The 24th Annual
Art of Devotion December 2, 2016 - February 28, 2017
Spanish Colonial Paintings Upon entry to the New World, Spanish conquerors looked for ways to establish dominance from a military and religious perspective; European tradition dictated the communication of Spanish valuesâ€”particularly the Catholic religionâ€”by visual means. Artists came from Europe to paint religious images and to teach indigenous people artistic techniques and styles. Throughout the various territories under Spanish Colonial rule, painters demonstrated an influence of Italianate, Spanish and Flemish traditions, but also evidenced an incorporation of native expression and style. By the 17th century, engravings of religious paintings by wellknown artists had made their way across the Atlantic. These emotionally charged scenes of devotion acted as profoundly influential means of religious and artistic indoctrination. As a genre, Spanish Colonial painting can be something of a paradox, inclusive of disparate and not-always-clear influences.
Peru La Coronaciรณn de la Virgen c. 1700 Oil on canvas 48.5 x 34 inches 54 x 39.5 inches framed The subject of the Coronation of the Virgin became popular in Italian art in the 13th century. The version seen here shows the Trinity in the form ot three Christs placing the crown on the Virgin Mary, proclaiming her the Queen of Heaven. She stands on the crescent moon as attending angels watch.
Peru El descanso en la huida a Egipto c. 1700 Oil on canvas 64.5 x 44.5 inches 70 x 50.5 inches framed This charming scene is based not on any incident in the Bible itself, but on a body of tales or legends that had grown up in the early Middle Ages around the Bible story of the Holy Family fleeing into Egypt for refuge on being warned that Herod the Great was seeking to kill the Christ Child. According to the legend, Joseph and Mary paused on the flight in a grove of trees; the Holy Child ordered the trees to bend down so that Joseph could take fruit from them, and then ordered a spring of water to gush forth from the roots so that his parents could quench their thirst.
Mexico José de Ibarra Santa Ana 1752 Oil on canvas 32.25 x 24 inches Signed and dated lower right
Santa Ana (Saint Anne, also known as Ann or Anna) of David’s house and line, was the mother of the Virgin Mary and grandmother of Jesus Christ, according to apocryphal Christian tradition. Mary’s mother is not named in the canonical gospels. Anne’s name and that of her husband Joachim come only from New Testament apocrypha, of which the Protoevangelium of James (written perhaps around 150) seems to be the earliest that mentions them. In this painting Santa Ana holds the infant Virgin Mary, her gaze turned toward Heaven.
Mexico JosĂŠ de Ibarra San Joachim 1752 Oil on canvas 32.25 x 24 inches Signed and dated lower right According to tradition, Saint Anne was born in Bethlehem, and married Joachim of Nazareth, both descendants of David. In the Protoevangelium of James, Joachim is described as a rich and pious man, who regularly gave to the poor and to the synagogue at Sepphoris. Tradition has it that the parents of the Blessed Virgin, who, apparently, first lived in Galilee, came later on to settle in Jerusalem. However, the high priest rejected Joachim and his sacrifice, as their childlessness was interpreted as a sign of divine displeasure. Joachim consequently withdrew to the desert where he fasted and did penance for forty days. Angels then appeared to both Joachim and Anne to promise them a child. Joachim later returned to Jerusalem and embraced Anne at the city gate. There was ancient belief that a child born of an elderly mother who had given up hope of having offspring was destined for great things.
Bolivia La Virgen de Belen c. 1780 Oil on canvas 55 x 36 inches 61.25 x 42.25 inches framed This painting is a fine example of a colonial statue painting. Statue paintings represent sculpted images of Mary, or other religious figures, in their altars. Many of these paintings were believed to share the divine power of the sacred sculpture. The Virgin of Belén is one of the most revered sculptures of Cuzco and a star of the famous Corpus Christi procession that takes place every year in that city. Legend has it that in the sixteenth century a group of fisherman found a wooden box floating in a lake near the town of San Miguel. Upon opening the box, they discovered a beautifully carved image of the Virgin Mary along with a note stating that she was a gift to the city of Cuzco. News of the miracle spread quickly as various churches vied to have her in their sanctuary. She was granted to the Church of the Reyes Magos which thereafter changed its name to that of Our Lady of Belén (the name inscribed on the note with which she was found). The Virgin, affectionately known today as “Mamacha” (Our beloved mother), soon began to perform all sorts of miracles becoming one of the most revered and reproduced images of the Cuzco School.
