20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale London, 2 October 2019
Nathaniel Mary Quinn
11. Hurvin Anderson
20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale London, 2 October, 7pm
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2 October, 7pm
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Property from a Distinguished New York Collection
1. Simone Leigh
Shower Cap stoneware, porcelain, cobalt, epoxy and plastic 91.4 x 35.6 x 30.5 cm (36 x 14 x 12 in.) Executed in 2013. Estimate £40,000-60,000 $49,400-74,000 €44,700-67,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach Acquired from the above by the present owner in March 2013
‘I’ve come to see Leigh’s ceramic female fgures as sentinels holding space for a culture that is very much in the making, a culture in which whiteness is neither the center nor the frame.’ Helen Molesworth, ‘Art is Medicine’, Artforum, March 2018, online
*The amount of Buyer’s Premium, VAT and, if applicable, Artist’s Resale Right payable is dependent on the sale outcome. For full details see Calculating the Purchase Price in the Buyer’s Guide online or in this catalogue. Buyer’s Premium is payable at a maximum of 25%. VAT, where applicable, is payable at 20% on the Buyer’s Premium.
Sensuous, sleek and luminous, Shower Cap, 2013, is an exhilarating example of Simone Leigh’s ground-breaking sculptural practice. With her fresh artistic vision, Leigh transforms ordinary materials into unfinching sculptures, and endows everyday signs with deep metaphoric associations touching on the complexities of black female subjectivity. Having studied West African and Native American ceramic traditions, the artist coalesces an array of visual sources that together convey unique totemic qualities, ofen juxtaposing historical and geographical contexts to conjure a discrete, yet resounding, socio-political meaning. Here, it is the titular shower cap that stands out with its penetrating, almost electric blue, hue that departs from the sculpture’s otherwise pewter-black base. Marking a stark contrast with the bust’s traditional rendering, the shower cap element prompts the viewer to refect on its uncanny association with a classical sculptural aesthetic, in turn prompting a number of interrogations surrounding the ofen erroneous categorisation, display, and historicisation of objects associated with the African diaspora. Currently the recipient of signifcant critical, curatorial and commercial attention, Leigh frst rose to prominence in 2016, on the occasion of her important solo exhibition at the New Museum, New York, immediately followed by her show at the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles. Cementing her rapid ascent to the contemporary canon, Leigh’s inclusion in the Whitney Biennial, her solo show at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the inaugural ‘Plinth’ project she
Bust of Queen Nefertiti from Amarna, Thutmosis's workshop, c. 1350 BCE, limestone and painted plaster, Aegyptisches Museum - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Image: Scala, Florence/bpk, Bildagentur fuer Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin.
contributed to on the New York High Line – in place since June 2019 – have collectively stunned the critics and public this year. Her ‘Plinth’ project, entitled Brick House, consists of an almost 5-metre-high bronze bust whose torso is combined with the shape of a skirt and a clay house. Resonating with the present work, this gargantuan sculpture summons such statuesque archetypes as the eminent Bust of Nefertiti, whose long, strong and graceful features similarly celebrate the supremacy of womanhood in a matrilinear context. Yet, while references to past sculptural styles are inevitable in Shower Cap, the work simultaneously touches on deeply modern questions, both formally and conceptually. Approaching abstraction through the strategic efacement of the fgure’s facial features – namely her eyes and ears – Shower Cap interrogates the voice and visibility of the woman it embodies. A signature trait in Leigh’s sculptural output, the removal of key human orifces could – in line with the artist’s thematic concerns – symbolise the loss of sentience imposed on black women in the face of systemic racial inequalities. Alternatively, and perhaps even more poignantly, the absence of senses could signify a form of liberation. As beckoned by Helen Molesworth in her raw, poetic and admiring Artforum essay in Leigh’s homage, the large, anonymous fgures sculpted by the artist are self-sufcient, living in their own internal worlds as if unbothered by the surrounding clamour. ‘They remain self-possessed, looking inward, contemplating and thinking things that I cannot fathom’, she writes. In other words, Leigh conveys a realm where female fgures are ‘sentinels holding space for a culture that is very much in the making, a culture in which whiteness is neither the center nor the frame’ (Helen Molesworth, ‘Art is Medicine’, Artforum, March 2018, online). The rose-budded fower-cap, and its inherent proximity to the aquatic realm, furthermore pursues the thematic preoccupation Leigh began cultivating in the early 2010s with her series of aggrandised, porcelain cowrie shells. While the shells were used to represent the worthless currency that Africans used to trade other Africans into transatlantic slavery – revealing a ‘relationship to oceanic trauma and the radical negativity of [an] exchange’ – the shower cap here circles back to the act of swimming; an activity historically brimming with socio-political implications, as it signifed luxurious leisure for one portion of society whilst representing utter danger for another (Malik Gaines, ‘Simone Leigh by Malik Gaines’, Bomb Magazine, 1 April 2014, online). Through coating numerous black bodies, sculpted within the tradition of ancient African art, with a symbol for that act, Leigh explores paradoxical notions of beauty and injustice, majesty and tragedy, grace and awareness. Shower Cap, as such, embodies the key tenets of her artistic practice, employing the traditional medium of sculpture as a conceptual arena for identity politics.
2. Nathaniel Mary Quinn
Over Yonder signed ‘Nathaniel MQ’ on a label afxed to the reverse; further signed, titled, inscribed and dated ‘Nathaniel M. Quinn Love Mom Jesus 2015 “Over Yonder” Baby-Cakes Studio, LLC © 2015’ on the reverse charcoal, sof pastel, oil pastel, oil, paintstick and gouache on Coventry vellum paper 85.8 x 77.5 cm. (33 3/4 x 30 1/2 in.) Executed in 2015. Estimate £40,000-60,000 $49,400-74,100 €44,700-67,100 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Rhona Hofman Gallery, Chicago Private Collection, Texas Acquired from the above by the present owner Literature Sasha Bogojev, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn And The Family of Man’, Juxtapoz, August 2017, p. 87 (illustrated)
‘I’d just reduce everything and and focus on what’s important. I’d just draw the slither of the eye and the slither of the nose, and maybe part of the mouth. And when I was done, when I revealed the whole image, I couldn’t believe I made this. It blew me away! I didn’t even feel like I made it, it felt like somebody else made it.’ Nathaniel Mary Quinn
*The amount of Buyer’s Premium, VAT and, if applicable, Artist’s Resale Right payable is dependent on the sale outcome. For full details see Calculating the Purchase Price in the Buyer’s Guide online or in this catalogue. Buyer’s Premium is payable at a maximum of 25%. VAT, where applicable, is payable at 20% on the Buyer’s Premium.
Bearing the kind of illusionistic appearance that commands a second look, Nathaniel Mary Quinn’s Over Yonder, 2015, coalesces myriad varying textures without ever breaking into bulging physicality. The work’s controlled surface, brimming with sliced visual elements sourced from picture clippings, Google images and his own photo albums, oozes a prodigiously explosive aesthetic that Adam Lehrer has described as ‘discord in perfect harmony’ (Adam Lehrer, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn’, Forbes, 25 October 2017, online). Demonstrating Quinn’s infallible hand in creating trompe l’oeil imagery, the present portrait brings attention to the artist’s tendency to pair seminal art historical themes with deeply intimate meanderings and an irrepressibly contemporary style. Here, traditional portraiture is conveyed as vividly as René Magritte’s The Son of Man, 1964, Romare Bearden’s deconstructed photographs, and David Hammons’ feetingly evocative body prints, all the while containing elusive traits of an anonymous face, collected and dispersed throughout the work’s surface. Catapulted to fame in recent years, notably on the occasion of his breakout show Past/Present at Pace Gallery, London, in September 2014, the artist was bestowed his frst institutional solo exhibition at the Madison Museum of Contemporary Art in 2019.
Enamoured with drawing from a young age, it was Quinn’s brother Charles who frst noted his brother’s talent, urging their mother to keep an eye on his proliferating sketches. Soon thereafer, friends, professors, patrons, and critics acquiesced Quinn’s towering practice in unison; today, his work is held by such eminent institutions the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago. Yet before experiencing such meteoric ascent, Quinn’s life underwent a number of fractures that lef deep wounds within him, and as a result, ‘Grief was the constant background noise to whatever success I achieved’ (Nathaniel Mary Quinn, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn On Painting The Politics Of Race In America’, Vogue, 21 July 2018, online). Having grown up in a large family on the South Side of Chicago – Quinn was the youngest of fve boys – the artist has stated on many occasions that his youth played a quintessential role within the development of work. ‘There is no doubt that my work is about family’, Quinn has said (Nathaniel Mary Quinn, quoted in Sasha Bogojev, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn and the Family of Man’, Juxtapoz, August 2017, online). Endowed with familiar traits whilst simultaneously being plunged in confated masses of
Romare Bearden, Pittsburgh Memory, 1964, gelatin silver print, Tate Collection, London. © Romare Bearden Foundation/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Tate, London.
‘We are a cacophony of experience, not just a seamless self.’ Nathaniel Mary Quinn
abstraction, Quinn’s complex fgures reveal subtle allusions to his family members, namely his brother Charles and his mother Mary. The artist’s relationship with his mother was more than just close; it was, in his own words, woven into his very own identity. ‘I took her name ‘cause she never had a formal education’, he exclaimed. ‘Now all of my degrees say “Nathaniel Mary Quinn” [so] my mom has a college degree and a master’s degree and her name is on the walls of the gallery’ (Nathaniel Mary Quinn, quoted in Sasha Bogojev, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn and the Family of Man’, Juxtapoz, August 2017, online).
The formal aspect of Quinn’s work, formidably skilful and innovative, is matched in intensity only by the profound emotional impact that his subject matters exude. It furthermore shines with the light of a man who has crystallised pain and transformed it into art. ‘We all experience loss, happiness, we go up, we go down, and we have various experiences that impact who we are and what we may become’, the artist remarked. ‘Pain feels the same way to everybody. It’s what binds us all together. And I’m interested in exploring that’ (Nathaniel Mary Quinn, quoted in Sasha Bogojev, ‘Nathaniel Mary Quinn and the Family of Man’, Juxtapoz, August 2017, online).
Property of a Distinguished European Collector
3. Derek Fordjour
Green Horn signed and dated ‘FORDJOUR ‘17’ on the reverse oil pastel, charcoal, acrylic, cardboard and newspaper mounted on canvas 152.4 x 101.6 cm (60 x 40 in.) Executed in 2017. Estimate £30,000-50,000 $37,100-61,800 €33,500-55,900 plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Luce Gallery, Turin Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘It just took years of tinkering before everything I wanted to say came together.’ Derek Fordjour
*The amount of Buyer’s Premium, VAT and, if applicable, Artist’s Resale Right payable is dependent on the sale outcome. For full details see Calculating the Purchase Price in the Buyer’s Guide online or in this catalogue. Buyer’s Premium is payable at a maximum of 25%. VAT, where applicable, is payable at 20% on the Buyer’s Premium.
Pulsating with vivacious colour and poignantly weathered collage, Green Horn, 2017, is a sublime example from Derek Fordjour’s body of painterly work, which will be celebrated on the occasion of the artist’s frst major solo museum show at the Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis in January 2020. Instilling fgurative images within a geometrically patterned composition, Fordjour engages with myriad art historical references whilst retaining an utterly contemporary message, touching on race and the socio-political consequences of sports, games, and carnivalesque extravaganza. Standing halfway between Paul Cézanne’s Mardi gras (Pierrot et Arlequin), 1888, and Edgar Degas’ L’Étoile, 1878, the female fgure in Green Horn addresses the timeless subject of the performer within the wider thematical realm of the spectacle. Blowing in her large green horn as one would in a megaphone, the unnamed protagonist seems to challenge the presence of the viewer, as well as that of the invisible audience surrounding the platform she is standing on. Green Horn thus probes both the legitimacy of the spectator’s gaze in a contemporary context, and the commodifcation of games for entertainment.
Paul Cézanne, Mardi gras (Pierrot et Harlequin), 1888, oil on canvas, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Image: Scala, Florence
Taking on an ambivalent appearance that eschews the painterly tradition of unrestrained brightness and clarity, Fordjour’s images deliberately emanate a washed out aesthetic that directly refects his experiences of the world growing up, conjuring an imagistic structure that is at times redolent of Raymond Hains’ décollage works. ‘One of the reasons why … surfaces are really worn the way they are is because coming from Memphis, I grew up getting things that were worn a lot — freshly used. I had a big brother, my parents were immigrants … [so also] seeing our [used] clothes go to Ghana. Those cycles, the things we have worn … is a lot about what [my] surfaces are about’, the artist has explained (Derek Fordjour, quoted in Kelley D. Evans, ‘The portrait of an artist: Derek Fordjour dissects race, sports and culture’, The Undefeated, 6 October 2017, online). Further elucidating the mechanics of his process, the artist has stated that he starts most of his pictures by laying down a base of cardboard. ‘Then I do a second layer’, he said, ‘where I actually paint the image, and then I use registration, which is like transparencies, these clear things, to mark where it is. I have these marks that will help me position the image on the top layer, and then I kind of tear through. I will do another image. I can almost tear it and then just pull that middle layer if I wanted, or go all the way back to the bottom layer. They’re really three paintings on top of each other, and then I just kind of tear in between. I don’t even know how I thought of it, I think it just happens. You’re making things … you just keep making them’ (Derek Fordjour, quoted in Kelley D. Evans, ‘The portrait of an artist: Derek Fordjour dissects race, sports and culture’, The Undefeated, 6 October 2017, online). Layering diferent images atop one another to convey a fantastical painterly realm of form and colour, Fordjour explores the independent space that exists between painting and collage, dream and reality, here materialised in a spectacularly modern portrait.
‘Sometimes the narratives he’s painting are dark, but he seduces you with the textures of his paintings. His surfaces are just beautiful.’ Henry Taylor
Property of an Important Californian Collector
4. Sanya Kantarovsky
Lavender Arrest oil, pastel, watercolour and oilstick on canvas 190.5 x 139.7 cm (75 x 55 in.) Executed in 2015. Estimate £30,000-40,000 $37,100-49,400 €33,500-44,700 à plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Marc Foxx, Los Angeles Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Los Angeles, Marc Foxx, Sanya Kantarovsky: Gushers, 9 January - 7 February 2015 Literature Stuart Bertolotti-Bailey, ed., Sanya Kantarovsky, No Joke, London, 2016, p. 185 (illustrated, p. 121, and detail illustrated, p. 185)
‘Art has never been about morality or about the pure and clean and correct. It’s always been about the grime and pain and totally unfair contradictions of being alive—and humor, very much so, is a kind of pressure valve.’ Sanya Kantarovsky
With a vast expanse of lavender paint revealing passages of brick wall, the central fgure in Sanya Kantarovsky’s Lavender Arrest, 2015, provides a clear, fgurative point of focus for the viewer’s gaze, in a composition otherwise dominated by elusive, fantastical elements. The artist, dubbed by critics as a prodigious storyteller, has become known for his exquisite use of sardonic surrealism and dark humour, tinged with an irrepressible colourist fair. His compositions are reminiscent of great tales imagined by such eminent Eastern European authors as Mikhail Bulgakov and Franz Kafa, while simultaneously calling to mind Paul Gauguin’s unmodulated hues, generously distributed across the surfaces of his works. Having described his painterly process as being frequently interrupted by pauses to read, talk, or refect, it is unsurprising that Kantarovsky’s canvases exude the unknowable visions of a daydream, at once mightily evocative and distinctly ethereal. Lavender Arrest, a monumental painting depicting the physical and seemingly psychological unease of a guard-seized man, brims with paradoxical notions of frivolity and anguish, encapsulating the multifaceted visual universe that Kantarovsky strives to achieve.
Created on the heels of Kantarovsky’s breakthrough exhibition at Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York, in 2014, Lavender Arrest epitomises the artist’s unwavering interest in the formal construction of fantasised narratives. In the artist’s own words, his perplexing paintings are the result of highly curated imaginings, spanning imagery from flm, illustration and literature. His poignantly enigmatic canvases capture human characters portrayed in liminal realms, in narratives almost always held in tension between reality and fantasy, the farcical and the ominous. ‘I’m searching, cycling through things that are perpetually fascinating and important to me in painting, literature, flm’, he says. ‘I’m this weird arbiter, putting what’s around me into these physical things’ (Sanya Kantarovsky, quoted in Dodie Kazanjian, ‘The Darkly Comic Art of Sanya Kantarovsky’, Vogue, 15 May 2019, online). Toying with surrealism and abstraction, Kantarovsky’s characteristically long-limbed characters refect ‘a moment that never existed but that you feel you’ve seen before’ (Sanya Kantarovsky, quoted in Dodie Kazanjian, ‘The Darkly Comic Art of Sanya Kantarovsky’, Vogue, 15 May 2019, online).
Paul Gauguin, Aha oe feii? (What, Are You Jealous?), 1892, oil on canvas, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Image: Scala, Florence.
Marc Chagall, Promenade, 1917-1918, oil on canvas, The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2019. Image: Photo Scala, Florence
In Lavender Arrest, the fgure being dragged down by a guard – dressed with idiosyncratic round glasses and a bright-red turtleneck – feels ‘original yet borrowed from elsewhere’, like an altered Waldo catapulted to painterly realms (Nicholas Heskes, ‘Sanya Kantarovsky: On Them’, The Brooklyn Rail, June 2019, online).
‘What I like the most about Sanya’s work is his ambition to make every single part of the painting, every single mark, have a function, be essential to the existence of the painting.’ Nicolas Party, quoted in Dodie Kazanjian, ‘The Darkly Comic Art of Sanya Kantarovsky’, Vogue, 15 May 2019, online
Garnering increased critical and institutional attention in recent years, Kantarovsky was bestowed his frst solo museum show in 2018, at the Kunsthalle Basel. Elena Filipovic, director of the legendary Swiss institution, gave Kantarovsky carte blanche to make work for the institution’s iconic 19th-century exhibition space, celebrating Kantarovsky’s unfinching pictorial drive following the show’s inauguration. ‘He believes more in the utter necessity of painting than nearly anyone I’ve ever met’, she remarked. ‘And in our accelerated, post-digital moment, it was incredibly intriguing to think about what he would do, working for a little more than one year, to make his largest show to date’ (Elena Filipovic, quoted in Dodie Kazanjian, ‘The Darkly Comic Art of Sanya Kantarovsky’, Vogue, 15 May 2019, online). Soaring to arresting heights and boasting the magnifcence of its titular hue, Lavender Arrest is an exceptional example of Kantarovsky’s poetic practice, extracting the compelling details of a story never to be told.
5. Tschabalala Self
Florida oil, acrylic, fabric, dry leaf and canvas collage on canvas 214.4 x 183.6 cm (84 3/8 x 72 1/4 in.) Executed in 2015. Estimate £40,000-60,000 $49,100-73,700 €44,100-66,200 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Thierry Goldberg Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Los Angeles, The Cabin, Tropicana, 30 August 27 September 2015 New York, Museum of Contemporary African Diasporan Arts at VOLTA, Tschabalala Self, 2 - 6 March 2016
‘You are the sum of your experiences, but you also absorb, in a lifetime, all of the diferent ideas and experiences of others. My process mimics this phenomenon.’ Tschabalala Self
A vibrant patchwork of varied textures and colours, Florida, 2015, embodies Tschabalala Self’s distinct artistic practice, whereby painterly compositions become haptic and threedimensional, akin to the tactile surfaces of crafwork. Created in 2015, the work coincides with Self’s graduation from her MFA in painting and printmaking at the Yale School of Art, where she learned to mix media and genres to conjure intricate, multifaceted scenes on canvas. With its multifarious textures and mix of pastel and elementary colours, Florida typifes the artist’s tendency to use assemblage as a method to explore perspectives on femininity and identity politics at large. ‘A stereotype is a fat character with two dimensions’, she writes. ‘And I can confront those stereotypical images by making round, multidimensional characters with complicated desires, inner dialogues, and psychology’ (Tschabalala Self, quoted in Stephanie Eckhardt, ‘Meet Tschabalala Self, the 26-Year-Old Artist Empowering the Lives of Black Women’, W Magazine, 16 January 2017, online). Embodying Self’s pantheon of self-confdent and self-aware female protagonists, Florida, challenges the tradition of female portraiture in the art historical canon, continuously defned by a tendency to minimise, utilise or fetishise the female body, primarily through the exploitation of a woman’s physical or sensual attributes. About to straddle an alligator’s back amidst a furry of wild foliage, the character taking centre stage has claimed her body as hers, like an Amazon taking over nature. With distinct prints of her face collaged across her body, Florida’s protagonist shares pictorial afnities with David Hammons’ celebrated series of body prints, which similarly records the presence of black human subjects across the surfaces of his works. As stated by Monica Uszerowicz, ‘The bodies of black and brown women are simultaneously subject to idolatry and subjugation’ in Self’s work. The artist ‘acknowledges the fantastical nature of their depictions, while giving them a world of their own’ (Monica Uszerowicz, ‘Immersed in the Playful, Communal World of a Bodega’, Hyperallergic, 3 January 2018, online).
David Hammons, America the Beautiful, lithograph and body print, 1968, Oakland Museum of California. © David Hammons.
‘My mom would sew at home, making curtains and clothes... I use a lot of the fabric that she collected. She would also reuse things… I do that in my practice. Everything is a part of the space that it was created in.’ Tschabalala Self
Property of an Important American Collector
6. Tomoo Gokita
Caroline signed, titled and dated ‘“Caroline” Tomoo Gokita 2007’ on the reverse acrylic on linen 145.4 x 111.8 cm (57 1/4 x 44 in.) Painted in 2007. Estimate £100,000-150,000 $123,000-185,000 €112,000-168,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance ATM Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner
Painted in 2007, shortly afer Tomoo Gokita had decided to pivot from illustration to painting, Caroline is an early example of the Japanese artist’s atmospheric painterly oeuvre. Doubtlessly informed by Gokita’s twenty-year experimentation with graphic illustration prior to becoming a painter in 2005, the composition depicts a faceless woman sitting on an invisible support, set against a seemingly boundless landscape of whites and grays. It quotes from an array of visual infuences, including vintage photography, black and white flm stills, and Playboy magazines – all of which have contributed in enriching Gokita’s body of work over time. A potent demonstration of Gokita’s talent in building a scene dislocated from time and space, and of propelling the genre of portraiture into the realm of the surreal, the present work draws the viewer into its pervasive, and impossible, centre of gravity, spanning stylistic iterations of Pop, Surrealism, Cubism, Japanese graphic design and neo-expressionist fervour.
Though Gokita primarily paints people – groups, duos, or individuals – he seldom designates them or endows them with an identity. Caroline stands out as a named character within his opus, a feat which contrasts with the paradoxical masking of her face in thick layers of acrylic. With her outsized chin resting on one hand and her lef arm reaching over her thigh, Caroline is reminiscent of Auguste Rodin’s Penseur from 1882, whose meditative pose is similarly embodied within an expressive posture. Yet unlike her sculptural predecessor, she seems to be directing her imperceptible gaze at the viewer straight-on, her round, obscured face positioned frontally with slim streaks of hair suggested on either side of her cheeks. At once familiar and elusive, noble and disquieting, Caroline draws from a pantheon of art historical references that together provide a context for her enigmatic portrait.
Property from a Distinguished Los Angeles Collection O♦
7. George Condo
Untitled signed and dated ‘Condo 2015’ upper lef oilstick and acrylic on paper 153.9 x 107 cm (60 5/8 x 42 1/8 in.) Executed in 2015. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $308,000-432,000 €279,000-391,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Xavier Hufens, Brussels Private Collection Sprüth Magers, Berlin Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2016 Exhibited Brussels, Xavier Hufens, George Condo: Works on Paper, 29 May - 11 July 2015
Consistently referred to as one of America’s most infuential contemporary artists, George Condo has lef an indelible mark on the development of visual culture. In Untitled, 2015, the artist masterfully restrains the densely-layered planes that constitute the depicted fgure with a controlled palette of primary colours, alluding to the Cubist titan Pablo Picasso whilst simultaneously bringing to mind the Modernist master Piet Mondrian, whose primary grids provided an antidote to the formal freedom of his Cubist contemporaries. Condo boldly combines the two artists’ stylistic signatures into a wholly new piece, all the while retaining the idiosyncratic ‘Condo’ stamp that makes the work unmistakably his. The result is a formally-stunning androgynous face which teases the viewer’s assumptions on the defnition of portraiture. Since his emergence onto the 1980s New York art scene alongside fgures such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat, Condo has consolidated his place as one of his generation’s leading artists. Like Haring and Basquiat, Condo was critically engaged throughout the eighties in a new form of fgurative painting that stylistically blended the representational and the abstract. Commenting on Condo’s prodigious absorption of the canon, Laura Hoptman draws attention to the artist’s ‘astonishing ability to channel an art-history primer’s worth of artists. He uses the language of modernist abstraction like a palette: Matisse, Klee, Tanguy, Gorky, de Kooning, Pollock and Picasso – always Picasso, whose vocabulary is the basis for all the others’ (Laura
Hoptman, ‘Abstraction as a State of Mind’ in George Condo: Mental States, exh. cat., New Museum, New York and Hayward Gallery, London, 2011, p. 24). Yet Condo steers clear of straightforward appropriation, or anything that could subject him to accusations of being derivative; he goes far beyond homage and pastiche and instead reformulates the past through his unique aesthetic prism. ‘He is not a painter of appropriated imagery; nor is he a shoot-to-kill hunter of art-historical father fgures. He is more like a philologist – a collector, admirer and lover of languages – in this case, languages of representation. […] Just as Manet would emulate – and send up – Titian, and Picasso would furiously tackle the subjects of Velázquez and Manet, Condo re-imagines Picasso’s portraits and de Kooning’s humanscapes as a challenge. Signifcantly, if one compares any one of Condo’s paintings directly with its putative source, one fnds very little resemblance between them’ (Laura Hoptman, ‘Abstraction as a State of Mind’, George Condo: Mental States, exh. cat., New Museum, New York and Hayward Gallery, London, 2011, pp. 24-27). Indeed, despite the self-evident parallels between the Cubist master and Condo, the latter imbues his portraits with an additional layer of considerable inner complexity, which he describes with the self-coined neologism of Psychological Cubism. ‘Picasso painted a violin from four diferent perspectives at one moment. I do the same with
Piet Mondrian, Composition with Large Red Plane, Yellow, Black, Gray and Blue, 1921, oil on canvas, Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. Image: Bridgeman Images.
‘The only way for me to feel the diference between every other artist and me is to use every artist to become me.’ George Condo
psychological states. Four of them can occur simultaneously… hysteria, joy, sadness, and desperation. If you could see these things at once that would be like what I’m trying to make you see in my art’ (George Condo, quoted in, George Condo: Works on Paper, exh. cat., Xavier Hufens, Brussels, 2015, press release reproduced online). To look at a Condo is to embark on a rich, multi-layered experience which prompts new discoveries with every subsequent encounter, the pendulum swinging from the macabre to the carnivalesque. His infuence can already be seen in the works of the generation which followed, such as John Currin, Glenn Brown and Lisa Yuskavage – a testament to their conviction in his enduring relevance. Pablo Picasso, Portrait de Dora Maar, 1937, oil on canvas, Musée Picasso, Paris © Succession Picasso/DACS, London 2019. Image: Bridgeman Images.
Untitled underscores the centrality of works on paper within Condo’s oeuvre. Rejecting any notion of a hierarchy between the traditionally-separated media of canvas and paper, Condo is a true virtuoso, working across diferent formats, scales and surfaces. Here, Condo brazenly applies a medium typically limited to canvas to one typically used for pencil and ink, blurring further artistic boundaries which previously privileged demarcated categories. Condo’s paintings have been the subject of several criticallylauded exhibitions, notably his spectacular travelling midcareer survey, Mental States (2011-12) at New York’s New Museum and London’s Hayward Gallery. His works on paper have been the subject of stand-alone shows, most recently the major retrospective, The Way I Think, at the Phillips Collection in Washington DC (2017) and Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Humlebaek (2017). Untitled is being presented on the heels of Condo’s participation at the 58th Venice Biennale this year.
8. Mark Grotjahn
Untitled (Orange and Grass Green Butterfy 45.02) signed, signed with the artist’s initials, titled and dated ‘M G 2013 GROTJAHN UNTITLED (ORANGE AND GREEN BUTTERFLY 45.02) 2013’ on the reverse coloured pencil on paper 114 x 88.8 cm (44 7/8 x 34 7/8 in.) Executed in 2013. Estimate £400,000-600,000 $494,000-741,000 €447,000-671,000 plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Shane Campbell Gallery, Chicago Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘Because I have an active and obsessive eye, I’m interested in fnding as much contentment as I possibly can. In my work I create problems and then solve them in order to feel peace.’ Mark Grotjahn
‘Grotjahn’s butterfies playfully blur the once rigorous boundaries between representation and abstraction, between surface and depth, and between the conceptual and the concrete in artistic production.’ Douglas Fogle, Mark Grotjahn: The Butterfy Paintings, exh. cat., Blum and Poe, New York, 2014, p. 37
Bridget Riley, Fall, 1963, polyvinyl acetate paint on hardboard, Tate Collection, London. © Bridget Riley 2019. All rights reserved. Image: Tate, London
Untitled (Orange and Grass Green Butterfy 45.02), 2013, beautifully exemplifes Mark Grotjahn’s adroit manipulation of perspective, drawn from his celebrated series of Butterfy drawings and paintings commenced in 2001. In these works, the artist investigates the possibilities of employing dual or multiple vanishing points, in an efort to heighten the constructed image’s intensity and convey a hallucinogenic efect. Alternating bands of orange and green that the artist has meticulously drawn with coloured pencil, Untitled (Orange and Grass Green Butterfy 45.02) meshes hard-edged spatial illusions with rich gradations of colour, conveying an image that expands and contracts simultaneously. Stretching over a metre tall, the present drawing was executed with Grotjahn’s characteristically laborious and precise method, whereby the artist’s entire body is mobilised as a tool to work through the support’s surface, processing and refning bevelled lines whilst continuing to engage with techniques of repetition and juxtaposition. The work’s destabilising efect, resulting
from Grotjahn’s minutious process of creation, is typical of his Butterfy works, examples of which are held in the illustrious collections of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Comprising the artist’s trademark asymmetric - yet alluringly anthropomorphic - pattern, Grotjahn’s Butterfy drawings emerged from an earlier series of three-tiered perspective canvases, which explored the hypnotic efects induced by the collision of multiple vanishing points on a single horizontal plane. In his Butterfy works, Grotjahn shifs the axes laterally, complicating the potential boundaries of perspective: ‘The butterfy came because I tried to make some horizontal threetier perspectives; […] I made the frst two tiers vertical and I pointed the perspectives towards each other…It certainly became more a painting and less a representation’ (Mark Grotjahn, in conversation with Marta Gynp, ‘Mark Grotjahn’, Zoo Magazine, no. 38, January 2013, online). Emulating the
eponymous insect’s delicate, cantilevered wings – designated by green and orange striations – as if they were spreading wide and rectilinearly towards the four edges of the canvas, Untitled (Orange and Grass Green Butterfy 45.02) retains a dominant vertical vanishing point at the centre of the drawing to form the Butterfy’s skeleton. The viewer, directly included in this vertiginous experience, is made to dream and travel beyond the surface of the image, propulsed in a visual vortex that eludes the external world’s functioning parameters of space and time. Combining myriad stylistic manifestations within his Butterfy works, Grotjahn has sourced inspiration from a number of his contemporaries to produce his trademark geometric motif. ʻGrotjahn actually rifs from the whole range of abstraction’, writes Max Henry. ‘Malevich, Mark Rothko, Ad Reinhardt, Frank Stella, Brice Marden et al…Grotjahn is actively encoding references including pop psychedelic associations’ (Max Henry, Abstract America: New Paintings & Sculpture at The Saatchi Gallery, exh. cat., The Saatchi Gallery, London, 2009-10, p. 7). Combining the attention to colour that Kazimir Malevich and Mark Rothko focused on throughout their practice, and the investigation of the drawn line that Frank Stella and Brice Marden crystalised in their work, Grotjahn conjures a unique visual syntax that unfolds myriad art historical references. The dizzyingly abstract work of Bridget Riley also comes to mind; her intricate treatment of form and colour bears striking similarities with Grotjahn’s own scrupulous compositions, the two artists succeeding in achieving explosive rhythm whilst paradoxically enabling meditative contemplation. Carefully drawn by hand, and intricately impressed upon the paper in pencil, the present composition bears slight smudges and speckles of stray colour that originate from Grotjahn’s idiosyncratic and intimate process of creation. The entire scene is one of optically enticing fascination, meditating between the deliberate and the spontaneous. As Grotjahn explains, ‘the “Butterfes” are fairly planned out. They’re still intuitive, but I generally know where they’re going. It’s a diferent kind of freedom, a diferent kind of expressionism’ (Mark Grotjahn, quoted in ‘Mark Grotjahn Big Nose Baby and The Moose’, Flash Art, January – February 2007, p. 84). Untitled (Orange and Grass Green Butterfy 45.02) for all its complexity and skill, serves as a lasting homage to Grotjahn’s supreme artistic vision and exquisitely skilled technical execution.
