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Abstracts,


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31 7,29

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3, 11 1,34

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TNT Japan 2014 index

Foreword

02

Sponsors & Partners

05

Speakers

09

Abstracs

14

Programme

100

Poster list

106

Image credit: hotograph of the fabricated 2G-MSS chip with a 2D array. Genki Yoshikawa (MANA - NIMS, Japan)


Image credit: Propulsion inside microfluidic channels under dynamic pressure. Gilgueng Hwang (LPN-CNRS, France)

On behalf of the Organizing and Technical Committees, we take great pleasure in welcoming you to Tokyo (Japan) for the 1st “Trends in Nanotechnology” International Conference (TNT2014) in Asia.

Foreword

2

The first edition of TNT Japan (Trends in Nanotechnology) is being launched following the overwhelming success of earlier TNT Conferences across Europe. This high-level scientific meeting series aims to present a broad range of current research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology as well as related policies or other kind of International initiatives. TNT European events have demonstrated over the past 15 years that they are particularly effective in transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. The TNT Japan conference will keep the main fundamental features of the European editions, providing a unique opportunity for broad interaction. TNT Japan is held in parallel with nano tech 2014, the largest International exhibition on Nanotechnology. We truly hope this synergy will encourage companies, universities and research centers to foster technical cooperation in the nanotechnology field. TNT Japan will help connecting companies with influential top scientists to share common objectives and drive the commercialization and the know-how of nanotechnology.

organized by JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency and MINECO (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness). TNT is now one of the premier European conferences devoted to nanoscale science and technology and plans to become a reference in Asia as well. We are indebted to the following Institutions, Companies and Government Agencies for their financial support: Phantoms Foundation, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and International Center for Materials and Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Materials Physics Center (CFM), Oxford Instruments, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development, American Elements and C’Nano GSO. In addition, thanks must be given to the partners institutions supporting TNT Japan 2014 and to the staff of all the organising institutions whose hard work has helped planning this conference.

Organisers

Considering 2014 will be the Spain-Japan dual year and in order to encourage collaborations between those two countries a specific session will be

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Sponsors & Partners Sponsors

Partners

Main Sponsors

Silver Sponsors

5

Bronze Sponsor

Others Sponsors

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


ICEX / Invest in Spain, your partner in Spain What is Invest in Spain (IiS)? / About us Invest in Spain is the Directorate of ICEX Spain Trade & Investment a public company chaired by the Secretary of State for Trade of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Competitiveness www.investinspain.org. Invest in Spain’s Spain mission is to foster Foreign Direct Investment into Spain. IiS works both in Spain and abroad and benefits from a network of 100 Economic and Commercial Offices in Spanish Embassies which allows us to be close to our clients and potential foreign investors. (www.oficinascomerciales.es)

General goals 

To promote, attract and consolidate foreign direct investment into Spain, Spain with special attention to new projects that may result in higher growth potential for our country.



To foster collaboration between Spanish companies and foreign investors in order to further increase and develop their activities in our country.



To position Spain in global markets as a highly internationalized country, technologically advanced, with a competitive entrepreneurial and business framework and with valuable human resources. We would like investors to regard Spain as a global platform for investment and business.



To improve the business climate and facilitate doing business in Spain through businessbusiness- friendly proposals for fine-tuning our regulatory framework and administrative procedures.

Offered services 1.

Information and advice advice



Personalized services: services customized reports tailored to suit our client’s needs.



Specialized consultancy on legal and technical issues through partnership institutions.



Advice on all stages of the investment process: 

Information on European, national, regional and local grants and subsidies applicable to investment projects.



Sector –to - sector regulation, regulation labor and social-security regulations, advice on the most appropriate way to obtain working and residential permits, taxes, intellectual property laws and general administrative procedures.



Information on market opportunities and privatization processes in Spain


2.

Support and management m anagement for FDI projects



We offer personalized assistance to foreign companies in Spain: 

Identificating strategic & technological partners. partners



Organizing agendas and coordinating meetings between the investor and the right partners and institutions.



Finding the best location for each project by working together with regional and local agencies.



Investment Promotion Agencies Network: Network a meeting point between companies and institutions engaged in promoting and attracting foreign investment at State, regional or local levels of our Public Administration.

3.

Financing and investor relationship management



Investor Network: Network a service intended to connect Spanish and international capital markets with investment projects (projects must be developed in Spain and have a high growth potential).



Facilitation of investment, investment financing and joint ventures between foreign investors and Spanish companies.



Assistance in seeking incentives and financing, financing both public and private, for the establishment, development and expansion of companies establishing in Spain.



IiS manages the Technology Fund, Fund a European program created to promote R&D&I businesses in Spain. It offers non-refundable grants to foreign enterprises.



Information to foreign investment funds about privatization processes in Spain.

4.

Business climate & development



IiS promotes smooth relationship between the Public Administration and foreign companies and Chambers of Commerce in Spain for a better understanding of their interests and needs.



IiS promotes legislative and administrative proposals for a better business climate.



IiS conducts opinion surveys on the Spanish business climate through individual interviews and focus groups whit foreign companies set up in Spain.

•

We support all of the above with a wide range of publications and a newsletter on interesting topics for investors.

ICEX Spain Trade & Investment Invest in Spain Directorate Orense, 58, 28020 Madrid, Spain. Tel. +34 91 503 58 00 Email: investinspain@icex.es

www.investinspain.org www.oficinascomerciales.es www.icex.es


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Speakers Keynote Speakers Abstract

Abstract

9

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Abstract

10

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)

Abstract


Invited Speakers Abstract

Abstract

11

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Oral Contributions Ahlskog, Markus (Nanoscience Center / University of Jyväskylä, Finland) Graphene / Carbon nanotubes

Electronic transport in multiwalled carbon nanotubes Dlubak, Bruno (Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, France) - Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Graphene: new venues for spintronics Ishibashi, Koji (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotube nanostructures with molecular heterojunctions James, Cole (University of Tsukuba, Japan) - Theory and modelling at the nanoscale

Discrete Green's Function Approach for Computational Photonics Koval, Peter (Centro de Fisica de Materiales CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSICUPV/EHU, Spain) - Atoms and Molecular Computing

Self-consistent GW calculations for molecules

12

Lu, Xianmao (National University of Singapore, Singapore) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Smart” nanomaterials for seawater desalination Nagai, Atsushi (Institute for Molecular Science, Japan) - Other

Preparations and Functions of Conjugated Covalent Organic Frameworks Ohshiro, Takahito (Osaka University, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine

Development of Single-Molecule Tunnel-current based Electrical Identification of DNA/RNA nucleotides Osawa, Eiji (NanoCarbon Research Institute, Japan) - Low dimensional materials (nanowires, clusters, quantum dots, etc.)

Structure of detonation nanodiamond Pakdel, Amir (National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) / MANA, Japan) Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials

Interface Engineering of Hierarchical BN Nanostructure Films Ramon, Javier (WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine

Dielectrophoretical fabrication of hybrid carbon nanotubes-hydrogel biomaterial for muscle tissue engineering applications Rius, Gemma (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes

Control of graphene deposition on SiC by ex situ and in situ surface conditioning of SiC

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Urisu, Tsuneo (Nagoya University/FIRST Research Center for Innovative Nanobiodevices , Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine

Development of neural network high-throughput screening device- a human neurodegenerative disease model Yang, Lin (Weizmann Institute of Science/Materials and Interfaces , Israel) Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Molecular Dynamics analysis on crack initiation and extension of defective single walled carbon nanotube Yashchenok, Alexey (Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany) Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine

Laser induced changes of thin shells composed of gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for application in bioscience

13

TNTJapan 2014 January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


O

ptoelectronics in plasmonic nanogaps Javier Aizpurua Materials Physics Center CSIC-UPV/EHU and DIPC San SebastiĂĄn, Spain aizpurua@ehu.es

A plasmonic nanogap is an ideal platform to explore and test quantum effects in the optical response of nanoscale structures. As the separation between interfaces in a nanogap becomes below nanometric distances, the optical response of the system enters a strong nonlocal regime where the quantum nature inherent to the coherent oscillation of interacting electrons becomes apparent (see schematics of a typical plasmonic gap in the figure). We have developed full quantum mechanical calculations within time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to address nonlocal effects in plasmonic gaps [1]. By doing so, we have identified a tunneling regime for separation distances of the interfaces below 0.5 nm, which totally modifies the spectral fingerprints of the cavity [2]. Quantum tunneling screens plasmonic modes localized at the cavity and establishes charge transfer across the gap producing lower energy modes of the optical response, as recently demonstrated experimentally [3]. By applying both a full quantum mechanical framework as well as a semiclassical approach, we explore the interactions between photons and electrons in these subnanometric gaps in a variety of situations of practical interest in plasmonics and in optoelectronics. Among other topics of interest, we consider the presence of an emitter in the nanogap under the strong coupling regime where hybrid plexcitonic modes are produced, identifying the situation where resonant electron transfer (RET) can be established. Moreover, we explore subnanometric gaps produced by novel materials such as rigid organic molecules producing controlled aggregates for field-enhanced spectroscopy [4], or 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 or CdSe, where a distinctive optical response is obtained within the nanogap [5]. The results presented here stress the importance of the plasmonic gap as a canonical structure in nanophotonics, giving rise to the emergence of new optoelectronic processes that can be tailored on demand.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] D.C.Marinica, A.K.Kazansky, P.Nordlander, J.Aizpurua, A.G. Borisov, Nano Lett. 12 (2012) 1333. [2] R. Esteban et al. Nature Comm. 3 (2012) 825. [3] K.J. Savage, M.M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A.G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua and J.J. Baumberg, NATURE 491 (2013) 574. [4] R.W. Taylor et al. ACS Nano 5 (2011) 3878 ; R. Esteban et al. Langmuir 28 (2012) 8881. [5] J. Mertens et al. Nano Lett. 12 (2012) 5033.

Figures

Figure 1: Nanooptics in a plasmonic gap. Sketch of the surface charge density associated to the surface plasmon mode at the nanogap formed by a metallic dimer, excited by a planewave linearly polarized along its axis (E) that propagates with k vector. The interaction between the two nanoparticles localizes and enhances the plasmonic field at the nanogap. For nanometric and subnanometric separation distances (see zoom-in), an interplay between the plasmon charge densities induced by light and electronic states e- shows a rich and complex variety of optoelectronic processes with potential for technological application.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


T

ransport Studies of Topological Insulators Yoichi Ando Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research Osaka University, Japan y_ando@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

A topological quantum state of matter is characterized by a nontrivial topological structure of its Hilbert space. Intriguingly, a topological state is always accompanied by a peculiar gapless edge/surface state that characterizes the nature of the bulk state. A well-known example is the 2D quantum Hall state, which is accompanied by chiral edge states to represent the nontrivial topology of the bulk state specified by the topological invariant called Chern number. In 3D topological insulators, on the other hand, a nontrivial Z2 topology of the bulk state leads to the emergence of helical Dirac fermions on the surface, which hold promise for various novel applications. However, transport studies of the helical Dirac fermions on the surface turned out to be difficult, because unwanted transport through the bulk state needs to be suppressed before the surface transport becomes accessible. Therefore, syntheses of new bulk-insulating materials and/or high-quality samples [1-6] have been crucially important for elucidating their peculiar physics [7-10]. Besides such transport studies, syntheses of new or high-quality topological materials have been fruitful for exploring peculiar quantum phenomena in those materials [11-22]. In this talk, I will present some of the breakthroughs we have made in this new frontier of quantum materials. These works were supported by JSPS (NEXT Program and KAKENHI 25220708), MEXT (Innovative area “Topological Quantum Phenomena”) and AFOSRAOARD.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] Z. Ren, A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 82, 241306(R) (2010). [2] Z. Ren, A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 84, 075316 (2011). [3] Z. Ren, A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 84, 165311 (2011). [4] Z. Ren, A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155301 (2012). [5] T. Arakane et al., Nature Communications 3, 636 (2012). [6] A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Adv. Mater. 24, 5581 (2012). [7] A. A. Taskin, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 80, 085303 (2009). [8] A. A. Taskin, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 82, 121302(R) (2010). [9] A. A. Taskin, Z. Ren, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 016801 (2011). [10] A. A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 066803 (2012). [11] T. Sato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136802 (2010). [12] S. Souma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 216803 (2011). [13] T. Sato et al., Nature Physics 7, 840 (2011). [14] M. Kriene, K. Segawa, Z. Ren, S. Sasaki, Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 127004 (2011). [15] S. Sasaki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 217001 (2011). [16] S. Souma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2012). [17] S. Souma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 186804 (2012). [18] S. Sasaki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 217004 (2012). [19] K. Nakayama et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 236804 (2012). [20] Y. Tanaka et al., Nature Physics 8, 800 (2012). [21] T. Sato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206804 (2013). [22] T. Kondo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 217601 (2013).

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


E

dge geometry and chemistry effects on the electronic structure of graphene nanostructures Toshiaki Enoki Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan enoki.t.aa@m.titech.ac.jp

The electrons moving in the hexagonal bipartite lattice of graphene can be described in terms of massless Dirac fermion in the relativistic quantum mechanics, while it can be understood also on the basis of Clar’s aromatic sextet rule in chemistry. When a graphene sheet is cut into nanofragments, the created edge works as the boundary condition, the electronic structure being seriously modified depending on the edge geometry. In the zigzag edges, non-bonding π-electron state (edge state) localized in the vicinity of the edges is created, which gives the electronic, chemical and magnetic activities to graphene edges. In the meantime, electron wave interference takes place in the vicinity of armchair edges, giving rise to the energy stabilization of graphene nanostructures. In addition to the geometry effect, the functional groups bonded to the edge carbon atoms affect the electronic structure in another way. Accordingly, the edge geometry and chemistry details cooperatively work to give a variety of electronic structures to the graphene nanostructures. We investigated the edge geometry and chemistry effects on the electronic structures using STM/STS and noncontact/conductive AFM observations of edges and defects of graphene sheets, with the assistance of DFT calculations. The STM current images of graphene nanostructures embedded in graphene oxide show interesting size and geometry effects; the conductivity becomes larger upon the increase in the size of the nanostructures, and more importantly the zigzag edged nanostructure has higher conductivity than the armchair edged one. The high and low conductive features are well correlated with the migration and localization of Clar’s aromatic sexets in the zigzag and armchair edged nanostructures, respectively. These findings experimentally confirm the Clar’s aromatic sextet rule, which governs the electronic structure together with their edge geometry effect in the graphene nanostructures. In monohydrogenated zigzag edge, STM/STS observations demonstrate the presence of edge state well localized on the edge carbon atoms with the spin splitting of the edge state. In contract, the partial introduction of di-hydrogenated carbon atoms makes the edge state disappear and instead it brings about the electron wave interference with the 3  3 superlattice, similar to armchair edges. We found the AFM-tip mechanical force induced switching between the edge state and electron wave interference in graphene defects in which edge carbon atoms

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


are terminated with oxygen atoms. The switching is reversible between ON and OFF states, the former and the latter of which have the signatures of zigzag edge with the presence of edge state and of armchair edge with the electron wave interference, respectively. This can be explained in terms of the mechanical force induced switching of bonding configurations related to the C-O bondings at the defect periphery.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S

elf-organization and Emergence of Dynamical Structures in Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks James K. Gimzewski

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California; USA WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS); Japan California Nanosystems Institute, University of California, USA Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information, UK gimzewski@cnsi.ucla.edu

Self-organization of dynamical structures in complex natural systems posses an intrinsic capacity for natural-computation. Based on new approaches for neuromorphic engineering, we discuss the construction of purpose-built dynamical systems based on atomic switch networks (ASN). These systems consist of highly interconnected, physically recurrent networks of inorganic synapses (atomic switches). By combining the advantages of controlled design with those of self-organization, the functional topology of ASNs has been shown to produce emergent system-wide dynamics and a diverse set of complex behaviors with striking similarity to those observed in many natural systems including biological neural networks and assemblies. Numerical modeling and experimental investigations of their operational characteristics and intrinsic dynamical properties have facilitated progress toward implementation in neuromorphic reservoir computing. We discuss the utility of ASNs as a uniquely scalable physical platform capable of exploring the dynamical interface of complexity, neuroscience, and engineering.

References [1] H.O. Sillin, H-. H. Hsieh, R. Aguilera, A.V. Avizienis, M. Aono, A.Z. Stieg, and J.K. Gimzewski, Nanotechnology 38(24), 384004 (2013).

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


U

nique structural properties of graphene Francisco Guinea Department of Theory and Simulation of Materials ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain paco.guinea@icmm.csic.es

Graphene is an excellent example of a crystalline membrane. Its measured inplane and out of plane stiffness imply that suspended graphene is in the extremely anharmonic limit. A number of structural properties of anharmonic membranes depend on the experimental setup, such as sample size, temperature, pre-existing stresses, and other. We analyze the way in which anharmonic properties determine the (negative) thermal expansion coefficient of graphene, and induce a softening of the elastic constants. We discuss recent experiments which show that the Young modulus of graphene is enhanced in irradiated samples with a finite concentration of vacancies. Graphene has additional low energy electronic excitations, which couple to the structural deformations. We discuss the relation between structural ripples and charge puddles, and the softening of the elastic properties induced by electronhole pairs.

