__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

կյծ

Վ ɖȄȯɸǷɝʊɜȨȕɪȡǷɵɭǴȄȳȡǻ ȓɭȄȯȗȸ‫ם‬ȄȓʊɮɳȗɦȄ


ȄȰǻ


ƨƦǴǗǾƳÂǞȈǸŪ¦½ǂNj¢ ƨȈLJ¦°ƾdz¦¾ȂǐǨdz¦ƾƷ¢ ƨȈǟȂƫ©ȐƷ° ¦ǂƳȍ ǪǗƢǼǷń¤¿Ȃȇ¨ƾŭƨǸǜƬǼǷ ©ƢƳƢȈƬƷȏ¦Ƣǿ±ȂǠƫ

®ȐȈŭ¦®ƢȈǟ¢©ȐǨƷĿ ń¤¾Ƣŭʪ¸ŐƬdz¦°ƢȈƻ¬ŗǫ¦ DzȇƾƦǯśǠǷÄŚƻDzǸǟ ®ȐȈŭ¦ƾȈǟƨȇƾŮ Ï

Î

¨°Â®¢¨°ƢȀǷdžȇ°ƾƬƥǶǫ DŽǯǂǷĿ¨ŚǐǫƨȈǸȈǴǠƫ ǂƫȂȈƦǸǰdz¦©¦°ƢȀǷ ȆǠǸƬů DŽȀƴƬdz¦ÂƨȈƫ¦¯¨ŚLJƨƥƢƬǯ  ł¤DzǸǠdz¦©ȐƥƢǬŭ

¥®ƢƦŭǞǔţ©ƢƴƬǼǷŗNj¦ ¿ƢǜǻǶǟƾdzƨdz®ƢǠdz¦¨°ƢƴƬdz¦ ŘǠŠžƨǷ¦ƾƬLjŭ¦¨°ƢƴƬdz¦ Ǻǟ¾ƢǸǠǴdzƨdz®ƢǠdz¦¨ƘǧƢǰŭ¦ ǶȀǴǸǟ

ŚǧȂƬdzDzǨǗƨȇƢǟ°¾Ȃƫ Ë  ¦ǀǤdz¦ǺǷǾƫƢƳƢȈƬƷ¦ ƨƸǐdz¦ÂǶȈǴǠƬdz¦Â

©ƢƴƬǼǷ¢džƥȐǷŗNj¦  DŽŝ¸ŐƬƫǂƳƢƬǷǺǷÃǂƻ¢ ƨȇŚŬ¦¾ƢǸǟȌdzƢ٦ȂǷ¢ǺǷ

Ñ

ǮȇƾdzƨǸǠǗȋ¦ÀDŽűǦǜǻ ŚǣƨȇǀǣϥÅƢǫÂƾǼǏȌǷ¦Â ń¤Ǿƥ¸ŐƫÂƤǘǠǴdzƨǴƥƢǫ ¿ƢǠǘdz¦ǮǼƥ Ô

ȄǴǟDzƼƦƫȏǮǼǰǷ¢¦¯¤ Ǫȇǂǘdz¦Ŀ¿ƾǠǷDzǯ É ǽƢȈǷƨƳƢƳ±¢ƨƷƢǨƬǧ ŕƷ¢ƨǰǨdz¦ǒǠƥ¢ ǺǷDzǔǧ¢ƨǷƢLjƬƥ¦®ǂů  ȆNjȏ

ÎÍ 

Ó

Ð

Ò

ǂǬǨdz¦¾ȂƷÅƢNjƢǬǻ°®¢ ĿƨdzƢǬǷ¢ƨǻÂƾǷƤƬǯ¦ ƨȈǴۨƾȇǂƳ Õ

ƞƳȐǷĿDzǸǠdzʪ¸Ȃǘƫ ÀȂǰȇƢŠ°Ǻȇ®ǂnjŭ¦ ¦Ȃȇ¤ ǂưǯ¢ƪǫÂǺǷǾǐǐţƢǷ ¾Ƣŭ¦ǺǷƨǸȈǫ Ö


șɳɟ


ƨǴƥƢǫŚǣƨȇǀǣϥ¸Őƫ ©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦ń¤ƤǘǠǴdz ƨȇŚŬ¦ ²°¦ƾǸǴdz¿ƢǠǘdz¦¿ƾǫ ǂǧȂƬƦǧƨȈǷƢǼdz¦¾Âƾdz¦Ŀ °ȂǔƷ®¦®DŽȇƨȇǀǤƬdz¦ §Ȑǘdz¦

Ï

Ò

ƨȀǯƢǧƨƦȈǬŞǚǨƬƷ¦ ¨°ƢȈLjdzʪƤǴǠǷ¿ƢǠǗ¢ ǪȇǂǘdzʪśǷƾǠǸǴdz É



Î

Ŀ¨ƾǟƢLjŭ¦ƲǷ¦ǂƥǶǟ®¦ ÅƢǷƢǠǗǂǧȂƫȆȀǧƨȇǀǤƬdz¦ ½ȂǼƥǺǷ¨ǂǷÏÍƥǂưǯ¢ ƨǸǠǗȋ¦À±Ƣű¿ƢǠǘdz¦ ƺƥƢǘŭ¦Â

Ñ

ÅȏƢǸǟǦǛȂƫƪǼǯ¦¯¤ Ň®ȋ¦ƾū¦ȏ¤ÀȂǓƢǬƬȇȏ ȄǴǟƾǟƢLjǧǂƳȋ¦ǺǷ ǶȈǴǠƬdz¦DzưǷǶēƢƳƢȈƬƷ¦Ƕǟ® ƨȈdzDŽǼŭ¦¨DŽȀƳȋ¦¢ǶŮƢǨǗȋ

ƢǸǴǰǧ¨ǂǰǨdz¦ǂnjǻ¦ ƨƸǧƢǰǷ°Ƣǰǧ¢©ǂnjƬǻ¦ ¾ƢǠǧ¢®Â®°©®¦±¸ȂŪ¦ ®¦ǂǧȋ¦

Ð

ÄǂǧȂǷǺǷƾȇƾǠdz¦«ƢƬŹ ®¦ǂǧ¢ń¤¥°¦Ȃǘdz¦ƨǸǠǗ¢ ƨǏƢƻ©¦°ƢȀŠÀȂǠƬǸƬȇ ƨȈƦLJƢƄ¦©¦°ƢȀŭ¦DzưǷ ǞǷDzǷƢǠƬdz¦©¦°ƢȀǷ¢ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏ¦DzǏ¦ȂƬdz¦DzƟƢLJ ¸ȂǘƫƨƥƢƬǰdz¦©¦°ƢȀǷ¢ ÅƢȈǟȂƦLJ¢¨ƾƷ¦Â¨ǂǷǮƫŐş

Ô

Ó

śȈǴƄ¦śǟ°¦DŽŭ¦Ƕǟ®¦ ¼¦ȂLJ¢ǺǷǮǷƢǠǗ ¦ǂnjƥ ǶȀǟ°¦DŽǷ

¸ȂŪ¦¾ȂƷÅʪƢƬǯ¢ǂǫ¦ ǾƥƢƦLJȋŐǯȋ¦ǶȀǨdzƢǧ Dzǔǧ¢¨°Ȃǐƥ½ƾË ǠÉȇ»ȂLJ ¼°ƢǧǞǼǐdz

ÎÍ

Ö

´ƢƼNjȋ¦ǺǷŚưǰdz¦®®ŗȇ ¨ƾǟƢLjŭ¦ƤǴǗĿȄǟȂŪ¦ §ȂnjȇƢŭƨƴȈƬǼǯ °ƢǟÂƨǸǏÂǺǷǮdz¯ Ǻǟ¾Ƣǟ©ȂǐƥªƾŢ ǶǫÂƨƠǗƢŬ¦©¦®ƢǬƬǟȏ¦ ǪƟƢǬūʪǺȇǂƻȉ¦ǦȇǂǠƬƥ ¸ȂŪ¦Ǻǟ Õ


