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LEVERAGING INVESTMENTS from the 2008 BEIJING OLYMPICS


STUDIO OVERVIEW Staging an Olympics can play many roles in informing a city’s long-range development strategy. While some cities like London (2012) and Sydney (2000) have used the event as an opportunity to regenerate long-targeted redevelopment sites and ultimately reinforce their established places among top-tier destinations, other cities like Beijing, China (2008) and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2016) use the prestige that come with hosting the world’s most-watched and most costly sporting event to formally announce their arrival on the world stage. This volume is part of a Spring 2013 interdisciplinary City Planning studio at the University of Pennsylvania that examined the opportunities to leverage Olympics investments for on-going development in two cities, Beijing and Rio de Janeiro, both announcing themselves as globally competitive economies. Situated in the midst of parallel stages of development, Beijing and Rio de Janeiro are both in the elite BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) group of emerging economies, which together symbolize a shift in economic power toward the developing world. Beijing 2008 and Rio 2016 both represent enormous potential for these cities to leverage the influx of capital, real estate and transit investments that occur alongside the Olympic Games to catalyze positive post-Olympic growth. This volume examines the challenges and opportunities in Beijing and presents a comprehensive plan for the future.


LEVERAGING INVESTMENTS from the 2008 Beijing Olympics


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank our generous hosts during our March 2013 trip to Beijing. Thank you first to the staff of the Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design for listening to our ideas and for sharing their plans for the Olympic Green with us. Students and faculty at Tsinghua and Peking Universities were immensely helpful in giving us a local’s understanding of the city, and a sense of the legacy of the Olympic Games for Beijing. Thank you to the students who shared their insights with us and challenged our project -- you helped to make it stronger. We especially thank the faculty members who arranged for our visits to Tsinghua and Peking, and who shared their own research and knowledge with us: Bin Qi, Director, Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tsinghua University. Sisi Liang, Tsinghua University. Zhifang Wang, Associate Professor, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Peking University. Kongjian Yu, Professor and Dean, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Peking University, Visiting Professor, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, President and Principal Designer, Turenscape. Lu Bin, Head and Professor, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Peking University. Thank you also to Mr. Matt Chu, Director of Office Operations and Landscape Practice, AECOM Beijing office for sharing your firm’s recent projects with us. Finally, we would like to thank our wonderful studio instructors for their guidance throughout this project. You have helped us come to a nuanced understanding of the role that megaevents play in the transformation of cities.

Stefan Al, Associate Professor of Urban Design Evan Rose, Professor of Practice Annie Bidgood Mercedes Ha Xinlin Huang Rachel Watson Leah Whiteside Alan Baker Yu Cory Zimmerman Hasan Zuhairy LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS Department of City Planning, Spring 2013


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Executive Summary

1

Olympic Investments

13

Planning Context

35

Site Selection

39

Existing Conditions

49

Vision

53 75 95 111

Proposals Ecological Infrastructure Reactivating Olympic Venues Green Research District Urban Design + Public Realm

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Conclusion


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As highlighted in Volume I of this series, the Olympic Games create a lasting legacy for the host city that goes far beyond the physical investments made for the Games. The Beijing Olympic Games functioned as an announcement of China onto the world stage as a modern, competitive economy. The level of spending for the 2008 Games was the highest in the modern history of the Olympics, and is unlikely to be surpassed in the near future. In addition to iconic stadiums that, as relics of China’s entrance onto the world stage, retain monumental cultural significance, Beijing will benefit from longterm investments in transportation infrastructure and environmental measures that have and continue to impact the form of the city.

scarcity, lack of open space, and a poor public realm – and propose a series of interventions that leverage Beijing’s investments in water infrastructure, green spaces, transportation, and the iconic Olympic venues to combat these issues, creating a greener, healthier place for Beijing’s 20 million residents. We intend these interventions to be demonstrations of innovative ecological systems and principles that, with their success in addressing Beijing’s most pressing issues, inspire replication across the city, and even across the country, ultimately changing the national response to quality of life issues. Harnessing Beijing’s Olympic investments, we can achieve this goal.

In this volume, we examine Beijing’s Olympic investments within the context of the city’s rapid population, physical, and economic growth. We identify four major issues – air pollution, water

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概况 诚如卷一所说,奥运会为主办城市带来的深远 影响不仅限于物质层面。北京奥运会在某种意义 上宣告了一个飞速发展、充满活力的当代中国正 以更为积极、自信的姿态登上世界舞台。与之相 应的,北京奥运会总投资额之高为现代奥运会之 最,并且在短期内难以被超越。巨大的开支除用 于建设具有重大象征意义的奥运场馆外,公共交 通设施与环境改善工程作为长期投资,将对北京 未来发展产生更为深远而积极的影响。

及公共空间活动欠佳。基于上述问题,我们提出 一系列措施,希望借助北京奥运投资,为市民 创造更为绿色、环保的公共空间, 并以此为范 例将生态环境创新及相关技术推广至全市乃至全 国,最终达到整体提高居民生活质量的目标。

在本卷中,我们将结合北京人口、空间、及经济 增长,评估北京奥运投资。通过研究与实地考 察,我们确定了当前北京所面临的四大城市问 题:空气污染、水资源匮乏、开放空间不足、以

Introduction

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OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS

奥运投资


By some estimates, Beijing spent more than $40 billion (2012 USD) on preparations for and operation of the 2008 Olympic Games. This is the highest spending total in the history of the modern Olympics. Athens, the previous host, spent just $14 billion, while London in 2012 spent $17.4 billion. In per capita figures, though, Beijing spent just $30 per person, while Athens spent $1,300 and London $275 per capita. As a share of GDP, Beijing’s costs were lower even than London’s. Thus while Beijing’s

costs appear to be exorbitant, when spread across the population the figure seems far more reasonable. Yet the question of whether Beijing’s investments were worthwhile remains, especially considering the Games, as an announcement of China to the world stage, should provide some benefits to the country as a whole. Proportionally, Beijing’s largest Olympic investment was in the expansion of the subway network.

2008

2001

2008北京奥运会总投资超过400亿美元 (根据 2012年人民币对美元汇率换算), 创下现代奥运 会投资金额最高纪录。相形之下,2004雅典奥运 会投资140亿美元,2012 伦敦奥运会投资174亿 美元,均远低于北京奥运。 人们不禁要问,北京奥运投资额是否过高?我们 认为,如果参考主办城市人口、经济总量,北京 奥运会投资金额并未超出合理范围。以最近三届 奥运会为例,从人均投资额看,北京市奥运投资

2

额为人均30美元,雅典与伦敦则分别达到人均 1300美元和人均275美元。以城市GDP衡量,北京 奥运投资金额占全市GDP比重低于伦敦,大大低 于雅典。当然在评估北京奥运投资成功与否时, 投资额度是否合理并非唯一标准。特别是考虑到 北京奥运包含在世界面前彰显中国崛起的重大意 义,奥运投资是否对北京乃至中国未来的发展有 所裨益实为更重要的议题。因此我们对北京奥运 投资具体流向进行了考察。

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


This $10 billion investment remains the strongest physical legacy of the Games, as the initial expansion spurred further development of the network. From an initial two lines built in the late 1970s, Beijing added five new lines in time for the 2008 Games, immediately expanding the capacity of the network, and a further seven lines were added by 2012. Construction is underway on five new lines for 2016, and the city even has plans for expansions that are expected to be complete by

2012

2020. To encourage ridership on the expanded subway network, in 2008 Beijing decreased the cost of riding the subway to only 2 yuan, a price affordable to its largely low-income population, which significantly increased ridership levels following the Games.

2016 (under construction)

在北京奥运投资各项构成中, 其中地铁网络的 延伸与扩展花费100亿美元,为北京奥运的最大 支出项。而北京地铁以奥运为契机,在后奥运时 代持续扩张,已成为北京奥运最大的物质遗产。 北京地铁得以在短时间内飞速发展、完善,与奥 运会的申办、筹备、传承有密切关系。20世纪70 年代末北京仅有两条地铁线;为筹备2008奥运 会,新增5条地铁线路;而截止到2012年,另外 7条地铁线路业已完成。预计到2016年,又有五 条新的地铁线路将完工,而北京市地铁网络发展

0

20km

已规划至2020年。为鼓励市民更多使用地铁出 行,2008年北京市将地铁票价统一将至2元,取 得巨大成效。

Olympic Investments

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Beijing’s direct investments for the Olympics were concentrated on the Olympic Park, although a number of other venues were scattered throughout the city. Approximately half of the venues were existing structures that were renovated to host the Games, and the other half were purpose-built.

0

地铁投资之外,场馆建设也占北京奥运总投资的 较大比重。除部分场馆分散于全市不同区域,北 京奥运会主要场馆均集中于奥林匹克公园,其中 约一半为新建,包括为外界熟知的鸟巢、水立 方,另有一半承袭亚运会等之前其他赛事场地, 在其基础上进行翻新。

10km

Locational map of Olympic venues off of the Olympic Green

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At the northern end of the Olympic Park is Forest Park, Beijing’s largest public park. This forms they keystone of Beijing’s planned Greenbelt, a project which has not come to fruition since its inception in 1993. Due to the social and political system of favors in which a developer can be rewarded with a parcel even if it is within the Greenbelt, it has been impossible to preserve the open spaces required to implement the Greenbelt as planned.

Beijing’s planned Greenbelt

Olympic Investments

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Most importantly, Forest Park represents not only an investment in public open space, but also in attempting to provide green solutions to some of the city’s largest environmental issues of air pollution and water scarcity. Forest Park contains a closed-loop water recycling system that, using a series of wetlands and living machines to filter

Collection

stormwater and greywater, returns over 200 million gallons of water to the groundwater supply each year. This is an important step toward reducing Beijing’s water shortage, although it will take continued investments of this scale to truly solve this problem.

Collection

infiltration through perviousthrough surfacespervious surfaces infiltration =50,000 Gallons

Treatment

Tre

wetland greenhouse wetland greenhou

=50,000 Gallons

From Fore Constructed wetland Constructed treats wetland treats gallons of 700,000 gallons of 700,000 reclaimed gallons of reclaimed returned to greywater per day greywater per day 200,000 Gallons200,000 Gallons supply per

700,000 Gallons700,000 Gallons 6

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


北京对于奥林匹克公园的投资除各场馆外还包括 位于奥林匹克公园北端的奥林匹克森林公园。森 林公园作为当前北京最大的公共绿地, 同时也 是北京绿带规划中的重大项目。(遗憾的是,由 于社会经济飞速发展、城市地价高涨, 北京市 于1993年规划的城市绿带系统并未得到真正的落 实。)同时,修建奥林匹克森林公园也是对解决

tment ment eatment

目前北京空气污染、水资源缺乏等一系列环境问 题的一种有益尝试。森林公园内包含一套独立水 处理系统,通过天然湿地、生态污水净化技术对 自然降水、工业废水及生活污水进行过滤, 每 年可补给地下水约80万吨。尽管这一数字相较北 京当前年用水量依然杯水车薪,却是对解决城市 水资源匮乏的重要探索。

Reuse Reuse Reuse Reuse

e use

exhibition courtyard exhibition courtyard exhibition courtyard exhibition courtyard

From Forest Park 200,000 From Forest Park 200,000 m Forest Park 200,000 From Forest Park 200,000 gallons ofwater water naturally gallons of isisnaturally ns of water is naturally gallons of water is naturally returned tothe thethe groundwater to groundwater nedreturned toreturned the groundwater to groundwater supply per year supply per year ly per year supply per year

constructed wetland Olympic Forest Park constructed ininOlympic Forest Park constructed constructed wetland wetland in Olympic wetland Forest in Olympic Park Forest Park

Olympic Investments

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South of Forest Park, the Olympic Green is home to the iconic Bird’s Nest and Water Cube, respectively the national stadium and swimming venues during the Games. The Bird’s Nest continues to have national and local significance, as it represents the country’s coming out onto the world stage.

National Convention Center

National Indoor Stadium

Water Cube / National Aquatics Center

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio

特别地,鸟巢作为2008年奥运会开、闭幕式主场 馆,在奥运会之后依然具有重大的国家及城市象 征意义。


Forest Park

Observation Tower

Science & Technology Museum

Bird’s Nest / National Stadium

Olympic Investments

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While Beijing spent more on the 2008 Games than any other city in the history of the Olympics, the vast majority of its costs were put into longterm investments for the future of the city. While the world remembers the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube as venues representative of Beijing’s Opening Ceremony spectacle, the city’s most significant investments were the creation of a large new public green space, the innovative water recycling system, and the significantly expanded transportation network. When placed in the context of Beijing’s historical form, growth, and the major issues the city faces as a result, these Olympic investments become quite clear leverage points for planning interventions that improve the quality of life for Beijing’s 20 million citizens. The following chapter explores Beijing’s history, growth, and major issues that impact the quality and experience of the city, and sets the stage for our proposed interventions. 综上所述,我们认为虽然北京奥运会斥资巨大, 但主要用于适应城市未来长期发展的基础设施建 设。虽然外界对北京奥运的认知更多来自其盛 大、惊艳的开、闭幕式,华丽、先进的场馆设 施,奥运会为北京城市自身带来的最重大影响却 更多来源于其创造的大面积公共绿地、创新性水 处理设施,以及日益发达的公共交通系统。在之 后章节中,我们将从城市历史文脉与空间结构、 城市发展、及其面临挑战等几个方面,进一步厘 清如何通过对北京奥运遗产的再规划,改善2000 万北京市民的生活品质。

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Olympic Investments

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PLANNING CONTEXT

规划背景 Historical Context Economic and Physical Growth Environmental Issues Social Framework


HISTORICAL CONTEXT

历史

The earliest recorded settlement on the site of Beijing was founded in the 13th century, but it was in the 15th century that Beijing became a major center of the country with the construction of the Forbidden City between 1406 and 1426. The city housed the Imperial household and retinue, and was separated from common people by a great wall that surrounded the complex. To the south of this wall, common people settled and set up markets, forming a physical divide between north and south that is still in evidence in today’s Beijing. The original city was formed around a central north-south axis that ran from the Bell and Drum Towers at the northern end of the city walls, to the Temple of Heaven at the southern end.

