, its breathtaking landscape is captured through the eyes of student Sara Swinden. Become inspired and learn the skills to launch a successful photography career.

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