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MUMBAI EASTERN WATERFRONT PLAN University of Pennsylvania School of Design CPLN703: Planning Studio Fall 2015 1


02

EXISTING CONDITIONS MUMBAI, INDIA

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OPEN SPACE As the city of Mumbai has grown in

could accommodate the diverse religious

terms of population, development, and

needs of the city but still allow the ground

overall density, the open space fabric

space to be used for recreation.13

Mumbai historical records indicate that

has been decreasing drastically. Open spaces typically include recreation uses,

The Importance of Mangroves

there were several islands around Mumbai

Site Area Open Space Network

during 1670. Since the developmental and

play grounds, parks, and gardens. It also

population pressure rapidly increased

includes invaluable natural assets like

Although few, there are some recreational,

and developed in the coastal area, it took

mangroves, wetlands, hills, forests, rivers,

gardens, and beaches adjacent to the

the toll of mangrove land. During the

creeks, beaches, ponds, lakes, and natural

Eastern

open

process of deforestation and reclamation,

coastline. In many ways, the state of open

spaces like the Marine Drive & Chowpatty

a few mangrove patches are still left in

spaces reflects the state and quality of

Beach, the Azad Maiden recreational

the heart of the city, seen along the Vasai

life within any city. Whether it is for the

park, and the Joseph Baptista Garden

Creek, Thane Creek, Manori, and Malad.

environment, economic vitality, or social

contribute to the quality of public life

By trapping silt, mangroves maintain

capital, the quality of public open spaces

within the city; where tourists, locals, and

the integrity of Mumbai’s shoreline.

in Mumbai reflects the performance of

recreational enthusiast can congregate.13

This is a vital service to the city as the

public life.

Marine Drive is a 4.3 km long boulevard in

shoreline is very prone to erosion. The

the southwest portion of our site. Major

recent monsoons rains in 2005 and the

events like the Republic Day of India,

following flooding disaster demonstrated

Indian Air Force airshow and Bombay

the consequence of tampering with

Tragically, the regional extent of Mumbai

Marathon are just a few examples of events

the ecology of fragile ecosystems like

depicts

isolated

that represent Mumbai both nationally

mangroves. Had Mumbai’s Mithi River

network of public open spaces. Open

and globally. Azad Maiden is a 25 acre

and Mahim creek mangroves not been

spaces compriseas 187.87 sq. km. of the

triangular shaped sports ground located

destroyed by builders, fewer people

overall 603 sq. km. of Mumbai.

near the Chhatrapati Shivazi Terminus

would have died and the property damage

Much of the contribution is comprised

station. It acts as a regular venue for

would have been dramatically less.

of the mangroves along the natural

school and recreational cricket matches,

coastlines and the national forests and

which has produced many international

parks in the northern portion of the city.

cricketers. Frequented by neighborhood

The gardens, playgrounds, and beaches

residents near our site area; the Joseph

Finally, the neighborhoods surrounding

all reflect less than 2% of the open space

Baptista Gardens is host to couples,

the Eastern Waterfront possess a number

network within the city. As a result, there

joggers, senior citizens, and those wishing

of cultural amenities that contribute to the

is little to no cohesive network of public

to find a peaceful atmosphere contrary to

areas character. There are a number of

spaces from a regional context. 13

the urban fabric.14

large gardens such as the Joseph Baptista

Community Assets

Marine Drive

northern and southern points of the study

One of the main assets to the urban form of

area respectively. The Jijamata Udyaan

In a city as large as Mumbai there is a huge

Mumbai is Marine Drive. This waterfront

Zoo is also present in the northern area

demand for cultural and social community

promenade is flanked by art-deco style

which attracts a number of visitors and

assets. Near the Eastern Waterfront, there

buildings. Primarily used as hotels and

neighbors a playground and garden.

are a number of parks and zoos, but none

residential buildings, commercial uses

Finally to the south is one of Mumbai’s

within the site itself. Land in Mumbai is at

are prominent at the street level. With

largest open spaces, Azad Maiden. This

such a premium, cemeteries are also used

an extreme shortage of green space,

array of parks, zoo, and open spaces

as park space out of necessity and plans

this drive helps mitigate the need for

provides amenities and enrichment for

have been proposed to convert existing

recreation space.

the community in eastern Mumbai.14

Greater Mumbai Open Space Network

a

fragmented

and

Waterfront.