Mexico Antonio de Torres (1666-1731) Madre Dolorosa 1718 Oil on canvas 73.25 x 49.5 inches 81.75 x 58 inches framed Signed and dated lower right Antonio de Torres is one of the foremost painters of the early eighteenth century in Mexico. He was the cousin of the renowned painters Nicolás and Juan Rodríguez Juárez (1667–1735; 1675–1728), who introduced important stylistic changes and sought to elevate the status of painting in the viceroyalty. In 1722 Torres was selected, along with his cousins, to inspect the original image of the Virgin and attest to its miraculous origin—a rare privilege that underscores his exalted artistic status. The subject “madre dolorosa” or sorrowful mother, is a common one in Spanish Colonial art. It symbolizes the sorrows suffered during her lifetime. The image typically features a praying Mary, eyes gazing upward, with a dagger piercing her chest, symbolizing the sorrows she endured`.
Attributed to Diego QuispĂŠ Tito (1611-1681) La Virgen Inmaculada c. 1675 Oil on canvas 93 x 64 inches Provenance: Private Collection, Washington, D.C. When Pope Sixtus IV instituted the Feast of the Immaculate Conception in the late 15th century, artists of the time faced the problem of how to depict an abstract idea such as the Immaculate Conception. The problem was not fully solved for another 150 years. The popularity of this particular representation of The Immaculate Conception spread across the rest of Europe, and thence to the Americas. It has since remained the best known artistic depiction of the idea: in a heavenly realm, moments after her creation, the spirit of Mary (in the form of a young woman) looks up in awe at (or bows her head to) God. Additional imagery may include clouds, a golden light, and cherubs. In some paintings the cherubim are holding lilies and roses, flowers often associated with Mary.
Peru The Annunciation c. 1750 Oil on canvas 30.25 x 23.5 inches 37.75 x 31 inches framed
The Annunciation (from the Vulgate Latin annuntiatio (or nuntiatio) nativitatis Christi), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yehoshua , meaning â€œYHWH is salvationâ€?. In this painting, the Annuciation is overseen by God the Father, the Holy Spirit, and attending angels.
Mexico La Virgen de Guadalupe c. 1700 Oil on copper 9 x 7 inches 18 x 15 inches framed Provenance Private Collection, Granada, Spain Ex- Luis Ruiz Linares Gallery
In December 1531, the virgin appeared to an Indian neophyte, Juan Diego. In a series of appearances to him, she stated her desire to have a church built upon the site of her appearance, the hill of Tepeyac, just outside the Mexican capital. The Virgin stands with a quietness and restraint later forsaken for the surge of the baroque. Her pose is a subtle tilt of the head and a gently curving body. Her garments are not confused with details and their softness is in harmony with her oval-shaped face. The color scheme, a blue mantle with gold stars and trim, and a red robe enriched with gold embroidery, never deviates. Nor does the cherub with brightly colored, Byzantinelike wings who appears beneth her. Her Miraculous appearance was an important factor in the conversionof the Indians. One the hill of Tepeyac there stood at the time of the conquest a temple to the goddess Tonantzin, “Mother of the People, Our Mother, “ also known as Teotonantzin, “Mother of the Gods.” This image of the Virgin Mary has become Mexico’s most popular religious and cultural symbol, and has received widespread ecclesiastical and popular support. In the 19th century it became the rallying call of American-born Spaniards in New Spain, who saw the story of the apparition as legitimizing their own Mexican origin and infusing it with a sense of mission and identity.