Work done in collaboration with M. I.Katsnelson, P. le Doussal, K. Wiese, B. Horovitz, B. Amorim, J. Gonzalez, P. San-Jose, V. Parente, M. Polini, C. GomezNavarro, and J. Gomez.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S

tructure and Dynamics of Internal Interfaces Ulrich Höfer Department of Physics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany hoefer@physik.uni-marburg.de

Buried internal interfaces between two solids play an increasingly important role in modern materials science. The microscopic understanding of chemical bonding, electronic structure and energy transfer processes at such interfaces, however, is lagging behind that of volume or surface properties. In a new Collaborative Research Centre, scientists in Marburg, Germany and San Sebastían, Spain aim to close this knowledge gap. They develop and investigate model systems of different classes of hetero-interfaces by combining expertise in the fields of chemical synthesis, solid state physics, structural analysis and laser spectroscopy. In this talk, I will briefly introduce the new center and discuss preliminary work of my own group. In the first example, I will show that a characteristic phonon mode exists at the lattice-matched polar/nonpolar semiconductor interface GaP/Si. In the second example, I will address the dynamical properties of interfacial electronic states between metals and organic semiconductors.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


T

oward in-situ observation of Li-ion distribution in Li-ion batteries

1

Yoshiaki Kato1 K. Mima1, J. M. Perlado2 and R. Gonzalez-Arrabal2

The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Japan 2 Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain y.kato@gpi.ac.jp

The Li-ion battery is one of the most widely-used secondary batteries due to its high energy density and small memory effect. In order to further improve its performance, detailed understandings of various processes taking place in the battery are necessary. We are making use of nuclear material analyses techniques [1, 2] to visualize the meso-scale distribution of Li, which is one of the key factors in evaluating the performance of the Li-ion batteries. The Li-ions in the battery electrodes can be measured by analyzing the high energy radiation and particles produced in nuclear reactions between Li and high energy protons. We have used the proton micro-beam of TIARA [3] to measure the Li-ion distribution in the battery electrodes with the spatial resolution of 1 Îźm. With PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission), the cross-sectional distribution of the Li-ions in the LiCoO2 positive electrodes have been successfully measured, and its dependence on various parameters such as the electrode thickness and the charging speed has been clarified [4]. Also the dependence of the relaxation of the Li-distribution on the electrode materials (LiCoO2 and LiFePO4) has been measured. These observations are compared with the numerical simulation of the Li-ion batteries based on electro-chemical processes. For more realistic evaluation of the battery performance, it is desirable to observe the Li-ion distribution during charge and discharge processes in the working batteries. One of the promising approaches is the use of (p, p) nuclear reaction to characterize the Li- depth profiling without the necessity of cutting and /or perturbing the sample. In the symposium, we will report our approaches toward in-situ observation of the Li-ion distribution in the Li-ion batteries. This work is done in collaboration with, K. Fujita, C. Okuda, Y. Ukyo, H. Sawada, Y. Uchimoto, Y. Orikasa, T. Kamiya, H. Sato, A. Yamazaki, T. Yanagawa, H. Sakagami, T. Saito, S. Sakabe and M. Hashida.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] J.R. Tesmer and M. Nastasi, Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Material Analysis, MRS, Pittsburgh, PA, 1995. [2] T. Tadic, M. Jaksic, Z. Medunic, E. Quartarone and P. Mustarelli, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 181 (2001) 404-407. [3] T. Sakai, T. Kamiya, M.Oikawa, T. Sato, T. Tanaka and K. Ishii, J. PIXE 10 (2000) 91. [4] K. Mima, R. Gonzalez-Arrabal, H. Azuma, A. Yamazaki, C. Okuda, Y. Ukyo, H. Sawada, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, J. M. Perlado and S. Nakai, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 290 (2012), 79-84.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S

ingle-layer MOS2 - 2D devices and circuits beyond graphene Andras Kis Electrical Engineering, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland andras.kis@epfl.ch

After quantum dots, nanotubes and nanowires, two-dimensional materials in the shape of sheets with atomic-scale thickness represent the newest addition to the diverse family of nanoscale materials. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), a direct-gap semiconductor is a typical example of new graphene-like materials that can be produced using the adhesive-tape based cleavage technique originally developed for graphene. The presence of a band gap in MoS2 allowed us to fabricate transistors that can be turned off and operate with negligible leakage currents [1]. Furthermore, our transistors can be used to build simple integrated circuits capable of performing logic operations and amplifying small signals [2] [3]. I will report here on high-performance 2D MoS2 transistors with increased currents and transconductance due to enhanced electrostatic control [4]. Our devices also show current saturation for the first time in a 2D semiconductor. Electrical breakdown measurements of our devices show that MoS2 can support very high current densities, exceeding the current carrying capacity of copper by a factor of fifty. We have also successfully integrated graphene with MoS2 into heterostructures to form flash memory cells [5]. Next, I will show optoelectronic devices based on MoS2 that have a sensitivity surpassing that of similar graphene devices by several orders of magnitude [6]. Finally, I will present temperature-dependent electrical transport and mobility measurements that show clear mobility enhancement due to the suppression of the influence of charge impurities with the deposition of an HfO2 capping layer [7]. References [1] Q. H. Wang et al., Nature Nanotech. 2012, 7, 699. [2] B. Radisavljevic et al., Nature Nanotech. 2011, 6, 147. [3] B. Radisavljevic, M. B. Whitwick and A. Kis, ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 9934. [4] B. Radisavljevic, M. B. Whitwick and A. Kis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 043103. [5] D. Lembke and A. Kis, ACS Nano 2012, 6, 10070. [6] O. Lopez-Sanchez et al., Nature Nanotech. 2013, doi: 10.1038/nnano.2013.100. [7] B. Radisavljevic and A. Kis, Nature Materials 2013, doi: 10.1038/NMAT3687.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S

mall is different: adventures and surprises in nanoscale computational microscopy Uzi Landman School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA uzi.landman@physics.gatech.edu

Finite materials systems of reduced sizes exhibit discrete quantized energy level spectra and specific structures and morphologies, which are manifested in unique, nonscalable, size-dependent physical and chemical properties. Indeed, when the scale of materials structures is reduced to the nanoscale, emergent behavior often occurs, that is not commonly expected, or deduced, from knowledge learned at larger sizes. Characterization and understanding of the size-dependent evolution of the properties of materials aggregates are among the major challenges of modern materials science. Using computer-based firstprinciples quantum computations and simulations [1], often in conjunction with laboratory experiments, we highlight such behavior in diverse nanoscale systems, focusing on the following topics: (i) Self-assembly of free and supported metal nanocrystals with structure, stability, dynamics, mechanical response & nanocatalysis originating from superatom electronic shell-closure and atom packing [1, 2]; (ii) Electric-field-induced shape-transitions and electrocrystallization of liquid droplets [3]. (iii) Pathways of post-ionization proton-coupled-electron-transfer reactions in DNA, underlying mutagenesis and malignancy, and involving a segmented-water-wire transport mechanism [4]; (iv) Single and dielectron attachment, solvation, and hydrogen evolution in water clusters [5]; (v) Coexistence of correlated electron liquids and weakly-pinned Wigner crystals under magnetic fields in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime [6].

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] (a) U. Landman, “Materials by Numbers: Computations as Tools of Discovery”, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 102, 6671 (2005). (b) U. Heiz & U. Landman, Nanocatalysis (Springer, 2006). [2] C. Zeng, et. al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 13114 (2012); A. Desireddy, et al., “Ultrastable Silver Nanoparticles”, Nature 501, 399 (2013) ; S.M. Lang, et al., Nano Letters 13, 5549 (2013). [3] W.D. Luedtke, J. Gao, U. Landman, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 20343 (2011), Feature Article. [4] R.N. Barnett, et al., Science 294, 567 (2001); J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10798 (2006); Acct. Chem. Res., 43, 280 (2010); J.J Joseph et. al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 3904 (2013). [5] R.N. Barnett, R. Giniger, O. Cheshnovsky, U. Landman, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 73 (2011). [6] C. Yannouleas and U. Landman, PRB 84, 165327 (2011); Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 206 (2007).

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S 1

pin Seebeck Effect in a Variety of Magnetic Systems Sadamichi Maekawa1 M. Ricardo Ibarra2 and Eiji Saitoh3

Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan 2 Institututo de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain 3 WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku Univeristy, Japan maekawa.sadamichi@jaea.go.jp

When metals and semiconductors are placed in a temperature gradient, the electric voltage is generated. This mechanism to convert heat into electricity, the so-called Seebeck effect, has attracted much attention as the mechanism for utilizing wasted heat energy [1]. Ferromagnetic insulators are good conductors of spin current, i.e., the flow of electron spins [2]. When they are placed in a temperature gradient, generated are spin current and the spin voltage [3], i.e., spin accumulation. Once the spin voltage is converted into the electric voltage by the inverse spin Hall effect in attached metal films, the electric voltage is obtained from heat energy [4-6]. This is called the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). Here, we present our recent progress in the study on the spin Seebeck effect in collaboration with the Zaragoza team headed by M. R. Ibarra [7].

References [1] S. Maekawa et al., Physics of Transition Metal Oxides (Springer, 2004). [2] S. Maekawa et al.: Spin Current (Oxford University Press, 2012). [3] Concept in Spin Electronics, eds. S. Maekawa (Oxford University Press, 2006). [4] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455 (2008) 778. [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Materials 9 (2010) 894. [6] H. Adachi et al., Rept. Prog. Phys. 76 (2013) 636501. [7] R. Ramos et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 (2013) 072413.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Figure

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the spin Seebeck effect

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


V

ersatility and Multifunctionality of Porous Photonic Structures Hernán Míguez Spanish National Research Council, Institute of Materials Science of Seville hernan@icmse.csic.es

In recent times, several synthetic pathways have been developed to create photonic materials of diverse composition that combine accessible porosity and optical properties of structural origin, i.e., not related to absorption. The technological potential of such porous optical materials has recently been demonstrated in various fields such as biological and chemical sensing, photovoltaics, or radiation shielding. In all cases, improved performance is achieved as a result of the added functionality porosity brings on. Also, they offer the possibility to study fundamental light absorption and emission phenomena in materials that could not be integrated in photonic structures before, as well as to develop environmentally responsive coatings with them. In this talk, a unified picture of this emerging field is provided, special emphasis being put in the opportunities it offers in the fields of energy, sensing and radiation protection. References [1] O. Sánchez-Sobrado, G. Lozano , M.E. Calvo, A. Sánchez-Iglesias, L.M. LizMarzán, H. Míguez, Adv. Mater. 2011, 23, 2108. “Interplay of Resonant Cavity Modes with Localized Surface Plasmons: Optical Absorption Properties of Bragg Stacks Integrating Gold Nanoparticles” [2] S. Colodrero, A. Forneli, C. López-López, L. Pellejà, H. Míguez and E. Palomares, Adv. Func. Mater. 2012, 22, 1303. “Efficient Transparent Thin Dye Solar Cells Based on Highly Porous 1D Photonic Crystals” [3] P. Zavala-Rivera, K. Channon, V. Nguyen, E. Sivaniah, D. Kabra, R. H. Friend, S. K. Nataraj, S.A. Al-Muhtaseb, A. Hexemer, M.E. Calvo, H. Míguez, Nature Mater. 2012, 11, 53–57. “Collective Osmotic Shock in Ordered Materials” [4] J.R. Castro-Smirnov, M.E. Calvo, H. Míguez,, Adv. Func. Mater. 2013, 23, 2805. “Selective UV Reflecting Mirrors Based on Nanoparticle Multilayers”

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Q

uantum dot intermediate band solar cells: proving the concept and beyond Yoshitaka Okada Research Center for Advanced Science & Technology (RCAST) The University of Tokyo, Japan okada@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp

High-density array of quantum dots (QDs) incorporated in the active region of a p-i-n junction solar cell has attracted significant attention as a means of utilizing the sub-bandgap infra-red photons to generate additional photocurrent beyond that corresponding to the valence-to-conduction band transition, thereby achieving conversion efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit of a conventional single-junction solar cell. In a QD solar cell, QDs are required to be homogeneous and small in size as well as tightly spaced, which would then lead to formation of an intermediate-band (IB) or a miniband structure that is well separated in energy from the higherorder states. Further, IB should be partially filled with electrons in order to assure an efficient pumping of electrons by providing both empty states to receive electrons being photo-excited from the valence band (VB), and filled states to promote electrons to the conduction band (CB) via absorption of second sub-bandgap photons. Recently, we have developed strain compensation technique to fabricate multiple stacked InAs/GaNAs QD solar cells grown on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) [1,2]. Compensating for lattice strain induced by a QD layer with a spacer layer which exerts an opposite biaxial strain in order to cancel out the average strain to zero, works remarkably well to achieve improved size uniformity, and to avoid generation of defects and dislocations in multiple stacked QD structure. Up to 100 layers of multi-stacking of InAs/GaNAs QDs have been demonstrated using this technique. Next, we have developed a growth technique to directly dope InAs QDs with Si in order to control the quasi-Fermi level of intermediate QD states as schematically drawn in Fig. 1 [3]. The short-circuit current density Isc of QD solar cell has increased from Isc = 24.1 (non-doped QD solar cell) to 30.6 mA/cm2 (direct Si-doped QD solar cell). Further, a clear photocurrent production due to two-step photon absorption has been detected for the first time at room temperature under a filtered AM1.5 solar spectrum.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] R. Oshima, A. Takata, and Y. Okada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 (2008) 083111. [2] R. Oshima, A. Takata, Y. Shoji, K. Akahane, and Y. Okada, Physica E, 42 (2010) 2757. [3] Y. Okada, T. Morioka, K. Yoshida, R. Oshima, Y. Shoji, T. Inoue, and T. Kita, J. Appl. Phys. 109 (2011) 024301.

Figures

Figure 1: Schematic structure of QD intermediate band solar cell fabricated on GaAs substrate with multiple stacks of strain-compensated InAs/GaNAs QDs, direct-doped with approximately one Si atom per QD.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


F

irst observation of a pressure-induced reconstructive phase transition in zeolites Fernando Rey1, J.L. Jordá1, G. Sastre1, S. Valencia1, A. Segura2, D. Errandonea2, R. Lacomba2, F.J. Manjón3 and O. Gomis3 Instituto de Tecnología Química (ITQ), UPV-CSIC, Spain1 Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales - UV, Spain2 Instituto de Diseño y Fabricación (IDF) - UPV, Spain2 frey@itq.upv.es

A special area of high pressure research is the study of ordered porous solids. Unlike dense materials, their structures present empty volumes, resulting in low framework densities. The most remarkable examples of inorganic crystalline microporous solids are zeolitic materials, composed of silicon oxide and/or other elements like Al, B, Ti or Ge (called T-atoms), where T appears in a tetrahedral coordination. These tetrahedra are arranged in such a way that they form well-defined channels and cavities of molecular dimensions, and have a broad range of applications in catalysis, separation and adsorption processes. Previous studies found that, under high pressures, tilting of TO4/2 tetrahedra has relatively low energy barriers, while shortening of T-O distances requires higher energies. So, at relatively low pressures, distortions are due to inter-tetrahedra tilting around bridging oxygen atoms, which act as structural ‘hinges’ [1]. In this process, zeolites usually undergo a reversible transition in which they are converted into low density amorphous phases. However, further compression leads to a high density amorphous phase that does not revert back to the original zeolite, suggesting a transition between amorphous solids (polyamorphism) in which some T-O bonds are broken and new T-O linkages are formed [2]. Despite of the number of high-pressure experiments performed on porous solids, the formation of any new zeolite has never been reported. So, it has been claimed that reconstructive phase-transitions, with a change in topology between crystalline phases, do not occur in tetrahedral SiO2polymorphs, as feldspars and zeolites [1,2]. However, contrary to this claim, we found for the first time a pressure-induced irreversible solid-to-solid transition between zeolitic structures. In this case, the pure silica analogue of zeolite A (ITQ-29) was transformed into a new topology (named ITQ-50).

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


ITQ-29 (having LTA structure) combines the simplest zeolite structure (cubic symmetry, one silicon and three oxygen as independent positions) and a very high stability. So, it was chosen for this study, using silicon oil as pressure transmitting medium, which is too large for penetrating into the void channels of the structure. ITQ-29 undergoes two transformations in the range between atmospheric pressure and 6 GPa, being identified a new phase, but no amorphization occurs. The first phase transformation was observed at 1.2 GPa, being fully reversible and ITQ-29 is recovered after pressure release. However, the second transformation, at around 3.2 GPa, is non-reversible, producing a new material named ITQ-50. Unfortunately, the low resolution of the in situ DAC experiments precluded the complete structural analysis of ITQ-50 and only the cell parameters were obtained from the diffraction patterns. Then, a large volume Paris-Edinburgh cell with a mixture of Fluorinert as transmitting medium was employed for recovering enough sample of ITQ-50 to perform additional lab XRD measurement. This new pattern allowed solving the crystal structure of ITQ-50. The parent ITQ-29 and the resulting ITQ-50 materials are different zeolites. The main differences are i) the number of independent Si sites (one in ITQ-29, four in ITQ-50), and ii) their connectivities. A comparison of their structures, together with theoretical calculations, allowed understanding the transformation mechanism. As a conclusion, it can be said that we have undoubtfully evidenced for the first time that zeolites could be transformed into different zeolitic topologies by the effect of pressure, leading from the pure silica zeolite A (ITQ-29) to the new zeolite ITQ-50.