ɯȗ‫ٮڈ‬


DzƫƢǬdz¦ƤǴǬdz¦µ¦ǂǷ¢Dzǜƫ §ƢƦLJ¢ȄǴǟ»ǂǠƫÎǶǫ° ƢȀǓ¦ǂǟ¢ÂƤǴǬdz¦µ¦ǂǷ¢ Śǣµ¦ǂǷȋ¦Ǯdzǀǯ Ãǂƻȋ¦ƨȇ°ƢLjdz¦

Ò

ȆǿƨȈǠȈƦǘdz¦ƨǟƢǓǂdz¦ Dzǔǧȋ¦°ƾǐŭ¦Â¨ǂǘǨdz¦ ȆǸŢǞǓǂǴdzƨȇǀǤƬǴdz ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ƨȈǠȈƦǘdz¦ƨǟƢǓǂdz¦ ʮ¦DŽǷƢٝµ¦ǂǷȋ¦ǺǷ ȄǴǟDzȇȂǘdz¦Ãƾŭ¦ȄǴǟ ƾȈǨƫƢĔ¢ƢǸǯ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ ¿ȋ¦

ǂLJÅƢǗƢnjǻǂưǯ¢Ǻǯ  ¦ƾǤdz¦ƪǫÂǮȈǷƾǫȄǴǟ DzǸǠdz¦ń¤Ƥǿ¯¦¢ ƨƳ¦°ƾdzʪ

Ǻƻƾƫȏ

Ï

Î

ȆǟȂdz¦¨®ʮ±ǺǷŦ DŽƳǺǯ ƨȈǴǬǠdz¦ƨƸǐdz¦µ¦ǂǷϥ ȆǗƢǠƫ§ƢƠƬǯȏ¦DzưǷ ¿ƾǫÂǂŻƢǿDŽdz¦Â©ƢǟȂǼǸŭ¦ Ƕǟƾdz¦

§ǂNj¦ÂÅƢȈƸǏÅƢǷƢǠǗ¾ÂƢǼƫ  Ƣŭ¦ǺǷŚưǰdz¦

Ñ

ƾǠƥ±ƾȇȍ¦µǂǷǦƬźŃ Ǟǔƻ¢ÂǮLjǨǻǶƷ¦ °ƢƦƬƻȐdzǮLjǨǻ Ó

Õ

Ð

ǶǴǠƬdz¦ǺǟÅƢǬǴǘǷǦǫȂƬƫȏ DzǸǠdz¦Ŀ«ƢǷƾǻȏ¦ƾǟƢLjȇ ĿƨȈǸȈǴǠƬdz¦ƨǘnjǻȋ¦¦ ǺǷǺLjdz¦°ƢƦǯ«¦ǂƻ¤ ƨǤdzǶǴǠƫÅƢǼLjƷ§ƢƠƬǯȏ¦ DŽȀƳÂŦŚưǯ¢ǂǫ¦Â¨ƾȇƾƳ Ǻȇǂƻ¡ǞǷ¨ ¦ǂǫÄ®ʭ

Ô

ǮLjǨǼdzÅƢƬǫÂǎǐƻ ǮƟƢǫƾǏȋÂ ÎÍ 

Ç »Ƣǯ¿ȂǻȄǴǟDzǐƷ¦ Ö


Ռȉ


¨®ʮDŽdz²°¦ƾǸǴdz¿ƢǠǘdz¦¿ƾǫ §Ȑǘdz¦°ȂǔƷ

ń¤¿ȋ¦ǮƬǤdzǶËǴǟ §ƢƦnjdz¦DŽǯ¦ǂǷĿǺȇǂƳƢȀŭ¦ ǂƻ¡ÀƢǰǷÄϥ¢

Ï

Î

ƲǷ¦ǂƥ¢¿Ȑǧȋ¦µǂǟ¦ ǮdzǀǯÂƨȈǸȈǴǠƬdz¦±ƢǨǴƬdz¦ ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ǾȈǧŗdz

ǶȈǴǠƬdz¦ƨȈŷϥ½ ƢǼƥ¢»ǂǟ Ë ʮ¦DŽŭ¦ÃǂȇȏŚưǰdzƢǧ ƨLJȂǸǴŭ¦

Ñ

Ð

ƨȇŚŬ¦©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦Ƕǟ®¦ ǂǬǧ¢ĿǶȈǴǠƬdzʪDzǸǠƫŖdz¦ ŃƢǠdzʪǺǯƢǷȋ¦

À¦ƾǴƦdz¦ǺǷƾȇƾǠdzʪ ²°¦ƾŭ¦ǺǷ©ƢȈƬǨdz¦§ǂLjƬƫ ǺȀŸÂDŽƫDzƳ¢ǺǷŦǂǰƦǷ ƶǸLjƫ©ȏ¦ƾǷ¢ƾƥ¦ ƨǴǰnjǸǴdzƨŹǂǐdz¦ƨnjǫƢǼŭʪ ƢŮ¾ȂǴƷ»ƢnjƬǯ¦Â

ÎÍ 

¼ƢǘǻǺǷǶȈǴǠƬdz¦«ǂƻ¦ ÅƢǠƬŲǾǴǠƳ¦ÂƨLJ°ƾŭ¦ Ŀ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ǀƻǂǧƢLJ ƨƦǬdz¦ń¤ƨȈǷȂȇ©ȐƷ° ǦƷƢƬŭ¦¢ƨȈǰǴǨdz¦

Ó

Ò

¬ƢƴǼdz¦ǎǐǫ½°ƢNj Ŗdz¦ǎǐǬdz¦Ǯdz¯ĿƢŠ °ƢƦƻȋ¦ǺȇÂƢǼǠƥǂȀǜƫȏ

©ƢƦƬǰŭ¦ń¤ƤƬǰdzʪ¸Őƫ ƨǷƢǠdz¦²°¦ƾŭ¦¢ƨǷƢǠdz¦ Ǯdz¯ń¤ƨƳƢŞŖdz¦

Õ

Ô

Ǻȇǂƻȉ¦ǞǷǮƫ¦°ƢȀǷ½°ƢNj ƢȀȈdz¤ÀȂƳƢƬŹǺȇǀdz¦ Ö


Ռ ɦȄ


DzƟƢLJȂdz¦ǞǷDzǏ¦Ȃƫ ƨȇƢǟƾdz¦©ƢǯǂNj ƨȈǷȐǟȍ¦ ȆƟƢǸǼȈLjdz¦«ƢƬǻȍ¦©ƢǯǂNj œǴLjdz¦ǂƯȋ¦¾ȂƷ ƢǿŚǣ ƨƦƫǂǷĿ¨¢ǂŭ¦¨°ȂǏǶLJǂdz ¨ ƢǨǯÂÅ Ƣǯ¯Dzǫ¢ƢĔ¢ÂƢȈǻ® ¾ƢƳǂdz¦ǺǷƢȀƟ¦ǂǜǼƥƨǻ°ƢǬǷ

ƤǏƢǼŭ¦Ŀ¨¢ǂŭ¦DzȈưŤǞǧ°¦ DzǸǠdz¦ǺǯƢǷϥƨȇ®ƢȈǬdz¦ Î

ŚǧȂƫȄǴǟ²°¦ƾŭ¦ǞƴNj ©ƢȈƬǨǴdzƶǼǷ

¯Ƣţ¦DzLjǴLjƫ²°ƢǷ ¾DŽǼŭ¦Ŀƨdz®ƢǠdz¦©¦°¦ǂǬdz¦ ǮdzƢǨǗ¢¿ƢǷ¢ǾǓǂǟ¦Â

Ñ

Ð

Ï

Ê ȆǸǴǟƢǧ¨ƾȈLJƪǼǯ¦¯¤ ǺǷȆǴǓʭÂǮǫȂǬƷ ƢȀǴƳ¢

Ƥȇ°ƾƬdz¦ÂǾȈƳȂƬdz¦¿ƾƼƬLJ¦ ȄǴǟ©¦ƾȈLjdz¦¨ƾǟƢLjŭ ǂȇȂǘƫÂǺȀLjǨǻϥǶȀƬǬƯ ƢǼƥ ƨȈǨȈǛȂdz¦Ǻē¦°ƢLjǷ