关于北京城,最早的历史记载可以追溯到13世 纪。但是直到15世纪,从1406年到1426年的20年 时间里,随着紫禁城的建造和投入使用,北京才 成为真正意义上中国的核心。整座紫禁城宫墙环 绕,与市井民宅相独立。在城墙以外的护城河南 岸,平民百姓建房立业,商铺林立。而这样的以 故宫南端为界限的北京南北划分直至今日仍能看 到痕迹。自那时起,北京城便形成了北起钟、鼓 楼,南至天坛的城市中轴线。

The central axis is an important historical and cultural feature of the city. The Beijing Planning Commission is currently applying to have the axis declared a UNESCO world heritage site, despite the fact that for the most part the axis is not visible either as one moves through the city on the ground, nor in a bird’s eye view. The axis shifts from having a strong presence, as between the Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square, but is laid over with housing and other monuments as one moves further south. Nonetheless, the axis has great symbolic importance for Chinese people and especially for Beijing residents. Outside of the Forbidden City, streets running north to south and east to west create a series of nine quadrants that comprise the traditional gridded form of the city, a form which has expanded outward as the city grew in the centuries following its founding. The large blocks created by this quadrant pattern can be seen throughout the city, and have produced Beijing’s megablock form.

这条中轴线一直以来都是北京重要的历史和文化 特征。正因为其重要的价值和意义,北京城市规 划委员会计划就此申报联合国教科文组织世界文 化遗产。然而事实上,北京的城市中轴线只有在 故宫至天安门广场的这一小块区域还保留着初始 而严谨的规划,其他很大一部分都已被民房和各 类设施、建筑所穿插。人们很难在地面上直观的 辨认出这条中轴线的具体位置,亦很难从俯瞰图 上准确划分其囊括区域。但是这条广义的中轴线 在中国特别是北京人心中的历史和文化地位是无 可替代的 紫禁城外,东西向与南北向的大街形成城市的主 轴,更构筑了北京老城区的九个方格。这种城市 形态在几个世纪的城市发展和扩张当中仍然可以 找到影子。今天北京巨大的城市街区就多少继承 了这种方格网的形态。 离开城市尺度看北京,北京传统的街区的形态是 典型的鱼骨结构。南北向的大街作为“鱼脊骨” 连东西走向的街巷和胡同,构成了密集而规整的 街道网络:从可以容纳大量交通的街道,到稍微 狭窄的人行道和单车道,乃至延伸至民居门前的 胡同,层次分明。而胡同所围绕的四合院成为了 最小的城市单元。

Outside of the central core, Beijing’s traditional neighborhoods are organized around the traditional Chinese fishbone structure. A northsouth road forms the central spine of the fishbone and is the largest in a hierarchy of streets, while east-west roads of varying sizes create a series of layers of streets. The fishbone structure creates a densely packed network of housing with a very clear hierarchy of roads ranging from those wide enough to handle vehicular traffic, to smaller pedestrian and vehicle roads, to the smallest and most private pedestrian pathways that bring residents to their doors. This network of roads comprises the hutong, a neighborhood comprised of this hierarchy of streets that surround singlestory courtyard homes.

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Bell and Drum Towers

Forbidden City (blt. 1406-20)

IMPERIAL CITY OUTER CITY

Temple of Heaven

Central Axis

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5km

Top: Beijing was built around the 15th-century Forbidden City, which was the seat of Imperial power until 1912. Bottom: The city is organized around a central north-south axis. The west-east roads that cross the axis form the traditional Chinese fishbone structure. This organizing structure expanded with the city as it grew outward.

Planning Context

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The fishbone structure creates a dense network of streets with a clear hierarchy that takes one from the main, large public streets to increasingly smaller and more private spaces. This system of streets, alleyways, and courtyard houses comprise the hutong.

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ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL GROWTH

Compared to peer cities such as Tokyo, Shanghai, and New York City, Beijing has a similar population to that of New York, but a far higher population density based on its smaller land area, giving it a density close to that of Tokyo. While cities such as Shanghai and New York are expected to maintain their current population levels, Beijing’s population continues to grow due to continued urbanization. GDP, however, is growing faster than population, indicating increased wealth among residents as the economy has grown. GDP is expected to increase by 400% between 2012 and 2015, which will place Beijing close to Tokyo and New York in per capita wealth and potentially in quality of life standards.

经济

比人口增长速度更快的,则是国内生产总值 (GDP)。这一方面也代表了人们的财富水平在 随着国家经济的发展而积累。预计2012年至2015 年间,GDP将增长400%,这也将使北京的人均财 富水平和生活质量提升到和东京、纽约相近的水 平。 与其他超级大城市如东京、上海、纽约相比,北 京的人口数量基本与纽约相持平,然而由于相对 拥挤的空间和较小的城市面积,北京的人口密度 却是大大超过了纽约,几乎达到了东京的水平。 同一时期,上海、纽约这样的城市都在尽力保持 现有的城市人口不再激增,然而北京的人口数量 却一直由于城市化的进程而不断增长。

Planning Context

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Beijing’s rapid and large-scale population growth has fueled the physical expansion of the city. From 1980 to 2012, the population more than doubled from 9.3 to 20.7 million people. This growth was due mainly to inmigration from rural areas as economic reforms took place and the danwei system was dismantled. Under Mao, residents were assigned to a live-and-work compound called

a danwei, a gated factory community in which residents spent their lives. With the dismantling of the system, residents were less restricted in their choice of living place, contributing to large-scale population growth that is still ongoing. Beijing’s population is expected to increase to 26 million by 2020.i

1984

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1991

10km

Population: 9.23 million

北京一直以来人口的迅速增长也加速了城市的发 展与壮大。从1980年到2012年,北京人口数量从 930万增长到2070万,翻了一番还要多。这一惊 人的人口增长主要来源在于农村人口向城市涌 入,更进一步看也和经济体制改革、单位结构重 组有关。在以往的单位体系下,居民往往住在单

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Population: 10.8 million

位大院。住房分配体系的市场化解散了这种系 统。这不仅使得居民对居住和工作场所的选择趋 于多元,也方便了外来人口融入城市,推进了北 京的人口增长。预计到2020年,北京的人口将会 达到2600万。

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Physical growth has radiated outward from the Forbidden Palace in the form of squared ring roads that encircle the center. The original Ming-era city wall was torn down in the 1970s and replaced with the Second Ring Road, which is actually the first in a series of six roads that encompass increasingly large suburban areas. The most recent Sixth Ring Road was completed in 2001, and contributes

to the increasingly sprawling form of the city. The most recent areas of growth have been the northern suburbs between the 5th and 6th Ring Roads, which have mainly been settled by migrants to the city.

2001

2012

Population: 13.6 million

Population: 20.7 million

北京城市面积的扩展是以紫禁城为中心而辐射延 伸的,具体表现在围绕城市的环路不断增多。原 有的明城墙在上世纪70年代被推倒后,在这一基 础上建成二环路。尽管名为二环路,实际上却是 北京众多条环线中的头一条。最新修建的环线是 2001年完工的六环路,而近年来经济发展最快的

区域之一就是位于北五、六环之间的城郊区域, 这一区域也是大量城市新移民的安居之所。

Planning Context

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The expansion of the Ring Road network has also contributed to large-scale traffic congestion. In an effort to decrease the number of cars on the roads and therefore decrease congestion in time for the Olympics, Beijing in 2008 implemented a car registration lottery that allows cars with even and odd numbers to drive only on alternating days of the week. Despite this policy, car registration

continues to increase, with 425,000 new cars added to the roads each year, which converts to 1,250 cars per day. The continued expansion of ring roads is likely adding fuel to these numbers, as residents of suburbs farther and farther outside of the city continue to require access the job centers in the center of the city, which the subway network does not provide.

北京借助不断向外扩展的环路分担着这座超级城 市巨大的交通压力,但城市拥堵依然是北京一直 以来面临的重大问题。2008年奥运年起,为了解 决城市的拥堵问题,北京市政府出台了车辆出行 的限号政策,其施行方法在于依照车辆牌照尾号 的单数与双数之分,依据日期限制特定车辆出 行。尽管这一政策的出台在当时有效抑制了车辆 数量,但是这一措施依然无法赶上北京城市机动 车数量的增长速度。北京的机动车数量在08年以

后依然在以每年42.5万辆的速度飞速增长,换算 到每一天,就有1250辆车的增长数量。而不断扩 展的环路和城市道路网更仿佛为这一增长提供了 动力,特别是随着新移民和购房需求者所居住的 小区距离北京城市核心越来越远,这一群体对便 利交通需求在不断增高,而北京的地铁、公共交 通建设并没有满足这样的需求,因此他们只能转 向购买私家车,造成了北京机动车数量的进一步 增长。

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Beijing’s concentration of economic and job centers contributes to the congestion issue. The Beijing Planning Commission has identified five main economic centers of the city. The main Chaoyang CBD houses the most expensive Class A office space in the city. Finance Street, to the west of the 2nd Ring Road, hosts a concentration of Fortune 500 banking and insurance companies. Zhongguancun Science Park to the northwest of the 4th Ring Road is the center of science and technology research and development, and smallscale manufacturing, and has direct links to Peking and Tsinghua Universities, among others. These three centers are all located on the three most heavily used subway lines. The concentration of major job centers results in high commuting times,

as a majority of residents must travel in to the core city via subway and car to access employment opportunities. High demand for Class A office space in the Chaoyang and Finance Street centers has resulted in quite high office rents and low vacancy rates, indicating room in the office market for a new economic sub-center. Outside of the central city, the airport district on the northeastern outskirts functions as the city’s transportation and logistics, hub. Finally, the Beijing Olympic Park is targeted as the center of a hospitality industry which has not yet been built up. However, real estate analysts identify the Olympic Park as a location of Class A office growth in the future as Chaoyang and Finance Street become increasingly expensive and run out of room for expansion.

另一方面,北京在城市核心过于密集的就业机会 也是造成城市拥堵的重要原因。北京市规划委员 会界定了北京的五大经济核心区。位于朝阳区的 中央商务核心区(CBD)覆盖了绝大多数昂贵的A 级办公区域;西二环的金融街则聚集了众多500 强企业、银行和保险企业;位于西北四环的中关 村科技园区集中了各类科技研发企业,以及大量 小零件加工行业,并且和毗邻的清华、北大构成 了北京的科研核心区域。以上这三大核心区域都 坐落于城市地铁负担最重的地域,每日往返于这 三大北京室内核心区域的私家车、公共客流都极

为巨大,给北京交通带来了沉重负担。在北京东 北方向的北京国际机场作为重要的交通枢纽,成 为了北京第四个重要的交通联接点。而还在开发 建设当中的,以北五环奥林匹克公园为中心的区 域,则被规划为重要的会展、接待与商务区,也 是北京市规划委员会所认定的第五大经济核心 区。尽管分析家指出,随着北京住房、办公空间 的进一步紧张和地价的上涨,相比朝阳CBD,奥 运公园区域的开发将会极为昂贵,也不再有足够 的空间进行大规模的建设。

Beijing’s main economic hub is the Chaoyang CBD, to the east on the map. This area contains high office rents, but even more expensive is Finance Street, to the west of the Forbidden City. Least expensive rents are found in Zhongguancun Science Park, which is the newest economic center of the city.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Air Quality In preparation for the 2008 Games, Beijing made efforts to reduce air pollution so that the air would be healthy enough for athletes to breathe and compete. In the months leading up to the Games, the government shut down industrial plants inside and on the outskirts of the city, curbed car use, and successfully increased the number of “blue sky days”, a common name for the measure of days with grade-1 air quality, to record highs. Blue skies were seen for 17% of the year, compared to only 8% in 2007. However, this was only a temporary improvement. Immediately following the Games, blue sky days plummeted and air quality worsened. In January 2013, air quality reached an all-time low, with levels of P-50 particulate matter rising to 750 points on the Air Quality Index, a Chinese-run

index that measures daily air quality. Prior to 2013, the highest measure on the scale was 500. News media have recently focused on the rest of the country’s similarly poor air quality, with March 2013 data coming out regarding the premature deaths of Chinese citizens due to overexposure to toxic air. Air pollution significantly decreases residents’ quality of life and presents a significant public health risk. Yet measures to curb pollution also present Beijing with an opportunity to live up to its stated green goals in its recent Five Year Plans and as announced in its bid for the 2008 Games by controlling industrial production, coal-fired power plants, and the high rates of car usage, all of which are prime contributors to the lack of clean air.

