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Road Map for K-12 Education

Capacity Guidelines Summer, 2020 V.1.0


Capacity Guidelines Authors / Summer - 2020 Rachael Dumas Research Knowledge Manager

Erika Eitland, ScD, MPH Research Analyst

Brooke Trivas Principal, K-12 Practice Leader

Steve Turckes Principal, K-12 Practice Leader

The entire world is trying to figure out what comes next, and no one has all of the answers. We feel it is important to take it one step at a time and continuously evaluate the response as our collective vision clears. School facilities are unique because of their building typology and occupants. Most have four times the density of office spaces, which increases the opportunity of infectious disease spread. Children are vulnerable because of their developing physical and mental health. Each school or district must evaluate their protocols based on individual time lines, finances, and staff. It is important to note that comfort levels will vary among families, educators, and staff.

→ DeSoto Independent School District, Katherine Johnson Technology Magnet Academy, DeSoto, Texas

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Capacity Guidelines When students head back to school institutions will need to account for social distancing. We understand that challenges may arise. Our capacity analysis process can help you navigate these challenges.

― 01

― 04

Determine Capacity

Set Strategies

The number of students and staff with physical distancing guidelines approved by your community.

Options for making up the shortfall, either by new delivery models or by creating additional instruction space.

― 02

― 05

Evaluate Current Schedule

Craft Framework

The number of students scheduled to be in class during each period.

A multifaceted framework guided by Educational Adaptation, Risk Mitigation, and Health Promotion.

― 03 Assess Shortfall The number of students who do not fit within the space after accounting for physical distancing. 4

→ Confidential Client, Childcare Center, South San Francisco, California


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Capacity and Adaptation Decisions Capacity strategies include repurposing large spaces, outdoor classrooms, tents, and blended learning.

Assigned Room

No

Is there enough space for the class in its assigned room?

Unscheduled Room Is there an unscheduled room that can fit the enrollment?

Yes

No

Proceed

Shortfall

Move forward as scheduled.

Add to shortfall and consider capacity strategies.

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Ye


es

Age Appropriate

Yes

Is the furniture and space in the available room appropriate for the age of the student?

Return to School Do you have the faculty and/or technology education adaptation measures to teach in this new environment?

No

No

Shortfall

Shortfall

Add to shortfall and consider capacity strategies.

Add to shortfall and consider capacity strategies.

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― Road Map for K-12 Education

Instructional Spaces Schools must decide what strategies are needed to transition to our “new normal”. We feel it is important to remain nimble and find solutions that allow schools to maintain their core function of educating future generations while keeping health top of mind. By exploring a variety of options we can help navigate the current crisis and others that may happen in the future.

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Classroom Usage Guidelines ― 01

― 04

Entering and Exiting the Classroom

Expect Students to Break the Rules

Have students enter and exit the room in order of their desk’s distance from the door to minimize passing each other in close physical distance. For example, those whose desks are furthest from the door enter the classroom first but leave last.

Expect students to break the rules of physical distancing in the classroom, either on purpose or by accident.

― 02 Clean Student Desks

― 05 Use Food-Grade Cleaners When disinfecting desktops, custodial staff should use foodgrade cleaners if students will be eating in classrooms.

Clean student desks before and after each use. Involve students in the disinfection process.

― 03 Clean Teacher Desks Clean teacher desks between every class period if teachers are rotating between classrooms. → Lisle Community Unit School District 202, Lisle Elementary School, Lisle, Illinois

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Classrooms Capacity Guidelines Space student desks 6 feet apart to support physical distancing guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

― Minimum Scenario For schools with lower infection risk or greater capacity need: nj  Provide a 6-foot radius around all student desks when students are in a stationary seated position. nj  The 6-foot radius around each desk can include circulation space required to access each desk. Students may need to pass

Circulation

through the 6-foot area on the way to their desk.

6’

12

6’

6’


Circulation

― More Ideal Scenario For schools with higher infection risk or lower capacity need: nj  Provide a 6-foot radius around all student desks

6’

at all times.

2’

6’

nj  Provide an aisle between each 6-foot radius so students can circulate through the room without encroaching on another student’s 6-foot radius. nj  This greatly reduces classroom capacity but minimizes risk of physical proximity.

GENERIC SQUARE CLASSROOM WITH NO AISLES AVG 46 SF/STUDENT 46 SF/Student

42 SF/Student

45 SF/Student

50 SF/Student

53 SF/Student

56 SF/Student

62.5 SF/Student

66 SF/Student

75 SF/Student

83 SF/Student

GENERIC SQUARE CLASSROOM WITH 24" AISLES AVG 59 SF/STUDENT 58 SF/Student

GENERIC SQUARE CLASSROOM WITH 72" AISLES AVG 79 SF/STUDENT 77 SF/Student

― Classroom Matrix Studying a variety of classroom sizes and dimensions resulted in an average 46 square feet per student in classrooms with 6-foot social distancing between desks without dedicated aisles. Efficiencies will vary based on classroom dimensions, obstructions, and configurations. 13


Classroom Guidelines These examples are representative of typical classrooms.

