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Graphic Design PFOA Accountants George Hay, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire HOW TO CONTACT US The Police Firearms Officers Association PO Box 116, March, Cambridgeshire, PE15 5BA T 01354 742444 E The PFOA cannot accept any liability for losses incurred by any person as a result of a default on the part of an advertiser in ‘Top Cover’

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Our regular columnists Mark Williams Editor Steve Howson Post Incident Management Dave Blocksidge Science on the street Scott Ingram Law & Regulations Justin Conway Health & Fitness David Wilbraham Force Chaplain Steven Smith History





WELCOME Welcome to the latest Top Cover magazine! Whilst going to press we are still awaiting the Mark Duggan Inquest verdict, as well as various decisions around the Anthony Grainger and Azelle Rodney cases. This is a crucial time for all those involved in firearms operations in the UK. As is the case in many of these incidents it has been left to the court to decide whether an officer’s actions were justified. My concern as time goes on is that the bar has been set so high we are almost expected to be super humans in our recall of these dynamic dangerous encounters. Rest assured, the PFOA will continue to support the officers and their families involved in these incidents. We have just held a firearms conference ‘Strength through Support’ in Stratford Upon Avon, which was attended by over 200 delegates. You can read about the event later in this edition. The PFOA has recently delivered two one-week PIP courses to various Federation reps and Unison reps from around the country. These courses have gone down a storm and more are planned for next year. We continue to assist officers and their families on a daily basis. This is, and always will be, the core business of the PFOA. We have the best counsellors, coaches and therapists available to step in when required. We also provide many other forms of assistance geared around the individual circumstances. If you have a problem or know of a colleague who is having difficulties, call us!

Stay safe and thanks for all you do. MARK WILLIAMS EDITOR |

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We submit a return to HMRC with the name of the person donating. We do not submit the actual Gift Aid forms. You can ask for Gift Aid to be claimed on your behalf for your PFOA donations by emailling Debbie in the office at (put ‘Gift Aid Donation’ in subject box).

Official Fuel Economy Figures for the BMW 520d M Sport Saloon: Urban 50.4mpg (5.6l/100km). Extra Urban 67.3mpg (4.2l/100km). Combined 60.1mpg (4.7l/100km). CO2 Emissions 103g/km. Figures may vary depending on driving style and conditions.

Please state your full name and house number and postcode. Gift Aid forms at the office have address/house number and postcode - we have these records in case HMRC want to dip sample that the name on the return is from the bona fide taxpayer!

Offer available to PFOA members only, figures include VAT. Hiring example is based either on a 36 month BMW Contract Hire agreement for the BMW 520d M Sport. All models include metallic paint and BMW Service Inclusive Pack. Servicing must be carried out at a BMW Service Authorised Workshop. Excessive wear and tear or misuse not covered. Second brake fluid service not covered. Price quoted is applicable for BMW 5 Series Saloon models. Please ask your dealer, or visit for prices for all models and full BMW Service Inclusive terms and conditions. Model shown is 520d M Sport Saloon (£30,810 OTR) Further models available on request. Prices include VAT at 20%. Annual mileage of 10,000 miles for each period of 12 months commencing from day of agreement. Vehicle condition charges may apply. Figures are correct at time of publication (December 2013) and are subject to change without notice. Offer expires 27 December 2013. All vehicles must be ordered by 27 December 2013 and delivered by 31 March 2014. All hiring is subject to status and available to over 18s in the UK only (excluding the Channel Islands). Guarantees and indemnities may be required. Hiring facilities provided by BMW Financial Services, Europa House, Bartley Way, Hook, Hampshire, RG27 9UF. Registered Company Number 01288537.


By the time you read this I will have retired from the Met and taken up my new post as CEO of the PFOA. I have had a wonderful career, I have enjoyed almost every day, and to be able to carry on with my PFOA work is just the icing on the cake. Thank you to all my colleagues at SCO19 for their amazing support, and to firearms officers and commanders everywhere for making the PFOA the success it is.

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My 5th article surrounds the thorny issue of Inquests. I have to confess that I was not ready for the impact that this event would have on principal officers nor the Police Force I worked for; and If I were to be brutally honest I was not prepared or expecting the Inquest to be such an issue for myself as the PIM! I always thought, naively perhaps, that the actual shooting incident and immediate aftermath of such an event would be the most traumatic and hard to deal with. How wrong was I, but then there are probably reasons for that. Firstly, firearms officers generally are well trained professional people and ready to make an exceedingly difficult decision to take the highest continuum of force when it is absolutely necessary to save life. Secondly, they are ready, albeit a little apprehensive perhaps, for the rigours of the PIM process and the ensuing investigation because we warn them, advise and train them for that process (to some varying degrees I respect). What they and their families are not ready for is the Inquest, and what it entails - the inevitable public regurgitation of the events of the incident and actual shooting. They are not prepared, nor should have to accept, the inevitable media circus and intrusion. The principal officer is often ill-prepared for the detailed inquisition that many say makes them feel like suspects. Finally,

and regrettably, many subsequently feel abandoned by their organisations to face the Inquest on their own; a situation that often breeds discontentment and bitterness for many years to come. It is not my job, nor my intention when writing this article, to criticise the organisation or people involved. In fact I am more critical of myself for not anticipating the likely problems earlier than I did and taking the necessary precautionary action, especially in our first fatal shooting Inquest. I write this because I want people to learn by our mistakes and be better prepared for when it does happen. Fortunately a police shooting is still a rare occurrence, but in being so, many forces do not retain any ‘organisational memory’ to recognise and deal with the problems that may occur. Good people there is support out there! So what is an Inquest all about? Why do we have them? Why are they such a big deal? I am not wishing to teach people how to suck eggs but an Inquest must prove the following: • The identification of the deceased • How they died • When they died • Where they died It all sounds so simple, an obvious and expected inquisitorial process following the death of a member of the public at the hands


of the state. It should comply and rightly so, with Article 2 of ECHR. Unfortunately Inquests these days, and this is a very personal opinion, seem to develop into an adversarial ‘pantomime’, played out in front of a media scrum where very highly paid Counsel of the various ‘parties’ involved appear to try to establish fault, which is clearly not the purpose of the Inquest. Coroners and Counsel, apart from a few exceptions, appear to have little understanding of the role of firearms officers or their decision making in time critical situations. Perhaps the Police Service is to blame for not outwardly conducting some more public awareness of that role and its associated pressures? This is compounded by the great British public who carry out their role as Jurors (no criticism meant, they get the ‘calling’) having been brought up on a diet of movies and computer games where they see ‘police officers’ using guns to shoot firearms out of the hands of suspects or shoot to wound only! Trying to make a common sense judgement based on that knowledge is simply asking for trouble. So how should we meet the demands of an Inquest head on? Preparation, preparation and preparation! I know I am sounding more like a politician day by day but it is true, preparation is the key. Do we think that Counsel do not prepare? Of course not, they prepare meticulously to pick holes in statements and versions

of events given by police officers on an incident that may have occurred two and a half to three years earlier (or as we know, longer in some cases). It’s about time the police service woke up and smelt the coffee and we prepare likewise!


Through experience I would propose the following (and I am not taking the credit for all this as many others in my own police force have helped suggest this process): 1. The appointment of an ‘Inquest Officer’ 2. Allow duty commitments for those going to Inquest to prepare 3. Observation of an Inquest 4. Homework on likely questioning by specific Counsel 5. Peer support via the PFOA (for the officers and their families) 6. Peer support throughout the Inquest and beyond in Force 1) The appointment of an ‘Inquest Officer’. This is totally separate to the established Coroners Officer role. The Inquest Officer, it is suggested, should be a serving officer or police staff not connected to the incident; possibly a current or ex-firearms officer and of Sergeant or above rank. Not only should they be of some rank but be of a strong character because they will become the ‘sounding board’ and the inevitable brunt of frustrations from the officers involved. Senior Management (SMT) should allow that individual to be abstracted from normal duties to perform the role some two months prior to the Inquest and through-out its duration. Very difficult to achieve I would suggest, in this current climate when financial restraint and finite resources are of a premium, but well worth that initial inconvenience. This individual would perform the conduit role or ‘spoc’ between the officers / staff and SMT, Legal Services and the Coroners Officer. They are also responsible for liaison with the Inquest venue and making sure that the relevant facilities are expedient for the officers attending. My experience is that Inquests seem to take place away from normal Magistrates or Crown Court locations. They consequently appear not suited for the purpose of a ‘court’ environment. For example an ageing Victorian building in the middle of a town or city with a large room used for a multitude of other purposes and converted for the Inquest at relevant times. The ‘Inquest Officer’ needs to do a full reconnaissance of that venue to successfully achieve the following: • Arrange a pre-visit for those officers to the Inquest location so they can acquaint themselves with the environment and set up • Establish a ‘principal officers’ only room • Provide relevant facilities in the principals’ room(tea / coffee, etc) • Protect the anonymity of those ‘principal officers’ • Arrange appropriate transport to and from the venue • Liaise with other departments – for example Technical Services Unit to relay proceedings (audio / visual) from the Inquest location to the principals’ room • Identify the best and most secure route into and out of the Inquest room All this preparation and relevant provisions inevitably costs money, so liaison with relevant business managers to establish budgetary protocols is a priority. They will also assist with preparing any operational order (if the event has a massive community or media impact it may be declared a ‘critical incident’) and compile a post inquest report to help prepare the Force and employees for the future. Finally, they do the most


