The 25th Annual
Art of Devotion December 2017 - February 2018
Spanish Colonial Paintings Upon entry to the New World, Spanish conquerors looked for ways to establish dominance from a military and religious perspective; European tradition dictated the communication of Spanish valuesâ€”particularly the Catholic religionâ€”by visual means. Artists came from Europe to paint religious images and to teach indigenous people artistic techniques and styles. Throughout the various territories under Spanish Colonial rule, painters demonstrated an influence of Italianate, Spanish and Flemish traditions, but also evidenced an incorporation of native expression and style. By the 17th century, engravings of religious paintings by wellknown artists had made their way across the Atlantic. These emotionally charged scenes of devotion acted as profoundly influential means of religious and artistic indoctrination. As a genre, Spanish Colonial painting can be something of a paradox, inclusive of disparate and not-always-clear influences.
Cusco, Peru Our Lady of Cocharcas c. 1675 Oil on canvas 39.25 x 32 inches This painting features a representation of a figure copied after the Virgin of Copacabana for the Peruvian town of Cocharcas. The Virgin of Cocharcas was revered by the local community for performing miracles and also became an important attraction for pilgrims. The work, painted by an unknown artist, was likely created to commemorate the dedication of a new church to house the Virgin of Cocharcas. In this case, the representation of Virgin and Child might record the procession of the statue through the town on that occasion. Surrounding the central, elevated pair in the foreground and background are scenes depicting pilgrims as well as events revealing the statueâ€™s miraculous nature. Various signs in the painting reference the exalted position of the Virgin and pay homage to her. Above the Virgin, angels bear the crown indicative of her roles as Queen of Heaven. This association with royalty is further emphasized by the baldachin, or canopy, under which the pair stands. The Virgin herself wears a wide, bell-shaped dress heavily decorated with floral motifs and gems that is typical of representations from colonial Spain. It is believed that this mountainous form alludes to the native Andean deity, Pachamama, the earth mother, with whom the Virgin was equated.
Peru La Virgen de Merced c. 1750 Oil on copper 11x 8.5 inches 19.37 x 16.37 inches framed Provenance H.J. Cunningham, Nov 15, 1958 Maxwell Galleries, San Francisco, CA
This painting celebrates the foundation of the Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives (Latin: Ordo Beatae Mariae de Mercede Redemptionis Captivorum, abbreviated O. de M.), also known as the Mercedarians. It ws founded by Saint Peter Nolasco in Barcelona in 1218. It is a mnedicant order founded for the purpose of ransoming impoverished captive Christians (slaves) held in Muslim hands, especially along the frontier that the Crown of Aragon shared with al-Andalus (Muslim Spain).
Mexico Nuestra SeĂąora de Guadalupe c. 1750 Oil on copper 22.75 x 16.75 inches Provenance Collection of Rose Marie and Dr. Murray, acquired in Mexico City in the late 1930s/early 1940s; by descent to Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Mark Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Marcos Schaumberg and Trace Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; Collection of Peyton Wright Gallery, Santa Fe, NM in 2016
Alexandro Guerrero (Mexico, active late 18th c.) Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane 1781 Oil on copper 16.75 x 12.5 inches Provenance Collection of Rose Marie and Dr. Murray, acquired in Mexico City in the late 1930s/early 1940s; by descent to Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Mark Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Marcos Schaumberg and Trace Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; Collection of Peyton Wright Gallery, Santa Fe, NM in 2016
Peru El descanso en la huida a Egipto c. 1700 Oil on canvas 64.5 x 44.5 inches 70 x 50.5 inches framed This charming scene is based not on any incident in the Bible itself, but on a body of tales or legends that had grown up in the early Middle Ages around the Bible story of the Holy Family fleeing into Egypt for refuge on being warned that Herod the Great was seeking to kill the Christ Child. According to the legend, Joseph and Mary paused on the flight in a grove of trees; the Holy Child ordered the trees to bend down so that Joseph could take fruit from them, and then ordered a spring of water to gush forth from the roots so that his parents could quench their thirst.