― Pre-Pandemic 900 SF (30’x30’) No social distancing 28 students

― Seated Scenario 900 SF (30’x30’) 6-foot distancing when seated Circulation passes through 6-foot radius 15 students (-46%)

― More Circulation Scenario 900 SF (30’x30’) 6-foot distancing at all times Circulation does not pass within 6-foot radius Nine students (-68%)

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Capacity Guidelines

Classroom Layout Guidelines for COVID Transition 01 Sanitation Station - Designate a sanitation station near the door with hand sanitizer, disinfectant wipes, paper towels, and a waste bin.

02 Teaching Space - Provide 6 feet of clear teaching space at the front. 01 03

plexiglass shield at the teacher’s desk.

04 Remove Desks - Consider

02

04 07

05

03 Plexiglass Shield - Consider a

removing desks directly in front of the teacher station (or protect teacher station with plexiglass barrier).

05 Maximize Capacity - Where possible, place desks against the wall to maximize capacity and reduce risk of physical proximity on one side.

06

08

06 Zone for Furniture - Option: Create a zone to stack unused chairs and desks that have been removed. 07 Mark Circulation - Use tape, stickers, and signage to indicate traffic flow, physical distances, and unused desks.

08 Remove Unused Objects - Remove non-essential objects, manipulatives, and books from rooms to aid in cleaning procedures.

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― Road Map for K-12 Education

Administrative Spaces Informed by science, a phased approach to repopulating schools will focus on a limited number of students, teachers, and staff returning, followed by changes in density as restrictions are maintained, modified, or lifted. The rate of return should be informed by decision modeling, surveying, and capturing feedback from all stakeholders.

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Administrative Guidelines ― Offices • Provide 6-foot distance around all occupied seats. • Depending on the size of the office, guest chairs may be unusable.

Occupy Unavailable #

Room Limit

1

2

― Conference Rooms • Provide 6-foot distancing between all conference seats when in use. • Mark available and unavailable positions on the table using tape or signage.

3

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Capacity Guidelines

― Reception Reception Congestion Points: • Entry / Exit Door (one way in and another out) • Reception Desk • Closet ↑

• Waiting Area

North Kansas City School District, Students in Academically Gifted Education, Kansas City, Missouri

• Sanitation Station (locate near main entry and exit)

Sanitation Station

Consider shield guards at reception

6’

Waiting Area

Coat Closet

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― Road Map for K-12 Education

Shared Spaces It is apparent that in a post-COVID world, children collaborating and gathering will be redefined –if only temporarily- and will have profound implications on the use of common spaces in the future. Our guidelines are based on public health directives for recalculating the spatial metrics of these spaces with the intent of mitigating risk.

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Cafeteria Usage Guidelines Layout

Operations

― 01

― 01

Provide 6-Foot Distance

Eat in Classrooms

Provide 6-foot distance around all occupiable seats.

Have students eat in their classrooms if possible.

― 02

― 02

Mark Available/Unavailable Positions

Provide Individual Portions

Mark available and unavailable positions on the tables using tape and/or signage.

Order in advance and provide individually wrapped portions.

― 03

― 03

Increase Teaching Capacity

Use Disposable Wares

Consider creating instructional areas in the cafeteria to increase the teaching capacity of the facility.

Use only disposable (preferably recyclable) wares.

― 04 ― 04

Prioritize Cafeteria Space

Designate Sanitation/ Handwashing Areas Designate sanitizing and hand washing areas at food pick-up and trash disposal.

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Prioritize cafeteria space for students with food allergies to avoid exposure in classrooms.


Capacity Guidelines

→ Lisle Community Unit School District 202, Lisle Elementary School, Lisle, Illinois

← Thomas Jefferson Independent Day School, Fine Arts Wing, Joplin, Missouri

Pre-Pandemic

Pre-Pandemic

Typical 30" x 12" folding table

Typical 60" folding table

Capacity 12/table 100%

Capacity 8/table 100%

Social Distancing

Social Distancing

Typical 60" folding table

Typical 30" x 12' folding table

Capacity 2/table

Capacity 3/table

25% pre-pandemic capacity

25% pre-pandemic capacity

Social Distancing

Social Distancing

Typical 60" folding table

Typical 36" x 12' folding table

Slightly overlapping circles

Capacity 4/table

Capacity 3/table

33% pre-pandemic capacity

37% pre-pandemic capacity

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Corridors and Commons Usage Guidelines ― 01

― 05

6-Foot Distancing May Not be Feasible

Post Signage

Maintaining distances of 6 feet between students in corridors may not be feasible for all schools.