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环境 空气质量 为了筹备2008年北京奥运会,保证必须的空气质 量,北京市政府下大力度政治北京空气污染。在 奥运会开幕前的一个月,北京市政府暂时关停了 所有北京市内及郊区的工业排放大户,通过市内 车辆限行的政策,有效改善了空气质量,使“蓝 天数量”,即1级空气质量天数,有明显增多, 达到了记录以来的最好水准。一整年间的蓝天数

量从2007年的8%上升到了2008年的17%。然而这 一切只是相对短暂的改善,在08年奥运会闭幕 后,北京的空气质量立刻大幅度下降。2013年1 月,北京的空气质量达到了历史最差水平,AQI 即空气质量指数达到750。而在2013年前,北京 空气质量检测点的最高纪录是500。而新闻媒体 也就此将关注点延伸至在中国众多城市普遍存在

的类似空气状况。2013年三月,有数据指出,未 来中国由于吸入污染空气而导致的相关疾病乃至 死亡数量将会大幅度提高。

能不辜负其既定环保目标的机会:早在2008年北 京奥运会期间,北京政府就提出这一了通过控制 工业污染,关停火电站,限制车辆排气污染等方 法来有效减少北京空气污染的目标。

北京的空气污染大幅度降低了人民的生活质量, 也带来了极大的公共健康危害。然而通过采取合 理有效的措施来缓解污染也是一个让北京市政府

Planning Context

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Water Scarcity Due to long-term drought, climate change leading to increasingly low rainfall, and overuse of the water supply, Beijing faces a severe water shortage. In 2012, Beijing had only 100 cubic meters of water available per person, while the United Nations defines water scarcity as 1,000 cubic meters per person. Beijing’s water supply is just 1/30th of the world average.ii 2.3 billion cubic meters are available for consumption through natural and recycled water sources, but demand is currently 3.6 billion cubic meters, a figure which is expected to increase to 4.1 billion by 2015.iii Beijing obtains two thirds of its water supply from groundwater sources, but drilling has had to go

0m 12m

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deeper into the aquifer each year. Continued use of groundwater as a drinking water source has lowered the depth of the water table by 10 meters in the past ten years alone, from a depth of 24 meters in 2002 to just 12 meters in 2012. In suburban areas and villages, well drilling must go as deep as 1,200 meters to reach water. Rainfall has also decreased by 30% over the past 12 years, preventing the groundwater from being recharged. While in the 1980s Beijing received an average rainfall of 590 millimeters, in 2012 the annual average was only 290 millimeters. Beijing has historically relied on three reservoirs located to the north of the city. Gianting has the largest capacity, but it is unfit for drinking due to pollution from adjacent industrial plants. Miyun is still tapped for drinking water, but annual inflow is not enough to recharge it, so it currently sits at just 10% of its full capacity. Huoriau is mainly used for 2002 agricultural irrigation, and so adds little to Beijing’s water supply. 2012 One national-level solution to Beijing’s water shortage has been to transfer millions of cubic meters of water from the Yangtzee River in the south of China north to Beijing via the Grand Canal. The project was proposed before the 2008 Olympics, and is currently almost 25% complete. However, Urban Environment Beijing’s transfer scheme has had a negative effect on agricultural production in the rural provinces surrounding the city. Most rivers in Hebei Domestic Province, to Beijing’s south, are depleted, and farmers struggle to grow enough crops to support themselves financially. Beijing needs solutions to its Industrial water shortage that have as little an impact as possible on the food production sources that support its population. Agriculture

Water Usage

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水资源短缺 北京作为中国北方一个干燥的城市,年均降水量 充沛时期也只有大约600毫米。随着北京人口的 增长,供水紧张成为了一个日益显著的问题。长 期的干旱和全球性的气候变化导致北京降水量的 进一步减少,而对于水资源的浪费和过度使用也 使这一问题不断加剧。2012年,北京人均可用水 资源只有100立方米,而联合国对于水资源是否 短缺的判断标准是人均1000立方米。事实上,北 京的人均可用水量仅仅达到了世界平均水平的三 十分之一。尽管北京拥有23亿立方米的自然、循 环水储量,但北京的用水需求达到了惊人的36亿 立方米,不仅如此,到2015年这一数据将可能增 长至41亿立方米。

调工程的一部分,国家计划将数百万立方米由长 江引向北京。这一庞大工程于2008年北京奥运会 前得到批准,目前已完成总进度的约25%。但从 全局来看,北京城市化的转变对周围的农业大省 却带来了不利的影响。河北省以及北京南部的大 部分河流水资源都已耗尽。面对如此窘迫的用水 紧张,农业作物的产量持续走低,农民依靠农业 的收入几乎很难自给自足。因此如何在维持粮食 作物、农业需求的前提下,解决北京的水资源短 缺问题是北京现在面临的重大问题。

北京的城市用水有三分之二由地下水提供,但 是日益增长的用水需求 造成了对地下水的过度 开采。近十年以来,北 京地下水位从2002年的 24米下降至2012年的12 米,下降了10米之多。 在北京的市郊和农村地 区,有些地下水井达到 1200的深度。过去的12 年来,降水量则下降了 超过30%。自上世纪80年 代至今,北京的年均降 水量从590毫米下降至 290毫米。这也造成地下 水无法及时得到补充, 地下水水位持续下降。 北京的三大水库坐落于 北京的北方。官厅水库 拥有三大水库中最大的 库容量,然而其附近的 工业污染和废水排放使 得官厅水库的水质已无 法达到饮用水要求;密 云水库尽管作为饮用水 水库使用,但是年均入 库水量无法补充其流失 的程度,因此密云水库 现在只能维持其设计库 容的10%运行;怀柔水库 则主要提供北京周边的 农业灌溉用水,因此对 补充北京城市饮用水的 作用也不明显。

Tonghui Stormwater Channel

为了缓解北京的用水紧 张,作为国家的南水北

Olympic Green Canal

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Lack of Green Space

绿地缺失

Beijing contains a number of large-scale public parks, including Forest Park, the grounds of the Summer Palace, and the Temple of Heaven, yet as a whole there is not enough open space to serve its 20 million residents. Applying a buffer with the New York City standard of locating a park within 500 meters of every home makes clear that the majority of the city’s dense neighborhoods lack public green spaces. Particularly in the hutong neighborhoods, housing is tightly packed, leaving little room for public spaces.

尽管北京拥有很多大型公园、森林公园,但是从 总量来讲,北京现有的绿地面积还远远不足以满 足其2000万市民的需要。以纽约对于绿地分布的 标准来看,住宅四周方圆50米内应当设置公共绿 地,而这一标准在北京目前明显是无法实现的: 北京多数住家周围都没有公园或公共绿地。特别 对于胡同居民来说,由于空间划分的极为紧凑, 户与户之间并没有公共空间。

While residential towers are built with fairly large open spaces at their bases, the majority of these privately-constructed housing projects are gated communities into which only residents of the complex have access. While there is thus technically a fair amount of green space in the city, much of this is inaccessible to the public.

而对于现代高层小区来说,尽管小区内的绿地和 空间是充足的,但并不对市民开放。这样看来, 北京并不仅仅缺乏绿地,更缺乏对公众开放的公 共绿色空间。

Applying a buffer of 500 meters to Beijing’s public parks shows the uneven distribution of public green spaces across the city.

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SOCIAL CHANGES

社会

Hukou System

户籍制度

During the Mao era, China implemented the hukou system, whereby rural and urban populations were purposefully separated. Under hukou, a person born in a rural town is registered there, and receives social benefits accorded to the rural areas. Rural residents cannot move permanently to the city – without city registration, migrants cannot access basic social services such as public housing, education, or health care offered by the government. Despite these restrictions, Beijing’s population has continued to grow due to migration from the countryside to city for access to jobs and a higher quality of life. In 2010, 34% of Beijing’s population were identified as registered migrants, who are legally allowed to be in the city, but these people do not have legal access to work or social services. Another 17% are unregistered migrants, who are technically not allowed to be in the city, and so likewise cannot access jobs or services. This system has resulted in high inequality between city dwellers, with over half of the population unable to access basic services and housing. While there have been recent efforts to dismantle the system, it will likely not be a quick transition process. The average household income in Beijing was 48,000 RMB in 2012 ($7,700 USD). Median incomes have increased steadily from 27,700 RMB ($4,450 USD) in 2008, yet they have not kept pace with the rising cost of housing. The average price of housing in 2008 was 27,000 RMB ($4,400 USD), demonstrating how unaffordable housing is compared to median income.

在毛泽东时代,中国政府开始推行户籍制度,这 一制度将城市户口和农村户口明确地划分开来。 出生于农村地区,则划分为农村户口,进而享受 针对农村生活生产制定的户口政策。但是持有农 村户口的居民无法在城市定居,除非获得城市户 口。这样就造成那些实际在城市工作的农村户口 持有者无法享受与城市户口所有者相同等的社 保、医疗、教育等政策。 在毛泽东时代,中国政府开始推行户籍制度,这 一制度将城市户口和农村户口明确地划分开来。 出生于农村地区,则划分为农村户口,进而享受

Registered Migrants Registered Permanent Residents

Unregistered Migrants

A breakdown of Beijing residents by legal status. Registered permanent residents have urban hukou, while unregistered migrants have rural hukou, preventing them from accessing social benefits, such as jobs and health care, in the city. Registered migrants can more easily obtain social services.

针对农村生活生产制定的户口政策。但是持有农 村户口的居民无法在城市定居,除非获得城市户 口。这样就造成那些实际在城市工作的农村户口 持有者无法享受与城市户口所有者相同等的社 保、医疗、教育等政策。 2012年,北京家庭的年均收入为48000元(折算 为7700美元),从2008年的27700元稳步上升。 但这样的收入增长并没能跟上房价飞升的速度。 仅2008年,购房的平均花费就达到了27000元。 购房开支与收入的不平衡给许多北京居民摊上沉 重的经济负担。

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Housing Typologies Beijing has two main housing typologies: the traditional siehuyen and the high-rise. Traditionally, families lived with multiple generations sharing a square-shaped, single-story home surrounding a central courtyard. Each siehuyen was located within a hutong. Following the Cultural Revolution, the courtyard houses were divided into multiple units, each housing a multi-generational family, all of whom shared the central courtyard space. Beijing was a dense, though low-height, city. Today, the majority of these homes lack plumbing facilities; families rely on centrally-located, public facilities within the hutong. Conditions are crowded, yet this housing arrangement remains attractive to most Beijingers due to hutong neighborhoods’ central location in the city. Because these are the oldest neighborhoods, they are mainly located within the Third Ring Road, and thus are highly accessible to jobs in the center of the city.

In the 1950s, 150.7 million square feet of siheyuan were demolished to make way for modern buildings. This pattern of demolition has continued to the present as the government continues to upgrade the housing stock. From 1990-1998, 45.2 million square feet of single-story housing was demolished. The replacement for the siheyuan is the high-rise residential tower. A similar form is used for public, low-income, and high-income housing complexes alike. Typical residential towers range from six to 15 stories, which are placed throughout a typical block measuring 1,600 by 1,700 meters. Towers are located in gated parks, contributing to the lack of publicly-accessible green and open spaces in the city.

1100’ 1000’ 900’ 800’ 700’ 600’

THE LINKED-HYBRID MIXED-USE

500’ 400’

SANLITUN VILLAGE MIXED-USE

300’ 200’ 100’

HUTONG

SOUTH || RETAIL

residential

NORTH || OFFICE

retail + office + art + culture

residential + retail

Scale of Building Typologies in Beijing. On the left is the traditional hutong and siheyuan structure, which have been increasingly demolished in favor of the high-rise tower. High rises are similar in form, and are generally towers in a private park. Yet Beijing is also interested in more innovative forms, as seen in Sanlitun Village, or the Linked Hybrid mixed-use project, but also in the office districts, as seen in the CCTV tower.

SCALE OF BUILDING TYPOLOGY IN BEIJING

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居住形态 北京有两种主要的房屋构型:四合院和高楼。四 合院里住着传统的四代同堂,中心庭院,四面环 屋。四合院一般都在胡同或小巷里。文革以后, 每个四合院分割成多个单元,几乎每个单元都住 着几代人,而中心庭院则成为几户人家的公共区 域。那时的北京虽然人口稠密,但房屋低矮。时 至今日,大部分四合院缺乏下水道等地下设施, 居民常常只能依赖于设置在胡同里的公共卫生设 施。虽然胡同非常拥挤,然而由于其身处城市正 中心,其优越的地理位置与良好的交通连接依然 对大多数北京人有很大吸引力。

替代四合院的是高层住宅楼。公共建筑、为低收 入人群和高收入人群住宅区所使用的高楼造型都 非常相似。典型的高层住宅楼高度从六层到十五 层不等,置身于北京1.6km x 1.7km的巨大街区 内,形成了一个个封闭的社区,无形中加剧了北 京城缺乏开放的城市公共空间的问题。

在50年代,1.507亿平方英尺面积的四合院被拆 除,为现代建筑腾出空间。由于政府一直致力于 升级地产,拆除一直持续到今天。从1990至1998 年,又有4520万平方英尺的平房被铲除。

CHINA WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWER 3 || OFFICE - HOTEL

CCTV || OFFICE

ID

office

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Public Space

Overall, Beijing is not a very walkable place. The transition from the traditional siheyuan to the high-rise residential and office tower has led to a fairly unpleasant public realm. In the CBD and along Finance Street, high-rise towers are set back 100 meters from the sidewalk. A pedestrian navigating the street must traverse blocks

measuring up to 600 meters in length, which feels interminable due to the lack of building frontages that come up to the sidewalk. Eight-lane roads of traffic not only create exhaust fumes, but also mean that pedestrians must cross over massive sky bridges to cross streets. The scale of buildings, megablocks, and roads dwarfs the pedestrian.

Top: Many residential buildings fronting pedestrian streets lack windows that face the street and are fenced off from the public. Distances between intersections are quite long. Bottom: An chaotic intersection near a Line 15 station shows how difficult it is for pedestrians to navigate.