Altiplano Angel with a Sheaf of Wheat c. 1700 Oil on canvas 64 x 42 inches 70 x 47.75 inches framed Attributed to the Workshop of Basilio Santa Cruz Pumacallao Influnced by late 17th century madrilenian art, and similar to the â€œCorpus Christi Processionâ€? (Diego Quispe Tito/Basilio Santa Cruz Pumacallao) of 1675-1680, this work provides a reference to the sacrament of hte Eucharist. The colorful drapery and lace are is exquisitely rendered.
Attributed to Diego QuispĂŠ Tito (1611-1681) La Virgen Inmaculada c. 1675 Oil on canvas 93 x 64 inches Provenance: Private Collection, Washington, D.C. When Pope Sixtus IV instituted the Feast of the Immaculate Conception in the late 15th century, artists of the time faced the problem of how to depict an abstract idea such as the Immaculate Conception. The problem was not fully solved for another 150 years. The popularity of this particular representation of The Immaculate Conception spread across the rest of Europe, and thence to the Americas. It has since remained the best known artistic depiction of the idea: in a heavenly realm, moments after her creation, the spirit of Mary (in the form of a young woman) looks up in awe at (or bows her head to) God. Additional imagery may include clouds, a golden light, and cherubs. In some paintings the cherubim are holding lilies and roses, flowers often associated with Mary.
Cusco, Peru Nuestra SeĂąora de los Remedios c. 1750 Oil on canvas 65 x 44.62 inches 74 x 53.5 inches framed Provenance Private collection, Washington, D.C.
Mexico The Last Supper c. 1750 Oil on canvas 20 x 17 inches 21.5 x 18 inches framed Provenance Private collection, Fort Worth, TX
Peru Madre Dolorosa c. 1700 Oil on canvas 30 x 23.5 inches 37.5 x 30.75 inches framed Provenance Private collection, Greenwich, CT The subject â€œmadre dolorosaâ€? or sorrowful mother, is a common one in Spanish Colonial art. It symbolizes the sorrows suffered during her lifetime. The image typically features a praying Mary, eyes gazing upward, with a dagger piercing her chest.
Peru The Life of Santa Rosa de Lima c. 1650 Oil on canvas 16 x 12 inches each 18.5 x 14.5 inches framed Provenance Mary and Gordon Kichton, NYC by decent to Mary Moss in Greenville, Pennsylvania
Birth of the Saint
Saint Rose of Lima, T.O.S.D. (April 20, 1586 â€“ August 24, 1617), was a Spanish colonist in Lima, Peru, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the city through her own private efforts. A lay member of the Dominican Order, she was the first person born in the Americas to be canonized by the Catholic Church. She is the patron saint of Peru and Latin America, as well as gardeners, embroiderers, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Spanish Colonial Silver As with other Spanish Colonial art forms and objects, viceregal silver demonstrates a wide scope of original qualities and regional design elements. Of course, the tradition of intricate metal work can be traced to pre-Columbian times in a variety of mineral-rich areas in Latin America. The abundance of this natural resource was not lost on the Spanish, who quickly set up mines and workshops; here, the indigenous silver traditions blended with those of Spanish; given the cultural plurality of the cultures there, the nature of Spanish Colonial silver is in a class by itself. Unique attributes suited the specific needs of both settlers and indigenous people. The extraordinary variation visible in Spanish Colonial silver items reflects the breadth of the settled area, which of course spread across multiple continents and territories and was far from homogenous. The abundance of religious articles made of silver is no mistake. The Catholic Church was intent on promulgating Christianity, and on highlighting the majesty and grandeur of its power. Church interiors, therefore, were replete with elaborate signifiers of religious faith, such as candlesticks, incensarios, monstrances, and altar pieces. Silver items of opulent detail were also present in viceregal Latin America: platters, shaving dishes, and braziers, and any number of other objects were crafted in varying degrees of opulence, and were stalwart aspects of Upper Class domestic life.