References [1] C.D. Gatta, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 128 (2010) 78. [2] G.N. Greaves, F. Meneau, F. Kargl, D. Ward, P. Holliman, F. Albergamo, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 415102.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


D

o we understand the Dirac Point (Spin) Transport Physics in Graphene? Stephan Roche CIN2 (ICN-CSIC) and Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Spain ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Spain stephan.roche@icn.cat

The ultimate nature of the Dirac point transport physics has been recently experimentally and theoretically debated, with the puzzling increase of the Dirac point resistivity with temperature lowering, in situation of electron-hole puddles screening, and in total contradiction with earlier observations of minimum conductivity. New amazing electronic features also occur at high energy when graphene is weakly interacting with BN layers, and a Moiré pattern develops. The transport physics at those new secondary Dirac points is currently debated, in the context of the first observation of the Hofstadter butterfly. On the other hand, the disorder (or order)-induced valley and spin symmetry breaking has also become an issue of great concern in the Quantum Hall regime, with conflicting or competing mechanisms (defect-induced A/B sublattice degeneracy breaking, electron-electron interaction and quantum Hall ferromagnetism…), introduced to analyze the Landau levels splitting and additional quantized Hall conductance plateaus, sometimes even related to an unconventional dissipative nature of the QHE. Finally spin relaxation mechanism in graphene remains a complete mystery, in which conventional relaxation mechanisms (Elliot-Yaffet and Dyakonov-Perel) seem inappropriate to capture the full picture of spin diffusion in clean graphene. In this talk, I will first discuss how the Dirac point transport physics evolves from the ballistic to localization regime in presence of defects-induced zero energy modes, and show how Moiré pattern on transport at secondary Dirac point. I will then report on some defect fingerprints in the quantum Hall regime such as energy level splitting, electron-hole asymmetry or the formation of novel types of impurity-pinned magnetic states, at the origin of new Hall conductance plateaus in the QHE phase diagram. Finally, hitherto unknown spin relaxation mechanism unique to graphene will be presented.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


R

ecent progress in self-organized growth of quantum dot and wire structures and their advanced device applications H. Sakaki1,2 M. Ohmori1, T. Noda2, T. Kawazu2 and T. Mano2 1

2

Toyota Technological Institute, Japan National Institute of Materials Science, Japan h-sakaki@toyota-ti.ac.jp

Epitaxial growth methods such as molecular beam epitaxy and organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy have played important roles for the formation of quantum wells (QWs), superlattices (SLs), and selectively-doped heterojunctions, as they enable one to form these layered nanostructures. Two-dimensional (2D) carriers confined in these structures have been used to make a set of core semiconductor devices, such as QW lasers, heterostructure FETs, and quantum cascade lasers. To explore further potentials of nanostructures, the use of 1D and 0D electrons in quantum wires (QWRs) and quantum dots (QDs) was proposed to make advanced devices [1], such as planar SLs [2], QWR FETs [3], and QD lasers [4]. Though QWRs and QDs could not readily be made, these proposals induced intensive efforts to develop various methods to fabricate these nanostructures. While e-beam lithography was first used to form QWRs and QDs of about 100nm in size, several methods to form 10nm-scale QWRs and/or QDs have been realized; they include the overgrowth of an n-AlGaAs layer on the cleaved edge of GaAs QWs, the site-selective growth along bunched steps on tilted substrates, the facet-selective growth on patterned substrates and so on [1]. It has been also found that 10nm-scale QDs can be self-organized by using the StranskiKrastanow (SK) growth of nanoparticles on lattice-mismatched substrates and by the droplet epitaxy, in which metal droplets are formed and transformed to QDs of intermetallic compounds [1]. In particular, the SK growth has been extensively used to make a variety of QD devices, such as QD lasers of excellent temperature stability [5], single-photon emitters, and interband /intersubband QD photodectors [1]. Moreover, self-organized growth methods of 10nm-scale QWRs and related nanostructures have been developed, such as the stacking of multiple SK QDs and the vapor-liquid-solid growth of nano- wires on catalytic nanoparticles; these methods have been extensively used to make such QWR/QD- based devices as QWR FETs, single-electron transistors, LEDs, photodetectors and so on.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


In this talk, we review recent progress and discuss prospects of QD/QWR growth and devices.

References [1] See for review, H. Sakaki: Tech. Digest of IEEE Int’l Electron Devices Meeting 9-16 (2007) [2] H. Sakaki, K. Wagatsuma, J. Hamasaki, and S. Saito: Thin Solid Films 36 (1976) 497. [3] H. Sakaki: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19 (1980) L735. [4] Y. Arakawa and H, Sakaki: Appl. Phys. Lett 40 (1982) 939. [5] K. Otubo, 6 others, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part II 43 (2004) L1124

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


D

FT Based Simulations of Electron Dynamics in Solids and Nanostructures Daniel Sánchez-Portal Centro de Física de Materiales UPV/EHU-CSIC San Sebastián, Spain sqbsapod@ehu.es

We have recently used simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to study a number of problems related to the dynamics of electrons in solids and nanostructures. Some of the simulations are based on a simplified jellium description of large clusters, while in other cases the full complexity of the atomic structure is taken into account. For example, the electronic energy loss of ions, like protons, antiprotons and He, has been studied in metals and insulators [1,2,3]. Although radiation damage processes are of extraordinary fundamental and technological importance, ab initio simulations of these effects in solids are still very scarce to date. Most simulations for solids and condensed systems are based on semi-empirical approaches, in which the effect of electronic stopping is frequently incorporated in simulations through an ion and target dependent friction coefficient. However, it has been recently observed that there are significant deviations from linearity at low velocities in insulators and noble metals, both showing different kinds of threshold effects. Our simulations using time-evolving TD-DFT could reproduce the anomalies in the stopping power observed experimentally for projectile velocities below 0.3 a.u., for insulators and noble metals [1,2]. We could also study the influence of the electron excitations on the effective internuclear forces when an Al target is bombarded with protons [3]. Understanding of such effects demands an explicit treatment of the electronic stopping in the presence of the actual atoms and actual electronic structure of the host system. For this reason, we have recently developed a version of the SIESTA code [4], a first-principles code that uses a linear combination of atomic orbitals as a basis set, that allows performing coupled electron-nuclear dynamics within the Ehrenfest approximation. We have also considered the problem of the stopping of a particle nearby a metal surface, and whether it can be described using an effective, velocity independent, friction coefficient. For these simulations we have used jellium clusters of different sizes [5].

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Time permitting I will comment on the methods that we have developed to estimate resonant charge-transfer times from adsorbates on metal surfaces using first-principles density functional calculations and some of its applications [6,7,8].

References [1] J. M. Pruneda, D. Sánchez-Portal, A. Arnau, J. I. Juaristi, and Emilio Artacho Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 235501 [2] M. A. Zeb, J. Kohanoff, D. Sánchez-Portal, A. Arnau, I. Juaristi and E. Artacho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 225504 [3] A. A. Correa, J. Kohanoff, E. Artacho, D. Sánchez-Portal and A. Caro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) [4] J. M Soler, E. Artacho, J. D. Gale, A. García, J. Junquera, P. Ordejón and D. Sánchez-Portal, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 (2002) 2745 [5] N. Koval, D. Sánchez-Portal, A. G. Borisov, R. Díez Muiño, Nanoscale Research Letters 7, (2012) 477; Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 317 (2013) 56 [6] D. Sánchez-Portal, Prog. Surf. Sci. 82 (2007) 312 [7] A. Fölisch et al., Nature 436 (2005) 373 [8] R. D. Muiño, D. Sanchez-Portal, V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov and P. M. Echenique, PNAS 108 (2011) 971

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


A

ptasensors: detecting small molecules with a kiss. Jean-Jacques ToulmĂŠ ARNA Laboratory, Inserm U869, European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, University of Bordeaux, France jean-jacques.toulme@inserm.fr www.iecb.u-bordeaux.fr/teams/TOULME/Site_TOULME/Welcome.html www.iecb.u-bordeaux.fr/index.php/fr/novaptech

Aptamers are oligonucleotides identified through a combinatorial procedure from a pool of up to 1015 different randomly synthesized candidates. They generally exhibit high affinity and specificity for a pre-determined ligand thanks to their 3D shape, making them potential rivals of antibodies. Besides developments in the perspective of therapeutic applications, aptamers receive increasing attention as bio- and nano-technological tools. Taking advantage of a previously published work we designed new sensors for the detection of analytes of interest. Kissing complexes result from the interaction between two nucleic acid hairpins displaying complementary loops. We engineered hairpin aptamers in such a way that they switch from unfolded to folded conformations upon binding to their cognate ligand, hence the generic name "aptaswitch". The folded state is recognized by a short RNA hairpin termed "aptakiss" that engage loop-loop (kissing) interactions. We show that the aptaswich- aptakiss sensing complex allows the specific detection of adenosine or GTP by surface plasmon resonance thanks to a biochip-immobilized aptakiss. These analytes can also be detected in solution by fluorescence anisotropy. The potential of these biosensors will be described.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


References [1] Ducongé, F., Di Primo, C. and Toulmé, J.J. (2000) Is a closing "GA pair" a rule for stable loop-loop RNA complexes? J. Biol. Chem., 275, 21287-21294. [2] Da Rocha Gomes, S., Miguel, J., Azema, L., Eimer, S., Ries, C., Dausse, E., Loiseau, H., Allard, M. and Toulmé, J.J. (2012) (99m)Tc-MAG3-Aptamer for Imaging Human Tumors Associated with High Level of Matrix Metalloprotease-9. Bioconjug Chem, 23, 2192-2200. [3] Delaurière, L., Dong, Z., Laxmi-Reddy, K., Godde, F., Toulmé*, J-J., Huc*, I. (2012) Deciphering oligoamide foldamer-DNA interactions. Angewandte Chemie 51, 473-477. [4] Dausse, E., Taouji, S., Evade, L., Di Primo, C., Chevet, E. and Toulmé, J.J. (2011) HAPIscreen, a method for high-throughput aptamer identification. J Nanobiotechnology, 9, 25. [5] Dausse, E., Da Rocha Gomes, S. and Toulmé, J.J. (2009) Aptamers: a new class of oligonucleotides in the drug discovery pipeline? Curr Opin Pharmacol, 9, 602-607. [6] Da Rocha Gomes, S., Azéma, L., Allard, M. and Toulmé, J. (2010) Aptamers as imaging agents. Expert Opin Med Diagn, 4, 511-518.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


E

lectrocatalytic Activity of Boron Nitride Nanosheets for Oxygen Reduction Reaction - Theoretical and Experimental Investigations Kohei Uosaki1,2

Ganesan Elumalai1,2, Hidenori Noguchi1,2, Andrey Lyalin2 and Tetsuya Taketsugu2 1

National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan 2 Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan uosaki.kohei@nims.go.jp

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the most important processes in fuel cells as well as in biological system. Pt based electrocatalyst is most efficient for ORR with low overpotential. However, due to high cost, less abundance, poor stability in electrochemical environment, and still sluggish kinetics of Pt based catalysts, there are worldwide research efforts to find non-precious metal catalysts. N- and B-doped carbon materials have been demonstrated to be effective metal free ORR catalysts and one may expect the increase of ORR activity by consecutive substitution of carbon atoms in graphene by B and N atoms. In an extreme case, if all carbon atoms in graphene are substituted by B and N atoms, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer, which has geometric structure similar to the graphene, is obtained. Although BN is an insulator with a wide band gap (5.8eV), our recent theoretical studies showed that the band gap of h-BN monolayer can be considerably reduced by B- and N- vacancy and impurity defects as well as by interaction with Ni substrate and BN on appropriate substrates can be used as an ORR catalyst [1,2]. In the present study, ORR activity of BN nanosheets (BNNS) on Au(111) is predicted theoretically and proved experimentally. DFT calculations for BN/Au(111) show a slight protrusion of the unoccupied BN states towards the Fermi level due to the interaction between BN and Au(111) and presence of a metastable highly activated configuration of O2 on hBN/Au(111) with the binding energy of -0.05 eV and stable configurations of O2 adsorbed at the edge of the BN islands on Au(111) surface, showing the possible ORR activity of BN/Au(111). BNNS obtained by liquid exfoliation method was placed on a substrate, Au(111) or glassy carbon, by spin coating. Figure 1 shows linear sweep voltammograms of bare polycrystalline Au (black line), BNNS/Au (red line), bare glassy carbon (GC), and BNNS deposited GC (BNNS/GC) in a rotating disk electrode (RDE) configuration in an O2 saturated 0.5M H2SO4 solution at the rotation rate of

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


1500 rpm with the scan rate of 10 mV/s. The polarization curve of BNNS/Au clearly shows the enhancement of ORR activity compared with that at the bare poly Au. It is interesting that no ORR activity enhancement by BNNS was observed in the case of GC electrode, showing the important role of BNsubstrate interaction as suggested by the theoretical calculation.

References [1] A. Lyalin, A. Nakayama, K. Uosaki, and T. Taketsugu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15 (2013) 2809. [2] A. Lyalin, A. Nakayama, K. Uosaki, and T. Taketsugu, J. Phys. Chem. C, 117 (2013) 21359.

Figures

Figure 1. Linear sweep voltammograms of bare poly Au (black line), BNNS/Au (red line), bare GC (blue) and BNNS/GC (green) in an O2 saturated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. Rotation rate: 1500 rpm. Scan rate: 10 mV/s.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


P

iezotronics and Piezo-phototronics Zhong Lin Wang School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta USA Satellite Lab, MANA, National Institute for Materials, Japan zlwang@gatech.edu

Piezoelectricity, a phenomenon known for centuries, is an effect that is about the production of electrical potential in a substance as the pressure on it changes. Wurtzite structures such as ZnO, GaN, InN and ZnS, due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. The effect of piezopotential to the transport behavior of charge carriers is significant due to their multiple functionalities of piezoelectricity, semiconductor and photon excitation. By utilizing the advantages offered by these properties, a few new fields have been created. Electronics fabricated by using inner-crystal piezopotential as a “gate” voltage to tune/control the charge transport behavior is named piezotronics, with applications in strain/force/pressure triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors and logic units. Piezophototronic effect is a result of three-way coupling among piezoelectricity, photonic excitation and semiconductor transport, which allows tuning and controlling of electro-optical processes by strain induced piezopotential. The objective of this talk is to introduce the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezophototronics and to give an updated progress about their applications in energy science (LED, solar) and sensors (photon detector and human-CMOS interfacing). References [1] W.Z. Wu, X.N. Wen, Z.L. Wang “Pixel-addressable matrix of vertical-nanowire piezotronic transistors for active/adaptive tactile imaging”, Science, 340 (2013) 952957. [2] C.F. Pan, L. Dong, G. Zhu, S. Niu, R.M. Yu, Q. Yang, Y. Liu, Z.L. Wang* “Micrometerresolution electroluminescence parallel-imaging of pressure distribution using piezoelectric nanowire-LED array”, Nature Photonics, 7 (2013) 752-758. [3] Z.L. Wang “Piezopotential Gated Nanowire Devices: Piezotronics and Piezophototronics”, Nano Today, 5 (2010) 540-552. [4] Q. Yang, W.H. Wang, S. Xu and Z.L. Wang* “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect”, Nano Letters, 11 (2011) 4012–4017. [5] W.Z. Wu, Y.G. Wei and Zhong Lin Wang , Adv. Materials, “Strain-gated piezotronic logic nanodevices “, Adv. Materials, 22 (2010) 4711.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


I

nnovation in nanomedicine through materials nanoarchitectonics: Facts and Challenges Françoise M. Winnik WPI Research Center Initiative, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan Pharmacie and Département de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, Canada winnik.francoise@nims.gp.jp francoise.winnik@umontreal.ca

Advances in nanomedicine over the last decade call for new means of drug delivery and new diagnostics tools. It has been suggested that synergistic combinations of several material components or structural features can spur the development of more effective delivery systems [1]. Also, by controlling simultaneously the size, shape, and targeting ability of a nanoparticle, one can achieve substantial enhancement of drug delivery towards specific pathological sites[2]. From the practical view point however, it can be quite challenging to convert individual nano-objects into multifunctional and integrated drug delivery systems. Current and anticipated functions in nanomedicine of self-assembled and hybrid nanoparticles will be presented within the framework of Materials Nanoarchitectonics [3,4], a strategy designed to stir innovation in nanotechnology and tp facilitate the necessary shift within classical materials science as it is faced with the challenge of creating new devices starting from nano-objects endowed of unique properties. The approach shuns the conventional analytical aspects of nanotechnology in favor of a synthetic view conducive to innovation. It is intended to lead to integrated assemblies that display concerted functions by virtue of mutual interactions among their units (Figure 1).

References [1] S. M. Moghimi, D.Peer, R. Langer, R. ACS Nano 5 (2011) 8454−8458. [2] L. Y. T Chou, K. Ming, W.C.W Chan, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40 (2011) 233−245. [3] P. Kujawa, F. M. Winnik, Langmuir, 29 (2013) 7354-7361 [4] P. Kujawa, F. M. Winnik, Polymer Int. (2013) DOI 10.1002/pi4663

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Figures

Figure 1: Materials nanoarchitectonics offer an integrated approach for the design, exploration, and fabrication of new nanomaterials for biology, medicine, and pharmaceutical applications, encompassed here in the term “Nano-Life”. It is based on five pillars: self-organization, chemical manipulation, new atom/molecule manipulation, field-induced interaction, and theory (from ref. 3).

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coustic Phonons in Ultra-Thin Silicon Membranes J. Ahopelto1

A. Shchepetov1, M. Prunnila1, S. Reparaz2, J. Cuffe3, E. Chavez-Angel2, F. Alzina2, J. Gomis-Bresco2, B. Graczykowski2 and C. M. Sotomayor Torres2 1

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland 2 Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Barcelona, Spain 3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Jouni.Ahopelto@vtt.fi

Understanding of thermal properties and behaviour of phonons in nanoscale structures is becoming more and more important due to the continuous miniaturization of devices and the consequent need to control the heat dissipation. In the literature there is an increasing collection of theoretical papers on various aspects of phononics but experimental verification of the models has proven to be challenging. Ultra-thin membranes provide one way to probe the effects of acoustic phonon confinement on thermal properties and since the earlier experiments [1, 2] there has been increasing activity in the field. In this talk we will describe the recent advances in fabrication of ultra-thin, sub10 nm thick, silicon membranes [3], development of new characterization techniques for heat propagation based on Raman spectroscopy [4], and the consequences of confinement on acoustic phonon dispersion and phonon lifetimes [5, 6].