Post signage reminding students of healthy behaviors and hand washing at entryways, hallway intersections, and restrooms.

― 02 ― 06

Provide Visual Indicators Mark 6-foot distances on the floor and/ or walls to provide visual indicators for students and teachers as they move through the corridor.

Provide Sanitation Stations Provide sanitizing stations throughout for easy access while people are moving through the school.

― 03

― 07

Discontinue the Use of Lockers

Do Not Disrupt Emergency Egress Routes

If possible, discontinue the use of lockers and cubbies until physical distancing recommendations have been lifted.

DO NOT institute any corridor usage policies or circulation paths that would disrupt emergency egress routes or prevent students from seeking the nearest exit, or confuse students in the event of an emergency. Consult with local building inspector.

― 04 Schedule Time for Locker Access If it is not possible to discontinue the use of lockers, determine which students have lockers 6 feet apart and schedule times for locker access based on where student lockers are located. 24


Capacity Guidelines

Path Centerline Path Intervals

Create visual cues to help students maintain physical distances: ― Mark a centerline down the middle of the corridor on the floor. ― Mark paths on the floor 6 feet apart on either side of the centerline. ― Mark 6-foot intervals along the floors and/or walls.

→ Town of Billerica, Massachusetts School Building Authority, Billerica Memorial High School, Billerica, Massachusetts

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Gym Usage Guidelines ― 01

― 06

Hold Physical Education Outside

Clean Equipment

Hold physical education classes outside when weather permits to allow for maximum physical distance between students.

Clean equipment after each use, disinfect when possible.

― 07 ― 02

Avoid Activities Shared Equipment

Avoid/Modify Activities that Require Close Contact Avoid/modify any activities that would bring students into close physical contact.

Avoid activities that would require multiple students to touch or handle the same equipment (e.g. basketball).

― 08 ― 03

Provide Sanitizing and Handwashing Areas

Increase Distance to 10 Feet Due to the level of movement and heavier breathing, increase the distance between students to 10 feet.

Provide access to handwashing or hand sanitizing areas at entry and exits.

― 09 Post Signage

― 04

Post signage reminding students of healthy behaviors such as hand washing.

Mark Visual Indicators Mark visual indicators on the floor and/or walls to illustrate 10-foot increments.

― 10 Wear PPE

― 05

Wear PPE when indoors and/or proximity of others

Repurpose Gym Consider repurposing the gym for instructional space to increase the teaching capacity of the building as large events will not likely be taking place.

→ Town of Billerica, Massachusetts School Building Authority, Billerica Memorial High School, Billerica, Massachusetts

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Theater Usage Guidelines ― 01

― 04

Arrange Seats to Maintain Separation

Repurpose Areas for Instructional Space

If seating is loose, arrange seats to maintain 6-foot separation. Mark the floor with tape for easy setup.

Consider repurposing areas of the auditorium for instructional space until physical distancing guidelines are lifted, as large events will not likely be taking place.

― 02 Mark/Block off Seats If seating is fixed, mark or block off seats as unavailable to maintain 6-foot separation.

― 05 Provide Sanitizing Stations Provide sanitizing stations at entry/ exits and throughout the space.

― 03 Reference Government Guidelines Refer to local government guidelines for gathering sizes for an event.

― 06 Post Signage Post signage to remind students of healthy behaviors and hand washing when entering and exiting the space.

Note Follow state and local social distancing guidelines.

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Capacity Guidelines

Blythewood High School Pre-Covid Capacity = 495 Social Distancing Capacity = 77 (15.5%)

Blythewood High School Pre-Covid Capacity = 495 Social Distancing Capacity = 77 (15.5%)

Johnston High School Pre-Covid Capacity = 1,156 Social Distancing Capacity = 162 (14%)

Johnston High School Pre-Covid Capacity = 1,156 Social Distancing Capacity = 152 (14%)

Lower Level

Upper Level

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Bus Usage Guidelines ― 01

― 05

Maintain 6-Foot Separation

Consider Face Coverings

Maintain 6 feet of separation between students.

Consider requiring mask wearing.

― 06 ― 02

Disinfect

Implement New Loading/ Unloading Sequence

Disinfect the bus between routes.

Consider implementing new loading/unloading sequence so the first student to board sits in the last seat and is the last student to exit the bus.

― 07 Consult Bus Manufactures Consult bus manufacturer for possible ways to shield driver .

― 03

― 08

Use Signage or Tape to Restrict Access

Include Hand Sanitizer

Use signage or tape to mark desired seating locations and to restrict access to unused seats.

Include hand sanitizer stations inside the bus.

― 09 ― 04

Wear PPE

Note the Width and Length of Bus

Driver to use PPE.