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公共空间

City of London

Manhattan

总体而言,北京城并不适宜步行。从传统的四合 院向塔楼的过度形成了糟糕的公共环境。在北京 CBD和金融街,高耸的塔楼距离人行道约100米。 不合理的道路红线设置和没有长达600米没有间 歇的城市街区,给行人造成迷失于漫无边际的空 间中的感受。

八车道的公路不仅产生了大量的尾气,并且也意 味着行人过马路必须使用过街天桥。建筑的巍 峨,街区的宽大以及马路的亘阔都让人在城市中 显得无比渺小。

Chaoyang CBD

Olympic Green

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CONCLUSIONS

小结

Beijing’s rapid physical and population growth over the past few decades have led to increasingly dense development typologies, yet scant attention has been paid to important quality of life issues such as a lack of access to high-quality open space, an unfriendly public realm, dangerously high air pollution, or extreme water scarcity. Furthermore, with high projected economic growth, Beijing must identify locations to which it can channel new growth, and must make careful consideration of the industries it wishes to target. These four key issues present clear opportunities for leveraging the ecological, subway, and venue investments made for the 2008 Olympic Games to improve residents’ experience of the city.

北京在过去十年内快速的物理膨胀,人口膨胀导 致了稠密发展形态的愈演愈烈。诸如高品质的公 共阔地乏善可陈,公用空间令人不快,空气污染 高度危险,水资源严重匮乏等等影响生活品质的 重要问题还没有解决方案。在高度规划的经济增 长中,北京必须明确定位、确立如何引导城市发 展,谨慎地开展产业规划。。

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上文对北京城的背景研究和城市问题综述,将帮 助我们探索如何将2008年奥运会中北京为生态环 境、地铁建设以及体育场馆投资的资金转化成提 升北京居民生活质量,实现城市可持续发展的杠 杆

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Planning Context

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SITE SELECTION

选址


Spatially, the massive investments poured into the 2008 Games spanned the city, from venues to subways, highways, and greening. However, the Olympic Green and its surrounding neighborhood present the strongest case for a series of targeted interventions. First and foremost, it forms the northern end of the Cultural Axis, a strategic placement that elevates it symbolically to the level of importance of the Forbidden City or Tiananmen Square, located further south on the axis. Forest Park, which caps Olympic Green, is a keystone of the planned Greenbelt for the city and is a core component of the city’s efforts to address water scarcity and pollution issues via natural means.

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Further, the site is strategically positioned at the nexus of two subway lines – Line 8 runs through the center of the site and has three stops throughout the Green, providing direct links to economic centers, and the future Line 15 will provide an east-west connection to universities and Zhongguancun Science Park. The site is thus well-positioned for citywide access and economic growth. Finally, the Olympic Green is home to some of Beijing’s most iconic structures, many of which would benefit from repurposing after years of underutilization. The presence of these symbols of Chinese national and Beijing local pride mean that any interventions on this site will have high visibility and recognition.

10km

1. Olympic Green is located at the northern end of the important Cultural Axis, lending especial significance to projects on the site.

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio

2. Forest Park forms the keystone piece of the proposed Greenbelt. It can be leveraged as an important green asset of the city.


尽管北京奥运会投资项目涉及场馆、交通、生态 等诸多方面,投资的空间分布位置更是遍及全 市,奥林匹克公园及其周边的城市街区依然是我 们尝试解决北京城市问题的多重可能性的最佳实 践场地。其区位的重要性及优越性体现在一下方 面: 首先,奥林匹克公园处在北京城市中轴线北延伸 线上。北京中轴线以紫禁城为中心,自元代承袭 至今,深刻影响北京城市发展,其重大意义不言 而喻

京城市绿带的重要组成部分,是北京尝试通过自 然方式改善其水资源缺乏、空气污染等环境问题 的标志性项目。 此外,奥林匹克公园处在地铁8号线与15号线交 接点,线路完工后将连接南北、沟通东西,成为 重要的经济和交通节点。 最后,奥林匹克公园作为当代北京地标之一,其 规划与改造成果将引起广泛关注,在北京市其他 区域以及全国范围内具有示范性作用。

其次,位于公园北部的奥林匹克森林公园作为北

3. Olympic Green is at the nexus of two subway lines (8 and 15) that connect it to the rest of the city, the economic centers, and to universities nearby.

Site Selection

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EXISTING CONDITIONS

现状


Site Layout + Surrounding Neighborhoods The Olympic Green is a basic rectangular shape, the central elements of which are the central axis and a broadly curving canal flowing south from the constructed pond at the southern end of Forest Park. At the southern end are the main venues, and on the western side is the Beijing Convention Center. Tucked below-grade next to the canal is an open-air retail space that, despite its adjacency to a Line 8 subway stop, has been unable to tenant its shop spaces. Open green spaces are placed methodically to either side of the central axis, some of which are full gardens, while others are merely trees planted within concrete boxes. Finally, the new Science and Technology Museum is placed near the canal at the northeastern end of the site. Olympic Green lies just south of Forest Park, and immediately to the northwest of the Asian Games site, the southern end of which is currently experiencing massive mixed-use redevelopment. To the west and east of the Green lie megablocks that typify the rest of the city’s layout—most exceed 400 meters laterally. Several prominent universities lie on the blocks to the west amidst residential and commercial development. Blocks to the east consist primarily of residential lowand high-rises with ground floor and podium retail. Due to a municipal ordinance mandating residential development contain at least 30% open space, a “tower in the park” typology is typical in these blocks.

场地布局和周边社区 奥林匹克公园基本呈长方形。中轴线和源于森林 公园南端池塘的人造河贯穿其中。2008年奥运会 的主要场馆汇聚在公园南端,而公园西侧是北京 会展中心。 连接鸟巢与奥林匹克森林公园人工 水道附近是一系列作为地铁站入口,建筑艺术 装置展览和商业场所的下沉广场。尽管这里地理 位置良好,又紧邻地铁8号线,但商铺利用率很 低。中轴线两边的用地被系统地布置了大面积绿 地,有些是设计完整的花园,有些仅摆放了盆栽 树木或花坛。新的科技博物馆单独立在奥林匹克 公园东北角,毗邻正在建设中的北京瞭望塔。 奥林匹克公园北接森林公园,南接亚运会主场 馆。目前,亚运会赛场的南端的地块正在开发成 商业和零售用地。公园的西边和东边分布着在北 京随处可见,尺度惊人的“超级街区”。这种超 级街区大多横向长度超过400米。公园西侧几个 街区以外就是著名的中关村以及北京名校的集聚 区。公园的东边则是绵延的住宅区。一些路段沿 街商铺林立,另一些路段,高楼则退进封闭社区 当中,和街道与行人几乎没有互动。

China Science and Technology Museum Semi-green spaces Retail area Convention Center

Asian Games site Existing conditions on Olympic Green.

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Axis

中轴线

According to the Beijing Planning Commission, the Olympic Green was strategically located in the northern region of Beijing to take advantage of its superior public infrastructure, especially as compared to south Beijing. Perhaps more importantly, locating the Green here also facilitated its placement on the North-South Cultural Axis, which is both a civic organizing element and a symbol embodying Beijing’s cultural heritage and prominence. To the south along this longitudinal axis lie cultural monuments such as the Bell and Drum Towers, Forbidden City, and Tiananmen Square. The Olympic Green envelops the axis in the North, and in so doing lends a significance that stretches beyond Beijing’s Olympic legacy.

据北京城市规划设计院介绍,奥林匹克公园选址 在北京的北部不仅是为了利用那里良好的基础设 施, 而且是为了促进北京从北向南的文化中轴 线的形成。中轴线既是组织市民活动的重要元 素,也是代表北京文化传承的重要符号。 中轴 线上分布着诸如钟鼓楼,紫禁城,和天安门广场 这样的文化与政治地标,将奥林匹克公园放置在 中轴线的北侧,能有力地延伸北京奥林匹克文化 遗产带来的影响。

The axis is flexible in its definition. At some points, traditional gates are used to frame it as a pathway. At others, important cultural monuments sit directly on the axis, such as Mao’s Mausoleum at the south end of Tiananmen Square, the latter of which represents a widening of the axis as a civic gathering space. Still others part of it exist merely in the mind, such as a section the contains dense, historic hutong development on top of it. The architects of Olympic Green placed sporting venues just off the axis and fashioned a 90-meter wide promenade along its length connecting pedestrians from subway stops (for Line 8, which runs underneath) to the venues. Thus, the cultural axis in the Olympic Green is a void, as bare from the north end of the site to the south as it is between the venues that flank it.

对于中轴线,其实并没有明确的定义。北京的历 史建筑作为中轴线的节点,将中轴线塑造为一条 路径和场所。中轴线也可能仅作为抽象的概念存 在,而没有实际的开场通路。北京城中心密集的 胡同也偶尔和中轴线重合。北京奥林匹克公园的 方案将主要体育场馆紧挨中轴线布置,而中轴线 上则布置了一个90米宽的大道作为连接和交通的 公共空间。尽管中轴线的设计构想试图融入中国 元素,但事实上,整个中轴线大道在奥林匹克公 园并没有给参观者带来传统轴线的延伸感和丰富 的文化体验。

Monuments along the Cultural Axis.

Existing Conditions

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Access + Types of Users

交通和使用人群

We have identified three general groups of users of Olympic Green. First are those who live on adjacent blocks, who experience the space as a local amenity. Second are residents of Beijing, who are provided easy access to the park via subway connections. And last are tourists, both Chinese and international, whose experience of Olympic Green ranges from a cultural pilgrimage to a viewing of Beijing’s Olympic legacy.

我们认为使用奥林匹克公园的人群主要分为三 类。第一类是住在附近街区的居民,对于他们而 言,奥林匹克公园是家附近的游憩场所。第二类 是需要通过各种交通方式到达奥林匹克公园的北 京市民。第三类则是国内外到北京一睹奥运风采 的游客。

Apart from subway, the site is accessible via car by the Fourth Ring Road and is crossed by other city roads, both laterally and longitudinally. Security personnel are placed at access points around the perimeter of the Green. Access into the Green is limited to these checkpoints, resulting in barren, fenced, and ignored edges along the east and west sides of the Green. Walls and large streets prevent surrounding residents from even seeing inside the Green from the street level, giving this very public space a feeling of being a private space.

奥林匹克公园作为一个整体,从城市层面来看可 达性很高。居民可以通过多种交通方式到达。然 而公园的边界是相对封闭的,并且进入公园的入 口非常有限。固定入口的设置使得公园的东西边 界并不宜人,围墙和宽阔的街道将周边居民与公 园几乎完全分隔开来。因此,奥林匹克公园这样 一个标志性的公共场所其实缺乏应有的开放感。

Olympic Green Barriers

Wide bicycle lane

Wide roads with numerous barriers separate Olympic Green from adjacent development.

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Urban Design + Public Realm

城市设计和公共空间

The blocks surrounding the Olympic Green present a number of issues, all of which illustrate fundamental barriers to a healthy, pedestrianoriented public realm that is linked to the Olympic Green as a public asset. Mirroring the historical pattern of the rest of the city, blocks surrounding the Green are large — in excess of 300 by 500 meters in many cases — and developed before the 2008 Olympic bid. Thus, development fronting the Green does not acknowledge its presence, but rather simply coexists alongside it. Worse, these megablocks are largely impenetrable by the pedestrian and the car. While residential developments incorporate the citywide mandate of 30% open space, the grounds are in many cases fenced off to the public. Twenty-five-story apartment towers rise next to five-story housing blocks in a random fashion, and pedestrianoriented ground floor retail uses exist only at and

对于奥林匹克公园附近街区来说,一个普遍存在 的问题就是缺少以行人为本的、能将奥林匹克公 园联系起来的公共空间。这些街区很多都超过 300米宽500米长,并早在上个世纪末就开始陆续 开发。因此,这些紧邻公园的街区的设计和发展 并没有突出奥林匹克公园本身的存在,而仅仅是 和公园共存。这些巨大的街区中间往往只有稀疏 的路网,留给行人和车流非常有限的通道。尽管 这些住宅区的发展满足了至少包含30%绿地的要 求,这些绿地往往不向公众开放。二十五层高的 新建住宅楼和五层高的旧楼随意的交错布置,而 以行人为本的底层商业化的设计只出现在几个繁 忙的路口。除了奥林匹克公园,这些街区跟公共 交通的衔接都很薄弱。地铁5号线目前是从公园 东边两个街区的位置经过,但是却远离道路中 心,而且地铁站附近土地利用并没有很好的和公 交互动,形成高密度的混合用地模式。因此在利 用公共交通方面,目前的土地利用和城市设计还 有提升的空间。目前,地铁15号线的建设将为

Pedestrian rights-of-way on megablock peripheries feature long distances between intersection and fenced-off proximate open space.

Existing Conditions

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around key intersections. Apart from Olympic Green, these blocks fail to adequately respond to transit in the area. Line 5, which currently runs parallel to the Green two blocks to the east, is isolated in the center of the road, and development surrounding it is nowhere near the density or use supportable by its presence. With the current construction of a Line 15 station one block east of Olympic Green, there is enormous opportunity to buck the city trend of residential transit-adjacent development by responding strategically to transit with a mix of uses.

这些毗邻奥林匹克公园的街区增加新站点,如果 能在新的地铁站附近布置适合步行的高密度混合 用地,就能形成真正“以公交为导向”的发展模 式。

A vibrant public realm does exist at certain points on the megablock, as at this intersection that features podium development with ground-floor retail.

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


A subway station two blocks east of Olympic Green features auto-oriented, low-density uses, far less than what can be supported at the site.

On the other side of the street, transit-adjacent residential development lacks a mix of uses and increases unidirectional subway use.

Existing Conditions

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Ownership + Financing

产权和融资

The iconic Birds Nest and Water Cube are owned and run by state-owned enterprises. However, they are currently unable to cover the debt service from their construction. Furthermore, revenues are insufficient to cover operating costs, so both venues are run at a yearly loss, even with government subsidies. Since the Olympics, a portion of the Water Cube has been repurposed to contain the nation’s largest indoor water park, while the main competition pool has been preserved and continues to host swim meets. Entrance fees must be kept low to attract the general public, further exacerbating the gap between revenues and costs.