References [1] C. M. Sotomayor Torres et al., phys. Stat. sol. (c) 1 (2004) 2609. [2] J. Groenen et al., Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 45420. [3] A. Shchepetov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 (2013) 192108. [4] S. Reparaz et al., APL Materials, in print. [5] J. Cuffe et al., Nano Letters 12 (2012) 3569. [6] J. Cuffe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 (2013) 095503.

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mart anticancer nanofibers that allows the simultaneous use of chemo- and thermotherapy Mitsuhiro Ebara, Young-Jin Kim, Koichiro Uto and Takao Aoyagi

Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan EBARA.Mitsuhiro@nims.go.jp

During the past few years increased attention has been given to stimuliresponsive or smart polymeric nanofibers owing to their ability to act as an ‘onoff’ switch. Dynamically and reversibly tunable structures of smart nanofibers have the potential to be utilized for ‘on-off’ delivery of drugs or cells [1, 2]. Since smart polymers respond to small changes in external stimuli with large discontinuous changes in their physical properties, the incorporation of a further functionality such as self-heating properties into smart nanofibers opens novel opportunities in biomedical fields such as hyperthermic therapy and beyond. Here we report on hyperthermia nanofibers with both heat-generating and drug releasing abilities for improved hyperthermic chemotherapy (Fig.1a). The hyperthermia nanofibers are composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and temperature-responsive polymers, which serve as a source of heat and a trigger of drug release, respectively (Fig.1b). We demonstrate that the heat-generating MNPs can induce collapse of the nanofiber networks followed by release of anticancer drug [3]. References [1] Kim YJ et al., Angew Chem Intl Ed. 2012; 51: 10537-10541. [2] Kim YJ et al., Sci Tech Adv Mater. 2012; 13: 064203. [3] Kim YJ et al., Adv Func Mater. in press. Figures

Fig 1: (a) Photographs of smart nanofiber mesh composed of magnetic nanoparticles and temperature-responsive polymers, which serve as a source of heat and a trigger of drug release, respectively. (b) Schematic illustration of the therapeutic strategy of cancers using the smart nanofiber mesh.

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graphene electron lens Lukas Gerhard1

E. Moyen2, T. Balashov3, I. Ozerov2, M. Portail4, H. Sahaf2, L. Masson2, W. Wulfhekel1,3, and M. Hanbücken2

Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany 2 CINaM-CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, France 3 Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany 4 CRHEA-CNRS, Parc de Sophia – Antipolis, France Lukas.Gerhard@kit.edu

Single atomic layers of graphene show intriguing electronic and transport properties, and in the last few years they have been in the focus of interest for two-dimensional electron devices with high electron mobilities. Although the classical way to produce graphene is by exfoliation from a graphite crystal, supported graphene layers can also be obtained by graphitization of SiC in ultra-high vacuum. It is known that a more homogeneous surface is obtained when the preparation is carried out in argon atmosphere of up to 1 bar, which slows down the graphitization process and results in extended layers of graphene. We studied these graphene layers with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which allows direct atomic resolution and the unambiguous identification of possible defects in the graphene layer. The graphitization of a stepped surface of SiC still results in a continuous graphene layer that then covers the steps of the supporting surface like a carpet. Recently, we have shown that the continuous growth of graphene follows even a stronger relief and grows smoothly on a SiC(0001) surface structured with hexagonal faceted nano holes [1]. Graphene has a very high elastic limit of nearly 30 % which allows to follow the facets of the hole by local straining of less than 1 %. Both the longer geometrical path and the lowering of the group velocity due to the stretching of the graphene at the facets lead to a retardation of the electrons passing across the hole. This arrangement is expected to behave like a focusing lens for the electron waves propagating in the two dimensions of the graphene layer. While the inclination of the facets is in the range of 5° to 7°, the relation between the depth of the hole and its diameter, thus the stretching of the graphene layer, is the parameter that can be used to tune the focal length. Typical holes of a few hundred nanometers in diameter and a depth of some nanometers result in focal lengths in the range of a few micrometers.

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We have shown that pre-patterning of the SiC(0001) surface can be performed by focused ion beam lithography or by reactive ion etching through a structured porous alumina membrane [2] in order to obtain lens arrays on larger areas. The change of the electronic structure due to the focusing effect will lead to modifications in the work function of the graphene surface in the vicinity of the focal points, which can be measured with PEEM, Kelvin probe force microscopy or STM, depending on the lateral dimensions of the lens array. The principle of indirect tailoring of the electronic properties of graphene by variation of strain avoids the problems that are linked to a direct engineering of the graphene layer itself and opens up a way towards a deliberate design of graphene-based high speed electronics.

References [1] L. Gerhard, E. Moyen, T. Balashov, I. Ozerov, M. Portail, H. Sahaf, L. Masson, W. Wulfhekel, M. Hanbücken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, (2012) 153106 [2] W. Wee, E. Moyen, W. Wulfhekel, A. Leycuras, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele, M. Hanbücken, Appl. Phys. A 83, (2006) 361–363

Figures

Fig 1. SEM of a hexagonal Fig 2. Simulation of the focusing effect of three nano-hole in SiC different hexagonal 2D electron lenses

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euromorphic Functions Achieved by Atomic Switches Tsuyoshi Hasegawa Tohru Tsuruoka, Kazuya Terabe and Masakazu Aono National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) Tsukuba, Japan HASEGAWA.Tsuyoshi@nims.go.jp

In developments of neuromorphic systems, functions such as a synaptic function have been emulated by a circuit consisting of CMOS devices and analog devices, limiting the large-scale integration of neuromorphic functions. Recently, various nonvolatile memories, such as PCMs, ReRAMs, and FeRAMs, have achieved synaptic functions by a single device, enabling a large-scale integration of nueromorphic functions. Atomic switch is one of the nonvolatile memories, which is operated by controlling formation/annihilation of a metal filament using solid electrochemical reactions [1]. Among various atomic switches, a gap-type atomic switch shows unique neuromorphic functions because of its unique operation mechanism. That is, multiple phenomena occur in the operation of a gap-type atomic switch. Namely, diffusion of metal cations in a solid electrolyte such as Ag2S, their reduction/oxidation processes at a surface, diffusion of precipitated metal atoms on a surface. This multiplicity enables learning based on sensory, short-term, long-term memorization depending on the frequency of input pulses [2], which is observed in human brain when learning something. Since the synaptic weight change has been controlled by CMOS-based neuron circuits in developments of neuromorphic systems, the self-organized synaptic operations demonstrated by the gap-type atomic switch showed the potential for developing new types of neuromorphic systems. Recently we found that gapless-type atomic switch also shows the synaptic functions [3]. In the symposium, the synaptic functions achieved by gap-type and gapless-type atomic switches, and other novel functions those can be used in developing neuromorphic systems [4] are introduced. References [1] K. Terabe, T. Hasegawa, T. Nakayama and M. Aono, Nature, 433 (2005) 47. [2] T. Ohno, T. Hasegawa, T. Tsuruoka, K. Terabe, J. K. Gimzewski and M. Aono, Nature Mater., 10 (2011) 591. [3] T. Tsuruoka, T. Hasegawa, K. Terabe and M. Aono, Nanotechnol., 23 (2012) 435705. [4] T. Hino, T. Hasegawa, H. Tanaka, T. Tsuruoka, K. Terabe, T. Ogawa and M. Aono, Nanotechnol. 24 (2013) 384006.

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anorobotic swimmers: fabrication, control and applications Gilgueng Hwang, Paul Serrano, Dominique Decanini, Laurent Couraud and Anne-Marie Gosnet-Haghiri LPN-CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France gilgueng.hwang@lpn.cnrs.fr

Micro/nanoscale robotic swimmers have a great potential to biologic or biomedical applications where conventional tools cannot be applied. Although their swimming capability inside microfluidic channels is essential to various in vivo and in vitro applications, efficient and robust propulsion is still challenging due to low Reynolds physics and dominant surface effects [1]. Various helical nanoswimmers mimicking nature's flagella have recently been demonstrated but none of them demonstrated closed microfluidic channel navigations [2-4]. In this abstract, we show that our recently developed multiflagella artificial bacteria (MAB) are able to swim inside microfluidic channels. The MABs are fabricated by 3-D lithography based on two-photon laser absorption (Fig. 1). The lithographically patterned MABs are metalized with ferromagnetic layer. The tumbling and rolling motions of MABs are controlled by electromagnetic coil setup under optical microscope (Fig. 2). The magnetically controlled MABs can trap particle by creating local vortex and also travel through the microfluidic channel under dynamic pressure (Fig. 3).

References [1] J. Wang, Lab Chip, 12 (2012) 1944-1950. [2] L. Zhang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 12 (2012) 064107. [3] G. Hwang et al., Intl. J. Rob. Res., 30 (2011) 806-819. [4] S. Tottori et al., Adv. Mats., 24 (2012) 811-816.

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Figures

Fig. 1 Design and fabrication of MAB

Fig. 2 Magnetic control system overview

Fig. 3 Controlled particle trapping and transport by vortex (top) and propulsion inside microfluidic channels under dynamic pressure (middle and bottom)

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ew Experiments and Applications Made Possible by a Low Temperature 4-Tip STM with UHV-SEM Navigation Markus Maier B.Uder, B. Guenther, J. Chrost, J. Koeble and A. Feltz Omicron NanoTechnology GmbH, Germany Markus.Maier@oxinst.com

A major challenge in the development of novel devices in nano- and molecular electronics is their interconnection with larger scale electrical circuits required to control and characterize their functional properties. Local electrical probing by multiple probes with STM precision can significantly improve efficiency in analyzing individual nano-electronic devices without the need of a full electrical integration. Recently we developed a new microscope stage that merges the requirements of a SEM navigated 4-probe STM and at the same time satisfy the needs for high performance SPM at low temperatures. Besides SEM/STM probe fine navigation and NC-AFM (QPlus) imaging with atomic resolution at temperatures of T<5K, the excellent STM/AFM performance level of the LT NANOPROBE expands applications to tunneling spectroscopy and even the creation or modification of nano-structures or single atoms by a sharp and precise SPM probe. In this contribution we will focus on measurements that prove the performance level of the instrument as well as on tunneling spectroscopy and atom manipulation experiments on Ag(111) at temperatures of T < 5K.

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Figures a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 1: a) SEM image of 4 STM probes placed on a Fe-nanowire for 4-point conductance measurements at T < 5 K; b) High resolution STM image of a Ag(111) surface at T<5K. Imaging parameters: Scan area: 5.7nm x 5.7nm, Ugap= 25mV, Isetpoint=2nA; c) Atom manipulation of Ag-particles on a Ag(111) surface at 5K. Imaging parameters: Scan area: 48.3nm x 48.3nm, Ugap= 90mV, Isetpoint=5.4nA; d) High resolution NC-AFM image of a NaCl(001) surface at T=4.4K. Imaging parameters: f= - 1.3 Hz, fres= 23.8 kHz, A 0.5 nm, Q  20.000, Ugap= -200 mV

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lasmon-enhanced molecular sensing and photocatalyst for green nanotechnology Tadaaki Nagao T. D. Dao, and M. Aono International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) Japan NAGAO.Tadaaki@nims.go.jp

One of the most scientifically as well as technologically interesting phenomena in metal nano-objects is, antenna resonace in closed structure (nanoparticles, nanowires, lithographic structrure) which makes the nano-object strongly coulpled with light. The phenomena exhibits wide variety of applications in the field of nanophotonics, environmental science, and light harvesting technology, by utilising its strong electromagnetic field-enhancement, light absorption/emission associated with the antenna resonances of these metal nanostructures. In this talk I present some fundamental aspects of realizing plasmonic resonators with both narrow-band and broad-band optical response, and then introduce some applications in plasmon-enhanced oxide photocatalysis as well as bio/environmental sensing with excellent specificity and extremely high sensitivity (< attomolar sensitivity) in aqueous solution. We introduce our recent study on the metal nanoparticle-loaded zinc-oxide photocatalyst with increased photocatalytic activity in the visible spectral region. We also report the detection of mercuric ion in environmental water by monitoring the conformational change and the relevant changes in the vibrational signal induced by the absorption of toxicants in bio-molecules. Acknowledgements This work has been done in collaborations with Dr. L.H. Nghiem, Dr. C.V. Hoang from Vietnamese Academy of Science, and Mr. Z. Li, Prof. M. Yoshino from Tokyo Institute of Technology. Discussions with Dr. J. Ye and Dr. N. Umezawa are also acknowledged.

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References [1] Tadaaki Nagao et al. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11 (2010) 054506. [2] Nanoantenna: Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopies for Biotechnological Applications Edited by M.L. Chapelle, A. Pucci (Pan Stanford Series on the High-Tech of Biotechnology, 2013). [3] Chung V. Hoang, et al., Scientific Reports 3 (2013)1175. doi:10.1038/srep01175

Figures

Figure 1: An example for a numerical simulation of the electric field distribution of metal nanoparticle-loaded ZnO nanowire (left) and photocurrent associated with visible light illumination of the fabricated photocatalyst. Dramatic increase in the photocurrent with the visible light illumination is generated after the loading of metal nanoparticles (right).

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hotoactivatable substrate: a new platform for cell migration assay Jun Nakanishi MANA, NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan NAKANISHI.Jun@nims.go.jp

Cell migration plays critical roles in various physiological and pathological processes. For example, it is essential in embryonic development and morphogenesis. Also, cancer metastasis starts with tumor cell migration from original tissues, eventually forming a new colony in other tissues. Therefore, it is important to know how different between cell migration in these salutary and corruptive processes. Various in vitro assays have been developed for studying migratory behavior. Through these studies, it becomes clear that various internal and external factors regulate migration characteristics. However most of which were focusing on soluble factors or oncogenes, and less attention was paid for the contribution of cellular niches, composed of surrounding cells and extracellular matrices, on the regulation process. To address this issue, we developed photoactivatable substrates which change the surface cell adhesiveness in response to light. On these substrates, we are able to not only confine the cells within the irradiated spots for controlling the geometry of individual cells and cell clusters, but also induce their migration by the secondary irradiation. It would remind you the conventional scratching wound healing assay, but the present approach has a big advantage in studying cell migration at the leading edge, as we can precisely control initial cellular pattern and exclude the effect of cell debris created during the scratching process. As an example, we examined the effect of initial cluster geometry on leader cell appearance in an epithelial cell line and found that its collective characteristics became enhanced by increasing cluster size as well as culture time. In addition, we have recently applied this concept to a nanopatterned substrate to look at the impact of cell-substrate interaction on migration collectivity. In this presentation, I will present some of our recent progress in our group. References [1] C. Rolli, H. Nakayama, K. Yamaguchi, J. P. Spatz, R. Kemkemer, J. Nakanishi, "Switchable adhesive substrates: Revealing geometry dependence in collective cell behavior", Biomaterials, 33 (2012) 2409-2418. [2] S. Kaneko, K. Yagamuchi, J. Nakanishi, "Dynamic Substrate Based on Photocleavable Poly(ethylene glycol): Zeta Potential Determines Capability of Geometrical Cell Confinement", Langmuir, 29 (2013) 7300-7308. [3] J. Nakanishi, "Switchable substrates for analyzing and engineering cellular functions", Chemistry an Asian Journal, in press, DOI: 10.1002/asia.201301325

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ultiple-probe Scanning Probe Microscope for Nanometer- and Micrometer-scale Transport Measurements on Nanomaterials Tomonobu Nakayama Nano Functionality Integration Unit, WPI center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan NAKAYAMA.Tomonobu@nims.go.jp

Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) have been widely used for investigating structures and properties of nanoscale structures and materials. Conventional SPM which equip a single probe has realized a variety of measurements depending on properties and/or functions of the probe. However, there have been practical difficulties in executing direct measurements of transport properties of individual objects [1]. In this paper, we present our multiple-probe SPM developed for single nanomaterials to extended nanosystems research. In our MP-SPMs [1], we can use single, double, triple, or quadruple probes depending on the purpose of the measurements. Inter-probe distances down to 50 nm have been achieved with electrochemically etched metal probes so far, and the probes can achieve atomic resolution when imaging a target structure. When we use non-conductive substrates, multiple-probe atomic force microscope [2] can be used by setting specially designed tuning fork type probes [3]. More recently, newly designed MP-SPM has gained ability of noncontact potential mapping over nanomaterials and nanosystems under local current fields given by two or three contact SPM probes. Details of our MP-SPM together with several examples of MP-SPM characterization will be presented.

References [1] T. Nakayama, O. Kubo, Y. Shingaya, S. Higuchi, T. Hasegawa, C.-S. Jiang, T. Okuda, Y. Kuwahara, K. Takami and M. Aono, Adv. Mater. 24, 1675 (2012). [2] S. Higuchi, O. Kubo, H. Kuramochi, M. Aono and T. Nakayama, Nanotechnology 22, 285205 (2011). [3] S. Higuchi, H. Kuramochi, O. Kubo, S. Masuda, Y. Shingaya, M. Aono, and T. Nakayama, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043701 (2011).