Ó

Ò

śƥÀ±¦ȂƬdz¦ÂƨǻÂǂŭ¦DzǠƳ¦ ǺǷŦ DŽƳ¨ƢȈū¦ÂDzǸǠdz¦ ƨǯǂnjdz¦ƨǧƢǬƯ Ô

ń¤«ƢƬިƢƬǧƨȇƢǟ°¾Ȃƫ Ë ¨Âƾǫ ÎÍ 

¢ƾƦƫśLjǼŪ¦śƥ¨¦ÂƢLjŭ¦ ¾DŽǼŭ¦ǺǷ Ö

śLjǼŪ¦śƥƚǧƢǰƬdz¦DzǠƳ¦ ǶȈǴǠƬdz¦ÂƤȇ°ƾƬdz¦ǺǷŦ DŽƳ °ƢȈƬƻȏ§ƢƦnjdz¦Ƕǟ®ȆǤƦǼȇ ĿƾǟƢLjƫŖdz¦ǦƟƢǛȂdz¦ ǒǤƥȆǴƦǬƬLjŭ¦ǶȀǷƾǬƫ džǼŪ¦ǺǟǂǜǼdz¦

Õ


֗ɪȍɜȗȸɭ


»ȂLJǽƢȈŭ¦¾ȂƷÅʪƢƬǯ¢ǂǫ¦ ǮȈǟÂǺǷ§ƢƬǰdz¦ǞLJȂȇ ©ƢǠǸƬЦȄǴǟǽƢȈŭ¦ǂƯϥ ȄǴǟ©¦®ƢǐƬǫȏ¦Â ƢǼƦǯȂǯ

ŚǧȂƬdz¦ĽŚǧȂƬdz¦ĽŚǧȂƬdz¦ ĿƲǴƯ©ƢƦǠǰǷȆǬƦƫƾǼǟ ƢȀǷǂƫȏ§ÂǂnjǷ§Ȃǯ ©ʫƢƦǼdz¦ƢđǪLJ¦Dzƥ Ï

Î

Ŗdz¦©ƢǟÂǂnjŭ¦ń¤¸Őƫ °ʪȉ¦ǂǨūÅȐȇȂŤƤǴǘƫ ©ƢƼǔŭ¦ÂŚLJ¦Ȃŭ¦ƤȈǯǂƫ ƨǻƢȈǐdz¦ȄǴǟƤȇ°ƾƬdz¦Â ł¤

ǂǧȂƫŖdz¦©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦Ƕǟ®¦ ¨ŚǬǨdz¦ǪǗƢǼǸǴdzǽƢȈŭ¦

Ñ

©ƢǟŐƫǞŦª¦ƾƷȋƤƫ° ǽƢȈŭ¦¿ȂȇĿ²°¦ƾŭʪ ǽƢȈŭ¦©¦°Â®¿ȂȇÂȆŭƢǠdz¦ ¸ÂǂnjǷń¤¾Ƣŭʪ¸Őƫ ǽ°ƢƬţ Ó

Ð

¾DŽǼŭʪ©ʪǂLjƬdz¦ƶǴǏ¢ §ǂLjŭ¦°ȂƦǼǐǴdzǺǰŻ ÎÎ ÍÍÍǺǷǂưǯ¢°¦ƾǿ¤ ÅʮȂǼLJŗdz

Ò

DzLJƢǤǷĿǮƫ°ƢȈLJDzLjǣ¦ ƾȈǠƫŖdz¦ƨȇ°ƢƴƬdz¦©¦°ƢȈLjdz¦ ǽƢȈŭ¦ǂȇÂƾƫ Õ

ÅƢȈƠȈƥÅƢȈƸǏÅƢǯƢƦLJǦǛ ǽƢȈǸǴdzǮǯȐȀƬLJ¦DzȈǴǬƬdz ©ʮÂƢǸȈǰdz¦ÂƨǫƢǘdz¦Â ÎÍ 1

½ǂǧ ƢǼƯ¢°ȂƦǼǐdz¦ǪǴǣ¢  ƢǼƯ¢Â¨ƢNjǂǨdzʪǮǻƢǼLJ¢ ƾǼǟÀȂƥƢǐdz¦ǞǓ ¿ƢǸƸƬLJȏ¦ Ö

ƨȈƟƢȈǸȈǰdz¦®¦ȂŭʪǪǴƫȏ ©¦ Ȑǘdz¦DzưǷƨǷƢLjdz¦ ƨȈƟƢȈǸȈǰdz¦®¦Ȃŭ¦¢ ©¦°Â®Ŀƨȇ®ȋ¦¢ ©¦ŚƸƦdz¦ªȂǴƫȆȀǧǽƢȈŭ¦ ©ȐǰnjŠƤƦLjƬƫ°ƢĔȋ¦Â ¨ƢȈƸǴdzÂÀƢLjǻȎdzƨȈƸǏ ƨȇǂƸƦdz¦ Ô


ɵɡɗ


Śǣ ¦ȂǓȋ¦ƞǨǗ¢  ƢǨǗ¤ƾǼǟƨǴǸǠƬLjŭ¦ ň¦ȂưdzȂdzÂŕƷ ¦ȂǓȋ¦ ƨǫƢǗǂǧȂȇǮdz¯ÀƜǧƨǴȈǴǫ ƨǷƾƼƬLjŭ¦ǮǴƫǺǷǂưǯ¢ ǒǤƥ ¦ȂǓȋ¦¨ ƢǓ¤ ƾƦdz ¬ƢƦǐŭ¦¸ȂǻǺǟǂǜǼdz¦

©¦ƾǠŭ¦Ǻǟ ʪǂȀǰdz¦Dzǐǧ¦ ¨DŽȀƳ¢DzưǷƨȈǻÂŗǰdzȍ¦ ƾǼǟǂƫȂȈƦǸǰdz¦Â±ƢǨǴƬdz¦ ƨǴǘǟń¤§Ƣǿǀdz¦

ȆȀǘdz¦ƨȈǟ¢ƨȈǘǤƬƥǶǫ ƨȈǸǯǺǷDzǴǬȇ¦ǀȀǧ ƢǘǤƥ ǽƢȈŭ¦ȆǴǤdzƨƥȂǴǘŭ¦ƨǫƢǘdz¦ ×ÔÒƨƦLjǼƥ

Ï

Î

Ð

ȌǷ¦Â©ƢƬLJȂǷǂưdz¦¾ƾË ǟ ·ƢǨƸǴdzƾȈƳƢƴLjdzʪ¾DŽǼŭ¦ ǾƠǧ®¢¾DŽǼŭ¦¨®ÂǂƥȄǴǟ ƨǴƻ¦ƾƥ

Ŗdz¦ƶȈƥƢǐŭ¦¿ƾƼƬLJ¦ ǖƦǓ¦ÂƨǫƢǘdz¦¨ ƢǨǰƥǶLjƬƫ ©¦®¦ƾǟ¤ȄǴǟǮƫDŽȀƳ¢ ƨǔǨƼǼǷƨǫƢǗ

Ó

Ò

ǽƢȈŭ¦°ƾǬƥƨȇȐǤdz¦ȌǷ¦ ǖǬǧ§ȂǴǘŭ¦ Õ

©¦¯¾±ƢǼŭ¦ǶȈǷƢǐƫƲǷƾƫ ©¦ Ƣnjǻȍ¦śƥ¨ ƢǨǰdz¦ ƨǫƢǘdz¦¨ ƢǨǰƥƨǸLjƬŭ¦ ƨǸLjƬŭ¦¨ ƢǓȍ¦Â¨DŽȀƳȋ¦Â śƼLjƫDzưǷ¨DŽȈŭ¦džǨǼƥ ¿¦ƾƼƬLJʪ ʪǂȀǰdz¦ÂǽƢȈŭ¦ ƨȈLjǸnjdz¦ƨǫƢǘdz¦