标志性的鸟巢和水立方都由国营企业运营,但目 前这些场馆的运营收入不仅不够偿还建设费用, 也不够支付日常运营开销。所以尽管这两个场馆 由政府资助,但每年都带来严重的亏损。奥林匹 克运动会之后,水立方的一部分被用作国家最大 的室内水上公园,主要的泳池还是被保留用来举 办体育赛事。低廉的入场费虽然能够吸引大众, 但却在逐渐增大收入和支出的差距。

The Birds Nest hosts events of a less permanent nature. While the occasional international friendly soccer match is held in the stadium, it does not have a local soccer club as a permanent tenant, most likely due to the steep cost to rent the stadium for home matches. In lieu of traditional sporting events, the stadium has hosted concerts, a “winter wonderland” where the grounds contain small ski slopes and ice rinks, and other one-off events. In the case of both venues, this revenue gap has resulted in poor facilities upkeep, seriously compromising the materials used to clad both iconic venues.

鸟巢主要用来举办一些临时的赛事和文娱活动。 虽然一些国际性的足球友谊赛时常在鸟巢举办, 但由于高昂的租赁费用和本身的设计缺陷,鸟巢 并没有获得地方足球俱乐部的赞助,也很少有足 球赛事在鸟巢举办。除了传统的体育赛事,鸟巢 被用来举办一些演唱会等文艺活动,在冬季则被 改造成“冰雪天地”。无论是鸟巢或水立方,常 年的赤字导致了场馆设施缺乏维护,严重危害到 这两所标志性建筑的外观。

近期和计划中的投资 对奥林匹克公园2008年夏季比赛的场地规划为未 来的发展留下了很多空间。北京市提出的总体规 划主要包含两个元素。首先,公园西侧被用作高 密度商业零售区,与现存的会展中心联合发展。 第二个元素是人造河东边的文化教育区。规划将 在中国科技馆的南边新建3个博物馆,形成一条 垂直的博物馆轴线。但是这样单一的设计不仅使 博物馆缺少其它用地元素的支撑,也不符合整个 场地设计的主题。将博物馆线性排列并置于运河 东面,意味着博物馆和公园其它部分之间会缺少 必要的互动。另外,目前的文教区规划也没有很 好地解决建筑,开场空间和滨水环境的联系。北 京市投资森林公园的水循环系统后,奥林匹克公 园发展现状和未来规划并没有很好的回应和利用 这个重要资源。对于公园中的标志性场馆,北京 规划院并不能决定这些它们在奥运后期的开发与 利用,因此,低效的场馆利用持续地都给城市的 财政运营带来新的负担。 在下面的章节中,我们对奥林匹克公园提出了一 个新的构想。在这个构想当中,我们为将奥林匹 克公园改造成能够更好地服务于北京的重要资源 提供了一系列的方案。

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Recent + Planned Investments The site plan implemented on the Olympic Green for the 2008 Summer Games left a substantial portion of the space unprogrammed, to be developed in the future. The Beijing City Planning Commission has since developed a new master plan for the Green in an attempt to fill and activate the empty spaces. There are two main elements of the recent plans. First, parcels on the western side of the green are allocated to mixed-use retail, including what the Beijing Planning Commission plans to turn into a hub for the hospitality sector, presumably as related to the Convention Center in the middle left portion of the Green.

The second planned area is a museum district to the east of the main canal. The district builds off of the Science and Technology Museum by adding five new museums to its south running in a vertical line. However, there is little development to complement this single-use museum district, nor are these part of a broader scheme for the site. The linear placement of the museums and their location to the east of the canal means that there is little interaction between the museums and the rest of the site. Furthermore, the axis remains at its massive scale and just as empty as ever, and the plan does not take full advantage of the waterfront as a main asset. After Beijing’s investments in the Forest Park recycling system, there is no acknowledgement of or relation of the Green to that key infrastructure. Finally, since city does not technically own the venues, the Beijing Planning Commission fails to propose reuses for the iconic venues. They remain underused, costing the government more than incoming revenue can cover. The following chapters advance a new vision for the Olympic Green, and offer a series of specific proposals to remake the Green into a city-serving asset.

Planned Commercial Areas 0

1km

Olympic Green development scheme as planned by the Beijing Planning Commission

Planned Hospitality Areas Planned Museum & Cultural District

Existing Conditions

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VISION

愿景


Our vision for the Olympic Green is to create a public, performative green space that takes advantage of and enhances the ecological features of the site. To achieve this vision, we propose four interventions. Underlying these proposals is a basic design concept based on the pattern emanating from the Bird’s Nest. This stadium is not only an iconic symbol of the 2008 Games, but lives on in the memory and city consciousness as a symbol of Beijing pride. The structure represents the lasting legacy of Beijing’s moment in the international spotlight. Because of this, the existing pathways that extend outward from the Bird’s Nest are enhanced, extended, and radiated throughout the site. The resultant network of pathways and landscaped and building plots are densest near the Bird’s Nest, but become larger as the visitor moves north through the site. On top of this pattern are layered a series of four interventions with a distinct hierarchy and overarching theme: 1. Ecological infrastructure is the main force on the site. We enhance and extend the existing canal by

我们对未来北京奥林匹克公园的基本构想是,通 过利用和强化现有生态特色,构建一个兼具生态 功能与城市游憩功能的生态绿地 为实现这一构想,本规划将从以下四方面着手。 而在外在形式上,为保证各场地在视觉设计、空 间感知方面达到和谐统一。我们提出统一的设计 理念:设计以鸟巢肌理为基础的人行及车行路 网,通过一系列设计处理使其贯穿整个奥林匹克 公园。同时根据公园人流变化,建筑、景观密度 与空间尺度,道路网以鸟巢为起点由南向北递 减。

turning it into the functional backbone of a water recycling scheme for the Green. 2. We repurpose the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube to respond to this ecological force, and are used as demonstration areas showcasing plant life from local and international climates. Connections between the Green and surrounding neighborhoods are enhanced through a new retail zone in the southeast corner. 3. We establish a green industry research park that uses the site’s new water recycling infrastructure to conduct research and produce innovative technologies that allow Beijing to implement green infrastructure across the city. 4. Finally, we introduce public realm interventions outside of the Green to strengthen connections between these new demonstration areas and residents, and create a framework for improving access to green space across Beijing. Together, these four interventions create the scaffolding on which Beijing can build a greener, healthier, and more enjoyable city for its 20 million residents, but also serve as a city-wide and national model.

第四,通过奥林匹克公园周边公共空间改造,加 强奥林匹克公园与周边区域的社会、经济联系。 并且以此为基础,进一步提出在全北京市范围内 提高绿色空利用率的规划设计框架。 以上四点在内涵上相互联系相互支撑,我们希望 通过上述方案,将北京奥林匹克公园打造为绿 色、生态、宜人的公共空间,并使其成为全市乃 至全国范围内可借鉴的开发模式。

在新路网之上,我们提出了四个相互关联但又相 对独立的规划方案: 第一, 通过引入水处理功能,延伸、改善当前 水道,以突出奥林匹克公园的环保、生态特色。 第二,以生态性为出发点,重新定义鸟巢与水立 方,将其改造成为容纳全球各类植物的生态展示 区。同时在公园东南角建设新的商业区,加强奥 林匹克公园与周边区域的互动与联系。 第三,开辟绿色科技产业园。在全新的水处理设 施基础上进行生态研究与技术开发,并希望相关 绿色生态设施有机会推广到全市乃至全国。

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The underlying web pattern emanating from the Bird’s Nest creates spatial divisions.

The canal is extended to form the ecological spine of the Olympic Green, and wetlands infrastructure is added.

The Bird’s Nest and Water Cube are repurposed as a National Biome and Academy of Chinese Herbs, and a retail center is added.

A green technology research district is sited in the northwest corner, with an office hub to its west.

The megablock is broken up using a fishbone structure and the public realm improved through investments in open space.

Existing Conditions

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ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE


功能性景观构架 ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE (简介.详细内容请 AS THE BASIS FOR A DESIGN 参考英文文本) FRAMEWORK Ecology is the main driver of our proposals for the Olympic Green, influencing the design of the site at multiple scales. As described previously in this book, Beijing faces major water scarcity and pollution issues, and a majority of residents lack access to high-quality open space. We propose repurposing the Olympic Park as a self-sustaining space that does not rely on the city’s traditional water and sewer infrastructure, and which creates a model for a more sustainable and resource-conscious Beijing. We identify the existing canal as the starting point to our ecological infrastructure. The canal currently extends southward from the main pond in Forest Park through the Olympic Park site, and is crossed at three points along this trajectory by three vehicular roads. While the canal provides an excellent starting point for an ecolgical infrastructure due to its length and placement in the site, there are three problems with it as it exists. First, the watershed and topography of the site do not respond to or interact with the canal. Second, humans are disconnected from it – the only way to view the canal is from above, and the pedestrian promenade along its edge does not provide an enjoyable landscape and is furthermore in poor condition. The eastern side of the canal is entirely inaccessible to the public. Third, and most importantly, the canal is unable to function ecologically because it is concrete-lined, preventing water from infiltrating back into the dwindling groundwater table.

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生态与景观设计是本方案的主要元素,在多个层 面影响着整个场地设计。如前面的章节所述,北 京面临着水资源稀缺和水污染的双重问题,城市 居民缺乏良好的绿色休闲场所。在我们的方案试 图将奥林匹克公园改造为一个有机的生态系统, 不仅在公园中建立多样性的生态景观和生态体 验,并且选取公园中的重要节点来营造示范性的 水处理设施与滨水公共空间。 目前奥林匹克公园中的人工水道并没有与场地中 的其他功能行程良好的生态互动。另外,水系的 边缘缺乏以人为本的设计细节。最重要的是,由 于水岸边缘的设计很大程度上无法形成动植物栖 息地,因此人工水系并无法发挥相应的生态功 能。

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我们提议将人工水道的作为连 接奥林匹克公园中各个节点与 森林公园的点的有机体,将水 道边缘以及附近的用地作为功 能性景观的构建场所。这些功 能性景观包括蔬果园等其他经 济作物的种植园, 能处理生 活污水同时提供游憩场所的人 工湿地,直接服务于周边社区 的开敞公园。 为了强调如何融合水处理湿地 与城市肌理,我们重点设计了 博物馆区。不同于北京市的方 案,我们的博物馆摆放考虑了 水处理湿地的建设要求,游客 体验,以及奥林匹克公园的对 周边社区的能见度。 The canal is underutilized in its current state, but could be harnessed to become a more connected, organizing feature of the site.

Looking north toward the new “Five Nails” observation tower, the canal spans the length of the Olympic Green.

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55


We propose redefining the canal as the connective tissue of the Olympic Green, linking the ecologically and recreationally successful Forest Park with the the Green.

The existing watershed runs through the Olympic Green from northwest to northeast, which does not facilitate flow of water into and through the canal.

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With the proposed wetlands constructed on the site, water flow will be realigned to flow from northwest and northeast downward into the canal. At the southern end of the canal, water will continue flowing south through a perforated pipe and deliver water to the existing canal south of the Olympic Green.

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The functional performance of the canal is hindered by its current material qualities and its lack of a multifunctional use. Developing multiple typologies for the canal creates a measured response to water fluctuation, water flow, scale, and human interactions with the water feature at different points along its course. Four main typologies are applied throughout the canal, each with a different purpose. The wet meadow, similar

to a wetland ecosystem, treats greywater while responding to a lack of water in the dry season, as when water is unavailable, it becomes simply a meadow. The remaining three categories create a more human scaled experience of the canal, and create places along it where visitors can interact with this central ecological feature of the site.

Existing Canal

Dwarfs human scale and does not allow water flow Wet Meadow Terraced Grass Shoreline Terraced Concrete

Water Fluctuation Ecosystem performance

material

Stormwater Runoff

Public Realm Stormwater Runoff

performance

performance

Boardwalk Extension

Public Realm

material

performance

material

A diagram showing existing conditions of the canal and proposed landscape typologies for the canal.

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TYPE

Type

Ecological Landscapes Ecological Landscapes Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse Provide a protected species habitat for Nature Parks Nature Parks Demonstration + Demonstration + Research

PERFORMANCE PROGRAM

Performance

Program

biodiverse species

Research

Biodiversity Phasing Contribute to China’s 550 natural reserves

A series of performative landscape systems will move through the site alongside and expanding outward from the main canal pathway. The following five landscape systems will be applied to all landscape interventions. First are a series of ecological landscapes that provide a habitat for animals and plant species. These landscapes will be visible to the public, but will not be fully accessible, so that the habitats are protected from disruption.

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Productive Landscapes Productive Landscapes Landscapes that generate food andthat provide Landscapes generate education food and provide

Blue + Green Infrastructures Blue + Green Infrastructures Landscapes that capture and treatthat stormcapture Landscapes water + greywater and treat stormwater +

education

greywater

S r g

Urban Farm Urban Farm Greenhouse Greenhouse Hydroponics

Detention Ponds Infiltration Basin Detention Ponds Constructed Constructed Wetland Living Machine Wetland Swales Living Machine Swales

P P F E P R

Hydroponics

Crop Yields 1 deciduous fruit trees yields 50-150 fruits 1 Acre can produce twothree tons of fruit

Infiltration Basin Permeability rate of 0.5-3inches per hour and slope of basin floor close to 0%

Productive landscapes will include food-producing systems, including fruit orchards, greenhouses, hydroponics, and smaller-scale herb or food gardens. The largest productive landscape proposed for the site is an apple, persimmon, and peach orchard sited in the center of the Olympic Green. Blue and green infrastructure will filter greywater through a series of wetlands until they reach the canal, cleaned. These landscapes will be accessible

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio

C S


e

Community Open Spaces Community Open Spaces Spaces that are used for recreationthat and are socialused for Spaces gatherings and social recreation

Transitional Landscapes Transitional Landscapes Temporary landscapes that clean soil and allow Temporary landscapes for newclean landscapes that soil and allow

gatherings

for new lanscapes

Playing Fields Playing Fields Formal Park Plazas Exhibition Space Pavilion Formal Park Recreation + Fitness

Remediation Fields Remediation Fields Multi-Functional Spaces

Public Realm A public space requires 3m2-9m2 per person

Phytoremediation Removes up to 97% of contaminated soil or groundwater

Multi-Functional Space

Exhibition Space Pavilion Recreation and Fitness

and open to public exploration of the systems by the installation of viewing platforms and pathways that take the visitor through the system. Furthermore, the wetlands’ organization will be demonstrative, educating the viewer on how they work by making the separate pieces of the filtration process easy to observe by delineating each section physically using different plantings.

enjoyment. As applied to the site, this category contains a variety of spaces ranging from plazas to recreational fields to formal parks. Transitional landscapes will provide a temporary remediation landscape that prepares an area for future human uses.