Bolivia Colonial Medallion Wall Sconces 19th Century Silver, 154.64 oz. troy 26 x 19 x 8 inches Collection of Rose Marie and Dr. Murray, acquired in Mexico City in the late 1930s/early 1940s; by descent to Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Mark Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; by descent to Marcos Schaumberg and Trace Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM; Collection of Peyton Wright Gallery, Santa Fe, NM in 2016 This pair of silver sconces feature elaborate vegetal ornamentation and pairs of birds around a central convex medallion.
Peru Milk Can c. 1800 Silver, 188.12 oz. troy 19 x 13.5 x 11 inches This beautifully crafted silver milk jug features a crest medallion and bovine finial with delicate sgraffito vegetal decoration at the bottom.
Arequipa, Peru Cucili Incensario c. 1775 Silver, 26.979 oz. troy 9.25 x 6.25 x 9 inches Silver incense burner representing a cucili (native Peruvian grey dove). It is made of cast, hammered, repousse and chiseled silver. The dove has hinged wings and sits atop a colonial style hat. This humador (incensario) was used to perfume the closets, which contained clothes that could not be easily washed. Incense, camphor, lavender flower, seeds or selected herbs were burned in it.
Bolivia Cafetera Silver pear shaped repoussĂŠ with foliage scrolls 70.82 oz. troy 20th Century 13 x 12 x 8 inches Provenance: Private Collection, Amarillo, TX Pear shaped and on a spreading foot, the lower body repoussĂŠ chased with foliage scrolls on textured ground, with a carved silverhandle, the hinged cover topped with a dog with leash finial, the spout with a bird head.
Mexico Candlesticks c. 1800 Silver 28 oz or 23.6053 silver troy oz 10.5 x 5.25 x 5.25 inches Provenance Private collection, Northumberland, PA This pair of Mexican candlesticks is rendered with a simple, elegant design, and with excellent craftsmanship.
Luso-Brazilian Centerpiece Silver 61.3 oz. troy ca. 1775 17 x 17 x 3.75 inches This elaborate Brazilian centerpiece features highly ornate repoussĂŠ and chisel work with scroll, scallop and floral decoration.
Potosí, Bolivia Trumeau Frame c. 1835 Silver repousse molded and chased with wooden frame 37 x 22 x 4.75 inches Provenance Private Collection, Mclean VA Art Market, Washington DC The original function of the exquisite frame is unknown. It most likely initially framed a mirror or a painting, perhaps a portrait or a religious subject. The frame features rocaille ornamentation throughout, and an ornate arched trough flanked by two columns which have a star at the base. It features ornate floral decoration overall, and a scalloped crown with peacock feathers. The frame bears several dozen hallmarks that read “Platero J. Guzman” and “Potosí.” Guzman was a well known silversmith active in Potosí in the second quarter of the 19th century. Several excellent works of his survive today.
Mexico Pair of Sconces c. 1750 Silver and brass 12 x 8 x 5.5 inches Provenance Private collection, Fort Worth, TX This pair of Mexican sconces features elaborate rocaille ornamentation, and excellent craftsmanship.
Historic Sculpture With nominal exceptions, historic European and Spanish Colonial-era sculpture was thematically religious. Because of its three-dimensional nature, sculptural works had a unique ability to serve as particularly persuasive, visceral means of establishing and perpetuating religious dogma. In the New World, sculptural subjects were polychromed and gilded in a visually stunning technique called estofado, in which gold leaf application on wood was followed by paint, then scratched away to reveal gold below. Life-size or large scale depictions would frequently feature real hair and glass eyes, adding humanistic qualities. Although the subject matter and artistic style of these religious sculptures originated in Europe, the varied and evolving styles that developed in Spanish Colonial Latin America have their own distinctive qualities. Such figures, so poignant in their humanity and beautiful details, continue to have the power to deeply move audiences of every background. Often employing astonishing realismâ€”and sometimes jarringly graphic in their frank depiction of human suffering and emotionâ€”sculpture of the Old and New World was intended to inspire and reify the sentiments of the faithful.