Ñ

ƨǫƢǘdz¦©ƢǟÂǂnjǷǶǟ®¦ ¾±ƢǼŭ¦Â²°¦ƾǸǴdzƨȈLjǸnjdz¦ ƤƫƢǰŭ¦Â Ô

ǾȈƳȂƬdz¦ÂƨƸȈǐǼdz¦ƤǴǗ¦ ĿƨǫƢǘdz¦¨ ƢǨǯǎźƢǸȈǧ ƨȈź°ƢƬdz¦ňƢƦŭ¦

ǦȈǰǷƤȈǯŗƥ¿ȂǬƫDzǿ ǦȈȈǰƫǺǟǂLjǨƬLJ¦Ÿ ¦Ȃǿ ƨǫƢǘdzʪDzǷƢǠdz¦ ¦Ȃ٦ ƨȈLjǸnjdz¦

ÎÍ

Ö




șɱǷ


ǶǟƾƬdzŦŚǤǏÅƢǓǂǬǷǺǯ ÀȋǶȀȈǠLJĿ§ƢƦnjdz¦ ¾ƢǸǟ¢®¦Â°¦ȂƸƦǐȇ ƨȈdzÂƾdz¦©ȐǸū¦Ƕǟ®¦ ƨưȇƾū¦ƨȇ®ȂƦǠdz¦ ƢĔȍ °Ƣšȏ¦Â¨ǂƼLjdz¦¾ƢǸǟ¢Â ÄǂLjǬdz¦«¦ÂDŽdz¦ÂǂnjƦdzʪ

Ï

DzǨǘdz¦°ƢǔƷ¤¿ȂȇǞƴNj ƨƠȈƥ¨ƾǿƢnjŭDzǸǠdz¦ń¤ µ°¢ȄǴǟƨȈƸǐdz¦DzǸǠdz¦ Ǟǫ¦Ȃdz¦ Î

Ƕǟ®¦°¦ǂǬƬLJȏ¦ǂǧ Ȇǫŗdz¦Ŀ§ƢƦnjdz¦śȈǼȀŭ¦ ǶȀǨƟƢǛȂƥ Ñ

Ð

ȆǨȈǠǓ¾ƢǸǠǴdz¿ƢǠǘdz¦ǂǧ ¸°¦DŽŭ¦¾ƢǸǟDzưǷǶȈǴǠƬdz¦ ƨȈƳƢƬǻȍ¦ǺǷƾȇDŽȇ¸ȂŪ¦ ƨǔǨƼǼŭ¦ Ò

ȄǴǟƨǔǨűŦ°ƢǠLJ¢¿ƾǫ ƢēƖnjǼǷÂƨƸǐdz¦ƨǸǜǻ¢ śǨǛȂǸǴdz¨®ȂŪ¦©¦¯

śǐǴƼǸǴdzDŽǧ¦ȂƷ¿ƾǫ §ÂƢƴƬȇǶȀǴǸǟĿ Dzǔǧ¢Dzǰnjƥ´ƢƼNjȋ¦ ©ƖǧƢǰŭ¦ƨǸǜǻ¢ǞǷ

Ô

Ó

Ƥȇ°ƾƬdz¦ƲǷ¦ǂƥƾǟƢLJ ǂȇȂǘƬdzÅƢȈdzƢǷǂȇȂǘƬdz¦Â ©¦°ƢȀŭ¦ ÎÍ 

´ǂǧǺǷƾȇDŽǷʼnƾǬƫǞƴNj §ƢƦnjǴdzDzǸǠdz¦ Ö

ƨǷȐLJǺǷƾǯϦ DzǸǠdz¦ƨƠȈƥ Õ


‫ف‬؈ʊɔȗՌՌɦȄ


©ƢȈǨnjƬLjǸǴdzǺǰŻ ²°¦ƾŭ¦Â©¦®ƢȈǠdz¦Â ǞŦ©ƢƦLJƢǼǷƨǧƢǔƬLJ¦ Ŗdz¦©ƢǟÂǂnjǸǴdz©ƢǟŐƬdz¦ ©ƖnjǼŭƨȈƬƸƬdz¦ŘƦdz¦°Ȃǘƫ Ð ƨȈƸǐdz¦ƨȇƢǟǂdz¦

ªƾƷȋÅƢǠƥƢƬǷǺǯ ©¦°ƢǰƬƥȏ¦Â©ƢȈƳȂdzȂǼǰƬdz¦ Ó

ŦŚǤǏÅʬƾƷǦǔƬLJ¦ ¸ŐƬǴdz´ƢƼNjȌdz Ŗdz¦ƨǸȈǴLjdz¦ǶȀǨƫ¦Ȃđ ¦ǀǿƢĔȂǷƾƼƬLjȇȏ ǎǬǼdzʪȆǟȂdz¦Ǟǧǂȇǽ°Âƾƥ ©ƢǷƾŬƨȈƬƸƬdz¦ƨȈǼƦdz¦Ŀ ¾¦DŽȇƢǷŖdz¦©ȏƢǐƫȏ¦ ǎƼNj°ƢȈǴǷÎΫÒń¤Î ƢĔȂǰǴƬŻȏ Ï

ƨȈƬƸƬdz¦ŘƦdz¦ǞƴNj ®°¦Ȃŭ¦©¦¯ƨǷ¦ƾƬLjŭ¦ ¨ ƢǨǰdzʪƨǸLjƬŭ¦ ƨǬȇƾǐdz¦©ƢȈƳȂdzȂǼǰƬdz¦Â ƨƠȈƦǴdz

Ò

ƢȀƸǼǷ¦Dzƥ ƢȈNjȋ¦¿ǂƫȏ Ǯƫ¦ƾǠǷƨȈǫǂƫÀ¤Ǻȇǂƻȉ ȆǸƬƷǂǷ¢ƨȈǻÂŗǰdzȍ¦ ĿÀȂǰƫƢǷÅƢƦdzƢǣƢȀǼǰdz °ǂǷ¨ƾȈƳDzȈǤnjƫƨdzƢƷ ń¤ƨŻƾǬdz¦DzǸǠdz¦¨DŽȀƳ ƢǿǂȇÂƾƫƾǟ¢¢Ǻȇǂƻ¡ ¨®ƢǟȍƨǴƥƢǫ ¦DŽƳȋ¦ǒǠƦǧ ¿¦ƾƼƬLJȏ¦

ƨƸǏǂưǯ¢Àƾŭ¦DzǠƳ¦ ƶǘLjdz¦ƨƷƢLjǷ¾ȂƷ Ë ƶǘLJ¢ń¤ňƢƦŭ¦ƨǣ°ƢǨdz¦ ¨®ȂƳǺLjŹ¦ǀǿ ¦ǂǔƻ ƨƦLjǼƥ¾DŽǠdz¦ƾȇDŽȇ ¦Ȃ٦ ƢĔ¢ƢǸǯ×ÏÒń¤Dzǐƫ Ǟƴnjƫ©¦ȂǏȋ¦ǎƬŤ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏ¦«ƢǷƾǻȏ¦ Ãǂƻ¢ʮ¦DŽǷń¤ƨǧƢǓ¤

ÎÍ

Ö



ǂǧȂƫŖdz¦©ƢǟÂǂnjŭ¦¾ȂǷ ǺǷƨȈLJƢLJȋ¦©ƢƳƢȈƬƷȏ¦ ƨȈƬƸƬdz¦ŘƦdz¦ Î

Ƕǜǻ©ƢǗƢnjǼdz¦ĿdžǸǤǻ¦ ǪǗƢǼŭ¦¨°ʮDŽdz©ƢǟȂǸů ©ƢƳƢȈƬƷȏ¦ń¤ƾǬƬǨƫŖdz¦ ǞLJȂȇ»ȂLJƨȈLJƢLJȋ¦ ®¦ǂǧȋ¦DŽǨŹÂȆǟȂdz¦Ǯdz¯ ȄǴǟÅ ƢǼƥ»ǂǐƬdz¦ȄǴǟ ǽ¢°ƢǷ