Property from a Distinguished Los Angeles Collection O♦
9. Mark Bradford
Value 35 signed with the artist’s initial, titled and dated ‘Value 35 2010 M’ on the reverse billboard paper, paper collage, acrylic gel medium, carbon paper, nylon string and mixed media on canvas 122 x 152.6 cm (48 x 60 1/8 in.) Executed in 2010. Estimate £1,500,000-2,000,000 $1,850,000-2,470,000 €1,680,000-2,230,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Sikkema Jenkins & Co, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2010 Exhibited Columbus, Wexner Center for the Arts; Boston, Institute of Contemporary Art; Chicago, Museum of Contemporary Art; Dallas Museum of Art; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Mark Bradford, 8 May 2010 - 20 May 2012, no. 41, p. 228 (illustrated)
A laborious and masterful amalgamation of billboard paper, advertising hoardings and myriad materials salvaged from the streets of Los Angeles, Value 35, 2010, is a powerful example of Mark Bradford’s investigation of painting as an emotional and psychological arena. Adopting the appearance of a shrivelled poster, a patch of scorched earth or the TV’s white noise, the work is at once materially additive and visually diminished, prompting the viewer to ponder the nature of its ambivalent composition. Held in tension between processes of collage and décollage, Value 35’s volatile surface reveals discreet compounds of carmine red and ocean blue emerging from horizontal morsels, whilst simultaneously receding into densely textured layers. This aesthetic of expressive and destructive - abstraction, Bradford achieves by gluing gauges of various sizes to the surface of the billboard paper, before tearing away collaged additions and sanding down the manipulated result, efectively exposing the colourful strata of the source material. An exceptional example from Bradford’s idiosyncratic oeuvre and prodigiously innovative artistic technique, Value 35 has been exhibited at the artist’s seminal travelling solo show, touring from the Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, to the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, to the Dallas Museum of Art, and fnally to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, from May 2010 to May 2012.
Now touted as an unmissable fgure from the canon of contemporary art, Bradford frst rose within the contemporary art scene in 2001 following the inclusion of his multi-layered collage paintings in Thelma Golden’s Freestyle exhibition at the Studio Museum in Harlem. On this occasion, he was placed alongside 27 other emerging African American artists who were later collectively known as a generation of ‘post-black’ artists, striving to move past the label of ‘black artist’, whilst continuing to explore the complexities of black subjectivity. ‘As a 21st-century African-American artist’, Bradford said, ‘when I look back at Abstract Expressionism, I get the politics, I get the problems, I get the theories, I can read [Clyford Still’s] manifestos, but I think there are other ways of looking through abstraction. To use the whole social fabric of our society as a point of departure for abstraction reanimates it, dusts it of. It becomes really interesting to me, and supercharged’. Infusing abstraction with a sense of intimacy – something Bradford declares ‘Clyford Still still pushes back on’ – the Los Angeles-based artist transliterates multiple aspects of his identity on canvas, namely the meandering rhythms of his city’s urban landscape, with a loose fgurative impulse that operates at a crossroads between abstraction and representation (Mark Bradford, quoted in ‘Mark Bradford on Clyford Still’, The Artist Project: What Artists See When They Look At Art, New York, 2017, p. 46).
Jasper Johns, White Flag, 1955, encaustic, oil, newsprint, and charcoal on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York © Jasper Johns/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence.
Jackson Pollock, White Light, 1954, oil, enamel, and aluminium paint on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © The Pollock-Krasner Foundation ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
Cementing his conviction that art and life are more than just closely intertwined, Bradford remarked that his marginal status – solidifed throughout the years for the colour of his skin, the originality of his physique (Bradford is, ‘if not the best painter working in America today, then certainly the tallest’), and his sexual orientation – had in fact become the beating heart of his approach to painting (Guy Trebay, ‘The Lives of Jefrey Deitch’, The New York Times, 19 October 2012, online). ‘That feeds into the work’, he conceded. ‘Pulling things from the streets, pulling things that are thrown away, pulling things that don’t belong in the art world and willing them into it – demanding that these materials sit next to a Monet. That’s part of it’ (Mark Bradford, quoted in Lanre Bakare, ‘Mark Bradford’, The Guardian, 14 November 2017, online). With Bradford, painting thus becomes an assertive force; an act that allows him to establish and ascertain his individuality as an artist and a living soul within the realm of creation. Exuding the energy of a raw jewel, Value 35 is a precious embodiment of the dynamic Bradford cultivates in his
practice. It is evocative of Los Angeles’ urban underbelly, whilst simultaneously bringing to mind the dreamed treasures to be found on sustained, careful excavation of archaeological sites. Executed in 2010, Value 35 represents the culmination of a decade-long investigation that turned away from Bradford’s earlier grid works, and instead navigated towards an aesthetic of fragmentation and monumentality. Presented alongside four paintings of the same dimensions and titular reference at Bradford's major travelling show from 2010 to 2012, Value 35 and its sister works elude the gargantuan scale that the artist experimented with works like Helter Skelter, 2007, whilst nonetheless remaining sizeable enough to evoke the arresting grandeur of the billboards they are culled from. ‘Bradford’s behemoth collages… are as though as the street as just as resistant to simple answers or unearned beauty’ (Thomas Micchelli, ‘Unmonumental: The Object in the 21st Century Collage’, The Brooklyn Rail, 6 February 2008, online).
Refective of this statement, Value 35 presents a form of abstraction that eschews immediate comprehension, instead performing as a host of sensations. Though it visually resembles Clyford Still’s layered canvases and jagged edges, Jackson Pollock’s animated surfaces, and Jasper John’s ingenious juxtapositions, the present work radiates deeply personal socio-political power. It transposes what Bradford has known and lived on canvas, crystallising his interest in ‘the junctions demarcating the natural and the urban, and in how these converge and overlap’ (Mark Bradford, quoted in ‘Call and Response: A Conversation with Mark Bradford’, Mark Bradford: Through Darkest America by Truck and Tank, exh. cat., White Cube, London, 2013, p. 75). Working in the lineage of Dadaists and Nouveau Réalistes – namely Mimmo Rotella and Jacques Villeglé, who similarly worked with lacerated cinema posters – Bradford honed his technique of décollage with irrepressible fervour and unfinching passion, ceaselessly infusing his creations with elements that refected his immediate surroundings in South Central Los Angeles.
Mimmo Rotella, Come un poema - suono, 1960, lacerated posters mounted and stapled on canvas, Fondation Gandur pour l’Art, Geneva. © DACS 2019 Image: Fondation Gandur pour l’Art, Genève. Photographer: Sandra Pointe.
‘Life, work–it’s all very organic and fuid, a laboratory.’ Mark Bradford
Irreducibly enamoured with his craf, he drenched each new work with a portion of his soul, conceding that ‘Every painting is my frst painting’ (Mark Bradford, quoted in Jenny Block, ‘Mark Bradford Explores Abstraction at the Dallas Museum of Art’, Dallas Observer, 13 October 2011, online). As such, Bradford’s masterful compositions avoid the distant feel imparted in his predecessors’ décollage works. And unlike his Abstract Expressionist forebears, whose painterly thrust was generally associated to a numinous move against the tides of the external world, Bradford’s expression is intrinsically connected to the objects around him, anchored in his phenomenological surroundings. ‘Life, work - it’s all very organic and fuid’, the artist remarked (Mark Bradford, quoted in ‘The Details’, Art in America, 2 September 2014, online). Echoing this resounding assertion, Bradford’s creative gesture signals an embracing of all that is not art, conjuring vital works that are from here and now. With its red, blue and green hues piercing through the collage’s otherwise dominantly white composition, Value 35 is like a two-dimensional map drawing attention to the physicality of its chosen pigments. Demonstrating Bradford’s commitment to ‘slippage’, the ultimate intention of Value 35 remains open-ended and in fux. With it, Bradford presents a work that not only explores the vital tension between abstraction and representation in contemporary art, but crucially invites the viewer to confront some of the most pressing issues to reckon with in today’s socio-political landscape.
10. Ed Ruscha
Street Greed signed and dated ‘Ed Ruscha 2005’ lower right acrylic on museum paper board 41 x 76.2 cm (16 1/8 x 30 in.) Executed in 2005. Estimate £200,000-300,000 $223,000-335,000 €247,000-370,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Gagosian Gallery, London Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Rome, Gagosian Gallery, Ed Ruscha: New Drawings, 4 June - 6 August 2005, pl. IV, p. 35 (illustrated on the cover and p. 17, installation view illustrated, p. 38)
‘[Ruscha’s] works are distillations, the thing compressed to its most pure essence.’ Joan Didion, in Course of Empire: Paintings by Ed Ruscha, exh. cat., 51st Venice Biennale, Venice 2005
Ed Ruscha in Western Avenue studio circa 1982. Â© Ed Ruscha. Image: Tim Street-Porter.
Executed in 2005, Street Greed encapsulates Ed Ruscha’s adept ability to stimulate and provoke reactions within the imagination of the viewer through his use of succinct and distilled phrases, which cut to the core of our human experience. Included in the artist’s exhibition of new work at Gagosian Gallery, Rome, in 2005, Street Greed was executed the same year that the artist was selected to represent the USA at the 51st Venice Biennale. Carefully selecting lexicon from an expansive vocabulary to craf both dynamic or subtle word groupings, Ruscha transforms typography within his painterly compositions, exploring the formal quality of phrases against the isolation of a graduated background, as exemplifed in the present work. Creating compositional dynamism through the shadows thrown by the levitating white characters, Ruscha’s words stoke ideas and connotative associations, prompting the viewer to explore each letter in relation to each other, as well as reading it as a complete ambiguous phrase. In Street Greed, Ruscha’s iconic use of text is exemplifed in the central wording which spans horizontally across the composition. To the lef of the work, Ruscha depicts the word ‘Street’, immediately transporting the viewer to the urban and public spaces we experience day to day. Prompting us to recall our own memories of walking along sidewalks and pavements, Ruscha’s wording evokes thoughts of concrete and manmade
materials which sculpt and shape our surrounding environments. Acting as the arteries of the cities and towns we live in, the artist’s practice has ofen returned to the motif of city streets, depicting the boulevards of Los Angeles and the gas stations dotted along the USA highways, in particular Route 66, which the artist would frequent when driving home to visit his family in Oklahoma. Collating twenty-six of his black and white photographs, Ruscha’s seminal work Twentysix Gasoline Stations, 1963, marked a turning point for the artist, who began to explore book-making as means to formalise and distribute series of images, creating unique objects which he would revisit as subject matter in further paintings, prints and works on paper. Ruscha states, ‘I began to see books and book design, typography, as a real inspiration. So I got a job with a book printer. He taught me how to set type, and then I started to see the beauty of typography and letter-forms. Somehow that led me of on this little path, almost like a bumper car, you know’ (Ed Ruscha, quoted in Martin Gayford, ‘Ed Ruscha: interview’, The Telegraph, 25 September 2009, online). The artist’s street photography depicted the exteriors of buildings and urban signage, scrupulously examining the present and cinematic quality of the city architecture, as evident in Some Los Angeles Apartments, 1965, and his ambitious Every Building on the Sunset Strip, 1966, which mapped the whole expanse of the street in a paper strip of twenty-seven feet. Documenting moments within the ever-changing city,
Ed Ruscha, Standard, Amarillo, Texas, 1962, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. © Ed Ruscha. Image: Courtesy of J. Paul Getty Museum
Ruscha sought to capture the streets surrounding him in a celluloid time capsule, preserving the iconic and vast Los Angeles cityscape which has become synonymous with urban expansion, decadence and Hollywood.
Andy Warhol, Dollar Sign, 1981, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, Tate Collection, London. © 2019 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Licensed by DACS, London. Image: Tate, London.
‘And when I drive into some sort of industrial wasteland in America, with the themeparks and warehouses, there’s something saying something to me. It’s a mixture of those things that gives me some sense of reality and moves me along as an artist.’ Ed Ruscha
In the present work, Ruscha toys with linguistics in the pairing of his two monosyllabic words, creating alliteration through the repetition of ‘e’, eliciting a clausal relationship between ‘Street’ and ‘Greed’. Deeply interested in language, Ruscha states, ‘Words have temperatures to me. When they reach a certain point and become hot words, then they appear to me’ (Ed Ruscha, quoted in Howardena Pindell, ‘Words with Ruscha’, Print Collector’s Newsletter, vol. 3, no. 6, January – February 1973, pp. 125-128). Removing any formal elements aside from the central text and cool palette, Ruscha invites us to consider the starkness of the word ‘greed’, paring back his presentation and any adornment associated with excess or gluttony. On viewing Jasper John’s 1955 Target with Four Faces at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, Ruscha began to remove expressionist elements from his work, scrupulously and exhaustively planning his compositions to place any incidental associations or reactions in the hands of the viewer. Incorporating the cool aesthetics of popular logos or commercial brands into his canvases of the 1960s, Ruscha drew upon the visual lexicon of American advertising and billboards to transfgure household names into formal subject matter. Reconfguring day-to-day logos onto large canvases, Ruscha afords the viewer a period of refection on human consumption, creating a painterly space where the brand is reduced to a sleek image for examination. In the same way that other leading fgures of American Pop such as James Rosenquist, Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein utilised the aesthetics of everyday consumerism, elevating and exploring its status within the realm of contemporary art, so Ruscha’s graphic compositions removed any relationship between the artist and subject matter. In the present work, Ruscha conceptually explores this notion and confates consumption to its most undesirable extreme. Expertly executed in the present work, Ruscha’s phrase ‘Street Greed’ casts a shadow against the ice-blue background gradient, conveying its tangible presence and three-dimensionality within the space of the artist’s microcosm. The fnely faded surface which spans from the central text outwards evokes a similar surface lustre evident in the artist’s graphite or gunpowder works, the smooth and fne blend evocative of mass-produced advertising or the spray-painted metal chassis of the automobile industry. Encapsulating the artist’s biting wit and ability to synthesize a multitude of meanings in his sharp execution, the cadence of Ruscha’s phrase is evocative of the steps walked along the city streets, where both gluttony and human achievement are both visible to see.
Property from an Important Private Collection O♦
11. Hurvin Anderson
Beaver Lake oil on canvas 256 x 189 cm (100 3/4 x 74 3/8 in.) Painted in 1998. Estimate £1,500,000-2,000,000 $1,850,000-2,470,000 €1,680,000-2,240,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Acquired directly from the artist by the present owner in 1998 Exhibited London, Royal College of Art, Graduate Show, 4 - 14 June 1998 Berlin, VeneKlasen Werner, Self-Consciousness, 30 March - 26 June 2010 Birmingham, Ikon Gallery, Hurvin Anderson: reporting back, 25 September - 10 November 2013, pp. 11-12, 18-19 and 135 (illustrated, p. 19)
‘All of Hurvin’s work seems to me to incorporate an intense amount of depth. Depth of feld, depth of colour, and even depth of subject.’ Thelma Golden, ‘Hurvin Anderson’, Elle Decor, April 2011, p. 88
An arresting early work painted at the dawn of Hurvin Anderson’s career, Beaver Lake, 1998, presents an image that spans photographic imagery, painterly portraiture and sheer imagination, meandering between fguration and abstraction. In the composition, two shrouded fgures – an adult and a child – are wrapped in winter attire as they traverse a frozen lake. Showing their backs to a reddish landscape, the fgures are haloed from above by a blue-green sky that radiates shafs of colour below their feet. Exemplary of Anderson’s unique pictorial practice, the painting was created alongside a sister work entitled Mount Royal (Lac des Castors), 1998, and featured in the artist’s graduate show at the Royal College of Art, London. Culled from a clear photographic foundation, both works ofer loose pictorial interpretations of the eponymous Albertan Lake that Anderson’s sister visited when she emigrated to Canada from the United Kingdom. Though it references a specifc moment and place – picturing her and her young child braving the landscape’s icy grounds – Beaver Lake transcends its source document and exemplifes a kind of muted vibrancy that has since become synonymous with Anderson’s unique visual language.
Celebrated most prominently on the occasion of his Turner Prize nomination in 2017, the artist’s body of work was moreover given a potent spotlight during his major solo exhibition at Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, in 2013, which included the present work. A further testament to the painting’s unparalleled psychological force, Beaver Lake was selected for inclusion in ‘Self-Consciousness’, a group exhibition that took place at VeneKlasen Werner, Berlin in 2010, and was curated by Hilton Als, staf writer at The New Yorker, and Peter Doig, Anderson’s long-time artistic mentor. Presented alongside works by fortyone international and cross-generational artists, including Giorgio de Chirico, Alice Neel, Chris Ofli and Boscoe Holder, Beaver Lake proposed a fresh reinvention of the show’s central theme of portraiture. With its passages of abstraction, principally occurring in the background of the composition where the picture plane is bisected into two vast expanses of blue and light grey, Beaver Lake pushed the stylistic possibilities of portraiture in painting whilst resonating with the two curators’ artistic and literary sensibilities.
Peter Doig, Blotter, oil on canvas, 1993, Walker Art Gallery, National Museums Liverpool © Peter Doig Image: Bridgeman Images.
Gerhard Richter, Frau mit Kind (Strand), 1965, oil on canvas, Private Collection. © Gerhard Richter 2019 (0189)
‘When you take a photograph you focus on something in the distance, but you get this residue of highlights, a glint of light.’ Hurvin Anderson
Painted when Anderson was just in his early 30s, Beaver Lake’s misty association to a real space and event presages the artist’s subsequent body of work, equally defned by a heady mix of bright colours and diaphanous washes. Focusing on the theme of physical and conceptual displacement, it namely provided a pictorial precedent for his celebrated Lower Lake series portraying Handworth Park, Birmingham – a place where he spent much of his youth, and the frst landscape to which he felt truly connected. Fascinated by the subject of lakes, and a number of other vast settings including tennis courts, roads and forests, Anderson has since continued exploring the unnamable topography of real spaces, usually emptied or populated by enigmatic ghostly presences. Exploiting the human sentiments that are typically associated with physical domains when they are barren – nostalgia, longing, and an intermingling of melancholia and uncanniness – the artist has created an atmosphere that is redolent of Richard Diebenkorn’s Girl Looking at Landscape, 1957, where the depicted character’s meditative body language, her back turned to the viewer, transforms the surrounding scenery into a space devoid of spatio-temporal anchors. Aptly, the two paintings shif between abstract rendering and representational focus; they depict their eponymous landscapes whilst simultaneously drifing into imaginary lands. Yet the haze surrounding Beaver Lake is not due exclusively to Anderson’s pictorial and stylistic inclinations. It draws from his unique perspective on topography, as well as his desire to conceive a loose, homogeneous unity of space. In Jennifer Higgie’s words, ‘[Anderson’s] source material is simply a starting point; it’s equally important for him to allow the experiences and locations referenced in his pictures to collide and interact – history, afer all, is not clear cut, and neither is the act of remembering’ (Jennifer Higgie, ‘Another word for feeling’, Hurvin Anderson: reporting back, exh. cat., Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 2013, p. 12).
Richard Diebenkorn, Girl Looking at Landscape, 1957, oil on canvas, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. © The Richard Diebenkorn Foundation. Image: Digital image Whitney Museum of American Art / Licensed by Scala.
Born in the Midlands to frst-generation Jamaican immigrants, Anderson here seems to fuse his visions of Canadian shores and heated Jamaican hues to create an entirely new, crosscultural repertoire supported by an imagination bleeding beyond borders. The result is both evocative and elusive, familiar and strange. Doubtlessly, Anderson’s thematic proclivity, based on his belief that many frst and secondgeneration migrants feel permanently displaced, was visually informed by his master Peter Doig’s fascination with geographic dislocation, as well as his tendency to employ the visual, even physical materialisation of memory. Having studied under the Scottish painter when he was a student at the Royal College of Art – and thus during the time the present work was conceived – Anderson learnt from Doig pictorial methods of mirroring and displacement, which in turn allowed his painterly reproductions of photographs to bear otherworldly, metaphoric qualities. Both painters had connections to Canada and the Caribbean; yet whilst Doig had spent parts of his childhood between the two, Anderson
was, at this stage, still a stranger to both. ‘Anderson told me that despite the biographical elements in his work, he feels it’s vital to create a distance from the original photographs in order to uncover what he describes as “something inherent in the picture”’, explained Higgie (Jennifer Higgie, ‘Another word for feeling’, Hurvin Anderson: reporting back, exh. cat., Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 2013, pp. 11-12). Similarly, Doig’s landscapes linger on faded memories, and exude a powerful sense of ambivalence that transcends reality. With its striking colour palette and its subtle invocation of human memory, Beaver Lake achieves an ‘unlikely combination of being investigations into colour, shape and form, and unsentimental explorations of cultural and socially charged spaces’ (Eddie Chambers, ‘Double Consciousness’, Hurvin Anderson: reporting back, exh. cat., Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 2013, p. 71). One of Anderson’s most personal and compelling compositions, the present work signals the virtue of his painterly skill at the dawn of his artistic practice.
12. Gerhard Richter
Abstraktes Bild signed, numbered and dated ‘871-9 Richter 2001’ on the reverse oil on Alu Dibond 50 x 72 cm (19 5/8 x 28 3/8 in.) Painted in 2001. Estimate £500,000-700,000 $616,000-863,000 €560,000-783,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Wako Works of Art, Tokyo Private Collection, Aachen Private Collection, London Haunch of Venison, London Schönewald Fine Arts, Xanten / Antony Meier Fine Arts, San Francisco Galerie Terminus, Munich Dieter Graalfs, Berlin Acquired from the above by the present owner in November 2015 Exhibited Tokyo, Wako Works of Art, Gerhard Richter: 10th Anniversary 2002, 12 December 2002 - 31 January 2003, p. 20 (illustrated, p. 21) Munich, Galerie Terminus, Made in Germany, 13 May - 31 July 2009 Seoul, Michael Schultz Gallery, Gerhard Richter: Abstract Spirit, 21 September - 23 October 2011 Munich, Galerie Terminus, frst choice / master pieces, 4 July - 15 September 2012 Berlin, Galerie Michael Schultz, Abstract Illusion, 16 April - 4 May 2014 Salzburg, Rudolf Budja Galerie, Tony Cragg/Gerhard Richter/ Andjé, 19 March - 19 May 2016 Augsburg, Galerie Noah, Gerhard Richter. With Paintings, Enamels, Photo Paintings, Prints and Editions from six decades, 29 July - 6 November 2016 Weilburg, Rosenhang Museum, Encounter in Weilburg: Figure and Abstraction in Dialogue. Stephan Balkenhol and Gerhard Richter, 3 June - 31 August 2017 Literature Gerhard Richter, exh. cat., K20 Kunstsammlung NordrheinWestfalen, Düsseldorf, 2005, no. 871-9, p. 317 (illustrated, p. 290)
Gerhard Richter, Bomber, 1963 oil on canvas, Städtische Galerie Wolfsburg. © Gerhard Richter 2019 (0189).
In Abstraktes Bild, 2001, fecks and layers of mauve, cerulean and cherry red cascade down the jewel-sized canvas, forming a mesmeric landscape of subtly intertwined hues. Relinquishing the paintbrush in favour of a squeegee, Richter has created an image that owes its appearance to serendipitous amalgamations and chance formations, falling within his prodigious and celebrated series of Abstract Paintings, which he began painting in 1977. First experimenting with the diverse patterns and mixtures enabled by the tool’s rubber surface – which, ultimately, lay beyond the artist’s control – Richter subsequently chooses the resulting image he is satisfed with, following hours and days of re-working. When speaking of process for his Abstraktes Bilder, Richter has explained that he alters his abstract paintings ‘much more ofen than the representational ones. They ofen turn out completely diferent to what I’d planned’ (Gerhard Richter, quoted in ‘I Have Nothing to Say and I’m Saying it: Conversation between Gerhard Richter and Nicholas Serota’, Gerhard Richter. A Panorama, London, 2011, p. 17). In Abstraktes Bild, the striations of paint seem to have kept their deliquescent form, presenting the viewer with a composition that is essentially in movement.
‘Abstract pictures are fctive models, because they make visible a reality that we can neither see nor describe, but whose existence we can postulate.’ Gerhard Richter
Adopting the squeegee as a signature tool in the mid-1980s, Richter became fascinated – almost obsessed – with the idea of exploiting the hidden possibilities of colour, in an approach that neared archaeological exploration through processes of excavation and lamination. As a result, he would rub and scrape the paint that he had applied in large bands across the canvases to build shimmering, gem-like compositions. ‘For about a year now, I have been unable to do anything in my painting but scrape of, pile on and then remove again’, the artist wrote. ‘It would be something of a symbolic trick: bringing to light the lost, buried pictures, or something to that efect’ (Gerhard Richter, quoted in ‘Notes 1992’, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Gerhard Richter: The Daily Practice of Painting, London, 1995, p. 245). With this technique, Richter would masterfully blend the various pigments he employed with one another, and spread the painterly collisions across the surface to convey explosive kaleidoscopic swathes. Blurring one area of colour into another, his Abstract Paintings make the viewer feel like they are looking at an out of focus image that lies beyond decipherment. In Abstraktes Bild, Richter has run the squeegee repeatedly over the picture plane to produce the fnal tableau of accepted colour iterations, materialised in a predominantly mauve and gray composition.
Joseph Mallord William Turner,Valley of Aosta: Snowstorm, Avalanche, and Thunderstorm, 1836–1837, The Art Institute of Chicago.
Furthermore, the scraping and streaking of paint in Abstraktes Bild produces an efect reminiscent of a photographic blur; in this respect, the work confrms Richter’s continued engagement with photographic imagery, which he had begun with a series of photorealist works commenced in 1961. Here, the few gray spots tumbling down the surface in the upper lef quadrant of the composition are reminiscent of the planes feverishly shooting past the viewer in Richter’s Bomber, painted in 1963 and today residing in the Städtische Galerie Wolfsburg. With their combed brushwork and pictorially elusive understatement, Richter’s photorealist paintings presaged the abstract turn Richter would take nearly two decades later with his new tool of predilection. An exquisite and opulently textured painting, Abstraktes Bild demonstrates Richter’s talent in conveying poetry and magnifcence through abstraction. ‘With abstract painting we create a better means of approaching what can be neither seen nor understood’, Richter once claimed (Gerhard Richter, quoted in Ronald Nasgaard, ‘Gerhard Richter’, Gerhard Richter: Paintings, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1988, p. 107). With its majestic tides traversing the surface of the canvas, Abstraktes Bild is a sumptuous example of Richter’s formulation of the inefable.
Property from a Private American Collection
13. Luc Tuymans
The Exorcist signed and dated ‘Luc Tuymans 007’ on the reverse oil on canvas 84.8 x 118.4 cm (33 3/8 x 46 5/8 in.) Painted in 2007. Estimate £700,000-900,000 $864,000-1,110,000 €782,000-1,010,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Zeno X Gallery, Antwerp Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Antwerp, Zeno X Gallery, Luc Tuymans: Les Revenants, 21 April - 2 June 2007 Literature Eric Rinckhout, ‘Tuymans schildert de macht der jezuieten’, De Morgen, 21 April 2007, p. 72 Hans Theys, ‘Van oude spoken en dingen die niet voorbijgaan’, H-Art, May 2007, p. 3 Norio Sugawara, Luc Tuymans: Beyond Schwarzheide, Tokyo, 2007, p. 11 (illustrated) Pablo Sigg and Tommy Simoens , eds., Luc Tuymans; Is It Safe?, London, pp. 78, 94, 127 and 214 (illustrated, p. 78) Philippa Snow, ‘The Tuymans Rule: Spitting Fire, Drinking Turpentine, and the Art of Being Luc Tuymans’, Modern Matter, no. 3, Autumn/Winter 2012, p. 78 Luc Tuymans: Zeno X Gallery, 25 Years of Collaboration, exh. cat., Zeno X Gallery, Antwerp, 2016, pp. 125 and 170 (illustrated) This work will be included in the forthcoming Luc Tuymans Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Three (2007-2018) being prepared by Dr. Eva Meyer-Hermann, Yale/David Zwirner Books.
Film still from The Exorcist by William Friedkin, 1973. Image: Bridgeman Images.
In Luc Tuymans’ The Exorcist, painted in 2007, a supine body is seen levitating over a vacant bed, controlled by the spiritual conviction of a priest raising his arms. Rendered with frosty hues of blue, purple and black, the composition is akin to a ghostly screen, oscillating between ethereal realism and eery fction. Both mimetic and atmospheric, it encapsulates Luc Tuymans’ exquisite storytelling abilities in painting, most ofen informed by pre-existing narratives in photography, flm and illustration. Existing amidst Tuymans’ narrative-driven body of work, The Exorcist draws its core image from the eponymous movie directed by William Friedkin in 1973, in which a young girl becomes inhabited by evil forces as she approaches puberty. Tuymans’ painterly reproduction, drawing from a specifc exorcism scene from the flm, posits as a thriceremoved simulacrum: it mimics Friedkin’s cinematic iteration, which itself was based on a best-selling novel inspired by true events. A copy of a copy of a copy, The Exorcist presents an imagistic appropriation exacerbated through additional degrees of separation. Forming part of a series of nine paintings that Tuymans created on the occasion of a solo exhibition at Zeno X Gallery in Antwerp entitled Les Revenants in 2007, The Exorcist orbits around a subject matter that he continuously referred to throughout his
Léon Spilliaert, Self-Portrait, 1907, gouache, watercolour and coloured pencil on paper, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Image: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Image source: Art Resource, NY.
El Greco, The Crucifxion with Two Donors, c.1580, oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris. Image: Louvre, Paris, France / Peter Willi / Bridgeman Images.
‘The most important experience was seeing the work of El Greco in the fesh… for the frst time I realized what painting really meant. El Greco showed me that painting should appear, confront the viewer and then disappear, like a kind of retraction.’ Luc Tuymans
practice: religion, and the potent power of the Jesuit Order. Tuymans had long been fascinated by the Jesuits’ infuence on the socio-political landscape of European history, namely the ways in which it seeped through such decisive structures of power as politics, education and media representation. Of the nine works, Three Moons resides in the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, three paintings have been included in Tuymans’ monographic exhibition currently taking place at the Palazzo Grassi in Venice, and one – Seal, the painterly reproduction of a Jesuit cachet – appeared in the artist’s frst full-scale American survey at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2009. In The Exorcist, a form of detachment is made evident by the composition’s cold, bluish tones. Inspired by the pictorial austerity of Léon Spilliaert’s mute, ethereal, almost monastic canvases, and El Greco’s theatrical treatment of light, Tuymans sought to similarly achieve the ‘extreme image’ – one reduced to the point of utter clarity, in an efort to refect the depicted scene’s authenticity. Quoting a lineage of artists who employed powerfully atmospheric language before him, Tuymans additionally infuses his work with a distinct contemporary tone, informed by his appreciation of flm and modern cultural icons. With The Exorcist, the link to cinema is evident: culled from a well-known movie, the composition uses flmic codes that
Tuymans had relished experimenting with during a fve-year hiatus from painting in 1980. During this time, Tuymans’ focus on flm allowed him to learn techniques that would heavily informed his subsequent body of painterly work. Here, the slow rise of the little girl’s body and the palpable tension of the encounter suggest movement and motion. Using techniques of enlargement and cropping, Tuymans transforms the fat image at the heart of The Exorcist into a moving still, able to evoke the source image’s layered story with ominous splendour. Refecting The Revenants’ overarching theme, the presence of spirituality takes centre stage in The Exorcist as Father Damien Karras enters the scene, coming to the aid of Regan, the 12-year-old protagonist inhabited by evil spirits. In Friedkin’s flm, Father Karras along with his fellow Father Merrin attempt to ward of Regan’s possessor with a Bible, a crucifx and other religious icons. One afer the other, they die from wrestling with the force that is haunting the young girl. Here, the single priest standing at the end of Regan’s bed is shown in full command of the situation before the fatal failure; through crystallising this moment, Tuymans upturns the flm’s power dynamic: it is no longer Regan’s possessor who is in charge, but Father Karras, whose body language betrays victorious – and supernatural – strength.
Luc Tuymans, Rome, 2007, oil on canvas, Collection Gemeentemuseum, long-term loan Broere Foundation, Monique Zaifen Collection, The Hague. © Luc Tuymans.