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D Oxide Materials and Devices Minoru Osada, Takayoshi Sasaki International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan osada.minoru@nims.go.jp

The discovery of graphene, made of a single atomic layer of carbon, can be considered as a defining point in the research and development of stable, truly 2D material systems. This breakthrough has opened up the possibility of isolating and exploring the fascinating properties of 2D nanosheets of other layered materials, which upon reduction to single/few atomic layers, will offer functional flexibility, new properties and novel applications. We are working on the creation of new oxide nanosheets and the exploration of their novel functionalities in electronic applications (Fig. 1) [1,2]. A variety of oxide nanosheets (such as Ti1-O2, Ti1-xCoxO2, MnO2, and perovskites) were synthesized by delaminating appropriate layered precursors into their molecular single sheets via soft-chemical process. These oxide nanosheets have distinct differences and advantages compared with graphene because of their potential to be used as insulators, semiconductors, and even conductors, depending on their composition and structures. Recently, we found that titania- or perovskite-based nanosheets exhibit superior highperformance (r = 100–320) even at a few-nm thicknesses, essential for nextgeneration electronics. Additionally, nanosheet-based highcapacitors exceeded textbook limits, opening a route to new capacitors and energy storage devices. Another attractive aspect is that oxide nanosheets can be organized into various nanoarchitectures by applying solution-based layer-by-layer assembly. Sophisticated functionalities or nanodevices can be designed through the selection of nanosheets and combining materials, and precise control over their arrangement at the molecular scale. We utilized oxide nanosheets as building blocks in the LEGO-like assembly, and successfully developed various functional nanodevices such as all nanosheet FETs, artificial Pb-free ferroelectrics, spinelectronic devices, magneto-plasmonic materials, Li-ion batteries, etc. Our work is a proof-of-concept, showing that new functionalities and nanodevices can be made from nanosheet-architectures.

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References [1] M. Osada and T. Sasaki, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 2503 (2009) [Review]. [2] M. Osada and T. Sasaki, Adv. Mater. 24, 210 (2012) [Review].

Figures

Fig1: General outline of our work.

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MART FORCE: From A colloidal droplet to the chip – from fundamental research to business opportunities David Peyrade1,

J. Cordeiro1, O. Lecarme1, T. Pinedo-Rivera1, K. Berton1, M. Zelsmann1 and E. Picard2

1

2

LTM CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA, UMR 5129 Grenoble, France SiNaPS lab./SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble1, INAC, Grenoble, France david.peyrade@cea.fr

Colloidal Suspensions (CSs) where a solid phase is suspended in a continuous liquid phase are present in every-day life. In biological or environnemental aqueous solutions, (blood, serum, polluted water..), the dispersed phase is composed of soft-matter at the molecular (DNA) or micrometer scale (blood cells, vesicles, bacterium…). In Nanoscience research field, the dispersed phase of hard matter micro/nanoparticles (metallic, dielectric, magnetic..) referred as ‘artificial atoms’ due to the control of the density of their electronic states/composition/size/shape. Due to their nanometer size, they scatter or emit light opening the control of light propagation/optical sensing at the wavelength scale. But to fully study and exploit their nanoscale properties, rapid and lowcost technological ways must be developed in order to localize in a deterministic way CSs on a substrate (Fig. 1A). My intervention will first present an original alternative strategy to assemble particles on chip we started to develop in 2005. I will describe the fundamental physical mechanisms (hydrodynamic, capillarity..) that govern the self-assembly process [1], Then, the power of this technology (Fig. 1B) will be demonstrated with several key examples either in Nanophotonic (waveguides[2], polychromatic emitters ..[3]), 2D and 3D Plasmonic [5,6], or in Biology (vesicles [7], DNA combing…). The potentiality of this technology will be illustrated in the fabrication of low-cost SERS substrate [7] or as an ultrasensitive detection tool [8,9]. Finally, the pass we pursue to transform a laboratory experiment as an industrial solution will be described [10].

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References [1] Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053112 (2006) - Microelect. Engin, 83 (4-9) 1521-1525 (2006) - J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 2513 (2008) [2] J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06F203 (2012) - Microelectr. Engin. (110) 414-417 (2013) [3] J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6O11 (2010) [4] Microelect. Engin. 88 (8) 1821-1824 (2011) [5] Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 083122 (2011) - Microelect. Engin. 86 (4-6) 1089-192 (2009). [6] J. Phys. Chem. C, Just Accepted DOI: 10.1021/jp406410k 24, (2013) [7] ANR ANTARES P2N N° ANR-07-NANO-0006 (2008-2011) [8] ANR AUBAINE P3N N° ANR-09-NANO-P214-36 (2009-2013) [9] [Patent Pub: 2010-10-0 FR2943785 (A1) WO2010112699 (A1 ) [10] http://www.drt-cea.com/CFS-Edition-2012.htm

Figures

Fig.1 (A): Capillary Force Assembly of Colloïdal suspension based on SMART FORCE Technology. (B): Exemples of colloidal assembly from hard (Micro/Nanoparticles) and soft-matter (DNA, exosomes).

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eductive decomposition mechanism of lithium ion battery electrolyte via DFT free energy simulations on the K(京) computer Yoshitaka Tateyama, Keisuke Ushirogata, Keitaro Sodeyama and Yukihiro Okuno WPI-MANA, NIMS, Tsukuba. Japan TATEYAMA.Yoshitaka@nims.go.jp

Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the electrode - electrolyte interfaces formed through the reductive decomposition of organic solvent molecules plays a crucial role in the stability and capability of lithium ion battery (LIB). Additives to the electrolyte often exhibit a large impact on the SEI quality. A typical example is vinylene carbonate (VC) additive to the ethylene carbonate (EC) solvent (See Figure). Here we investigated the effects of VC additive to the EC solvent on the reductive decomposition and the initial stage of SEI formation. [1] We focused on the thermodynamics as well as the kinetics of the possible processes. We used density functional theory based molecular dynamics (DFTMD) with explicit solvent molecules for the equilibrium properties, and carried out the free energy profile calculations along the reaction pathways using the blue-moon ensemble technique. We compared between Li+ in only EC solvent (EC system) and in EC solvent with a VC additive (EC/VC system) to elucidate the additive effect. Nosé thermostat with a temperature of 353 K is adopted for the finite temperature effect. Further tuning of the DFT-MD code was made for the use of the ten-petaflops supercomputer (K computer) in Japan. Our results reproduce the gaseous products observed in the experiments, and are also consistent with the two electron reduction mechanism recently proposed by Leung for the EC decomposition. [2] Such consistency verifies the accuracy of our calculations. In addition to standard DFT-MD simulations of the equilibrium states, we calculated free energy profiles as exemplified in Figure, where the EC decomposition case is shown. The path (1) corresponds to the CEO2 breaking, while the CC-O2 breaking is denoted in the path (2). The free energy profiles in Figure show that the path (1) is more probable with the reaction and activation free energies of -25 and +5 kcal/mol for the EC decomposition. We have also calculated the same reactions in the EC/VC system as well, and found that the VC decomposition has similar activation barrier through the CC-O2 bond breaking. With calculations of the excess electron stability before the decomposition, we conclude that the reductive

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decomposition of EC is comparable to that of VC, which is different from the conventional scenario that VC additive is preferentially reduced and decomposed compared to the EC solvent. In this presentation, we will discuss the some promising mechanisms of the reductive decomposition of the EC solvent with the VC additive near the negative electrode.

References [1] K. Ushirogata, K. Sodeyama, Y. Okuno, Y. Tateyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135, 11967 (2013). [2] K. Leung, Chem. Phys. Lett. 568-569, 1-8 (2013).

Figures

(1) 2

1

EC

VC

(2) 3

Fig1: (Left) Structures of EC and VC. (Middle) Reaction schemes of one electron reductive decomposition of EC solvent, corresponding to the paths (1) and (2), respectively.

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A

tomically thin semiconducting channels for future nano-electoronics Kazuhito Tsukagoshi WPI-MANA, NIMS Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp

Using atomic-scale thin film of metal chalcogenide layered material, we have developed semiconducting channel for future electronics. We investigated transport properties, particularly scattering property of carrier transport. In this transport experiment, it is found that the carrier scattering from interfacial Coulomb impurities is greatly intensified in extremely thinned channels, resulting from shortened interaction distance between impurities and carriers. Thus, we fabricated MoS2 field-effect transistors on crystalline hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and SiO2 substrates. Temperature dependence of these transistors shows distinct weak temperature dependence of the MoS2 devices on h-BN substrate. At the room temperature, mobility enhancement and reduced interface trap density of the single and bilayer MoS2 devices on h-BN substrate further indicate that reducing substrate traps is crucial for enhancing the mobility in atomically thin MoS2 devices. More detail of carrier scattering in the atomic-scale thin channel will be discussed. Furthermore, we have developed field effect transistor using high-k flak dielectric with layered structure. Acknowledgments We like to thank Dr.H.Miyazaki, Dr.Songlin Li, Dr. A.A.Ferreira, Dr. M.-Y. Chan, Dr.W.Li, Dr.Y.-F.Lin, Dr.S.Nakaharai, Dr.K.Wakabayashi, Dr.M.Osada, Dr.T.Sasaki and Prof.K.Ueno for the collaboration to proceed this research. This work was supported in part by the FIRST Program from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and JSPS- KAKENHI Grant Number 25107004. References [1] S.-L. Li, K.Wakabayashi, Y.Xu, Y.-F.Lin. M.Y.Chen, K.Komatsu, S.Nakaharai, A.Aparecido-Ferreira, W.W. Li, K.Tsukagoshi, Nano Letters 13, 3546 (2013). [2] M.-Y. Chan, K. Komatsu, S.-L.Li, Y.Xu, P.Darmawan, H.Koramochi, S.Nakaharai, K.Watanabe, T.Taniguchi, K.Tsukagoshi, Nanoscale, in press (2013). [3] W.-W. Li, S.-L.Li, K.Komatsu, A.A. Ferreira, Y.-F. Lin, Y.Xu, M.Osada, T.Sasaki, K.Tsukagoshi, Applied Physics Letters 103, 023113 (2013).

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F

unctional Nanoporous Materials: Synthesis and Applications Yusuke Yamauchi National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan Yamauchi.Yusuke@nims.go.jp

Currently, nanoporous materials prepared through the self-assembly of surfactants have attracted growing interests owing to their special properties, including uniform nanopores and a high specific surface area. Here we focus on fine controls of compositions, morphologies, nanochannel orientations which are important factors for design of porous materials with new functionalities. This presentation reports our recent progress toward advanced nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials now include a variety of inorganic-based materials, for example, transition-metal oxides, carbons, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, polymers, and even metals. Nanoporous metals with metallic frameworks can be produced by using surfactant-based synthesis with electrochemical methods. Owing to their metallic frameworks, nanoporous metals with high electroconductivity and high surface areas hold promise for a wide range of potential applications, such as electronic devices, magnetic recording media, and metal catalysts. Fabrication of nanoporous materials with controllable morphologies is also one of the main subjects in this rapidly developing research field. Nanoporous materials in the form of films, spheres, fibers, and tubes have been obtained by various synthetic processes such as evaporation-mediated direct templating (EDIT), spray-dried techniques, and collaboration with hard-templates such as porous anodic alumina and polymer membranes. Furthermore, we have developed several approaches for orientation controls of 1D nanochannels. The macroscopic-scale controls of nanochannels are important for innovative applications such as molecular-scale devices and electrodes with enhanced diffusions of guest species.

References [1] Y. Yamauchi et al., JACS, 135, 18040 (2013); JACS, 135, 16762 (2013); JACS, 135, 586 (2013); JACS, 135, 384 (2013); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., Accepted (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201307126); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52, 8050 (2013); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52, 1235 (2013); JACS, 134, 10819 (2012); JACS, 134, 2864 (2012); JACS, 134, 2864 (2012); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51, 984 (2012); JACS, 14526 (2011); JACS, 133, 9674 (2011); JACS, 133, 8102 (2011); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50, 7410 (2011).

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Figures

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D

esign of Nano-Photocatalytic Materials for Solar Fuel Conversion and Environmental Remediation

1

Jinhua Ye1,2, Hua Tong2, Lequan Liu1, Shuxin Ouyang1 and Naoto Umezawa1,2

National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan 2 TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, Tianjin University, China Jinhua.YE@nims.go.jp

Nano photocatalytic materials have shown great potentials not only in environmental remediation, but also in solar-chemical conversion by photocatalytic water-splitting as well as CO2 reduction. Up to now, we have been involved in researching novel semiconductor photocatalytic materials for a more efficient utilization of solar energy, as well as application of these materials for degradation of hazardous organics and solar fuel production. In this talk, recent achievements and future prospects in challenging the possibilities of the nano-structured photocatalytic materials [1-13], especially for the purpose of carbon dioxide reduction and CH4 fuel production, will be introduced and discussed, from the view point of new materials development, design and control of surface/interface nano-structures for promotion of multielectron reactions, as well as mechanism study from both experimental and theoretical approaches. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

[13]

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, et al., Nature Mater. 9, 559-564 (2010). [S. Ouyang and J. Ye, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 7757-7763 (2011). Y. Bi, S. Ouyang, N. Umezawa, J. Cao, J. Ye, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 6490-6492 (2011). X. Chen, J. Ye, S Ouyang, T. Kako, et al, ACS Nano, 5(6), 4310-4328(2011). H. Tong, S. Ouyang, Y. Bi, N. Umezawa, M. Oshikiri, J. Ye, Adv. Mater., 24(2), 229251, (2012). S. Yan, S. Ouyang,J. Ye, Z. Zou, et al, Angew. Chemie, 49, 6400-6404, (2010). K. Xie, N. Umezawa, N. ZJ.Ye, Energy Environ. Sci., 4, 4211-4219, (2011). N. Zhang, S. Ouyang, T. Kako, and J. Ye, Chem. Comm., 48, 1269–1271, (2012). S. Ouyang, H. Tong, N. Umezawa, J. Cao, P. Li, Y. Bi, Y. Zhang, J. Ye, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134, 1974−1977 (2012). G. Xi, S. Ouyang, P. Li, J.Ye, et al., Angew Chem Int. Ed., 51, 2395 –2399(2012). J. Guo, S. Ouyang, P. Li, Y. Zhang, T. Kako, and J. Ye, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 134135, 286-292 (2013). [H. Zhou, J. Guo, P. Li, J. Ye, et al., Scientific Reports, DOI: 10.1038/srep01667 (2013). L. Liu, S. Ouyang, J. Ye, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52, 6689-6693 (2013).

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N

anomechanical Membrane-type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS) as a Practical Sensing Platform Genki Yoshikawa

World Premier International (WPI) Research Center, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan YOSHIKAWA.Genki@nims.go.jp

The demands for new sensors are rapidly growing in various fields; medicine, security, and environment. Nanomechanical sensors have potential to contribute to these global demands owing to their intrinsic versatility―detecting fundamental parameters, such as “volume” or “mass”. Since all molecules have “volume” and “mass”, nanomechanical transduction of them into detectable signals can realize label-free and real-time measurements of virtually any kind of target specimen. Based on the newly developed platform “Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS)” (Fig. 1) [1], we are now trying to realize useful nanomechanical sensors which can fulfill the practical requirements, such as portability, low-cost, ease of use, in addition to the basic specifications e.g. high sensitivity. To demonstrate the capability of MSS for the multi-dimensional array, we fabricated the second generation MSS (2G-MSS) with a two dimensional array (Fig. 2. (a)) [2]. In addition, the implementation of various modifications in design and microfabrication led to further enhancement of sensitivity, reaching a limit of detection of ~0.1 mN/m, which is even better than that of common optical read-out cantilever sensors (0.15~0.90 mN/m) [2]. For practical applications, one of the major issues of nanomechanical sensors is the difficulty in coating receptor layers on their surface to which target molecules adsorb or react [3]. The MSS also provides an effective solution to this coating issue by means of double-side coating [4]. While a cantilever-type sensor requires a single-side coating to have measurable deflection, MSS has been found to yield reasonable signals even with double-side coatings, allowing almost any kind of coating technique, including dip-coating methods. As the double-side coating is compatible with batch protocols, such as dip coating, the double-side-coated MSS represents a new paradigm of “one-chip-one-channel (channels on a chip are all coated with the same receptor layers)” shifting from the conventional “one-chip-multiple-channel (channels on a chip are coated with different receptor layers)” paradigm [4].

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As for the measurement system, the latest version of the MSS setup can be operated all by USB-connected/powered devices. This setup provides an opportunity for anybody to start nanomechanical sensing with high sensitivity and stability, including the coating of MSS chips by e.g. simple hand-operated dip-coating. Further, the robustness of the MSS structure against both the morphological fluctuation of the receptor layer [5] and the self-heating issue [6] has been also confirmed by experiments and finite element analyses.

References [1] G. Yoshikawa, T. Akiyama, S. Gautsch, P. Vettiger, and H. Rohrer, Nano Lett. 11, 1044 (2011). [2] G. Yoshikawa et al. Sensors 12, 15873 (2012). [3] G. Yoshikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 173502 (2011). [4] G. Yoshikawa et al. Langmuir 29, 7551 (2013). [5] F. Loizeau et al. in preparation. [6] G. Yoshikawa et al. submitted.

Figures

Fig. 1: Membrane-type Fig. 2: (a) Photograph of the fabricated 2G-MSS chip with Surface stress Sensor (MSS) a 2D array. (b) Obtained output signals from each sensor. in array and the examples of possible targets.

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E

lectronic transport in multiwalled carbon nanotubes Markus Ahlskog1

1

Davie Mtsuko1, A. Koshio2, M. Yudasaka2 and S. Iijima2

Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland 2 NEC Research Center, Tsukuba, Japan ahlskog@jyu.fi

We have measured the low temperature transport properties of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) of diameters (D) in the range 2-17 nm (Figure 1). Almost all previous work on MWNT’s has been on tubes with diameters above 10 nm. In nearly all samples in this work, with D < 10 nm, the gate dependent conductance exhibits a gap whose size increases with the inverse tube diameter and increasing electrode separation. This so called transport gap is attributed, based on the experimental findings, on a combination of localization effects and narrow diameter induced gaps in the electronic band structure. These results have significant similarities to the current research on graphene nanoribbons (GNR). As graphene does not intrinsically possess a bandgap, GNR’s are fabricated, where a gap is created via quantum confinement due to the narrow width of the channel/nanoribbon. The size of the gap is then roughly in a similar inverse relation with the width of the constriction as in the case of the diameter dependence of the MWNT's in our work. The transport gap has not generally been observed in the previous works on MWNT’s because of the large diameters of the tubes in these. Our work, of which some early results were published previously [1], complements and bridges previous works on both single walled nanotubes and MWNT’s, and also to the field of GNR’s.