Ñ

ǂȇȂǘƫªȂŞĿǂǸưƬLJ¦ ƨȈdzDŽǼŭ¦©ƢȈƳȂdzȂǼǰƬdz¦ À¦ƾǴƦdz¦ĿƢē¦°ƢǰƬƥ¦Â ƨȈǷƢǼdz¦ Ô

śȈǸǴǟśưƷʪǦǛ Ŀǂưǯ¢ǂȇȂǘƫ¾ƢǸǟ ȆǟƢǼǐdz¦¸ƢǘǬdz¦ Õ


ȯɏȆȷ


ƨǬȇƾū¦ń¤ǮdzƢǨǗ¢ǀƻ ƨǯŗnjŭ¦©ƢƷƢLjŭ¦Â ´ǂǧǺǟƮަÃǂƻȋ¦ ´ƢƼNj¢ǞǷªƾƸƬǴdz ǶȀȈǴǟ»ǂǠƫśǨǴƬű ǶȀǸȀǧ¦Â

ÅƢǨǴƬűÅƢǐƼNjDzƥƢǫ ¼ǂǠdz¦ĿÅ ¦ȂLJǮǼǟ ƨǧƢǬưdz¦¢ƾǬƬǠŭ¦¢ ¨ƾƷ¦Â¨ǂǷǂǸǠdz¦¢ ÅʮǂȀNj

Ï

ƾǬǟȄǴǟ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ǞƴNj ǺǷ¾ƢǨǗ¢ǞǷ©Ƣǫ¦ƾǏ ƨǨǴƬű©ƢǧƢǬƯ Î

¸¦Ȃǻ¢ǞȈŦ¿¦ŗƷ¦ǶǴǠƫ ƢŠ°Ǻȇǀdz¦´ƢƼNjȋ¦ ¨°Ȃǐƥ ƢȈNjȋʪÀȂǷȂǬȇ ǮǼǟƨǨǴƬű

Ñ

Ð

ŃƢǠdz¦ ƢƳ°¢ǞȈŦĿǂǧƢLJ ©ƢǧƢǬưdz¦¾ȂƷƾȇDŽŭ¦ƨǧǂǠŭ ƨǨǴƬƼŭ¦ Ò

Ň®ȋ¦ƾū¦¨®ʮDŽdzǶǠǻDzǫ Dzǫȋ¦´ƢƼNjȌdzǂƳȌdz ÅȐƻ®

Ŗdz¦¾ƢǨǗȋ¦ǎǐǫ¢ǂǫ¦ ©ƢǧƢǬưdz¦ǞȈŦǦǐƫ

Õ

Ô

ǖȈǸǼƬdz¦ǺǟǦǫȂƫ ǺǸǔƬƫƨǻÂƾǷƤƬǯ¦ ǽǀǿǶǘިŚǐǫÅƢǐǐǫ ŚǰǨƬdz¦ǺǷƨǬȇǂǘdz¦ ÎÍ 

ǶǜƬǼȈdzDzǨǗƨȇƢǟ°¾Ȃƫ Ë ƨLJ¦°ƾdzʪ Ó

¾±ƢǼŭ¦Â²°¦ƾŭ¦ƞnjǻ¢ ¨°ȂǐƥǞLjƬƬdzƤƫƢǰŭ¦Â ǺǷÂǺLjdz¦°ƢƦǰdzŐǯ¢ ©ƢǫƢǟ¤ÀȂǻƢǠȇ Ö


ǴȆ‫ٰڈ‬ǻʏࢭ ȳɜɘɦȄ


ƨǸǐƦƥȆǟȂdz¦ǪǴƻ¦ ȄǴǟǮƬǼȇƾŭÀȂƥǂǰdz¦ śLjŢ¼ǂǗÂƨƠȈƦdz¦ Ǯdz¯ Ï

©ƢƷƢLjŭ¦ǂȇȂǘƫ±DŽǟ Ƕǟ®¦ÂƨȈȀȈǧŗdz¦ÂƨȈǓʮǂdz¦ ©ƢǠǸƬůƲƬǼƫȆȀǧžǮdz¯ ¨®ƢǠLJÂƨƸǏǂưǯ¢ÂÃȂǫ¢ ƨǷȐLJÂ

½ŗnjǷ¿¦ƾƼƬLJ¦¿Ƣǜǻ¢ƾƥ¦ ƪǻŗǻȍ¦ȄǴǟ¨°ƢȈLjǴdz Ŀ¢ƨǯǂnjdz¦Dzƻ¦®¦ ƢȀȈdz¤DzǐƫȏŖdz¦ǪǗƢǼŭ¦ ƨǷƢǠdz¦©ȐǏ¦Ȃŭ¦ Î

Ð

ƨȈǧƢǨNjǺǟÅʬȂŞ¿ƾǫ ǮǠǸƬůDzƻ¦®©ƢǷȂǴǠŭ¦ ƨȈǧƢǨnjdz¦ǺǷƾȇDŽŭ¦ǞƴNj ƢđȆǟȂdz¦Ǟǧ°¦Â

ƨǷƢǠdz¦©ȐǏ¦Ȃŭ¦¿ƾƼƬLJ¦ DzƟƢLJ¾ƢǰNj¢Â©ƢƳ¦°ƾdz¦Â ƨƠȈƦǴdzƨǬȇƾǐdz¦DzǬǼdz¦ Ãǂƻȋ¦

Ò

Ñ

ƨǔǨƼǼǷÅƢǷȂLJ°¿ƾǫ ĿƨǷƢǠdz¦©ȐǏ¦ȂǸǴdz ©ȐǰnjǷǾƳ¦ȂƫŖdz¦Àƾŭ¦ Ä°Âǂŭ¦¼ƢǼƬƻȏ¦ Ô

ȄǴǟÅƢǔǨƻ¿ƾǫƨǯǂnjǯ ƨƳ¦°® ¦ǂNj¿ȂLJ° ÎÍ 

©ƢǟȂǸůĿǞǸƬƳ¦ ƨǴȈLJȂǯ¨ŚǤǏƨȈǠǸƬů DzƳ¢ǺǷœǿǀdz¦ǦǐǠǴdz ƨǼǷ¡ƨǷƢǟ©ƢƷƢLjǷŚǧȂƫ ¨¢ǂǸǴdzÅƢǏȂǐƻƨƦȇǂǫ ǺLjdz¦°ƢƦǯ¾ƢǨǗȋ¦Â ©ƢƳƢȈƬƷȏ¦§ƢƸǏ¢Â ƨǏƢŬ¦ Ö

ń¤¾ȂǏȂdz¦¾ÂƢƷ ƲǷ®¦ƨǷÂǂƄ¦ǪǗƢǼŭ¦ ©ƢǬƦǗǺǷ´ƢƼNjȋ¦ ǶȀǯǂNj¢ÂƨǨǴƬű©ƢȈǫǂǟ °¦ǂǬdz¦ƨǟƢǼǏ©ƢȈǴǸǟĿ Ǯdz¯ĿƢŠǶđƨǬǴǠƬŭ¦ ªȂǴƬdz¦ÂƨȈnjȈǠŭ¦Ƕ٦ȂƷ¢ Ǯdz¯Śǣ Ó

ǾȇȂƬŢƢǷȄǴǟ»ǂǠƫ ĿƢǬƯª¦ǂƫǺǷǮƬǼȇƾǷ Ǟǫ¦ȂǷ°±ƨȈǠȈƦǗ±ȂǼǯ Â É  ƢǬdzȍƢȀǼǟǂnjǻ¦Âª¦ŗdz¦ ƢȀȈǴǟ Ȃǔdz¦

Õ


ɪʊɨɜȕɼ ȔɼȆɘȗɦȄ ɪȫȯɦȄʏࢭ


džƥȐŭʪǚǨƬŢȏ Ŗdz¦Ãǂƻȋ¦©ƢǬǴǠƬŭ¦¢ Ƣđ¸ŐƫƢȀǴǸǠƬLjƫȏ

ƨȈLJ¦°®©ƢǟȂǸůƤƫ° ¨ƾƷ¦ÂƨǟƢLJ ƢǔǬdz ƞǗƢnjdz¦ȄǴǟÅƢȈǟȂƦLJ¢ Ŀ¢©¦ŚƸƦdz¦ȄǴǟ¢ ƨǷƢǸǬdz¦ǞǸŪ©ƢǿDŽǼƬŭ¦ ªȂǴƫ¾ȂƷȆǟȂdz¦Ǟǧǂdz ǽƢȈŭ¦