‘The term Les Revenants can mean ‘those who come back’, but it can also mean ghosts or spirits, so the title of the series is a little ambiguous.’ Luc Tuymans
Despite notoriously achieving his works in one day, Tuymans is known to conduct heavy research in the preparation of his paintings. It would not have been lost on the artist that his painting’s cinematic predecessor had been influenced by its director’s affinity towards the Jesuit Order. After having witnessed an exorcism at the Vatican, Friedkin had intended his movie to be an ominous tale, as opposed to a gratuitously horrific story. ‘I do believe in the teachings of Jesus’, Friedkin had written. ‘I believe they are incredibly profound and beautiful and we know that this character existed… the supernatural aspect I leave to each person’s conscience and belief system’ (William Friedkin, quoted in ‘Exorcist director says Vatican allowed him to film real ceremony’, The Guardian, 19 May 2016, online). As a result, many choices he made – notably regarding casting – were somewhat tinged; he chose the little known Jason
Miller to interpret Father Karras, whom he had initially hired to advise on the accuracy of religious representation in the film. In his eyes, Miller’s spiritual conviction was more persuasive than the comedic talent of any other film star; in his favour, he evinced the likes of Marlon Brando, Jack Nicholson and Paul Newman. Through its thematic importance and pictorial supremacy, informed by iconography both old and new, The Exorcist stands as an undisputed gem from Tuymans’ Revenants series. Its enigmatic conceptual signifcance and prodigious graphic rendering, enabled by Tuymans’ superb command of space, light and contrast, captures the crux of the artist’s unique painterly practice, and encapsulates the core tenets – namely the artist’s proximity to cinema on a dual level – that hail him as one of the foremost painters of his generation.
Portrait of Luc Tuymans. Â© Luc Tuymans.
Property from a Distinguished American Collection
14. Alex Katz
Blue Umbrella I signed and dated ‘Alex Katz 1972’ on the overlap oil on canvas 86.7 x 121.9 cm (34 1/8 x 48 in.) Painted in 1972. Estimate £800,000-1,200,000 $987,000-1,480,000 €894,000-1,340,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Marlborough Gallery, New York Private Collection Waddington Galleries, London Arij Gasiunasen Fine Art, Palm Beach (acquired from the above in May 1993) Collection of Rena Rowan, Palm Beach Private Collection, New York (thence by descent)
‘She’s got perfect gestures. And she’s a classic American beauty—full lips, a short nose, and wide eyes. She’s also a European beauty.’ Alex Katz
Intimate, delicate, and deeply atmospheric, Blue Umbrella I, 1972, sheds light on Alex Katz’s preferred model and muse, his wife Ada. The frst iteration from a series of two, this sumptuous, moody canvas is exceptional both in pictorial rendition, and in subject matter. On the one hand, it employs Katz’s characteristic approach to fguration – cool in appearance and hyper-meticulous in design; on the other, it boasts a theme that the artist has profusely alluded to throughout his career, turning Ada’s repeated appearance into something of a leitmotif. Signifying the importance of the series within the artist’s oeuvre, Blue Umbrella I’s sister painting Blue Umbrella II – a quasi-exact rendering of the present composition in larger dimensions – was used as the front cover for the catalogue of Katz’s major solo exhibition at the Whitney Museum of Art, New York, travelling to the Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, in 1986. Musing on the importance and prominence of the painting’s theme – Katz painted his wife more than two hundred times since their marriage in 1958 – Robert Marshall contended that Ada can be read as the perfect, timeless muse: ‘a symbol of beauty, sorrow, mystery, coldness, or desire’ (Robert Marshall, Alex Katz, New York, 1986, p. 22).
Alex Katz, Upside Down Ada, 1965, oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © Alex Katz/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, Museum of Modern Art, New York / Scala, Florence.
‘I was sitting with my hands in my lap and this guy that I was interested in was looking at my eyes, my ears, my shoulders. The whole thing was just very sensual. And I didn’t think I could handle it. But then it became just this thing that he did. I was sitting and he was painting, and that was it.’ Ada Del Moro Katz, quoted in Calvin Tomkins, ‘Alex Katz’s Life in Art’, The New Yorker, 20 August 2018, online
Amedeo Modigliani, Jeanne Hébuterne (Au chapeau), 1919, oil on canvas, Private Collection. Image: Photo © Christie’s Images / Bridgeman Images.
Film Still from La Dolce Vita, by Federico Fellini, 1960.
Calm and composed amidst slanting drops of rain, Ada is here pictured close-up, her titular umbrella cropped at the margins of the canvas. She is as much the subject of the painting as are her striking facial features and sartorial accessories: her pristine rose lips, her penetrating, almond-shaped eyes, and her stylish chifon à la française are given extreme precision and detail, dominating the canvas as elements to be viewed independently. As a whole, Ada represents a familiar subject imbued with an unnamable elusive quality; she is aloof, remote, disconnected from the torrential rain surrounding her, like an urban siren or a 1960s cinema star haloed by the camera’s captivated lens. ‘Such is [Ada’s] deep reserve that you can spend a very pleasant hour tête-à-tête with her and still wonder if you have ever really met’, wrote Leslie Camhi (Leslie Camhi, ‘Painted Lady’, The New York Times, 27 August 2006, online). Both warm and distant, vulnerable and charismatic, Ada channels a form of painterly introversion that nonetheless commands the viewer’s gaze in its intense beauty, poetry and mystery. Reminiscent of female muses that have occupied seminal canvases, photographs, and flms in visual culture, Ada’s appearance eschews mere idealism as she exudes a sense of irreverent performativity. Profoundly ambivalent, she stands halfway between Auguste Renoir’s Lise ou la femme à l’ombrelle, 1867, and Cindy Sherman’s Untitled Film Still #21, 1978. ‘This guy [Alex Katz] that I was interested in was looking at my eyes, my ears, my shoulders’, Ada once remarked. ‘The whole thing was just very sensual. But then it became just this thing that he did. I was sitting and he was painting, and that was it’ (Ada Del Moro Katz, quoted in Calvin Tomkins, ‘Alex Katz’s Life in Art’, The New Yorker, 27 August 2018, online).
Having been at the centre of Katz’s painterly lens for decades, Ada immediately evokes eminent muses such as Dora Maar, captured by Pablo Picasso’s enamoured gaze, or Jeanne Hébuterne, lovingly rendered by Amedeo Modigliani’s hand. In Jeanne Hébuterne (Au chapeau), 1919, the titular model’s regal silhouette, poised with long, slim features, seems a precursor for Ada’s own graceful and elegant traits in the present work. Modigliani, like Katz afer him, brought attention to his lover’s fashion sense, whereby ‘allure is less a matter of clothes than of how she wears them’ (Leslie Camhi, ‘Painted Lady’, The New York Times, 27 August 2006, online). Blue Umbrella I’s complex composition further conveys art historical motifs that have fascinated artists across time. The droplets in the depicted scene serve to vivify the painting’s inherent playfulness; they mark a nod to Roy Lichtenstein’s crying female fgures, Man Ray’s glass tears, and Cindy Sherman’s staged melancholy. Some of them are also dispatched randomly, providing an echo to Jackson Pollock’s painterly splatters. But it is perhaps the dominating presence of Ada’s umbrella that is most evocative as a standalone theme. With it, a string of seminal painterly icons comes to mind: Claude Monet’s La plage de Trouville, 1870, residing in The National Gallery, London, Gustave Caillebotte’s Rue de Paris, temps de pluie, 1877, today in The Art Institute of Chicago, but also René Magritte’s homage to the German philosopher Hegel, in Les vacances de Hegel, 1958. In the present work, Ada is isolated from the symbolic elements that surround her, as each of them are made microcosmic investigations to delve into independently.
Claude Monet, La plage de Trouville, 1870, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London. Image: Scala, Florence.
The subject of Ada is of paramount importance in Katz’s oeuvre; one of the rare painterly realms where content and form are treated in equal measure. The artist’s frst-ever portrait of his wife, an eponymous painting where she is seen sitting in a three-quarter pose, was created a year before the pair got married. Now residing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, it presents the model in a serene and introspective infection – refecting Katz’s already well-established perception of Ada, ahead of their shared life. Twenty years on, Blue Umbrella I seems more assured than its predecessor, both in form and content. Ada’s features are delineated with more clarity and conviction, and the colours are distributed more generously throughout the canvas. She is renewed through the sheer force of their intimacy, but also thanks to the technical developments that fourished throughout the 1960s, imbuing the work with a flmic quality which permeates Katz’s work. Presented close-up with an immaculate fnish, the elements that constitute the present painting brim with an irrepressible cinematic gleam, that signals the solidifed shif of Katz’s creative direction. Only adding to the painting’s cinematic efect, Katz has placed the tilted raindrops surrounding Ada strategically, so that some of them appear to be running down her cheeks. As such, she seems to embody the scope, scale and presentation of Michelangelo Antonioni or Federico Fellini’s characters, ‘hardly more a presence than an impact on emptiness’ (Jack Kroll, ‘Reviews and Previews: Alex Katz’, ARTNews, vol. 61, February 1963, p. 11). Despite the painting’s inherent cinematic sheen, and the vitality of Katz’s model, there is something deeply twodimensional about the artist’s style of portraiture. In the 1950s, he was among the frst to reduce the gestural brushwork that pervaded fgurative painting, whilst maintaining the size and scale associated with Abstract Expressionism and Colour Field Abstraction. As such, his compositions bore an ambivalent feel that aligned them with
multifarious styles of painting, namely Pop and Abstraction, whilst retaining a unique formal infection. Here, Katz has employed a rich colour palette and striking contrasts to increase verisimilitude, yet a minimalist sense of fatness comes to the fore. Departing from the New York School’s hazy and energetic fgurative style, Katz developed a clean, graphic, and vibrant visual language, infuenced in part by the aesthetics of billboard advertising, a purely post-modern style that a number of his contemporaries, including Elizabeth Peyton, Peter Doig, David Salle and Richard Prince, are indebted to in their painterly work. Focusing on Ada’s characteristically aggrandised features, the present work is as though glazed, crystalised as an immaculate still, seemingly captured from the reel of a flm. In order to achieve such frozen, glamourised portraits, Katz runs through a minutious process of painting, that usually begins with a rapid pen or pencil drawing. With these preliminary sketches, he defnes a subject or motif – commonly a lone fgure or object in the landscape – and subsequently creates drawings and large-format cartoons that he successively afxes to a primed canvas, and punctures with a tool, before fnally beginning to paint. Fascinated by the endless possibilities of a single image, Katz then cultivates his imagery in varying sizes and colourpalettes. The present image is repeated in larger dimensions in Blue Umbrella II, and fnally published as two sets of lithographs in 1979-1980, in colour and in grayscale. Spotlighting Katz’s favourite subject, Blue Umbrella I is a sumptuous example from the artist’s prodigious painterly opus. It is conceived as an ode to his timeless muse, who, despite continuous changes in American society, remained her elegant self for decades – a feat that Robert Storr dubs ‘the mark of her musedom’ (Robert Storr, Alex Katz Paints Ada, exh. cat., The Jewish Museum, New York, 2007).
15. Rudolf Stingel
Untitled electroformed copper, plated nickel and gold 118.4 x 100 x 3.8 cm (46 5/8 x 39 3/8 x 1 1/2 in.) Executed in 2012. Estimate £700,000-1,000,000 $863,000-1,230,000 €783,000-1,120,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Gagosian Gallery, Hong Kong Acquired from the above by the present owner
Glistening with a distinct heliacal force, Untitled, 2012, is a compelling example of Rudolf Stingel’s gold Celotex paintings, resurrected from earlier, site-specifc installations that the artist had created on the occasion of his touring mid-career retrospective at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, in 2007. For this seminal survey, Stingel had coated the walls of the two institutions with immaculate metallic insulation panels – brimming with gold and silver hues – that would immediately be altered or punctured by visitors’ pens, coins, credit cards, and fngernails. Summoning questions on originality and authorship, the contents inscribed across the surface of the present work are the result of multiple third parties’ drawings, texts and scribbles, engraved on encounter with the metallic support. Radically counter-institutional, these incised traces marked the frst time visitors departed from museum protocol and intentionally lef their scripts on the seductively shimmering walls. Immortalising the result of this anonymous, collective vandalism, Untitled efectively transforms into a poetic monument to the passage of time – a theme that Stingel has perpetually cultivated since the late 1980s, and
that he continued developing under various forms and media throughout his practice. Though Untitled belongs to a set of moments in time – frst, to its hanging as an immaculate support in early days at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, then to its progressive transformation into an arena for scripture, and fnally, to its polished appearance extracted and isolated in 2012 – the visual codes and concepts it employs quote a history of markmaking that evokes sources spanning Egyptian hieroglyphic scripture, Cy Twombly’s poetic frenetic lines atop blackboards or canvases, and Jean-Michel Basquiat’s grafti in the urban environment of downtown New York. In addition to coalescing symbols of the past and the present, Stingel here blurs the boundaries between painting, sculpture, and performance, astutely combining the three across the single surface of the present work. ‘The performative nature of Stingel’s markmaking makes evident its three-dimensional presence as a symbol of painting, rather than as painting itself’, mused Chrissie Iles. ‘The pristine smoothness of its sumptuous surface
Installation view of Rudolf Stingel at the Whitney Museum, New York, 2007. © Rudolf Stingel.
‘The frst time I covered a gallery with insulation board, I knew that people would walk on it and ruin the foor, but I was stunned that they would write or draw on the walls.’ Cy Twombly, Untitled, 1970, oil-based house paint and crayon on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
© Cy Twombly Foundation. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
has been destroyed, just as the purity of modernist abstract painting was destroyed in the 1960s’ (Chrissie Iles, ‘Surface Tension’, Rudolf Stingel, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2007, p. 24). The apotheosis of Stingel’s radically conceptual gesture, Untitled represents the culmination of the series of Celotex installations that he initiated in his solo exhibition at the Museo di Arte Moderna e Contemporanea in Trento, Italy, in 2001. For this exhibition, Stingel had covered the foor, walls, and ceiling of the gallery space with metallic insulation panels, together conjuring an aesthetic akin to Versailles’ hall of mirrors. The immaculate appearance of this installation did not last long, as the malleable surface of the foor gradually eroded under the visitors’ footsteps, and likely empowered some to impulsively target the walls with their inscriptions. As Stingel explained, ‘I hadn’t planned on this reaction. This abstract shell appeared to be perfect in a provocative way and apparently invited [each individual] to manifest [his impulse]. Numerous motives appear to have led to this behavior; the neutrality of the installation paired with the anonymity of the visitors certainly plays a role. I wouldn’t know where to say intervention stops and destruction begins’ (Rudolf Stingel, quoted in Reiner Zettl, ‘The Trickster’, Rudolf Stingel, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2007, p. 35).
Process has always been at the heart of Stingel’s artistic investigation. In 1989, he published a manual aptly titled Instructions, that echoed Albrecht Dürer’s Painter’s Manual of the 16th century. The publication was designed to direct artists towards a clear and essential way of making step-by-step, and was immediately followed by a set of Instruction paintings that he created for a duration of eight years. Borne from serendipitous actions and gestures, Untitled eschews any particular instructions, bar the collation of an inviting, immaculate surface to a wall. It nonetheless perfectly encapsulates Stingel’s neverending exploration of the limits of painting, engaging with external participation and issues of originality and authorship, in ways akin to Joseph Beuys’ participatory happenings, toying with the boundaries of artistic genres and categories. The scintillating gold dominating the surface of Untitled elevates the collection of surface-marks pervading the work to a sublime structure, both beautiful and profound. Evocative of vandalism and grafti, these traces are crystallised into small, gem-like inscriptions thanks to the painting’s electroformed copper and golden support. They are a testament to Stingel’s prodigious appropriative gesture, physically held in tension between painting, performance and sculpture.
16. Anish Kapoor
Untitled aluminium and pigment 200.7 x 200.7 x 25.4 cm (79 x 79 x 10 in.) Executed in 1996. Estimate £500,000-700,000 $618,000-865,000 €559,000-783,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Lisson Gallery, London Private Collection, France Private Collection, Switzerland Phillips, London, 27 June 2013, lot 11 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner Exhibited London, Hayward Gallery, Anish Kapoor, 30 April - 14 June 1998, p. 120 (illustrated, p. 61)
Immersing the viewer in its infnite vortex of rich and sublime midnight blue, Untitled, 1996, is an exceptional example of Anish Kapoor’s wall pigment works. Bridging the gap between physical and psychological space, Kapoor’s wall works of the 1980s and 1990s are intimate precursors to his monumental public installations that have brought him worldwide acclaim. Embodying Kapoor’s philosophical and poetic artistic vision, Untitled is a celebration of both space and materiality, inviting the viewer to meditate upon the mystery and beauty of its immaculate hallowed surface. Born in India to parents of Punjabi and Iraqi-Jewish heritage, Kapoor moved to London during the 1970s. Following a return visit to his birthplace in 1979, Kapoor became captivated by the resonance and infnite symbolism of primary colours in their raw state; he worked with highly saturated pigments throughout the 1980s, applying loose powders to geometrical and architectural forms, ofen letting the pigment disperse onto the foor. It was only in 1989 that he began to use them to cover large-scale sculptures suspended on the wall.
Kapoor has described how ‘An essential issue in my work is that the scale always relates to the body. In the pigment works from 1979 to 1983 a sense of place was generated between objects. This place has now moved inside the object so it has been necessary to change the scale. The place within is a mind/body space. A shrine for a person’ (Anish Kapoor, quoted in Anish Kapoor, exh. cat., British Council for the XLIV Venice Biennale, London, 1990, p. 50). Playing with the powerful tension between positive and negative space, the present work carves the surrounding environment with its elegant surface, beckoning the viewer to enter a calm abyss. Reminiscent of the lapis lazuli used to paint the Madonna’s robes in medieval paintings, Kapoor’s interest in spirituality comes to the fore in Untitled as its seemingly limitless plane directly confronts the viewer and invites deep contemplation. Its saturated and impermeable palette also recalls the work of Yves Klein, who sought to simulate sublime transcendence by overpowering the viewer with vast monochromatic felds of ultramarine blue.
Yves Klein, Untitled blue monochrome (IKB 82), 1959, pigment in synthetic resin on canvas, mounted on board, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. © Succession Yves Klein c/o ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2019. Image: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation/Art Resource, NY/ Scala, Florence
‘I am interested in sculpture that manipulates the viewer into a specifc relation with both space and time… This has to do with form and colour and the propensity of colour to induce reverie.’ Anish Kapoor
Whilst Klein attempted to bring about this spiritual meditation through the ultimately fat medium of paint, Kapoor’s decision to craf a physical, three-dimensional expression of the void demonstrates his highly innovative sculptural approach towards the articulation of space. The idea with these wall works, Kapoor has explained, is ‘to make an object which is not an object, to make a hole in the space, to make something which actually does not exist’ (Anish Kapoor, quoted in Constance Lewallen, ‘Anish Kapoor’, View, vol. 8, no. 4, 1991). Untitled presents an opening between light and darkness, a distorted space in which human beings can lose themselves and fall. In the artist’s own words, ‘Void is really a state within. It has a lot to do with fear, in Oedipal terms, but more so with darkness. There is nothing so black as the black within. No blackness is as black as that. I am aware of the phenomenological presence of the void works but I am also aware of that phenomenological experience on its own is insufcient. I fnd myself coming back to the idea of narrative without storytelling, to that which allows one to bring in psychology, fear, death, love in as direct a way as possible. The void is not something which is no utterance. It is a potential space, not a non-space’ (Anish Kapoor, quoted in Germano Celant, Anish Kapoor, London, 1996, p. 24). As it relentlessly pulls its audience into infnite space, Kapoor’s sublime wall work draws attention to our own humanity. With the present work, the artist grants his viewers the psychological and physical space to refect upon their own being.
Donald Judd, Untitled, 1980, steel, aluminium and perspex, Tate Collection, London © Judd Foundation/ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Tate, London
17. Jim Hodges
another together mirror on panel, in 2 parts (i) 243.8 x 88.9 cm (96 x 35 in.) (ii) 214.6 x 118.1 cm (84 1/2 x 46 1/2 in.) Executed in 2015. Estimate £400,000-600,000 $494,000-741,000 €446,000-669,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Stephen Friedman Gallery, London Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited London, Stephen Friedman Gallery, Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition, 12 June - 31 July, 2015, p. 62 (illustrated, pp. 1 and 63, detail illustrated, pp. 64-65)
‘I knew that objects could transmit the reality of humanness that we experience in our bodies. But I wanted to feel infated and liberated instead of feeling compressed. That’s when I turned to exploring ideas of expansion, which eventually resulted in my use of architectural space as the material itself.’ Jim Hodges
Installation view of Felix GonzalezTorres, “Untitled” (Orpheus, Twice), 1991, Mirror, in MMK Museum für Moderne Kunst, Gonzalez-Torres: Specifc Objects without Specifc Form, Frankfurt, 2011 Photo: Wolfgang Guenzel © Felix Gonzalez-Torres. Courtesy of The Felix Gonzalez-Torres Foundation
Drawing from an abundant tradition of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who explored the efects of materials, light and refection, Jim Hodges has dedicated his artistic career to transforming spaces and environments through sensory experiences. Executed in 2015, shortly afer his critically acclaimed 2014 retrospective jointly organised by the Dallas Museum of Art and Minneapolis’ Walker Art Center, another together encapsulates multiple aspects of Hodges’s afective body of sculpture, efectively conjuring a spectacular viewing experience. ‘Enticement and trapping, refection and adornment, community and isolation: all of these are elements in Hodges’ emotional alchemy’, writes Nayland Blake. ‘Hodges dramatizes the poignant moments in which our hopes and desires lead us to the ambiguous embrace of the tenderest traps’ (Nayland Blake, 1991, 1992: Jim Hodges, New York, 2007, p. 33). Rather than allowing the viewer the gratifcation of their own refection in the present work, Hodges has broken the mirror and constructed a bursting star radiating intricate mosaics. Born in Spokane, Washington, in 1957, Hodges came of age in New York City in the mid-1980s. Critically, his early works emerged out of a complex cultural landscape where many artists took to activism as a response to identity politics, political repression and the AIDS crisis. A close friend of Felix Gonzalez-Torres, both artists proposed a more poetic mode of expression that could be both beautiful and political, eluding didacticism. Hodges and Gonzalez-Torres engaged with simple
everyday materials such as glass, mirrors and lightbulbs to confront ideas of love and loss. Clearly reminiscent of this shif to a conceptual approach to art-making, another together symbolises Hodges’s unfaltering commitment to a poetic sensibility defned by human experience and materiality. Responding to the complex history of Minimalism, Hodges here manipulates his materials to play with the notion of reality and perception. Anchoring any room within which it is placed, the refective surface captures the light and refracts its surroundings, choreographing the space to allure the viewer closer to its corner. In this way, Hodges participates in the long history of artists engaging with the mirror as a device for representing and defying the notion of reality. Hodges has spoken powerfully of his works as reminders to study one’s own identity, stating ‘I have been through a process of shedding skins, breaking through boundaries – imposed, self-imposed, learned, whatever – and the funny thing is, there’s always another wall that I go crashing into, another layer of crap to shed, another blossom that reveals more complexity and challenges. Thankfully this process doesn’t stop’ (Jim Hodges, quoted in Olga Viso, ‘Choreographing Experiences in Space: Olga Viso Interviews Jim Hodges’, Walker Magazine, 14 February 2014, online). A fattened disco ball exploding from within, another together is both a loud celebration of optimistic light and a modest act of transmutation which asks the viewer to refect deeply into the corners of the self.
Property from a Distinguished Los Angeles Collection O♦
18. Rudolf Stingel
Untitled signed and dated ‘Stingel 2010’ on the reverse oil and enamel on linen 241.3 x 193 cm (95 x 75 7/8 in.) Executed in 2010. Estimate £300,000-500,000 $371,000-618,000 €335,000-559,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Gagosian Gallery, New York Private Collection, Seattle Paula Cooper Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2015
Evincing the luminescent hues of a nocturnal fog, Untitled, 2010, is a def example of Rudolf Stingel’s talent in extending the properties of the painterly medium, bringing nature and three-dimensionality onto a linen support. With its ethereal monochromatic surface, adorned with delicate white fssures in the bottom edges, Untitled is redolent of Stingel’s early works from the mid- to late- 1980s, at a time when his practice was primarily vested with an in-depth investigation of coloured abstraction, and most specifcally the silver pigment. ‘Silver makes everything look contemporary’, the artist exclaimed. ‘If you paint something silver, it looks, I don’t know, from today’ (Rudolf Stingel, quoted in Linda Yablonsky, ‘The Carpet That Ate Grand Central’, The New York Times, 27 June 2004). Exuding the luminescence of his preferred hue, the present work simultaneously interplays with the clean, fat smoothness of the colour gray, which, with its slight cracks, meanderings and subtle contrasts throughout, evokes the medium of marble sculpture. The cross-genre quality of the present work is further reinforced by the monumentality of the linen support; stretching more than two metres in height and almost two metres in width, Untitled explores the hyperrealistic exploitation of oil and enamel to conjure density – and iridescence – on a colossal scale. Characterised by simultaneous attention to surface, colour and space, Stingel’s compositions create a new paradigm for the meaning of painting, refecting upon the fundamental
questions that concern the artistic parameters of today’s creations: authenticity, meaning, and context. At once abstract and referential, majestic and subdued, Untitled epitomises the conceptual core of Stingel’s painterly gesture, of which each diferent iteration was elucidated in the artist’s 1989 selfpublished Instructions. In this self-referential manual, Stingel provided step-by-step instructions that intended to direct artists towards a clear and essential way of making. As such, its contents represented the demystifcation of ‘painterliness’ and the commodifcation of mechanical processes. With their simple method of creation – he sprays silver enamel over layers of paint and mesh – Stingel’s silver paintings are at once aesthetically exquisite and conceptually arresting, visually supple and physically rigid. They exemplify Francesco Bonami’s claim that, ‘By disrupting painting’s assumption of material, process, and placement, Stingel not only bursts open the conventions of painting, but creates unique ways of thinking about the medium and its reception’ (Francesco Bonami, Rudolf Stingel, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2007, p. 10). Continuing his investigation into the medium which Douglas Crimp had proclaimed dead in 1981, Stingel ofered a new lease on painting – one that summoned more questions than it provided answers. In this perspective, Roberta Smith beckoned, ‘His art asks what are paintings, who makes them, and how?’ (Roberta Smith, ‘The Threads That Tie a Show Together’, The New York Times, 20 August 2013).
Vija Celmins, Untitled (Ocean with Cross #1), 1971, graphite on acrylic ground on paper, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © Vija Celmins, Courtesy Matthew Marks Gallery Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
‘Silver makes everything look contemporary. If you paint something silver, it looks, I don’t know, from today.’ Rudolf Stingel
Piero Manzoni, Achrome, 1959, kaolin on canvas, Museo del Novecento, Milan. © DACS 2019. Image: Mondadori Portfolio/ Electa/Luca Carrà / Bridgeman Images.
With Untitled, the exploration of the silver pigment, and the emulation of a material other than a painterly support furthermore call to mind a number of artists who similarly approached colour and medium as realms to investigate and break through. Vija Celmins’ poetic seascapes, moon surfaces and land shots betray an attentive eye and laborious technique that Stingel equally cultivates in his process. As with Celmins, the painter’s results are seamless, transforming into something that they are not through sheer pictorial conviction. From another perspective, the focus on colour and the plasticity of pigment have also been subjects in themselves since the beginning of painting. In the modern canon, a few names crop up instinctively – those of Yves Klein and Pierre Soulages; the variegated surface texture of the present work namely recalls the surface undulations of Piero Manzoni’s Achromes. A paragon of Rudolf Stingel’s painterly output, Untitled, comprises the deliberate ambivalences that the artist consistently infuses in his work. At once abstract and referential, majestic and irreverential, it critiques the history of modern painting and the studio process whilst commanding the viewer to succumb to its iridescent magnifcence.
19. Keith Haring
Untitled signed, inscribed and dated ‘K. Haring Dec. 31 © 1984 “New Years Eve 84” FOR WILI SMITH’ on the reverse enamel on metal 91 x 101.5 cm (35 7/8 x 39 7/8 in.) Executed on 31 December 1984, this work is accompanied by a certifcate of authenticity from the Keith Haring Studio LLC and is registered under the application number 082009A4. Estimate £800,000-1,200,000 $988,000-1,480,000 €894,000-1,340,000 plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Willi Smith, New York (gifed by the artist) Thence by descent Private Collection, New York Skarstedt Gallery, London Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Dexia Banque Internationale Luxembourg, Keith Haring, 22 June - 15 September 2007, p. 135 Milan and Padua, Vecchiato Art Galleries, Keith Haring, 8 April - November 2009, p. 52 (illustrated, p. 53) Paris, Galerie Laurent Strouk, Keith Haring: in search of the roots of art, 23 October - 27 December 2014, no. 86, n.p. (illustrated) Cotonou, Fondation Zinsou, Keith Haring in Cotonou, 14 November 2016 - 7 January 2017, p. 49 Luxembourg, Zidoun & Bossuyt, KEITH HARING. A NEW HUMANISM, 25 January - 9 March 2019
A powerful expression of freedom emanates from Keith Haring’s Untitled, 1984, as two golden fgures dance atop a blackened metallic support with unrepressed joy. Challenging the formal nature of its two-dimensional form, the work exudes a sense of movement that is made evident by the characters’ lively, untroubled activity. Typical of the artist’s cartoon iterations, these characters take on an appearance that is imbued with irrepressible immediacy, only emphasised by the motion lines surrounding their gestures. Propelled beyond the frame they inhabit, the unnamed dancers exist within Haring’s pantheon of similarly composed fgures, which he began designing in 1977 and continued deploying throughout his career. An erotic dimension to their connection is made evident by the prominence of their sexual organs, and historical context elucidates that their dances and open sexual expressions are in fact discrete tools to balk against the threat that AIDS represented throughout the latter part of the 1980s. Here, Haring’s minimal – yet bombastic – protagonists fow with political meaning; their cartoonish embodiment of fun and erotica are presented as tokens of life able to vanquish the looming heads of danger and death. ‘Parallel to Haring’s sadness, and his social conscience, ran something else’, synthesised Robert Farris
Thompson, ‘an allegiance to the dance in all its powers of transcendence’ (Robert Farris Thompson, ‘Notes on the Art and Life of Keith Haring’, Keith Haring: The Political Line, exh. cat., Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, 2014, p. 47). Adroitly aligning dance with sexual fervour, Haring here employs his signature grafti-like aesthetic to convey a theme that mobilised a number of politically conscious artists around the world in the 1980s and 1990s. Similarly employing his simplifed line to capture the essential interactions of human bodies, Bruce Nauman looked at the feeting nature of sexual relations in his work, in a context where consequences ranged from the innocuous to the fatal. Notably, his Double Poke in the Eye, 1985, defly explores the rapport between the public and the private, corporeality and violence. Pulsating with alternating forms and colours, the sequentially timed neon wall sculpture refects the present work’s vibrancy and sense of movement. Nauman’s face-to-face men, whose transitory pointing fngers presage the explicit sexual allusions the artist would materialise in his sculpture, Sex and Death, 1985, fnd thematical resonance with the interlaced fgures in Untitled, whose heads are linked together like cufs.
Bruce Nauman, Double Poke In The Eye, 1985, neon, Private Collection. © Bruce Nauman / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London 2019. Image: Bridgeman Images.
Aside from the sexual tension held by the two dancing fgures as they shimmer on the metallic support, there is, in the composition, a celebratory aspect that is further elucidated by the work’s inscription on the reverse, reading ‘New Years Eve 1984 FOR WILI SMITH’. Made on the eve of the year 1985, Untitled forms part of a theme Haring employed frequently, and relished engaging with in real life as he threw numerous parties to welcome the New Year. The Eve of 1985 was no exception: surviving footage records boisterous crowds dotted with people of all ages, making their way around rooms where Haring’s art was displayed in downtown Manhattan. This specifc iteration furthermore marked the end of another eventful year. 1984 was the year Haring celebrated his notorious 26th birthday at Paradise Garage – where Madonna and Diana Ross were in attendance – the year he body-painted Grace Jones under the watchful lens of Robert Mapplethorpe, the year he travelled extensively, in Italy, France, Brazil and America. Executed in a key moment for Haring, Untitled signals the artist’s growing fame, soon to become of a trademark for the entirety of his oeuvre. At this stage, Keith declared, there was no country he travelled to where he wouldn’t fnd Keith Haring t-shirts, whether he made them or not. He had become something of an international icon; a brand that was as infuential in the realm of art as it was in the commercial world.