Community open spaces are clearly demarcated as publicly-accessible spaces for recreation and

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Allocation of Landscape Typologies The identified landscape typologies will be allocated throughout the site. As shown below, Blue + Green Infrastructure will mainly surround canal areas, and will include greywater retention ponds in addition to the full spectrum of wetlands filtering.

Ecological Landscapes are scattered throughout the site, with the goal of building up a natural ecosystem of interdependent plants and animals as the plantings mature over time. Community Open Spaces provide dedicated areas for public recreation. Currently on the site, the largest unprogrammed spaces are used for games and fitness activities, but incorporating recreational and pure park uses proactively into the site will give the Olympic Green a coherent sense of place.

Productive Landscapes are in the center of the park, where the large orchard of persimmon, crabapple, and peach trees provide food for community use and an agricultural experience for city residents, who lack access and exposure to these experiences. The orchard will provide a few agricultural jobs for residents of the surrounding neighborhood, who will also be able to participate in a work sharing system where they are allowed to participate in harvesting events and receive an allocation of fruit in exchange. Educational events will also be held on site for local children.

Finally, Transitional Landscapes are currently strategically placed in areas that lack carefully considered development plans, but which in the future could become key areas of the park for a variety of uses.

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Productive Landscapes

Provide a protected habitat for biodiverse species Nature Parks Demonstration + Research

Blue + Green Productive Productive Landscapes Infrastructures Landscapes

Nature Parks Urban Farm NatureDemonstration Parks Farm + Urban Greenhouse Demonstration Greenhouse Research + Hydroponics Research Hydroponics

Detention Po Detention Ponds Constructed Constructed We Living Machin Swales Living Machine Swales

TYPE

Blue + Gre Blue + Green Infrastruct Infrastructure

PROGRAM

Provide a protected Landscapes that generate Landscapes t Provide a protected Landscapes that generate Landscapes habitat for food and provide and treatthat stor habitatbiodiverse for and provide andgreywater treat stormw species food education biodiverse species education greywater

Blue + Green Infrastructures

Community Open Spaces

Landscapes that generate food and provide education

Landscapes that capture and treat stormwater + greywater

Spaces that are used for recreation and social gatherings

Urban Farm Greenhouse Hydroponics

Detention Ponds Constructed Wetland Living Machine Swales

Productive Productive Landscapes Landscapes

Blue++Green Green Blue Infrastructures Infrastructures

Provideaaprotected protected Provide habitatfor for habitat biodiversespecies species biodiverse

Landscapesthat thatgenerate generate Landscapes Landscapesthat thatcapture capture Landscapes foodand andprovide provide andtreat treatstormwater stormwater++ food and education greywater education greywater

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio

Productive Landscapes

Ecological Ecological Landscapes Landscapes

PERFORMANCE

PERFORMANCE

PROGRAM

Ecological Landscapes

Ecological Ecological Landscapes Landscapes

MANCE

TYPE TYPE

TYPE

PROGRAM

TYPE

Ecological Landscapes

Community Open Spaces

CommunityOpen Open Community Spaces Spaces Spacesthat thatare areused usedfor for Spaces recreationand andsocial social recreation gatherings gatherings

Playing Fields Plazas Formal Park Exhibition Space Pavilion TransitionalRecreation and Fitness Transitional

Transitional Landscapes Landscapes Landscapes

Temporarylandscapes landscapes Temporary thatclean cleansoil soiland andallow allow that fornew newlanscapes lanscapes for


Performative Trees + Plants All trees and plantings on the site are resistant to drought and air pollution, and help treat contaminated soils and groundwater. The trees in White Poplar

London Planetree

Large Trees

Gingko

this palette thrive in a variety of soil types, and are also salt tolerant.

Scholar Tree

Persimmon

Peach

Kaido Crabapple

Goldenrain Tree

Small Trees

Medium Trees

Chinese Juniper

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Water Treatment Systems on the Site The method for stormwater and greywater treatment and distribution is an important component in the successful functioning of the system and ecological framework for the site. Constructed wetlands will treat greywater primarily, but will also treat stormwater during the rainy season in July and August. A forebay is the starting point for water treatment, and this may be either a subsurface or surface space, depending on the site constraints. Slope is important in the constructed wetland system, as the goal is to keep

the water in the system for as long as possible. A slope of less than 2% is optimal for slowing water flow down the slope and into the treatment system. The proposed wetland system employs terracing and swales to direct water flow. Function thus creates the form that the wetland systems and the buildings surrounding them take on the site.

Plant storage NH3 CO2, CH4

N2 Volitilazation

Sedimentation

Surface Wate

r

Adsorption Precipitation

Detritus Soil Plant uptake

Burial (Soil Storage)

Decomposition Organic C

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Denitrification

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Wetland Surface Flow Rain Water

Open water surface Fully vegetated ater Grey W

Canal

p

Multi

ls

nt cel

atme le tre

ion to Infiltrat

ground

water

Treatment capacity: 40,000 gallons per acre

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Museum District as a Demonstration Zone To demonstrate how the constructed wetlands could successfully function in an urban setting to help solve the Beijing’s issues of ground water depletion, storm water management, and a lack of green open space, we choose to redesign the museum district as proposed Beijing Planning Commission. As described previously in this volume, the district is sited to the east of the canal, running in a straight line from north to south.

In this plan, three new museums will be located between Bird’s Nest and the existing technology and science museum. However, the current plan does not respond to the canal from an ecological standpoint, as the museums are separated from the canal by a vehicular drive that blocks access between the site and areas east of the canal. In addition, due to the static layout of the blocks, the view of the rest of the Olympic Green is blocked

China Science and Technology Museum 102,000 m2 National Art Museum of China 128,600 m2

China National Arts and Crafts 90,000 m2

National Centre of Chinese Traditional Culture 59,790 m2

This map of the planned Museum District (courtesy of the Beijing Planning Commission) demonstrates the static, linear siting of the proposed museums and their lack of interaction with the existing canal. We propose incorporating wetlands into the building sites to better link the district with the rest of the Olympic Green.

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and reduces the visitors’ incentive to move around the site. The current layout furthermore creates a continuous edge along the street that will reduce the visibility of the Olympic Green from outside the park.

be the design of performative landscapes and public open spaces. An interactive wetlands water treatment system will be visible to and educate the public about the remediation process.

Our redesign of the museum district considers the museums as an integrated part of a larger ecological framework, and our main focus will

Our site approach contains a few components. First, we position the museums for a better interaction with other components in the Olympic Green, and we also try to preserve the visibility

1. Museums are repositioned from the original plan to interact with central elements of the Olympic Green, such as the existing and extended canal.

2. The museums featuring Chinese culture are grouped together, and the national art museum is placed on the peninsula created between the existing an extended branch of the canal.

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of the Olympic green from outside the park. The museums featuring Chinese culture are grouped together, with the national art museum on the peninsula. Finally, the design of wetlands in the museum district follows three major principles. First, treating waste near the waste water source is paramount, and the museums therefore each have a watershed for treatment. Second, in order to treat grey water, we locate pre-treatment forebays near car accessible locations. Third, we grade the topography to drive water from the constructed wetland towards the canal. Finally, the design of our pathways pathway design of our path is trying to create convenient pedestrian connections for the whole museum district.

3. Waste water is treated near the source (museums), with pre-treatment forebays near roadways. Slopes direct water through the wetlands and finally to the canal following filtering and treatment.

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4. Pathways running through the site provide viewing stations through which visitors can experience and understand the wetlands systems.

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The final museum district site plan, showing the placement of wetlands, their relationships with the museum structures, and the pedestrian pathway network that leads visitors through wetland demonstration zones.

0

100m

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Peninsula Site Section The peninsula-constructed wetland integrates the built environment with the landscape by connecting the museums to the water treatment system. This section shows how grey water moves from the adjacent buildings to the pre- treatment forebay and the constructed wetland.

Rain Garden

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Interior Courtyard

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Constructed Wetland


Forebay

Sunken Plaza

Axis

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Peninsula Constructed Wetlands

The design of the wetlands for the two museums featuring Chinese art and culture are inspired by the traditional Chinese waterside pavilion, where water is the central spatial element in a design that creates a sense of nature and serenity. Pathways acknowledging the topography of the site move pedestrians through the wetland, and between canals and museums. The museums frame the constructed wetland, reactivate the public realm, and foster developing ecologies.

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Extending Open Green Space

Re Re


eactivating the Public ealm

Providing Sustainable Water Management

Fostering Emergent Ecologies

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Bamboo Walk At eye level, the pathway through the constructed wetland creates a private and shaded expereince of the wetlands treatment system. The walkway is terraced downward using shallow steps that follow the levels of the wetland treatment steps, making this not only a pleasant promenade for the visitor, but also a place where the visitor can interact with the ecological systems on the site and understand their function. This is an important component of the project, as creating awareness of the water scarcity issues will hopefully foster public demand for more natural infrastructure across the city.

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Creating pleasant water surface with with floating plants


Integrating public open space with functional landscape

Framing intimate scale with a symbolic plant

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REACTIVATING OLYMPIC VENUES Current Conditions Repurposing the Venues Structural Considerations Axis Conditions and Proposals An Entertainment District on Olympic Green


REPURPOSING VENUES

To align the venues with the new ecological framework on the site, we repurpose the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube as a new National Biome and Academy of Chinese Herbs, respectively. These uses will contribute to improving Beijing’s water management, and will counter Beijing’s lack of high-quality public open spaces. The proposal incorporates ecological and production landscapes, in addition to important blue and green infrastructure and community open space.

鸟巢与水立方(简介.详细内容请参考英文文 本)我们的方案倡议将鸟巢与水立方的部分空间 分别改造为国家植物馆与中国草药馆。国家植物 馆当中可以囊括生长在不同气候与地区的植物, 而中国草药管则不仅将展示中国的传统草药,并 且将成为普及和推广中国传统医学的场所。 为了将适应鸟巢的新功能,我们的方案保留了鸟 巢标志性的外观,但提议将内部的钢筋混凝土结 构(也就是现有的看台部分)移除。水立方的 ETFE膜为使其成为天然的植物种植暖房。在对水 立方的改造当中,我们保留了大部分的比赛场 馆,只用水立方南面一部分相对独立的空间来进 行改造。

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30 m

30 m

Reactivating Olympic Venues

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4B 6

1

2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Flexible space under structure (Farmer’s market, exhibition space, art jam) A retreat place (bamboo walk) Performance Stage and seating Two biomes (Tropical Rainforest, Mediterranean biome) Observation deck in the Tropical Rainforest biome Event space at the Mediterranean biome

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


A New National Biome for the Bird’s Nest The National Biome will allow visitors to experience international natural landscapes, as the programming will include demonstrations of different climates and plant species. Beijing residents can come here to relax and learn about nature on a global scale. There are two main biomes within the new National Biome: the tropical rainforest and the Mediterranean tundra. These two biomes will enrich visitors’ experience of the Olympic Green.

through the canal’s wetland recycling system will irrigate plants within the biomes, and the canal branches will end in a water retention basin. The basin will be used to manage stormwater runoff, helping to prevent flooding on the site and in surrounding neighborhoods, and will also prevent downstream erosion and improve water quality near the canal. A pedestrian pathway guides visitors to an open event space, which moves through a bamboo walk. Flex space around the perimeter of the structure provides ample open spaces for community uses.

Such diverse landscapes are supported by rerouting the southern end of the canal underneath the Bird’s Nest structure. Water filtered

4A 5

1

3

30 m

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The Academy of Chinese Herbs The Academy of Chinese Herbs continues the theme of productive landscapes seen throughout the Olympic Green by repurposing the Water Cube as a greenhouse. The Academy will showcase the long local history of Chinese herbs and medicine. A planted landscape will function as an indoor herb farm, with other public and private uses integrated into the building. The Academy of Herbs complements the landscapes in the National Biome by providing a local to global experience of plant species as the visitor moves between the two repurposed venues.

6

7

30 m

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Baical Skullcap

Rattan Palm

Sandarac Tree

Gallery Catasetum Orchid

Blue Throatwort

Strangler Fig

Widow Iris

Chinese Snake Gourd

Chinese Senna

Above: This program matrix presents a few examples of the wide variety of plants that could be experienced within the Academy of Herbs and the National Biome. Between the two repurposed venues, the visitor will be able to see and learn about plants from local and global origins.