Peru The Life of Santa Rosa de Lima c. 1650 Oil on canvas 16 x 12 inches each 18.5 x 14.5 inches framed Provenance Mary and Gordon Kichton, NYC by decent to Mary Moss in Greenville, Pennsylvania
Birth of the Saint
Saint Rose of Lima, T.O.S.D. (April 20, 1586 â€“ August 24, 1617), was a Spanish colonist in Lima, Peru, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the city through her own private efforts. A lay member of the Dominican Order, she was the first person born in the Americas to be canonized by the Catholic Church. She is the patron saint of Peru and Latin America, as well as gardeners, embroiderers, and the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Spanish Colonial Silver As with other Spanish Colonial art forms and objects, viceregal silver demonstrates a wide scope of original qualities and regional design elements. Of course, the tradition of intricate metal work can be traced to pre-Columbian times in a variety of mineral-rich areas in Latin America. The abundance of this natural resource was not lost on the Spanish, who quickly set up mines and workshops; here, the indigenous silver traditions blended with those of Spanish; given the cultural plurality of the cultures there, the nature of Spanish Colonial silver is in a class by itself. Unique attributes suited the specific needs of both settlers and indigenous people. The extraordinary variation visible in Spanish Colonial silver items reflects the breadth of the settled area, which of course spread across multiple continents and territories and was far from homogenous. The abundance of religious articles made of silver is no mistake. The Catholic Church was intent on promulgating Christianity, and on highlighting the majesty and grandeur of its power. Church interiors, therefore, were replete with elaborate signifiers of religious faith, such as candlesticks, incensarios, monstrances, and altar pieces. Silver items of opulent detail were also present in viceregal Latin America: platters, shaving dishes, and braziers, and any number of other objects were crafted in varying degrees of opulence, and were stalwart aspects of Upper Class domestic life.
Bolivia Colonial Medallion Wall Sconces 19th Century Silver, 154.64 oz. troy 26 x 19 x 8 inches Provenance Collection of Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM This pair of silver sconces feature elaborate vegetal ornamentation and pairs of birds around a central convex medallion.
Bolivia San Miguel Wall Sconces 19th Century Silver, 126.69 oz. troy 27 x 16 x 7 inches Provenance Collection of Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM This fine pair of wall sconces features elaborate floral and vegetal ornamentation, with a central figures the Archangel San Miguel defeating the Luciferan dragon. Also seen at the top are angels embodying the four winds, as well as a Green Man at the bottom of each sconce.
Arequipa, Peru Cucili Incensario c. 1775 Silver, 26.979 oz. troy 9.25 x 6.25 x 9 inches Silver incense burner representing a cucili (native Peruvian grey dove). It is made of cast, hammered, repousse and chiseled silver. The dove has hinged wings and sits atop a colonial style hat. This humador (incensario) was used to perfume the closets, which contained clothes that could not be easily washed. Incense, camphor, lavender flower, seeds or selected herbs were burned in it.
Bolivia Silver RepoussĂŠ Chairs c. 1780 Silver, wood, velvet 51.5 x 21.5 x 20.5 inches Provenance Private Collection, Guadalajara, Mexico Peyton Wright Gallery, Santa Fe, NM Private Collection, New York, NY These exquisite silver repousse chairs features the double-headed eagle symboling the Holy Roman Empire, which represent the church and state.
Mexico Candeleros c. 1750 Silver, 99.73 oz. troy 12 x 8 x 5.5 inches Provenance Collection of Joseph Paul and Billie Schaumberg, Santa Fe, NM This pair of Mexican candlesticks is rendered with a simple, elegant design, and with excellent craftsmanship.
Brazil Beaked Ewer c. 1700 Hand wrought repoussĂŠ and engraved silver 8 x 3 x 7.75 inches The beaked ewer, or jarros de pico in Spanish, was used to serve water at the tables of wealthy and important diners.
Bolivia Set of Four Candlesticks c. 1700 Silver, 499.92 oz. troy 22.5 x 9.25 x 9.25 inches The abundance of silver in Colonial Bolivia led to a plethora of silver objects for ecclesiastical and domestic use. This quartet of candlesticks is rendered with an elegant design, and with excellent craftsmanship.
Potosí, Bolivia Trumeau Frame c. 1835 Silver repousse molded and chased with wooden frame 37 x 22 x 4.75 inches Provenance Private Collection, Mclean VA Art Market, Washington DC The original function of the exquisite frame is unknown. It most likely initially framed a mirror or a painting, perhaps a portrait or a religious subject. The frame features rocaille ornamentation throughout, and an ornate arched trough flanked by two columns which have a star at the base. It features ornate floral decoration overall, and a scalloped crown with peacock feathers. The frame bears several dozen hallmarks that read “Platero J. Guzman” and “Potosí.” Guzman was a well known silversmith active in Potosí in the second quarter of the 19th century. Several excellent works of his survive today.