important thing of all; provide support to officers whilst they give their evidence. 2) Allow duty commitments for those going to Inquest to prepare. Principal Officers going to give evidence at Inquest (sometimes for the first time) should be given time and advice on how to prepare for it. A duty commitment for this in such a high profile event is essential and has proven to work. It makes the officers confirm their professional response and can have a positive result for their Force / Organisation. Such preparation should be structured and relevant, supported by the PIM and Inquest Officer. Those officers and police staff should have the opportunity to meet Counsel representing them or the Force and review their own evidence. This is not coaching but professional preparation. The PIM and Inquest Officer should attend these meetings. 3) Observation of an Inquest. I was an operational police officer during an era when we investigated sudden deaths and attended Coroners Inquests on a regular basis. This is clearly not the case generally these days. Consequently officers are invariably and regrettably ignorant of the Inquest procedures and will never have experienced what it is like to give evidence. It is also a fact that many go a long time without even giving evidence in a criminal court, let alone a Coroners Court! We should be cognizant of this fact and give every opportunity to observe and witness at first hand such proceedings. The PIM or Inquest Officer can quite easily make contact with the surrounding Forces and find out where there is an Inquest going on or likely to be happening and therefore arrange for principal officers to attend. Contact through the PFOA can also facilitate contact between principal officers in order that they can learn and prepare themselves adequately for the process. 4) Homework on likely questioning by specific Counsel. It is not too difficult these days to conduct some preparation via the internet on the barristers involved and their style of questioning at Inquests. We know that many representing families of the deceased specialize in representing those defined as having ‘suffered ill-treatment or abuse of power at the hands of the police and other detaining authorities’ and whose aim it is to ‘achieve some measure of accountability and sense of redress for our/their clients’ (not my words – but those advertised on various websites). This again is not a criticism but an observation that such people are intelligent, articulate and knowledgeable individuals who make it their business to ensure officers are very uncomfortable in an Inquest environment and, in my opinion, seek to find fault. That background research by the Inquest Officer can definitely help support principals in their preparation. 5) Peer support via the PFOA (for the officers and their families) The PFOA is a vital support mechanism in this regard. It has now built up credibility and professionalism in this field of expertise

and I would urge any PIM to make contact in order that we may provide the support necessary. If we don’t know someone immediately to provide that help and support, we can very soon find someone somewhere to do so. I am aware that following a shooting in GMP the Association was able to provide support and advice from officers in the Met that helped individuals understand and anticipate the process facing them. Some Forces are very good at helping families of principal officers; others not so good. Again the PFOA can now call upon support and advice from those who have experienced these issues and give proper professional assistance to those who may be unaware or dreading what may happen. This was re-enforced by the recent PFOA Conference at Stratford entitled ‘Strength through Support’ when the wife of a principal officer gave vivid details of the issues and concerns that will inevitably be experienced. Her professional and candid explanation can only be applauded because it was given with the sole intention of helping others. What a fast growing and professional association we are becoming when we can call upon such wonderful people to provide such a service! 6) Peer support throughout the Inquest and beyond in Force I must mention that the Force / Organisation to which the principal officers belong also have a responsibility here to their employees. It starts at senior management level and spreads as wide as the Federation / Union representatives. They all have a professional and human responsibility to provide support and help to those requiring it. We know that Inquests have taken a long time to take place after a fatal incident (something that may improve under new legislation), so that support should not stop after the PIM process. The Police service should be alert to an individual’s needs because they are the backbone of the organisation and a very valuable human resource. We are all busy people and I have been as guilty as anyone else in not, at times, keeping as regular contact with principals as I should have, however I have maintained a very good professional relationship with a number of firearms officers who work in the same building as I do. This only supports the need for an Inquest Officer who takes their responsibilities seriously, I have to say that the one I know in my own Force did so and did a very good job, even making contact after the Inquest on the anniversary of the shooting over several years; a nice and well received gesture.

Finally, the Police service should not underestimate the impact an Inquest into a fatal shooting or other death in contact will have on the officers / police staff involved (and the Force concerned). The importance of awareness training cannot be underestimated and police staff need to be well prepared and informed. It is vital that those giving evidence can demonstrate a clear and professional understanding of issues appertaining to the police response (eg. The role of the PIM, Conferring and Provision of Accounts) and I have to say that those I witnessed giving evidence were first class. That is my last article (of 5) surrounding the role of the PIM. I am pleased to report that there are some interesting developments on the PFOA training capability for the future, one I hope to have an active part in. If all goes well and we hit the right notes at the right time I may be writing some more articles relevant to the role in the future. Can I wish all our readers and their families a very prosperous New Year in 2014. I also thank those who have offered to me words of encouragement and support on what I have written thus far.





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yfed Powys Police is geographically the largest force in England & Wales within which you have 4 armed response bases responsible for deployment to all threat to life incidents. Collaboration in 2012 led to Dyfed Powys Police amalgamating with South Wales Police and Gwent Police with regards to firearms training and operational deployment with the Eastern Hub responsible for Gwent force area as well as the capital city Cardiff. Central Hub is responsible for Swansea and Carmathenshire within DPP. Western hub is responsible for Pembrokeshire as well as the Milford Haven estuary where approx 25% of the UK energy needs are imported. Finally you have the Mid-Wales ARV (Northern hub) responsible for the counties of Ceredigion and Powys a large predominanly rural area of almost 7,000 sq kms working out of two locations, namely a Sgt and 7 at Llandrindod Wells with a further 7 constables based in Cardigan within a purpose built facility in a new police station, opened in 2010. Tuesday March 19th, 2013 started as another normal day for the early shift on Cardigan ARV who also undertake method of entry tasks within division as well as assist response officers, many of whom work in isolated locations within this rural area. Ceredigion ARV officers therefore are an integral part of day to day policing within their area in addition to their firearms skills. No dual carriageways or motorways exist in Ceredigion with many “A” roads narrow by UK standards leading to reduced response times. PC Murphy and PC Redmond were deployed at noon to the port of Fishguard to assist ports officers following intelligence of potential disorder on the ferry to Ireland. However, on entering the town they were directed to attend Dovey Valley Gun Club near the town of Machynlleth in relation to a male who had attended that location having taken possession of a shotgun and was threatening suicide and by the nature of his behaviour had been declared emotionally and mentally disturbed by

false incident manager and tactical advisor. Both officers were aware that travelling from Fishguard to Machynlleth by road on “blues and twos” would take in excess of two hours therefore the assistance of air support was requested due to the nature of the incident. Firearms TAC and FIM concurred with this request as a result of which they deployed 2 armed response officers via the force helicopter from the Central hub, Near Swansea along with a firearms support dog. Due to the urgent need to get sufficient officers to the scene to contain and deal with the subject PC Murphy and Redmond were directed by force control to attend Aberporth airfield, now used predominantly for military testing, from which they were collected by RAF Sea King for coveyance to the scene - a journey now reduced to 14 minutes along with good views en-route! Since firearms collaboration the RAF have had an agreement in place that they will convey armed officers to incidents deemed as “threat to life.” The Sea King has the capacity to convey 8 AFOs along with equipment which is a huge advancement on the average police air support helicopter which is 2 officers with minimal equipment. On arrival at the location, following a briefing with FIM and TAC, armed officers were deployed to identify, locate and contain the subject with a view to negotiating a peaceful resolution. Team leader was PC Murphy armed with a G36 carbine accompanied by PC Redmond armed with a baton gun launcher as a less lethal option. In company with these two officers was Sgt Jon Rees, a