Important

Cultural Assets

Garden and Sitaram Shinoy located in the

cemeteries into vertical structures which

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1980

2002

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi calls for Mumbai port land to be made available to the city for greening and recreation when JNPT is established

State of Maharashtra sets up a Task Force to review land allocations and look for synergies between the Port and Mumbai

1989 JNPT begins operations

2014

1988

Minister for Transport & Shipping appoints a Land Development Committee to examine redevelopment of 1,000 acres of underused land, Report Released in Late 2014

Government of India directive requires land not used for port operations to be released for recreation and greening

TIMELINE OF EVENTS LEADING TO PORT DECLINE AND REDEVELOPMENT

Timeline of Events Impacting the Port The events leading to the current condition of the port start with the construction of Nhava Sheva. To meet the modern requirements in the container shipping industry, the new port was constructed and led to the diversion of traffic from eastern Mumbai. During this time the Prime Minister of the time, Indira Ghandi committed that the land from the old port would be made available to the citizens for greening and recreation. This commitment was reaffirmed by the Indian government in a directive issued in 1988. In 1991 a total of 600 acres in lands from the old Cotton Mills were opened for development in Mumbai. This represented a large opportunity to provide amenities

infrastructure. An offshore container

which is affordable housing. Those living

port was built, and dredging efforts were

in the 14,000 informal settlements have

attempted unsuccessfully.

voiced through the APLI that they want

By 2014 attitudes shifted strongly towards

replacement or upgraded housing and

becoming more favorable to development

the city overall greatly needs additional

of unused port lands. This was largely

affordable housing. In addition the labor

the result of the Minister of Shipping,

union has also demanded affordable

Nitin Gadkari. Gadkari strongly supported

housing for its workers. Overall the public

redevelopment of some of the port lands

has voiced great opposition to more

and pledged to give 350 acres of the

commercial uses, such as those built by

area to the state or Maharashtra to build

private developers at the Cotton Mills.

affordable housing.

Gadkari has responded to these interests

the

Land

He also appointed

Development

Committee,

somewhat by pledging 350 acres to the

whose report concluded that the land

state government to be used to meet the

should be used to build transportation

needs for affordable housing.32 33

infrastructure, rail corridors and parks.

Environmental interests have also played a large part in shaping public opinion on the

Expectations

priorities of development. The mangroves

and affordable housing much needed for

The

government,

mostly

the public. However due to a legislative

the

recommendations

loophole these lands fell into the hands

Development Committee initially pushed

of private developers and were built

for the land to be developed almost evenly

without provide much benefits for those

between open space (30%), transportation

besides the elite. This event serves as a

(30%) and mixed use commercial and

case study that would significantly impact

industrial along with recreational uses

the political climate related to discussions

such as amusement parks and attractions.

about Mumbai Port. As a result politicians

These recommendations fall somewhat in

have pledged that no lands would fall into

line with the previous directive issued by

private hands, and that they would be

the government in 1988.

built to accommodate the public good.3

The public visioning plan proposed

It should be noted that throughout the

by APLI, which included community

2000s while political will rose towards the

and stakeholder input proposed some

development of the port, that the Mumbai

modification in expectations from the

Port Trust continued to invest in shipping

government’s proposals.

of

based the

on Land

32

toward the north have faced constant degradation and area crucial to the ability of the city to grow sustainably and the coast offers a wide variety of habitat for wildlife that activists want to see protected. The general community has also voiced great opposition to economic activity on the port that creates harsh negative environmental externalities such as ship breaking and the storage of coal. Both of these activities, the latter of which violates environmental restrictions, create a variety of public health risks for the surrounding area. 34