Mexico Saint Martin of Tours c. 1700 Wood, gesso, polychrome 40.5 x 25 x 18 inches Provenance: Ex Collection of Eugene Iglesias, Hollywood, CA Saint Martin of Tours was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints, sometimes venerated as a military saint. He is most frequently depicted on horseback, dividing his cloak for a beggar. This fine sculpture is an exception: MartĂn stands over the supplicant, drawing his sword in preparation. He is popular around the world, and is known as the patron saint of beggars, innkeepers, vintners, and horsemen, among other things. He is particularly popular in the New World, and in Mexico he is considered beneficial to shopkeepers.
Mexico Saint Jerome c. 1700 Wood, gesso, polychrome 64.5 x 44.5 inches 70 x 50.5 inches framed Provenance Ex Collection of Eugene Iglesias, Hollywood, CA This fine Mexican sculpture depicts Saint Jerome (c. 347 â€“ 30 September 420), widely revered as a priest, confessor, theologian and historian. He was the son of Eusebius, born near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia, then part of northeastern Italy. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (the translation that became known as the Vulgate), and his commentaries on the Gospels. He is often depicted with a lion, as seen here, in reference to the popular hagiographical belief that Jerome had tamed a lion in the wilderness by healing its paw.
Mexico San Bonaventura c. 1700 Wood, polychrome, gold leaf 31.5 x 13.5 x 12 inches
This finely carved work depicts San Bonaventura, a twelfth century Franciscan monk who wrote extensively on theology and is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas, as one of great Doctors of the Church.
Peru Architectural Carving c. 1700 Wood, red clay, gesso, gold leaf 49.5 x 42 inches Provenance Private collection, Santa Fe, NM
Spain Four Evangelists c. 1575 Wood, gesso, gold, polychrome 31.5 x 18.75 x 16.87 inches
This group of polychromed and gilt wood sculptures represents the authors of the New Testament, also known as The Four Evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. They date to the second half of the 16th century from an area known as Old Castile in north central Spain. The Four Evangelists are each shown with engaged postures and lively expressions. Each of them holds an open copy of the Gospel they have authored. The group would have come from a single altarpiece within a church, crafted by a team of specialists. The sculptor would have been responsible for carving the works and applying a white ground. The flesh tones of the head, hands and feet would be applied by a painter, and yet another artisan would be responsible for the embellishment of the drapery using a technique called estofado (gilded, painted and scribed decoration).
Historic Furniture Covering a range of countries and styles, historic furniture exists within the context of the time and circumstances within which it was created. Typically crafted with elegance and artistry, furniture of the Old and New Worlds was initially made for private residences of the upper classes, and for liturgical settings. Early on, Gothic tastes were favored with the advent of Christianity; naturally, furniture was built for churches and embellished with cross motifs, which in many cases dictated furniture design and structure. Aside from the fact that importing furniture from Europe to Spanish Colonial territories was costly and time-consuming, the abundance of timber in much of Latin America rendered such endeavors obsolete. Later, the influence of Asian design on European styles was in turn passed on to New World craftsmen. These motifs, along with evolving European styles, converged in a uniquely Spanish Colonial furniture aesthetic. Desks and case-pieces frequently incorporated gorgeous inlay detailing, making use of tortoise shell, mother-of-pearl, horn, bone, ivory, and precious metals.
Mexico Colonial Arm Chair in the Chippendale style c. 1775-1810 Wood 40 x 29 x 24 inches 18 inch seat height This Mexican Chippendale chair is said to match a suite in Chapultepec Palace. The carving is predominantly rococo in the use of asymmetrical shell, spray, and scroll forms. A concha is used on the crest and apron, while scallops adorn the knees. The legs are distinctively animal shapes, with pointed hocks and stylized paw feet.