Home Office authorised negotiator. The subject was seen to be sitting on a bench in open ground in a small valley being part of the gun club to which members of the public could not gain access. ` There was no alternative but to approach the subject over open ground which PCs Murphy & Redmond along with Sgt Rees did using shields to provide ballistic cover. The remaining 2 firearms officers along with another ARV unit that had arrived by road from Pembrokeshire (over 100 miles) now provided outer cordon cover. The subject was identified and was known to be 6ft 5” tall of large build, weighing over 18 stone. Officers on approaching the subject could see that he was in possession of a shotgun with the barrel resting under his chin clasping the barrel with his hands. On making contact with the subject he initially refused to remove the shotgun from under his chin or enter into dialogue with officers. However, after a few minutes of persuasion the subject slid the barrel of the weapon to the side of his head pointing it into the air. PCs Murphy & Redmond along with the negotiator attempted to gain the subject’s permission to approach him as close as possible, both to build up a better rapport and also to make the baton gun more effective should it be needed. The subject was reluctant to allow officers to get close to him, but from making initial contact from 100mtrs they managed to get to within 30mtrs, but all further requests to move closer were rejected. Officers now attempted to negotiate a peaceful surrender for over 100 minutes, getting to know him and what his problems were, which were a mixture of relationship and financial issues. Despite everything the subject refused to lay down his shotgun and surrender. Through conversation at this time it was clear

that the subject was intent on taking his own life or possibly provoking a police induced shooting (SBC). After an intense period of negotiation, the subject disengaged completely with officers, refusing to answer questions, make eye contact or acknowledge that he had heard officers’ requests and instructions, instead placing the barrel of the shotgun back under his chin with both hands clasped around the barrel of the weapon. At the same time officers could see that the subject was beginning to cry and becoming increasingly emotional and his breathing could be heard becoming more controlled with deep breaths in a clear sign to officers that he was resigned to taking his own life. At this time the subject’s hands could be seen to be slowly and deliberately sliding down the barrel towards the trigger. PC Murphy and Sgt Rees at this time attempted to gain the subject’s attention in an effort to dissuade him from the clear path he was now taking towards suicide. PC Murphy also informed PC Redmond that he felt a baton strike was now necessary as it was clear that negotiation had failed despite their best efforts. However, PC Redmond now had the unfortunate scenario where the laser sight system had failed, which in his 11 yrs as an AFO had never occurred before, instead having to rely solely on the iron sight of his baton gun. When the subject’s hands came to within 6 inches of the trigger guard PC Redmond engaged the subject with a baton strike which struck him to the upper left chest area from a measured distance of approximately 27 metres. As a result of this baton strike the shotgun was dislodged from under the subject’s chin. PC Murphy now approached the subject with G36 raised (with PC Redmond who was also re-loading) making aggressive demands



to surrender immediately. A decision was made to approach the subject once he was struck with the baton round so as to close him down in an effort to prevent him from re-gathering the dislodged shotgun, to maintain the initative and momentum post baton strike with a view to forcing an immediate surrender, which is what occured with the subject pushing the shotgun onto the ground away from him. The subject was now arrested under the MHA. The weapon on examination was loaded with one cartridge, which was on select to fire, safety catch off. Following the incident a hot de-brief was held at Aberystwyth Police Station, with a formal de-brief the following day at Police HQ, Carmarthen. The incident was voluntarily referred to the IPCC who following its review did not highlight any major concerns. Learning points that were pertinent to this incident were the importance of air support and the availability of the RAF to convey officers to remote areas of Dyfed Powys Police force area to reduce the threat to life and increase the chances of a succesful resolution as well as improve officer and public safety by getting armed officers to a scene as quickly as possible. An additional facet of firearms training that was highlighted is the fact that officers are still trained in the use of iron sights and not to completely rely on laser sights for obtaining a sight picture,

which on this occasion proved to be invaluable in PC Redmond obtaining a succesful baton strike. It should also be noted that the subject was struck from a distance of 27 metres when all baton gun training is 20 metres or less which is a testimony to the accuracy and calmness displayed by PC Redmond during this incident when dealing with a subject clearly intent on suicide and in possession of a loaded firearm. Following medical assessment the subject was interviewed and stated that his intention was suicide and that it was only the officer’s actions at the scene that prevented this from occuring. As a historical foot note Dyfed Powys Police was formed in 1971 and this was the first time that a firearm was discharged in an operational situation, which led to the successful conclusion of an extremely tense situation with minimal injuries suffered by the subject and more importantly no loss of life. Done at 0200-0300 on a 12 hr night shift!!!!




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A VIEW FROM ABOVE WRITTEN BY CANON DAVID WILBRAHAM FORCE CHAPLAIN - THAMES VALLEY POLICE, NATIONAL POLICE CHAPLAIN November is in many ways a month of remembrance and reflection. As a nation we commemorate those lost in war with the customary two minute silence and associated ceremonies. It is the month in which All Souls Day and All Saints Day falls and we recall our deceased loved ones. It is right to give thought to such things. Memories are very precious to us and bring with them a huge range of powerful emotions. Throughout nature in the cycle of life we see how through death comes life. Significant things can happen because of and through death – there are countless life changing, life enhancing Trusts, Charities, Research projects and Organisations that have brought life to many - inspired by the death of one. Not for one moment saying that we would desire that to be the case – for we would all long to have our loved ones alongside us especially when their death seems untimely and at far too young an age – but out of brokenness can come healing; out of darkness – light; out of sorrow – joy; from despair – hope. I am writing this article following two really important occasions in the Policing Calendar. At the end of September I was privileged to lead the annual National Police Memorial Day Service which was held at St David’s Hall, Cardiff. This year’s service marked the tenth anniversary of this important event. The day was founded by a Kent police officer, Joe Holness, following the death of his friend and colleague John Odell. Joe not only wanted to ensure that this officer was remembered but that there would be a special day in which some 4000 police officers who have died whilst on duty would be remembered. Sadly, each year that number increases and this year the names of another 11 officers were read out who have died whilst on duty. The other important event which I recently attended was the 2013 Police Bravery Awards. This was a very moving evening where, from a total of 64 nominees, the specific stories of each regional finalist were told before the overall winner was announced by the Home Secretary. Though very different, each account involved tremendous acts of bravery, commitment, dedication and really gallant action by the officers concerned who selflessly put the needs of others above themselves and their commitment to public service above personal consideration. It was a humbling event and it is a great pity that many outside the service choose to focus on more negative, isolated, undermining and destructive incidents rather than giving a loud voice to accounts of overwhelming bravery and commitment by officers and staff day by day, just some of which are represented amongst the annual bravery awards. The overall winner was PC Ian Dibell [Essex] who was killed when he went, whilst off duty, to confront an armed man shooting in the street. One of the declared aims of chaplaincy within the army is ‘to offer spiritual support to those who risk sacrificing their lives for others’. It is an aim that those of us involved with Police Chaplaincy can readily echo as we, in the context of our role, seek to offer personal, practical and where appropriate spiritual support to police officers and staff who daily ‘risk sacrificing their lives for others’. Over the past few months I have been reflecting that regardless of the faith or belief of the individual, policing is an inherently ‘spiritual’ occupation, or, as many would feel, vocation. I say this because the day to day work in which you are involved deals with some really important issues. This includes, for example, issues of right and wrong, good and evil, freedom and responsibility, life and

death, the desire for peace, the building of community, retribution, restitution and forgiveness. It involves seeing people, individually and in groups at their best and also at their worst. At a personal level it involves commitment, integrity, truth, love, patience, compassion, understanding and self sacrifice. I think it is for this reason that when the publicity and the perception of how the Police are treated is negative, destructive, dishonest and undermining it goes deep, concerns us profoundly and really hurts. It rightly causes us to want to shout, clearly and loudly, that those stories and views need to be balanced with the many more stories of bravery, commitment, self sacrifice and dedication we not only see each day but which more importantly characterise attitudes which bring officers to duty each day. For those within the Police who we ask to carry weapons capable of lethal force we not only expect and see the highest standards of professionalism and commitment we also ask them to place themselves in the position of greatest danger. However, any remembrance of lives lost in war, in the course of duty, or tragically in other ways is not just about remembrance it is also about personal commitment. It has been said ‘The Only Thing Necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing’ [Edmund Burke attrib.] National Police Memorial Day, the annual Police Bravery Awards and each time you come on duty show a huge commitment to other people. As you do so it may be, from time to time, that you need to share pressures, concerns and difficulties with others do remember that chaplaincy is one such resource there ‘to offer support to those who risk their lives for others.’ Enjoy your vocation and commitment. The composer John Barrie had this prayer on his desk as he pursued his vocation... ‘May the light of your soul guide you’ [John O’Donohue] May the light of your soul guide you. May the light of your soul bless the work you do with the secret love and warmth of your heart. May you see in what you do the beauty of your own soul. May the sacredness of your work bring healing, light and renewal to those who work with you and to those who see and receive your work. May your work never weary you. May it release within you wellsprings of refreshment, inspiration and excitement. May you be present in what you do. May you never become lost in the bland absences. May the day never burden you. May dawn find you awake and alert, approaching your new day with dreams, Possibilities and promises. May evening find you gracious and fulfilled. May you go into the night blessed, sheltered and protected. May your soul calm, console and renew you.