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References [1] M. Ahlskog, O. Herranen, A. Johansson, J. Leppäniemi, and D. Mtsuko, Phys. Rev. B, 79 (2009) 155408.

Figures

Figure 1: An AFM image of a multiwalled carbon nanotube connected to four microelectrodes.

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G

raphene: new venues for spintronics B. Dlubak1,2

M.-B. Martin1, H. Yang1, R. Weatherup2, M. Sprinkle3, B. Servet1, S. Xavier1, C. Berger3, W. de Heer3, S. Hoffman2, J. Robertson2, C. Deranlot1, R. Mattana1, A. Anane1, F. Petroff1, P. Seneor1 and A. Fert1 1

Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales & Université Paris-Sud, France 2 Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, U.K. 3 GeorgiaTech, Atlanta, USA & Institut Néel, France bruno.dlubak@thalesgroup.com

Spintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector in fast and ultra-low-power non volatile devices such as the new STT-MRAM. Beyond its widely distributed application in data storage it aims at providing more complex architectures and a powerful beyond CMOS solution. The recent discovery of graphene has opened novel exciting opportunities in terms of functionalities and performances for spintronics devices. We will present experimental results on the impact and potential of graphene for spintronics. We will show that unprecedented highly efficient spin information transport can occur in graphene [1] leading to large spin signals and macroscopic spin diffusion lengths (~100 microns), a key enabler for the advent of envisioned beyond-CMOS spinbased logic architectures. Furthermore, we will show that a thin graphene passivation layer can prevent the oxidation of a ferromagnet, enabling its use in novel humide/ambient low-cost processes for spintronics devices, while keeping its highly surface sensitive spin current polarizer/analyzer behavior and adding new enhanced spin filtering property [2]. These different experiments unveil promising uses of graphene for spintronics.

References [1] B. Dlubak et al. Nature Physics 8, 557 (2012); P. Seneor et al. MRS Bulletin 37, 1245 (2012). [2] B. Dlubak et al. ACS Nano 6, 10930 (2012); R. Weatherup et al. ACS Nano 6, 9996 (2012).

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C

arbon nanotube nanostructures with molecular heterojunctions Koji Ishibashi1,2 1

2

and Akira Hida1,

Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, Japan RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Japan kishiba@riken.jp

The single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is an attractive building block for small quantum nanodevices because of its extremely small diameter. Until now, the single quantum dots have been realized simply by depositing metallic contacts on top of the individual SWCNT. In this case, the Schottky barriers are likely formed at the SWCNT/metal interfaces, which work as tunnel barriers to confine electrons in between the contacts. Interesting artificial atom behaviors have been observed [1], which has shown the SWCNTs are suitable for quantum nanodevices, such as quantum bits (qubits) and single electron devices [2]. Larger energy scales associated with the quantum dot could make it possible to achieve a robust (higher temperature) operation of the quantum-dot devices and higherfrequency quantum response even in a range of THz [3]. However, it is not always easy, in practice, to fabricate reliable and reproducible single quantum dots because of difficulties in the device fabrication process in which the standard semiconductor processing techniques are simply applied to the SWCNT. Besides, the present processes are not applicable to fabricate complex nanostructures based on the SWCNTs. Unique processes to the SWCNT need to be developed. We use SWCNT/Molecule heterojunctions to fabricate the complex quantum nanostructures based on SWCNTs. The edges of the SWCNT are easily modified in acid to put â&#x20AC;&#x201C;COOH groups which can be used to connect with collagen model peptide molecules that are also modified with a same chemical group. All the processes are carried out in liquid, and structures are dispersed on a substrate for further characterization and device fabrications. In this presentation, we are going to show two examples of nanostructures for the quantum effect study and devices. 1. Exciton emission and its coherent control in a SWCNT single quantum dot We have succeeded in obtaining photoluminescence from the individual SWCNT quantum dot, a finite length (~100nm) SWCNT with both ends terminated by molecules. The density of states along the SWCNT was measured with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) method, and discrete energy levels with excited states were identified. The photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy

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was carried out for the single SWCNT quantum dot, and the luminescence between the discrete levels was observed. When the excitation energy was set to the ground state transition, the emission peak splitted as the excitation power was increased. This is the Rabi splitting. In the weak excitation regime, the exciton interference was observed in the pump-probe measurements at liquid helium temperatures. The oscillations persisted over 1ns, which is longer than the measurement done in the InGaAs self-assemble quantum dot. An indication of the Rabi oscillation was observed in stronger excitation conditions. The experimental observation indicates that the excitons in the SWCNT quantum dot are attractive for their coherent control or exciton quantum bits (qubits). 2. Ballistic electron wave interference in individual SWCNT rings SWCNTs are also interesting in term of electron wave interference study and related devices because they show one-dimensional and ballistic transport. We have fabricated individual SWCNT rings by chemically connecting both ends of the SWCNT. Standing wave patterns were observed in the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images at liquid Nitrogen temperatures, and their wavelengths changed as the tip voltage was changed. This indicates that the standing wave can be built when the injected electron energy (wave length) meets boundary condition set by the ring where the bonding part is likely to work as a pinning center. We have also fabricated metallic contacts to the ring and observed Aharanov-Bohm (AB) conductance oscillations as the magnetic field was swept. The remarkable observation was that the amplitude of the oscillations was as large as ~80%, much larger than the AB oscillations which have been observed in a diffusive metal. The huge oscillations were observed up to ~10K, showing the long coherence in the SWCNT.

References [1] S. Moriyama, T. Fuse, M. Suzuki, Y. Aoyagi, K. Ishibashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 186806. [2] K. Ishibashi, S. Moriyama, D. Tsuya, T. Fuse, M. Suzuki, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A24 (2006),1349 [3] Y. Kawano, T. Fuse, S. Toyokawa, T. Uchida, K. Ishibashi, J. Appl. Phys. 103 (2008) 034307

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D

iscrete green's function approach for computational photonics James B. Cole and Saswatee Banerjee University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan cole@cs.tsukuba.ac.jp

It is possible to reduce the computational cost of the conventional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in electromagnetic calculations for structures with small (compared to the wavelength) features while maintaining high accuracy. The FDTD method is useful to solve a wide variety of electromagnetic propagation and scattering problems, but when the wavelength is large compared to the scatterer (but still small enough that Rayleigh theory is inaccurate), the computational cost is very high because many grid points must be used just to represent the scatterer. Computational cost can be greatly reduced by using a discrete Green’s function (DGF) to solve the difference equations that result from discretizing Maxwell’s equations. Once the DGF is known (it need be computed only once), the scattered field can be computed using any source. The DGF can be found using a modified form of what is called nonstandard (NS) FDTD, which is based on a NS model of Maxwell’s equations. We verify the accuracy of our methods by comparing with Mie theory for electromagnetic scattering off spheres and cylinders. The accuracy of the NS-DGF method is slightly lower than for NS-FDTD, but still much better than that of the conventional (standard) FDTD method.

References [1] Kunz, K. S. and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1993). [2] Cole, J. B, N. Okada, and S. Banerjee, Advances in Finite Difference Time Domain Calculation Methods in: A. A. Kohhanovsky, (ed.), Light Scattering Reviews, Vol. 6, Springer, Berlin (2011), pp. 115-175. [3] Okada, N and J. B. Cole, Simulation of Whispering Gallery Modes in the Mie Regime Using the Nonstandard Finite-Difference Time Domain Algorithm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 27, 631-639.

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Figures

Figure 1. Scattered field intensity (vertical axis) as a function of scattering angle computed with different methods. Left: Comparison of S-FDTD (“S”) and NS-FDTD (“NS”) with Mie theory (“Mie”). Right: Comparison of NS-FDTD (“NS-FDTD”) with the DGF computed using NS-FDTD (“NS-Green”).

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January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


S

elf-consistent GW calculations for molecules Peter Koval1,2

Dietrich Foerster3 and Daniel Sanchez-Portal1,2

1

CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Spain Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Spain 3 Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d'Aquitaine (LOMA), University of Bordeaux 1, France koval.peter@gmail.com 2

Quantum chemistry possesses a long list of methods which capture the effects of electron correlations. Unfortunately, these methods are based on a solution of Schrödinger equation which is known to be the harder the more electrons are present in the quantum system [1]. In fact, a “golden standard” of quantum chemistry, the coupled-cluster with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) exhibits O(N7) complexity scaling with the number of atoms N [2]. There is an alternative for the wave-function based methods originating from the solid state physics. It is Hedin's GW approximation for oneparticle Green's function [3]. The computational complexity of Hedin's GW approximation can be as low as O(N3) in the limit of large number of atoms [4]. This favorable complexity scaling could allow for much larger systems to be treated quantum mechanically. Unfortunately, practical calculations with Hedin's GW approximation are rather computationally expensive. This fact has limited many studies to the so-called one-shot GW approach. One-shot GW (G0W0) calculations depend on the starting approximation for the Green's function, and, therefore, do not reveal the true merits of the GW approximation to capture the effects of electron correlations. Only recently self-consistent GW (SCGW) calculations have become affordable [5]. Apart from SCGW calculations, there is an interesting proposal of using GW approximation for computing a oneparticle correlation operator [6]. This, the so-called quasi-particle self-consistent GW approach (QSGW) has been claimed to improve the results of G0W0 and gained much attention recently. The goal of the present work is to compare the performance of SC GW and QSGW approaches, and of these two methods against well established quantum chemistry methods such as CCSD and CCSD(T) [7]. For the sake of such study we realized both GW algorithms using the same numerical implementation. Calculations has been done for the ionization potential of 16 atoms and molecules with the same basis sets of Gaussian functions in SCGW, QSGW and CCSD(T). We found that self-consistency in both GW approaches only marginally improves the G0W0 results with a Hartree-Fock starting point. Herewith, SCGW tends to underestimate the vertical ionization potential (IP)

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with respect to CCSD(T) IPs, while QSGW tends to overestimate them. In the figure, we show IP-IPCCSD(T) differences for all considered species computed with the cc-pVTZ basis set. More work is necessary to fully understand and possibly improve SCGW and QSGW methods.

References [1] W. Kohn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, (1999) 1253-1266. [2] A. Asadchev and M. S. Gordon, J. Chem. Theory and Comput. 9, (2013) 33853392. [3] L. Hedin, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, (1999) R489. [4] D. Foerster, P. Koval, D. Sanchez-Portal, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 074105. [5] A. Stan, N. E. Dahlen and R. van Leeuwen, Europhys. Lett., 76 (2006) 298-304; F. Caruso, P. Rinke, X. Ren, M. Scheffler and A. Rubio, Phys Rev. B 86 (2012) 081102. [6] M. van Schilfgaarde, T. Kotani, and S. Faleev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 226402. [7] P. Koval, D. Foerster and D. Sanchez-Portal, Phys. Rev. B, submitted (2013).

Figures

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S

mart” nanomaterials for seawater desalination Xianmao Lu Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering National University of Singapore, Singapore chelxm@nus.edu.sg

In this talk, we will present our recent work on using stimuli-responsive nanoparticles as “smart” draw solutes to desalinate seawater in forward osmosis process. Forward Osmosis (FO, also known as direct osmosis) technology has been intensively studied for its use in desalination, water reuse, and power generation. FO process utilizes the osmotic pressure difference of two solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane to induce spontaneous movement of water molecules from the less concentrated solution (feed solution) to the other solution (draw solution) while most solutes are rejected by the FO membrane. It has the potential to reduce energy cost for desalination compared to current technologies such as reverse osmosis that requires high-quality power to generate high hydraulic pressure. The selection of a suitable draw solute can greatly influence the efficiency of FO. In general, entitled draw solutes in FO for water production possess the qualities of being able to generate high osmotic pressures and easy recovery of the water obtained. Magnetic nanoparticles with hydrophilic surface functionality and high surface area-to-volume ratio may generate high osmotic pressures for desalination and water reclamation purposes. Although draw solute based on magnetic nanoparticles can be regenerated using magnetic fields, high field strength is generally required. Therefore, we designed a new class of “smart” draw solute -thermoresponsive polymer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. With the assistance of thermal stimuli-induced aggregation, the nanoparticle draw solute can be readily recovered without sacrificing its osmolality and hence water flux. The stimuli can be mild heat from waste energy in industrial plants or solar power to minimize energy cost. The aggregated nanoparticles can be redispersed upon removal of the stimuli so they can be regenerated for FO.

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References [1] Zhao, Q.; Chen, N.; Zhao, D.; Lu, X. Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nanoparticles for Seawater Desalination. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2013, ASAP. [2] Sun, G.; Chung, T.-S.; Chen, N.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Q. Highly Permeable AquaporinEmbedded Biomimetic Membranes Featuring a Magnetic-Aided Approach. RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 9178–9184. [3] Han, H.; Lee, J. Y.; Lu, X. Thermoresponsive Nanoparticles + Plasmonic Nanoparticles = Photoresponsive Heterodimers: Facile Synthesis and Sunlight-Induced Reversible Clustering. Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 6122. [4] Ling, M. M.; Chung, T.-S.; Lu, X. Facile Synthesis of Thermosensitive Magnetic Nanoparticles as “Smart” Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis. Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 10788–10790.

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P

reparations and Functions of Conjugated Covalent Organic Frameworks Atsushi Nagai Sasanka Dalapati, Donglin Jiang Department of Materials Molecular Science Institute for Molecular Science National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan nagai@ims.ac.jp

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of porous crystalline polymers with two- or three-dimensional periodicity [1]. From structure point of view, COFs are unique in that they are built from blocks of light elements (C, B, O, N, and Si) and connected by strong covalent bonds. COFs emerge as a new media for gas adsorption and are promising to offer a novel platform for molecular optoelectronics [2]. Up to date, the successful synthesis of COFs has been limited to certain reactions that explore C-B, B-O, C-C, C-Si, and C=N bonds for the connection of building blocks. The development of new linkages is highly desired, with a high probability of finding new porous materials. Here we report the development of a new linkage for the construction of COFs, which consisted of squarine and azine linkages. In the case of Squraine-Linked COF, We have developed a new reaction for COF synthesis based on squaraine chemistry. A high-throughput protocol was established for the condensation reaction SA with porphyrin. The SQ-linked COF features high crystallinity, inherent porosity, and robust solvent stability. The SQ linkage is unique because it extends the π-conjugation over the 2D skeleton and provides new molecular motif for π-cloud communications. Their improved light-harvesting capacity, lowered band gap, layered π-stacking porphyrin arrays, and open mesoporous are useful properties for developing functional molecular systems, e.g., photocatalytic systems. [3] In the case of Azine-Linked COF, Condensation of hydrazine with 1,3,6,8tetrakis(4-formylphenyl)pyrene under solvothermal conditions yields highly crystalline two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks. The pyrene units occupy the vertices and the diazabutadiene (-C=NN=C-) linkers locate the edges of rohmbic-shaped polygon sheets, which further stack in an AA-stacking mode to constitute periodically ordered pyrene columns and one-dimensional microporous channels. The azinelinked frameworks feature permanent porosity

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with high surface area and exhibit outstanding chemical stability. By virtue of the pyrene columnar ordering, the azine-linked frameworks are highly luminescence, whereas the azine units serve as open docking sites for hydrogen-bonding interactions. These synergestic functions of the vertices and edges units endow the azine-linked pyrene frameworks with extremely high sensitivity and selectivity in chemosensing, for example, the selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol explosive. We anticipate that the extension of the present azine-linked strategy would not only increase the structural diversity but also expand the scope of functions based on this highly stable class of covalent organic frameworks. [4]

References [1] a) X. Feng, X. Ding, and D. Jiang, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 6010-601.;, b) A. P. Cote, I. Benin, N. W. Ockwig. M. O’Keeffe, A. J. Matzger, O. M. Yaghi, Science 2005, 310, 1166-1170.; c) H. M. EI-Kaderi, J. R. Hunt, J. L. Mendoza-Cortes, A. P. Cote, R. E. Tayor, M. O’Keeffe, O. M. Yaghi, Science 2007, 316, 268-272.; d) A. Nagai, Z. Guoi, X. Feng, S. Jin, X. Chen, X. Ding, D. Jiang, Nat. Commun. 2011, 2:536, DOI:10.1038/ncommsl1542. [2] R. W. Tilford, S. J. Mugavero, P. J. Pellechia, J. J. Lavigne, Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 2741-2746. [3] Nagai, A.; Ding X.; Feng, X.; Guo, Z.; Jiang, D. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 3770-3774. (Hot Paper). [4] Dalapati, S; Jin, S; Gao, J; Xu, Y; Nagai, A; Jiang, D. J. Am. Chem Sci. 2013, 135, 17310-17313. Figures

Figure 1. a) Squaraine-Linked COF and b) Azine-Linked COF

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D

evelopment of Single-Molecule Tunnel-current based Electrical Identification of DNA/RNA nucleotides Takahito Ohshiro Masateru Taniguchi and Tomoji Kawai ISIR, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Japan toshiro@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

Single-molecule electrical genome sequencer is one of the important technologies for a realization of personal medicine. We have been proposed a tunneling-current based identification as a candidates for a single-molecule DNA/RNA sequencing. This methodology is based on sequentially reading the tunneling-current across individual single-nucleotides in the sequence, resulting in a high-speed electrical discrimination of the individual nucleotides without chemical probes and PCR amplifications. In this study, we report on a read of DNA / RNA sequence by the tunnel-current intensity during translocating through nanogap-electrode. When the molecules passed between the nanoelectrodes separated by a sub-nanometer gap, the tunneling-current through the molecules was in-creased, relative to that in the absence of molecules. The current intensity is closely related to the individual electronic conductance. We measured the extent of the electron-tunneling by using nanofabricated, mechanically controllable break junction (nano-MCBJ). We investigated the conductance values of single base molecules of DNA and RNA, and determined the conduct-ance values for four deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates (dAMP, dCMP, dGMP, dTMP) and four ribonucleoside monophosphates (rAMP, rCMP, rGMP, rUMP). The magnitude of the peak conductance of four nucleotides was found to be in the following order: dGMP > dAMP > dCMP > dTMP, and rGMP > rAMP > rCMP > rUMP. This conductance values is due to the individual molecular energy level. In addition, the methyl cytosine, methyl adenine monophosphate were also measured, and each of the relative conductance values to the dGMP conductance was determined. Calculations based on density functional theory indicated that the order based on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy was similar to our experimental results. Note that this order corresponds to the order of the relative G values, suggesting that our single-molecule electrical detection method can identify molecular species based on characteristic energy levels, particularly the HOMO energy level.We also applied this single-molecule electrical identification method to base-typing of microRNA in oligonucleotides. Based on the electrical conductivity for single-nucleotides, we identified the

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base-type in the sample oligonucleotides. We can read the fragment of sample nucleotide passing through the sensing electrode. On the basis of a reconstruction of the read fragment sequences, we successfully determined a sample RNA sequence. This single-molecule electrical sequencing using nanogap device can be used to randomly identify sequences of single base DNA/RNA molecules.

References [1] Ohshiro T, Tustui M, Matsubara K, Furuhashi M, Taniguchi M, Kawai T. Single-Molecule Electrical Random Resequencing of DNA and RNA. Sci.Rep., 2012;2, 501. [2] Tsutsui M, Matsubara K, Ohshiro T, Furuhashi M, Taniguchi M, Kawai T. Electrical detection of single methylcytosines in a DNA oligomer. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jun 15;133(23):9124-8.

Figures

Figure 1. Schematics of Tunnel-Current Measurements(left), I-t profiles for UGAGGUA nucleotide (right)

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S 1

tructure of detonation nanodiamond Eiji Osawa1 Amanda Barnard2 and Ryoko Yamanoi1

NanoCarbon Research Institute Limited, AREC Shinshu, University, Japan 2 CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Australia osawa@nano-carbon.jp

Detonation nanodiamond (DND) was discovered by Danilenko and his coworkers in 1963 [1], but its primary particle (PP) defied isolation for long time due to unusually strong agglomeration among them. Now that PPDND with 3.2Âą0.5 nm in diameter are finally recovered from DND, we are ready to explore their applications, which will be rich in variation. No less surprising is the complexity of PPDND in a number of aspects, which, at first, many thought simply as smaller pieces of bulk diamond. In this talk we will review the STRUCTURE of PPDND as revealed recently. 1. Outer surface. It is long been shown that {111} facets are graphitized by the back process during the cooling stage after detonation. This local 1 phase transition on a 2 single-nano diamond crystal is different from the transition in bulk octahedral diamond: this transition occurs surrounded by other types of facets, {100} and {110}, so nanographene facets suffer from mechanical strain, shrinking along the basal plane and lifting outward in radial directions as clearly shown by Raty-Galli in 1 [2]. This is less pronounced in a larger model 2 [3]. However, note that the central portions of graphitized {111} facets in 2 are visibly rippled, where the graphitized shell is collapsed. Such strained portions will be the sites of oxidative attack in the later purification process. A few other surprising consequences will be disclosed. 2. Surface charges. Extensive calculations led us to conclude that high electrostatic charge distribution over different facets, both positive and negative, are re-neutralized by the introduction of {110} facets, and almost disappear as the particle diameter increases beyond about 3.5 nm. Interestingly the recently found diameter of primary particles corresponds

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exactly to the borderline between charged and neutralized particles. We believe this agreement is not a coincidence but has a reason, which will be discussed in the presentation. 3. Second and deeper surface layers. When the computable size of model was smaller, e.g., less than 1700 atoms in 2007 [4], one or two layers of graphene were followed by thick layer of sp2+x (0<x<1) carbon atoms, or amorphous diamond. It is now possible to geometry-optimize well beyond 2400 atoms, the size of a real primary particle. Then we see little perturbations in diamond core even near the surface. Clearly the critical structure borderline of 3.5 nm has a few more implications. 4. Loose density near the surface. Figure 2 demonstrates visibly large empty space below the surface graphene layer, which might be corresponding to the nano-pore found by Korobov’s nitrogen absorption experiments [5]. This empty void can be spontaneously expanded by incorporating solvent molecules to produce clathrates like we see in the thin-layer graphenes [6]. This possibility has some relevance to the new DDS involving PPDND as drug carrier [7]. 5. Shape of particle. We are still unable to define the shape of PPDND primarily due to lack of contrast in their TEM images. At the moment our best guess by systematic optimization of all possible candidate structures of PPDND is doubly truncated octahedron (2 but extensively oxidized and more rounded) [8]. Thus, PPDND turned out to be a distinct hybrid nanocarbon with core-shell structure. The surface is dominated by holey graphene, giving the most unusual diamond ever known. Applications inspired by the unique structure are being unveiled and a few of them will be introduced in the lecture.

References [1] Ultrananocrystalline Diamond, 2nd Version, Shenderova, O. A.; Gruen D. M. (eds), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2012, Chapt. 5. [2] Raty, J.-R. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, (2003) 037401. [3] Barnard, A.; Osawa, E. submitted for publication. [4] Barnard, A.; Sternberg, M. J. Mater. Chem. 17, (2007) 4811. [5] Korobov, M. et al., Diam. & Rel. Mater. 19 (2010) 665. [6] Talyzin, A. V. et al. ACS Nano, 5 (2011) 5132. [7] Osawa, E.; Ho, D. J. Med. Allied Sci. 2 (2012) 31. [8] Ōsawa, E. in Soumiya, S. (Editor), ‘Handbook of Advanced Ceramics: 2nd Edition,’ Chapter 2.3, p. 89, Elsevier Inc.: Amsterdam, 2013.

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I

nterface Engineering of Hierarchical BN Nanostructure Films Amir Pakdel Tomonobu Nakayama, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg

World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan PAKDEL.Amir@nims.go.jp

Continuous progress in nanofabrication methods have led to better understanding of physics and chemistry of liquid/solid and liquid/gas interfaces at low-dimensional materials and brought the advent of a new area of nanoscale interface engineering. The main goal of this new field is to employ nano- and microscale interfacial features to obtain materials with radically new and previously unattainable properties. A classical example of interface-related properties is the wettability of materials, where the interfacial interactions between their surfaces and water determine the wetting degree. Low-dimensional BN materials are among the most promising inorganic nanosystems explored so far due to their unique properties, such as electrical insulation, wide optical bandgap, deep UV emission, good thermal conductivity, excellent stiffness, and outstanding thermal stability.1 In this study BN-based hierarchical nanostructure films, in particular vertically aligned and randomly distributed nanotubes and nanosheet films, were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by a thermal CVD method and were employed as a platform to study the influence of surface nanomorphology on the static and dynamic interaction of BN with water.2-4 Moreover, chemical functionalization of BN nanosheets, as another aspect of nanoscale interface engineering, was achieved by air plasma and ultraviolet (UV)/ ozone treatments and wet chemistry. As a result, a wide range of wetting properties from superhydrophilicity with water contact angle (CA) of ~5° to superhydrophobicity with water CAs of ~160° was obtained by changing the surface nanomorphology or chemical composition.

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References [1] A. Pakdel, et al. Chemical Society Reviews (2014), DOI:10.1039/C3CS60260E. [2] A. Pakdel et al., ACS Nano, 5 (2011) 6507. [3] A. Pakdel et al., Acta Materialia, 61 (2013) 1266. [4] A. Pakdel et al., Langmuir, 29 (2013) 7529.

Figures

Figure 1. Examples of hierarchical BN nanostructures synthesized by our CVD method.

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D

ielectrophoretical fabrication of hybrid carbon nanotubes-hydrogel biomaterial for muscle tissue engineering applications Javier Ramón-Azcón1 Samad Ahadian1, Raquel Obregon2, Hitoshi Shiku3, Ali Khademhosseini1,4, Tomokazu Matsue1,3 1

WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Japan Department of Applied Chemistry, Tohoku University, Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Japan 4 Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA javier@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp 2

Tissue engineering aims to fabricate the tissues and organs in vitro as replacements for damaged tissues and organs in the body. Scaffolds are used to provide cells with a suitable growth environment, optimal oxygen levels, and effective nutrient transport as well as mechanical integrity. Hydrogels as widely used scaffolds for tissue engineering applications aim to provide such conditions for the cells so that they can assemble to form tissues. However, it is difficult to obtain a single hydrogel that meets all desirable properties. In particular, hydrogels generally are not conductive and they lack good mechanical properties. Composite materials combine at least two separates materials to produce a new material with superior properties to those of the individual components. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are very attractive materials due to the high-aspect ratio, conductivity, and mechanical strength. Here, dielectrophoresis (DEP) approach is used to align the CNTs within the hydrogel. This approach enabled us to make different CNTs alignments (e.g., vertical or horizontal alignments) within the hydrogel using different electrode designs or configurations. We have fabricated a hybrid anysotropical biomaterial with improved conductivity and mechanically reinforced. Anisotropically aligned CNTs showed considerably higher conductivity compared to randomly distributed CNTs dispersed in the hydrogel and the pristine and non-conductive hydrogel. The hybrid showed also a viscoelastic behavior that is suitable for the soft tissue engineering applications. Skeletal muscle myofibers were then fabricated on these hybrid biomaterials and electrically stimulated. Analysis of the tissues by gene expression related to the muscle cell differentiation and contraction demonstrated superior maturation and functionality. Owing to high electrical conductivity of aligned GelMA-CNTs

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hydrogels and the viscoelastic properties, the engineered muscle tissues cultivated on these materials demonstrated superior maturation and functionality particularly after applying the electrical stimulation compared to the corresponding tissues obtained on the pristine GelMA and randomly distributed CNTs within the GelMA hydrogel.

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C

ontrol of graphene deposition on SiC by ex situ and in situ surface conditioning of SiC

Gemma Rius1 Narcis Mestres2, Yayoi Tanaka1, Osamu Eryu1, Philippe Godignon3 1

Nagoya Institute of Technology (NITech), Japan Institut de Ciencia de Materials (ICMAB-CSIC), Spain 3 Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (CNM-CSIC), Spain rius.gemma@nitech.ac.jp 2

As early as in 2004 the intentional synthesis of graphene onto SiC wafers by thermal treatment had been demonstrated. Owing to the vapor pressure difference of Si and C, high temperature annealing promotes atomic Si sublimation leaving atomic C supersaturation on the SiC surface, which tends to crystallize in graphitic form. As the formation of graphene is extrinsic, based on the decomposition of the SiC support, the graphene-on-SiC has serious intrinsic limitations [1]. Efforts have been done to model the growth so that the basics of the formation, the conditions for nucleation and growth propagation, could be understood [2]. However, the complexity of the problem still makes it difficult to apply the results of simulations towards experimental graphene synthesis optimization. We propose the establishment of universal synthesis conditions based on atomically flat SiC, which ultimately may enable the standardization of a graphene-on-SiC technology. In this work, the study of graphene formation is based on the use of atomic step SiC substrates, which are obtained by our particular chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), CMP-SiC (Fig.1 a, b), in comparison with commercial epi ready SiC substrates, epi-SiC (Fig. 1 c). We have previously demonstrated [3] the growth of highly anisotropic long isolated graphene ribbons on the C face of graphite-capped 6H-SiC by the use of a graphitic cup which controls the dynamics of the SiC decomposition and its surface reconstruction, therefore, strongly determining the formation of the graphene flakes. The same inducedanisotropy is found for the C face of 6H-SiC CMP-SiC substrate [4]. Most remarkable effect of CMP (ex situ surface conditioning) is observed when modifying the thermal treatment used for the anisotropic graphene flake deposition. Laying aside the preliminary stage of the thermal treatment (in situ surface conditioning), at a temperature below the onset of massive atomic Si sublimation [3], single layer graphene isotropic deposition is found all over the Si face of 6H-SiC, for both CMP-SiC and epi-SiC (Fig. 2). However, the

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characteristics of the SiC support (terraces width and smoothness, step height, edge shape, etc.) strongly differ for CMP-SiC vs. epi-SiC (Fig. 2). Very regular reconstruction of CMP-SiC (Fig. 2 a) and Raman scattering analysis suggest that the characteristics of graphene and the fabrication of graphene-on-SiC electronic devices would be better by using CMP, i.e. having more homogeneous properties while more reliable electronic device performance is expected.

References [1] P. Sutter, Nature Materials 8 (2009) 171 [2] F. Ming et al., Journal of Physics D 45 (2012) 154007 [3] N. Camara et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 (2008) 123503 [4] G. Rius et al., Mater. Sci. For. (Accepted 2013)

Figures

Fig. 1 Topography signal AFM images of a) CMP 6H-SiC, Si face, on-axis cut b) its profile along the diagonal showing atomic step finishing, and c) Mechanical polishing of 6H-SiC off-axis cut C face (Z scale = 10 nm).

Fig. 2 Topography signal AFM images and profile of a) graphene on CMP 6H-SiC, Si face, on-axis cut sample and b) graphene on the Si face of epi-SiC 6H-SiC, off-axis cut sample, which presents random irregular SiC islands upon the terraces.

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A

bstract not available Tsuneo Urisu Nagoya University FIRST Research Center for Innovative Nanobiodevices Japan t.urisu@nanobio.nagoya-u.ac.jp

For any question, please contact directly the author

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M

olecular Dynamics analysis on crack initiation and extension of defective single walled carbon nanotube

1

Lin Yang1 Hanoch Daniel Wagner1 and Xiaodong He2

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel Centre for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Lin.yang@Weimann.ac.il

2

By employing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations based on COMPASS potential, we simulate a series of tensile tests of defect-free and defective single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Young’s modulus and linear stress-distance curves of defect-free SWNTs with different chirality have been calculated by our MD models. By monitoring the stress distribution on the SWNTs, we find out tensile stress concentration on vacancy-related defects cause cracks initiation and extension on SWNT under tensile loading. A new method of MD simulating crack propagation on the surface of SWNT based on a maximum stress criterion is proposed and applied. The results show that the convert from vacancyrelated defect to a circumferential penetrating crack is continuous and spontaneous under tensile loading. Tensile strengths of SWNTs with different defects are predicted and some deleterious defects have been identified. The effect of vacancy-related defects’ characteristics on the SWNT strength is analyzed.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

B.G. Demczyk, Y.M. Wang, J. Cumings, M. Hetman, W. Han, A. Zettl et al, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 334 (2002) 173-178 E.W. Wong, P.E. Sheehan, C.M. Lieber Science, 277 (26) (1997)1971–1975 Jason H. Hafner, Charles M. Lieber, Hongkun Park. Phys. Rev. B, 67 (2003) 033407 Yu, Min-Feng; Lourie, O; Dyer, MJ; Moloni, K; Kelly, TF; Ruoff, R.S, Science, 287 (2000) 637– 640 M. Sammalkorpi, A. Krasheninnikov, A. Kuronen, K. Nordlund, K. Kaski Phys. Rev. B 70 (2004), 245416 Marco Buongiorno Nardelli, B. I. Yakobson, and J. Bernholc physical review letters, 81(21) 4656-4659 L.G. Zhou, S.Q. Shi, Computational Materials Science, 23 (2002) 166–174 B.I. Yakobson , M.P. Campbell , C.J. Brabec, J. Bernholc, Computafional Materials Science, 8 (1997) 341-348 K Mylvaganam, L.C. Zhang, Carbon, 42 (2004) 2025–2032 D. Qian, E.C. Dickey, R. Andrews, T. Rantell, Appl Phys Lett, 76 (2000) 2868 O. Lourie, H.D. Wagner, Composites Science and Technology, 59 (1999) 975–977 L. Jin, C. Bower, O. Zhou Appl Phys Lett, 73 (1998) 1197 D D T K Kulathung, K K Ang, J N Reddy, J. Phys: Condens. Matter, 22 (2010) 345301 H. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. B, 102 (1998) 7338–7364. J. Zhang , X. He , L. Yang , G. Wu , J. Sha , C. Hou , C. Yin , A. Pan , Z. Li, Y. Liu. Sensors, 13 (2013) 9388-9395 L. Yang , L. Tong , X. He, Computational Materials Science, 55 (2012) 356–364 Zhong, W.R.; Zhang, M.P. Ai, B.Q. Zheng, D.Q. Appl. Phys. Lett, 98 (2011) 113107

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[18] J. Y. Huang, S. Chen, Z. Q. Wang, K. Kempa, Y. M. Wang, S. H. Jo, G. Chen, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. F. Ren, Nature, 439 (2006) 281 [19] L. Yang, L. Tong , X. He , H. D. Wagner, R. Wang, Computational Materials Science, (2014) accepted

Figures

Figure 1 SWNT Defects

Figure 2 Tensile stress distributions on a twoatom vacancy (1C) and stress concentration on vacancy defect edge

Figure 3 Crack propagation of the vacancy (1C) defect SWMT induced by tensile stress concentration

Figure 4 Tensile stresses of defect-free and defective SWNTs

Figure 5 Stress-strain curves

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L

aser induced changes of thin shells composed of gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for application in bioscience Alexey Yashchenok

Nano- and Biomedical Technologies Faculty, Saratov State University, Russia Department of Interfaces, Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany alexey.yashchenok@mpikg.mpg.de

Gold nanoshells surrounded a dielectric core have become tremendous interest since their unique optical properties including stable optical absorbance and nonlinear optical effects [1]. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanoshell and thus absorbance can tune by varying of the shell/core ration from visible to NIR wavelength range [2, 3]. Besides optical properties, the surface chemistry of gold nanoshell is molecularly stable and suitable for bioconjugation of certain biomarkers [4]. All these features make gold nanoshell attractive for apply in technologies ranging from optics to biosensing and drug delivery. Gold nanoshells were engineered by using layer-by-layer technique through adsorption of polyelectrolytes and gold nanoparticles on silica colloidal particles. These colloids were illuminated at 532 nm and immediately after illumination there was an appearance of emissive bead surface (Fig. 1). The emission at a power of 4 mW was remained during minutes of observation without photobleaching. For further study of the optical properties the gold nanoshells were fabricated over carbon nanotubes network. G-band shift at a power of 4 mW of carbon nanotubes after seed mediated growth to low wavenumber is attributed to heating of nanotubes. The temperature was estimated to be 440K at a power of 4mW through measuring Stokes and AntiStokes Raman. Upon intracellular incorporation gold nanoshells supported by carbon nanotubes on silica colloids significantly enhance molecular fingerprints of biomolecules commonly found inside NIH3T3 fibroblast and enable fast acquisition rates at laser powers completely harmless to living cells [5].