Mexico Armario - Ropero Sabino pine 67 x 37 x 18 inches This eighteenth century Baroque armario o ropero (armoire or wardrobe) is constructed of hand hewn, joined and carved light sabino pine. The iron hinges, lock and lockplate are all hand forged, as is an occasional nail that was used in antique repair. The side panels have coffered decorations while the door panels are decorated with finely carved and elaborate pointed arch motifs of the Spanish mudajar style that was popular throughout the Baroque period in Mexico.
Bolivia Altar Frame c. 1750 Wood, gesso, polychrome 45 x 40 x 6 inches
South America Sideboard 18th Century Tropical South American hardwood 36.75 x 81 x 31.62 inches
This fine sideboard from the nortern part of South America features three kinds of hardwood, the primary is manariballi (dimorphandra polyandra). The piece features mortise and tenon construction, finely carved floral decoration, brass bale handles with escutcheons with floral motifs.
Peru Sacristo Cabinet c. 1700 Wood Gesso, repousse Silver, Gold Leaf, and Pigment 90 x 42 x 23 inches This extravagantly detailed, pastiche cabinet is composed of a variety of elements. The front door panels are covered with repoussĂŠ silver in raised shapes and flourished designs and surrounded by a gold-leafed border. The top of the cabinet features a large heart, pierced with swords, and flanked on both sides by instrument-bearing mermaids. Crafted in Bolivia in the 18th century, the piece has interior shelving and ample storage.
Spain Baroque Cabinet Walnut with original iron hinges 69 x 35 x 24 inches The rectangular case with four doors is carved with stylized flowerheads, and with concave and convex radiating petals. The lower door is carved with radiating palmettes.
Historic New Mexican Art Despite stylistic variations, New Mexican artisans typically confined themselves to creating traditional Christian iconography. Saints and holy personages were treated virtually as family membersâ€”a testament to the strength of the Catholic faith in New Mexico. Both bultos (carved wooden figures) and retablos (painted pine panels) were displayed in private homes and were included in religious processions. They were taken to peopleâ€™s homes to use in asking for intercession or assistance, and even brought into fields during drought or to bless the harvest.
José Benito Ortega (1858-1941) Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos c. 1890 Ponderosa pine, gesso, natural pigments 10.5 x 7.5 x 3.5 inches Provenance Privat collection, Santa Barbara, CA Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Mexican and Texan faithful. The original image is a popular focus for pilgrims and is located in the state of Jalisco, in central Mexico, northeast of the city of Guadalajara.
JosĂŠ Rafael AragĂłn Cristo con la Cruz
c. 1830 Wood, gesso, natural pig 25.5 x 9 x 6.75 inches
Provenance: Private collection, La Jol
Exhibition History: Santos: An Exhibition of California State Universi catalog essay by E. Boyd
f Holy Images, ity - Fullerton, 1974 d
Pedro Antonio F San JosĂŠ con NiĂą
c. 1825 Wood, gesso with na 21 x 9.5 x 7 inches
Provenance Private collection, CA
Fresquís (1749-1831) ño
Laguna Santero (1776-1815) La Virgen Dolorosa c. 1800 Wood, gesso, natural pigments 21 x 12.25 x 1 inches Provenance: Private collection, Santa Fe, NM This gesso-relief retablo offers beautifully realized facial features, finely modeled robe, dagger, and halo. The lunette presents a central rosette with cross-hatched center and double comma ornaments. Other identifying features include the tilted head with adoring gaze, the attenuated hands with bent thumbs, robes highlighted with white paint, and the thin gesso ground.
San Antonio de Padua i the Franciscans, after S blue monastic habit of foreign missions and is here i shis typical prese Child in one hand and a
nito Ortega (1858-1941) San Antonio con NiĂąo
d, gesso and natural pigment ca. 1900 21.5 x 8.25 x 5 inches
is the most popular saint of San Francisco. He wears the the colonial Franciscans on smooth shaven. He is seen entation, holding the Christ a plam frond in the other.
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Published on Dec 7, 2017