Note that typical school buses are nominally 8 feet wide, though length depends on row spacing and capacity. 30


SCHOOL OPTION 2 BUS SEATING WITH SOCIAL DISTANCING 31

DOES NOT MAINTAIN SOCIAL DISTANCING, ALTERNATING EVERY ROW SOCIAL DISTANCING PER CDC GUIDELINES, REFER TO THE CDC FOR UPDATES 12 STUDENTS PER BUS ALL DIAGRAMS ARE BASED ON A STANDARD 71 PASSANGER SCHOOL BUS

Social distancing per CDC guidelines, refer to the CDC for updates. All diagrams are based on a standard 71 passenger school bus

TYPICAL NOTES: -CONSULT BUS MANUFACTERER FOR POSSIBLE WAYS TO SHIELD DRIVER - 6 FOOT RADIUS WILL ALWAYS BE OVERLAPPED FOR DRIVER ORGINAL SEATING -ASSUMES LOADING THE BUS FROM THE REAR TO FRONT AND UNLOADING FROM FRONT TO REAR MAXIMUM SEATING - 3 STUDENTS PER ROW -CONSIDER USING SIGNAGE OR SOME OTHER MEANS TO MARK DESIRED SEATING LOCATIONS AND TO 71 STUDENTS PER BUS RESTRICT ACCESS TO UNUSED SEATS

Note

Students per bus: 12 Does not maintain social distancing Semi-Social Distancing Seating

OPTION 1

MAINTAINS SOCIAL DISTANCING, ALTERNATING EVERY OTHER ROW 8 STUDENTS PER BUS TYPICAL NOTES: -CONSULT BUS MANUFACTERER FOR POSSIBLE WAYS TO SHIELD DRIVER - 6 FOOT RADIUS WILL ALWAYS BE OVERLAPPED FOR DRIVER -ASSUMES LOADING THE BUS FROM THE REAR TO FRONT AND UNLOADING FROM FRONT TO REAR -CONSIDER USING SIGNAGE OR SOME OTHER MEANS TO MARK DESIRED SEATING LOCATIONS AND TO RESTRICT ACCESS TO UNUSED SEATS

Students per bus: 8 Maintains social distancing, alternating every other row Social Distancing Seating

SCHOOL BUS SEATING WITH SOCIAL DISTANCING SOCIAL DISTANCING PER CDC GUIDELINES, REFER TO THE CDC FOR UPDATES OPTION ALL DIAGRAMS2ARE BASED ON A STANDARD 71 PASSANGER SCHOOL BUS DOES NOT MAINTAIN SOCIAL DISTANCING, ALTERNATING EVERY ROW 12 STUDENTS PER BUS

Students per bus: 71 Maximum seating: Three students per seat and six per row

TYPICAL NOTES:SEATING ORGINAL -CONSULT MANUFACTERER FOR POSSIBLE MAXIMUMBUS SEATING - 3 STUDENTS PER ROW WAYS TO SHIELD DRIVER - 6 FOOT RADIUS WILL ALWAYS OVERLAPPED 71BE STUDENTS PER FOR BUS DRIVER -ASSUMES LOADING THE BUS FROM THE REAR TO FRONT AND UNLOADING FROM FRONT TO REAR -CONSIDER USING SIGNAGE OR SOME OTHER MEANS TO MARK DESIRED SEATING LOCATIONS AND TO RESTRICT ACCESS TO UNUSED SEATS

Pre-Pandemic Seating OPTION 1

MAINTAINS SOCIAL DISTANCING, ALTERNATING EVERY OTHER ROW 8 STUDENTS PER BUS TYPICAL NOTES: -CONSULT BUS MANUFACTERER FOR POSSIBLE WAYS TO SHIELD DRIVER - 6 FOOT RADIUS WILL ALWAYS BE OVERLAPPED FOR DRIVER -ASSUMES LOADING THE BUS FROM THE REAR TO FRONT AND UNLOADING FROM FRONT TO REAR -CONSIDER USING SIGNAGE OR SOME OTHER MEANS TO MARK DESIRED SEATING LOCATIONS AND TO RESTRICT ACCESS TO UNUSED SEATS

Capacity Guidelines


Graphic and Signage Approach Dynamic ways to make your school healthier and safer.

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→ Lisle Community Unit School District 202, Lisle Elementary School, Lisle, Illinois

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We are here to assist you in your return to school. For more information, please contact: K12Education@perkinswill.com Š 2020 The guidance provided on this site is based on the available information as of the date of publication and does not replace federal, state, or local public health recommendations but aggregates best practices and innovative solutions at the intersection of buildings and school health. We encourage schools to reach out and seek expert advice on their unique circumstances.

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Road Map for K-12 Education - Capacity Guidelines  

Road Map for K-12 Education - Capacity Guidelines  

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