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References [1] R.D., Averitt, D., Sarkar, N Halas, J. Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, (1997), 4217. [2] S.J. Oldenburg, R.D. Averitt, S.L. Westcott, N.J. Halas, Chem. Phys. Lett., 288, (1998), 243. [3] C. Wu, X. Liang, H. Jiang, Opt. Commun. 253, (2005), 214. [4] C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, R. Drezek, Opt. Lett., 30, (2005), 1012. [5] A. Yashchenok. A. Masic, D. Gorin, B.S. Shim, N.A. Kotov, P. Fratzl, H. Möhwald, A. Skirtach, Small, 9, (2013), 351.

Figures

Figure 1. Anti-Stokes (a) and Stokes (b) spectra of G-band measured for 1 up to 4 mW of laser power upon illumination at 532 nm of colloidal particles composed of gold nanoshell and carbon nanotubes. The effective temperature of the G-band was estimated from the intensity ratio of Stokes and Anti-Stokes lines. The upper inset depicts the measured hybrid colloid (dashed circle). The bottom inset display emission of gold nanoshell upon laser illumination of the same particle. The scale bars correspond to 4 μm.

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Programme Wednesday 29 mornig

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Wednesday 29 afternoon

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Thursday 30 mornig

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Thursday 30 afternoon

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Friday 31 mornig

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Friday 31 afternoon

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Posters list (102) As of 16/01/2014

Main author / Institution / Country / Topic / Contribution title Aguilar, Ludwig Erik (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Facile One-pot Synthesis of -Fe2O3 (hematite) Nanowires Coated with Zinc oxide and Silver Nanoparticles for Efficient Removal of Water Pollutants. Alapati, Suresh (Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kyungsung University, Korea) - Theory and modelling at the nanoscale Numerical Study on the Effect of Nanopore Length on the Translocation Process of a Biopolymer Alqahtani, Hassan (NIMS Institute , Japan) - Low dimensional materials (nanowires, clusters, quantum dots, etc.) TEM images of Chemically-Synthesized, Atomically-Precise Gold Nano-Clusters Arramel, Arramel (WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - High spatial resolution spectroscopies under SPM probe Rectification effect of PTCDI-C7 on transparent ITO thin films Baek, Jee Yeon (Pusan National University, Korea) - Other

106

New Conjugated Polymers based on BTI Derivatives for High Performance Solution-Processable Polymer Solar Cells Banerjee, Saswatee (Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Simulation of arrays of metal nanowires using a monochromatic recursive convolution finitedifference time-domain method Bu, Ji Hyun (Inha university, Korea) - Other Thermal stability of thermally expandable microcapsules with various crosslinkers using SPG membrane emulsification :Styrene-co-methyl methacrylate polymer Bulgarevich, Dmitry (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Polarization-Sensitive Terahertz Detection with Microfabricated Photoconductive Antenna Chaves Romero, Ferney Alveiro (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Physical Model of the Contact Resistivity of Metal-Graphene Junctions Cho, Joonhyung (Hanyang University, Korea) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Digitized Touch Sensor using Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film and Bio-mimetic Fingerprint Structure Cho, Se Youn (Inha University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Cellulose Nano-fiber-reinforced Poly(lactic Acid) biocomposites Cho, Sunki (Hanyang University , Korea) - Other On-Chip Microfluidic Device Using Geometrically Induced Fluid Flux Control for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood Choong Man, Moon (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea) - Nanofabrication tools & nanoscale integration Theoretical Understanding of Electrohydrodynamic Lithography for sub-100 nm Pattern Replications Chung, Wonkeun (Korea University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Layer-by-Layer deposition of stable silica coated ZnCuInS nanocrystals for LED application

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 – 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Dao, Thang (MANA, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics High-sensitivity detection of mercury toxicity in water by plasmon-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy Deng, Hai-Yao (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Bound States in Graphene Point Contacts Do, Xuan Ha (Pusan National University, Korea) - Other Detection of E. coli O157:H7 Using Electrochemical-Chemical-Chemical Redox Cycling Dutta, Gorachand (Pusan National University, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Enhancement and Deactivation of the Electrocatalytic Activities of Au Electrodes Dutta, Sudipta (ICYS, WPI-MANA, NIMS, Japan) - Theory and modelling at the nanoscale Effect of Hydrogen Edge Passivation on BC3 Ribbons Feng, Liu (NIMS, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Theoretical Study on Terahertz Radiations from Nanoscale Intrinsic Josephson Junctions Fukata, Naoki (MANA, NIMS, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Characterization of selective doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires Fukui, Chiaki (University of Hyogo, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials A Novel Approach to Synthesizing Fluorescent ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles based on IonAssociation Funada, Tomohito (University of Hyogo, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Far-Red Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles of Triphenylmethane Dye Futamata, Masayuki (Saitama University, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Critical Importance of a nanogap between metal nanoparticles and metal substrates in surface enhanced Raman scattering Gelever, Vladimir (MIREA MSTU, Russia) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics X-Ray nanoFocus Ghimire, Madhav Prasad (International Center for Materials Nanoarchitetonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Novel Half Metallic Properties observed in Lanthanide Perovskites for Spintronic Applications from First-principles Calculations Gilmanov, Murat (Scientific research institute of the problems biology and biotechnology at Kazakh national University, Kazakhstan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine The new nanocapsular preparations for success therapy of the tuberculosis Guo, Lingfeng (National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Biomimetic Stem Cell Niche Based on Block Copolymer Self-assembly Han, Sang Suk (Pusan National University, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Semiconducting conjugated polymers consisting of alkoxy or alkyl selenophene-substituted benzodithiophene and thiophene units for organic photovoltaic devices Hashishin, Takeshi (Osaka University, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Collision Formation of Ilmenite Nanoparticles with High-Temperature and High-Pressure Phase by Super High-Speed Ball-Milling Hira, Takashi (Keio University, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Dark-field microspectroscopy of single all-optical nanoswitch using gold nanosandwich with Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change medium Hosono, Kazuhiro (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Bolzmann Transport Theory of Graphene Double-Layer Systems

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January 29 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)

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Hu, Wei-Wen (National Central University, Taiwan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine The control of gene delivery through a tunable electrospun scaffold system Hwang, Soonhyung (Hanyang University, Korea) - Other The improvement of shear force transfer characteristics by controlling the elastic modulus of biomimetic fingerprint structure for tactile sensor application Imamura, Motoyasu (AIST, Japan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Dependence on thickness in determination of effective attenuation lengths of photoelectrons in SiO 2 thin film Ji, Qingmin (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Gene Reverse Transfection Mediated by Upright-Sheets Silica Network Jiang, Zhe (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Magnetic PVF/Fe3O4@PS Mat via Electrospinning for Oil Clean-up Joo, Min Jae (Inha University, Korea) - Other Surface properties of silk fibroins for organic thin film transistors Jung, Seok Heon (Inha University, Korea) - NanoChemistry Synthesis and Characterization of Semiconducting Polymers Achieved by Benzotriazolyl Bis(trifluoroborate) Karthaus, Olaf (Chitose Institute of Science and Technology, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Phase Separated Polymer Microparticles as Pollen Biomimetics Kawano, Keiichi (Chitose Institute of Science and Technology, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine 13C-NMR Study of the Dynamics of Oil Molecules in Soy Bean Products

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Kil, Ki Chun (Hanyang University / Department of Energy Engineering, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Nitridated Si-Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy for High Power Lithium Ion Batteries Kim, Byungki (KoreaTech/Mechatronics Engineering, Korea) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Mechanical Properties of Graphene Composite at Cryogenic Temperature Kim, Eun Kyo (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Effects of lactic acid on degradation of electrospun poly(Îľ-caprolactone) fibers Kim, Hee Su (Pusan National University, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Synthesis and characterization of 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole-based conjugated polymers for organic photovoltaic cells Kim, Hee Yun (Inha university, Korea) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Supercapacitor Performance of PAN based Carbonnanofiber Containing Modified MWCNTs Kim, Hee-Jin (Inha University, Korea) - NanoChemistry Development of highly fluorinated high k dielectric hybrid material solution for the application of flexible electronic devices Kim, Inho (Mac Con Inc. / R&D Center, Korea) - Other Fabrication of micro gas sensor by MEMS processes for carbon monoxide and methane detection with low power consumption Kim, Juae (Pusan National University, Korea) - Other Benzodithiophene-based Narrow-band Gap Donor Materials for Organic Polymer Solar Cells Kim, Jun Hee (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Nanoparticle filtration by electrospun multifunctional TiO2-fly ash/polyurethane fiber Kim, Kwang-Bum (Yonsei Univerisity, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Graphene-based Hierarchical Nanostructured Carbon for High-performance Supercapacitors Kim, Kyunghee (Inha university, Korea) - Other Electrospun Poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate) Nanofibers Using As Supercapacitors

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Kotsuchibashi, Yohei (National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)/ICYS&MANA, Japan) Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Simple coating with polymer-functionalized silica nanoparticles of mixed sizes for controlled surface properties Ku, Pei-Ju (National chiao tung university, Taiwan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Pyramid nanostructures fabricated by UV-curing nanoimprint lithography and their applications on PEDOT:PSS/Si hybrid solar cells Kulkarni, Narendra (College of Engineering & Technology, India) - Theory and modelling at the nanoscale Magnetite -Zeolite Nanoparticles for extracting the Dioxins (2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxin (TCDD) in Polluted Waters: An In- Silicon Study Labunov, Vladzimir (Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics , Belarus) Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Problems in obtaining high emission current densities for matrix field emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes Lee, Chang Hun (Korea University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Preparation and Characterization of Janus Silica Particles by using Trapping Layer Lee, Do Hee (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine An Experimental Investigation on Corrosion Rate of Mg Electrode Using an EQCN and Improvement in Anti Corrosion Rate of Mg Electrode by Surface Coating Lee, Hye Sue (Ajou University, Korea) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Molecular Two-Photon Probes for Sensing Intracellular pH Lee, Min Eui (INHA University, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Bacterial cellulose as a source for N-doped activated carbons for supercapacitors Lee, Seung-yong (Inha University, Korea) - NanoChemistry Orthogonal Processing for Soluble-Processable Quantum Dot Light Emitting Devices Lee, Yi Jung (National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan) - Low dimensional materials (nanowires, clusters, quantum dots, etc.) Experimental study on thermal properties of P3HT nanowires Li, Jia'En Jasmine (National Institute for Material Science, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Differently Charged Gold Nanoparticles Effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Li, Song-Lin (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Low dimensional materials (nanowires, clusters, quantum dots, etc.) Thickness Identification and Electronic Transport in Atomically Thin MoS2 Layers Limphapayom, Wilaisri (Department of Agriculture, Thailand) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Preparation of Niosome Encapsulated Alpha mangostin in Cosmetic Lin, Yen-Fu (National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures Liu, Chang (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) - Nanomaterials for Energy Synthesis and Characterization of VO2 (M) Nanocomposites and The Applications of Nanothermochromism to Smart Architecture Glazing Lott, Bill (Queensland University of Technology / School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Australia) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Ultra-trace Detection of Human Erythropoetin Using Functionalised-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Makarova, Marina (MANA, NIMS, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Self-assembly and Polymerization of Diacetylene on Hexagonal Boron Nitride Substrates for Electrical Studies of Single Polydiacetylene Chains

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January 29 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)

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Mao, Hongli (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Functionalization of SWCNTs with Collagen and the Application in Stem Cell Labeling Masuda, Takuya (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Nanomaterials for Energy XAFS Characterization of Metal Catalysts Embedded within Viologen Multilayers Formed on Si(111) Surfaces Minari, Takeo (NIMS, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Dispersion of gold nanoparticles on plastic surface Moriyama, Satoshi (MANA, NIMS, Japan) - Low dimensional materials (nanowires, clusters, quantum dots, etc.) Single-electron Transport in Ultra-thin Gold Nanowires Nagaoka, Katsumi (MANA, NIMS, Japan) - Nanomaterials for Energy Energy-dependent Scattering Phase-Shift of Electrons in 2D Subband States. Nakaharai, Shu (NIMS/MANA, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Field Effect Control of Current in Ion Irradiated Graphene and its Application to Transistors Nam, Jeunghoon (Inha university, Korea) - Other Thermal, Electrical, Mechanical Properties of Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Sheets Filled with Boron nitride, Alumina, and Graphite Namekawa, Koki (WPI-MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Electrospun zeolite composite nanofibers for the adsorption of uremic toxins Ni, Meiyan (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Electronic property of bilayer graphene on pristine and rhenium-doped MoS2

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Noguchi, Hidenori (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Other Initial interfacial structure and dynamics of dye sensitizer under photo-excitation studied by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy Park, Hye-Jin (Inha University, Korea) - NanoChemistry Fluorous Solvent-Soluble Photoresists based on a Photodimerization Chemistry Rajan Unnithan, Afeesh (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Electrospun Antibacterial Polyurethane-Cellulose Acetate-Zein Composite Mats containing Streptomycin for Wound Dressing Applications Rajendran, Raja (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes CeO2-CNT/RGO Nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitor Reyes, Mark Kenneth (Chonbuk National University, Korea) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Preparation and Characterization of Ag/CuO Hierarchical Nanostructures Sakurai, Makoto (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Nanomaterials for Energy New functionalities of SnO2-based materials under the application of stress and voltage Shafraniuk, Serhii (Northwestern University, United States) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Atomic Monolayer Materials and their Applications Shim, Joo Young (Pusan National University, Korea) - Other Synthesis and characteristics of pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-2,5-dione for small molecules for organic polymer solar cells Stieg, Adam (UCLA/California NanoSystems Institute, United States) - Other Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks Tan, Desmond (NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd, Singapore) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Mass Production of Nano-Hydrid Matrix Particles for Water Insoluble Drug with HGCP Technology Platform

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)


Thangavel, Sindhu (Mana Satellite, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Redox-Nanoparticle assisted delivery of drugs for treatment of Prostate Cancer Timusk, Martin (University of Tartu/Institute of Physics, Estonia) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Nano- and Microstructured Optical Coatings by Phase Separation in Sol-Gel Solutions Togambayeva, Altynay (Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan) - NanoOptics / NanoPhotonics / Plasmonics Influence of deposition and heat treatment regimes on formation of silicon nanoclusters in SiNx films and their light-emitting properties Toganbayeva, Lyazzat (Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Structure and electrical properties of composite materials based on polymer matrices with a various content of shungite and taunite Umemura, Kazuo (Tokyo University of Science, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Selective adhesion of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins onto hybrids of DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes Uto, Koichiro (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Design of Clickable Smart Polymers for Enrichment of Dilute Biomarkers Wang, Xuebin (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Graphene / Carbon nanotubes Three-Dimensional Few-Layered Graphene Bubble-Networks Fabricated by Substrate-Free PolymerBased Graphitization Witecka, Agnieszka (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Combination of nano-layer of silane and polymer coating as a method to improve biocompatibility of magnesium alloy Wunderlich, Wilfried (Tokai University, Japan) - Topological Insulators Electron-Phonon-Interaction is an Intrinsic Parameter of Elements for Study Scattering and Search for New Materials Xi, Bin (NIMS, Japan) - Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Theoretical Study on Depining and Coercivity in Nano Ferromagnetic Films Yamamoto, Mahito (MANA / NIMS, Japan) - Nanostructured and nanoparticle based materials Raman spectroscopy study of atomically thin molybdenum ditelluride Yau, Shuehlin (National Central University, Taiwan) - High spatial resolution spectroscopies under SPM probe Potential-controlled Conformational changes of Polyaniline electrochemically deposited on Au (111) Electrode Yoon, Moon-Young (Hanyang University, Korea) - Nanobiotechnologies & Nanomedicine Identification of inhibitory peptide against microtubule formation from Phytophthora capsici Yun, Young Soo (Seoul National University, Korea) - Nanomaterials for Energy Protein-based microporous carbon nanoplates for supercapacitors

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Edited by

Alfonso GĂłmez 17 28037 Madrid Spain info@phantomsnet.net www.phantomsnet.net

Disclaimers: AFOSR/AOARD support is not intended to express or imply endorsement by the U.S. Federal Government. The views and opinions expressed by the Speakers in the written content do not necessarily reflect the views of the Conference Organizers.

TNTJapan 2014

January 29 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo (Japan)



TNT Japan 2014 Abstracts Book