Î

ƨǴƯƢǸƬǷŚǣǾǯ¦ȂǨdz¦ŗNj¦ ǞǼǏ¦ÂƲǔǼdz¦ƨǬƟƢǧDzǰnjdz¦ ƢȀǼǷǂƟƢǐǟ

Ï

Ð

ǂȇÂƾƬdz¦ƾǟ¢ Ƕǟ®¦ÂÅƢȈǴŰÅƢǷƢǠǗ¾ÂƢǼƫ ƨdz®ƢǠdz¦¨°ƢƴƬdz¦©ƢȈǠŦ ƨǷDŽƬǴŭ¦©Ƣǯǂnjdz¦ǶǟƾƫŖdz¦ ƨdz®ƢǠdz¦¨°ƢƴƬdz¦¥®ƢƦŠ ƢȀǠƴNjÂ

Õ

°ȂƦǼǐdz¦ ƢǷǺǷ§ǂNj¦ ÅƢǨȈǜǻÀƢǯƢŭƢǗ ÎÍ 

Ò

ƨǷ¦ƾƬLjǷ©ƢƴƬǼǷŗNj¦ ©ƢȈǻÂŗǰdzȍ¦Ǯdz¯ĿƢŠ ©ƢǿȂƦǷƢnjdz¦Â§ƢǠdzȋ¦Â ®¦ȂǷÂƨȇǂƸƦdz¦ƨǸǠǗȋ¦Â ƨȇȂǔǠdz¦ƨdzƢǬƦdz¦

Ô

ǶǟƢǘǷ¼®ƢǼǧǞǷ½°Ƣnjƫ ƨȇǀǣȌdzǞȇǂLjdz¦ǞǸƴǴdz ȄǷŗLJƪǻƢǯŖdz¦ƨȈǬƦƬŭ¦ ©ƢȈǠǸŪ¦ń¤ƢȀŻƾǬƫ ƨȇŚŬ¦ Ñ

¿ƢǸƸƬLJȏ¦¨ƾǷDzǴǫ ǽǂƻ¡ń¤džǘǤŭ¦ȌŤȏ ¶ǂǨŭ¦¿¦ƾƼƬLJȏ¦ǶȀLjȇ ǽƢȈǷ©ƢǷ±¢ĿǽƢȈǸǴdz ƨȈŭƢǟ

Ó

ǽƢȈŭƢǧŦ®°ʪÅƢǷƢŧǀƻ ǂưǯ¢ƨǫƢǗǮǴȀƬLjƫƨƠǧ¦ƾdz¦ Ö


ʅȯɀȗɦȄɼ ‫ف‬؈ɔȗɦ ȪȆɳ‫ם‬Ȅ


ǺǷÅʮȂǔǟŦ®ƢũǞǼǏ¦ ¿ƢǠǘdz¦©Ȑǔǧ Î

¨®ƢǟȍƨǴƥƢǬdz¦²ƢȈǯȋ¦ƾǟ¢ ǂƴƬŭ¦ń¤¾ƢǸǠƬLJȏ¦

¨°ƢȈLjǴdzǮƫ®ƢȈǫǺǷDzǴǫ Ƥǯ°¦¢ǮȈǷƾǫȄǴǟNJǷ¦ ©ȐǏ¦Ȃŭ¦¢ƨƳ¦°ƾdz¦ ƨǯŗnjǷ¨°ƢȈLJ¢ƨǷƢǠdz¦

Ð

Ï

ƨǻƢȈǏȄǴǟǚǧƢƷ ¨ƾȈƳ¨°ƢȈLjdzƢǧǮƫ°ƢȈLJ ¨ǂş¢ƢȀǼǟƮǠƦǼƫƨǻƢȈǐdz¦ Dzǫ¢ƨǷƢLJ

©ƢǟƢLJĿ¨®ƢȈǬdz¦ƤǼš ƨȇ°Âǂŭ¦¨Â°ǀdz¦

Ó

Ò

±ƢǨǴƬdz¦¨DŽȀƳ¢džƦǬǷDzǐǧ¦ ©ƢȈǻÂŗǰdzȍ¦ÂǂƫȂȈƦǸǰdz¦Â ¿ƾǟ ƢǼƯ¢Ãǂƻȋ¦ ƢŮƢǸǠƬLJ¦

ǮƬǯǂNj¢ǮƬLJ°ƾǷǶǜǻ ¨ƾȇƾƳ°ƢƴNj¢ƨǟ¦°DŽdz °ƢƴNjȋ¦ƲƬǼƫ¿ƢǟDzǯ ňʬǀƻϦÂśƴLjǯȋ¦ ÀȂƥǂǰdz¦ƾȈLjǯ¢

Õ

Ñ

Ô

ǖǬǧǾƳƢƬŢƢǷŗNj¦ ¿ƢǠǘdz¦ǺǷ×ÒÍÏÍ ĿȆȀƬǼȇǾȇŗnjǻÄǀdz¦ ©ʮƢǨǼdz¦©ƢƦǰǷ ÎÍ 

ǦȈǨƴƬdz¦Ŀ ¦Ȃ٦DzǸǠƬLJ¦ ǦšǮLjƥȐǷ½ǂǠNj¸® ƨȈǠȈƦǗ¨°Ȃǐƥ

¼ǂǗ¾ȂƷȆǟȂdz¦ǂnjǻ¦ ȆŭƢǠdz¦°¦ŗƷȏ¦»ƢǬȇ¤ Ö


Վ Ȇɐɭ


©ƢǬǴǠƬŭ¦ÂȆǴū¦ŗnjƫȏ ǺǷƨǟȂǼǐŭ¦Ãǂƻȋ¦ »¦ƾǏ¢¢ƨȈǻƢƳǂǷ§ƢǠNj ǂƻ¡DzǰNjÄ¢ǺǷ¢ƨȇǂŞ ƨȇǂƸƦdz¦¨ƢȈū¦¾ƢǰNj¢ǺǷ Ï

Î

ÅƢǷƢǠǗ¾ÂƢǼƫ ÅƢǷ¦ƾƬLjǷÅƢȈǴŰ

Ŗdz¦©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦Ƕǟ®¦ ©ƢǘȈƄ¦ȆǸŢ Ñ

ĿǶǜƬǼŭ¦¸ȂǘƬdz¦¢ƾƥ¦ ǦȈǜǼƬdzƨȈǠǸƬů©ƢǟȂǸů ǺǷƞǗƢnjdz¦ǺǷ DŽƳ NJȈǠƫƪǼǯ¦¯¤©ʮƢǨǼdz¦ ǾǼǷ§ǂǬdzʪ

Ð

ƨȈǰȈƬLJȐƥ©ƢƴƬǼǷ¿ƾƼƬLJ¦ ©ƢƴƬǼŭ¦ǽǀǿǶǜǠǸǧžDzǫ¢ ń¤»Ƣǘŭ¦ƢđȆȀƬǼȇ ©ȂǷĿƨƦƦLjƬǷ©ƢǘȈƄ¦ ƨȇǂƸƦdz¦©ʭ¦ȂȈū¦ Ò

ǽƢȈŭ¦½Ƣũ¢ ¦ǂNjƤǼš ƢǿƾȈǏǶƬȇŖdz¦ƨūƢŭ¦ µȂƷǺȇDŽƬdzƨȈnjƷÂƨǬȇǂǘƥ ǮǯƢũ¢

ƨǘnjǻȋ¦ȄǴǟ»ǂǠƫ ǪȇǂǗǺǟ©ƢǘȈƄʪƨǏƢŬ¦ ƨȈǸȈǴǠƬdz¦´¦ǂǫȋ¦¨ƾǿƢnjǷ ƨȈǬƟʬȂdz¦¿Ȑǧȋ¦Â

Õ

Ô

ƨȈȀȈǧǂƫƨǘnjǻ¢²°ƢǷ §°¦ȂǬdz¦§Ȃǯ°DzưǷƨdzÂƚLjǷ ȆƸǘLjdz¦džǘǤdz¦ÂƾȈǐdz¦Â ½ʮƢǰdz¦§°¦Ȃǫ§Ȃǯ°Â