Bolivia Casket c. 1880 Silver repoussé, velvet 9.75 x 12.25 x 7.75 inches This fine, handmade Republican-era domed “jewel casket” features repoussé sterling silver. The entire surface is densely covered with an ornamental design of vegetal and floral elements. The interior is lined with royal blue velvet.
Bolivia Cafetera 19th Century Silver, 45.86 oz. troy 12 x 8 x 5.5 inches Provenance Private Collection, Amarillo, TX By the 19th century Spanish Colonial silversmiths had adopted a simpler, Classic style, rather than the ornate and elaborate designs of previous centuries. This is evident in this two-chamber Bolivian cafetera, with its C-shaped handles with ridged flourishes, and finial. In addition, this piece features finely hammered and annealed silver.
Historic European Painting Classic European painting typically employs deep, rich color and stark contrast. Prevailing themes of devotion, historic events, mythology, landscapes, still lifes and portraits dominate. The artists infused their compositions with layers of meaning, incorporating a mix of politics and interwoven propaganda through the use of symbolism and allegory. The Christian Church was vastly influential on modalities and stylistic elements; increasingly after the 1800s, however, painters embraced other themes, including landscapes, portraits, and myth.
Spain Attributed to Andrés Pérez (1660 - 1727) The Child Virgin Spinning Oil on canvas ca. 1750 25 x 19.5 inches 33 x 27 inches framed The depiction of a young Mary spinning wool is most likely derived from the story of the three-year-old Virgin’s presentation at the temple by her parents a story that appears in one of the apocryphal gospels. The image of the young Virgin at her tasks in the temple is rare in European art outside Spain.
Spain Saint John of Patmos c. 1630 Oil on canvas 48 x 38 inches 50 x 40.25 inches framed
John of Patmos is the author of the Book of Revelation. He wrote it late in his life, while a prisoner of Rome on the remote desert penal colony of Patmos, an island in the Aegean Sea. This painting depicts John recording his fantastic visions.
Francesco Gessi (1588 -1649) Penitent Magdalene 1635-1640 Oil on canvas 38.25 x 28.15 inches 47 x 36.87 inches framed Francesco Gessi was one of the most talented disciples of Guido Reni (1575-1642), with whom he collaborated in Rome, Ravenna, Mantua, and Naples. Although Gessi soon became an independent and successful master in Bologna, he continued to look at his master’s paintings for inspiration, and was able to adapt Guido’s style to his own with originality and intelligence. The subject of the Magdalene as a sinner and fallen woman returned to the path of virtue by Jesus was very popular in the 17th century, allowing artists to combine eroticism and religion without courting scandal. This version of the subject shows her at a moment of elation and deep repentance, with tears in her eyes (referring to her washing Jesus’ feet and drying them with her hair) and her gaze raised heavenwards.
Gaspare Landi (1756-1830) The Departure of Hector from Andromache Autograph replica of the painting in Museo Civico Piacenza 1794 Oil on canvas 56 x 80 inches Provenance The Joseph Sorger Collection Philadelphia, PA, 1930-2010 Praised for his use of color, his soft, perfectly measured brushwork, and his sense of composition, Gaspare Landi (1756-1830) acquired immediate fame and received numerous commissions for mythological and religious paintings and portraits. This is the familyâ€™s last encounter, as Hector is hastily arming himself to go forth from Troy to engage the invincible Achilles, which encounter will end with his own death.
Circle of Francisco de Zurburán Archangel Raziel c. 1650 Oil on canvas 71.75 x 41.75 inches 80.75 x 50.75 inches framed According to Christian legend, the Archangel Raziel is the author of a mystical book “wherein all celestial and earthly knowledge is set down.” This book is reputed to contain the 1,500 keys to the mysteries of the universe, but was written in a language so arcane and impossible to decipher that not even the greatest angels in heaven are able to decode it. For this and other reasons, Raziel is considered “The Angel of Mysteries,” the possessor of a staggering amount of information on all matters secret or hidden.
Studio of Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Christ Carrying the Cross c. 1650 Oil on canvas 75 x 100 inches Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasised movement, color, and sensuality. He is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat. This large painting depicts Christ carrying the cross on his way to the crucifixion. It employs dramatic areas of light and shadow to inject heightened drama into this intensely emotional scene.