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Mark Williams reviews the New

Range Rover Sport 3.0SDI HSE



ver the past couple of years Landrover have been enjoying incredible success following the launch of the Evoque range. Without doubt the modern looking wedge shape has been appealing to the younger generation, and seems a million miles away from the agricultural image of the Defender 110! This success continues with the new Range Rover, and now it appears with the new Range Rover Sport. The new Sport is lighter and has a fresh modern look, which is a complete contrast to the ‘brick’ shape outgoing Sport. After a visit to Marshall Landrover, Peterborough I had the pleasure of meeting Laura Mills, a sales consultant who takes immense pride in her work and has a real belief in her product. On this particular occasion Laura arranged for me to test drive the new Range Rover Sport 3.0SDI HSE, a middle of the range car priced at a whopping £59,995 plus whatever extras you may add. I have seen some Sports advertised for the wrong side of £85k, which is well out of the reach of most of us. On being handed the keys I had a good look around the car. I like the tidy lines, the front looks totally different now, and the rear has more shape, softer lines. The car was sitting on 21’’ wheels, you can opt for the 22’’ wheels at an additional cost. Inside the cabin it just gets better! There is plenty of leg and headroom in the front and rear. The 14 way powered seats with lumbar adjustment offered good all round support, and were finished in beautiful but not particularly practical cream leather! The dash and centre console are also very classy, as well as functional, practical and clear. Overall it’s a nice place to be and oozes quality. The standard 380w DAB music system has a great sound and Ipods/phones can be plugged straight in via a USB in the centre glovebox. On turning the key the V6 diesel settles down to a hushed thrum. The first thing you notice when you drive away was just how quiet and smooth this car is. All Sport models feature an air suspension system. I have never actually driven a car with this, but I have to say it was amazing. Any ruts or imperfections on the road are simply ironed out without any fuss whatsoever. The standard 8-speed auto box is matched perfectly to the car, shifting seamlessly up and down the gears. For a car this size the handling really did surprise me. One of the other benefits of this lovely motor is that you suddenly become a trendy Dad! I went to pick the kids up from school, and they actually smiled when they came out, obviously I was instructed to turn off the ‘Level 42’ and put on some other band ‘No Direction’ or something, but all in all the car got a massive thumbs up by our three offspring travelling in the back. This car felt like it could basically take you anywhere. The finish of the paintwork, panels and interior really are quite amazing. If you are lucky enough to be able to afford one of these beauties there is currently a waiting list of over 8 months. Landrover have been very business-like over this popularity so you can forget any discount and if you want to use their finance they currently offer rates of 7.9% APR which is steep compared to other manufacturers.

I have recently test driven the new BMW X5 3.0d Sport and was impressed with the refinement and performance. However it does not look as good as the Range Rover Sport and lacks the ‘wow’ factor you get when driving along. The BMW ride is also nowhere near as comfortable as the Range Rover, and would also not compete against it off road. The stats: Power 292 Bhp
- Torque 600Nm
- Maximum Speed 130 mph 
Acceleration 0-60 mph in 6.8 seconds
- Urban mpg 32.5
- Extra urban 41.5 mpg 
- Combined mpg 37.7 
- CO₂ emissions (g/km) 199 THE VERDICT So is the car worth over £60k? Well given the potential re-sale values on this new model, and the ever-increasing popularity allied to the better fuel economy and CO2 emissions, yes! It’s an amazing all-round car. It looks good, drives like a limo, and has a quality finish. This was my first drive of a Range Rover and I can now see why so many people love them and why repeat business for many Landrover dealers, including Marshall of Peterborough, is over 70%.


peak to anyone these days about the best way to build muscle, increase strength, ultimately burn fat and sculpt a great looking physique and they will tell you all about the benefits of using ‘free weights’ over ‘machines’ and the use of ‘machines’ over ‘body-weight’ exercises. However, very few people will even consider the use of ‘resistance bands’ in their arsenal of building body awesomeness. I will fully admit that resistance bands have got a pretty bad reputation in the past, thanks in part to those middle aged, Lycra-clad ladies on daytime television using them as some kind of low resistance aerobic workout. However ‘Bands’ are much more versatile and beneficial than this! They can benefit even the most ‘hardcore’ of lifter or athlete by complimenting or even replacing their current training routine. I am sure I don’t really need to explain what resistance bands are.... but just in case you are new to all this stuff.... they are basically large rubber / elastic bands that are pulled to create ‘resistance’ to exercise various muscle groups. They come in various shapes and sizes (depending on resistance levels) and are shaped into anything from tubes with handles to just simple lengths of flat elastic material. It doesn’t matter what type you use and all depends really on your personal preference and budget. However one word of advice I will give you is that you will want to start with the lowest resistance and then move up as you progress...Trust me, it’s not as easy as it looks! These will benefit the young - just getting into resistance training, the elderly - as they work on the muscles and relieve pressure off of the joints unlike heavy weights, those coming back from injury for the same reason, those who need an alternative to their regular training - for active rest periods, and those who want something to finish off a particular body part and bring about a great ‘pump’. There are several advantages to using resistance bands as part of, or in place of, your regular training regime. The first and most obvious one is their convenience. They take up literally no space, weigh next to nothing, cost bugger all compared to most training equipment these days and can be used virtually anywhere! This of course makes them ideal for using whilst on


holiday or away from the gym, especially if you need to train whilst on an extended shift at work for instance or just have little space or budget for more expensive equipment. Aside from the obvious ease of use, there are also distinct advantages in the actual ‘mechanics’ or ‘use’ of resistance bands and the effects they have on your muscles throughout the full range of motion of the exercise. Let me explain more....Free weights and machines rely on gravity and as such provide the greatest resistance when used only in a vertical motion. This resistance becomes less the more the weight is deviated away from the vertical. In practice this means as you lift a free weight, such as a dumbbell, whilst performing a curl, the tension on the muscle can actually be removed at certain points throughout the range of motion. For example as the weight passes the vertical, especially at the top of the movement, the dumbbell actually starts to move towards the shoulder and not actually upwards, removing virtually all tension on the muscle. And tension, of course, is what stimulates muscles to grow and develop. As resistance bands do not rely on gravity they automatically have a mechanical advantage over free weights, as they not only provide resistance throughout the whole range of movement, they can also be used on a horizontal as well as a vertical plane. This Increases their potential for use in more functional movement patterns that mimic both everyday activities and sport-specific activities. Yet another advantage training with ‘bands’ has over traditional free weights or machines, is that tension and resistance actually increases throughout the movement. As the range of motion increases, the resistance provided by the elastic stretching also increases. The main advantage of this is that as the resistance increases the number of muscle fibres that are being used in the exercise also increase to cope with the perceived increase in load. It follows, that the more muscle fibres are used, the more adaptation in muscle strength and size occurs. This cannot be

achieved with free weights in the same manner. Mechanics aside, a massive benefit of this form of training is that it prevents ‘cheating’ when performing these exercises. Cheating is common practice, whether it’s conscious or not, when the going gets difficult it is only natural for your body to try and incorporate a ‘cheating’ strategy to complete the required number of sets or reps. One way of doing this is by utilising momentum to move the weight as opposed to the actual muscle fibres that are being trained. The physical properties of the elastic resistance bands will simply not allow cheating through the use of momentum as the resistance comes from stretching out the elastic and not moving a weight through space. The only way to continue performing a movement is to utilise more and more muscle fibres to continue stretching the elastic material, and as already stated, increased tension and recruitment of more muscle fibres gives a greater stimulus to grow, repair and develop! This will in turn obviously burn more calories and give a far greater fat burning effect. You can’t really go wrong with these. There are numerous ways to utilise these great bits of cheap and versatile training kit depending on your goal. Below I have put together a simple but effective full body routine. This can be used as a standalone training routine which can be performed anywhere from one day to everyday of the week, although their optimum use would be every other day if performing the full body routine! This routine is great for either beginning or getting back into some form of resistance training. You can also just use sections of it, to concentrate on rehabilitating an injured muscle group or finishing off and complimenting a body part which you have just trained and want to recruit that last little bit of muscle fibre to really stimulate some growth and get the best ‘Pump’ available ! That said, although these are pretty much fool-proof and simple bits of equipment there are just a few rules you need to follow to get the most out of them....and of course remain safe! Firstly, as they are just elastic bands, you need to use a bit of common sense around where you hook or attach them (when doing pulling exercises) and what sharp objects, such as watches and jewellery you are wearing whilst performing the exercises. I am sure it goes without saying but anything sharp WILL put a hole or tear in the elastic and it WILL snap when put under tension......This WILL hurt!!! That aside, to get the most out of them, they are obviously designed to work on tension, so the elastic needs to be under some amount of tension throughout the entire range of motion, not just the very top. This is achieved quite simply by shortening the band (by either standing on or holding it further down the band itself ). This will provide tension right from the beginning of the move and throughout. When pulling or pushing the bands on any given exercise try to ensure you are moving them by ‘flexing’ and squeezing the muscle and not simple going through the motions. This may feel awkward or difficult to begin with but will come with time and experience. The only other real debate on using these concerns at what

HEALTH & FITNESS tempo or speed you should be performing the exercises. However the beauty of the routine I suggest is that it really doesn’t matter. You see, some routines will advocate doing a certain number of reps – 20 reps for instance. Try doing 20 reps very slowly and controlled then try doing them as fast as possible. I will guarantee that the fast reps are a lot easier, and this is simply because of the ‘time under tension’ was a lot less with the fast ones! My routine is based on timed intervals of up to 1 minute (for smaller muscle groups and when starting off you may want to stick to 30 seconds). What this means is that it doesn’t matter how fast or slow you perform the repetitions you will still be putting your muscles under tension for that 1 minute. I generally start off at a moderately fast pace (whilst keeping good form) and by the time I get to the last 15 to 20 seconds I can’t go much faster than ‘extremely slow’ anyway...the main thing is to NOT matter how slow you end up going, just keep going, this keeps your muscles under tension for longer! That’s it really, experiment and see what works for you. My ‘Full body’ routine, to hit every body part is below – start off at 30 seconds per exercise and move up to 1 minute, moving from one exercise to the next without any rest. When you are feeling brave enough repeat the whole routine once or even twice more!! There are numerous exercises that can be done with these bands, however the ones below are all you will need for now and will hit every major muscle group for a full body routine.

hit every major muscle group for a full body routine.