4 3 5

2 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Herbs retail Tea house Museum Exhibition space Education center Indoor herbs agricultural farm Research office

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INCORPORATING ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK INTO THE VENUES

Two branches created for irrigation of plants and filtration Planted vegetation Bird’s Nest location

Retention basin Infiltration basin terminus

1 2 Mediterranean biome with ETFE material

Tropical rainforest biome with ETFE material

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Performance stage/ Event space

Pedestrian pathway to performance stage

Bamboo walk

Flexible space

3 4 An integrated ecological and global open space

Ecological landscape

Community open space

Blue & green infrastructure

Reactivating Olympic Venues

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Looking into the Repurposed Birds Nest

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A Bird’s Eye View of the Repurposed Birds Nest

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STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Water Cube

These projects are made possible by the construction techniques and materials used in the Water Cube and Bird’s Nest. The two layers of ETFE skin of the Water Cube create and air pillow between the two layers of the wall, which makes this the perfect space for a greenhouse.

Existing Water Cube Plan (Source (left and below): Architectures Olympiques. Beijing: Parenthesis, 2008, p. 46, 50, 53.)

ETFE Skin

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Birds Nest

Two independent structural systems

The Birds Nest is comprised of two separate structures – the outer, decorative layer, and an inner concrete core that can be removed without compromising the structural integrity of the building. This enables us to remove the stadium seating entirely, and replace it with the proposed new uses.

27m - 34m

Primary Steel Structure

Secondary Steel Structure

Concrete Bowl for seating

Two independent structural systems 27m - 34m

Two independent structural systems 27m - 34m

Primary Steel Structure Steel structure scattered around the perimeter

Secondary Steel Structure

ETFE panels panels at ETFE atroof roof Primary Steel Structure

Secondary Steel Structure

Steel scatteredaround around Steel structure structure scattered thethe perimeter Steel structure scattered around the perimeter

Two independent structural systems

Primary Steel Structure

Secondary Steel Structure

permimeter

Primary Steel Secondary Steel (Source:Structure Architecture Magazine, 2008: 7/8, p. 777.Structure Architectures Olympiques. Beijing: Parenthesis, 2008, p. 31, 36.)

Co fo

Concrete Bowl for seating

ETFE pan

ETFE panels at roof

Concrete Bowl for seating

Concrete Bowl for seating

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A REDESIGNED CULTURAL AXIS Running between the two venues is the Cultural Axis, which we propose treating to reduce its scale and bring it into line with the ecological framework set for the site, and to form a better bridge between the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube. As explored in earlier chapters, the Axis that runs north to south through Beijing is more conceptual than physical. The distance between monuments along its length varies widely, as does the size of the monuments themselves. This allows us to play with and challenge its form while still respecting its historical significance as a monument. We rescale the Axis into three distinct sections within the Green. First, the southern portion connects the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube by creating intimate public spaces between the two landmarks, effectively reducing the scale of the Axis. Light landscaping allows clear sight lines between the two venues.

The second section at the midpoint of the Green and in front of the Convention Center showcases the proposed productive landscapes and water recycling systems. The axis is graded here to slope toward the canal, creating clear sight lines to the water that make visible the green infrastructure on the site. An orchard of crabapple, persimmon, and peach trees, as proposed above, provides an enclosed, pleasant atmosphere for pedestrians traversing the axis. Finally, the northern section the Axis will become more densely landscaped, blending the Green into the more densely forested Forest Park.

Nature

dense foliage heavy landscaping

Green Showcase

orchards (productive) highlight canal emphasis on performative green landscapes

Public Space

small plazas seating/benches light landscaping

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中轴线(简介.详细内 容请参考英文文本) 根据我们的方案对奥林匹克公园提出的总体规 划,贯穿公园的中轴线将被分为三个主题区段。 中轴线南段作为联系鸟巢和水立方之间的公共空 间。中段毗邻国家会议中心,水道和博物馆区, 营造从会议中心到水道的自然坡面,方便行人欣 赏水道沿岸的自然景观与对面的博物馆建筑。北 段连接森立公园,强调垂直绿色景观的构建,形 成由城市肌理到郊野环境的自然过渡。

Before: a plan of the axis as it exists currently, demonstrating the large open spaces between the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube at the southern end of the site.

60 m 270 m

After: a plan showing the proposed landscaping on the axis. Distinct pedestrian pathways are added, trees provide shade, and two bicycle lanes allow traffic to move through the site. Gently rising and falling topography creates variation within the landscape.

Reactivating Olympic Venues

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AN ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICT ON THE GREEN

商务文娱综合体

Directly southeast of the National Stadium, we envision a new entertainment district across the canal. The new development will link the surrounding neighborhood residents to the Olympic Green through attractive retail uses and a human scale that is in contrast with the neighborhood blocks and the large venues on the Green. The area will highlight human scale development inspired by Sanlitun, but with a green twist, adding new ecological infrastructure such as green roofs and a wetland mechanism that leverages the positioning of the canal to treat graywater. In this system, the subsurface flow system works whereby rainwater goes to the rainwater cistern and graywater is pretreated in the pre-treatment tank underground. Then, the rainwater and graywater reenters the water canal around the buildings for filtering processes. After filtration, the filtered water returns back into the canal.

TER ED WA

FILTER

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k r bac wate ty d e r i te the c of fil tion ystem in u b i r Dist water s e to th

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RAIN

GREYWATER

RAIN

GREYWATER

我们提议在鸟巢的西南角,也就是北四环和北辰 东路的交汇处,设立一个新的商务文娱综合体。 作为一个新的消费与娱乐场所,这个区域将服务 于周边社区居民,以及所有奥林匹克公园的使用 者。这个综合体的设计结合了雨水和污水处理, 并且在设计中强调了建筑群和邻近水道的联系。

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio

Green roof Pre-treatment Tank Rainwater Cistern


Buildings Bridging between buildings Water

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GREEN RESEARCH DISTRICT Why Green, Why Here? Proposed Industry Program Design Intent Design Proposals Implications for Beijing


WHY GREEN, WHY HERE? Beijing is experiencing rapid population and economic growth, with an expected 400% increase in GDP over the next 15 years. The Beijing Planning Commission identifies five economic centers of the city, one of which is in the northwestern quadrant of the Olympic Park. Hospitality is the target sector for this center of growth, as the convention center is located on the park, and presumably can attract hotels and hospitality firms to cluster here. Commercial office real estate reports from 4th Quarter of 2012 likewise identify the Beijing Olympic Park area as a future growth location that is beginning to attract and accommodate the city’s ever-increasing need for Class A office space. Yet the hospitality sector is not the highest and best use of the Olympic Park. The Park is a highly visible icon of national pride, and as such offers an ideal location for showcasing more innovative industries that would better respond to Beijing’s needs.

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In the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Beijing expresses a desire to become the green hub of China through investments in green technology companies that can bring positive changes to the city’s pollution levels and address water shortage issues. The Olympic Park provides an ideal opportunity for Beijing to live up to these promises through the establishment of a green technology cluster that takes advantage of the constructed wetlands on the site, forming demonstration areas that are useful in research and development of water treatment systems, their expansion across the city and country, and design of sewage system infrastructure. With wetlands research at the heart of this cluster, related anchor industries in the cluster would include intelligent building systems and smart grid technology research and design; materials development and testing, including

CBD Secondary core finance area Media center Consulting & Service industries

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Finance Street Business & Finance center 1,500 financial institutions

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Zhongguancun Science Park High-Tech Research and Development University links

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Olympic Park Hospitality Convention Center Airport Transportation & Logistics

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绿色科技产业园 agricultural materials that could form links with the productive landscapes proposed for the Park; and green electronic product design. These uses will be the center of Beijing’s green industry, and it is off of these sectors that the green technology hub will be built. From this hub will emerge innovations in technology that when implemented across the city will help solve Beijing’s pollution and water scarcity issues.

北京将奥林匹克公园确定为城市的主要经济中心 之一,以商务会展与旅游为主要发展目标。另 外,有研究显示奥林匹克公园地段有极大的潜力 成为未来北京的A级办公区域。 我们认为商务会 展与旅游并不是奥林匹克公园的最佳功能定位。 结合十二五规划中对把北京发展为绿色研究与科 技中心的愿景,我们提议将奥林匹克公园的一部 分发展为绿色科研产业园。一方面,新的产业园 可以将前述方案中提议的部分生态景观(如水处 理湿地等)作为研究基地,另一方面,新的绿色 科技产业园可以作为实现与提升奥林匹克公园生 态景观的技术支持。此外,产业园还可以借助现 有的商务与会展设施,提升融资机遇,实现从科 研到生产的跨越。绿色科技产业园设置在奥林匹 克公园西北角与奥运村之间。在奥林匹克公园内 的部分主要为科技研发和展览基地,其设计与布 局响应了产业特色。而在公园以外的部分则发展 为高密度绿色商务区,主要承担相关的商务功 能。

“The building industry should extend green buildings and green construction, and focus on the optimization of the structure... with advanced building techniques, materials, and information technology.” 12th Five-Year Plan, Part III, Chapter 9, Section 1

“In the energy conservation and environmental protection industry, focus on the development of key technical equipment for efficient energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling, products and services.” “...carry out trials of intelligent power grid construction...” 12th Five-Year Plan, Part III, Chapter 10, Section 1 Green Research District

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SITE PROGRAM We propose locating this Green Research District on the northwest corner of the Olympic Park. The location is ideal as an economic growth zone because it is sited in between two Line 8 subway stops that connect to the CBD and to outlying

suburbs. With the addition of our proposed stop on Line 15 to the west of the Research District, the blocks the west of the research zone provide ample space for a high-density office district that is tied to research occurring on the park.

MATERIALS RESEARCH

Cement R&D Plastics R&D Agricultural Materials

WATER TREATMENT AND SUPPLY

Testing of Building Materials Water Testing Water Treatment Research Purification Systems

BUILDING SYSTEMS DESIGN

Implementation Research Smart Grid Technology Intelligent Systems Design

GREEN HIGH-TECH

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Electronic Product Design Nanotechnology


terials

Eco-friendly Eco-friendly productsproducts development development Craft producers Craft producers Sales Sales Design firms Design firms Implementation Implementation firms firms

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rch

sign

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Consulting Consulting to otherto cities other cities Small-scale Small-scale manufacturing manufacturing Construction Construction companies companies Smart grid Smart implementation grid implementation IT serviceITproviders service providers Prototype Prototype manufacturing manufacturing

Green Research District

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SITE PROGRAM The four main industry sectors will be concentrated in four areas witin the district. Water treatment supply research will take advantage of the extended canal branch that runs through the research district. Green high-tech industries, which require more daylight than some other proposed industries for the site, are given the tallest buildings with the most windows. Materials research to the south east is housed in buildings that are low to the ground, as clean laboratory spaces can be provided in underground levels. Finally, buildings design and research industries are located at the western edge of the site.

WATER TREATMENT / SUPPLY RESEARCH

HIGH-TECH

BUILDING DESIGN RESEARCH

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MATERIALS RESEARCH


Adjcent to the research district, we propose a high-rise commercial zone that provides office space for the green research district. The office district extends the water treatment systems on Olympic Green out into the surrounding blocks, providing a demonstration of how water recycling infrastructure can be combined with large-scale public open spaces to create a more accessible and vibrant public realm, while still addressing Beijing’s pressing water scarcity issue. The proposed links between office blocks and research district zones are shown below.

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DESIGN INTENT + SITE APPROACH Our design intent for the research district on the Park is to use the proposed canal extension and wetlands to make an ecologically-performative park; to provide a space that remains integrated with the Olympic Park; and to exhibit performative building design. We envision this research district as not being merely buildings within a park, but as a true building landscape.

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We began with the blocks created by the extension of the Bird’s Nest pattern throughout the site.

Layering buildings on top of these shapes created the basic form of the research district.

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Taking the angle of the sun into account and the daylighting requirements of the proposed industries, courtyards were cut into the buildings.

A topographics layer was then added to the site that directs stormwater and greywater runoff into the wetlands areas and into the canal.

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On top of the now sloped buildings are performative roofscapes of varying types.

The building rooves form an integral part of the Olympic Green park landscape, as buildings that front the Green and Forest Park slope to ground level, allowing visitors to experience the roof-top landscapes, in addition to the public courtyards.

Green Research District 103


DESIGN PROPOSALS Within the research park, the landscape typologies identified in the Ecological Framework are applied to courtyards and rooftops. Wetlands surrounding the canal are functional and provide the water treatment industries on site with applied research zones. Ecological landscapes are sited on rooftops with no human access, providing an ideal area in which plant and wildlife can thrive.

Blue + Green Infrastructure

Community open spaces and hardscaped plazas fill in the remainder of the spaces, all of which are accessible to the public via the series of pathways that runs through the site. Landscapes vary throughout the courtyard sites, creating a variety of different experiences of the space. Bamboo groves that surround pathways create private-feeling spaces, while trees lining courtyards evoke a different experience.

Ground Plan

Ecological Landscape Community Open Space Public Plazas Extended Canal

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0

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The roofscapes also vary across the site, with four main typologies applied. Tall grasses are used on publicly accessible roofs, while wildflowers and native plants are applied to those that are inaccessible to the public. Water conserving plants such as seedum are applied to rooves near the canal. Overall, the changing landscapes across the roofs give the viewer from both the ground and the rooftop a vista of varied landscapes that blend into the larger Olympic Green and Forest Park sites.

Roof Plan

Proposed Urban Office Center

Green Research District 105


The section below demonstrates how accessible the research district is to the public, and how the district, office zone, and Olympic Green are interconnected.