Filippo Gagliardi (active Rome 1637, d. 1659) Capriccio with The Colosseum, The Arch of Constantine, and The Tower of Maecenas c. 1640 Oil on canvas 58 x 76 inches 65.5 x 84 inches framed Provenance Private Collection, London, England Chaucer Fine Arts, London, England, 1980 Filippo Gagliardi was a master of the capriccio, an architectural fantasy in which well-known ruins and other renowned architectural sites and features are combined to depict a fictional location. This exceptional painting depicts the Roman Colossuem, the Arch of Constantine, and the Tower of Maecenas.
Historic Sculpture With nominal exceptions, historic European and Spanish Colonial-era sculpture was thematically religious. Because of its three-dimensional nature, sculptural works had a unique ability to serve as particularly persuasive, visceral means of establishing and perpetuating religious dogma. In the New World, sculptural subjects were polychromed and gilded in a visually stunning technique called estofado, in which gold leaf application on wood was followed by paint, then scratched away to reveal gold below. Life-size or large scale depictions would frequently feature real hair and glass eyes, adding humanistic qualities. Although the subject matter and artistic style of these religious sculptures originated in Europe, the varied and evolving styles that developed in Spanish Colonial Latin America have their own distinctive qualities. Such figures, so poignant in their humanity and beautiful details, continue to have the power to deeply move audiences of every background. Often employing astonishing realismâ€”and sometimes jarringly graphic in their frank depiction of human suffering and emotionâ€”sculpture of the Old and New World was intended to inspire and reify the sentiments of the faithful.
Spain Four Evangelists c. 1575 Wood, gesso, gold, polychrome 31.5 x 18.75 x 16.87 inches
This group of polychromed and gilt wood sculptures represents the authors of the New Testament, also known as The Four Evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. They date to the second half of the 16th century from an area known as Old Castile in north central Spain. The Four Evangelists are each shown with engaged postures and lively expressions. Each of them holds an open copy of the Gospel they have authored. The group would have come from a single altarpiece within a church, crafted by a team of specialists. The sculptor would have been responsible for carving the works and applying a white ground. The flesh tones of the head, hands and feet would be applied by a painter, and yet another artisan would be responsible for the embellishment of the drapery using a technique called estofado (gilded, painted and scribed decoration).
Mexico San Bonaventura
c. 1700 Wood, polychrome, gold leaf 31.5 x 13.5 x 12 inches
This finely carved work depicts San Bonaventura, a twelfth century Franciscan monk who wrote extensively on theology and is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas, as one of great Doctors of the Church.
San Jose con NiĂąo
18th C. Wood, polychrome, go 41 x 18 x 10 inches
Early depictions of Jos as an elderly man of r to the story of Christ. Mexican art had recon the youthful, physically of the Holy Family, as carved sculpture.
seph in art present him relative unimportance . By the 18th century, nceptualized him as as y robust, diligent head seen here in this finely
Santa Rosa de Lim
c. 1700 Wood, polychrome, go 39 x 16 x 13 inches
This elegantly carved Santa Rosa de Lima, of Peru, features fin expressive features, floral cape and he crown of roses. She ho Jesus who bears the glo the cross-bearing orb Christâ€™s dominion ove
d sculpture of patron saint nely carved, a gold-leaf er often-seen old the infant obus cruciger, symbolizing er the world.
Mexico Santiago Matamoros 18th Century Wood, polychrome, silver 24 x 12 x 21 inches
Provenance Private Collection, Amarillo, TX Santiago Matamoros (Saint James the Moor-slayer) is the name given to this representation of the apostle Saint James the Elder in his miraculous appearance at the Battle of Clavijo in 844. There was a legend that James, a disciple of Jesus, had gone to Spain, founded the Church there, and provided protection for the Christians. According to the legend, Saint James appeared as a warrior on his white horse with a white banner to help Christian armies of King Ramiro I of Asturias in battle against the Moors. This exquisite, late Colonial piece features finely carved, detailed features on the Saint and the horse, with great attention to detail, such as the leather stirrups and a silver sword.