ƨȈǻȂƥǂǰdz¦ǮƬǸǐƥDzǴǫ ȆŭƢǠdz¦°¦ŗƷȏ¦DzǴǬƬdz ƪިƢȈū¦ȄǴǟǂƯƚȇÄǀdz¦  Ƣŭ¦

ÎÍ

Ö



ƨǏƢŬ¦śǻ¦ȂǬdz¦¿ŗƷ¦ ǂƟƢŪ¦ƾȈǐdzʪ Ó


ɑʊɈȗȸɲ


ƨȈũȂŭ¦DzȈǏƢƄ¦¾ÂƢǼƫ ǶǠǘdz¦ĿDzǔǧ¢ȆȀǧ ƨƠȈƦǴdzƨǬȇƾǏÂǎƻ°¢Â Ï

©¦ƾȈƦŭ¦¿¦ƾƼƬLJ¦ƤǼš Ƣǿ°ƢLjǷȆȀƬǼȇŖdz¦ƨȇǂnjū¦ ƢĔȋ©¦ŚƸƦdz¦Â°ƢĔȋ¦Ŀ ƨȇŐdz¦¨ƢȈƸǴdz¨°ƢǓ Î

ƨǠǼǐǷ©ƢƴƬǼǷŗnjƫȏ ǂǘŬʪ¨®ƾȀǷ©ƢǼƟƢǯǺǷ µ¦ǂǬǻȏ¦¢

©ƢǟÂǂnjǷDzȇȂŤĿƾǟƢLJ ȆǓ¦°ȋ¦¬ȐǐƬLJ¦

Ñ

Ð

DzǸǠƬLjŭ¦¼°Ȃdz¦ǂȇÂƾƫƾǟ¢ ǾdzƢǸǠƬLJ¦ǺǷǎǴţ ǺǰǷ¢¦¯¤DzǷƢǰdzʪ ǂƳƢƬŭ¦ń¤§Ƣǿǀdz¦ƾǼǟ ©¦°¦ǂǫǀţ¦¼¦ȂLJȋ¦¢ ƨȈƠȈƦdz¦ƨȈƷƢǼdz¦ǺǷ¨ƾȈǨǷ ƤǯȂǰdz¦ŁƢǐdz

Ò

«ƢƬǻƜǧDzǫ¢ÅƢǷȂū¾ÂƢǼƫ DzƟƢǿǂƯ¢ǾdzǾǠȇ±Ȃƫ¿ȂƸǴdz¦ ©¦±Ƣǣ©ʬƢǠƦǻ¦ȄǴǟ Ä°¦ǂū¦²ƢƦƬƷȏ¦ Ô

Ó

®ƢǠǷ©ƢƴƬǼǷŗNj¦ ƢǿǂȇÂƾƫ ÎÍ 

ƨǟ¦°DŽdz¦Ŀ½°ƢNj ƨȈǴƄ¦ Ö

ÄȂǔǠdz¦½®ƢũǞǼǏ¦ ±DŽǠȇ¦ǀȀǧ´ƢŬ¦ ƤǐźÂÄȂȈū¦¸ȂǼƬdz¦ ń¤ƨƳƢū¦DzǴǬȇÂƨƠȈƦdz¦ ƨȈǟ¦°DŽdz¦©ƢƦǐƼŭ¦

Õ


‫ف‬؈ʊɔȖ


¯Ƣţ¦©ƢȈǴǸǟĿ½°ƢNj ƨǠǴǘǷƨǬȇǂǘƥǮdzDŽǼŠ°¦ǂǬdz¦

Ê¢ Ŀ©ȂǏÂǮƫȂǏǞ ũË Ë ½ƾǴƥĿ©ʪƢƼƬǻȏ¦

Ï

Î

DzǯĿƨǸȈǬdz¦ǦnjƬǯ¦ °Ƣǰǧ¢ÂĿ¦ǂǤŻ®ǞǸƬů DzǸnjȇǞǸƬĐ©¦ƾǬƬǠǷ ǞȈǸŪ¦

¦¯¤¨¢ǂŭ¦ǽƢšǦǼǠdz¦Ǧǫ¢ ǾǼǟǢǴƥƘǧǮdz¯©ƾǿƢNj

Ñ

Ð

Ŀ©¦°¦ǂǬdz¦ǞǷDzǟƢǨƫ ƨȈǸǴLjdz¦ȄǴǟǚǧƢƷ½ƾǴƥ ǾƥǺǷƚƫƢŭ½ƾȈȇϦƾǼǟ

ƨŭƢLjǷƨƠȈƥǪǴƻ¦ ǮdzDŽǼǷĿ

Ó

ǞǸƬЦª¦ƾƷ¢ǦǔƬLJ¦ Ƣđ½°ƢNj¢ȆǴƄ¦ ĿǺȇǂƻȉ¦ȄǴǟ»ǂǠƬǴdz ÀȂǰȇƾǫƨƦLJƢǼǷ©ƢƠȈƥ ƨȈǓʮ°ª¦ƾƷ¢ĿǮdz¯  ¦ȂNj©ȐǨƷĿ¢ ©ʭƢƳǂȀŠ¢ Ǯdz¯Śǣ ÎÍ 

Ò

ǞǼǏ¦¢ƤƬǯ¦¢¢ǂǫ¦ ¿ȐLjdz¦ƾȇƚȇȂȇƾȈǧ Ô

ƨǷÂƢǬŭ¦©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦Ŀ¸Ȃǘƫ ƨȈǟȂƬdz¦ƲǷ¦ǂƥÂǦǼǠǴdz

DzǯƪǫȂdz¦ǒǠƥǒǫ¦ ÅƢȈǴǷŚǰǨƬǴdz Âƾđ¸ȂƦLJ¢ ĿƢđƤǣǂƫŖdz¦ƨǬȇǂǘdz¦Ŀ Ǻȇǂƻȉ¦ǞǷDzǏ¦ȂƬdz¦

Ö

Õ


ɯɦȆɐɦȄ


ÀƢǔƬƷȏ²°¦ƾŭ¦ǞƴNj «°ƢƻȆǟƢǸŪ¦DzǸǠdz¦ ĿƨȈLJ¦°ƾdz¦¾ȂǐǨdz¦ ƨȈǴƄ¦©Ƣǯǂnjdz¦Â©ƢǠǸƬЦ Î

ÀÂƢǠƬdz¦ǾƳ¢ǺǟƮަ ƨȇȂǫ©Ƣǯ¦ǂNjƞnjǻ¢Â ½°ƢNjśŷƢLjŭ¦¨®ƾǠƬǷ ƢȈƳȂdzȂǼǰƬdz¦Â¨ŐŬ¦ÂƨǧǂǠŭ¦ ƨȈdzƢŭ¦®°¦Ȃŭ¦Â

ŘǠǷ¾ƢǨǗȌdzƶǓ ƨǓʮǂdz¦¾ȐƻǺǷƨǯ°Ƣnjŭ¦ ƨȈǠǸƬЦƨȈdzÂƚLjŭ¦ǞƴNj ©ƢǟÂǂnjŭ¦ǽƢš©ƢǯǂnjǴdz ƨǷ¦ƾƬLjŭ¦ƨȈǸǼƬdzʪƨǘƦƫǂŭ¦ ƨȈǷƢǼdz¦À¦ƾǴƦdz¦Ŀ