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Green Research District 107


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URBAN DESIGN + PUBLIC REALM Existing Conditions Performative Zoning Guidelines Transforming Neighborhoods Outside of Olympic Green Implications for Future Development


CURRENT CONDITIONS Our interventions thus far have focused primarily on the Olympic Green to capitalize on its Olympic investments as an ecological, economic, entertainment, and educational center. However, while the Olympic Green received a substantial portion of the total investment in the Games, an even bigger amount was poured into citywide infrastructure, including the subway line which currently connects the Green with the rest of the network. With the subway system continuing to expand to meet the growing population, the City has an enormous opportunity to change development patterns to better accommodate this growth and ensure a more sustainable future. Our final intervention harnesses these remaining investments to create a more connected, pedestrian-friendly public realm that is responsive to unique forces throughout the city. The neighborhoods immediately east of the Olympic Green were largely developed before Beijing won the Olympic bid and are laid out with the traditional orthogonal street typology that defines a series of megablocks. They are by any account enormous, with most measuring at least 300 by 500 meters. This typology presents a number of issues which we aim to alleviate through a series of performative zoning initiatives.

解构巨型街区/公共 空间设计 作为收尾方案,我们将视线移到邻近奥林匹克公 园的城市街区当中,探索如何利用北京对地下轨 道交通的投资,在诸多限制与前提下解决北京的 巨型街区问题,并且通过城市设计,响应北京传 统的城市肌理。奥林匹克公园东面的巨型街区缺 乏与奥林匹克公园的互动,其密度分布于商业形 态不能良好地利用已有的或将开通的地铁站点, 巨型街区本身也无法构成宜人的城市环境。我们 的城市设计方案强调空间的开放度与节点的可达 性,建筑密度与商业形态对重要交通设施的响 应,街道立面的设计,光照,以及对居民区开敞 空间的保证。 在我们的方案里,传统胡同的“ 鱼骨”结构被应用于改造这些巨型街区。如此, 即使北京由于住房需求的增长而建设高层建筑, 传统城市的空间逻辑依然可以在我们的设计当中 得到一些体现。最重要的是,我们的方案证明, 在同样的住房密度下,北京街道可以更通达,更 适宜步行。

A model of the blocks surrounding the Beijing Olympic Park at the Beijing Planning Exhibition Hall.

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Missed opportunities at transit stations

Long distances between Intersections

Development ignores Olympic Green assets

Existing conditons in the blocks to the east of Olympic Green

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DESIGN GUIDELINES There are missed development opportunities at transit stations and long distances between intersections, and development overall ignores Olympic Green assets. First, development on these blocks is unresponsive to the Olympic Green. Frontage on the park is poor, in many instances dominated by lowdensity residential development. Porosity on block perimeters is lacking, yielding long, uninteresting walks for pedestrians. While open space is proximate, it is typically fenced off as part of private developments. Taller buildings within the megablocks are mostly “towers in the park� that are programmed on a development-to-development basis, rather than as a blockwide program, and thus cast long shadows over substantial portions of the block. Finally, transit stations in the neighborhood are isolated from surrounding development, and, further, this development lacks the density and mix of uses that would mark these nodes as transit-

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oriented development. The example below of a station on Line 5, just two blocks east of Olympic Green, presents a negative example of current patterns. The raised station is surrounded by autooriented, low density uses, and transit-adjacent residential development has been constructed to the south of the station. This type of development encourages unidirectional subway usage during peak periods while creating excess latent capacity, causing the enormous citywide subway investments to go underutilized. While this type of missed opportunity is typical of areas surrounding many transit stations outside the 3rd Ring Road, there are examples of stations with higher-intensity land use that simultaneously preserve a vibrant public realm. One such example is Wanjing Station, just three stops east of the previous example on Line 15, an extension of which is being constructed presently to connect the Olympic Green with the Central Business District in Chaoyang. In the background you can see dense, mixed-use development immediately adjacent to the subway station, while in the foreground active streets create a pedestrian-friendly public realm.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


Maximum 180 meters between intersections

Maximum 60 meters between intersections

Pedestrian paths

Performative Zoning: Complete Streets

High-density commercial (mixed use on podium) Medium-density (residential mixed use) Low-density residential or civic use Neighborhood parks and constructed wetlands Performative Zoning: Land Use responds to forces 0

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Our interventions aim to combat these issues through a series of performative zoning regulations. They include:

which features an arterial north-south road and a hierarchy of east-west streets. In our scheme, we add additional north-south roads to achieve the 180-meter maximum distance between intersections, while a series of pedestrian connections and minor streets punctuate the block from east to west. Further, pedestrian paths that serve as extensions of the radials emanating from the Olympic Green penetrate the most western blocks, creating both a natural progression from and acknowledgement of the re-design of the Green.

1. Porosity 2. Zoning for density and use that responds to area forces 3. Continuous street frontage 4. Sunlighting 5. 30% open space In certain cases, some of these requirements will be more restrictive than others, resulting in a variety of built environments.

With the megablock broken down into smaller blocks, we employ zoning regulations to distribute densities and uses in a way that is responsive to both area forces, like the Olympic Green and

To achieve porosity, we are adapting the “fishbone” structure of traditional hutong development,

1:1

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Major road 38 m

Parcel 60 m

Path 8m

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Minor road 15 m

Path 8m

Major road 38 m

Continuous street frontage through podium development

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Minor road 15 m

27°

Parcel 60 m

27°

Neighborhood park + pedestrian paths 78m

Diagram of sunlighting

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Parcel 60 m

minor road 15 m


subway stations on the major arterials; and neighborhood needs, like medium and low-density residential and civic mixed-use on interior minor roads and pedestrian paths. Further, at least one entire block is devoted to open space. This large contiguous space provides ample opportunity to incorporate performative wetlands to treat water from surrounding developments, and can be connected to the greater system that we are proposing around the canal. Podiums that create continuous street frontage can encourage a vibrant pedestrian realm, avoiding the pitfalls of the tower-in-the-park typology. To achieve this, we will require mixed-use podiums with a maximum height equal to the road they front. In areas of higher density, these podiums may have taller towers on top; however, street

definition will primarily be defined through the heights and uses that front the street, marking these podiums as important in the creation of a human scale complete street. Finally, sunlighting on interior streets will be achieved through a series of maximum allowable building envelopes based on the angle of the sun at noon during the winter solstice. This will allow the sun to penetrate the ground floors of buildings on northern sections of street canyons for increased amounts of time throughout the day. The taller buildings allowable on the major arterials will help control the prevailing easterly winds from penetrating the block indiscriminately, while the porosity incorporated in the overall scheme will also allow these winds to better flush out pollutants from east-west roads.

New blocks developed with performative zoning regulations. 0

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TRANSFORMING NEIGHBORHOODS Zooming in on the existing conditions on one block fronting the Olympic Green, development of varying densities coexist indiscriminately, access to block interiors is limited, and there are missed development opportunities fronting Olympic Green. Under the proposed performative zoning regulations, consistent porosity is achieved through the fishbone street hierarchy that is closer in scale to the hutong block than to the current megablock sizes. Building densities respond to area forces and neighborhood needs, and sunlight exposure and wind control are achieved through building envelope regulations and allowances.

Future Line 15 Subway Station

Towers in the Park

Lack of Public Open Space

Long Distances Between Intersections Low Density Park Frontage

Olympic Green

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Future Line 15 Subway Station

Low Density Civic fronting Open Space

Minor Streets Exposed to Sun

Porosity through Fishbone structure High Density Park Frontage

Olympic Green

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A closer, on-the-ground look further reveals how our regulations transform the public realm from their existing state to a pedestrian-friendly, connected neighborhood. Building envelopes allow sun access; radial pedestrian paths allow visual access to key Olympic facilities; taller development takes advantage of the Olympic Green as the asset that it is; and minor interior streets are fronted by podium development that creates well-defined street canyons.

Path and road network create porosity and visual access to Olympic venues

Taller buildings may front the Green

Limited building heights on block interior streets allow sun to penetrate

Bird’s Nest

Interior streets have a maximum width of ten meters

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Convention Center

Street canyons with a maximum height-towidth ratio of 1:1 create strong street definition and human scale

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In this rendering of a portion of the block adjacent to a planned subway station, interior streets that originate from major arterials provide easy access to the rest of the block, and further connections are facilitated through pedestrian paths and open

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space amenities. This scheme helps leverage continued investments in subway infrastructure that began in preparation for the Olympics, while also serving the needs of neighborhoods on block interiors.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Post-Olympic Planning Studio


IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT While our performative zoning regulations have focused on blocks in immediate proximity to Olympic Green, we intend for these to be transferrable all over the city as it continues to grow and incorporate new transportation

infrastructure. This intervention, in tandem with those we have implemented on Olympic Green, can provide a model for sustainable development across the rapidly growing city.

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CONCLUSION

总结


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In combination, our proposals will result in an Olymic Green that is active close to twenty-four hours of the day. With the addition of business uses on the site through the Green Research District, tourist attractions in the Bird’s Nest and Water Cube, the reoriented museum district, and landscaping for recreation, activity will be heaviest during the morning and afternoon hours. Retail uses on the Green combined with tourist attractions will provide activity in the day and into the evening hours. Increased connections between the Green and surrounding blocks will ensure that the site’s varied programs are well-used. Through this reprogramming of the site, the Olympic Green will become a destination for residents of the surrounding neighborhoods, tourists and visitors to the city, and residents interested in experiencing Beijing’s innovative green infrastructure.

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As a result of rapid physical and economic growth, Beijing faces a set of key issues that must be addressed if Beijing is to remain a growing, global city. Without serious and targeted efforts to combat air pollution, water scarcity, the lack of open space, and a poor public realm, Beijing’s ability to compete as a global city will be hindered. Already, a New York Times article of April 22, 2013 indicates that air pollution is leading parents to flee the city to protect their children from the serious health impacts of high smog levels.iv While increasing green open spaces will not necessarily improve air quality immediately, a serious greening of the city would certainly help in cleansing air in concentrated green zones. And while the government has banned the drilling of wells for domestic water consumption within the 5th Ring Road, the continually growing population will only increase demand for a water supply that cannot keep up. The Olympic Green presents a clear opportunity to leverage the massive investments made for the 2008 Olympic Games to combat these very issues.

Our proposals for an ecological and wetlands infrastructure, repurposing venues as plant demonstration zones, a green research hub, and an improved public realm are an opportunity not only to start reversing the course Beijing is taking environmentally, but is also a chance for Beijing and China to give meaning to the Olympic legacy. Beijing can turn this symbol of national pride into a transformative piece of infrastructure that will truly draw attention to China as a country that cares about the health and quality of life of its citizens, and is making efforts to reverse earlier decisions that led to its current issues. And all of these programs are relatively straightforward to implement. Were these proposals replicated across the city ten times, Beijing would reduce its fresh water demand by 11 billion gallons a year. The Olympic Green would become not just another mixed-use retail development, but would have enhanced significance as a symbol of China’s investment in its people and the sustainability of its cities, prepared to continue growing sustainably and healthily.

Forest Park provided the city with transformative water recycling features, which if replicated would significantly reduce the city’s fresh water consumption. Moreover, Forest Park provides a green haven for residents seeking freshly filtered air. Subway expansions are an essential component in reducing car use, which is a significant contributor to poor air quality. Shifting public realm typologies that better respond to highdensity transit nodes would also help to reduce air pollution.

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如何在城市空间、经济规模快速发展的同时强调 城市生态的可持续性对于北京异常重要。未来, 如果北京不能解决空气污染、水资源匮乏、开放 空间不足、以及公共空间活动欠佳等主要环境问 题,其走向世界城市的道路将举步维艰。事实 上,以空气污染为例,据纽约时报2013年4月22 日的报道,空气污染问题已经使部分父母带领孩 子“逃离”北京。虽然增加开放绿地的方案不能 迅速改善全市空气质量,但至少可以使绿地周边 空气得到适当净化。同时,虽然北京政府已经禁 止了在五环以内开井取水, 持续的人口增长还 是会对北京的供水能力带来巨大挑战。

业园,以及提升城市公共空间。其目的不仅在强 调北京在提升生态,环境与人居方面的潜在机 遇,也在于鼓励北京给奥林匹克遗产开发赋予更 高的意义。本方案的实施将能使北京如2008年奥 运会一样,再次吸引世界的目光。而这一次世 界将看到的,是北京关心市民健康与生活品质、 摆脱不可持续的发展模式的决心。从更大意义上 说,奥林匹克公园的再造将成为中国踏上可持续 发展道路的象征与标志。

奥林匹克公园是北京试图利用奥运投资改善城市 环境问题的重要尝试。森林公园所使用的水处 理系统,如能推而广之,将大大减少城市供水负 荷。同时,森林公园也是居民享受新鲜空气的好 去处。而地铁线的修建,有效减少机动车使用 量,也将在一定程度上有利于改善城市空气质 量。 我们的方案围绕四个主题展开: 营造功能性生 态景观,改奥运场馆为植物园,建设绿色科技产

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ENDNOTES i. Lunshi, Lin. “Experts Make Huge Revisions to Population Projections,” Caixin Online, 6 June 2011, http://english.caixin.com/2011-06-01/100265200.html (Access date: Febuary 2, 2013). ii. “Water is Beijing’s Dirty Little Secret,” NBCNewsOnline, 7 March 2009, http://www.nbcnews. com/id/23373004/ns/world_news-world_environment/t/water-beijings-dirty-little-olympicssecret/#.UXwt4bXkvzx (Access date: January 28, 2013). iii. “Beijing faces water shortage and land subsidence,” The Watchers, 29 February 2012, http:// thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2012/02/29/beijing-faces-water-shortage-and-land-subsidence/ (Access date: January 28, 2013). iv. Wong, Edward. “In China, Breathing Becomes a Childhood Risk,” New York Times Online, 22 April, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/23/world/asia/pollution-is-radically-changingchildhood-in-chinas-cities.html?pagewanted=all (Access date: April 22, 2013).

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LEVERAGING OLYMPIC INVESTMENTS

Department of City Planning, Spring 2013

Leveraging INvestments for the 2008 Beijing Olympics  
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