Phillipines Saint Roch
c. 1800 Wood, polychro 16.5 x 8.75 x 6 in
Provenance Private Collectio
Saint Roch or 1348 â€“ 1379) wa and confessor commemorated He may also b English, and ha of St Rollox in G said to be a Rochâ€™s Loch. He of many things plagues, falsely knee problems, a is often depicte wounded knee by a dog. Here a by an angel beari and is flanked by a scroll.
on, Amarillo, TX
Rocco lived (c. as a catholic saint whose death is on 16 August. be called Rock in as the designation Glasgow, Scotland, corruption of St e is a patron Saint s, including dogs, y accused people, and bachelors. He ed pointed to his and accompanied also accompanied ing holds a lantern y an angel holding
Germany Christ as “Noli Me Tangere”
c. 1480 Wood, polychrome 48.75 x 11 x 16 inches
“Noli me tangere,” meaning “touch me not” or “don’t step on me”, is the Latin version of words spoken, according to John 20:17, by Jesus to Mary Magdalene when she recognized him after his resurrection. It refers to the fact of Christ’s imminent ascension, and that he no longer inhabited an earthly body. This exquisite sculpture from Germany features richly detailed anatomy and sorrowful, expressive facial features.
Ecuador Immaculada c. 1800 Wood 31.5 x 20 x 8.5 inches This late colonial sculpture of the Virgen Immaculada features finely carved drapery and brass crown and corona set against the deep, red color of the wood.
Historic Furniture Covering a range of countries and styles, historic furniture exists within the context of the time and circumstances within which it was created. Typically crafted with elegance and artistry, furniture of the Old and New Worlds was initially made for private residences of the upper classes, and for liturgical settings. Early on, Gothic tastes were favored with the advent of Christianity; naturally, furniture was built for churches and embellished with cross motifs, which in many cases dictated furniture design and structure. Aside from the fact that importing furniture from Europe to Spanish Colonial territories was costly and time-consuming, the abundance of timber in much of Latin America rendered such endeavors obsolete. Later, the influence of Asian design on European styles was in turn passed on to New World craftsmen. These motifs, along with evolving European styles, converged in a uniquely Spanish Colonial furniture aesthetic. Desks and case-pieces frequently incorporated gorgeous inlay detailing, making use of tortoise shell, mother-of-pearl, horn, bone, ivory, and precious metals.
Florence, Italy Gilt Wood Mirror late 17th century Gilt carved wood 54.5 x 34.25 x 6 inches This exquisite Baroque Florentine mirror features elaborate rocaille ornamentation, scrolls, with seven cherubs. The mirror is likely original.
Mexico Armario - Ropero Sabino pine 67 x 37 x 18 inches This eighteenth century Baroque armario o ropero (armoire or wardrobe) is constructed of hand hewn, joined and carved light sabino pine. The iron hinges, lock and lockplate are all hand forged, as is an occasional nail that was used in antique repair. The side panels have coffered decorations while the door panels are decorated with finely carved and elaborate pointed arch motifs of the Spanish mudajar style that was popular throughout the Baroque period in Mexico.
South America Sideboard 18th Century Tropical South American hardwood 36.75 x 81 x 31.62 inches
This fine sideboard from the nortern part of South America features three kinds of hardwood, the primary is manariballi (dimorphandra polyandra). The piece features mortise and tenon construction, finely carved floral decoration, brass bale handles with escutcheons with floral motifs.
Peru Armario c. 1825 Wood with brass inlay 106.5 x 51 x 24 inches This ornate armario is decorated with brass inlay throughout the front, in the form of stars, medallions, wreath, crosses, ribbons, and other forms. It features an elaborate rocaille crown and base, and stands on curvilinear feet. The interior shelves and drawer also feature elaborate brass inlay and drawer pulls. The insides of the doors and the back are covered in marbled paper.
Mexico Lyre Table with Fiadores Walnut 31 x 45.5 x 27.5 inches This fine lyre table is typical of Mexico baroque furniture. It features wooden fiadores, serpentine braces, scrolled feet, and splayed trestles.
Historic New Mexican Art Despite stylistic variations, New Mexican artisans typically confined themselves to creating traditional Christian iconography. Saints and holy personages were treated virtually as family membersâ€”a testament to the strength of the Catholic faith in New Mexico. Both bultos (carved wooden figures) and retablos (painted pine panels) were displayed in private homes and were included in religious processions. They were taken to peopleâ€™s homes to use in asking for intercession or assistance, and even brought into fields during drought or to bless the harvest.