Fashion designer Willi Smith, April 1984. (Photo by Jack Mitchell/Getty Images).
‘Art should be something that liberates the soul, provokes the imagination, and encourages people to go further.’ Keith Haring
A notable aspect of Untitled is its homage to the fashion designer Willi Smith, who was regarded as one of the most successful African-American designers in the fashion industry until his untimely death in 1987, caused by AIDS complications. Captured with the eye of the contemporary viewer, Untitled posits as a time capsule, recording multifarious notions of friendship, celebration, vulnerability, prescient untimeliness. In a diary entry he wrote on 30 October 1984, just two months before the creation of this work, Haring claimed ‘I think the greatest feature of a lot of the images is that they’re not completely explainable and they can have diferent meanings for diferent people. That’s something that man seems to have less and less patience for, but in earlier civilizations symbols were much more versatile’ (Keith Haring, ‘1984’, Journals, New York, 1997, n.p.). Confating meanings that vary in intensity, intimacy and thematic proximity, depending on the changing spectator, the present work is a sumptuous example of Haring’s ‘cartoon surrealist automatism’, which was not just formally prodigious but also quintessentially of its time (Tony Shafrazi, in conversation with Carlo McCormick, ‘The Persistance of Memory and the Fortune of Having Been There’, Keith Haring: The Political Line, exh. cat., Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, 2014, p. 78).
Property from a Distinguished Los Angeles Collection O♦
20. Takashi Murakami
Spiral signed and dated ‘TAKASHI 2014’ on the overlap acrylic and platinum leaf on canvas 150.6 x 150.3 cm (59 1/4 x 59 1/8 in.) Executed in 2014. Estimate £400,000-600,000 $494,000-740,000 €447,000-670,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Galerie Perrotin, Paris Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2014
Confating Pop culture, history and fne art, Takashi Murakami’s bright and boisterous Spiral, 2014, is an exceptional example from the artist’s now instantly-recognisable visual syntax. An emblem of his tendency to invigorate, saturate and accumulate, Spiral encapsulates the core visual tenets of the Superfat movement to which the artist adheres, attending to a perspective of space that likens the canvas’s surface to a computer screen. In the present work, myriad large balloonlike fgures emerge on a single, compressed plane. With their comically infated bodies foating across the platinum canvas, they embody the movement’s key concept of pictorial density, together defying the classical technique of ‘one-point’ perspective. All endowed with the letters D and B on their rounded ears, these ebullient creatures represent multiple iterations of one of Murakami’s earliest cartoon creations: the whimsically named Mr. DOB. For the artist, Mr. DOB is a perpetually shifing symbol of constructed brand narratives – at once reminiscent of Disney’s Mickey Mouse, Sonic the Hedgehog, Hello Kitty and the Russian character Cheburashka. He has described the fgure – who has taken on many diferent guises, from kawaii to malevolent – as his very own alterego, as well as the inspired embodiment of an existential interrogation, ‘DOB’ standing for the contraction of the Japanese slang expression ‘dobojite’, or ‘why?’.
Psychedelic, fantastical and sharp-toothed, Mr. DOB was doubtlessly inspired by the anime and manga characters that achieved cult status amongst Japanese youth in the 1990s. Musing on the importance of the icon, Murakami declared that ‘…it felt like I had succeeded…Once a character is born and begins to move, I think one has to follow its demands. If you let it be, it will take care of itself…Now I have a face that can transform at will’ (Takashi Murakami, quoted in Murakami: Ego, exh. cat., Al Riwaq, Doha, 2012, p. 18). Expertly mixing high and low art, Murakami has employed Mr. DOB throughout his career to examine the complexities of Japan’s cultural history. In 727, painted in 1996 and now residing in New York in the Museum of Modern Art’s collection, Mr. DOB rides a wave that is visually evocative of Hokusai’s infamous woodblock prints, created in the frst half of the 19th century. Eluding this art historical context, Spiral instead focuses on its depicted characters, presenting them as literally ‘spiralling’ out of control and bursting out from the picture plane. More menacing than adorable, the bear-like Mr. DOBs appear crazed in a psychedelic furry of shapes and colours, mutating 727’s tranquil waves into twisting tongues. Yet Murakami’s imaginative fgures are not exclusively redolent of protagonists from the canon of Japanese art. In
Takashi Murakami, 727, 1996, acrylic on canvas mounted on board, three panels, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © 1996 Takashi Murakami/Kaikai Kiki Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved.Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
‘Once a character is born and begins to move, I think one has to follow its demands. If you let it be, it will take care of itself… Now I have a face that can transform at will.’ Takashi Murakami
©2014 Takashi Murakami/Kaikai Kiki Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
his appropriation of familiar fgures within cartoon and anime culture, Murakami ingeniously invokes the legacy of American Pop art, extending the trajectory of artists such as Keith Haring, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Jef Koons into the digital era. However, veering away from the industrial production methods employed by Warhol and Koons in their work, Murakami instead navigates towards handcrafed meticulousness and precision. The quality of line and the brilliance of colour in Spiral – produced with glistening acrylic against a skull-embossed platinum surface – imbues this work with a seductive slickness. This appearance, similar to
Warhol’s immaculate silkscreens, could be said to mirror the global consumer’s appetite for perfection in contemporary culture, a subject that Murakami frequently addressed throughout his career. ‘In the art world, critics always connect entertainment with guilt, amusement with superfciality’, he remarked. ‘I think my work is the answer to that criticism. Which doesn’t mean that I make work only to amuse… on the surface they appear very light and fimsy, but they’re actually made of very solid materials underneath. The depth is visual.’ (Takashi Murakami, quoted in Murakami: Ego, exh. cat, Al Riwaq, Doha, 2012, p. 256).
Property from a Distinguished Los Angeles Collection O♦
21. Joe Bradley
Big Boy signed and dated ‘2010 Joe Bradley’ on the overlap oil, oilstick, grease and studio detritus on joined canvas 330.2 x 304.8 cm (130 x 120 in.) Executed in 2010. Estimate £300,000-500,000 $370,000-617,000 €335,000-559,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Gavin Brown’s enterprise, New York Private Collection, Puerto Rico Phillips, New York, 16 November 2017, lot 37 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner Exhibited New York, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, Mouth and Foot Paintings, 8 January - 19 February 2011 Eugene, Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, University of Oregon, Masterworks on Loan, June - September 2019 Literature ‘In Conversation: Joe Bradley with Phong Bui’, The Brooklyn Rail, 3 February 2011, online (illustrated) Laura Hoptman, ‘Joe Bradley’, Interview Magazine, June 2014, online (illustrated) Cathleen Chafee, Dan Nadel and Kim Conaty, Joe Bradley, exh. cat., Albright-Knox Art Gallery, New York, 2017, fg. 5, pp. 20-21 (Gavin Brown’s enterprise installation view illustrated)
An impressive composition rendered with palpable dynamism and immediacy, Big Boy, 2010, belongs to one of Joe Bradley’s most coveted series, a collection of densely layered abstract paintings in which he re-introduced the medium of oil paint for the frst time since his earlier modular work. While a number of sister works from the series were included in Bradley’s major mid-career retrospective at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Bufalo, in 2017, Big Boy debuted the artist’s seminal solo exhibition Mouth and Foot Paintings at Gavin Brown’s enterprise in 2011, marking the genesis of his commercial success on the heels of his breakthrough participation at the Whitney Biennial, New York, in 2010. The largest canvas Bradley had created at the time of its execution, Big Boy furthermore distinguishes itself within the series as the most explicit in its reference to the human fgure. As abstract elements of bright, unmodulated colour and furries of grafti-like lines coalesce into fguration across the vast
canvas, Bradley encourages viewers to intently peruse the painting and make sense of the large-scale doodles. At the centre of the composition, a large totemic stick fgure comes to the fore, his outstretched arm recalling the hamburger-bearing mascot of the ‘Big Boy’ food chain, whilst simultaneously calling to mind Jean-Michel Basquiat’s imagistic abstraction, ofen dominated by the presence of charismatic - and frenetically minimal - silhouettes. Resisting confnement as an abstractionist, Bradley afrms that the fgurative elements in his work enable the extraction of a narrative. ‘I like the idea of naming a painting, rather than titling a painting – naming a painting like you would name a child […] I had been thinking of them as having personality or hoping they would have personality. I liked the idea of a painting having a sort of ambiance, giving of a vibe. Like you could look at one out of the corner of your eye like you would a stranger in the room’ (Joe Bradley, quoted in Ross Simonini, ‘An Interview with Joe Bradley’, The Believer, 1 November 2012, online).
‘I like that [painting is] an experience that resists media. You have to be there in front of it to experience it—that’s a rare item these days.’ Joe Bradley
Jean Dubufet, The Jewish Woman, October 1950, oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled, 1981, acrylic and oilstick on plywood, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. © The Estate of Jean-Michel Basquiat / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2019. Image: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
Drawn to a mutable approach to art-making that recalls his artistic forebears Francis Picabia or Martin Kippenberger, Bradley famously eschews a singular style or subject matter - working in distinct, ofen concurrent, series that pivot back and forth between abstraction and fguration, with a sly nod to the eclectic history of 20th century painting. Reinterpreting the sense of monumentality employed by the Abstract Expressionists, Joe Bradley claimed that ‘With painting, I always get the feeling that you’re sort of entering into a shared space. There’s everyone who’s painted in the past, and everyone who is painting in the present’ (Joe Bradley, quoted in Laura Hoptman, ‘Joe Bradley’, Interview Magazine, June 2014, online). Big Boy encapsulates Bradley’s commitment to the history of abstraction, its weathered textures and bold lines paying homage to the legacies of such painters as Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Jean Dubufet, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Philip Guston and Cy Twombly. And yet, as Bradley explained, while he does naturally absorb these art historical infuences, ultimately ‘the idea is to sublimate that in the work
and to come up with something that feels and looks like your own’ (Joe Bradley, quoted in Eric Troncy, ‘Joe Bradley – interview by Eric Troncy’, Frog Magazine, issue 14, online). Soaring to arresting heights, Big Boy furthermore commands the viewer’s gaze in a wholly immersive composition. ‘I ofen think of this relation to scale’, Bradley remarked, ‘the scale of a painting tells you where to stand. You’re looking at a Vermeer, you get as close as you can to it, and it’s a very cerebral kind of buzz. My canvases are more of a body buzz’ (Joe Bradley, quoted in ‘“There’s something suspicious about painting” – an interview with Joe Bradley’, Apollo Magazine, 25 October 2018, online). With its expressive blocks of yellow, pink, crimson, blue and black, the work vibrates with unmatched vigour, endowing the totemic stick-fgure with increased formal energy. Marked with paint splatter, footprints and visible grid-like creases, Big Boy additionally acts as testament to Bradley’s technique of handling the unprimed canvas on the studio foor, utilised throughout his career.
AT THIS TIME afromosia wood 264 x 112 x 100 cm (103 7/8 x 44 1/8 x 39 3/8 in.) Executed in 2013, this work is artist’s proof number 2 from an edition of 3 plus 2 artist’s proofs. Estimate £800,000-1,200,000 $988,000-1,480,000 €894,000-1,340,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Private Collection, Hong Kong Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth; Shanghai, Yuz Museum, KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, 20 October 2016 13 August 2017, p. 195 (another example from the edition exhibited and illustrated, pp. 116 and 118-119)
Animating its surroundings with an uncannily ambivalent presence, AT THIS TIME, 2013, presents KAWS’ signature COMPANION fgure, standing alone with his head tilted backwards and his eyes sunk in his hands. Exquisitely crafed from afromosia wood, AT THIS TIME is at once monumental and imposing, playful and psychologically charged, inviting viewers into a visual universe that is infused with KAWS’ instantly recognisable cartoon imagery. Selected for inclusion in the artist’s career-defning exhibition KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, which began in 2016 at the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and later travelled to the Yuz Museum in Shanghai, AT THIS TIME is an icon of our time that exemplifes KAWS’ rise to the canon of contemporary art, encapsulating the artist’s visual language that oscillates between popular culture and fne art. Executed in a rich, natural colour with exposed wood grain, AT THIS TIME illustrates KAWS’ enduring fascination and experimentation with materiality. In 2005, KAWS began collaborating with the Japanese furniture company Karimoku to create his frst small wooden COMPANION, a partnership which would invigorate the artist’s notions about the material possibilities of wood. ‘We use a lot of technology with the sculptures we make’, the artist has said. ‘You know the large,
wooden sculptures? Even though they’re wood, they go from small maquettes that are ten to ffeen inches to being digitized and built out on a CNC machine, which is sort of like 3-D printing’ (KAWS, quoted in ‘Pharrell Williams Interviews KAWS’, KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, exh. cat., Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2016, p. 85). A longtime admirer of H. C. Westermann’s intense approach to wood carving derived from carpentry, KAWS furthermore sought to follow the late American artist’s footsteps by developing new processes that would incorporate the traditional medium. In AT THIS TIME, this is exemplifed by the natural striations of the wood grain that produce a mesmerising, swirling pattern along the polished surface of the sculpture. Drawing upon the centuries-old technique of marquetry, each strip of wood is meticulously fabricated to follow the contour lines of the COMPANION’s body, creating a marked contrast between the traditional wooden medium and character’s distinctly contemporary appearance. KAWS has furthermore bridged his appreciation of the materiality of wood with his love of toys, explaining that when creating the wood works, ‘I was thinking of the relationship I’ve had to wood toys growing up and the warmth and feeling they have when you hold them in your hand or place them
‘I was thinking of the relationship I’ve had to wood toys growing up and the warmth and feeling they have when you hold them in your hand…I wanted to expand on that, to create a wooden sculpture that makes you feel small but at the same time I want the viewer to feel like they should somehow help or console the work.’ KAWS
H.C. Westermann, Antimobile, 1966, laminated plywood, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. © Dumbarton Arts, LLC/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Digital image Whitney Museum of American Art / Licensed by Scala
Urs Fischer, Untitled (LampBear), 2005-2006 mixed materials, Private Collection. © Urs Fisher. Image: Bridgeman Images
on a shelf or table and stare at them. I wanted to expand on that, to create a wooden sculpture that makes you feel small but at the same time I want the viewer to feel like they should somehow help or console the work, despite its towering size’ (KAWS, quoted in ‘KAWS: The Story Behind an Artwork, in the Artist’s Own Words’, Blouin Modern Painters, February 2016). Like Urs Fischer’s monumental Untitled (Lamp/Bear), 2005-06, AT THIS TIME celebrates the very object that defnes a young child’s experience, here bringing to mind the familiar Disney cartoon Pinocchio, who was created as a wooden puppet with dreams of becoming a real boy. Exuding a distinct intimate feel despite monumental scale, AT THIS TIME taps into the nostalgic potency of beloved childhood characters that resonate across audiences around the globe. Enamoured with the world of cartoons to the point of creating his own graphic fgures, it was in 1999 that KAWS designed his frst COMPANION character, which initially took the form of a small-scale fgurine. Inspired by the iconic character of Mickey Mouse, COMPANION was named for the kind of lovable partner we all seek to feel cared for, fulflled and not alone.
COMPANION soon became a hallmark of KAWS’ visual lexicon, one that he would continue to hone and develop for the next two decades. The artist remarked, ‘Even though I use a comic language, my fgures are not always refecting the idealistic cartoon view that I grew up on… COMPANION is more real in dealing with contemporary human circumstances’ (KAWS, quoted in KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, exh. cat., Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2016, p. 5). In AT THIS TIME, the sculpted COMPANION’s posture conveys myriad, contradicting emotions, spanning disbelief, rest, isolation and playfulness. Captured in a state of isolation, COMPANION appears sad and alone – in a complete paradox to his name. Yet when seen from a child’s eyes, the character’s pose transforms into a playful expression, redolent of the childhood game of hide-and-seek. From play to retreat, invitation to isolation, the sculpted protagonist’s pose conjures a poignant vulnerability that summons empathy from its viewers. As such, AT THIS TIME is acutely relatable and universal, embodying the very essence of what KAWS has aimed to achieve throughout his oeuvre.
‘I started to question why it is that if something is eight inches, it’s a toy, but if you look at an object of that same scale in a museum, with a similar appearance, it’s suddenly art with a capital A… I have explored this idea of scale and materials in my work, really from the start, so by the time I made my frst sculpture I wanted it to look just like the vinyl toys I had already been making. I wanted to see where that puts peoples’ perspectives.’ KAWS *The amount of Buyer’s Premium, VAT and, if applicable, Artist’s Resale Right payable is dependent on the sale outcome. For full details see Calculating the Purchase Price in the Buyer’s Guide online or in this catalogue. Buyer’s Premium is payable at a maximum of 25%. VAT, where applicable, is payable at 20% on the Buyer’s Premium.
Installation view of At This Time (another example from the edition) in Where the End Starts: KAWS, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth 2017. Image: ÂŠ www.matthawthorne.com.
23. Keith Haring
Cruella de Vil signed, titled, dedicated and dated ‘SEPT 18 1984. K. Haring © 84 “CRUELLA DEVILLE” FOR GLORIA - LOVE KEITH 88’ on the overlap acrylic on canvas 152.4 x 152.4 cm (60 x 60 in.) Painted on 18 September 1984. Estimate £500,000-700,000 $616,000-863,000 €560,000-783,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York Collection of Princess Gloria von Thurn und Taxis, Regensburg Phillips de Pury & Company, New York, 7 November 2005, lot 37 Private Collection, New York Skarstedt Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Marseille, A.R.C.A. centre d’art contemporain, New York 85, 9 July - 31 August 1985, p. 57 (illustrated) New York, Tony Shafrazi Gallery, Keith Haring, 26 October 30 November 1985 Fondazione Triennale di Milano, The Keith Haring Show, 27 September 2005 – 29 January 2006, no. 51, p. 208 (illustrated) Reading Public Museum, Keith Haring: Journey of the Radiant Baby, 18 February - 6 August 2006, pl. 1, pp. 36 and 87 (illustrated, p. 60) Literature Keith Haring, exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1997, p. 186 (illustrated) Alexandra Kolossa, Keith Haring 1958-1990: Une vie pour l’art, Cologne, 2004, p. 37 (illustrated, p. 38) Alexandra Kolossa, Keith Haring 1958-1990: A life for art, Cologne, 2013, p. 37 (illustrated, p. 38)
Film Still from Walt Disney, 101 Dalmations, 1961. Image: Bridgeman Images.
Known for painting radiant cartoon fgures roaming freely across variable surfaces, Keith Haring built, over the course of his all-too-short career, an inimitable oeuvre that is today considered as important in the canon of contemporary art as it is in mainstream culture. Executed in 1984, Cruella de Vil is a captivating example from the artist’s body of work. Portraying the eponymous villain from Walt Disney’s infamous 101 Dalmatians – here caught in the malignant act of burning a puppy’s fur with her cigarette butt – Haring delves into the realm of popular culture whilst retaining a style that is distinctly his, operating at a crossroads between vigorous, grafti markmaking and the jagged angles of Pablo Picasso’s Cubism. Executed at a critical point in the artist’s career, Cruella de Vil marks the frst time Haring addressed Walt Disney’s creations in his painterly opus – having only alluded to the cinematic master with six successive drawings of Mickey Mouse in 1981. It is further testament to the work’s signifcance that it was formerly owned by Princess Gloria von Thurn und Taxis, a prominent collector and artist in her own right. The basis of Haring’s art was always the drawn line. Beginning to practice his draughtsmanship as a child around the kitchen table, Haring continued cultivating his artistic proclivity during his studies at Pittsburgh’s Ivy School of Professional Art. There, he came across the work of Pierre Alechinsky, Jean Dubufet, and Fernand Léger, walking through the
galleries of the Carnegie Museum of Art. Inspired by their spontaneity of gesture and unrepressed use of colour, Haring further honed his free-fowing line, materialised in his vibrant subway drawings of the late 1970s and early 1980s. Concerned with the relevance of his imagery, he perpetually pushed contemporaneous art historical discourse into forward-looking trends that echoed the world around him. ‘Living in 1984, the role of the artist has to be diferent from what it was ffy, or even twenty years ago’, he declared. ‘I am continually amazed at the number of artists who continue working as if the camera were never invented, as if Andy Warhol never existed, as if airplanes and computers and videotape were never heard of’ (Keith Haring, quoted in ‘Untitled Statement’, Flash Art, March 1984, p. 24). In 1984, he thus produced the present Cruella de Vil, and the following year, he realised his iconic Andy Mouse character in painting for the frst time, confating Walt Disney’s infamous Mickey and the facial features of his friend and fellow artist Andy Warhol. With its bright colours and evocative subject matter, Cruella de Vil is wholly representative of Haring’s tendency to employ innocent iconography in order to deliver unforgiving truths. Wearing the fur of innocent puppies with unrepressed pride, Cruella owns her name as she would a motto. It is interesting to look at the present work in the context of the artist’s oeuvre, and in the thematic line of his artistic output.
Ceaselessly attempting to reveal dark truths in friendly guises – typically through the use of his own cartoon fgures, dancing with dynamic and sexual fervour – Haring here employs a subject whose cruelty is paired with real-life socio-political tendencies: exploitation, materialism, and greed, whilst adopting a deceitful look of sophistication. Unlike other Disney villains, Cruella is physically and capitalistically savvy: she speaks in the current world’s terms of brutality and savagery, beneftting from the sufering of others whilst showing no sign of guilt or compassion. Departing from the innocent fgure of Mickey, who seemed more a witful nod to Warhol’s Pop compositions, Cruella is here imparted with the meaning of Haring’s more mature work, as his oeuvre began to refect the tragedies that fell upon New York’s social landscape in the mid-1980s. As powerful as its subject matter, the formal qualities of the present work demonstrate Haring’s need to remain anchored in popular culture, fed by the charismatic presence of the seminal cartoon fgures that he had looked up to since his childhood. ‘I consider myself a perfect product of the space age not only because I was born in the year that the frst man was launched into space, but also because I grew up with
‘Disney’s genius for making imagery that was comprehensible to a huge international cross-section of people served as a role model to Haring.’ Bruce D. Kurtz, Haring, Warhol, Disney, Munich, 1992, p. 18
Pablo Picasso, Le Chapeau de paille au feuillage bleu, 1936, oil on canvas, Musée Picasso, Paris. © Succession Picasso/DACS, London 2019.
Walt Disney cartoons’, he exclaimed (Keith Haring, quoted in Elisabeth Sussman, Keith Haring, New York, 2008, p. 10). Being the product of TV culture near its genesis, Haring grew up surrounded by these characters, and only naturally began including them in his art. He subsequently merged these with iconic styles culled from art history, as well as symbols or signifers salvaged from the urban landscape of New York City. Within the art historical canon, two painters who had a profound efect on Haring were Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. On the one hand, Picasso allowed himself a complete liberty of form in the act of representation that Haring aspired to breathe into his own work; on the other, Warhol introduced the primacy of replication and appropriation in a world where imagery continuously proliferated, and the only solutions to their reaching near-saturation became curation or humour. In the present work, Cruella’s fragmented facial features bear an uncanny resemblance to those of Dora Maar, and her mean gesture, rendered with playfully vibrant hues, presents a commodifcation of violence akin to Warhol’s Disaster silkscreens. As a result, the painting brims with Haring’s multifarious visual references, adroitly mixing aspects of high and low art.
UNTITLED signed and dated ‘KAWS..14’ on the reverse acrylic on canvas 149.2 x 131.4 cm (58 3/4 x 51 3/4 in.) Painted in 2014. Estimate £800,000-1,200,000 $988,000-1,480,000 €894,000-1,340,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Private Collection, USA Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘I’m not thinking about a narrative, just the aesthetic and the shapes— how I can manipulate an image and reuse it.’ KAWS
In UNTITLED, 2014, KAWS’ graphic imagery comes to the fore. Plunged in a mass of kaleidoscopic abstraction, the painting employs the artist’s characteristic forms, comprised of cartoonish iconography and geometric shapes, namely deployed in the shape of the canvas itself. It takes on an aesthetic that aligns with the gestural vigour of grafti – a visual comparison made all-the-more relevant by KAWS’ very own experimentation with the outdoor craf early on in his career. Before dedicating himself to painting, the artist had sprayed his imaginative creations over billboards, and fashion and photo booth advertisements; as a result, a number of his paintings exude a sense of immediacy which is proper to the urban vernacular of his native New Jersey. These canvases, together, have earned him tremendous acclaim in recent years, culminating in the artist’s frst-ever major survey slated to take place at the Brooklyn Museum, New York, in 2021. Brimming with rich chromatic hues and amalgamated forms, UNTITLED demonstrates KAWS’ inimitable skill in emulating cartoon drawn lines with heightened graphic energy. Eschewing the artist’s usual delineation of a single cohesive
cartoon character – most ofen Snoopy, SpongeBob, the Simpsons or the Smurfs – here, UNTITLED seems to display a confation of cartoonish imagery, withholding in the upper quadrant of the composition the artist’s signature X-out eyes. Amongst the array of disjointed features displayed and enmeshed in a single image, a few appear discernible on close and sustained inspection. Despite the lack of a yellow hue and bright blue eyes, the infamously long nose hovering over an idiosyncratic smile, punctuated by whimsical gaps between the two frontal teeth, suggests SpongeBob’s well-known fgure fragmented throughout the painting. Propelled beyond the world of illustration, KAWS additionally draws kinship with seminal art historical movements. ‘While one expects KAWS’s work would be entirely indebted to Pop art, his process suggests an equal debt to Minimalism, in which abstract parts of materials are rearranged to create diferent types of wholes’ (Michael Auping, KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, exh. cat., Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2016, p. 68). KAWS’ use of a non-rectangular support in the present image resonates with Frank Stella and Ellsworth Kelly’s key innovations of the 1960s.
‘By giving the comics a new face, the artist seems to aspire to update their past, which is not simply playful and lyrical, but can also be frightening and deathly. Hence the masks with ‘sewn’ eyes that do not look ahead but inside at their own stories…’ Germano Celant, ‘BD and K’, KAWS: 1993-2010, exh. cat., Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefeld, 2010, p. 55
Frank Stella, Gur Variation, 1969, acrylic and graphite on shaped canvas, Private Collection. © Frank Stella, ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Bridgeman Images.
KAWS at work on a shaped canvas in his Williamsburg studio, 2013. Photographed by Rebecca Smeyne. Artwork © KAWS.
Whereas his predecessors’ non-fgurative works are based on combinations of geometric forms, UNTITLED follows the contours of a non-descript creature, applying KAWS’ own logic and establishing the painting’s larger-than-life presence. As Auping notes, ‘American abstract painters employed the shaped canvas to objectify the canvas support, to give it the look of a self-contained painted object. KAWS uses it for just the opposite reason, as a form of physical animation, energizing the characters so that they appear to be moving across the landscape of the wall’ (Michael Auping, KAWS: WHERE THE END STARTS, exh. cat., Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2016, p. 74).
Continuing KAWS’ glorious take on painting afer a number of artistic manifestations that defned the medium and cemented it within a widely accepted tradition, UNTITLED demonstrates the artist’s ability to straddle painterly historicity and contemporary imagery. The work boasts the sleek, immaculate surfaces of Pop art, whilst simultaneously containing hints of abstraction, here made evident in the composition’s geometric structure and highly varied colour palette. Executed in 2014, the present work emerged at a time when KAWS’ appropriative method became increasingly prominent in contemporary discourse, until eventually reaching the heights of today.
25. John Baldessari
Intersection Series: Automobile / High Rise Building digital photographic prints with acrylic on foam PVC board, in artist’s frames, in 4 parts overall 214.3 x 220.3 cm (84 3/8 x 86 3/4 in.) Executed in 2002. Estimate £300,000-500,000 $370,000-616,000 €336,000-560,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Marian Goodman Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Paris, Marian Goodman Gallery, John Baldessari: Overlaps and Intersections, 3 May - 15 June 2002 Literature Patrick Pardo and Robert Dean, eds., John Baldessari. Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Four: 1994-2004, New Haven, 2017, no. 2002.5, p. 271 (illustrated)
‘My work comes from trying to see the world diferently because I am tired of seeing the world the way it is presented. Our environment doesn’t come to us with instructions.’ John Baldessari
Towering over two metres high, John Baldessari’s Intersection Series: Automobile / High Rise Building, 2002, draws the viewer into of a prototypical Los Angeles cityscape that brilliantly merges reality and fction. Powerfully capturing the dialectic between urban horizontality and verticality, Baldessari has here juxtaposed a tightly cropped, grayscale flm still of a vintage automobile against a vertical colour photograph of a high-rise building – elevating the quintessentially American car within a monumental format reminiscent of a religious altarpiece. Bringing two seemingly unrelated images together to create a third picture at their point of intersection, the photographic composition’s source imagery is further abstracted by Baldessari’s signature strategy of blocking out shapes with vivid hues of paint. A quintessential example of the artist’s Intersection Series, of which another work resides in the Broad Museum, Los Angeles, the present work captures the idiosyncratic mashup of painting, photography, and flmic source imagery that launched Baldessari’s career and has made him one of the most infuential artists of his generation. With Intersection Series: Automobile / High Rise Building, Baldessari expands on many of the core themes with which he launched his conceptual art practice. It was in the late 1960s that he turned away from painting – famously disavowing all work he had made between 1953 and 1966 in his Cremation
project in 1970 – and instead explored a more open-ended approach to art-making that turned to photography as the main medium of expression and communication. The present work echoes Baldessari’s late 1960s National City series, which consisted of grainy images depicting the automotive landscape of his Southern California hometown. As Baldessari recalled, ‘I would drive around National City where I was living and randomly shoot out of the window with the camera without even looking and drive with the other hand’ (John Baldessari, quoted in Moira Roth, ‘Interview with John Baldessari’, 1973, X-TRA, Winter 2005, vol. 8, no. 2, online). The present work belongs to the sub-group of T-shaped works in the Intersection series that feature photographs Baldessari took along Wilshire Boulevard, the principal East-West road connecting Downtown Los Angeles to the ocean. Since the turn of the 20th century, car culture has been inextricably linked to Wilshire – as automobile advancements allowed quicker travel, so, too, did the corridor rapidly develop and spur the westward movement of the afuent. In the Intersection series, Baldessari focuses his attention particularly on the West Los Angeles stretch of the road between Beverly Hills and Westwood: cars swoosh past what at frst glance appear to be non-descript high-rise buildings, yet are in fact towering luxury condominiums. Figuring in strong opposition to the desolate cityscape of Baldessari’s
Peter Cain, Z, 1989, oil on canvas, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Image: Matthew Marks Gallery and Digital image Whitney Museum of American Art / Licensed by Scala
‘I am interested in when two images abut each other. It’s like when two words collide and some new word in some new meaning comes out of it.’ John Baldessari
James Rosenquist, F-111 (detail), 1964-65, oil on canvas with aluminium, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © James Rosenquist/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence
native National City, these buildings take on a particular signifcance for the artist. As he explained, ‘…such buildings make me uneasy wherever they are, Central Park West in NYC, or any place in the world. Maybe it’s because I was raised in a low-income city…West LA is pretty much surface…’ (John Baldessari, quoted in ‘Artist’s Statements’, Patrick Pardo and Robert Dean, eds., John Baldessari. Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Four: 1994-2004, New Haven, 2017, p. 406). It is this notion of surface and façade that Baldessari probes both conceptually and formally through the juxtaposition of a flm still – an industrially manufactured image that here appears to symbolise the optimism and nostalgia of quintessentiall American car culture similarly thematised by such artists as Ed Ruscha, James Rosenquist and Peter Cain. Merging photographic imagery from real life and movies, Baldessari opens up the feld of meaning. As he explained, ‘The ‘Intersection’ Series is about diferent worlds colliding, where the essence of one is commingled/contaminated/ merged with the other, especially at the point of juncture’ (John Baldessari, quoted in ‘Artist’s Statements’, Patrick Pardo and Robert Dean, eds., John Baldessari. Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Four: 1994-2004, New Haven, 2017, p. 406). While Baldessari throughout the decades employed strategies of cutting and editing to challenge notions of fxed meaning, it is in particular in his larger body of work from the 2000s – his Overlap, Intersection and Junction series – that he explored what Robert Storr has characterised as ‘morphologies of juxtaposition’ (Robert Storr, ‘Wise Guy’, Patrick Pardo and Robert Dean, eds., John Baldessari. Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Four: 1994-2004, New Haven, 2017, p. 11). The areas of intersection convey a dual identity; they belong partly to both axes, yet are clearly diferentiated through both the overlapping imagery and Baldessari’s painterly intervention. As Marie de Brugerolle has argued, ‘Baldessari …uses color and form to cut into perceived reality and project a new narrative’ (Marie de Brugerolle, ‘Holy Holograms from Hollywood: John Baldessari’s Dialectic Imagery’, John Baldessari, Pure Beauty, exh. cat., Tate Modern, London, 2010, p. 310). As such, it is not only reality and fction, but crucially also painting and photography, that collide and merge in these hybridised spaces of intersection. Defying singular notions of the medium in this way, Intersection Series: Automobile / High Rise Building perhaps above all seems to capture how, as Baldessari put forward in his artist statement, ‘…lastly, such subject matter provides me with a reason to pursue two loves, painting and photography. But really one love – art’ (John Baldessari, quoted in ‘Artist’s Statements’, Patrick Pardo and Robert Dean, eds., John Baldessari. Catalogue Raisonné, Volume Four: 1994-2004, New Haven, 2017, p. 406).
26. Andreas Gursky
Klitschko c-print face-mounted to Plexiglas, in artist’s frame 206.4 x 261.9 cm (81 1/4 x 103 1/8 in.) Executed in 1999, this work is number 4 from an edition of 6. Estimate £500,000-700,000 $617,000-864,000 €558,000-781,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Gallery Hyundai, Seoul Private Collection (acquired from the above in 2005) Christie’s, London, 6 February 2008, lot 11 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner Exhibited New York, Matthew Marks Gallery, Andreas Gursky, 4 December 1999 - 15 January 2000 (another example exhibited) Sydney, Museum of Contemporary Art, 12th Biennale of Sydney, 26 May - 30 July 2000, p. 211 (another example exhibited and illustrated, p. 55) New York, The Museum of Modern Art; Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia; Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou; Chicago, Museum of Contemporary Art; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Andreas Gursky, 4 March 2001 - 1 June 2003, pl. 46, p. 185 (another example exhibited and illustrated, pp. 152-153) Kunstmuseen Krefeld, Haus Lange und Haus Esters; Stockholm, Moderna Museet; Vancouver Art Gallery, Andreas Gursky Werke 80-08, 12 October 2008 20 September 2009, p. 253 (another variant exhibited and illustrated, p. 170) Literature Andreas Gursky, exh. cat., Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 2002, pp. 33-34 (another example illustrated, pp. 42-43) Thomas Weski, Andreas Gursky, Cologne, 2007, p. 84 (illustrated, p. 85) Andreas Gursky Architecture, exh. cat., Institut Mathildenhöhe Darmstadt, Mathildenhöhe, 2008, no. 6, p. 9 (another example illustrated)
‘The camera’s enormous distance from these fgures means they become de-individualized… I am never interested in the individual but in the human species and its environment.’ Andreas Gursky Francis Bacon, Figure in Movement, 1976, oil on canvas, Private Collection. © The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved, DACS/ Artimage 2019. Image: Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd.
Named afer the notorious Ukrainian boxer Wladimir Klitschko, Andreas Gursky’s monumental eponymous work, executed in 1999, captures the moment afer the athlete defeated Axel Schulz in an intense match that earned him the 1999 Heavyweight crown. Taken from Gursky’s characteristically elevated vantage point, the crowded sports arena surrounding Klitschko is transformed into a spectacle of colour and drama. Expansive in both its subject and physical size, the photographic composition registers the euphoria of the victorious afermath whilst retaining a quiet, detached distance from the action. For the artist, the focus of his work ‘is not the decisive moment but the decisive standpoint that is the measure of all artistic things’ (Andreas Gursky, quoted in Andreas Gursky: Architecture, exh. cat., Institut Mathildenhöhe Darmstadt, Mathildenhöhe, 2008, p. 9). Gursky began to explore the possibilities ofered by digital picture processing in 1992 to emphasise the formal elements of his work. In the present work, Gursky has enhanced the venue’s bright spotlights and the endless rows of blue seating to transform the enormous space into a rich, jewel-like vision
in crystalline detail. By manipulating the depth of focus, the ultramarine ring, lighting rigs, scoreboards and speakers oscillate between one another to compete for the viewer’s gaze. In Gursky’s own words, ‘Figuratively speaking, what I create is a world without hierarchy, in which all the pictorial elements are as important as each other. The experience of space dissolves in favour of a dissected plane that is gradually scanned and read in its linear structure’ (Andreas Gursky, quoted in The Creators Project, ‘Andreas Gursky and Richie Hawtin Stage a Photo-Techno Mashup’, Vice, 10 November 2016, online). In this way, Gursky challenges the spectacle associated with the intense drama of boxing and instead uses digital manipulation to explore the relationship between people and the epic spaces of contemporary capitalism. As demonstrated in the present work, in the 1990s Gursky’s photographs ‘became increasingly formal and abstract. A visual structure appears to dominate the real events shown in my pictures. I subjugate the real situation to my artistic concept of the picture’ (Andreas Gursky, quoted in Andreas Gursky: Photographs from 1984 to the Present, exh. cat.,
Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 1998, p. 14). Gursky’s handling of space and spectacle recalls Francis Bacon’s similar investigation into the body, pictorial form and structure. The abstracted central fgure in Bacon’s 1976 Figure in Movement betrays the inspiration he found from 1950s boxing magazines, onto which he would sometimes sketch and paint. Captured in a state of violent yet gracefully choreographed contortion, Bacon’s ‘fgure’ appears as two bodies in a violent brawl on a raised platform. Here, Gursky’s digitally enhanced spotlights take shape in the form of a thin bright white cubic structure enclosing the fgure, which could equally signify a boxing ring containing its athletes. In this context, Gursky’s use of compositional devices such as light, colour, enhancement and structure to depict the abstract formalism of the masses places his work in the liminal space between photography and painting, immediate reality and carefully constructed imaginary. In a self-refexive play typical of Gursky’s photographs, Klitschko questions the role that images play in our media fuelled consumer society, and how they frame our seeing and understanding. Taught under the pioneering tutelage of Bernd and Hilla Becher at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, Gursky
Andreas Gursky, Madonna I, 2001, Diasec-mounted chromogenic print, Centre Pompidou, Paris. © Andreas Gursky / Courtesy Sprüth Magers Berlin London / DACS 2019. Image: © Georges Meguerditchian - Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI /Dist. RMN-GP.
expanded their defnition of documentary photography as an account of the visible; a straight representation of reality. In the present work, Gursky has digitally inserted the imagery reproduced on the fat screens above the ring, highlighting the mechanical reproduction of images and the way in which media flters our perception. Rather than focusing on the intensity of the Heavyweight match in close-up action, Gursky draws attention to the constant mediation we experience in the spaces of global capitalism, and in turns cast doubts on our preconceived ideas about how photographs might represent reality. Gursky’s commitment and innovative approach to digital processing is exemplifed in his work Madonna I, executed two years afer Klitschko. Taken at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on 13 September 2001, the photograph depicts Madonna’s performance which had been initially cancelled due to the 11 September terrorist attacks that shook the United States and world. In one of his most complex compositions, Gursky constructs the photograph with newly developed digital collage techniques, knitting together diferent frames to show the whole concert in a single iconic image. Both images demonstrate that Gursky’s goal is to not overly fctionalise his images but create hyperreal scenes to overcome visual, spatial and technical limitations. Drawing on the sublime quality of the everyday, the present work’s expansive picture plane and ‘all-over’ imagery unifes the mass of people in beautifully saturated colour to impose a sense of order and structure. This efect perfectly echoes Gursky’s resounding statement: ‘When you reach a certain height, you can show the spaciousness of the subject, but at the same time the character of the picture becomes much more technical and loses its poetry. If you fy in too close, then the picture becomes narrative and the generality that I’m seeking loses its clarity and sharpness’ (Andreas Gursky, quoted in Andreas Gursky, exh. cat., Hayward Gallery, London, 2017, p. 118). It is the perfect balancing of the notions of the individual and collective that makes Klitschko particularly compelling. Though the title of the work places its focus on the triumphant boxer, it is the crowd of people surrounding the game that becomes Gursky’s main subject, dissolving the individual into the multitude. Freed from the conventional expectations of photography, Gursky allows his viewers to travel back in time to this historical sporting moment of and immerse themselves in a wholly new experience. Klitschko is a testament to Gursky’s reputation as one of the leading photographers of today. The huge success of his critically acclaimed retrospective at the Hayward Gallery, London, in 2018 attests to his enduring appeal. In a media fuelled society brimming with images, Gursky’s digital mediations on the spectacles of contemporary culture have never been more relevant.
27. Bernd and Hilla Becher
1931-2007 and 1934-2015
Watertowers (i) signed, titled and dated ‘WATERTOWERS 1988 Bernhard Becher Hilla Becher’ and inscribed with a diagram on a label afxed to the reverse of the mount (i-xxi) each consecutively numbered [1-21] on the reverse of the mount black and white photographs, in 21 parts each print 40 x 30 cm (15 3/4 x 11 3/4 in.) each mounted 55 x 45 cm (21 5/8 x 17 3/4 in.) Executed in 1988. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $309,000-432,000 €279,000-390,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Barbara Gladstone Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘We photographed water towers and furnaces because they are honest. They are functional, and they refect what they do - that is what we liked. A person always is what s/he wants to be, never what s/he is.’ Bernd and Hilla Becher
Bernd and Hilla Becher’s Watertowers have become an icon of both 20th century photography and sculpture, challenging viewers through their totemic directness and cool objectivity. Composed of twenty-one sheets presented in a gridded format, the Bechers’ exploration of the medium is expansive in both size and seriality, ofen returning to their architectural subjects over a period of years. In the present work, each image is intriguingly austere in palette and embodies a perfected compositional centrality; the Bechers’ rigorous approach ofers an unbiased and unfettered portrait of the industrial age, presented in the artists’ specifed mode of classifcation. Subsuming us into their indexical practice, our experience is immediately stripped of unnecessary or subjective infuences, profering us a quiet moment of refection. Applying rigid aesthetic parameters to create visual order and simplicity, the Bechers’ black and white photography explores the mechanical, man-made and modern. Organising their images of cooling towers, mine heads, gas tanks and furnaces into typologies, their inquiry into Anonyme Sculpturen, the title of their seminal photobook published in 1970, incorporated the cyclical process of visiting sites over a period of years. The artists would work with personnel to clear the scene and erect rigging or scafolding to achieve an elevated viewpoint. Stripping a human presence from their compositions, the Bechers also sought to remove any superfuous background details, maintaining uniformity in perspective which of would assume either a central or three-quarter view, as evident in the present work. The photographers would also patiently wait for preferential weather conditions, namely cloud cover, to cast an even distribution of sof light and to block the glare of the sun, removing any hierarchical light and shade to arrest the eye. Through the repetitive blueprint of each capture with their large-format camera, the viewer’s eye is drawn initially to the similarities of each image but subsequently the difering bases, the varied truncated forms and smaller details of each carefully engineered structure. As demonstrated in
the expansive twenty-one photographs which comprise Watertowers, the periodic categorisation and classifcation of the artists’ photography is almost acutely scientifc in essence, drawing comparisons to the photography of Albert Renger-Patzsch’s machine studies, August Sander’s portraits of fellow Germans and Karl Blossfeldt’s compelling sculptural images of fora. In the present work’s format, we are aforded a small and intriguing snapshot into the Bechers’ exhaustive documentation of their subject matter, presented with their seminal motif of the water tower, a body of images built over a period of twenty-fve years. The Bechers also found inspiration in the landscape of the United States and unifed their practice by photographing water towers on both sides of the Atlantic. Celebrated by international Minimalist and Conceptual artists for their sequential ordering and presentation of elements within a larger composition, their pioneering body of work was championed by Carl Andre in his November 1972 essay in Artforum, the same year as the couple’s frst exhibition at Sonnabend Gallery in New York. As Andre states, ‘The photographs of the Bechers record the transient existence of purely functional structures and reveal the degree to which form is determined by the invariant requirements of function’ (Carl Andre, ‘A Note on Bernhard and Hilla Becher’, Artforum, November 1972). Travelling throughout Europe and America to photograph specifc sites or buildings, Bernd and Hilla Becher’s photographs create a tense dichotomy, evident in Watertowers. Both specifc and detailed, the use of photography as a medium ascribes each image a distinct place and time, yet the altogether presentation of twenty-one separate experiences creates a more complete and overall view of myriad structures. It is this slippage which makes them particularly unique as stated by Weston J. Naef: ‘There is a timeless quality that can only be realised when the aspect of time is actually foremost in the photographer’s minds. Time is perfectly under control in the Bechers’ art’ (Weston J. Naef, ‘The Art of Bernd and Hilla Becher’, Water Towers, p. 11). Evocative of a previous industrial age, Bernd Becher grew up in the Siegerland,
Carl Andre, Steel Zinc Plain, 1969, steel and zinc, Tate Collection, London © Carl Andre/VAGA at ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019.Image: Tate, London.
Karl Blossfeldt, Study of three species of plant, 1929, photogravure, Private Collection. Image: Prismatic Pictures / Bridgeman Images.
‘The Bechers approached photography the way a botanist might approach the cataloguing of fora and fauna.’ Sean O’Hagan, ‘Lost world: Bernd and Hilla Becher’s legendary industrial photographs’, The Guardian, 3 September 2014, online
the centre of Germany’s former iron industry, and, afer marrying, Bernd and Hilla lived near the Ruhr Valley with its monumental steel plants. Throughout the region of North Rhine-Westphalia many of these former industrial bastions had been built in the 19th century into the 20th, and were already falling into disuse and decay. Visually evidencing the development of industry across Europe and America and the inevitable passing of time, the structures serve as a reminder of human achievement and resourcefulness. Furthermore, the Ruhr Valley architecture would also come to evoke a time prior to war, particularly in the post-Nazi era where progressive artistic and photographic forms were deemed Entartete Kunst, such as the photography of Neue Sachlichkeit and August Sander. Eliminating uncertainty from their compositions, the Bechers hone into their subject in the present work. Exploring the relationship between humans and nature, the artists highlight the resourcefulness of mankind to store a vital life source through a mastery of engineering; the Bechers’ work celebrates aspects of humanity while concurrently highlighting a shif into a new epoch. Exquisitely detailed and sharp in focus, the present work is monumental in size, conveying a subtle nostalgia for human achievement.
28. Thomas Schütte
Maschine 4 wax fgures, wood, fabric, metal armature, electric motor and rubber gasket each fgure 41.3 x 15.2 x 17.8 cm (16 1/4 x 5 7/8 x 7 in.) overall 180.9 x 340.4 x 309.9 cm (71 1/4 x 134 x 122 in.) Executed in 1993. Estimate £1,000,000-1,500,000 $1,240,000-1,850,000 €1,120,000-1,680,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Produzentengalerie, Hamburg Phillips de Pury & Company, New York, 11 May 2006, lot 69 Private Collection, Miami Phillips, New York, 8 November 2015, lot 34 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner Literature Rubell Family Collection: Highlights & Artists’ Writings Volume 1, Miami, 2014, p. 99 (illustrated, p. 98)
‘You can make real cinema by placing things so that people can move through the space properly—so that the exhibition visitors become actors themselves.’ Thomas Schütte
‘With these [sculptures] the approach towards the diversity of fgurative sculpture takes the form of detailed exagerated physiognomies, even the distortion of the caricature. The sculptures go beyond the caricature and the grotesque. We are presented with barely likeable types and characters who, themselves powerful, seem moulded by larger powers.’ Thomas Schütte
Detail of the present work.
A foremost re-inventor of modern sculpture, Thomas Schütte has forged a singular artistic lexicon that shuns institutionalised modes of classifcation. Movable and adjustable, Maschine, 1993, is a particularly resourceful example of the German artist’s cross-genre practice. Coalescing buoyant kinetic energy and astounding sculptural detail, the work oscillates between the majestic and the bizarre, the theatrical and the ominous. Its four outlandish fgures, swathed in multi-coloured robes bound at the waist, seem like they are subjected to their mechanised structure’s authority, in a gravitational pull that is redolent of Alexander Calder’s elegant stabiles. The viewer is forced to reckon with the work’s ambivalent dynamic, opposing the machine and the creatures’ anthropomorphic silhouettes, which are placed at difering levels atop rotating steel armatures. ‘The things you cannot talk about - these are essential’, Schütte has said. ‘I believe that material, form and color have their own language that cannot be translated. Direct experience is much more touching than media, photographs and so on’ (Thomas Schütte, Thomas Schütte, London, 1998, p. 22). Transcending the act of representation, Maschine posits as pure embodiment; it combines a number of the artist’s most daring idiosyncracies in art, which were most recently celebrated at La Monnaie de Paris in 2019.
Studying at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf from 1973 to 1981, Schütte encountered such eminent fgures as Gerhard Richter, Fritz Schwegler, Daniel Buren and Benjamin Buchloh whilst developing his early oeuvre, all of whom bore an important impression on his work. His propensity to push formal and thematic boundaries can certainly be understood as a consequence of his education under the ‘merciless’ tutelage of his teacher, Gerhard Richter. Schütte has refected, ‘[Richter] was defnitely the main infuence on how I work. He had the approach that if you can’t continue in one direction, you can switch to another. If I’m stuck, I don’t spend my weeks in misery, I change direction, switching between problems, media or scale. What I learned from Richter is that even with a limited feld you can create a rich story with one’s work, if you work every day’ (Thomas Schütte, quoted in ‘Judgement days’, Tate Etc., no. 23, 2011). In Maschine, the schematic means deployed to assemble the sculptural construction is at once elementary and refned – a stratifed expression of production that consistently references the audience’s role as both viewer and participant, able to endow the work with meaning. With Maschine, Schütte embarked on his investigation of the anthropomorphic concept which he concurrently developed in his United Enemies series – presenting otherworldly sculptures
Jean Tinguely, Prayer Wheel, 1954, steel wire, wood base & electric motor, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2019. Image: Bridgeman Images.
Honoré Daumier, Hippolyte Abraham-Dubois, 1833, painted terracotta, Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Image: Bridgeman Images.
endowed with siamese bodies and Gargoyle faces – as well as his later Große Geister series, comprising a number of molten, amorphous silhouettes executed between 1996 and 2004. Abstract and erratic, wraithlike and tense, the fgures in the present work are wrinkled, brows furrowed, lips pursed. ‘With these [sculptures] the approach towards the diversity of fgurative sculpture takes the form of detailed exaggerated physiognomies, even the distortion of the caricature’, explained the artist. ‘The sculptures go beyond the caricature and the grotesque. We are presented with barely likeable types and characters who, themselves powerful, seem molded by larger powers’ (Thomas Schütte, Thomas Schütte, London, 1998, p. 63). Evocative of references both old and new, Schütte’s anonymous creatures bear striking similarities of expression with Honoré Daumier’s sculptural caricatures, whilst simultaneously calling to mind the bizarre countenance of Georg Baselitz’s upside down portraits and 17th century monastic attire.
Concurrently, the structure of the present work is reminiscent of those innovations put forth by artists who similarly experimented with kinetics and movement in their sculpture. Though on this front, Alexander Calder is Schütte’s most evident forebear, it is Jean Tinguely's illustrious infuence that comes most prominantly to mind with Maschine. With his complex structures activated through the use of sly motors, Tinguely democratised systemic machinery within the realm of high art, laying grounds for contemporary sculptors – including Schütte – on which to experiment. With its intriguing appearance and highly poetic sensibility, Maschine is a result of diferent histories of innovation combined. Together, the phenomenological efect of kinetics, the cerebral stimulation of conceptualism, and the formal appearance of sculpted fgures coalesce to form a new, ambivalent entity, deeply seductive in its surreal form.
29. Gerhard Richter
Abstraktes Bild signed, numbered and dated ‘820-1 Richter 1994’ on the reverse oil on canvas 72 x 102 cm (28 3/8 x 40 1/8 in.) Painted in 1994. Estimate £700,000-1,000,000 $863,000-1,230,000 €783,000-1,120,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Wako Works of Art, Tokyo Private Collection, Hiroshima Galerie Löhrl, Mönchengladbach Galleria Arnés y Röpke, Madrid Private Collection, New York Galerie Springer & Winckler, Berlin Vanmoerkerke Collection, Belgium Private Collection, Europe Marian Boesky Gallery, New York Blain|Southern, London Acquired from the above by the present owner in July 2016
‘I always need to paint abstracts again. I need that pleasure.’ Gerhard Richter
Exhibited Tokyo, Wako Works of Art, Gerhard Richter Part I: New Painting, 6 April - 4 May 1996, n.p. (illustrated) Madrid, Galeria Arnés & Röpke, Gerhard Richter: Abstract Paintings, 17 September - 21 November 2009 Munich, Galerie Terminus, frst choice / masterpieces, 4 July - 15 September 2012 Augsburg, Galerie Noah, Gerhard Richter. With Paintings, Enamels, Photo Paintings, Prints and Editions from six decades, 29 July - 6 November 2016 Weilburg, Rosenhang Museum, Encounter in Weilburg: Figure and Abstraction in Dialogue. Stephan Balkenhol and Gerhard Richter, 3 June - 31 August 2017 Literature Gerhard Richter 1998, exh. cat., Anthony d’Ofay Gallery, London, 1998, no. 820-1, p. 105 (illustrated, p. 90) Gerhard Richter, exh. cat., K20 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 2005, no. 820-1, p. 310 (illustrated, p. 272)
Pulsating with solar energy, Abstraktes Bild, 1994, is a stunning example of Gerhard Richter’s Abstract Painting series, which the artist commenced in 1977 and continued working on vigorously throughout his career. Dominated by a near-fuorescent expanse of yellow that lets discrete stabs of colour appear throughout, the present work demonstrates Richter’s unwavering interest in the intersection of colour and structure as a realm of extended possibilities. The horizontal swathes of paint, varying in density and opacity, conjure the vision of an illuminated and highly saturated landscape. Executed with Richter’s trademark tool - the squeegee - these luminous tides are serendipitously distributed throughout the surface, allowing for passages of translucence to emerge. Beginning to use the squeegee in the mid-1980s, Richter declared that he had been ‘unable to do anything in [his] painting but scrape of, pile on and then remove again’ since, signifying the importance of the new-found technique within his practice and oeuvre (Gerhard Richter, quoted in The Daily
‘[My abstracts are] something musical. There’s a lot in the construction, in the structure, that reminds me of music. It seems to self-evident to me, but I couldn’t possibly explain it.’ Gerhard Richter
Practice of Painting: Writings 1962-1993, Cambridge, 1995, p. 242). A stunning and lavishly chromatic example from the artist’s Abstract Paintings, the present composition is exemplary of Richter’s unparalleled skill as a colourist. Chance within Richter’s Abstract Paintings takes on paramount importance, guiding the artist’s decisions throughout the works’ incremental process of creation. ‘When I paint an abstract picture, I neither know in advance what it is meant to look like nor, during the painting process, what I am aiming at and what to do about getting there’, he wrote. ‘Painting is consequently an almost blind, desperate efort, like that of a person abandoned, helpless, in totally incomprehensible surroundings – like that of a person who possesses a given set of tools, materials and abilities and has the urgent desire to build something useful which is not allowed to be a house or a chair or anything else that has a name; who therefore hacks away in the vague hope that by working in a proper, professional way he will ultimately turn out something proper and meaningful’ (Gerhard Richter, quoted in ‘Notes’, 1985, Gerhard Richter: Text. Writings, Interviews and Letters, 1961-2007, London, 2009, p. 142). Encapsulating Richter’s animated process defned by trust, repetition, and persistence, Abstraktes Bild displays the progressive meanderings that the artist has gone through whilst working on the canvas, ultimately amounting to an irrepressibly dynamic result, redolent of the energy deployed in Abstract Expressionist canvases. With its vigorous yellow hue and its elements of striation, Abstraktes Bild recalls Clyford Still’s PH-1074 from 1956-59, which today resides in the artist’s museum in Colorado. Moving past the paintings’ eponymously established abstract nature, Richter has elucidated that his Abstract Paintings were, in his eyes, evocative of reality to the point of phenomenological sentience. ‘Almost all the abstract paintings show scenarios, surroundings and landscapes that don’t exist, but they create the impression that they could exist’, he exclaimed. ‘As though they were photographs of scenarios and regions that had never yet been seen’ (Gerhard Richter, quoted in ‘I Have Nothing to Say and I’m Saying It: Conversations between Gerhard Richter and Nicholas Serota’, Gerhard Richter Panorama, London, 2011, p. 19). With the present work, Richter brings to mind a number of objects endowed with the composition’s constitutive hue, most convincingly the sun that shines on the earth and all its perceptive beings.
Clyford Still, PH-1074, 1956, oil on canvas, Clyford Still Museum, Colorado. © City & County of Denver, Courtesy Clyford Still Museum / DACS 2019.
Gerhard Richter in his studio. Artwork: © Gerhard Richter 2019 (12092019) Image: Benjamin Katz © DACS 2019.
Property of an Important Belgian Collector
30. Robert Mangold
A Curved Line and a Diagonal within a Distorted Rectangle (Yellow) signed, titled and dated ‘R. Mangold 1978 A Curved and a Diagonal line within a Distorted Rectangle’ on the reverse acrylic and pencil on canvas 200.5 x 136 cm (78 7/8 x 53 1/2 in.) Executed in 1978. Estimate £300,000-400,000 $370,000-494,000 €335,000-447,000 plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Annemarie Verna Gallery, Zurich Philippe Andre Rihoux, Brussels Maruani & Noirhomme Gallery, Brussels Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Schafhausen, Hallen für neue Kunst; Paris, RENN Espace d’Art Contemporain; Münster, Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte; Lisbon, Culturgest C.G.D., Robert Mangold: Painting as Wall, Werke von 1964 - 1993, 2 May 1993 - 22 October 1995, p. 130 (illustrated, p. 131) Literature Richard Shif, Robert Storr, Arthur C. Danto and Nancy Princenthal, Robert Mangold, London, 2000, p. 214 (illustrated, p. 215)
Confronting the viewer with a bold and exuberant swathe of unmodulated colour, A Curved Line and a Diagonal within a Distorted Rectangle (Yellow), 1978, follows Robert Mangold’s extensive, career-long fascination with monochromatic surfaces and precision of line. One of a select few to manage the efortless translation of mathematical principles, rooted in Renaissance explorations of Classical geometry into a visual grammar evidently designed for aesthetic consumption and critique, Mangold has here made an understated but crucial intervention, creating a distortion to the canvas's traditional rectangular form, as expressed in A Curved Line’s full title. The subtlety of the mutually-bisecting pencil lines that divide the support is inversely proportional to their role as a signifer within Mangold’s oeuvre. The cross-shape reaches energetically into all four corners of the painting, anticipating Mangold’s celebrated X-shaped canvases as well as his exploration of geometrical canvases more broadly. Having studied and experienced Renaissance investigations into structural compositions during his travels to Italy in the mid-1970s, Mangold has fed his work with the seminal principles proposed by Euclid and Vitruvius, and efectively moved beyond these timeless instructions by situating them within a distinctly contemporary sensibility. The present work’s dimensions, in its human scale, subtly
anthropomorphises the lines into a Modernist distillation of Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man. As noted by art historian Robert Storr, ‘The Vitruvian man...his arms and legs designate a circle nested within a square, anthropomorphizing those basic shapes and making him one with Platonic order. Where you see a graphite X or O or 8 in Mangold’s work, or a rectangle or triangle, you see a measure of a man. These devices are never simply abstract; they are always latently fgurative’ (Robert Storr, quoted in Richard Shif, ed., Robert Mangold, London, 2000, p. 91). The exacting proportions and near-sculptural presence of A Curved Line invoke an architect’s attention to draughtsmanship and detail, which along with its reduction of form and densely theoretical genealogy of infuences, aligns Mangold with the work of Minimalist and Conceptualist peers such as Robert Ryman and Sol LeWitt, whom he met while they all worked as guards at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. The artist’s pieces ofen appear as objects rather than straightforward images; challenging the typical concept of a painting as a window, A Curved Line resolutely severs the viewer’s suspension of disbelief at the point of entry. Mangold reveals, ‘I realized what painting’s unique reality was: neither object nor window. It existed in the space between’ (Robert Mangold, quoted in Robert Mangold: Paintings, 1990-2002, exh. cat., Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, 2003, p. 21).
Frank Stella, Island, No. 10, 1961, alkyd on canvas, The Archive of Frank Stella. © Frank Stella. ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: Photo Art Resource/ Scala, Florence.
Robert Mangold, 1968. © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: John A. Ferrari, photographer. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Alongside that of his Minimalist peers, Mangold’s work interrogates the privileging of the gestural stroke and unmitigated romantic painterly outpourings which dominated the art world during the reign of the Abstract Expressionists, and instead replaces it with a beautifully controlled tranquillity, all the while avoiding the appearance of the mechanical. The taxonomical approach to titling his works, coupled with their simplicity of form is a Mangold trademark. As the artist himself states, ‘A work’s self-referential qualities...[are why] I title works the way I do. In fact I don’t title them, I describe them as simply as I can’ (Robert Mangold, quoted in Richard Shif, ed., Robert Mangold, London, 2000, p. 8). A Curved Line’s formal unity and restraint belies the abundant cultural heritage which underpins it, spanning references from
Classical Antiquity to the Zips of Barnett Newman, and standing in as a Platonic Form of the canon. Through this display of a quiet mastery of the two-dimensional, Mangold can unequivocally be singled out as one of the pre-eminent artists of his generation. Mangold’s works have been given due credit across an international spectrum of institutions, including monographic shows at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Kunsthalle Basel and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. His work has been included in both the landmark Documenta survey in Kassel and the Whitney Biennial three times. His institutional pedigree would not be complete without a feature at the Venice Biennale, where his works were also shown in 1993.
Property of an Important Belgian Collector
31. Günther Förg
Untitled signed and dated ‘Förg 90 Förg 90’ on the reverse acrylic on lead on wood 239.2 x 160.5 cm (94 1/8 x 63 1/4 in.) Painted in 1990, this work is recorded in the archive of Günther Förg as No. WVF.90.B.0902. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $308,000-431,000 €280,000-392,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Galerie Max Hetzler, Berlin Patrick De Brock, Knokke-Heist Acquired from the above by the present owner We thank Mr. Michael Nef from the Estate of Günther Förg for the information he has kindly provided on this work.
An arrestingly elegant example of Günther Förg’s multifaceted oeuvre, Untitled, 1990, belongs to the artist’s iconic and exhaustive series of Lead Paintings, developed from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. In these works, Förg juxtaposes acrylic and lead to reveal unique tonal and textural variations deriving from the metallic material’s progressive oxidisation. Celebrating the charismatic presence of its two sobre and understated hues, the present painting collides a natural, silvery pigment with a deep, rich purple in a clear geometric structure. The two rectangular blocks’ neat separation summons the rigour and formality of minimalist works, namely calling to mind Barnett Newman’s infamous Zips paintings, which similarly employed verticality – embodied by one or more stripes – to break up the picture plane. Yet it is the materiality of the present work that most potently distinguishes it from other two-dimensional abstractions. ‘I like very much the qualities of lead – the surface, the heaviness’, claimed the artist. ‘Some of the paintings were completely painted, and you only experience the lead at the edges; this gives the painting a very heavy feeling - it gives the colour a diferent density and weight. In other works the materials would be explicitly visible as grounds. I like to react on things, with the normal canvas you ofen have to kill the ground, give it something to react against. With the metals you already have something - its scratches, scrapes’ (Günther Förg, quoted in David Ryan, Talking Painting, Karlsruhe, 1997, online).
Barnett Newman, Concord, 1949, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. © The Barnett Newman Foundation, New York / DACS, London 2019. Image: Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence.
Property of a Distinguished Collector
32. Raoul de Keyser
Kabinet signed and dated ‘Raoul de Keyser (1989) -1990’ on the reverse oil on canvas 158 x 140 cm (62 1/4 x 55 1/8 in.) Painted in 1989-90. Estimate £100,000-150,000 $123,000-185,000 €112,000-168,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Zeno X Gallery, Antwerp Acquired from the above by the present owner in June 1990 Exhibited Breda, Museum De Beyerd, Beeldenstorm 1990, 25 March - 6 May 1990, pl. 1, n.p. (illustrated) Kunsthalle Bern; Portikus Frankfurt am Main, Raoul de Keyser, 8 May - 29 September 1991, no. 587, p. 47 (illustrated) Ghent, Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Luc Tuymans and Raoul De Keyser, 3 February - 25 March 2001 Literature Steven Jacobs, ed., Raoul De Keyser: Paintings 1980-1999, Ghent, 2000, no. 587, p. 149 (illustrated)
Theo van Doesburg, Counter-Composition XIII, 1925-26, oil on canvas, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice. Image: DeAgostini Picture Library/Scala, Florence.
Spanning post-painterly Abstraction, Hard-Edge, Minimal Art and Pop art, Raoul de Keyser’s creations are inscribed within multiples histories of Modern Art, echoing a number of seminal academic and painterly manifestations that artists and theorists developed to anchor their respective movements within a clear artistic vision. Building on Theo van Doesburg’s neo-plasticist principles outlined in his 1925 manifesto, de Keyser’s Kabinet, 1989-90, refects the Dutch artist’s insistent claim that the external world is revealed through ‘colours, forms, lines and planes’ as opposed to ‘arms, legs, trees and landscapes’ (Theo van Doesburg, ‘Principles of Neo-Plastic Art’, Bauhausbuch, vol. 6, Munich, 1925). The painting, juxtaposing varyingly-sized blocks of grey, red, ochre and black, serves as a radical study in space that prodigiously attends to the formal codes deployed by de Keyser’s eminent predecessor. Yet while Kabinet’s composition is frmly – almost assertively – non-representational, its title suggests an allusion to the fgurative and real. Known to borrow freely from his everyday life to subsequently venture into the realm of abstraction, de Keyser here endows Kabinet with layered slabs of colour that, in conjunction with the title, become evocative of the titular furniture’s multiple drawers. The blocks’ disjointed arrangement – all placed at diferent levels of the picture plane – further emphasises the work’s exportation to the phenomenological, signifying movement and a departure from the strictness of the two-dimensional plane.
33. Mary Corse
Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge) signed and dated ‘Mary Corse 2008’ on the reverse glass microspheres in acrylic on canvas 243.8 x 243.8 cm (95 7/8 x 95 7/8 in.) Executed in 2008. Estimate £150,000-250,000 $185,000-309,000 €168,000-279,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Ace Gallery, Los Angeles Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘I was able to put light in a painting, not just make a picture of light.’ Mary Corse
Copyright: Courtesy of ACE Gallery.
Dan Flavin, “monument” 1 for V. Tatlin, 1964, fuorescent light and metal fxtures, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Hans Hofmann and Josef Albers. In 1964, the year she became a student at the Chouinard Art Institute – today CalArts – her work became increasingly minimal. ‘For example, it would be a red canvas with a blue corner’, she recalls. ‘That painting was important because I started to see light fashing where the red and blue passages met. So I got interested in that light, and I started my frst white painting’ (Mary Corse, quoted in ‘Mary Corse with Alex Bacon’, The Brooklyn Rail, June 2015, online). First, Corse materialised these in the form of light boxes; subsequently, upon realising she wanted ‘to put the light in painting’, she began employing the glass microspheres used on the white lines of the road, which light up at night when car lights hit them. This shif took place in 1968; Corse continued bridging two-dimensionality and the possibility of sentience ever since. ‘For Corse, the subjectivity of perception – the acknowledgement that everyone experiences visual phenomena diferently – has been a consistent driving force in her practice for more than ffy years’, writes Kim Conaty. ‘It keeps her looking at the sky everyday anew’ (Kim Conaty, ‘Light + Space + Time’, Mary Corse: A Survey in Light, exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2018, p. 13).
© Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
Occupying a unique space that exists at the intersection between Minimalist painting, Abstract Expressionism and scientifc experimentation, Mary Corse’s Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge), 2008, belongs to a sublime body of work that explores the conjoint possibilities of fatness and light in painting. Building from previous artistic iterations that comprised a series of monumental works encasing fuorescent bulbs in Plexiglas boxes – works that Corse idiosyncratically named ‘light paintings’ – from the late-1960s onwards, the artist principally focused on the colour white and its compelling associations to space, time, and empirical luminosity. Capturing the crux of this artistic progression, Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge) utilises glass microspheres – also known as retrorefective beads – that endow the surface with an illusory feel of three-dimensionality, as if genuinely about to burst into light. Currently the subject of a major travelling exhibition called A Survey in Light, shown at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, and presently taking place at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Mary Corse has once more come to the forefront of the art world’s consciousness as a key Minimalist fgure whose painterly investigation has transcended restraint and structuralism to reach celestial realms. Having lost interest in fgurative art at a very early age, Corse engaged with abstraction through reading and writing as a teenager, focusing on the work of Willem de Kooning,
Frequently compared to James Turrell, Dan Flavin or Robert Irwin, who similarly envisioned light as a material entity, Corse nonetheless departs from these artists’ approach as she attends to the traditional format of painting as an essential receptacle for light. Turrell, Flavin and Irwin alike, explored light through light fxtures, installations, or electric and neon light; Corse instead remained faithful to the painterly realm, in a way that forces the viewer to ‘activate’ the light as opposed to passively observe or experience it. ‘Your perception, your subjectivity, your position, you are involved’, the artist declared. ‘It brings the viewer into the painting. The art’s not really on the wall, it’s in your perception’ (Mary Corse, quoted in ‘Mary Corse with Alex Bacon’, The Brooklyn Rail, June 2015, online). In many ways, works like Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge) are thus more subtle in invoking light than previous works begun in 1966 and materialised in the form of light boxes. Through its two-dimensional plane, Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge) invites the viewer into an immersive landscape of meandering whites, evocative of all those things the sun shines on with extreme saturation. Fusing charged elements of Modernist painting – the grid and the monochrome – with Corse’s complex, self-taught investigations into quantum physics, Untitled (White Inner Band, Beveled Edge) is an exquisite mature work from the artist’s opus. Coalescing all the conceptual and stylistic idiosyncracies that have celebrated her as an unmissable fgure from 20th century art, the work brings to the fore her unique, multifaceted aesthetic that extended the possibilities of painting and allowed it to reach its most elemental state.
‘As a painter and as an artist, you are trying to make something that’s true. You are trying to have no lies, no ego, no delusion. Trying to get to the essence of our truth.’ Mary Corse
Mary Corse in her home/studio, Los Angeles, 2018. © Mary Corse. Image: Carolyn Drake/Magnum Photos.
34. Sherrie Levine
Caribou Skull cast bronze 137.2 x 80 x 63.5 cm (54 x 31 1/2 x 25 in.) Executed in 2006, this work is number 3 from an edition of 12 plus 3 artist’s proofs. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $309,000-432,000 €279,000-390,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Paula Cooper Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Alcoitão-Cascais, Ellipse Foundation Contemporary Art Collection, Listen Darling... The World is Yours, October 2008 - August 2009 (another example exhibited) London, Whitechapel Gallery, Keeping it Real: An Exhibition in Four Acts from the D. Daskalopoulos Collection (Act 1: The Corporeal), June 2010 - May 2011 (another example exhibited) Literature 2008 Biennial Exhibition, exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2008, p. 169 (another example illustrated) Sherrie Levine: MAYHEM, exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2012, p. 33 (another example mentioned)
Simultaneously delicate and imposing, graceful and arresting, Caribou Skull, 2006, falls under the umbrella of two of Sherrie Levine’s most repeated formal or thematic iterations: the cast bronze, forming part of a wider body of sculptural work, and the practice of appropriation, running through all of her represented subjects. Rising to prominence in the late 1970s alongside Richard Prince and Barbara Kruger as a foremost fgure of the Pictures Generation, Levine’s work probes questions of originality and authorship, employing media such as photography, drawing and sculpture to capture, or indeed reproduce, such seminal icons as Walker Evans’ psychologically charged photographs, Vincent van Gogh’s self-portraits, and Marcel Duchamp’s irreverential urinal. With these works, Levine delivers her own perspective on culturally imposing examples of the art historical canon, deriving from a fascination she has with a singular aspect of these original works – their playfulness, their solemnity, the emotional charge carried by their subject matter. ‘I’m interested in sameness’, she wrote. ‘What it means for two things to be identical, or not. [At the same time] I like to think my work has some sort of aura of originality’ (Sherrie Levine, quoted in ‘The Anxiety of Infuence – Head On’, Bernard Burgi, Sherrie Levine, Zurich, 1991, p. 18).
Forging new meaning and content through deconstructing our assumed notions of perception, Caribou Skull fuses a well-known animalistic symbol – pervasive in popular culture and art history alike – with contemporary notions of fetishised objecthood and commodifcation. One of Sherrie Levine’s most iconic sculptural iterations, the sculpted caribou – with his elongated skull, poised with slim, graceful features – appropriates Georgia O’Keefe’s deer skulls, which were, within her oeuvre, plunged in furries of surrealistic fora and fauna. As such, the gilded cast touches on the realm of nature, looking into O’Keefe’s love for the stark landscape and open skies of New Mexico. Created seven decades prior to the present work, O’Keefe’s paintings of animal skulls were created at a time when artists and writers were attempting to encapsulate the notion of ‘the Great American thing’. Her symbolisation of America was maintained by the backgrounds of her images, allowing peeks into the desert’s mountains, whilst simultaneously being explicited by the iconographic allusions to the Christian image of Jesus Christ on the cross. Whilst invoking these contexts that made the original skull a quintissentially American icon, Caribou Skull additionally draws from Levine’s own experience of the American Southwest
Georgia O’Keefe, Summer Days, 1936, oil on canvas, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. © Georgia O’Keefe Museum / DACS 2019. Image: Scala, Florence.
‘I’m interested in sameness… What it means for two things to be identical, or not. [At the same time] I like to think my work has some sort of aura of originality.’ Sherrie Levine
– a place that she familiarised herself with as she began to divide her time between New York and Santa Fe in 1997. There, Levine was prompted to refect on her worldly surroundings, declaring: ‘I sometimes paraphrase Lawrence Weiner on this; he said that he wanted to make art that throws you back on the physical world, that makes you think about your relationship to the physical world. I think that’s a wonderful way to think about artmaking’ (Sherrie Levine in conversation with Constance Lewallen, ‘Sherrie Levine’, Journal of Contemporary Art, 1993, reproduced online). In 2007, in honour of the temporally dislocated bond that connects O’Keefe and Levine’s work, the latter was bestowed a solo exhibition at the Georgia O’Keefe Museum, Santa Fe, where a number of her skull works were displayed. A captivating example from Levine’s body of animal casts, Caribou Skull carries the lyrical elegance of O’Keefe’s paintings, whilst allowing them a contemporary voice that is distinctly her own. Echoing Roland Barthes’ ‘Death of the Author’, and Sigmund Freud’s belief that ‘the fnding of an object is in fact a refnding of it’, Levine’s Caribou Skull exalts familiarity and magnifcence, prodigiously merging notions of originality and citation (Sigmund Freud, ‘Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality’, 1905). Exporting O’Keefe’s pictorial iterations of weathered cows, deer, antelopes or the like, her caribou becomes the continuation of her predecessor’s narrative, pursuing O’Keefe’s interest in the painterly encapsulation of America whilst adding to it the contemporary notion of craze consumership. In other words, Caribou Skull is tenderness cast with a brazen Midas touch.
35. Jenny Holzer
Red Yellow Looming double-sided electronic signs with red and amber diodes, in 13 parts each 13.3 x 276.9 x 10.2 cm (5 1/4 x 109 x 4 in.) overall approx. 363.2 x 276.9 x 132.1 cm (142 7/8 x 109 x 52 in.) Executed in 2004. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $308,000-431,000 €280,000-392,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Sprüth Magers, Cologne Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Kunsthaus Bregenz, Jenny Holzer: Truth Before Power, 12 June - 9 September 2004, p. 122 (illustrated, pp. 28-31) Madrid, Galería Javier López Fer Francés, Jenny Holzer, 18 January - 1 March 2007 Chicago, Museum of Contemporary Art; New York, Whitney Museum of American Art; Riehen, Fondation Beyeler, Jenny Holzer: PROTECT PROTECT, 25 October 2008 - 24 January 2010, p. 126 (illustrated, pp. 40-41) Gateshead, BALTIC, Jenny Holzer, 5 March - 16 May 2010 New York, The Met Breuer, Everything Is Connected: Art and Conspiracy, 18 September 2018 - 6 January 2019, fg. 84, p. 174 (illustrated, pp. 144 and 164)
Red Yellow Looming, 2004 Text: U.S. government documents. ÂŠ 2004 Jenny Holzer, member Artists Rights Society (ARS), NY. Photo: Photo: Lili Holzer-Glier.
The guiding light of Holzer’s practice is to make ‘the big issues in culture intelligible as public art’ (James Danzinger, ‘American Grafti’, The Sunday Times Magazine, London, 4 December 1988, p. 5). Danzinger’s comment accurately surmises the guiding force of Holzer’s praxis, of which Red Yellow Looming is a paradigmatic example. A focus on the linguistic that is at once astute and incisive has consistently been Holzer’s modum operandi. Beginning as slogans on various ephemera such as posters, the artist’s works have become increasingly durable and monumental as she turned her attention towards mass media; and by freely appropriating texts from mass culture, Holzer examines, and prompts us to examine, the most pressing issues of our time. As Diane Waldman notes, ‘[Holzer’s works] seem permanent and totemic, no matter how swifly her messages fash on and of the boards’ (Diane Waldman, ‘The Language of Signs’, Jenny Holzer, New York, 1989, p. 13). In a reversal of Marshall McLuhan’s famous pronouncement, Holzer transforms the message into medium.
Lawrence Weiner, ROCKS UPON THE BEACH SAND UPON THE ROCKS, 1988, language and the materials referred to, Museum of Modern Art, New York. © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019. Image: DIGITAL IMAGE © 2019, The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.
Red Yellow Looming, 2004, is a potently triumphant realisation of this. The work’s genesis was prompted by the events of 11 September and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Dissatisfed with what she saw as gaps of information provided by press coverage, Holzer decided to address these lacunae herself by utilising declassifed wording in governmental archive that had been released under the Freedom of Information Act and redacted to varying degrees. The 13 LED tickers which comprise Red Yellow Looming bathe the surrounding space with a striking red glow, and signify an unapologetically honest call to think critically about our social and human conscience. Through their internal redacted logic these documents dance between the harrowing and the poetic as they repeat across the screens. Repetition paradoxically blunts and intensifes simultaneously – an enigma which Andy Warhol famously explored with his Disaster silkscreens. Yet Holzer eschews the need for graphic violence, and successfully achieves her aims with text alone.
Andy Warhol, Red Disaster, 1963, silkscreen ink on synthetic polymer paint on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. © 2019 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Licensed by DACS, London. Image: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. All rights reserved/Scala, Florence.
Holzer’s work shares afnities with the conceptual, languagebased art of her predecessors such as Joseph Kosuth and Art & Language. Yet where Kosuth and Art & Language insisted on an output that was insistently cerebral and deliberately impenetrable to anyone outside a small circle of cognoscenti, Holzer capitalises on language as a common denominator in interpersonal communication, acting as the Rosetta Stone to text-based art. The centrality of location to creating the meaning of Holzer’s works means that her work can also claim the seminal work of 1960s Minimalists such as Dan Flavin in her genealogy of infuence. Blurring the boundaries between poetry, installation and advertising, Holzer’s practice occupies a unique place in the world of contemporary art. Holzer’s LED philosophies can be seen on both sides of the Atlantic, historically occupying both the iconic billboard spaces of Times Square in New York City and Piccadilly Circus in London. Her projections have illuminated the façades of the Berlin Reichstag and the Louvre Pyramid in Paris. Outside the public sphere, Holzer has had solo exhibitions at some of the
most prestigious venues within the institutional domain. For her 1989-90 retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, Holzer created a site-specifc LED sign that wound its way around the parapet of the museum’s renowned rotunda. The artist was awarded the Golden Lion at the 1990 Venice Biennale, where she was the frst woman to represent the United States, and featured in the eighth edition of the quinquennial survey documenta. Using the intersection of message, medium and the public arena to identify and comment upon contradictions and extreme situations in society in the most neutral voice and in a laconic but sincere style Holzer attributes to her Midwestern background. ‘Midwesteners are impatient with things that are too elaborate or too silly. They want to get things done so they do it in the most expeditious way – expeditious as in fast and right’ (Bruce Ferguson, ‘Wordsmith: An Interview with Jenny Holzer by Bruce Ferguson’, Jenny Holzer: Signs, exh. cat., Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, 1971, p. 66).
Property of an Important Italian Collector
36. Jannis Kounellis
Untitled coal and lead on iron 201.4 x 181.2 x 14 cm (79 1/4 x 71 3/8 x 5 1/2 in.) Executed in 1989. Estimate £150,000-200,000 $185,000-247,000 €168,000-223,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Donald Young Gallery, Chicago Private Collection, New York Private Collection, Milan Private Collection, London Exhibited Chicago, Donald Young Gallery, New Work. Kounellis, March 1989 Literature Alan G. Artner, ‘Elusive genius’, Chicago Tribune, 16 March 1989. p. 9 (illustrated) Mary Sherman, ‘Greek artist Kounellis crafs baroque set of environments’, Chicago Sun-Times, 24 March 1989, p. 19 (illustrated) Germano Celant, ed., Jannis Kounellis, exh. cat., Fondazione Prada Venezia, Venice, 2019, p. 124
‘Behind every work there stands a particular universe, even behind my coal containers. Iron and coal are the materials that best evoke the world of the Industrial Revolution, the origins of contemporary civilization.’ Jannis Kounellis
One of the foremost innovators of his time, Jannis Kounellis bent the conventions of traditional media through an ingenious use of impoverished, raw materials. Comprising two sheets of iron and three lead protrusions folded inwards, with handfuls of coal placed within them, Untitled, 1989, is archetypal of the artist’s later oeuvre, which built on the body of works he had developed throughout the 1960s and constituted the basis of his radical gesture. Coinciding with his growing critical and institutional acclaim in the 1980s, partly defned by his frst ever retrospective which took place at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, in 1986, Untitled was created the same year as the artist’s inclusion in the 43rd Venice Biennale, – the seventh out of nine contributions throughout his career – and was exhibited at his important solo show at the Donald Young Gallery in Chicago that same year. Currently the subject of a seminal retrospective at the Fondazione Prada, Milan, bringing together more than 60 works executed between 1959 and 2015, Kounellis has once again been placed at the forefront of the art world’s collective consciousness, his visionary approach being celebrated as an inspiration and springboard for a number of contemporaneous artistic and conceptual manifestations. With a practice spanning over sixty years, Kounellis is ofen referred to as one of the forefathers and cornerstone fgures of Arte Povera. The artistic movement, emphasising everyday, ‘poor’ materials, and boasting ‘the sanctity of everyday objects’, counted a number of Italian artists whose practice similarly explored the limits of traditional media, and summoned aesthetics of waste through the use of decaying or time-sensitive materials (Jannis Kounellis, quoted in Andrew Russeth, ‘Jannis Kounellis Dies at 80’, ARTnews, 17 February 2017, online). Layered in textural, compositional and thematic complexity, Arte Povera productions refected not just a radical development from traditional painterly craf, but also the refection of a bruised world whose most essential social parameters transformed following the war.
Installation shot of the present work at Chicago, Donald Young Gallery, New Work. Kounellis, 10 March 1989. © Jannis Kounellis.
Detail of the present lot.
Alberto Burri, Grande Ferro M 4, 1959, sheet metal mounted on wood, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. © Fondazione Palazzo Albizzini Collezione Burri, Città di Castello – DACS 2019. Image: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation/ Art Resource, NY/ Scala, Florence.
War had lef a fundamental, and dual, imprint on Kounellis from a young age as, for the frst twenty years of his life, he grew up in Piraeus, a primal port town near Athens which endured the Second World War only to observe the developments of its own Civil War immediately afer. In 1956, Kounellis lef his homeland to settle in Rome, and would not return to Greece, or indeed speak his mother tongue, for over two decades. On par with other Arte Povera protagonists, he would use raw, industrial, or organic materials to render his cross-genre structures; as a result, the uncannily raw dimensions of his work are reminiscent of those employed by artists such as Alberto Burri or Salvatore Scarpitta, whose perceptions of war also deeply infuenced their practice. Having had his frst solo show in 1960 at Galleria La Tartaruga in Rome, Kounellis’ inventive creations became increasingly radical in 1967, when he began embracing concrete elements such as soil, wool, coal, cotton, and fre, as well as motifs of gravity and equilibrium. It wasn’t until the 1980s and 1990s, however, that he developed a deeper dialogue with architectural and urban spaces, and created wall-based sculptures that comprised his signature combination of industrial materials and specifc measurements. ‘I do use metal sheets but I adapt them to a particular format – 2 x 1,80 meters – which more or less corresponds to the surface area of a double bed’, the artist declared. ‘That is a universal dimension, like the height
of a table, the width of the door […] and the bed, the door, the table are disciplined by human need. I am interested in working with such measurements’ (Jannis Kounellis, quoted in Jannis Kounellis, exh. cat., Fondazione Prada Venezia, Milan, 2019, n.p.). The present work, standing halfway between a painting and a sculpture, aptly exemplifes this approach: with its three iron and charcoal excrescences protruding from a split lead surface, the layered composition becomes enigmatically alluring, projected into a tangible realm that shifs the spectator’s phenomenological perspective. Kounellis’ break with the planearity of the picture plane and engagement with reality did not just happen on a visual level; it furthermore materialised in the artist’s engagement with other senses. The use of charcoal in Untitled, sneaked into the folded iron, underlines Kounellis’ synaesthetic approach. Instead of using a traditional black pigment to intensify the iron’s presence, the artist employs an organic and haptic residue that posits as the darkest of hues, commanding a desire to touch and smell. ‘His paintings ... show several strategies for breaking out a hermetic chamber of pure form and establishing contact with the real world roundabout’, wrote Thomas McEvilley (Thomas McEvilley, ‘Mute Prophecies: The Art of Jannis Kounellis’ in Mary Jane Jacobs, Kounellis, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1987, p. 25). Through eluding traditional tenets of representation, Kounellis upturns the viewer’s classic cognitive instincts, celebrating the materiality of metal and coal.
37. Alighiero Boetti
Ogni lettera un suono signed ‘Alighiero e Boetti’ on the reverse of the frst panel ballpoint pen and acrylic on paper, in 4 parts each part 102 x 71.9 cm (40 1/8 x 28 1/4 in.) overall 102 x 287.6 cm (40 1/8 x 113 1/4 in.) Executed in 1982-3, this work is accompanied by a certifcate of authenticity signed by the artist and issued by the Archivio Alighiero Boetti, Rome, and is registered under no. 2345. Estimate £300,000-400,000 $370,000-493,000 €336,000-448,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Private Collection Christie’s, London, 27 June 2001, lot 16 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner Literature Jean-Christophe Amman, Alighiero Boetti: Catalogo generale, Tomo terzo / 1, Milan, 2015, no. 1385, p. 144 (illustrated)
‘…It’s a fact that a word is transformed into a sign–this group of commas signify something’. Alighiero Boetti
Detail of the present lot.
Playfully spelled out across a vast expanse of deep, meandering blues, the titular sentence ‘Ogni lettera un suono’, or ‘Each letter a sound’, traverses the entirety of the three-metre horizontal surface, following Alighiero Boetti’s elaborate internal code. Vertically, an alphabet is laid out on the lef side of the paper in the form of an index; horizontally, white commas are dispersed throughout the composition, as if waltzing from one pictorial area to another. Together, these elements enable the formulaic formation of words – themselves strung into a sentence – in a quintessentially Boetti fashion. Forming part of the artist’s seminal series of lavori biro (ball pen works) commenced in 1972 and continued through the late 1980s, Ogni lettera un suono, 1982-3, is a conceptually poignant and formally delectable example of his pioneering technique. The white commas dotting the oceanic background of the work resemble minuscule crashing waves from afar; it is only on close inspection – and strategic decipherment – that their referential meaning emerges. Deeply original in confection, Boetti’s biro works were traditionally created participatively, as Boetti would invite friends and acquaintances to fll large coloured sections of the multi-part surfaces by ball pen, typically alternating between a man and a woman from one sheet to another.
A peripatetic autodidact, lovingly engaged with alchemy, philosophy, and cultures other than his own, Boetti went to France to study engraving at the age of twenty. Upon returning to his native Turin in the early 1960s, he quickly rose to become one of the most prominent fgures of Arte Povera – an artistic movement which was gaining increased momentum in Italy during that decade. Though his early artistic forays consisted largely of experimenting with industrial materials such as plaster, masonite, Plexiglas and light fxtures alongside other Arte Povera proponents such as Luciano Fabro, Mario Merz, Giulio Paolini, and Michelangelo Pistoletto, Boetti began distinguishing his work through dedicating increased attention to various systems of classifcation – grids and maps – as a repeated theme within his oeuvre. The present work on paper is a result of this shif; its four-part construction exploits the most elementary qualities of the alphabet, singling out each letter to compose a discreet message that eludes immediate comprehension. Continuing to engage with an early preoccupation with – and commitment to – colour, Ogni lettera un suono allures the viewer’s eye with a hue that is both noble and inherently evocative. In keeping with the formal investigations that
Lucio Fontana, Concetto spaziale, Attese, 1968, water paint on canvas, Private Collection. Images: Bridgeman Images.
Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Wave, 1830-1831, colour block print, Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. Image: Bridgeman Images.
‘One day I ordered the letters of my name alphabetically. I realized that, for example, some vital and incredibly vast structures such as companies would collapse if small elements, such as the alphabetical order, were missing. [..] There was a double meaning in my work: reordering things, and after working on them again.’ Alighiero Boetti
remained the focus of some of his Italian peers, namely Lucio Fontana and his groundbreaking cuts and slashes on monochromatic canvases, Boetti here uses the prodigious lapis lazuli colour as the dominant visual element to digest within the composition. As such, it is reminiscent of Fontana’s Concetto spaziale, attese, 1968, of which the deep azure surface similarly serves as both a backdrop and an elevator of the activity taking place within the composition – in this instance, seven brazen cuts, in Ogni lettera un suono, a message awaiting delivery. Additionally, the present work’s constitutive hue recalls Boetti’s major Mappa series, in which the artist would frequently employ a marine pigment to ground the woven lands, in an efort to match the traditional illustration of topographic maps. A penetrating example from Boetti’s witty, poetic, and quasi-algebraic opus, Ogni lettera un suono is a synaesthetic experience only reafrmed by the title’s assertion. For every idiosyncratic symbol, a formula, and for every word, a sound; the kind of linguistic and visual syllogism only Boetti can creatively infer with such potent power.
38. Rosemarie Trockel
Assisted Lines signed ‘R Trockel’ on the reverse yarn on canvas 150.5 x 130.7 cm (59 1/4 x 51 1/2 in.) Executed in 2014. Estimate £200,000-300,000 $247,000-370,000 €223,000-335,000 ‡ ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Sprüth Magers, Los Angeles Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘In the ‘70s there were a lot of questionable women’s exhibitions, mostly on the theme of house and home. I tried to take wool, which was viewed as a woman’s material, out of this context and to rework it in a neutral process of production.’ Rosemarie Trockel
An exquisitely delicate and tactile masterpiece consisting of countless black yarn lines stretched vertically atop an immaculate white canvas, Assisted Lines, 2014, belongs to Rosemarie Trockel’s groundbreaking series of machine-knit wool works, which the artist commenced in the 1980s upon realising that knitting and weaving were still erroneously being dubbed inherently female activities. With her ‘distinctive, superfcially feminine implied procedure’, Trockel took a stance against the male-dominated art scene, namely the contemporaneous Neue Wilde movement fourishing in Germany, and infused such seminal patterns as the Minimalist grid with renewed vigour and feminist conviction (Kasper König, Rosemarie Trockel: Post-Menopause, exh. cat., Museum Ludwig, Cologne, 2006, p. 10). Precisely woven by the threads of a machine, Assisted Lines appears so fne from afar that it resembles a painting or a drawing. It is only on close inspection that the viewer is able to discern the intricately laced lines, and thus grasp the crux of Trockel’s conceptual intent.
Anni Albers, Wall Hanging, mercerised cotton, silk, 1926, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. © The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London 2019. Image: The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence.
Ceaselessly exploring the connections between female identity and crafsmanship, Trockel began stretching her wool compositions on canvas in 1985. Though at frst these embroidered works’ surfaces were patterned with computermade geometrical motifs or famous logos, her more recent compositions combine both horizontal and vertical stripes of colour, resembling the formal compositions of 20th century abstract painting. Trockel’s recent return to the medium, drained of colour or recognisable symbols, ironically perpetuates her decentering and dispersions of meaning, turning her works into mature and fully-abstracted iterations of her initial gesture. As Maria de Corral has remarked, Trockel convincingly aligns her works with ‘a technique, a vocation typically feminine, as if she wanted to keep her art work close to her subjectivity, a subjectivity capable of using all instruments and all possible languages’ (Maria de Corral, Rosemarie Trockel, exh. cat., Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1991, p. 63). Within its subtle design, Trockel’s stark monochromatic lines employ a quasi-mathematical language of added layers that together conjure an eerily delectable image of wef and warp. Born and raised in West Germany, Trockel emerged in the early 1980s as a key fgure of the German art scene, in a generation that followed the hallowed footsteps of Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Georg Baselitz. Her particular approach to art was informed by both her academic background and serendipitous encounters – namely with the artists Jenny Holzer and Cindy Sherman enabled by her frequent travels to America. Having initially studied anthropology, sociology, theology and mathematics to become a professor, it wasn’t until 1974 that Trockel began studying art at the Fachhochschule für Kunst und Design in Cologne. Conceiving art that eluded categorisation whilst existing within the lineage of her German predecessors, she became the frst European woman artist to receive exposure in the United States. By the late 1980s, Trockel’s works were shown at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and in 1999, she became the frst woman to participate in the German pavilion at the Venice Biennale. Refecting this scintillating trajectory, Trockel gravitated towards, and established herself within a unique, crossdisciplinary genre that questioned the assumed hierarchy of materials. She, furthermore, employed contemporary, mechanised tools, distinguishing her practice from traditional craf. To achieve her wool works, she would make blueprints for her designs and subsequently have them produced by a technician using computerised machinery. As a result, Trockel’s work is both prodigiously ambivalent and lyrically chimeric, making one feel one wound up ‘deeper and deeper in a system of allusions and references in which work concepts, processes, formal solutions, and especially
Agnes Martin, White Flower, 1960, oil on canvas, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. © Agnes Martin / DACS 2019.Image: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation/Art Resource, NY/ Scala, Florence.
connections between art and society are turned over and over in critical or ironic manner’ (Uwe M. Schneede, Rosemarie Trockel: Werkgruppen 1986-1998, exh. cat., Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, 1998, n.p.). Resisting easy categorisation, Trockel maintains a sharp distance from the comfortable and familiar, instead bordering on the anarchic. The hard lines of a masculine artistic vanguard are disrupted and worn, and lazy critical stereotypes faced with sidelong obloquy. ‘If there is a secret to her work’s remarkable longevity, and a lesson for artists today, it is this: when all faith in art’s historical mission has been exhausted, the anarchist’s evasions and sideways manoeuvers ofer a rare kind of strength’ (Daniel Marcus, ‘Rosemarie Trockel at the New Museum’, Art in America, 30 January 2013). Trockel’s artistic output, heavily infuenced by her reputation as an enfant terrible, played a decisive role in the rapidly evolving German contemporary art scene. There is a gravitational pull within her work that is informed by the avant-garde that sustained her generation, elegantly encapsulated by the conceptual dynamism of the present work.
Property of an Important Collector
39. Richard Serra
Elevational Weights, Vertical Mass paintstick on handmade paper, in artist's frame sheet 244 x 166 cm (96 1/8 x 65 3/8 in.) overall 253.8 x 174.8 cm (99 7/8 x 68 7/8 in.) Executed in 2010. Estimate £400,000-600,000 $494,000-741,000 €447,000-671,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Gagosian Gallery, London Acquired from the above by the present owner Exhibited Riehen, Fondation Beyeler; Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Constantin Brancusi and Richard Serra, 22 May 2011 - 15 April 2012, p. 242 (illustrated, p. 142)
Ha Chong-Hyun, Conjunction 15-181, 2015, oil on hemp, Private Collection. Image: courtesy Tina Kim Gallery.
A prodigious study in space, light, and matter, Elevational Weights, Vertical Mass belongs to Richard Serra’s eponymous series of paintstick drawings created in 2010. Delving ever-deeper in his investigation of the colour black, Serra here allows the pigment to run across the quasi-totality of the handmade paper, equating the paintstick’s density and thickness to sculptural matter and thus transforming twodimensional space into a haptic arena. ‘In terms of weight’, he declared, ‘black is heavier, creates a larger volume, holds itself in a more compressed feld’ (Richard Serra, quoted in From the Collection: 1960-69, exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2016, n.p.). With the present work, Serra substantiates his claim by endowing the penetrating hue with a true weight; one that he dubs ‘elevational’, perhaps due
to the horizontal section of white paper that haloes the rest of the heavy composition. A testament to the importance of this series within Serra’s wider body of work, three examples from the artist’s collection were shown at Serra’s frst-ever retrospective of drawings, travelling from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art from October 2011 to June 2012. Though he remains principally recognised for his monumental steel and lead sculptures, Serra has conceded that the medium of drawing was always the beating heart of his artistic practice. ‘I’ve been drawing all my life’, Serra once remarked. ‘Drawing is another way of thinking’ (Richard Serra, in interview with Charlie Rose, 21 April 2011, video).