The Workout





(Targeting the upper arm - Bicep) Again stand on one end of the resistance band and grasp hold of the other with either your left or right hand. Make sure, as with all these exercises that there is some tension in the band when your arm is in its most relaxed position – in this case straight down to your side. To perform this move simply ‘curl’ your hand up to your shoulder whilst keeping the upper arm completely still, then return and repeat. Repeat this with the other arm.

Chest Press (Targets Chest and Front of shoulders) Performed quite simply like a bench press, machine chest press or push up! With not having to rely on gravity to add the resistance it can be performed standing, sitting or lying down! Take hold of each end of the band so it is across your back, arms at shoulder height, push your arms straight out in front of you before returning to the starting position.










Rows (Targets back) With this exercise you will need to hook or attach the band around a door handle, pole or other suitable object. If you are training with a partner they may even be able to hold the band for you or you can perform this sitting and using your feet as anchor points....whatever you use just make sure it is secure!! Grab hold of the band at either end, ensuring it is anchored at the half way point so as to provide equal resistance to each arm, full extend the arms and pull them towards you in a ‘rowing’ motion.

(Targeting middle / outer shoulders) Stand on one end of the band; grip the other end in either your left or right hand, with your arm straight down against the side of your body. Raise your arm up to the side and, taking advantage of the full range of motion the band allows, keep raising your arm to the vertical position, pointing straight up above your head before returning to the starting position. Then switch arms.








Squats (Targets Upper legs, Thighs and Buttocks) Stand with both feet on the band, shoulder width apart. Grasp both ends of the band whilst crouching into a regular squat position - Thighs as close to parallel to the floor as you can manage. The band should be under tension with your hands to the side of your knees! Simply stand up pushing through your legs against the tension of the band before returning to the start position.



Side Lateral Raises



Reverse Flyes

(Targets the inner back and rear of shoulders) This is similar to the ‘Flyes / Cross over’ exercise above for the chest. However instead of pulling the band across your back by moving your arms from your sides to in front of your chest, you do the exact opposite. Start by holding the band at shoulder height, arms straight out in front you and pull them apart until your arms are fully extended to your sides and then return back to the starting point before repeating.

Tricep Extensions (Targets Upper arms - Triceps) Stand on one end of the band ensuring it runs up your back, where you have hold of the other end with your hand behind your head, elbow flexed / Bent. Extend your arm to the vertical position above your head, as you would a regular Triceps extension. Return to the starting position then repeat. Remember to swap arms when complete.

Flyes / Crossovers (Targets the chest muscles) Take hold of the band at each end, extend the arms fully out to your side with the band again being across your back. Bring them together in front of your chest until your hands touch before returning to the start position.

Bicep Curls




Move from one exercise to the next without rest. When you have gone through this once, rest for 1 minute then repeat! Continue this cycle up to 3 times.....This will be a total of 36 minutes and should be enough for anyone!! A simple routine with effective results!! Alternatively you can concentrate on just one body part to finish off your regular training routine or to build up some strength in an injured body part. Same principles apply - continue the repetitions for 1 minute for that body part, rest 1 minute, then repeat.

If this is going to be your only full body, resistance training routine that you follow, I would recommend performing this 3 days a week, taking a day of rest in between each. For example training on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. So, in summary, resistance bands will increase the strength and condition of your muscles, stimulate growth and burn calories and therefore fat. What they do better than any other piece of equipment is keep tension throughout the full range of motion of any given exercise, working many parts of a lift that are often not worked by free weights and doing so whilst removing the pressure on the joints that heavy weights can cause. All this in turn increases flexibility and strength and greater returns for your time and effort in terms of muscle size and fat loss (albeit the best results will be dependent on you getting your nutrition correct). It is obvious then that anyone who needs a way to workout whilst on holiday, periodically can’t get to the gym due to work or other commitments or wants to add something extra to polish off their current routine, resistance bands are well worth the few quid investment !! WRITTEN BY JUSTIN CONWAY WWW.FUNDAMENTALISTFITNESS.COM



Expert In Court A Parting Shot WRITTEN BY MIKE WALDREN QPM


here is a component part of the process following a shooting by the police that has grown over the years to the point where it is now virtually automatic and which has so far escaped serious discussion. That is when the services of an ‘expert’ are called upon to look at what has occurred which in all probability will end up with an ‘expert opinion’ being expressed on the actions of the officers and the force concerned. We should first be clear on what this ‘expert’ is not. It is not someone, often with some connection to the civilian shooting world, who gives an opinion on the actions of the police to the media in the aftermath of a police shooting. It is also not a retired police officer anxious to become a celebrity and therefore keen to give an opinion on anything to get into the limelight. No. The persons I am talking about are those who have professional experience of the matters they are being asked to comment on. They would probably not use the term ‘expert’ to describe themselves but they have such an understanding of the underlying policy, guidance, training, operational practice and technical issues associated with the police use of firearms that they are acknowledged as an ‘authority’ on the subject by their peers. Naturally whenever there is a shooting there is an investigation into the circumstances, usually these days by people who have never been involved in a police firearms operation in their lives. The legal representatives of the family of the person shot will also have no idea of what they are supposed to be looking out for and so all involved have to rely on what they will call an ‘expert’ to give them a steer. Arguably there is no single event that can impact more on a police force than an officer-involved shooting. No one really

cares how many times a force has been involved in incidents where no shots are fired. In the public’s mind that is what is supposed to happen and at best it is just a statistic. It can influence the reputation of the force concerned either positively, in which case this will probably be short-lived, or negatively, in which case it will be used as background material in news reports and articles for years to come. It has the potential for criminal, civil or disciplinary consequences and the officers concerned will be viewing what they are about to go through with a degree of trepidation but at least if they are members of the PFOA there is a mountain of experience to fall back on. With this in mind just what qualifications does the ‘expert’ whose opinion is being sought have to have? The answer is that if a person is put forward by their force as being an ‘expert’, or if they have retired and claim to be one, then that is usually enough. As I see it there are three problems with this as things stand at the moment. The first is that, just like everything else in life, different people have different opinions and some officers attracted to this side of policing tend to be strong characters with their own views on how things should or should not be done. For many years I sat on what was then the National Firearms Instructors Working Group and the disagreements we had over the wording of almost every phrase in what was going to be put out as guidance to police forces assumed near legendary proportions. The chairman, who looking back on it must have had the patience of a saint, sometimes had to call for frequent breaks to let matters cool down. This is nothing new. In 1977 a gun shop was burnt out when police fired a CS canister into it in an effort to flush out a dangerous psychopath. The owners sued the force concerned for damages and in

their support their legal representatives engaged a retired police officer who gave his opinion that if Ferret CS cartridges had been used there would have been no fire. The Ferret was not approved for general police use at the time but he believed that the force should have conducted its own trials after which it would undoubtedly have adopted it regardless. The trial judge commented in his summing up that: ‘I am bound to say that I thought that [‘the expert’] protested too much. His evidence was delivered with a fervour and hyperbole which ought not to be found in evidence of an objective expert. He had been the champion of the Ferret and had urged that it be acquired generally. He clearly thought that anyone who did not agree with him on this subject was not merely negligent but foolish’. (Rigby v Chief Constable of Northamptonshire 1985). In this case the evidence of ‘the expert’ was seen for what it was and admittedly it is an extreme example of ego overriding impartiality but it should have been a salutary lesson for anyone else asked to provide ‘expert witness’ evidence. This has not always proved to be the case. Secondly, if ‘the expert’ gives way to the temptation to do it, it is often relatively easy with the full benefit of hindsight to invent an alternative set of actions that may have made the shooting unnecessary. It is what any instructor worth his or her salt does with students on training courses, sometimes just to provoke discussion. However, when this is converted into ‘expert opinion’ following a real incident the view of ‘the expert’ acquires far greater significance. Even though the ubiquitous ‘another way’ may itself have led to a shooting, which in turn would have led to suggestions of yet ‘another way’, all involved will find themselves on the defensive. Unlike most witnesses in a court ‘the