Pedro Antonio FresquĂs (1796-1850) San Isidro c. 1825 Ponderosa pine, gesso and natural pigment 13 x 9 x 13.25 inches San Isidro the Farmer, or San Ysidro Labrador, is here depicted wearing a blue coat and breeches, red vest and flat crowned hat, which was the dress of New Mexican colonial farmers. He drives a team of oxen pulling an old style wooden plough; sometimes with an angel beside him. Legends tell that his desire to pray in the fields of his master was rewarded by an angel coming to drive his team for him. He is patron of Madrid and of New Mexican farmers.
School of the Laguna Santero (active 1795-1810) San Miguel c. 1800 Gesso relief, natural pigment, hand-adzed pine 15 x 8.12 x 1.37 inches The Laguna santero, whose identity is unknown, is named for his surviving monumental retablo mayor (altar screen) in the church of San José de Gracia located at the Pueblo of Laguna. It is likely he was a provincial artist from southern New Spain who migrated to New Mexico as a commissioned artist or as a member of the Franciscan order and was familiar with the Baroque style found in his homeland. Because this santero produced so many large works as well as a considerable body of smaller works in several media it is likely he had a taller under his direction. Very little is known about his life except that his works appear in several New Mexico missions starting in 1795 and disappear from records after the completion of the Laguna altar screen around 1809. The works attributed to his school also do not continue much after this date. Perhaps after his last commission he disbanded his taller and returned to southern New Spain. A number of retablo mayors are attributed to the Laguna santero including those at San Miguel de Santa Fe, Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Pojoaque, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Zia, San Esteban de Acoma, and Santa Ana. The Laguna santero’s work is characterized by the rich colors found in Mexican baroque paintings of red, blue, various shades of grey, black, with certain areas appearing as pinkish grey. Gesso-relief panels, large scale hands, downcast eyes, use of white paint to decorate and highlight clothing, and three-quarter length portraits are also stylistic characteristics used to identify works by the Laguna santero.
San Antonio de Padua is Franciscans, after San F monastic habit of the co missions and is smooth s typical presentation, hol hand and a plam frond in
nito Ortega (1858-1941) San Antonio
d, gesso and natural pigment ca. 1900 21.5 x 8.25 x 5 inches
the most popular saint of the Francisco. He wears the blue olonial Franciscans on foreign shaven. He is seen here i shis lding the Christ Child in one n the other.
José Rafael Aragón (1795-1862) Our Lady of Mount Carmel ca. 1840 Wood, gesso and natural pigment 15 x 5.25 x 1.15 inches Provenance Private Collection, California Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries. They built a chapel in the midst of their hermitages which they dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, whom they conceived of in chivalric terms as the “Lady of the place.” Our Lady of Mt. Carmel is the patron saint of Chile.
José Rafael Aragón (1795-1862) San José con Niño Wood, gesso and natural pigment ca. 1840 15 x 5.25 x 1.15 inches This exquisite carving features a beardless San José, who holds the infant Jesus in his left hand and bears a staff with a lily in his right hand, which signifies both his purity and his union with the Virgin Mary.
Santo Niño Santero (active 1830-1860) Cristo ca. 1840 Wood, gesso, and natural pigments 24 x 14 x 6.5 inches This carving of the Cristo Crucificado is “Nuestro Señor de Esquipulas”, because the branches that are offshoots from the main cross represent the “living cross”. The legend of Esquipulas is based on a revered Guatemalan image of the Black Christ, to which many miracles were attributed. It can be conjectured that sometime in the 1700s the legend was brought to the Santuario de Chimayo, as this historical church is also based on the healing powers of Christ. The original chapel in the village was called Our Lord of Esquipulas before it was replaced by the present building, which has become a revered destination for travelers. The carved Cristo is probably from cottonwood covered with a layer of gesso and painted with natural pigments. It has all the earmarks of the exceptional work by this Santero. The fingers are delicately carved and still intact, as are the wounds on the knees. Classic to the piece is the “pouf” on the side of the hip, the santero’s idea of the excess cloth represented in early paintings. The original crown of thorns made from hide and wood is still intact. This rare, exquisite piece is in excellent condition for its age.
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