‘I use [black] because it is a color that doesn’t transport elusive emotions.’ Richard Serra
Richard Serra carrying the copper plate for Vesturey I. © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2019 Image: © 1984 Sidney B. Felsen.
With his paintstick drawings, commenced in the mid-1970s, the artist employs the essential tenets of drawing whilst retaining the charisma of sculpture, materialised in the thickness of the applied matter. These works, defned by their irregular surfaces and palpable appeal, are reminiscent of Ha Chong-Hyun’s sensuous paintings; conveying varying impressions of thickness, the Dansaekhwa artist’s idiosyncratic works are made by applying colour on hempwoven canvas from its verso. To achieve his paintstick drawings, Serra employs a comparably physical method: frst, he melts down individual sticks and combines them into large paintstick bricks, then he tackles the medium directly and with both hands. In this way, he not only creates new visual forms and textures but more importantly invents a whole new process, of which the present work is an enthralling example.
Property from a Private European Collection
40. Tracey Emin
Nature 1 signed and dated ‘Nature I Tracey Emin 2001’ on an accompanying sketch appliqué, embroidery and monoprint on calico tablecloth diameter 192 cm (75 5/8 in.) overall 199.2 x 199.2 cm (78 3/8 x 78 3/8 in.) Executed in 2001. Estimate £70,000-100,000 $86,500-124,000 €78,300-112,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Lehmann Maupin, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner
A rare circular iteration of Tracey Emin’s body of appliqué works, Nature 1, 2001, exemplifes the artist’s markedly personal creative lexicon, deployed throughout her career in drawing, painting, sculpture, flm, photography and neon. Initially conceived as a large tablecloth, Nature 1 produces a haptic efect of warmth and intimacy, strengthened by the fabric’s tactile possibilities. Circling around notions of domesticity, the work furthermore employs a linguistic expression that is both brash and erotic, tinged with irrepressible honesty. Reading like the verse of a poem, the words ‘This is nature – to come like Niagara an ever lasting fow – to lay there saturated in my own welth happy’ are redolent of the warm vernacular tendencies deployed in one’s diary, occasionally misspelt as if to emphasise the unfltered nature of one’s expression. Situated at a crossroads between fne art and objecthood, Nature 1 quotes a lineage of feminist artists who approached the medium of embroidery transformatively, as a means to dovetail the reductive, macho associations typically collated to crafwork. Like a number of women before her, Emin here uses a language that is assumed to be hers only by virtue of her gender, and flls it with unapologetic individuality. ‘We have to acknowledge that [Emin’s] sexuality is hers to ofer, not ours to take’, writes Sarah Kent (Sarah Kent, quoted in Jessica Hemmings, ‘Tracey Emin: Stitching Up the Extreme’, Craf Arts International, no. 56, December 2002, online). Challenging the social and historical folds that tie conventional handicraf techniques to sexist thoughts and preconceptions, Emin’s textiles elucidate a new truth – her own – through imperfect surfaces, uncensored colour and rudimentary language.
An alternate installation of the present work. © Tracey Emin. Image courtesy the artist’s studio.
41. Elizabeth Peyton
Evan Recording oil on board 23.4 x 30.9 cm (9 1/4 x 12 1/8 in.) Painted in 1997. Estimate £80,000-120,000 $98,700-148,000 €89,400-134,000 plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Gavin Brown’s enterprise, New York Private Collection, USA (acquired from the above in 1998) Mary Boone Gallery, New York Sotheby’s, London, 15 October 2007, lot 110 Acquired at the above sale by the present owner
American singer and guitarist Evan Dando of The Lemonheads, November 1993. (Photo by Kevin Cummins/Getty Images).
Elizabeth Peyton’s Musical Muses
Elizabeth Peyton, Keith (From Gimme Shelter), oil on board, 2004, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1996.
Elizabeth Peyton, Jarvis Afer Jail, oil on board, 1996, Private Collection. © Elizabeth Peyton.
© Elizabeth Peyton. Image: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation/ Art Resource, NY/ Scala, Florence.
Elizabeth Peyton, John Simon Beverly Ritchie (Sid), 1995, oil on Masonite, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. © Elizabeth Peyton.
Colliding intimacy, sensuality, and rêverie – three synaesthetic themes that underpin Elizabeth Peyton’s oeuvre – Evan Recording, 1997, is a prodigious portrait that the artist painted in the early days of her success. That same year, Peyton had her frst solo exhibition in a major public institution, the St. Louis Art Museum; a year later, she would have thirteen solo exhibitions until the close of the millenium. ‘More than a phenomenon, her work had attained popularity, in the sense that it had penetrated the precincts of the same popular culture that she was using as a primary inspiration for her subject matter’ (Laura Hoptman, ‘Fin de Siècle’, Live Forever: Elizabeth Peyton, exh. cat., New Museum, New York, p. 231). Having enjoyed increased spotlight and attention over the decades, Peyton’s upcoming solo show at the National Portrait Gallery, London, from October 2019 to January 2020, will mark the very frst time that an artist is given the run of the entire museum, with a selection of her portraits dispersed throughout the permanent collection.
proximity to the contemporaneous. Portraying the frontman of the alternative rock band The Lemonheads just a year before the collective broke up for a duration of eight years, the image ripples at a crossroads between idealised glamour and profound humanity. Evan’s penetrating gaze, directed towards the microphone he is presumably about to sing into, supposes unfinching passion; his imperturbable intent, paired with a relaxed posture, allows the viewer to observe his silhouette without apprehending the weight of his awareness. Evan belongs to a long list of musicians and rock stars Peyton illustrated in her career; ‘I’m very inspired by artists and musicians, people who touch me, people who help me feel my feelings’, she remarked (Elizabeth Peyton, quoted in ‘I paint people who help me feel my feelings’, Conceptual Fine Arts, 19 December 2016, online). Caught in a moment of zealous refection, the titular character undertakes the eponymous musical act, horizontalised as if recording music were for him a matter of peaceful rest.
Tinged with bright colours, - crimson reds, intense purples and navy blues - Evan Recording is emblematic of Peyton’s work, which has continuously revolved around the representation of cultural icons and friends, in typically small or intimate scales. Her subjects – who in 1997, included Lady Diana, Prince Harry, Jarvis Cocker, David Hockney and Gavin Brown – are always utterly contemporary, refective of the current landscape of popular culture. They encapsulate a specifc moment in time, which Peyton adroitly seizes and elevates to the realm of the sublime, with an idiosyncratically melancholic – yet luminous – style. Evan Recording is an apt representation of her
Though the title of the painting elucidates Evan’s setting as a music room, the image displays the latter arranged in an untraditional fashion, placing the microphone stand side by side with the singer’s duvet and various bedding items. As a result, Evan is propelled into a part-real, part-imaginary fantasy world, devoid of spatio-temporal anchors. The monochromatic background, seemingly engulfing him in a mass of abstraction, further emphasises the dislocation that is at play, commanding the viewer to move beyond the logical parameters of the depicted scene. The character’s ageless traits further imbues the image with an ambivalent
Elizabeth Peyton, Liam & Noel, Loch Lomond, 1997, oil on canvas, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
Elizabeth Peyton, John Lennon 1965 (Hotel), oil on panel, 1995, New Museum.
Elizabeth Peyton, Princess Kurt, 1995, oil on linen, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis.
© Elizabeth Peyton.
© Elizabeth Peyton. Image: Christie's Images, London/Scala, Florence.
© Elizabeth Peyton.
‘There’s something in music that fascinates me–how it communicates emotion so immediately. That’s something I wanted in my paintings.’ Elizabeth Peyton
- and timeless - quality. Musing on the youthful energy exuded by Peyton’s subjects despite their varying ages, Matthew Higgs once drew a comparison between her portraits and Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray. Peyton’s portrait of Angela Merkel commissioned by Vogue in 2017, for instance, pictures the Chancellor with youthful blue eyes and an incandescent glow. Here, it is almost as though Evan’s beauty transcends mere aesthetics and enters the realm of the ethereal: his resplendent fair skin and his maroon curls endow him with an angelic quality, a sempiternal appearance that moves across time. In art historical terms, the style with which he is rendered is ‘part Abstract-Expressionist, part Renaissance miniature, with a touch of Pre-Raphaelite romanticism thrown in for good measure’, Roberta Smith writes. In other words, it is ‘beautiful in a slightly awkward, self-effacing way’ (Roberta Smith, ‘Blood and Punk Royalty to Grunge Royalty’, The New York Times, 24 March 1995). A gem-like rendering of Evan Dando in his element, Evan Recording exudes the gleeful and poetic delicacy of Peyton’s best work. It is refective of the artist’s desire to capture the emotional crux of an honest instant; ‘there are diferent moments that I’m interested in’, she once remarked. ‘But I think it is such an amazing moment when people realize what they are and what they can be, and they start putting themselves out into the world. I think you can see it in people when it’s happening. They look diferent’ (Elizabeth Peyton in conversation with Jarvis Cocker, Interview Magazine, 26 November 2008, online).
42. Wolfgang Tillmans
Freischwimmer 99 signed ‘Wolfgang Tillmans’ on a gallery label afxed to the reverse c-print, in artist’s frame 181.1 x 238 cm (71 1/4 x 93 3/4 in.) Executed in 2004, this work is number 1 from an edition of 1 plus 1 artist’s proof. Estimate £250,000-350,000 $308,000-431,000 €280,000-392,000 ♠ plus Buyers Premium and VAT, ARR applies*
Provenance Maureen Paley, London Acquired from the above by the present owner
Engulfng the viewer in expanses of emerald, Freischwimmer 99, 2004, marvellously exemplifes Wolfgang Tillmans titular series, which explores the visual qualities and parameters of light as a medium. Though the present image has been produced without a camera, a subject, or a negative, Tillmans asserts that it represents, along with its sister Freischwimmer works, the purest form of photography. To create these prints, the artist exposed photographic paper in a darkroom, digitised the result on a computer, and enlarged the luminographs to monumental proportions, before presenting them as unframed inkjet prints, or large framed mounted prints. Musing on the irreducibly important element of chance in this mechanical technique, Tillmans remarked, ‘what connects all my work is fnding the right balance between intention and chance, doing as much as I can and knowing when to let go’ (Wolfgang Tillmans, in conversation with Dominic Eicher, Frieze, issue 118, October 2008, online). A sublime example from Tillmans’ now iconic series, Freischwimmer 99 was conceived on the heels of his major solo exhibition at Tate Britain, London, in 2003,
and just a few years following his reception of the Turner Prize, in 2000. Borne from the theoretical synthesis of water and light, Freischwimmer owes its name to the swimming certifcate German children are bestowed at a beginner’s level. ‘Literally, Freischwimmer means something like “swimming freely”’, explained the artist. ‘And as the title suggests, and the work intimates, a sense of fuidity is evoked in the mind of the viewer even though these pictures were essentially made “dry” – only with light and my hand’ (Wolfgang Tillmans, quoted in Jan Verwoert, Wolfgang Tillmans, London, 2002, n.p.). Boasting a regal splash of futtering greens, the composition evokes the graceful ripples of pigment distilling in water, a sublime moment of evanescence. As such, it seems only ftting that Freischwimmer 99 would bring to mind Sigmar Polke’s Dispersion pictures, as well as the avant-garde experiments of Man Ray and György Kepes, and the fuid difusions of colour found in Colour Field painting.
43. Cory Arcangel
Photoshop CS: 110 by 72 inches, 300 DPI, RGB, square pixels, default gradient “Spectrum,” mousedown y=31100 x=1500, mouse up y=32850 x=800 Diasec-mounted c-print, in artist’s frame image 278.2 x 181.5 cm (109 1/2 x 71 1/2 in.) overall 286.9 x 190.7 cm (112 7/8 x 75 1/8 in.) Executed in 2008. Estimate £100,000-150,000 $123,000-185,000 €112,000-168,000 ‡ plus Buyers Premium and VAT*
Provenance Team Gallery, New York Acquired from the above by the present owner
‘All of a sudden millions of people were expressing themselves through a computer. I feel it’s the most interesting thing to happen in like 20 years. Although my works can end up on walls, and physical, like sculptures, it often comes from me sitting where I like to be–at my computer.’ Cory Arcangel
In Photoshop CS: 110 by 72 inches, 300 DPI, RGB, square pixels, default gradient “Spectrum,” mousedown y=31100 x=1500, mouse up y=32850 x=800, 2008, Cory Arcangel presents a kaleidoscope of gradients radiating from a single point. Conceived with the mouse of his computer in just one-click, the image was initially materialised using the graphics editing programme Adobe Photoshop, before being transformed into a unique large-scale c-print using the highest quality of print technology, mounting and framing. A quintessential and early work from Arcangel’s young opus, the work forms part of the artist’s widely celebrated Photoshop Gradient Demonstrations commenced in 2007, whereby each composition’s title supplies the exact coordinates of the user’s mouse as it hovers over the xand y- axes of the gridded source. Eight examples from the series were exhibited on the occasion of Arcangel’s breakthrough survey at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York in 2011, an event which epitomised
his growing success, and hailed him the youngest artist since Bruce Nauman to be bestowed a full-foor solo show within the institution. Claiming that his computer is where he ‘feels at home’, Arcangel began delving into his formal investigation of technology when he was a student in classical guitar and music technology at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music in Ohio in the late 1990s. There, he started reworking old computer systems from the 1970s and 1980s, crystalising their contemporary state before reaching potential obsolence. He deepened this thematic exploration when he began using Photoshop and other computer sofwares as creative tools, conjuring familiar yet entirely new aesthetics based on pervasive technological sources. The present work perfectly captures this stylistic shif; it represents a key example of his Photoshop Gradient Demonstrations, where the impetuosity of the creative act meets the fnite nature of the readymade.
Sale Information 20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale
20th Century & Contemporary Art Department
Auction and Viewing Location 30 Berkeley Square, London W1J 6EX
Head of Evening Sale Kate Bryan +44 20 7318 4026 firstname.lastname@example.org
Auction 2 October 2019 at 7pm Viewing 26 September – 3 October Late Viewing 1 October Monday – Saturday 10am – 6pm Sunday 12pm – 6pm Sale Designation When sending in written bids or making enquiries please refer to this sale as UK010619 or 20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale. Absentee and Telephone Bids tel +44 20 7318 4045 fax +44 20 7318 4035 Susanna Brockman +44 20 7318 4041 Rebecca Gathercole +44 20 7901 7927 Anne Flick +44 20 7318 4089 email@example.com
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Auctioneers Henry Highley Catalogues New York +1 212 940 1240 London +44 20 7901 4024 email@example.com £22/€25/$35 at the gallery Client Accounting Richard Addington, Head of Client Accounting +44 20 7901 7914 Jason King, Client Accounting, Director +44 20 7318 4086 Buyer Accounts Heather Welham +44 20 7901 2982 Seller Accounts Surbjit Kaur +44 20 7318 4072 Client Services 30 Berkeley Square, London W1J 6EX +44 20 7318 4010 Shipping Andrew Kitt +44 20 7318 4047 Kyle Buchanan +44 20 7318 4081 Rita Matos +44 20 7901 7906 LucÍa Núñez +44 20 7901 7920 Creative Services Ben Marcus, Creative Services Manager Moira Gil, Senior Graphic Designer Grace Neighbour, Graphic Designer
The 20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening sale would like to thank: London Operations Team, Amanda Ellison-Goldenberg, Orlann Capazorio, Andrea Koronkiewicz, Anthony Brennan, Nathan Bendavid, Maria Vittoria Raiola, Kate Finefrock, Olivia Taylor, Francesca Carnovelli, Rui Cravo, Kathy Lin, Guillaume Gautrand, Brittany Jones, Samara Kaplan, Mathilde Heaton, Caroline Porter, Rebecca Cockell, Rebecca Dabby, Zoe Tolkowsky, Marta Chadzynska, Agata Dusikova, Gabriella McIlgorm and Charles Ndiaye.
Front cover Lot 14, Alex Katz Blue Umbrella I, (detail) © 2019 Alex Katz / Licensed by VAGA at ARS, NY / DACS, London.
Back cover Lot 15, Rudolf Stingel Untitled, (detail) © Rudolf Stingel, 2019.
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O Guaranteed Property Lots designated with the symbol O are the subject of a minimum price guarantee. In such cases Phillips has guaranteed to the seller of the lot that regardless of the outcome of the sale the seller shall receive no less than a minimum sum. This guarantee may be provided solely by Phillips or jointly with a third party. ♦ Third Party Guarantee Where Phillips has agreed to a minimum price guarantee it assumes the financial risk of a lot failing to sell or selling for less than the minimum price guarantee. Because the sums involved can be significant Phillips may choose to share the burden of that financial risk with a third party. The third party shares the risk by committing in advance of the sale, usually by way of a written bid, to buy the lot for an agreed amount whether or not there are competing bidders for the lot. If there are competing bidders third party guarantors may also bid above any written bid. In this way the thirdparty guarantor assumes the risk of the bidding not reaching the amount of the minimum price guarantee. In return for underwriting or sharing this risk Phillips will usually compensate the third party. The compensation may be in the form of a fixed fee or an amount calculated by reference to the hammer price of the lot. If the thirdparty guarantor is the successful bidder Phillips will report the purchase price net of any fees paid to the third-party guarantor. ∆ Property in which Phillips has an Ownership Interest Lots with this symbol indicate that Phillips owns the lot in whole or in part or has an economic interest in the lot equivalent to an ownership interest. No Reserve •Unless indicated by a •, all lots in this catalogue are offered subject to a reserve. A reserve is the confidential value established between Phillips and the seller and below which a lot may not be sold. The reserve for each lot is generally set at a percentage of the low estimate and will not exceed the low pre-sale estimate.
∑ Endangered Species Lots with this symbol have been identified at the time of cataloguing as containing endangered or other protected species of wildlife which may be subject to restrictions regarding export or import and which may require permits for export as well as import. Ж Chinese origin Property
Lots with this symbol indicate that Phillips believes the Property was manufactured or created in mainland China. See paragraph 12 of the Conditions of Sale. Calculating the Total Purchase Price If you are the successful bidder on a Lot, the total purchase price you pay is made up of the following elements:
VAT on Buyer’s Premium and/or Hammer Price (If applicable)
Artist’s Resale Royalty (ARR) (If applicable)
The Hammer Price: This is the final, highest bid which the auctioneer accepts by bringing down the auctioneer’s hammer. Buyer’s Premium: This is the commission Phillips charges the successful highest bidder and buyer of the lot. The Buyer’s premium is calculated on the hammer price of the lot at the following rates on a cumulative basis: • 25% on the portion of the hammer price up to and including £300,000; and • 20% on the portion of the hammer price above £300,000 up to and including £3,000,000 and • 13.5% on the portion of the hammer price above £3,000,000. Where VAT is payable on the Buyer’s premium the VAT inclusive Buyer’s Premium rates are 30%, 24% and 16.2% respectively. VAT Most items we sell are sold under UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme rules. This means that VAT is charged at 20% on the buyer’s premium and will not be shown separately on the invoice. UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme lots have no VAT symbol. Where the lot has a †, ‡ or Ω symbol against it, VAT may be charged on a different basis. For full details, including how to claim VAT refunds, please see the VAT & Tax Guide in this Auction Buyer’s Guide and on our website ♠ Artist’s Resale Royalty (ARR) The laws in certain countries entitle qualifying artists or their estates to a royalty when the artist’s works are resold for a hammer price of EUR 1,000 or more. Lots subject to ARR are marked with the symbol ♠. The ARR is calculated as a percentage of the hammer price on a cumulative basis as follows and is payable as part of the purchase price: Portion of the Hammer Price (in EUROS) From 0 to 50,000 From 50,000.01 to 200,000 From 200,000.01 to 350,000
Royalty Rate 4% 3% 1%
From 350,000.01 to 500,000 Exceeding 500,000
The total charge for ARR on any single lot cannot exceed Euros 12,500. To calculate the ARR, we use the pounds sterling/euro reference exchange rate quoted on the date of the auction by the European Central Bank. Example To illustrate how the purchase price is calculated, please see the below example: UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme lot Hammer Price: £350,000 Buyer’s Premium including VAT @20% £102,000: 25% of first £300,000 of the hammer price = £75,000 + 20% on the balance of £50,000 = £10,000 Total BP = £85,000 VAT @ 20% on the total BP of £85,000 = £17,000
of your conversation. We suggest that you leave a maximum bid, excluding the buyer’s premium and VAT, which we can execute on your behalf in the event we are unable to reach you by telephone. Online Bidding If you cannot attend the auction in person, you may bid online on our online live bidding platform available on our website at https://phillips.com. The digital saleroom is optimized to run on Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera and Internet Explorer browsers. Clients who wish to run the platform on Safari will need to install Adobe FlashPlayer. Follow the links to ‘Auctions’ and ‘Digital Saleroom’ and then pre-register by clicking on ‘Register to Bid Live.’ The first time you register you will be required to create an account; thereafter you will only need to register for each sale. You must pre-register at least 24 hours before the start of the auction in order to be approved by our bid department. Please note that corporate firewalls may cause difficulties for online bidders.
B) At The Auction Bidding Bids may be executed during the auction in person, by paddle or by telephone or prior to the sale in writing by absentee bid. Proof of identity in the form of governmentissued identification will be required, as will an original signature and proof of address. We may also require that you furnish us with a bank reference. For individuals, acceptable forms of government issued photo identification include a passport or photo driving licence. For companies, acceptable forms of government issued identification include a certificate of incorporation or similar as well as proof of owners and directors. Undisclosed agreements between bidders to bid or abstain from bidding on lots are illegal. Please note that Phillips monitors its sales and bidding records to ensure that bidding is transparent and fair and will take appropriate action in the event of any suspected breach of this requirement. In Person To bid in person, you will need to register for and collect a paddle before the auction begins. New clients are encouraged to register at least 48 hours in advance of a sale to allow sufficient time for us to process your information. All lots sold will be invoiced to the name and address to which the paddle has been registered and invoices cannot be transferred to other names and addresses. Please do not misplace your paddle. In the event you lose it, inform a Phillips staff member immediately. At the end of the auction, please return your paddle to the registration desk. By Telephone If you cannot attend the auction, you may bid live on the telephone with one of our multilingual staff members. This service must be arranged at least 24 hours in advance of the sale and is available for lots whose low pre-sale estimate is at least £500. Telephone bids may be recorded. By bidding on the telephone, you consent to the recording
Absentee Bids If you are unable to attend the auction and cannot participate by telephone, Phillips will be happy to execute written bids on your behalf. A bidding form can be found at the back of this catalogue. This service is free and confidential. Bids must be placed in the currency of the sale. Our staff will attempt to execute an absentee bid at the lowest possible price taking into account the reserve and other bidders. Always indicate a maximum bid, excluding the buyer’s premium and VAT. Unlimited bids will not be accepted. Any absentee bid must be received at least 24 hours in advance of the sale. In the event of identical bids, the earliest bid received will take precedence. Bidding Increments Bidding generally opens below the low estimate and advances in increments of up to 10%, subject to the auctioneer’s discretion. Absentee bids that do not conform to the increments set below may be lowered to the next bidding increment. UK£50 to UK£1,000 UK£1,000 to UK£2,000 UK£2,000 to UK£3,000 UK£3,000 to UK£5,000
by UK£50s by UK£100s by UK£200s by UK£200s, 500, 800 (e.g. UK£4,200, 4,500, 4,800) UK£5,000 to UK£10,000 by UK£500s UK£10,000 to UK£20,000 by UK£1,000s UK£20,000 to UK£30,000 by UK£2,000s UK£30,000 to UK£50,000 by UK£2,000s, 5,000, 8,000 UK£50,000 to UK£100,000 by UK£5,000s UK£100,000 to UK£200,000 by UK£10,000s above UK£200,000 at the auctioneer’s discretion The auctioneer may vary the increments during the course of the auction at his or her own discretion. Conditions Of Sale The auction is governed by the Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty which are available on our website. All prospective bidders should read them carefully. They may be amended by saleroom addendum or auctioneer’s announcement.
Interested Parties Announcement In situations where a person allowed to bid on a lot has a direct or indirect interest in such lot, such as the beneficiary or executor of an estate selling the lot, a joint owner of the lot or a party providing or participating in a guarantee on the lot, Phillips will make an announcement in the saleroom that interested parties may bid on the lot. Consecutive And Responsive Bidding; The auctioneer may open the bidding on any lot by placing a bid on behalf of the seller. The auctioneer may further bid on behalf of the seller up to the amount of the reserve by placing consecutive bids or bids in response to other bidders. No Reserve Lots If a lot is offered without reserve, unless there are already competing absentee bids, the auctioneer will generally open the bidding at 50% of the lot’s low pre-sale estimate. In the absence of a bid at that level, the auctioneer will proceed backwards at his or her discretion until a bid is recognized and will then advance the bidding from that amount. Absentee bids on no reserve lots will, in the absence of a higher bid, be executed at approximately 50% of the low pre-sale estimate or at the amount of the bid if it is less than 50% of the low pre-sale estimate. If there is no bid whatsoever on a no reserve lot, the auctioneer may deem such lot unsold. C) After The Auction Payment Payment is due immediately following the auction, unless other arrangements have been agreed with Phillips in writing in advance of the sale. Interest will be charged on late payment at the rate of 12% per annum. Payments must be made by the invoiced party in pounds sterling and may be sent by wire transfer directly to: Bank of Scotland, Gordon Street, Glasgow G1 3RS For the account of Phillips Auctioneers Ltd Account no. 00440780 Sort code: 80-54-01 SWIFT BIC: LOYDGB2LXXX IBAN: GB36BOFS 8054 0100 4407 80 Please reference the relevant invoice number. Alternatively, payment can be made: • For invoices of £30,000 or less by credit card. We accept American Express, Visa, MasterCard and UnionPay (UnionPay for in person transactions only). • It is our corporate policy not to make or accept single or multiple payments in cash in excess of £5,000 for all purchases in any calendar year. Title to each lot will not pass until the buyer has made full payment of the Purchase Price plus any applicable Artist Resale Royalty and all applicable taxes. Collection Once Phillips has received full and cleared payment of the total purchase price for the lot and any other amounts the buyer owes to Phillips, lots will be released for collection. To collect paid for lots buyers (or their authorised representatives) must provide proof of identity. Authorised Representatives should also bring a copy of a
Important Notices letter signed by the buyer authorising them to collect. Smaller items may be collected from our London gallery on the day of the auction. Please check with our staff when making payment. After the auction, lots will be transferred to offsite fine art storage facilities. The buyer information pack you will receive after the auction will confirm details of the storage facility where your lot is held for collection. Please contact us to make arrangements for collection. Storage Charges Lots will be held for collection from our offsite storage facilities for thirty (30) days after the auction free of charge. Storage charges and property release fees will apply after this 30-day period for any lots which have not been collected. Details of the applicable storage charges will be confirmed to you in the buyer information pack you will receive after the auction. Loss or Damage Buyers are reminded that Phillips accepts liability for loss or damage to lots for a maximum of seven (7) days following the auction. Transport and Shipping We will coordinate with shipping agents instructed by you in order to facilitate the packing, handling and shipping of property purchased at Phillips. Please refer to Paragraph 7 of the Conditions of Sale for more information. As a free service for buyers, Phillips will wrap purchased lots which are for hand carry only. We do not provide packing, handling or shipping services directly. Export and Import Licenses Before bidding for any property, prospective bidders are advised to make independent enquiries as to whether a licence is required to export the property from the United Kingdom or to import it into another country. It is the buyer’s sole responsibility to comply with all import and export laws and to obtain any necessary licences or permits. The denial of any required licence or permit or any delay in obtaining such documentation will not justify the cancellation of the sale or any delay in making full payment for the lot. Endangered Species Items made of or incorporating plant or animal material, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, Brazilian rosewood, rhinoceros horn or tortoiseshell, irrespective of age, percentage or value, may require a licence or certificate prior to exportation and additional licences or certificates upon importation to the US or to any country within or outside the European Union (EU). Please note that the ability to obtain an export licence or certificate does not ensure the ability to obtain an import licence or certificate in another country, and vice versa. We suggest that prospective bidders check with their own government regarding wildlife import requirements prior to placing a bid. It is the buyer’s sole responsibility to obtain any necessary export or import licences or certificates as well as any other required documentation. Please note that the US prohibits the importation of any item containing African elephant ivory. Asian elephant ivory may be imported in to the US only if accompanied by independent
Identification of Business or Trade Buyers As of January 2010, Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs (“HMRC”) has made it an official requirement for auction houses to hold evidence of a buyer’s business status, due to the revised VAT rules regarding buyer’s premium for lots with symbols for businesses outside the UK. • Where the buyer is a non-EU business, Phillips requires evidence of the business status by means of the company identification, Certificate of Incorporation, Articles of Association or government-issued documents showing that the company exists. • Where the buyer is an EU VAT registered business, Phillips requires the business’s VAT registration number. These details can be scanned and emailed to us, or alternatively they can be faxed or mailed. If these requirements are not met, we will be unable to cancel/ refund any applicable VAT. Electrical and Mechanical Lots All lots with electrical and/or mechanical features are sold on the basis of their decorative value only and should not be assumed to be operative. It is essential that, prior to any intended use, the electrical system is verified and approved by a qualified electrician.
VAT & Tax Guide VAT Depending on the status of the lot, and your status as a buyer, VAT may be charged on the hammer price, the buyer’s premium or both. UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme Most items we sell are second-hand goods, so we sell them under UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme rules. Lots falling into this category have no VAT symbol and are treated as follows: No symbol
UK Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme sale
20% VAT charged on the buyer’s premium. (The invoiced buyer’s premium will include the VAT).
Special VAT Treatment If the Lot has one of the below symbols, the VAT treatment will be as follows: VAT Symbol
Standard UK VAT rules
20% VAT charged on both the hammer price and buyer’s premium
Imported lot under Temporary Admission (Low rate)
5% import VAT on the hammer price and 20% VAT on the buyer’s premium
Imported lot under Temporary Admission (High rate)
20% import VAT on the hammer price and 20% VAT on the buyer’s premium
Lots sold outside the Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme If the buyer is a relevant business person in the EU (nonUK) or is a relevant business person in a non-EU country then no VAT will be charged on the buyer’s premium. This is subject to Phillips receiving evidence of the buyer’s VAT registration number in the relevant Member State (non-UK) or the buyer’s business status in a non-EU country such as the buyer’s Tax Registration Certificate. Should this evidence not be provided VAT will be charged on the buyer’s premium. Exports from the European Union The following types of VAT may be cancelled or refunded by Phillips on exports made within three months of the sale date if strict conditions are met: • The amount in lieu of VAT charged on the buyer’s premium for property sold under the Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme (i.e., without a VAT symbol). • The VAT on the hammer price for property sold under normal VAT rules (i.e., with a † symbol). The following type of VAT may be cancelled or refunded by Phillips on exports made within 30 days of the payment date if strict conditions are met: • The import VAT charged on the hammer price and an amount in lieu of VAT on the buyer’s premium for property sold under temporary admission (i.e., with a ‡ or a Ω symbol) under the Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme. In each of the above examples, where the appropriate conditions are satisfied, no VAT will be charged if, at or
before the time of invoicing, the buyer instructs Phillips to export the property from the EU. This will require acceptance of an export quotation provided by Phillips. If such instruction is received after payment, a refund of the VAT amount will be made. Where the buyer carries purchases from the EU personally or uses the services of a third party, Phillips will charge the VAT amount due as a deposit and refund it if the lot has been exported within the timelines specified below and either of the following conditions are met: • For lots sold under the Auctioneer’s Margin Scheme or the normal VAT rules, Phillips is provided with appropriate original documentary proof of export from the EU within three months of the date of sale. Buyers carrying their own property must obtain hand-carry papers from the Shipping Department to facilitate this process. • For lots sold under temporary admission, Phillips is provided with the original correct paperwork duly completed and stamped by HMRC which shows the property has been exported from the EU via the UK within 30 days of the payment date. It is essential for shippers acting on behalf of buyers to collect copies of original import papers from our Shipping Department. HMRC insist that the correct customs procedures are followed and Phillips will not be able to issue any refunds where the export documents do not exactly comply with governmental regulations. Property subject to temporary admission must be transferred to another customs procedure immediately if any restoration or repair work is to be carried out. Buyers carrying their own property must obtain hand-carry papers from the Shipping Department, for which a charge of £20 (plus any applicable VAT) will be made. The VAT refund will be processed once the appropriate paperwork has been returned to Phillips. Phillips is not able to cancel or refund any VAT charged on sales made to UK or EU private residents unless the lot is subject to temporary admission and the property is exported from the EU within 30 days of the payment date. We can only process VAT refunds where the VAT to be refunded is £50 or more per shipment. There will be a processing fee of £20 (plus any applicable VAT). Buyers intending to export, repair, restore or alter lots under temporary admission should notify the Shipping Department before collection. Failure to do so may result in the import VAT becoming payable immediately and Phillips being unable to refund the VAT charged on deposit. VAT Refunds from HM Revenue & Customs Where VAT charged cannot be cancelled or refunded by Phillips, it may be possible to seek repayment from HMRC . Repayments in this manner are limited to businesses located outside the UK and may be considered for example for Import VAT charged on the hammer price for lots sold under temporary admission. If you are located in an EU member state other than the UK you will need to apply for a refund of UK VAT directly to your local tax authority. This is done via submission of an electronically based claim form which should be accessed through the website of your local tax authority. As a result,
your form may include VAT incurred in a number of member states. Time limits for claiming VAT refunds • If you are located in an EU member state other than the UK: Any claim must be made on a calendar year basis and submitted no later than 30 September in the following calendar year (e.g., for VAT incurred in the year 1 January to 31 December 2019 you should make a claim to your local tax authority no later than 30 September 2020). Once you have submitted the electronic form to your local tax authority it is their responsibility to ensure that payment is obtained from the relevant member states. This should be completed within four months. If this time limit is not adhered to you may receive interest on the unpaid amounts. • If you are located outside the EU you should apply for a refund of UK VAT directly to HMRC. Claim forms are available from the HMRC website. https://www.gov.uk. You should submit claims for VAT to HMRC no later than six months from the end of the 12-month period ending 30 June (e.g., claims for the period 1 July 2019 to 30 June 2020 should be made no later than 31 December 2020). Please note that refunds of VAT will only be made where VAT has been incurred for a business purpose. Any VAT incurred on articles bought for personal use will not be refunded. Sales and Use Taxes Buyers from outside the UK should note that local sales taxes or use taxes may become payable upon import of lots following purchase. Buyers should consult their own tax advisors.