The first of 33


EASTERN WATERFRONT

PEOPLE/HOUSING 7,700 Port Employee Worker Housing 14,000 Informal Settlements 1.2 Million People in Surrounding Wards

GOVERNANCE/OWNERSHIP Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT) & Private Leasees Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai The State of Maharashtra Central Government of India

EMPLOYMENT 11,500 Registered Employees 6,000 Shipbreakers

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03

THE PLAN

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HOUSING FRAMEWORK HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

EQUITABLE HOUSING FRAMEWORK EXISTING TYPOLOGIES

INCREMENTAL(EWS):

LOW-INCOME Navi Wadis

MEDIUM-INCOME Modern Chawls

MARKET RATE Apartments

PROPOSED HEIGHTS

PROPOSED DENSITY

2-4 stories

/

5-8 stories

80du/acre

9-12 stories

150du/acre

13-20 stories

325du/acre

PROPOSED TYPOLOGIES

Sources: Filipe Balestra, Mitula.net, Percy Corner, Studio Toggle

The framework requires the rethinking of existing housing typologies, including EWS housing, low-income wadis, medium-income Sources: Filipe Balestra, Mitula.net, Percy Corner, Studio Togg chawls, and market rate apartment buildings. The framework’s proposed housing typologies feature increased heights and densities to allow for the provision of more equitable housing, amenities, public utilities, and green space.

48


ECO- TRAIL Ceremonial area

Flamingo Point

Sewri Fort & Koli Museum

Koli Fisher Dock

84


LOOKING FORWARD “At 21 million people within its municipal limits, Mumbai is the biggest, fastest, richest city in India, a city simultaneously experiencing a boom and a civic emergency....it is a maximum city, maximum in its exigencies, maximum in its heart.”

As Mumbai enters the 21st Century, it can

concerns. The plan defines resilience in

dream for the peoples of India. If you take

fulfill its aspiration to emerge as a major

the context of Mumbai and the Eastern

a walk around Mumbai you’ll see that

global city by demonstrating resilience

Waterfront and presents a vision and

everything – sex, death, trade, religion

in the face of economic shifts, inequality,

goals for its future development. The plan

– are lived out on the pavement. It is a

crumbling infrastructure, and the impacts

outlines frameworks, which serve as its

maximum city, maximum in its exigencies,

of climate change. The redevelopment

backbone throughout the entire site’s

maximum in its heart.”43

and reinvention of the city’s Eastern

development, as well as a structure and

The plan is ambitious and complex, much

Waterfront presents a unique opportunity

small district plans, to create catalytic

like the city and issues it aims to address.

for the city to address resiliency in one of

actions to spur resilient development

Resilience can be defined in many ways

its most isolated and underserved areas.

throughout the waterfront. Finally, the

not discussed in this plan, with different

Through this plan, Mumbai’s Eastern

plan describes implementation strategies

perspectives and emphases. As readers

Waterfront will demonstrate resilience,

and measures, drawing from the successes

of the plan examine all its elements,

reestablish Mumbai on a global stage,

and failures of similar case studies.

they may be left with many questions.

embrace and promote the city’s unique

“At 15 million people within its municipal

Hopefully, these discussion topics may

identity, and serve as a replicable model

limits, Mumbai is the biggest, fastest,

encourage further discussion on planning

of development.

richest city in India, a city simultaneously

for

The plan presents existing conditions of

experiencing

Waterfront.

the city and waterfront, illustrating their

emergency; an island-state of hope in a

density, vibrancy and complexity, as well

very old country. Because of the reach of

as their various prevailing and emerging

Bollywood movies, Mumbai is also a mass

a

boom

and

a

civic

resilience

in

Mumbai’s

Eastern

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Mumbai Eastern Waterfront Plan  

Fall 2015 Studio

Mumbai Eastern Waterfront Plan  

Fall 2015 Studio

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