EXPERT WITNESS expert’ is entitled to give an opinion but an example out of a number I have come across will serve to illustrate the third problem – that of ‘the expert’ using practice in their own (or last) force as a benchmark. In a recent case ‘the expert’ was critical of the tactical advisor for not drawing up the tactical plan personally. It was said to be a ‘systemic fault’. Really? Undoubtedly that was the way it was done in ‘the expert’s’ own force and every force likes to think that it does things better than any other. That is as it should be but all have slightly different internal practices. With no peer reviewed national guidance to back it up (quite the reverse in fact), is this within the realms of unbiased ‘expert opinion’ that can justifiably be presented to a court? Because that is where it could (and in this case nearly did) end up. Another little gem, which in my view represents nothing more than being critical for the sake of it, is the ‘expert opinion’ that two officers on their way to a man seen in a building with a gun should have discussed the tactical options available to them while they were driving at speed on the twos and blues through heavy traffic to get there. Leaving aside whether or not this was an objective let alone a realistic expectation the man was no longer in the building when they arrived. He was somewhere in the street which would have rendered any such discussion irrelevant. It is sometimes difficult to understand the motives behind what ‘the expert’ chooses to leave out of a report. In a case where the subject was hit in the side of the head the implication was that he was not, as the officers claimed, looking at them when he pointed what they thought was a gun at them. ‘The expert’, a retired police officer, engaged by the solicitors for the family of the deceased produced a report in which he identified what he said would have been the various timings involved and gave his opinion that ‘the total time between the decision to fire and [the person] being hit would be no more than 0.05 seconds (five one hundredths of a second). Bearing in mind [the person’s] physical state, it does not seem that he could have moved his head by any measurable amount in that time’. There was no account taken of the time taken to realise that there was an imminent threat requiring the use of a firearm, nor that needed to identify that there was a safe backdrop in case of a miss, nor that needed to line up the weapon,

all the time wondering whether it was already too late. To the layman (and thus to a jury) this would have suggested that the entire process would all have been accomplished six times faster than the blink of a human eye. There is more than enough literature, not least from within the recent pages of Top Cover, to discredit this kind of conjecture and in this case it never got as far as being introduced into a court but the family concerned will forever consider it proof that the officers were lying. From all this it would be easy to infer that there is nothing to prevent someone asked to perform the ‘expert witness’ function saying whatever they like. Not so. The Criminal Procedure Rules (Part 33) provided by the Ministry of Justice make it clear that: •An expert must help the court to achieve the overriding objective by giving objective, unbiased opinion on matters within his expertise. •This duty overrides any obligation to the person from whom he receives instructions or by whom he is paid. • This duty includes an obligation to inform all parties and the court if the expert’s opinion changes from that contained in a report served as evidence or given in a statement. After this there are a number of rules, the most relevant of which are that an expert must: • give details of the expert’s qualifications, relevant experience and accreditation; • make clear which of the facts stated in the report are within the expert’s own knowledge; • give details of any literature or other information which the expert has relied on in making the report; • where there is a range of opinion on the matters dealt with in the report (a) summarise the range of opinion, and (b) give reasons for his own opinion; • if the expert is not able to give his opinion without qualification, state the qualification. It is usually when these rules get bent (I hesitate to say broken but that is probably what I mean) that difficulty arises out of what is put in a report. Over the years I have provided reports for both criminal and civil trials and given evidence at twelve fatal shooting inquests. I have now called it a day, not before time some will say, but I still retain my interest and I remain concerned about the whole issue of ‘expert witnesses’ in police shooting cases.

It is true that the Criminal Procedure Rules only apply to reports prepared for a criminal trial and in the early stages of an investigation this is unlikely to be a consideration. However, someone asked by an investigating authority (the IPCC for the time being) to be its ‘expert’, or someone who wants to put what they know to use after they have retired, could find themselves being an ‘expert witness’ in court whether they anticipated it or not and so they would be well advised to stick to them from the outset. If ‘the expert’ does not know the ‘range of opinion’ or cannot be ‘objective’ and ‘unbiased’ then they should decline to get involved no matter how flattering the invitation to do so may initially appear to be. This is, of course, only my own opinion!


TOP COVER ISSUE 5 25 used from when Rob Mac had his BSB team sponsored by motor point. That year I’d also decided to buy a Ducati for the road, a 999 as a Bayliss rep. I regret selling it but I needed the money to finance the R1, as it cost the world. It had a V5 and daytime MOT so I decided to insure it for the road in case I decided to take it out on a nice day. This was a big mistake, I fell off it on the exit to a slip road in March this year and broke my collar bone. Well I’m all OK now with the addition of a piece of titanium, and I’ve raced the R1 twice. It’s a fantastic bike capable of more than I am. I’m into the 57s at Mallory already and anticipate that I will get better the more trust I get with it. It’s on a lorry as I type on it’s way to Portimao for me to have three days on track this weekend. Now that should be fun. I hope that this gets peoples’ interest that aren’t already involved in racing or track days. For those that are then I hope to get to meet you all at a track day next year, for those that haven’t yet well just ask for any advice and I’ll be happy to help in any way I can. I still have the R6 and I will be taking all the race kit off and selling separately. The Bike will be back to pretty much standard with some newly painted fairings and sold. Have fun and stay safe.

WRITTEN BY MATT TAYLOR Leicestershire Police

Rideout I joined the police in 1990 having completed 5 years service in the Royal Navy. I’m now in Firearms Training as the Chief firearms Instructor in Leicestershire Police. When I joined I didn’t have a full motorcycle licence, just ridden some motocross bikes around a local farm when I was younger. A colleague of mine had bought a new Honda CBR600, they were like nothing I’d seen before, so in 1991, I passed my bike test and bought a Yamaha FZ600, quickly followed by a brand new Kawasaki ZZR600. After 5 years of going to the Isle of Man and to France, the ZZR was sold and I bought a Yamaha RU EXUP followed by a Kawasaki ZXR750L1, I did my 1st track day at Snetterton on that and I was hooked. However a close friend of mine died on the road a few months afterwards, and following a trip to the Isle of Man I thought I was heading the same way, so decided to stop riding on the road. That was in 1997 and in 2005 I spent £800 on a 1997 model Kawasaki ZX6r to do some track days on. It was in bits so I had to rebuild it, but another £100 spent and I was at Mallory Park being briefed for the Novice group. I was hooked again; I booked my next event a few weeks later in the fast group. I soon worked out that some fast groups are ‘Fast’ and others are ‘Faster’, I rode the socks off the tired ZX6 until it just fell to pieces around me every time it went out, so it had to go!!

I bought an ex Ron Haslem race school CBR1000RR 2004, it was standard other than track fairings. I fitted a power commander, K&N filter and a scorpion silencer, it produced 168BHP at the rear

wheel on the dyno at RJS superbike at Mallory Park. It was time to play! After a couple of years at different circuits and one trip to Jerez I decided to try my hand at racing. The club I chose was East Midlands Racing Association (EMRA) as they only did Mallory Park with one round at Darley Moore so they were fairly cheap. If you can call £175 entrance fees for 4 races and two qualifying sessions cheap? I researched the results on line, and compared the rookie class to my lap times and decided 58 second laps weren’t too shabby round there. The 1st year done and I didn’t win anything but had an amazing time, a great bunch of people go racing and they are friendly. Year two of racing was 2011, and I decided to change the bike again, this time for a brand new R6 that came from Yamaha on a race support deal. I bought that in December 2010 and I stripped the road kit and fitted all the race parts I could afford over the winter. It had Ohlins 30mm cartridge kit, Ohlins TTX rear shock, power commander 5, quick shifter, graves block off caps that do away with the environmental gismos that sit on top of the engine, a full titanium Akrapovic race system, steering damper, PP tuning rear sets and levers. 1st practice out and I spun a main bearing after 12 laps so had to have the engine rebuilt. It was blueprinted and made 124BHP on the dyno, again at RJS superbikes. After that false start I missed the 1st race meeting in March and the round at Darley Moore but at the end of the year won the fastest 600 in the open class. The prize was a cut crystal vase that you get to keep for the year and a trophy presented by Tom Sykes, Richard Cooper and John Reynolds. 2012 I was on a roll, I was getting to low 57s laps now and had a second place. Disaster then struck as I was knocked off at Edwinas in one race and tore the ligaments in my shoulder. That meeting was over for me, resulting in that round and the Darley Moore round being non point scoring rounds, I did however come 3rd overall in the rookie championship, that meant the grand sum of £100 and a trophy presented by Tom Sykes and John Reynolds. At the end of 2012 I had the opportunity to buy a 2012 Yamaha R1 cross plane crank, this bike is an amazing spec and from parts





t may surprise you to learn that the majority of statements provided by Principal Officers post shooting, contain memory errors. Regardless of how confident officers may feel writing their own accounts, errors do creep in. Evidence secured within a witness interview is no different; investigators should anticipate inaccuracy and errors in all interviews given by civilians or police officers. There is no ‘truth serum’, no perfect retrieval technique to guarantee that evidential accounts are free from error. Mistakes and inaccuracies occur because memory is fallible. Which is the better method to adopt writing statements or putting yourself forward for a significant witness interview? The number of errors you may make and the potential significance and consequence of each determine the answer to this question. Memory errors take on a specific significance for Principal Officers, a significance that does not apply to any other witness. Quite simply, where police have used force and death or serious injury results, every officer involved along the decision-making chain - by default, moves into a position of jeopardy. The accuracy of their memories will face legal challenges. Remember, the central purpose of an Article 2 (ECHR) investigation is to specifically identify those individuals directly involved with the decision to use force, and then punish them if their actions are considered unjustified. Punishment may include charges of manslaughter or murder for the officers concerned. From a memory perspective, the information that officers visually process and remember, or unintentionally ignore, forget or disregard helps investigators develop some understanding surrounding the reasonableness of their actions. Investigators weigh up if sufficient justification existed for the use of force, and then if the force used was reasonable and delivered proportionately. The precision of memory and the accuracy of recall become the central issues explored within the Post Incident Investigation and at Inquest. Accounts of memory directly influence the Jury’s verdict of lawful or unlawful killing. The recollection of a Principal Officer may provide the only evidential ‘ammunition’ for lawyers to probe and explore. Recall is therefore extremely important. If you could compare your recall, your

experience of a violent encounter to a film of the same event, how accurate would you be - how many errors do you think you would make, and if you make errors would they centre around your ‘honestly held belief’? Almost certainly, your account would contain gaps, missing details, sequencing errors and misperception. Dynamic movements made by the suspect, movements of colleagues, the succession of your own actions; all may be disjointed and out of sequence. Your perception of distance and time may seem distorted and very different to the recall of others. However, your memory of the event will seem very real to you – your beliefs, your experience may seem far more real than the film itself – despite the fact that you know logically this cannot be the case. Viewing a film of the incident may cause you to begin to doubt your own recall; your own honestly held belief for what happened. Memory is multifaceted and unlike any other recording medium. When faced with the threat of violence your perceptions and experience is very personal. Anticipation and training frames individual expectation for what is about to happen, what is happening and what has already happened. Under stress, your brain unconsciously diverts cognitive resources, feeding the demand of the visual and auditory systems. This switching and channelling of attention directly influences your ability to encode sounds and images. It is not possible to pay accurate attention to everything and this makes all of our memories fallible. The demand and prioritisation of vision is often at the expense of hearing and visa versa. Personal threat impairs the brain’s capacities to creatively problem solve and our ability to regulate emotional responses becomes far more difficult. When confronted with imminent threat people tend not to extensively rationalise. Responses to movements can occur automatically and unconsciously, triggered by personal expectation. Importantly, threat shifts and narrows attention, and without doubt, threat captures attention, directing vision towards danger cues. Attentional capture is a necessary survival mechanism frequently funnelling our vision towards danger. Officers caught up within a life-threatening encounter screen out information that is irrelevant and unrelated to the danger, regardless of the


fact that large chunks of this ‘unattended’ information will be of subsequent interest to investigators and lawyers. By way of a sporting comparison, the goal keeper in ice hockey needs to focus attention on the opponent trying to score. If asked to describe her reflexive save, the location of the puck, her opponents her teammates - she may well struggle. These aspects are unimportant at that moment of reaction and received little attention. She may ‘intuitively’ fill in the memory gaps, logically guessing, and rationalising what probably happened. However, members of the crowd may provide a much fuller, richer detailed account for all that occurred. This may be because their own visual attention was not ‘driven’ to a very narrow part of the scene, unlike the goalkeeper’s. Firearms’ training is therefore a doubleedged sword. On the one-hand sensitisation to threat maximises the chances for an officer to survive and protect life, but from an attentional perspective, something has to give. You cannot maintain a complete overview for all that is happening around you, and your brain naturally shuts out unnecessary information. Firearms Training directly influences where officers look for threat cues. Movements of a suspect’s hand, elbows and shoulders potentially convey a message of intent and this gets priority: is that weapon rising towards me … Movements of colleagues now remain unattended; your own movements seem automatic and some how distant from conscious deliberation. Actively engaging is far more cognitively demanding than just watching and remaining detached and uninvolved. The need to react to the rising weapon now leads to a division of your visual attention away from the weapon in the hands of the subject – in a split second, the weapon rising towards you is now of secondary importance – you already know what is coming, your need to react totally dominates your thoughts. The tipping point has arrived; visual attention diverts towards the body mass of the subject. The need to use the sights on the weapon determines that you no longer visually track the subject with any great clarity. The bystander witness notices the weapon dropping from the subject’s hand at just the same moment you visually confirm centre mass and fire. The falling handgun remains unnoticed and unattended as you fire a second shot.


Your need to interpret information and react has placed you at a significant ‘visual’ disadvantage. You must now explain all that occurred, but find you cannot. All you can describe is your honest belief, which appears honest – but now, mistaken. Goal directed action limited your visual capability and your reaction time lead to visual sequencing errors. Forensic evidence now suggests a different time line between your action and memory: bullet entry wounds to the side or back of the subject conflict with your own memory of an armed subject who was constantly facing you. Skills training enables you to react when threatened, however, attending to danger and capturing a complete overview of the scene are not mutually compatible; they focus on two separate outcomes – survival on the one hand and a broad appreciation of information on the other. However, the IPCC sees the limiting and selective nature of visual attention quite differently, apparently all witnesses are the same! ‘The police cannot have it both ways. The IPCC has already made it clear that our investigators will not treat officers who have fired fatal shots on duty as suspects unless there is evidence to suggest that a criminal offence may have been committed. If that is the case, it is difficult to see why they should not be treated immediately like any other significant witness who are not given access to legal advice.’ While the IPCC finds it difficult to see a clear distinction between a civilian bystander witness and a police officer, scientific evidence identifies that errors made within interview generate suspicion. The greater number of errors made, the greater the suspicion.

The IPCC actively pursued legislation to compel officers to interview. They have now successfully created a new category of witness - the police witness. Police Officers involved in deaths or serious injury on duty, now receive special status defined within law. No similar legislation exists for civilian witnesses, yet the IPCC suggest all witnesses are the same. Forcefully directing police officers to interview now categorises Principal Officers as ‘unique’ within Society - very different from any other witness. Why is it that police witnesses are pressurised and compelled towards interviews when they already provide comprehensive written statements? Every officer attending an IPCC interview under compulsion is very likely to try to limit what he or she says, attempting to reduce and minimize the number of errors they make. However, lack of detail invariably leads the interviewer to seek more answers - the tone of an interview may suddenly change, cued recall and closed questions rapidly constructed to get a witness to commit to specific answers leads to significant increases in memory errors. Remember the purpose of a significant witness interview is to increase and maximise the amount of accurate detail provided by a compliant witness. The Cognitive Interview (CI) may increase the accurate reporting of all information by some 41%, when compared with standard police interviews. However, there is another side to consider, the cost vs. benefit from the perspective of Principal Officers. Memory error in a well-conducted significant witness interview will be in a range of somewhere between 1525% regardless of the experience of the interviewer. Simply stated, one quarter of

the information you provide to the IPCC will probably be wrong – natural mistakes and cognitive errors. In summary, officers who experience shooting incidents narrowly focus upon threat. They frequently struggle to accurately report hand movements, their own body position or the specific movements made by the armed subject – key areas at Inquest. Increasing errors makes it far more likely that any Judge or Jury will cast the ‘honestly held belief’ of the Firer aside. What then follows prosecution? As stated at the start of this article, errors occur within police statements – so, which is better for the Principal Officer, statement or interview? Two major UK studies involving firearms officers, conducted during the past 8 years, reveal that the percentages of error within the statements of Principal Officers is consistent at around 7%. A more recent study in Canada revealed only 3% errors in officer statements. Remember that 7% error in a statement is far smaller in sum than 25% of errors produced in interview. This is because the total ‘product’ of all information gained under both methods is far smaller when you write a statement. The information you provided in a statement is less, and therefore the potential for making errors is less. The scientific observation and objection from the IPCC is that officers constrain their written accounts and only commit to writing in evidence those facts they feel confident to ‘hand over’. Granted, the amount of information provided in a statement might be less than in interview, but here is the trade off: volume of information as compared with accuracy and error reduction. Clearly, the potential jeopardy faced by Principal Officers is not present for the civilian witness – there is no sanction for the mistaken civilian within Article 2 ECHR. Research demonstrates that police officers produce greater memory errors in interview when compared to their own constrained statement writing – notwithstanding, the IPCC’s attack continues. Firearms officers have faced trial within the UK for murder, their memory accounts providing the main evidence leading to their own prosecution. Doubling or tripling the number of errors that you provide in your Post Incident evidence, makes it more likely – not less likely, that prosecutions of police officers will increase.

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n the 28th and 29th October 200 delegates from all over the UK and Channel Islands attended the PFOA conference ‘Strength through Support’ at the Holiday Inn Hotel, Stratford Upon Avon. With recent public enquiries and Inquests raising key issues relating to the police use of firearms it was a good opportunity for delegates to hear from key speakers involved in the post incident process. Day 1 was opened by DCC Simon Chesterman, ACPO Firearms lead, who raised concerns about the proposed changes to procedures by the IPCC, and how the Police Service also has a responsibility to explore different ways to ease the continual accusations of collusion following a Police Involved Shooting. The PFOA Chairman was then left speechless (for the first time ever!) when he was presented with an ACPO President’s Commendation for service to UK Armed Policing. The first guest speaker was V53, the officer involved in the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan in 2011. V53 gave a stirring insight into the day that changed many lives, not least his and his family’s. He also raised several key issues of how we can improve our training with regard to post incident procedures. He asked the question of ‘how much money do we invest in post incident training for firearms officers?’ it was clear from the audience response that this part of firearms training is the poor relation. V53 commented on his life since the incident and how some 816 days after the shooting he still remains off operational duty. He also asked for senior police officers to ‘be brave’ just like he


and his colleagues were and show public support for firearms officers. Dave Blocksidge, who writes Science on the Street, gave an excellent presentation around compelling officers to attend interviews. This really did highlight the reasons why all parties involved in the Post Incident Procedures need to reflect on their expectations of what officers are capable of recalling soon after a shooting. Dave is also assisting the PFOA with our training, as we believe his input is invaluable for firearms officers. Chief Superintendent Nick Adderley, Greater Manchester Police, then gave an emotional presentation on the horrific murders of Fiona Bone and Nicola Hughes. You could have heard a pin drop as he relayed the events of that fateful day. How he dealt with Fiona and Nicola’s families, their peers and the wider police family and politicians was inspiring. The Police Service would without doubt be in a better place with more leaders such as Nick. At the end of his presentation a tribute DVD to Nicola and Fiona was played, a fitting end to a very impactive presentation. To finish day one, Don Moyes from Sussex Police gave us some examples of post incident procedures that he and Sussex Police have dealt with. ‘Jane’ the wife of a principal officer involved in a fatal shooting assisted him. This was again an emotional and compelling insight into the affects of a shooting on an officer and his/her family. Jane was incredibly dignified and respectful when she spoke about how the shooting had affected her family.

Delegates then spent the evening networking as well as enjoying the DVD from this year’s PFOA Ball. Day 2 kicked off with Supt Tony Beveridge, Police Scotland, who gave a superb presentation on several post incident procedures in Scotland. Penelope Schofield an experienced Coroner followed Tony and gave a detailed, informed view of the coronial system and where new changes will take us to. Penny is always keen to assist wherever she can with regards to presentations, and provides an excellent insight into a system that not many officers experience during their careers –thankfully! Samantha Leek QC, an experienced barrister who has represented literally dozens of police firearms officers at Inquest followed Penny. Sam, who came up to the conference at short notice due to the Police Federation of England & Wales being unable to attend, and without cost to the PFOA, gave an expert legal view on where we are with regards the latest issues. Sam is currently representing E7 and has been involved in the recent judicial reviews. Moir Stewart from the IPCC was our last speaker. Moir, a former Met DAC gave a well-structured talk on where the IPCC sits with regards to conferring, segregation and compelling of officers to be interviewed. It was clear from what he was saying that the IPCC and indeed certain other authorities still have issues about the way the post incident procedures go following a shooting. He was keen to emphasise that more dialogue is

required and middle ground must be sought to avoid things moving backwards. We also had many of our sponsors in attendance at the conference: Edgar Brother, 5.11, Thomas Lowe Defence, Niton999, Rowland Smith/PMAS, Police Insure, Aegis, Copper Pot and last but by no means least JML Software Solutions and Training. Many thanks to all of them for coming along and brightening up the conference hall. The conference highlighted a number of issues. The main one being taken away, certainly by the PFOA, is the need to improve on PIP training for not just firearms commanders but firearms officers. Very little is invested in this crucial subject, that when not conducted correctly causes untold problems for the force and many years of stress and anxiety for officers and their families. The PFOA is currently working on a one-day training package for firearms officers, that will include conferring, accounts, ECHR and all other aspects of the procedures. We want this to be mandatory for every officer once a year. Whilst a tight grouping and good vehicle drills etc are all well and good, the recording and delivery of good evidence following an incident is equally important, knowledge is a vital weapon in our armoury. The PFOA provides unique Post Incident Training. For further details contact us on 01354 742444 or email





The PFOA has recently delivered two one-week PIP Courses for West Yorkshire Police Federation. Organised by Darren Scholefield and Ned Liddemore the courses were a total success.

The five day assessed course, which is pass or fail, was attended by various Federations and Unison Reps. Each student was given a pre-read and an information booklet to complete about their own force arrangements for Post Incident Procedures. There were some nerves at the start, not least from Ned and Darren, about how this new training would be received by the Fed Reps, after all they were being put under the same pressure placed on Post Incident Managers when they attend a PIM course. The standard of the students that attended was extremely high. Everyone wanted to be there, and everyone participated in the various role-plays and discussion. Representatives who complete the course will be updated regularly by the PFOA on PIM issues, and will be supported by us should they be required to represent a colleague. They will also have to attend a 2-day re-accreditation module every two years to ensure they are up to speed on PIM issues. The PFOA are delighted to announce that as a result of these courses the Police Federation of England & Wales have asked us to deliver 3 courses from PFEW HQ, Leatherhead, next year, with the possibility of a further 3. We have also had interest from Unison and the Defence Police Federation. This is a huge step forward in terms of getting officers the best representation following a death or serious injury incident. Federation and Unison Representatives play a key role in the Post Incident Procedures so it is vital they are trained to the highest standards.


The Book Join veteran crime-fighter Stephen Smith on a journey through the dark and dangerous world of the Metropolitan Police specialist firearms command from its inception in 1966, when the cold-blooded murder of three police officers sparked a revolution in the training of armed officers. In the new millenium it fought against Dome raiders, kidnappers, and al-Qaeda terrorists, then worked to provide London with a secure environment in which to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Using hundreds of original photographs, illustrations and drawings, Stop! Armed Police! is a must-have for those with an interest in police firearms matters and is a captivating behind-the-scenes look at the dangerous business of policing London’s streets. From a gunman ordering cannabis smuggled in fried chicken during a siege to a deranged killer holding toddlers hostage, London’s armed police have seen it all. With his wealth of first-hand experience, Stephen Smith has woven together historic and up-to date accounts of perilous and often famously controversial firearms operations across England’s capital.

The Author Stephen Smith, veteran of over a thousand armed operations during his twenty-two years with the Metropolitan Police Specialist Firearms Command was born in south London in 1960. He joined the Met at nineteen and after twelve years in uniform passed selection for PT17, the Met’s firearms unit, where he was selected to work on the Specialist Firearms Teams. He retired from the Met in 2013 after thirty-three years’ service.

UK Publication. 29 November 2013 ISBN. 9780719808265 Price. £25 Format. 246 x 189 mm p/b Pages. 256 pp

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Join the Why wouldn’t you? NOT A MEMBER? CAN YOU AFFORD NOT TO BE? With over 4,000 members UK wide the PFOA is a registered charity ready and willing to support you and your family at a time of distress and worry. The cost? £4 per month or £1 a week! You can join online at or call us on 01354 742444. Some forces have a deduction from pay already set up. The PFOA is an essential member service for all those involved in Firearms operations and their families! What are you waiting for? Join us now! The PFOA: created by Firearms Officers for Firearms Officers.


WHAT WE DO • Private Counselling, EMDR and CBT therapy for you and your family • Private PFOA Coaching for you and your family: all our coaches are serving or retired Firearms Officers • We will arrange for you and your family to meet with other Officers and their families that have been involved in similar incidents • PFOA comprehensive website with a secure area • A quarterly magazine TOP COVER with articles, stories and great offers for members and their families • We will provide you with support and friendship at a time when you need it most

Email: or Call: Debbie on 01354 742444 Online:

What We Do.. The PFOA has been created to support all those involved in firearms operations, and their families. It is managed by serving and retired police officers with many years experience in this field. It offers a unique package of support for officers and their families, which is supported by ACPO Firearms, The Police Federation of England & Wales, College of Policing and The Superintendents Association.

nothing to do with shootings. It has supported families where there is a serious illness, stress and anxiety, marital problems, basically anything that affects the work of the officer. The PFOA does not provide legal support, debt consolidation, or provide any kind of discipline representation. This is, and has always been, the role of the Police Federation.

Created by firearms officers in 2009 the Association became a registered Charity in England & Wales in 2010. The PFOA has over 4000 members UK wide. It provides unique support to officers and their families, which includes access to 234 Counsellors, EMDR and CBT Therapists. There are also 8 PFOA Coaches who specialize in Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Emotional Freedom Technique; these coaches are all serving firearms officers. The Association provides discreet welfare support for officers and their families, particularly if a force cannot provide specialist support. There are also times when an officer or his/her family do not wish to avail themselves of support offered by the force. The PFOA gives them choices.

The PFOA has a CEO, Mark Williams, and eight Trustees all of which are operational officers, PIMs or TFCs.

One of the main objectives of the PFOA has been to support the often forgotten-about families. Much of the work it does has

Membership to the PFOA is just £4 per month and is open to all those involved in any aspect of firearms policing.

Paul Leggett – Humberside and Chair of Trustees Steve Howson – Kent Mick Burke – Met Gary Cable – Essex Michelle Booth – Gwent Jim Roger – Police Service of Scotland Steve Hartshorn – Met Karl Smith – MDP

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Top Cover issue 5  

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