Conditions of Sale The Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty set out below govern the relationship between bidders and buyers, on the one hand, and Phillips and sellers, on the other hand. All prospective buyers should read these Conditions of Sale, the UK Auction Buyer’s Guide, the Important Notices, VAT & Tax Guide and the Authorship Warranty carefully before bidding. 1 Introduction Each lot in this catalogue is offered for sale and sold subject to: (a) the Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty; (b) additional notices and terms printed in other places in this catalogue, including the Guide for Prospective Buyers and (c) supplements to this catalogue or other written material posted by Phillips in the saleroom, in each case as amended by any addendum or announcement by the auctioneer prior to the auction. By bidding at the auction, whether in person, through an agent, by written bid, by telephone bid or other means, bidders and buyers agree to be bound by these Conditions of Sale, as so changed or supplemented, and Authorship Warranty. These Conditions of Sale, as so changed or supplemented, and Authorship Warranty contain all the terms on which Phillips and the seller contract with the buyer. 2 Phillips as Agent Phillips acts as an agent for the seller, unless otherwise indicated in this catalogue or at the time of auction. On occasion, Phillips may own a lot directly, in which case we will act in a principal capacity as a consignor, or a company affiliated with Phillips may own a lot, in which case we will act as agent for that company, or Phillips or an affiliated company may have a legal, beneficial or financial interest in a lot as a secured creditor or otherwise. 3 Catalogue Descriptions and Condition of Property Lots are sold subject to the Authorship Warranty, as described in the catalogue (unless such description is changed or supplemented, as provided in Paragraph 1 above) and in the condition that they are in at the time of the sale on the following basis. (a) The knowledge of Phillips in relation to each lot is partially dependent on information provided to us by the seller and Phillips is not able to and does not carry out exhaustive due diligence on each lot. Prospective buyers acknowledge this fact and accept responsibility for carrying out inspections and investigations to satisfy themselves as to the lots in which they may be interested. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we shall exercise such reasonable care when making express statements in catalogue descriptions or condition reports as is consistent with our role as auctioneer of lots in this sale and in light of (i) the information provided to us by the seller; (ii) scholarship and technical knowledge and (iii) the generally accepted opinions of relevant experts, in each case at the time any such express statement is made. (b) Each lot offered for sale at Phillips is available for inspection by prospective buyers prior to the auction. Phillips accepts bids on lots on the basis that bidders (and independent experts on their behalf, to the extent appropriate given the nature and value of the lot and the bidder’s own expertise) have fully inspected the lot prior to
bidding and have satisfied themselves as to both the condition of the lot and the accuracy of its description. (c) Prospective buyers acknowledge that many lots are of an age and type which means that they are not in perfect condition. As a courtesy to clients, Phillips may prepare and provide condition reports to assist prospective buyers when they are inspecting lots. Catalogue descriptions and condition reports may make reference to particular imperfections of a lot, but bidders should note that lots may have other faults not expressly referred to in the catalogue or condition report. All dimensions are approximate. Illustrations are for identification purposes only and cannot be used as precise indications of size or to convey full information as to the actual condition of lots. (d) Information provided to prospective buyers in respect of any lot, including any pre-sale estimate, whether written or oral, and information in any catalogue, condition or other report, commentary or valuation, is not a representation of fact but rather a statement of opinion held by Phillips. Any pre-sale estimate may not be relied on as a prediction of the selling price or value of the lot and may be revised from time to time by Phillips at our absolute discretion. Neither Phillips nor any of our affiliated companies shall be liable for any difference between the pre-sale estimates for any lot and the actual price achieved at auction or upon resale. 4 Bidding at Auction (a) Phillips has absolute discretion to refuse admission to the auction or participation in the sale. All bidders must register for a paddle prior to bidding, supplying such information and references as required by Phillips. Proof of identity in the form of government issued identification will be required, as will an original signature and proof of address. We may also require that you furnish us with a bank reference. For individuals, acceptable forms of government issued photo identification include a passport or photo driving licence. For companies, acceptable forms of government issued identification include a certificate of incorporation as well as proof of owners and directors.
(b) As a convenience to bidders who cannot attend the auction in person, Phillips may, if so instructed by the bidder, execute written absentee bids on a bidder’s behalf. Absentee bidders are required to submit bids on the Absentee Bid Form, a copy of which is printed in this catalogue or otherwise available from Phillips. Bids must be placed in the currency of the sale. The bidder must clearly indicate the maximum amount he or she intends to bid, excluding the buyer’s premium and value added tax (VAT). The auctioneer will not accept an instruction to execute an absentee bid which does not indicate such maximum bid. Our staff will attempt to execute an absentee bid at the lowest possible price taking into account the reserve and other bidders. Any absentee bid must be received at least 24 hours in advance of the sale. In the event of identical bids, the earliest bid received will take precedence.
(c) Telephone bidders are required to submit bids on the Telephone Bid Form, a copy of which is printed in this catalogue or otherwise available from Phillips. Telephone bidding is available for lots whose low pre-sale estimate is at least £500. Phillips reserves the right to require written confirmation of a successful bid from a telephone bidder by fax or otherwise immediately after such bid is accepted by the auctioneer. Telephone bids may be recorded and, by bidding on the telephone, a bidder consents to the recording of the conversation.
(d) Bidders may participate in an auction by bidding online through Phillips’s online live bidding platform available on our website at www.phillips.com. To bid online, bidders must register online at least 24 hours before the start of the auction. Online bidding is subject to approval by Phillips’s bid department in our sole discretion. As noted in Paragraph 3 above, Phillips encourages online bidders to inspect prior to the auction any lot(s) on which they may bid, and condition reports are available upon request. Bidding in a live auction can progress quickly. To ensure that online bidders are not placed at a disadvantage when bidding against bidders in the room or on the telephone, the procedure for placing bids through Phillips’s online bidding platform is a one-step process. By clicking the bid button on the computer screen, a bidder submits a bid. Online bidders acknowledge and agree that bids so submitted are final and may not under any circumstances be amended or retracted. During a live auction, when bids other than online bids are placed, they will be displayed on the online bidder’s computer screen as ‘floor’ bids. ‘Floor’ bids include bids made by the auctioneer to protect the reserve. In the event that an online bid and a ‘floor’ or ‘phone’ bid are identical, the ‘floor’ bid may take precedence at the auctioneer’s discretion. The next bidding increment is shown for the convenience of online bidders in the bid button. The bidding increment available to online bidders may vary from the next bid actually taken by the auctioneer, as the auctioneer may deviate from Phillips’s standard increments at any time at his or her discretion, but an online bidder may only place a bid in a whole bidding increment. Phillips’s bidding increments are published in the Guide for Prospective Buyers. (e) When making a bid, whether in person, by absentee bid, on the telephone or online, a bidder accepts personal liability to pay the purchase price, as described more fully in Paragraph 6 (a) below, plus all other applicable charges unless it has been explicitly agreed in writing with Phillips before the commencement of the auction that the bidder is acting as agent on behalf of an identified third party acceptable to Phillips and that we will only look to the principal for such payment. (f) By participating in the auction, whether in person, by absentee bid, on the telephone or online, each prospective buyer represents and warrants that any bids placed by such person, or on such person’s behalf, are not the product of any collusive or other anti-competitive agreement and are otherwise consistent with federal and state antitrust law. (g) Arranging absentee, telephone and online bids is a free service provided by Phillips to prospective buyers. While we undertake to exercise reasonable care in undertaking such activity, we cannot accept liability for failure to
execute such bids except where such failure is caused by our willful misconduct. 5 Conduct of the Auction (a) Unless otherwise indicated by the symbol •, each lot is offered subject to a reserve, which is the confidential minimum selling price agreed by Phillips with the seller. The reserve will not exceed the low pre-sale estimate at the time of the auction. (b) The auctioneer has discretion at any time to refuse any bid, withdraw any lot, re-offer a lot for sale (including after the fall of the hammer) if he or she believes there may be error or dispute and take such other action as he or she deems reasonably appropriate. Phillips shall have no liability whatsoever for any such action taken by the auctioneer. If any dispute arises after the sale, our sale record is conclusive. The auctioneer may accept bids made by a company affiliated with Phillips provided that the bidder does not know the reserve placed on the lot. (c) The auctioneer will commence and advance the bidding at levels and in increments he or she considers appropriate. In order to protect the reserve on any lot, the auctioneer may place one or more bids on behalf of the seller up to the reserve without indicating he or she is doing so, either by placing consecutive bids or bids in response to other bidders. If a lot is offered without reserve, unless there are already competing absentee bids, the auctioneer will generally open the bidding at 50% of the lot’s low pre-sale estimate. In the absence of a bid at that level, the auctioneer will proceed backwards at his or her discretion until a bid is recognized and will then advance the bidding from that amount. Absentee bids on no reserve lots will, in the absence of a higher bid, be executed at approximately 50% of the low pre-sale estimate or at the amount of the bid if it is less than 50% of the low pre-sale estimate. If there is no bid whatsoever on a no reserve lot, the auctioneer may deem such lot unsold. (d) The sale will be conducted in pounds sterling and payment is due in pounds sterling. For the benefit of international clients, pre-sale estimates in the auction catalogue may be shown in US dollars and/or euros and, if so, will reflect approximate exchange rates. Accordingly, estimates in US dollars or euros should be treated only as a guide. If a currency converter is operated during the sale, it is done so as a courtesy to bidders, but Phillips accepts no responsibility for any errors in currency conversion calculation. (e) Subject to the auctioneer’s reasonable discretion, the highest bidder accepted by the auctioneer will be the buyer and the striking of the hammer marks the acceptance of the highest bid and the conclusion of a contract for sale between the seller and the buyer. Risk and responsibility for the lot passes to the buyer as set forth in Paragraph 7 below. (f) If a lot is not sold, the auctioneer will announce that it has been ‘passed’, ‘withdrawn’, ‘returned to owner’ or ‘bought-in’. (g) Any post-auction sale of lots offered at auction shall incorporate these Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty as if sold in the auction.
6 Purchase Price and Payment (a) The buyer agrees to pay us, in addition to the hammer price of the lot, the buyer’s premium, plus any applicable value added tax (VAT) and any applicable resale royalty (the ‘Purchase Price’). The buyer’s premium is 25% of the hammer price up to and including £300,000, 20% of the portion of the hammer price above £300,000 up to and including £3,000,000 and 13.5% of the portion of the hammer price above £3,000,000. Phillips reserves the right to pay from our compensation an introductory commission to one or more third parties for assisting in the sale of property offered and sold at auction. (b) VAT is payable in accordance with applicable law. All prices, fees, charges and expenses set out in these Conditions of Sale are quoted exclusive of VAT. (c) If the Artist’s Resale Right Regulations 2006 apply to the lot, the buyer agrees to pay to us an amount equal to the resale royalty provided for in those regulations and we undertake to the buyer to pay such amount to the artist’s collection agent. In circumstances where (i) we are on notice that the resale royalty is payable or (ii) we have not been able to ascertain the nationality of the artist, we will identify the lot with the symbol ♠ next to the lot number and will invoice the resale royalty to the buyer. If we subsequently determine that the nationality of the artist does not entitle him/her to the resale royalty on the lot, we will arrange a refund to the buyer of the amount of the royalty paid to us. If, after a sale in which we did not collect the resale royalty on a particular lot, we become aware that information provided to us prior to the auction concerning an artist’s nationality was incorrect and the artist is entitled to the resale royalty on the lot, the buyer shall pay the resale royalty to us upon receipt of an invoice. (d) Unless otherwise agreed, a buyer is required to pay for a purchased lot immediately following the auction regardless of any intention to obtain an export or import license or other permit for such lot. Payments must be made by the invoiced party in pounds sterling as follows: (i) Payments may be made by wire transfer to: Bank of Scotland, Gordon Street, Glasgow G1 3RS For the account of Phillips Auctioneers Ltd Account no. 00440780 Sort code: 80-54-01 SWIFT BIC: LOYDGB2LXXX IBAN: GB36BOFS 8054 0100 4407 80 Please reference the relevant invoice number. Alternatively, payment can be made: • For invoices of £30,000 or less by credit card. We accept American Express, Visa, MasterCard and UnionPay (UnionPay for in person transactions only). • It is our corporate policy not to make or accept single or multiple payments in cash in excess of £5,000 for all purchases in any calendar year. (e) Title in a purchased lot will not pass until Phillips has received the Purchase Price for that lot in cleared funds. Phillips is not obliged to release a lot to the buyer until title in the lot has passed and appropriate identification has been provided, and any earlier release does not affect the passing of title or the buyer’s unconditional obligation to pay the Purchase Price.
7 Collection of Property (a) Phillips will not release a lot to the buyer until we have received payment of its Purchase Price in full in cleared funds, the buyer has paid all outstanding amounts due to Phillips or any of our affiliated companies, including any charges payable pursuant to Paragraph 8 (a) below, and the buyer has satisfied such other terms as we in our sole discretion shall require, including completing any antimoney laundering or anti-terrorism financing checks. As soon as a buyer has satisfied all of the foregoing conditions, he or she should contact us at +44 (0) 207 318 4081 or +44 (0) 207 318 4082 to arrange for collection of purchased property. (b) The buyer must arrange for collection of a purchased lot within seven days of the date of the auction. After the auction, we will transfer all lots to our offsite fine art storage facilities. Details will be included in the buyer information packs sent to buyers after the auction. Purchased lots are at the buyer’s risk, including the responsibility for insurance, from (i) the date of collection or (ii) seven days after the auction, whichever is the earlier. Until risk passes, Phillips will compensate the buyer for any loss or damage to a purchased lot up to a maximum of the Purchase Price paid, subject to our usual exclusions for loss or damage to property.
(c) As a courtesy to clients, Phillips will, without charge, wrap purchased lots for hand carry only. We do not provide packing, handling, insurance or shipping services. We will coordinate with shipping agents instructed by the buyer, whether or not recommended by Phillips, in order to facilitate the packing, handling, insurance and shipping of property bought at Phillips. Any such instruction is entirely at the buyer’s risk and responsibility, and we will not be liable for acts or omissions of third party packers or shippers. (d) Phillips will require presentation of government-issued identification prior to release of a lot to the buyer or the buyer’s authorized representative. 8 Failure to Collect Purchases (a) Lots will be held for collection from our offsite storage facilities for thirty (30) days after the auction free of charge. Storage charges and property release fees will apply after this 30-day period for any lots which have not been collected. Details of the applicable storage charges will be confirmed to buyers in the buyer information pack they will receive after the auction. Purchased lots will not be released to the buyer until the Purchase Price and all charges have been paid in full. (b) If a purchased lot is paid for but not collected within six months of the auction, the buyer authorizes Phillips, upon notice, to arrange a resale of the item by auction or private sale, with estimates and a reserve set at Phillips’s reasonable discretion. The proceeds of such sale will be applied to pay for storage charges and any other outstanding costs and expenses owed by the buyer to Phillips or our affiliated companies and the remainder will be forfeited unless collected by the buyer within two years of the original auction. 9 Remedies for Non-Payment (a) Without prejudice to any rights the seller may have, if the buyer without prior agreement fails to make payment
of the Purchase Price for a lot in cleared funds within seven days of the auction, Phillips may in our sole discretion exercise one or more of the following remedies: (i) store the lot at Phillips‘s premises or elsewhere at the buyer’s sole risk and expense; (ii) cancel the sale of the lot, retaining any partial payment of the Purchase Price as liquidated damages; (iii) reject future bids from the buyer or render such bids subject to payment of a deposit; (iv) charge interest at 12% per annum from the date payment became due until the date the Purchase Price is received in cleared funds; (v) subject to notification of the buyer, exercise a lien over any of the buyer’s property which is in the possession of Phillips and instruct our affiliated companies to exercise a lien over any of the buyer’s property which is in their possession and, in each case, no earlier than 30 days from the date of such notice arrange the sale of such property and apply the proceeds to the amount owed to Phillips or any of our affiliated companies after the deduction from sale proceeds of our standard vendor’s commission, all sale-related expenses and any applicable taxes thereon; (vi) resell the lot by auction or private sale, with estimates and a reserve set at Phillips’s reasonable discretion, it being understood that in the event such resale is for less than the original hammer price and buyer’s premium for that lot, the buyer will remain liable for the shortfall together with all costs incurred in such resale; (vii) commence legal proceedings to recover the hammer price and buyer’s premium for that lot, together with interest and the costs of such proceedings; (viii) set off the outstanding amount remaining unpaid by the buyer against any amounts which we or any of our affiliated companies may owe the buyer in any other transactions; (ix) release the name and address of the buyer to the seller to enable the seller to commence legal proceedings to recover the amounts due and legal costs; or (x) take such other action as we deem necessary or appropriate. (b) The buyer irrevocably authorizes Phillips to exercise a lien over the buyer’s property which is in our possession upon notification by any of our affiliated companies that the buyer is in default of payment. Phillips will notify the buyer of any such lien. The buyer also irrevocably authorizes Phillips, upon notification by any of our affiliated companies that the buyer is in default of payment, to pledge the buyer’s property in our possession by actual or constructive delivery to our affiliated company as security for the payment of any outstanding amount due. Phillips will notify the buyer if the buyer’s property has been delivered to an affiliated company by way of pledge.
(c) If the buyer is in default of payment, the buyer irrevocably authorizes Phillips to instruct any of our affiliated companies in possession of the buyer’s property to deliver the property by way of pledge as the buyer’s agent to a third party instructed by Phillips to hold the property on our behalf as security for the payment of the Purchase Price and any other amount due and, no earlier than 30 days from the date of written notice to the buyer, to sell the property in such manner and for such consideration as can reasonably be obtained on a forced sale basis and to apply the proceeds to any amount owed to Phillips or any of our affiliated companies after the deduction from sale proceeds of our standard vendor’s commission, all salerelated expenses and any applicable taxes thereon.
10 Rescission by Phillips Phillips shall have the right, but not the obligation, to rescind a sale without notice to the buyer if we reasonably believe that there is a material breach of the seller’s representations and warranties or the Authorship Warranty or an adverse claim is made by a third party. Upon notice of Phillips election to rescind the sale, the buyer will promptly return the lot to Phillips, and we will then refund the Purchase Price paid to us. As described more fully in Paragraph 13 below, the refund shall constitute the sole remedy and recourse of the buyer against Phillips and the seller with respect to such rescinded sale. 11 Export, Import and Endangered Species Licences and Permits Before bidding for any property, prospective buyers are advised to make their own enquiries as to whether a licence is required to export a lot from the United Kingdom or to import it into another country. Prospective buyers are advised that some countries prohibit the import of property made of or incorporating plant or animal material, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, Brazilian rosewood, rhinoceros horn or tortoiseshell, irrespective of age, percentage or value. Accordingly, prior to bidding, prospective buyers considering export of purchased lots should familiarize themselves with relevant export and import regulations of the countries concerned. Please note that the US prohibits the importation of any item containing African elephant ivory. Asian elephant ivory may be imported in to the US only if accompanied by independent scientifc analysis of continent of origin and confrmation the object is more than 100 years old. With regard to any item containing endangered species other than elephant ivory, an importer into the US must provide documented evidence of the species identifcation and age of an object in order to demonstrate that the item qualifes as an antique. This will require the buyer to obtain an independent appraisal certify the species of endangered material on the object and certifying that the object is not less than 100 years of age. A prospective buyer planning to import an object containing endangered species into the US may not rely on Phillips cataloguing to establish the species of endangered material on the object or to establish the age of the object and must consult with a qualifed independent appraiser prior to placing a bid on the lot. It is solely the buyer’s responsibility to comply with these laws and to obtain any necessary export, import and endangered species licences or permits. Failure to obtain a licence or permit or delay in so doing will not justify the cancellation of the sale or any delay in making full payment for the lot. As a courtesy to clients, Phillips has marked in the catalogue lots containing potentially regulated plant or animal material, but we do not accept liability for errors or for failing to mark lots containing protected or regulated species. 12. US Tarif on Chinese Origin Property Buyers intending to import property to the United States should note that with efect from 1 September 2019, property manufactured or created in mainland China, regardless of its age and regardless of the location of its export, may be charged a duty by US Customs upon its importation into the United States. Buyer’s should note
(b) Except as otherwise provided in this Paragraph 14, none of Phillips, any of our affiliated companies or the seller (i) is liable for any errors or omissions, whether orally or in writing, in information provided to prospective buyers by Phillips or any of our affiliated companies or (ii) accepts responsibility to any bidder in respect of acts or omissions, whether negligent or otherwise, by Phillips or any of our affiliated companies in connection with the conduct of the auction or for any other matter relating to the sale of any lot.
Authorship Warranty (c) All warranties other than the Authorship Warranty, express or implied, including any warranty of satisfactory quality and fitness for purpose, are specifically excluded by Phillips, our affiliated companies and the seller to the fullest extent permitted by law. (d) Subject to sub-paragraph (e) below, none of Phillips, any of our affiliated companies or the seller shall be liable to the buyer for any loss or damage beyond the refund of the Purchase Price referred to in sub-paragraph (a) above, whether such loss or damage is characterised as direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential, or for the payment of interest on the Purchase Price to the fullest extent permitted by law. (e) No provision in these Conditions of Sale shall be deemed to exclude or limit the liability of Phillips or any of our affiliated companies to the buyer in respect of any fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation made by any of us or in respect of death or personal injury caused by our negligent acts or omissions. 15 Copyright The copyright in all images, illustrations and written materials produced by or for Phillips relating to a lot, including the contents of this catalogue, is and shall remain at all times the property of Phillips and, subject to the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, such images and materials may not be used by the buyer or any other party without our prior written consent. Phillips and the seller make no representations or warranties that the buyer of a lot will acquire any copyright or other reproduction rights in it. 16 General (a) These Conditions of Sale, as changed or supplemented as provided in Paragraph 1 above, and Authorship Warranty set out the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the transactions contemplated herein and supersede all prior and contemporaneous written, oral or implied understandings, representations and agreements.
(b) Notices to Phillips shall be in writing and addressed to the department in charge of the sale, quoting the reference number specified at the beginning of the sale catalogue. Notices to clients shall be addressed to the last address notified by them in writing to Phillips. (c) These Conditions of Sale are not assignable by any buyer without our prior written consent but are binding on the buyer’s successors, assigns and representatives. (d) Should any provision of these Conditions of Sale be held void, invalid or unenforceable for any reason, the remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect. No failure by any party to exercise, nor any delay in exercising, any right or remedy under these Conditions of Sale shall act as a waiver or release thereof in whole or in part. (e) No term of these Conditions of Sale shall be enforceable under the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 by anyone other than the buyer. 17 Law and Jurisdiction (a) The rights and obligations of the parties with respect to these Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty, the
conduct of the auction and any matters related to any of the foregoing shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with English law. (b) For the benefit of Phillips, all bidders and sellers agree that the Courts of England are to have exclusive jurisdiction to settle all disputes arising in connection with all aspects of all matters or transactions to which these Conditions of Sale and Authorship Warranty relate or apply. All parties agree that Phillips shall retain the right to bring proceedings in any court other than the Courts of England. (c) All bidders and sellers irrevocably consent to service of process or any other documents in connection with proceedings in any court by facsimile transmission, personal service, delivery by mail or in any other manner permitted by English law, the law of the place of service or the law of the jurisdiction where proceedings are instituted at the last address of the bidder or seller known to Phillips.
Phillips warrants the authorship of property in this auction catalogue described in headings in BOLD or CAPITALIZED type for a period of five years from date of sale by Phillips, subject to the exclusions and limitations set forth below. (a) Phillips gives this Authorship Warranty only to the original buyer of record (i.e., the registered successful bidder) of any lot. This Authorship Warranty does not extend to (i) subsequent owners of the property, including purchasers or recipients by way of gift from the original buyer, heirs, successors, beneficiaries and assigns; (ii) property where the description in the catalogue states that there is a conflict of opinion on the authorship of the property; (iii) property where our attribution of authorship was on the date of sale consistent with the generally accepted opinions of specialists, scholars or other experts; (iv) property whose description or dating is proved inaccurate by means of scientific methods or tests not generally accepted for use at the time of the publication of the catalogue or which were at such time deemed unreasonably expensive or impractical to use or likely in our reasonable opinion to have caused damage or loss in value to the lot or (v) property where there has been no material loss in value from the value of the lot had it been as described in the heading of the catalogue entry. (b) In any claim for breach of the Authorship Warranty, Phillips reserves the right, as a condition to rescinding any sale under this warranty, to require the buyer to provide to us at the buyer’s expense the written opinions of two recognized experts approved in advance by Phillips. We shall not be bound by any expert report produced by the buyer and reserve the right to consult our own experts at our expense. If Phillips agrees to rescind a sale under the Authorship Warranty, we shall refund to the buyer the reasonable costs charged by the experts commissioned by the buyer and approved in advance by us. (c) Subject to the exclusions set forth in subparagraph (a) above, the buyer may bring a claim for breach of the Authorship Warranty provided that (i) he or she has notified Phillips in writing within three months of receiving any information which causes the buyer to question the authorship of the lot, specifying the auction in which the property was included, the lot number in the auction catalogue and the reasons why the authorship of the lot is being questioned and (ii) the buyer returns the lot to Phillips to the saleroom in which it was purchased in the same condition as at the time of its auction and is able to transfer good and marketable title in the lot free from any third party claim arising after the date of the auction. Phillips has discretion to waive any of the foregoing requirements set forth in this subparagraph (c) or subparagraph (b) above. (d) The buyer understands and agrees that the exclusive remedy for any breach of the Authorship Warranty shall be rescission of the sale and refund of the original Purchase Price paid. This remedy shall constitute the sole remedy and recourse of the buyer against Phillips, any of our affiliated companies and the seller and is in lieu of any other remedy available as a matter of law or equity. This means that none of Phillips, any of our affiliated companies or the seller shall be liable for loss or damage beyond the remedy expressly provided in this Authorship Warranty, whether such loss or damage is characterized as direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential, or for the payment of interest on the original Purchase Price.
30 Berkeley Square, London, W1J 6EX phillips.com +44 20 7318 4010 email@example.com Please return this form by email to firstname.lastname@example.org at least 24 hours before the sale. Please read carefully the information in the right column and note that it is important that you indicate whether you are applying to bid as an individual or on behalf of a company. Please select the type of bid you wish to make with this form (please select one):
In-person Absentee Bidding Telephone Bidding
As a private individual On behalf of a company
• If you cannot attend the sale, we can execute bids confdentially on your behalf.
Sale Number First Name
Surname Account Number
Company (if applicable)
• For absentee bids, indicate your maximum limit for each lot, excluding the buyer’s premium and any applicable VAT. Your bid will be executed at the lowest price taking into account the reserve and other bidders. On no reserve lots, in the absence of other bids, your bid will be executed at approximately 50% of the low pre-sale estimate or at the amount specifed, if less than 50% of the low estimate.
• Your bid must be submitted in the currency of the sale and may be rounded down to the nearest amount consistent with the auctioneer’s bidding increments.
Post Code Phone
• If we receive identical bids, the frst bid received will take precedence.
• Arranging absentee and telephone bids is a free service provided by us to prospective buyers. While we will exercise reasonable care in undertaking such activity, we cannot accept liability for errors relating to execution of your bids except in cases of wilful misconduct. Agreement to bid by telephone must be confrmed by you promptly in writing or by fax. Telephone bid lines may be recorded.
Phone number to call at the time of sale (for Phone Bidding only) 2.
Please complete the following section for telephone and absentee bids only Lot number
In Consecutive Order
• Phillips charges the successful bidder a commission, or buyer’s premium, on the hammer price of each lot sold. The buyer’s premium is payable by the buyer as part of the total purchase price at the following rates: 25% of the hammer price up to and including £300,000, 20% of the portion of the hammer price above £300,000 up to and including £3,000,000 and 13.5% of the portion of the hammer price above £3,000,000. • “Buy” or unlimited bids will not be accepted. Alternative bids can be placed by using the word “OR” between lot numbers.
VAT number (if applicable)
• Company Purchases: If you are buying under a business entity, we require a copy of government-issued identifcation (such as the certifcate of incorporation) as well as proof of owners and directors to verify the status of the company. This should be accompanied by an ofcial document confrming the company’s EU VAT registration number, if applicable, which we are now required by HMRC to hold. • Conditions of Sale: All bids are placed and executed, and all lots are sold and purchased, subject to the Conditions of Sale available online at phillips.com,. Please read them carefully before placing a bid. Your attention is drawn to Paragraph 4 of the Conditions of Sale.
Please indicate in what capacity you will be bidding (please select one):
• Private Purchases: Proof of identity in the form of government-issued identification and proof of address will be required.
Maximum pound sterling price* Absentee Bids Only
* Excluding Buyer’s Premium and VAT
By ticking this box, you confrm your registration/bid(s) as above and accept the Conditions of Sale of Phillips as stated in our catalogues and on our website.
Design London, 17 October 2019 Public viewing 12â€“17 October 2019, Saturday to Thursday Berkeley Square, London W1J 6EX Enquries Antonia King email@example.com
Gio Ponti Rare and important executive desk, circa 1951
20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale New York, 14 November 2019, 5pm
Andy Warhol Late Four-Foot Flowers acrylic, silkscreen ink and graphite on canvas 48 x 48 in. (121.9 x 121.9 cm.) Executed in 1967. © 2019 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Licensed by Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Visit us at phillips.com
Public viewing 1 – 12 November at 450 Park Avenue, New York Enquiries Amanda Lo Iacono firstname.lastname@example.org +1 212 940 1278
19. Keith Haring
Index Anderson, H. 11 Arcangel, C. 43 Baldessari, J. 25 Becher, B & H. 27 Boetti, A. 37 Bradford, M. 9 Bradley, J. 21 Condo, G. 7 Corse, M. 33 de Keyser, R. 32 Emin, T. 40 Fordjour, D. 3 FĂśrg, G. 31 Gokita, T. 6 Grotjahn, M. 8 Gursky, A. 26 Haring, K. 19, 23 Hodges, J. 17 Holzer, J. 35 Kantarovsky, S. 4 Kapoor, A. 16 Katz, A. 14 KAWS 22, 24 Kounellis, J. 36 Leigh, S. 1 Levine, S. 34 Mangold, R. 30 Murakami, T. 20 Peyton, E. 41 Quinn, N. M. 2 Richter, G. 12, 29 Ruscha, E. 10 SchĂźtte, T. 28 Self, T. 5 Serra, R. 39 Stingel, R. 15, 18 Tillmans, W. 42 Trockel, R. 38 Tuymans, L. 13
Phillips presents our 20th Century and Contemporary Art Evening Sale on 2 October 2019.