Ð

Ï

Ŗdz¦©ƢLjLJƚŭ¦ǞǷÀÂƢǠƫ ƤǻƢƳĿDzȇȂŤń¤ƨƳƢŞ ǾȈǧDŽȈǸƬƫ Ò

Ñ

Őǟ©Ƣǯ¦ǂnjdz¦¨ȂǫǂȀǛ¢ ǎǐǫ¾ȂƷ©ƢȈǬƟʬ ¬ƢƴǼdz¦

ǺǷ©ƢLjLJƚǷǞǷÀÂƢǠƫ ½°ƢnjƫƨǨǴƬűÀ¦ƾǴƥ Ŗdz¦ƢȀLjǨǻ»¦ƾǿȋ¦ Ǯȇƾdz

Ô

Ó

ĿȆǟƢǸŪ¦DzǸǠdz¦²°ƢǷ śƥƨǘnjǻȋ¦ǶLjǫ¾DŽǼŭ¦ ®¦ǂǧ¢ǞǷÂƨǴƟƢǠdz¦®¦ǂǧ¢ǞȈŦ ƨǴƟƢǠdz¦«°ƢƻǺǷ

½°ƢNjÀȂȈǼǬƬdz¦ ¦ŐŬ¦ ń¤«ƢƬŢŖdz¦©ƢǟÂǂnjŭʪ À¦ƾǴƦdzʪƨȈƳȂdzȂǼǰƫ©¦°ƢȀǷ ƨȈǷƢǼdz¦

ÅƢǟƾƦǷÂŦ®ƾŰÂÅƢƸǓ¦ÂǺǯ Ǯǧ¦ƾǿ¢ǎźƢǸȈǧ ƨȈǠǸƬЦ

ÎÍ

Ö

Õ




#< 0+&<1 <



2-%<3 < < <





5%0 %< <$(<%<



 , <*<< 9 %< "<



<1&.< 7<



<)< 4&<



 

6< 8<



  < &<

'<<





 :!/;<



   



   







ȓɭȄȯȗȸ‫ם‬ȄȓʊɮɳȗɦȄɖȄȯɸǷɤɽȧ ǶººƬȇƢººǷÀȋƤººǯȂǰdz¦ƢººǼdzǾººǷƾǬȇƢººǷ°¦ƾººǬǷƨdzȂȀººLjƥȄººLjǼǻƾººǫDzººȈŦÀƢǰººǷȂººǿƢººǼƦǯȂǯÀ¤ ¦¯¤­ƢººǼŭ¦ŚººǤƫń¤ǂººǬǨdz¦ń¤Dzººƻƾdz¦©ÂƢººǨƫǺººǷÅƢº ȈǷȂȇƢººȀȈǻƢǠǻŖººdz¦ƤººǟƢǐŭ¦Ȃººǿ°¦ǂǸƬººLJʪǾººƥʭŚººǯǀƫ ƤƦººLJȂººǿ¦ǀººǿÀ¤Ŧ ȂººLJ°ȂººǷȋ¦®¦®DŽƬººLjǧƢººǿŚȈǤƫ¢ƢººȀǠǼǷ¢ƤººǟƢǐŭ¦ǽǀººǿ ƢººĔȍ ȆººNjDzººǸǟǶººƬȇŃ ¨ƾººƸƬŭ¦ǶººǷȋ¦®ȂººƳ ¬ƢººƴǼdz¦ǺººǷǾººȈǧǺººǰǸƬȈdz®ǂººǧDzǰººdzÅƢǫ¦ǂºNj¤ǂººưǯ¢DzƦǬƬººLjǷǪººǴƻȂººǿǾººǴƳ¢ǺººǷDzººǓƢǼǻƢººǷDzǰººǧ ǞººǓÂÂƤººǯȂǰdz¦ĿÂǺººǯƢǷȋ¦Â²ƢººǼdz¦ÃƾººdzƾººȈƳȂººǿƢººǷDzǯȄººǴǟ·ƢººǨū¦ƾººȇǂǻǺººŴǾººƫƢȈǻƢǰǷ¤ǪººȈǬŢ ƨººǘƻ¦ÂDŽººȀƳÂÏÍÎÒ¿Ƣººǟ ĿŃƢººǠdz¦¨®Ƣººǫ ǞººǸƬƳ¦ƤƦººLjdz¦¦ǀººŮ ƢººǼǷDzººǷȋ¦ƤǴººLjƫŖººdz¦ʮƢººǔǬǴdzƨººȇƢĔ ƨǷ¦ƾƬººLjŭ¦ƨººȈǸǼƬdz¦ǪººȈǬŢDzººƳ¢ǺººǷÅƢº ǧƾǿÎÔǺººǷƨººǟȂǸůȆººǿÂÏÍÐÍ¿Ƣººǟ


Ŗººdz¦©¦ ¦ǂº ƳȍƢǧŚººȈǤƬdz¦ǺººǷŦ DŽººƳƢººǼǻȂǯǺººǟśdzÂƚººLjǷÅƢº ǠȈŦƢººǼǻȋƢººǼǷ®ǂººǧDzǯǶººȀȇ¦ǀººǿ ǺººǷ¨ƢººȈū¦ĿƨººƠǧƢǰƬǷÂƨººdz®Ƣǟ´ǂººǧÀȂǬƸƬººLjȇƢººǼǴưǷǶººǿÂƢººǼdzƢǨǗ¢DzƦǬƬººLjǷȄººǴǟǂººƯƚƫ¿ȂººȈdz¦ƢººǿǀƼƬǻ ǺººǷÅƢƠȈººNj©ȂººǨƫȏÂƨººȈŭƢǠdzʪǶººLjƬƫƢººĔȋƨǠººLJ¦Â¼Ƣººǧ¡ń¤ÂŦƾººȈǠƥǪººȈǴƸƬdz¦ƢººǼǼǰŻ»¦ƾººǿȋ¦ǽǀººǿ¾Ȑººƻ ¸ȂººŪ¦ÂǂººǬǨdz¦śººƥDzººǐǨdz¦ƢººǼǼǰŻȐººǧǖººƥ¦ǂƫǺººǷ»¦ƾººǿȋ¦ǽǀººǿǾººƥǦººǐƬƫƢººǷ½¦°®¤ÅƢºǔȇ¢ÀƢǰººŠƨººȈŷȋ¦ ƤººŸŖººdz¦©ƢººƳƢȈƬƷȏ¦ǶººȀǧǺººǷ§ŗǬǼººLjǧǮººdz¯½¦°®¤ƢǼǠǘƬººLJ¦¦¯¤¦ǀººǰǿ¨¢ǂº ŭ¦śººǰŤÂǶººȈǴǠƬdz¦¢ ǾººƸǼǷƢººǷȄººǴǟƤººǯȂǰdz¦ń¤DzººȈǸŪ¦®ǂººdzƪººǫȂdz¦ÀƢººƷƾººǬdzÅƢºǧƾǿÎÔººdz¦ǪººȈǬŢǺººǷ§ŗººǬǻËĽǺººǷƢººǿŚǧȂƫ ǦººǴǰǷŚººǣÂǖȈººLjƥǂººǷȋ¦ÂƢººǼdz ǾººȈǧǶººLjƬȇ°ƢººLjǷȄººǴǟ·ƢººǨƸǴdzƢººǿ¯Ƣţ¦ǮººǼǰŻŖººdz¦ƨǘȈººLjƦdz¦©¦ ¦ǂºƳȍ¦ǺººǷÅƢºǔǠƥǦººnjƬǯ¦ °Ƣººǿ®±ȏʪƤººǯȂǰdz¦

ǶȈǿƢǨŭ¦ŚȈǤƫ¸ÂǂnjǷ«ƢƬǻ¤ǺǷ


ƨǸƟƢǫȆǿƨǷ¦ƾƬLjŭ¦ƨȈǸǼƬdz¦»¦ƾǿ¢ ǶLjƬȇƤǯȂǯDzƳ¢ǺǷƨȈǻƢLjǻ¤¿ƢȀǷ ǪȇǂǗƨǘȇǂƻȆǿƨǷ¦ƾƬLJȏʪ Dzǔǧ¢DzƦǬƬLjŭƨƸǓ¦Â

Peace, Rights and Well-Being

ȒȯȨȗ‫ם‬ȄɯɭֿȄȑȗɡɭ əʊɳȡʏࡩ

Profile for Perception Change Project (PCP)

170 Daily actions to transform our world (Arabic)  

170 Daily actions to transform our world (Arabic)  

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded