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Century 21 Garden Suburb st

social housing on toronto’s edge the BLACK CREEK case study


Century 21 Garden Suburb st

social housing on toronto’s edge the BLACK CREEK case study

Nando Micale, Adjunct Assistant Professor Meng Cao, Miseon Kim, Mark J Kieser, Ke Lin, Zhen Qin, Hao Sun, Xin Tan, Simona Uzaite, Rui Zhang Department of City and Regional Planning, Spring 2014


foreword The University Pennsylvania students took on the challenge of studying the state of social housing in 3 cities on 3 continents as a way to understand and advance the physical, social and financial solutions for social housing in the 21st Century. This course of study included a broad survey of social housing models in recent history and current global trends, as a way to synthesis new approaches for their respective contexts. The students I was fortunate to guide studied social housing in the context of Canada’s open immigration policy, expanding economy, recent policies of disinvesting in their national housing stock, and suburban concentrations of poverty and social housing needs. While policy makers, planners and designers during the later part of the 20th Century focused on revitalizing inner-city neighborhoods blighted by concentrations of poverty and disinvestment, the challenge in many cities is poverty in

suburban locations. In Canada, this is exactly the challenge facing local governments, as they seek public-private models for revitalizing outer-fringe neighborhoods, which are plagued by crime and social isolation. For the City of Toronto, the second largest provider of social housing in North America, the challenge is how market-driven economics can be addressed in suburban, low-value locations. The work presented in this studio report sets forth a model for Toronto, North America, and potentially other developed nations, as they grapple with the future of suburbia and evolving social housing needs in a global economy. Nando Micale, FAIA, AICP / Principal WRT


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section i

15

section ii

Background

Existing Condition

TABLE OF CONTEXT

Regional Trian Station

Town center: Commercial and institutional b Central park Engagement of surrounding de

To the City

Highway Transit

43 rd

Landscape Plan

Self-sustaining agriculture

leva

en

Be

lt

Localized industry

e tiv uc od Pr

nd La

Range of housing income level

sc ap e

MASTER PLAN

Overall Plan

67

73 Stormwater Management

Green Energy

21st Century Garden Suburb Model

NTRO

59

Greenbelt and boulevards

rd

e Gr

4. Phasing/Relocation Plan

Master Plan

r te en

ry

3. Core Area Plan

4

va

ule

Bo

C wn To

t Indus

21st Century Garden Suburb 2. Landscape Plan 1. Overall Plan

53

section v

Central Park

Bou

section iv

31 5

Introduction to the Studio

section iii

Mixed-use development

77

Efficient Spatial transporta Design tion Sustainability

Housing | 21 Century Garden Subur to Social Studio Approachsection vii Section viii

section vi

Phasing

99

109

Financing

119

Conclusion


SECTION I


What? Where? And Why?

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDIO


Torontonians seek ideas on adaptive reuse, densification strategies, flexible housing models, site systems and social and civic realm design.


introduction to the studio What? Where? And Why?

While US cities have focused on dedensification, Toronto has identified the re-

Known as “apartment neighborhoods”, these 1960s and 1970s communities represent this next step and Torontonians seek ideas on adaptive reuse, densification strategies, flexible h o u s ing “re-development and models, site densification of the systems and “towers in the park” s o c i al and c i v i c re alm design, as well as sustainable building, green infrastructure, and construction technologies. Having already embarked on model programs both in the urban core and some close in suburbs, the sites that the TCH (who will serve as the client) has identified are in the Jane and Finch Corridor. This area has a diversity that is reflective of an immigrant and minority lower income demographic, found throughout the GTA.

section i | introduction to the studio

Much of the historical social housing models in Toronto are common to North American cities, with low-rise “different apartment blocks market and buil t af ter t he economic depression and a proliferation of forces” high-rises built following WWII. Unlike the US, the Canadian housing market is not deeply subsidized by mortgage interest deductions on income taxes or through Federally sponsored tax credits, and therefore are subject to different market and economic forces and are facing significant end of life-cycle financial and social pressures. These policy and market forces, coupled with Toronto’s growth economy (growing by 40% in the next 25 years) and a legacy of social housing in key locations near the expansion of their Metro, provide for a unique studio exploration for new models of social housing.

development and densification of the “towers in the park” model as the best approach to drive environmental, social, economic and cultural change. Specifically, the Toronto government and the Toronto Community Housing Corporation (TCH) seek to address climate change and economic opportunities in planned growth areas through the re-use of the buildings and underutilized land in these suburban neighborhoods. Regent Park represents Toronto’s most recent mixedincome redevelopment effort, but the shear number of high-rises and dispersion in the GTA will require Toronto to develop a variety of models tailored to a diverse suburban landscape.

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Growth communities around the globe are addressing affordability and innovation in sustainable development, for which the provision of social housing is key. The US can learn from each of these communities and through a comparison of their approaches. In North America, the greater Toronto Area (GTA) is addressing these issues in an economy fueled by immigration (250 million a year), global investment, and strategic infrastructure projects.


SECTION II


Social Housing Structure

Background


background

background | section ii

16

Social Housing Structure Currently, Toronto is suffering from a Social Housing Crisis, due in part to the disinvestment from national and provincial government policies that do not account for the creation of new social housing development. The waiting list for social housing units has reached approximately 200,000 families in the past 10 years, and will grow in the future according to research. In addition, the existing social

“The waiting list for social housing units has reached approximately 200,000 families in the past 10 years” housing communities lack adequate living conditions for residents due to aging housing stock. The lack of regular maintenance in these social housing communities is a contributing factor to poor living conditions, which may result in a concentration of criminal activity. Unlike the United States, the trend of the housing market in Canada is more focused on market-rate condominiums. Only 5% of the entire housing market in the country is geared towards rental housing, which includes all the social housing units. This rental housing market in Canada is very limited, making it difficult for tenants to find affordable rental housing. This issue becomes more serious as there are growing numbers of immigrants in the country.

These families are more likely to find small-unit rental housing in the city. Additional complications arise due in part to Canada not having adequate national housing programs “projects are not on the government financially viable” level; comparable programs in the U.S. include HOPE VI and Choice Neighborhood. Currently, new social housing projects are mostly managed and initiated by local governments, but the affordable unit numbers are not guaranteed as the projects are not financially viable. Looking back at the timeline of social housing, certain events can explain the reason for the current crisis. After WWII, it was the trend to develop social housing communities all across North America. The federal government was involved in these developments in order to replace the slums. Many social housing communities were built during this time as there were needs of housing for manufacturing labor. Later in the 1970s, the federal government became involved less by removing federal funds for social housing developments. This is due to the Urban Renewal trends as well as the decline of manufacturing market. Finally, the

“removing federal funds for social housing developments” federal government passed responsibilities to provincial governments in early 90s. In 1998, the right was passed to City of Toronto, which resulted in very limited funds from city government.


Assessment of Social Housing in Toronto Social Housing Crisis crisis Waged by labor Federal Government unions & community invoved more organizers

1960

1970

1990

Financial responsibility passed to city of Toronto

1998

2002

INTROCommunity Housing Corporation located in the outer ring suburbs of the city, 1 Toronto inTro: PoSiTion Social HouSinG 1 Timeline | Where Does the Crisis Come from? INTRO on (TCHC) was established in 2002 by the City of Toronto. The City brought together the Toronto Housing Company and the Metropolitan Toronto Housing Corporation. TCHC currently is the largest social housing provider in Canada and the second largest in North America. It provides homes to about 58,500 low and moderate-income households, “TCHC currently is i n c l u d i n g the largest social s e n i o r s , housing provider in families, singles, refugees, recent Canada” immigrants to Canada and people with special needs. Their core business is to provide safe, wellmaintained, affordable homes for residents. So far they have completed and planned a number of revitalization plans for new social housing communities. Their approach to social housing is to create sustainable mixed communities with modern design. Currently, TCHC has either completed or planned a number of new social housing projects all across Toronto. Priority large sites that they plan to work on are mostly

which includes our site. Edgely Village, also known as Black “concentration of Creek , is a properties with priority site for public ownership” social housing revitalization because of its location: adjacent to York University and near a newly planned subway station. There is also a concentration of properties with public ownership, either by TCHC, the city or school board that has potential for redevelopment. By planning through revitalization, TCHC has come up with their own model for social housing projects that are both financially beneficial and can provide RGI (Rent-Gear-to-Income) units.

One of the successful revitalization cases is St. Lawrence. It is located in a historic neighborhood along the waterfront with culturally viable assets. The social housing revitalization plan in St. Lawrence is known for its mixed income, mixed financing, and mixed partnership strategy.

section ii | background

1

Federal Government Feferal SODFHGÀQDQFLDO responsibility to ontario Government

17

WWii

Federal Government involved less


18

background | section ii

Building | Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

Regent Park, also located in downtown area, is TCHC’s first and largest social housing project. It is famous for being a successful social housing revitalization plan. One of the most “average successful strategies rate between for Regent Park is market rate its self financing; condo and by creating marketsocial housing rate condos and selling land to private is 4” developers, TCHC can acquire money and construct more social housing. In Regent Park, the rate between market condos and social housing is 5 to 1. This revitalization plan has increased the land value of Regent Park dramatically and has helped the neighborhood change in socially positive ways. Lawrence Heights, located in a suburb within the Greater Toronto Area, is another TCHC social housing project. It is still within its planning phase and is based on Regent Park model. The rate between market-rate condos and social housing units is 3.5 to 1, which means the portion of social housing

Regent Park 2005-2025

1

INTRO

in Lawrence Height is higher than that in Regent Park. From the last three projects that utilized TCHC’s model, we can conclude that their revitalization plan largely focuses on financial, physical, and replacement strategies. The average rate between market rate condo and social housing is 4, which means that they take advantage of a self-financing structure and are able to create mixed income communities. The FAR rate is 1.2 due to their de-concentration and intensification strategy. The communities

“The FAR rate is 1.2” are designed to be more pedestrian friendly after the implementation of revitalization. For the replacement of units, they follow a “One for One” replacement policy. This means that for each demolished unit, a similar unit must be replaced for the current resident. This strategy ensures the relocation process for the current residents on the sites. It should be noted however, that the existing model does not completely solve the problem of the city’s social housing crisis. This model

Alexandra Park 2014

Lawrence Heights 2014

Current TCHC Model

Allenbury Gardens 2015


TRO

• Private-Public Partnership • Relocation on Site

Assessment of Social Housing in Current TCHC Model | St. Lawrence

Regent Park: • 87% self-financing • Market Condo:Social = 5:1 • Public-Private Partnership • Relocation on Site (new construction)

Assessment of Social Housing in Current TCHC Model | Regent Park

Lawrence Heights: • Based on Regent Park Model • Market Condo:Social = 3.5:1 • Public-Private Partnership • Relocation - multiple options

Assessment of Social Housing in Current TCHC Model | Lawrence Heights

section ii | background

NTRO

• Mixed financing

19

RO

St. Lawrence:


Edgeley Village (Black Creek)

background | section ii

20

Lawrence Heights

Regent Park St. Lawrence Downtown

1

does not increase the social housing unit than Black Creek. As a result, it is important number or Assessment lower the city’s of waiting list Housing to create ain new social housing model. Social Current TCHCsuburb Model because of the financial problem. TCHC has to build enough market rate condos to TCHC’s affordable housing development is get the money needed to cover the costs expanding from center city to the outer ring associated with new social housing units. suburbs, which has followed the growth pattern TCHC’s current solution is to cover only of the city of Toronto - radial expansion. The the replacement unit (RGI units) instead of old town is near the waterfront. The original creating more for people on the waiting list.

INTRO

“$110 million financial gap”

We have calculated that if we follow the current TCHC model, there will be a $110 million financial gap for the Black Creek neighborhood; the main reason is due to the low land price in our site. Compared with the three models described above, Black Creek has very low land value. Even in Lawrence Heights, which is also located in suburb area, its land price is 3 times more

blocks were fully planned from scratch, deeply influenced by British Garden City movement. The key pieces of ideas include town center with a park surrounded by commercial and public buildings, boulevard and greenbelt with institutional buildings, localized industry and agriculture in the fringe of the city to make it self-sustaining, and reliable transportation system. The early community developments were pretty successful, and many of them included mixed-income communities.

T


Growth of Toronto Suburbs

Edgeley Village Outer Ring Suburb

section ii | background

As Toronto city continued to expand to the outer ring as we see today, problems

emerged. Because different from the urban area that facilitates mixed-income communities, the outer ring suburb is where affordable housing is concentrated. Our site is a typical suburban affordable housing model in the outer ring of the city. It has poor location, poverty, and underserved services. In 2004, it was ranked as the least livable neighborhood in Toronto area. Other serious issues include aging building stock and crime.

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The city has been expanding with the construction of transit and extension of the greenbelt along the watersheds. In the inner ring suburbs, housing developments have been inspired from the Garden Suburb model, derived from the Garden City. These developments successfully incorporated social housing.

Inner Ring Suburb

Center City

Major T

Old Town

1

Growth of Toronto Suburbs

INTRO

Planning History on Toronto

Major G sion


22

background | section ii

Building | Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

Suburban Affordable Housing Model in 1960s: Up Edgeley Village in 1958 Down Edgeley Village in 1964


Regional Trian Station

rd

Bouleva

vard

leva rd

en

rm Fa

Bou le

e Gr

en

nd

y str

lt

ard

lev

e tiv uc od Pr

e tur Na

rm Fa

rm Fa

or

Be lt

r te en

ry

u Bo

C wn To

t Indus

e Gr

a Gr

u Ind

ge Lar

ry Dia

Be

To the City

Central Park

r te en

rd

C wn To

va

ule

Bo

ue

Regional Trian Station

Highway Transit

Central Park

Central Park

Av en

To the City

Highway

leva rd

Garden

Bou

Public Buildings

Bou

Regional Trian Station

nd La

sc ap e

• Tow C C E

• Gree

• Self

• Loca 23

• Ran

• Mix

11

section ii | background

Ebenezer Howard GardenCity CityModel Model Ebenezer Howard Garden

PlanSuburb Town of York (Toronto),1788 • Effic Garden Suburb Movement InnerRing Ringofofthe theCity City Model 21st Century Garden Suburb Model Garden Suburb Model Garden Suburb Movement ininInner Plan forGarden Town offorYork (Toronto), 1788

11

1

History Toronto INTRO History Toronto INTRO INTRO planning History on | Toronto planning History on | Toronto INTRO Planning INTRO Planning

Responding to those stigmas and issues, we take from the Garden City, and propose a 21st century Garden Suburb paradigm that incorporates key elements and improvement of the original Garden City model. We’d like to highlight here a range of housing income levels and self-sustaining agriculture. We distilled two typical suburban housing development models in Toronto: conventional single-family housing neighborhood and high-density housing,which is particularly developed for concentrated affordable housing. “a 21st Century Our proposal is to Garden Suburb” blend those two models in density, and establish a set of frameworks to foster a socially integrated and diversified community. By doing so, we will create levels of public space that bridge productive landscapes and main civic green spaces, as well as public and semi-public spaces. This is a step away from the highly-privatized conventional suburb and underutilized “open field” as a result of “towers in the park”. We will have

•Sust

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century G

a series of spatial axis, paths, and nodes, and create hierarchy of them. Mobility for vehicles and pedestrians will be improved by small block size. Main communal spaces “a step away from will be easy to access. the highly-privatized Through the conventional suburb” provision of different housing typologies, the orientation of the buildings, open spaces, and inner block courtyard, safety issues will be addressed. Suitable density will ensure the provision and financial feasibility of affordable housing construction. The public realm will benefit from the density gradient. Public spaces will organize main community services and facilitate mixed-use development. We intend to follow TCHC’s model of separating affordable and market-rate units. However, for the sake of community cohesion, affordable units will be indistinguishable and phase-in the whole development process. A wide range of social programs will be proposed as well.


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background | section ii

?

++

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

single family housing community Single family housing community

1 1

INTRO INTRO

?

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

An example: A example: Jamestown high-rise affordable community St.st. Jamestown high-rise affordable community

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century socially integrated, diversified Socially integrated, diversifiedcommunity community

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

Density Density

Very low density Very low density Close relationship to natural features Close relationship to natural features

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Very high density Very high density Highest buildings adjacent to valueHighest buildings adjacent to valuegenerated sites or natural features generated sites or natural features

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

Gradient density Gradient density Close relationship to features natural features Close relationship to natural High-riseHigh-rise buildings adjacentadjacent to central buildings to communal central space communal space

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb


Open Space Structure: Spatial Organization Open Space Structure: Spatial Organization Sightseeing axis along natural feature

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Hireachical axis to and along open spaces

Almost no spatial nodes Sightseeing axis along natural feature Almost no spatial nodes

Hierarchical and along Functional axisaxis andtopath open spaces spatial nodes Functional axis and path Spatial nodes

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb 2121Century Suburb

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

Open Space Structure: Levels of Public Spaces Open Space Structure: Levels of Public Spaces

Poor engagement with natural feature Poor engagement with natural Very little hireachical open spaces feature Well maintained major open space Very little hierarchical open spaces Well maintained major open space Highly privatized block spaces Highly privatized block spaces

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Poor engagement with natural feature Poor engagement with natural Few hireachical open spaces feature

nature asas productive landscape Nature productive landscape Hierarchical open spaces Hireachical open spaces Great connections between Great connections between different level of spaces different level of spaces Sense of spatial definition sense of spatial definition

“tower the park” open spaces Few in hierarchical “Tower in the park” “open field” in each block “Open field” in each block

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

section ii | background

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

Sightseeing axis along natural feature

25

Few spatial nodes Sightseeing axis along natural feature Few spatial nodes


background | section ii

26

Street Pattern: Block Street Pattern: Block no block pattern

Huge blocks

Small blocks

dead-end street

Vehicle-friendly

Small blocks both vehicle and pedestrian friendly Both vehicle and pedestrian Street oriented towards natural features friendly

No block pattern “T“ intersections Dead-end street Curved street “T“ intersections Very vehicle-friendly Curved street Very vehicle-friendly

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Huge blocks Vehicle-friendly

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

Street oriented towards natural features

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb 2121Century Suburb

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

Street Pattern: Surveylability Street Pattern: Surveillability Moderate surveillability on streets

Low surveillability on streets

privatized lotssurveillability with great surveillability Moderate on streets lots with greatspaces LowPrivatized surveillability on public surveillability Low surveillability on public spaces

Moderate surveillability inner blocks Low surveillability on in streets Moderate surveillability inner Low surveillability on publicinspaces blocks Low surveillability on public spaces

Conventional Suburb Conventional Suburb

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

Good surveylability on streets, inner blocks, and open spaces Good surveillability on streets, inner blocks, and open spaces

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb


Land Use Land Use Relatively large lot

Highly mixed use

Large lot Unified land use Location Large lotnear street intersections

Location near street intersections Relatively large lot Large surface parking Location near street space intersections Large surface parking space

Highly mixed use or major open space Location near center Location near center or major Garage parking open space P P Garage parking

Location near parking street intersections Large surface space Large surface parking space

1 1

INTRO INTRO

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

Very few social housing provision Developed mostly for high income people Few social programs Very few social housing provision Few social programs

ConventionalSuburb Garden Suburb Conventional

INTRO INTRO

P

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Social Housing Integration Social Housing Integration developed mostly for low and moderate developed mostly for high income people

1 1

P

P

income people Developed mostly for low and moderate Distinguishable affordable buildings income people Distinguishable affordable buildings Very few social programs Very few social programs

Density Suburb High High Density Suburb

Mixed income community separated affordable and market-rate units Mixed income community Indistinguishable affordable buildings Separated affordable and market-rate units Affordable units distributed through all Indistinguishable affordable buildings housing typologies Affordable units distributed through all housing typologies Vibrant social activities Vibrant social activities

CenturyNew NewGarden Garden Suburb Suburb 2121Century

studio Approach to social Housing | 21 Century Garden suburb

Studio Approach to Social Housing | 21 Century Garden Suburb

section ii | background

ConventionalSuburb Garden Suburb Conventional

P

P

P

27

unified land use


SECTION III


On the Edge of Toronto

Existing Condition


From 1961 to 1971, the population increased from 1,300 to 33,000. But From 2001

to 2011, the population

decreased from 24,375 to 22,030.


existing condition In the Outskirts of Toronto

Black Creek is located in the outer ring suburb of Toronto, which is about 15 kilometers to downtown (approximately 30 min drive). It is bounded by Jane St., Finch St. and Highway 400.

York. However, due to crime issues, the population decreased by 10 % from 2001 to 2011.

ter

urb

Sub

SITE Jane St

Ou

g Rin

Finch St 5 km

15 km 10 Km DOWNTOWN

2

Black Creek is located about 15 kilometers to downtown. It is on the axis intersection of major roads - Jane St. and Finch St.

bLACk CReek

Existing Condition | Regional Location

section iii | existing condition

Black Creek was first developed as a model for suburb community in the 1960s in response to the rapid urban growth of Toronto. The community was planned to accommodate a socially diverse population and included a substantial amount of public housing. Known for its series of high-rise buildings and, concomitantly, its above average population density. Black Creek experienced astronomical growth from 1961 to 1971 when the population went from 1,300 to 33,000, accounting for more than 40% of the growth in North

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The site is known for its cultural diversity. Between 1981 and 2001, the number of racialized individuals also increased by 219%. Over 120 languages are spoken in the neighborhood. Being one of the most ethnically diverse communities in the City of Toronto, the community hosts a number of cultural activities, such as “Over 120 Palisade Media languages are Ar ts Academy, International spoken in the neighborhood” Women’s D ay, International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Toronto Caribbean Carnival Parade, Canadian


existing condition | section iii

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Hispanic Day Parade and Driftwood’s Annual Multicultural Festival.

The target area that this plan focuses on is 75.4 acres, which is defined according to land ownership. The land in the target area is mostly public owned, either by school, city, or TCHC. This plan will also propose some suggested implementations in the surrounding area. The site consists a number of physical features that are important to study for a revitalization plan. Jane and Finch Mall is the major commercial center in Black Creek, located at the corner of Jane St. and Finch St. York University is the major institutional center, which is to the east of Black Creek. As the major and largest job center around the target site, it is important to consider staffs, students

HIGHWAY 400

and other people working at York as one of the target demography of this revitalization plan. There is also a utility corridor to the south that has large open space under it. This feature has potential for urban farming and energy production implementation. Black Creek pioneer village is a historical asset. In collaboration with the local conservancy, it functions as a museum where people can experience 19th century lifestyle in Canada.

“potential for urban farming and energy production” The Black Creek itself is the major natural feature in the area. It is a mid-size creek in the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada. It flows from the city of Vaughan in Regional Municipality of York to the Humber River in Toronto. On August 19, 2005, Black Creek

JANE ST STEELES ST

SCHOOL OWNED CITY OWNED

BLACK CREEK

TCHC OWNED PRIVATELY OWNED

2

FINCH ST

bLACk CReek

The target area of 75.4 acres is primarily publicly owned land.


HIGHWAY 400

JANE ST STEELES ST

York University is the major institutional center.

YORK UNIVERSITY BLACK CREEK

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2

FINCH ST

bLACk CReek

HIGHWAY 400

JANE ST

The utility corridor has potential for urban farming and energy production implementation.

BLACK CREEK

UTILITY CORRIDOR

2

FINCH ST

bLACk CReek

HIGHWAY 400

JANE ST STEELES ST

BLACK CREEK PIONEER VILLAGE

Black Creek pioneer village is a historical asset.

BLACK CREEK

2

FINCH ST

bLACk CReek

HIGHWAY 400 HIGHWAY

JANE ST JANE ST

400

Landscape & Hydrology

STEELES ST

STEELES ST

BLACK BLACK CREEK

iMGS, DiaGraMS CREEK BLACK CREEK BRANCH 7RURQWR·V-XO\ÁRRGOLVWHGDV2QWDULR·VPRVWFRVWO\QDWXUDOGLVDVWHU

2

Insurance Bureau of Canada says property damage caused by storm that swamped the GTA on July 8 is more than $850 million.

BLACK CREEK

Ravine

BLACK CREEK BRANCH

2 analySiS

2

FINCH ST

bLACk CReek

Ravine as an opportunity

The Black Creek itself is the major natural feature that has experienced some severe flooding issues and happens to be one of the most polluted waterways.

section iii | existing condition

STEELES ST


existing condition | section iii

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Transit Connection The transit system within Black Creek is also not pedestrian friendly, partially due to the complicated street pattern and undeveloped public realm. Currently, most of Black Creek does not have “eyes on the street.” The area along the creek is known as the most dangerous place because it is isolated from major streets. The bus stations are currently concentrated around Jane St. and Steeles St., which are the main commercial corridors of the area. There is potential to extend the bus lines into the target area and bring more bus stops into the new neighborhood. The regional bus route shows that the current major transit center is York University, which means connecting to the campus is our opportunity. HIGHWAY 400

JANE ST STEELES ST

20 MIN. WALKING DISTANCE 10 MIN. WALKING DISTANCE STATION

2

bLACk CReek

Transit

The new subway stations, completed in 2016, are within 15-20 minutes walking distance to our target site. The stations are our opportunity to take advantage of and make connection to the greater region. It is believed that the extension of subway can bring in more opportunity around the subway station and raise the land value in the surrounding area.

was the site of heavy flooding as a result of extremely heavy rains that afternoon. Its overflow destroyed a culvert on Finch Avenue. It is also one of the most polluted waterways as much of the Toronto section runs through industrial areas and industrial run off often enters the creek. This plan sees it as both threat and opportunity that we can develop on. It serves as a barrier between the target site and York University. In order to connect our site to York, opening up this divider and bringing in more activities is another opportunity. The current land use shows that the site is mostly residential, with industrial use on the west and institutional and commercial on the east. The major commercial corridor is Jane St. The zoning ordinance basically overlaps with the land use but has stricter requirements. The existing number of units in the site shows that the current residential development concentrates around Jane St. The number of units that allowed by zoning, which represent the capacity of the site, shows the parcels around the new subway station have large capacity of units. By comparing two of them, it is easy to tell that there are a lot of opportunities around the new subway stations. However, “a lot of opportunities our si te i s already built around the new to its capacity; subway stations” t here are fewer opportunities for new developments. As a result, it is important to make connections between our site and the new subway stations area, and up-zone certain parcels accordingly can also be another suggestion.


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section iii | existing condition

ng | Existing Landoverlaps Usewith Designations The zoning ordinance the current land use. The area shows the concentration of high density along Jane St., especially high rise buildings. By comparing the skylines, there is a high transition of building scales between high rises along Jane St. and townhouses in other parts of the site. As the 21st result, to increase“The the density andCentury minimize

Rebranding Neighborhood

Livable Neighborhood

Public Realm

the impact of the building typology could be another potential for Black Creek. After looking at the existing condition of Black Creek and comparing with the 21st century Garden Suburb approach, the goal of this social Garden Suburb� housing revitalization plan is to:

Community Involvement

Cultural Diversity

Financial Responsible


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• re-brand the distressed neighborhood existing condition | section iii

• create new livable community through sustainable public realm • involve the culturally diverse community by creating integrated social programs

SKYLINE &STREET VIEW

Jane Street

Shoreham Dr

Jan

eS tre

et

Sho

reha

mD

r

Spatial

• create a financially responsible model for the revitalization plan Analysis

Skyline

SUBWAY

St re e

G

Ja ne

Yo rk

2 analySiS

Drif

t

at e

BL VD

Ja ne

St re et

JANE ST

FINCH ST

twoo d

Ave

Finch Ave

Existing key opportunities in Black Creek neighborhood.

2

bLACk BLACK CReek CREEK

existing density

Existing Density

CREEK


39

Zoningof|Units Capacity: number of units Number (per parcel) Difference.

(per parcel) difference

1,764

SUBWAY STATION AREA

ďźŒ222 125 954

2

section iii | existing condition

bLACk CReek

SUBWAY 967 592

1,042

960

1,374

498 512

191

186 687 224

186 106

43

JANE ST

BLACK CREEK

728

505 655 209 203 146

666

488

112 179

15-20 min walk

Capacity: Number (per Allowed It Zoning| is important to make connections betweenof theUnits target site and parcel) the new subway stations area.

TION ANALYSIS


SECTION IV


Implying General Concept

21st Century Garden Suburb


21st Century Garden Suburb Implying General Concept

• Town center: - Commercial and institutional buildings; - Central park; - Engagement of surrounding developments; • Greenbelt and boulevards • Self sustaining agriculture • Localize industry • Range of housing income levels • Mixed-use development • Efficient Transportation • Sustainability

In our study area, we identified a town center, which is connected to the natural feature, employment center, “take transit station, and advantage of institution by boulevards the existing and green ways. The natural feature existing Jane Street commercial corridor and utility will be enhanced. corridor” We also fully take advantage of the existing natural feature and utility corridor to create productive landscape, as a key component of self-sustained living community. We studied various aspects enabling us to finalize most suitable approaches for the study area.

Highway 400

STATION

INDUSTRIAL

Shoreham St

CENTER Driftwood St

BLACK CREEK

COMMERCIAL GREEN PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE EW CONNECTION

3 3

UTILITY CORRIDOR

GeneRAL ConCept General Concept

Steeles St

INSTITUTIONAL

Jane St

21st century garden suburb | section iv

44

After listing the issues to be addressed, let’s move on to applying our Garden Suburb approaches to the physical design. These are the key elements we extract from new Garden Suburb paradigm:

deploy of 21 Century Garden suburb Model The deploy of 21 Century Garden Suburb Model. Deploy of 21st Century Garden Suburb Model


t on

Wa ter fr

Sights eeing St

Driftwood St

Core Area Master Plan tre Area Master Plan Core Area Master Plan.

First, besides preserving the existing ecological corridor, we designed a recreational and productive buffer zone that provides valuable amenities and food to the residents. The landscape belt is further extended into the community through the “green fingers”, which are connected through our green spine to the central park.

the community center. Together with a set of “a main gathering institutional and g re en s p ac e space and destination for nodes along the creek, these community” nodes provide places for community activities and social services.

Building on the green open space structure, a series of axis and nodes are established. Jane St will remain a strategic commercial axis. The central park will serve as a main gathering space and destination for community members with high level of accessibility, it also extend down to

Restructuring the road system, the average street blocks size is about 70 meters by 100 meters. Stores, restaurants and other businesses are located within the walking distance makes the neighborhood vibrant and fun to walk around.

section iv | 21st century garden suburb

Jane St

45

Shoreham St


There are four main types of street: green spine and the waterfront street as boulevards, Jane St as commercial corridor, East-West connections to the periphery as green streets, and waterfront access as a secondary green road.

21st century garden suburb | section iv

Building | Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

ef ficiency and site responsiveness “the central consideration, park and block orientation ‘green fingers’ is determined by facilitate a lot three aspects: of commercial green features, services and main roads and social programs” solar access. Having more people supervising public space, can help reduce crime and make our streets safer.

Meanwhile, the central park and “green fingers” facilitate a lot of commercial services and social programs.

energ y

Because we have diverse immigrants in our neighborhood, we try to get them involved by introducing some social programs and rebrand the neighborhood by including features as follows: • Welcome Center • Community Kitchen • Trash-Can Art • Community Watch • Mural Arts • Food Stands • Job Training

In general, the highest buildings are concentrated around the central park and grading down to the creek to maximizing

Green Fingers

t on

Wa ter fr

Sights

eeing St North Promenade

Jane St

46

For

the view of creek and university campus for the residents. Medium density development is aligned along Jane St commercial corridor.

Shoreham St

Central park

3 3

Driftwood St

Open Space Structure - “green fingers”. open space structure GeneRAL ConCept Open Space Structure General Concept

South Promenade


s

Axis and Nodes

t on

Wa ter fr

t on

Wa ter fr

GREEN SECONDARY COMMERCIAL

WATERFRONT ACCESS

OPEN SPACE NODE

OPEN SPACE NODE

Jane St

WATERFRONT ACCESS

INSTITUTIONAL NODE

INSTITUTIONAL NODE

Jane St

SECONDARY COMMERCIAL

eeing St

COMMERCIAL

eeing St

GREEN

Sights

Sights

COMMERCIAL

Shoreham St

Shoreham St

Driftwood St

Driftwood St

47

3

open space structure nCept Open Space Structure pt

open space structure GeneRAL ConCept Open Space Structure General Concept

Street and Block Size

Wa ter fr

t on

t on

Wa ter fr

Sights

Sights

eeing St

Average block size: 100m x 70m

Shoreham St

Average block size 100m*70m

Green Spine

Driftwood St

Green Spine

Driftwood St

3

to Student Housing

nCept Street Pattern pt

to Student Housing

GeneRAL ConCept Street Pattern General Concept

Street Pattern

es

Street Pattern

Street Typologies

t on

Wa ter fr

t on

Wa ter fr

Sights

Sights

eeing St

eeing St

1

to Transit Station

Jane St

to Transit Station

Jane St

1

Shoreham St

Shoreham St

4 3

Green Spine

Driftwood St

2

to Student Housing

nCept Street Pattern pt

1

BOULEVARD

2

GREEN STREET

3

SMALL GREEN ACCESS

4

COMMERCIAL STREET

3

4 3

Green Spine

Driftwood St

2

to Student Housing

GeneRAL ConCept Street Pattern General Concept

Street Pattern

Street Pattern

Surveillability

t on

Wa ter fr

t on

Wa ter fr

Jane St

Jane St

SURVEILLED OPEN SPACE

North Promenade

Shoreham St

Central park

Driftwood St

Community Center

eeing St

SURVEILLED STREET

eeing St

SURVEILLED OPEN SPACE

Sights

Sights

SURVEILLED STREET

Pattern nCept StreetStreet Pattern pt

to Transit Station

Jane St

Jane St

eeing St

to Transit Station

Shoreham St

k size

section iv | 21st century garden suburb

k Size

North Promenade

Shoreham St

South Promenade

Central park

3

Pattern GeneRAL ConCept StreetStreet Pattern General Concept

Driftwood St

Community Center

South Promenade


20% of our developed units are affordable which will be incorporated into each development

phase

and

throughout

all the housing typologies, aiming at integrating a diverse social profile into the new neighborhood development.


Density Distribution Wa ter fr

Jane St Co

eeing St

Jane St Co

Sights

eeing St

mmercial Co rridor

t on

Sights

mmercial Co rridor

t on

Wa ter fr

Shoreham St

Shoreham St HIGH MEDIUM LOW

Driftwood St Driftwood St

3

density distribution GeneRAL ConCept Density Distribution General Concept Community Services rridor mmercial Co

rridor

Jane St Co

P

Jane St Co

P

eeing St

mmercial Co

P P

P

Sights

Sights

P

eeing St

section iv | 21st century garden suburb

Wa ter fr

t on

t on

Wa ter fr

49

density distribution nCept Density Distribution pt

Shoreham St

Shoreham St

Driftwood St

Driftwood St

3

Community services nCept Community Services pt

Community services GeneRAL ConCept Community Services General Concept

s

t on

Wa ter fr

Sights

Jane St

eeing St Shoreham St

Driftwood St

Integration nCept SocialSocial Integration pt

onfiguration

Wa ter fr

AFFORDABLE MARKET-RATE

Jane St

Jane St Shoreham St

eeing St

eeing St

Sights

Sights

t on

t on

Integration nCept SocialSocial Integration pt

Housing Unit

Housing Unit Configuration Configuration

Wa ter fr

Shoreham St

Driftwood St

Driftwood St


SECTION V


Framework for Sustainable Development

Master Plan


master plan

master plan | section v

54

Framework for Sustainable Development In the landscape framework, we can see how the concept is applied to the physical site. First, we are looking at the site to look at how our strategy is working with the existing, surrounding areas in the larger scale. Our core area has recommendations for new land-uses based on the existing conditions and the direction of future development. There are existing mixed use zones along Jane, Steels, and some in the York University. “revitalize The largest block of Jane by the new development is mainly for industry mixed use and residential strategy” mixed use located around the new station. Based on this, we are locating our mixed use buildings

A street view of intersecting Jane and Finch Streets.

along Jane and Shoreham roads. Jane is the main traffic road in this community and now it is very infamous for the most dangerous place in the city. “main connections Our goal is to and the three revitalize Jane neighborhood- by the mixed use scale greenways” strategy. Also, Shoreham is the main connection between our neighborhood, station, and York University. It is also main commercial corridor that brings the economic activity from the new development area. According to this strategy, main connections and the three neighborhood-scale greenways have been recommended. It is also derived from our landscape strategy through the integration of existing green infrastructure.


55

section v | master plan

Overall Master Plan of Black Creek Redevelopment.

Overall Plan

Based on the new connection framework, we suggest new bicycle path and bicycle share program. “new bicycle path The two main and bicycle share shelters in the station and the program� civic park will bring more tied connection between the neighborhood and the new metro station. Because the core area is mainly for the low-

income communities, we expect they will rely on the public transit a lot so that we propose to change some bus routes of the existing lines. The three existing bus lines - 35, 106, and 108 - now pass close to the core area to service to the downtown. We changed them to direct connections into the neighborhood and the new station.


Use/Public Realm STEELS

JANE

NEW SUBWAY STATION

56

SCHOOL COMMUNITY CENTER SHOREHAM

master plan | section v

MIXED USE NEW ROAD

Land Use/Public Realm INSTITUTION OPEN SPACE

NEW SUBWAY STATION

JANE

CIVIC OPEN SPACE

STEELS

Land Use: SCHOOL COMMUNITY CENTER SHOREHAM

MiXed use ZoninG AReA

MIXED USE NEW ROAD

INSTITUTION OPEN SPACE CIVIC OPEN SPACE

MiXed use ZoninG AReA

STER PLAN

4

Overall Plan

MASTER PLAN

ating with ng Green Infrastructure

Overall Plan

MAin GReenWAY CiViC GReenWAY subWAY stAtion

Integrating with Existing Green Infrastructure Connection System integrated with existing Green Infrastructure:

STER PLAN

MAin GReenWAY CiViC GReenWAY subWAY stAtion

Overall Plan


m

57

section v | master plan

Pedestrian/Bicycle System Pedestrian/Bicycle System: MAin GReenWAY CiViC GReenWAY biCYCLe pAtH biCYCLe sHARe sHeLteR

Overall Plan

[eXistinG biCYCLe pAtH]

4

tAnCe

MASTER PLAN

Overall Plan

min. 20min.

Proposed Transit Proposed Transit SystemSystem: Line 35 Line 106 WALkinG distAnCe

LINE 108 neW subWAY Line

Overall Plan

10min. 20min.

(station)


Green Infrastructure and Urban Agriculture

Landscape Plan


landscape plan

Green Infrastructure and Urban Agriculture

landscape plan | section v

60

The larger landscape framework is for much further future strategy. It may not be possible with the current funding options, but we hope this framework will help the community understand self-sustainability.

“multiple scale programs in realizing self-sustainability” It is based on three strategies. First, Black Creek conservation area is our main asset in terms of development and stormwater management. Second is improved mobility of the neighborhood through the main connections by using the surrounding infrastructure. Third, it is necessary to have multiple scale programs in realizing self-sustainability. There are main four green zones in both existing and new development areas -

Green connection on productive edge of Black Creek.

schools, parks, productive, and buffer area. The unique feature on the site is the Black Creek edge and the hydro corridor which is now empty green open spaces with electropower line. We developed these two areas turning into productive landscape. To develop the edge of Black Creek, we propose the buffer area to preserve the natural asset based on the Ravine boundary by the city research. To follow the conservation regulatory, we decided to develop the edge area rather than touching

“green infrastructure will bring job opportunities, livable environment, and increase the land value” the conservation area. And we connected all these green areas; we put energy clusters and multiple scale farming programs. This framework is to support the idea of “Self-


61

section v | landscape plan

Landscape Plan.

Landscape plan Green Area INSTITUTIONAL CIVIC PRODUCTIVE buFFeR RAVine bY-LAW eneRGY CLusteR GARden FARM LIVESTOCK

4

Framework that includes activities like community gardens will help the Black Creek residents better understand self-sustainability.

MASTER PLAN

Landscape plan


The buffer area dedicated to restore and preserve Black Creek’s ecology.


3. Urban Agriculture

ties

FieLd

FIGURE 64 - GREATE EMPLOY FOOD RELATED M GREATER TOR

section v | landscape plan

TION PURPOSES ONLY. S, PLEASE CONTACT NG & DEVELOPMENT

63

GARden

FARM LIVESTOCK

Urban Agriculture

March

LAKE SIMCOE

ar panel Proposed Model SMALL_ garden

MEDIUM_field

ss ent

THIS MAP IS FOR GENERAL ILLUSTRATION PURPOSES ONLY. FOR BOUNDARY INTERPRETATIONS, PLEASE CONTACT THE MUNICIPAL/REGIONAL PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENTS.

LARGE_farm

Municip

Agricultu (Compile

Types of urban agriculture and the most suitable locations for it.

common gardens yard gardens roof gardens balcony gardens CALEDON

community gardens institution gardens park gardens farmer’s market community nursery livestocks compost water management KING

farmsteads greenhouses/solar panel orchards EAST GWILLIMBURY livestocks compost/biomass N E Wwater management MARK ET

GEORGINA

Other D

LAKE SIMCOE

Oak Rid Niagara

BROCK

3. Urban Agriculture UXBRIDGE

sustainable 21 century Garden Suburb”. Finally, by using existing programs such as Size of Company 5 Employees 6 to 20 Emplo SCUGOG For that, we needplan clear|programs for green garden training, farmer LAKE training, and York Landscape self-sustainable 21 Century Garden suburb 21 to 50 Emp GARden A R O R WHITCHURCHSCUGOG University’s 51 to 100 Em energy, stormwater management,AUand urban research STOUFFVILLE Over 100 Em RICHMOND “three HILL agriculture. groups,21we can Garden makesuburb Landscape plan | self-sustainable Century FieLd MASTER VAUGHAN PLAN different c onne c t i on s to our BRAMPTON MARKHAM According to our research, the city of Toronto FARM scales of own community center PICKERING HILLS has Green many urban agriculture programs that ood and Opportunities agriculture” to support our farmlands. LIVESTOCK encourage people to do multiple scales of OSHAWA Through this network, WHITBY UrbanAJAXAgriculture MISSISSAUGA farming. We suggest three different scales we hope green infrastructure will bring job of agriculture: gardens, crop fields LAKE in ONTARIO the oppor tunities, livable CLARINGTON environment, and productive edge, and farmland in the hydro increase the land value. Proposed Model CITY OF TORONTO corridor. Since Toronto already THIS MAP IS FOR GENERAL ILLUSTRATION PURPOSES ONLY. MEDIUM_field LARGE_farm FOR BOUNDARY INTERPRETATIONS, PLEASE CONTACT has many gardening networks SMALL_ garden THE MUNICIPAL/REGIONAL PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENTS. and programs, our proposed model will work with the existing 0 5,000 10,000 infrastructure. Also, they will PLANS community gardens farmsteads common gardens institution gardens help the community to open cogreenhouses/solar panel yard gardens park gardens orchards roof gardens Base Mapping Source: op stores and a farmer’s market. farmer’s market Ministry of Municipal Affair balcony gardens livestocks Planning & Environmental S community nursery compost/biomass Manufacturing Information We can use this network to livestocks water management compost activate our own commercial water management corridor on Jane and Shoreham.

4

GEORGINA

UXBRIDGE

KING

NEWMARKE T

LAKE SCUGOG

RA AURO

Creek SNAP

BROCK

EAST GWILLIMBURY

CALEDON

RICHMOND HILL

WHITCHURCHSTOUFFVILLE

SCUGOG

VAUGHAN

BRAMPTON

MARKHAM

PICKERING

HALTON HILLS

AJAX

MILTON

WHITBY

OSHAWA

MISSISSAUGA

LAKE ONTARIO

CLARINGTON

CITY OF TORONTO

BURLINGTON

ª

CALEDON


Edgely Apartments

landscape plan | section v

64

BLACK CREEK EDGE _ Agriculture Plots

# Pro o

500’ Black Creek (Protected Area)

4

Irrigation Lines

Flood Protection

MASTER PLAN

Pedestrian Bridge

Landscape BLACK planCREEK | self-sustainable 21 C EDGE _ Existing

# Pro of

4

MASTER PLAN

100’

100’

500’

Nursey + Plots

Landscape Edge

Black Creek (Protected Area)

Landscape plan | self-sustainable 21 C


Nursery

Program Space

Urban Forestry

BLACK CREEK EDGE _ Phase 1

65

section v | landscape plan

# Productive Edge of Black Creek

4

Agricultural Plots

Harvest Space

MASTER PLAN

100’

100’

500’

Nursey + Plots

Landscape Edge

Black Creek (Protected Area)

Crop Expansion

Landscape plan | self-sustainable 21 Century Garden BLACK CREEK EDGE _Phase 2

# Productive Edge of Black Creek

4

MASTER PLAN

100’

100’

500’

Nursey + Plots

Landscape Edge

Black Creek (Protected Area)

Landscape plan | self-sustainable 21 Century Garden


District Energy Systems

Green Energy


green energy

green energy | section v

68

District Energy Systems Cold Canadian winters and hot summers leading to high heating and cooling energy consumption are major energy-related factors that are crucial for the social housing development. We learned in local case of Regent Park that energy usage can be reduced by 50% if the correct and effective district energy system is designed to provide heat and power for the entire neighborhood. Black Creek also has a potential to become self-sustainable city that has successfully integrated energyefficient technologies with local most cost effective renewable energy sources: solar water heating and power, geothermal, and biomass.

“energy usage can be reduced by 50%”

to store abundant solar energy underground during the summer months and distribute the energy to each home for space heating needs during winter months. Hydro corridor would become the core area for green energy development in Black Creek, where four “urban agriculture is different zones a key partner for the of existing biomass energy” i n d u s t r i a l , residential, open space, and institutional uses would be transformed into the energy fields, residential and civic zones, livestock and recreational, and R&D area overseen by York University. University would study, monitor and evaluate local energy production and flow. In addition to the social programming in the area, university

1. Green Energy

For future energy production, potential suppliers would be clustered in nodes and supply energy or treat waste locally Renewable Energy Potentialsof waste-tothrough the direct conversion energy where no landfill is needed. This is where urban agriculture is a key partner for the biomass energy use. Black Creek will develop a network of industrial processes which will use each other’s waste products and energy What which is most recapture suitable for surplus Black Creek community to become self-sustainable? outputs from one another’s processes in an integrated industrial ecosystem. The city will supply energy from a district system to all of the residents from this network. The community will be also heated by the district system designed BLACK CREEK| Energy Strategy Plan PennDesign CPLN702 Global Housing Studio // Spring 2014

eneRGY CLusteR

Biomass Solar Geothermal Wind Smart Grid Natural Gas Long-term Eco Disctrict

- Renewable Energy Potentials MARK KIESER | MISEON KIM | SIMONA UZAITE Prof. Nando Micale

- Green Job Employment/Training Opportun


69

TION PURPOSES ONLY. S, PLEASE CONTACT NG & DEVELOPMENT

section v | green energy

FIGURE 64 - GREATE EMPLOY FOOD RELATED M GREATER TOR

March

LAKE SIMCOE

unities ar panel

Municip

ss ent

Agricultu (Compile

GEORGINA

Energy Clusters marked in blue.

CALEDON

Oak Rid Niagara

BROCK

EAST GWILLIMBURY UXBRIDGE

NEWMARK ET

HILLS

Other D

Size of Company

5 Employees 6 to 20 Emplo 21 to 50 Emp 51 to 100 Em

KING SCUGOG would develop public campaigns well-being. By Garden leveragingLAKE these benefits a Landscape planawareness | self-sustainable 21 Century suburb A R O R WHITCHURCHAU SCUGOG and educate locals about the cost savings successful organizational structure will be STOUFFVILLE RICHMOND and new innovations in the energyHILL production created in the VAUGHAN “energy fields field. local energ y BRAMPTON MARKHAM would supply green industry which PICKERING Residential and civic zones would be more job opportunities would increase integrated to the community level. Black efficiency and OSHAWA WHITBY and training” AJAX MISSISSAUGA Creek area would be used for livestock p r o d u c t i v i t y. CLARINGTON which is huge potential industry in Toronto. Eventually, the existing hydro corridor would LAKE ONTARIO On the west side of the hydro corridor, energy be fully transformed into the local renewable CITY OF TORONTO fields would supply green job opportunities energy production and distribution to avoid and training for the locals in order to any currently lost electricity during long stimulate local economy and enhance social distance transmission.

Over 100 Em

ª 0

5,000 10,000

PLANS

Base Mapping Source: Ministry of Municipal Affair Planning & Environmental S Manufacturing Information


70

green energy | section v

INDUSTRIAL

RESIDENTIAL

ENERGY FIELDS

RESIDENTIAL + CIVIC ZONES


71

YORK STUDENT HOUSING

LIVESTOCK + BLACK CREEK

YORK UNIVERSITY

section v | green energy

BLACK CREEK


Water Quantity and Quality

Stormwater Management


stormwater management

stormwater management | section v

74

Water Quantity and Quality

Being on the outskirts of Toronto, Black Creek has an advantage to explore and replicate some of the successful water management models that have been used to great effect in Toronto area. One of the most successful stormwater management models, low impact development, will be

“a high use of existing and improved pervious surfaces” integrated with small scale hydrologic controls and water treatment mini-stations spread throughout the neighborhood and will be able to address both local water

ROAD

boundary road

ROAD

4

CROP PLOT

quantity and quality issues that Black Creek has been experiencing. Following the local conservation regulations, low impact development practice will be implemented within proposed redevelopment area focusing on a high use of existing and improved pervious surfaces that prevent from severe flooding. A large central park will connect the linear park to the existing stream, as well as four smaller parks that manage stormwater runoff and irrigation. In the core development area, newly installed green roofs, rain gardens and infiltration swales will BLACK CREEK EDGE _ Phase 2 also help to capture stormwater which later

CREEK EXTENSION

agriculture plot

creek extension

CROP PLOT

CROP PLOT

BLACK bLACkCREEK CReekEDGE _ Phase 2 (alt)

black creek

#P

bLACk CReek

Different types of extended green buffer will help to restore the Black Creek’s ecology and control stormwater runoff.

MASTER PLAN

boundary road

agriculture plot

Landscape plan | self-sustainable 21 black creek

agriculture plot


75

TION PURPOSES ONLY. S, PLEASE CONTACT NG & DEVELOPMENT

section v | stormwater management

FIGURE 64 - GREATE EMPLOY FOOD RELATED M GREATER TOR

March

LAKE SIMCOE

ar panel

Municip

ss ent

Agricultu (Compile

Stormwater corridors will be linked via improved streetscapes.

CALEDON

Other D

BROCK

EAST GWILLIMBURY UXBRIDGE

Oak Rid Niagara

By creating water quality monitoring and Size of Company 5 Employees 6 to 20 Emplo LAKE SCUGOG activities, organizing awareness 21cleanup Century Garden suburb 21 to 50 Emp SCUGOG 51 to 100 Em and educational workshops, participating Over 100 Em RICHMOND HILL in new water quality standard enforcement, OurBRAMPTON goal is toVAUGHAN mimic natural hydrologic a long term sustainable water management MARKHAM patterns by using existing natural site features PICKERING plan will be developed. together with distributed smaller scale stormwater controls in water control and Along with OSHAWA a mix of land uses such as WHITBY AJAX MISSISSAUGA energy clusters located along Black Creek high density residential and commercial, and within hydro corridor. All clusteredLAKEcontrol this development willCLARINGTON preserve natural ONTARIO points – stormwaterCITYcorridors will be linked habitats and reduce pressure for any OF TORONTO via improved streetscapes that will be turned future development near the ravine of into the greenways by populating them with Black Creek. By extending the green buffer, trees and serve as integrated stormwater runwe intend to restore the Black Creek’s off system. ecology. This productive edge will produce 0 5,000 10,000 food, jobs, and increase the land value. PLANS As the anchor institution, York University will Additionally, through the construction of Mapping Source: lead public stewardship and participation green roads, better connections can beBaseMinistry of Municipal Affair Planning & Environmental S Manufacturing Information programs which will help to maintain and forged and enhance livability. keep effective newly integrated systems. can be reused to grow food in the gardens of KING productive landscape the edge of Black Landscape planalong | self-sustainable RA WHITCHURCHAURO Creek ravine. STOUFFVILLE

scape Plan

HILLS

GEORGINA

NEWMARK ET

ª


Architectural Elements

Spatial Design


spatial design

spatial design | section v

78

Architectural Elements For the spatial and architectural design of the core area, we have focused on five major aspects of physical environment. By defining them, we intend to create a living environment that promotes communication between people of all cultural backgrounds, provides equal and easy access to facilities and open space, and integrates social elements. In this community, affordable housing is distributed among market-rate housing, though in different buildings. They look the same from “equal and the ex terior and easy access to have equal access facilities and to c ommuni t y open space” s er v i c e s , green s p ac e, s c ho o l s , and major roads. Social elements are designed into various spaces. For

LIVING

instance, community kitchens are located along the productive green edge to provide fresh and healthy foods as well as a place for people with different cultural backgrounds “reduce crime to share foods. Food in park space stands provide food for residents as well and streets” as the university. Trash can art provides children with the opportunity to learn and participate in painting. Mural art would be explored as a way to extend the existing culture of the community. International food festival provides annual celebration as a way to brand the community at the central park, where Community Watch programs would help reduce crime in park space and streets. Finally, the community center and new

Canadian Rambla

100’ Urban Scale

MIXED USE

4

MASTER PLAN

75’

Pedestian Scale

Typology | Building | Green Space

The tree-lined park - the Canadian Rambla - is designed to create an urban feeling.

WORKING


Newly defined green space is a core area for community gatherings

MASTER PLAN

79

4

Typology | Building | Green Space

Mixed Use development

section v | spatial design

HIGHRISE RESIDENTIAL TOWNHOUSE COMMERCIAL COMMUNITY SERVICE

4

MASTER PLAN

Typology | Building | Green Space

Public vs. Private

PUBLIC SEMI-PUBLIC SEMI-PRIVATE

4

MASTER PLAN

Typology | High-rise Shared Space

Townhouse variations

UNIT 1 UNIT 2 CIRCULATION PARKING

4

SHARED SPACE

MASTER PLAN

Typology | Townhouse


To better support these activities and achieve the goals, we focused on the five aspects of spatial design. First, it is important to note the relationship between buildings and open space. There are three major open space typologies. The central park serves all residents of this community and attracts residents of surrounding neighborhoods. It is a large civic space under the surveillance of surrounding mixed-use buildings. The annual food festival will happen here, as a way to brand this community. Children can have education opportunities and participate in the trash can art. The linear park runs through the whole community as a green spine. The tree-lined park, known as the Canadian Rambla, is designed to create an urban feeling. It is pedestrian and bicycling friendly. Sustainable elements, like green roofs, rain cisterns, and rain water gardens will be incorporated in its design. And thirdly, a smaller-scale community garden serving the adjacent residents. This productive garden provides parents with a place to teach their children how to grow vegetables. Immigrants from different places can also

Secondly, we design the relationship between buildings. The three typologies are mixed-use buildings with community services, residential high-rises with “The community ground floor Welcome Center c o m m e r c i a l , plaza is a place and high-rise residential with we want to townhouses. emphasize� The community Welcome Center plaza is a place we want to emphasize. It is between residential and the community service center. It holds events to welcome all new residents. Also, plaza would function as a place for people of different ages to get together. The townhouses provide surveillance and form a comfortable enclosure of the space.

Building -- Open Space

Building -- Building

Thirdly, it is important to increase the public realm for social activities through the design of single buildings, especially for high-rise buildings. We identified three kinds of shared space from public to all, to semi-public for residents of certain floors, to semi-private for close neighbors. People can access to the public intermediate roof space through stairs and elevators from the ground. This bridging space connects different parts of a building for people to get together. The semi-public

Space & Activity

Building

Unit

section v | spatial design

share their cooking recipes using the fresh and healthy food they harvest here.

85

school facilities would provide job training and education services.


4

MASTER PLAN

Typology |


Community Gardens.

| Building | Green Space

Community Garden


spatial design | section V

88

setback roof space is designed for residents of different floors to have a shared space close to them. Different activities can happen here, also with the potential to create jobs, such as managing the roof garden and recreational facilities. The semi-private space is more private for close neighbors to hold events like family parties as well as playground for kids. Then, we designed single buildings, mainly townhouses, to bring positive effect on its surrounding environment. The first is a stacked townhouse adjacent to the creek. The design creates great views for families. The second is facing the community roads, providing surveillance to keep it safe. The third takes

advantage of the elevation difference and creates smooth circulation. All of them are designed to benefit the residents who live in these townhouses as well as the surrounding environment. Finally, we focus on the design of flexible units to promote affordability, meeting the needs of immigrants. Immigrants who buy large units can rent some of the rooms to their relatives who immigrate later and share a common living space. They can also buy a smaller unit first, and when their relatives come, buy the adjacent unit, break down the walls and lease some rooms to the relatives.

Unit Configuration

4

MASTER PLAN

Typology | Unit

Unit Configuration - expanded

4

MASTER PLAN

Typology | Unit


89

Canadian Rambla

4

Sidewalk

Traffic /Bicycle

Pedestrian Plaza

15’

10’

30’

MASTER PLAN

LIVING

Traffic /Bicycle Sidewalk

10’

8’

Rain Cistern

Typology | Building | Green Space

Canadian Rambla

100’ Urban Scale

MIXED USE

4

MASTER PLAN

75’

Pedestian Scale

Typology | Building | Green Space

WORKING

section v | spatial design

Roof Garden


MASTER PLAN

Typology |


| High-rise Shared Space


MASTER PLAN

Typology |


| High-rise Shared Space


SECTION VI


Timeline of Strategy

Phasing


phasing

phasing | section vi

100

Timeline of Strategy To realize the plan, we propose a program of six phases, roughly three years per phase. The program mainly focuses on the land that is owned by TCHC and the City, and the public institutions such as conservation authority and school board. These pieces of land could be directly used, easily acquired or utilized by TCHC.

the residents to be relocated in each phase. Secondly, we identify strategic locations that could define the sub-area and leave the parcels that are potentially more valuable for later phases. Third, we lay out buildings with reference to the location of public amenities. Each phase and each sub-area has affordable units integrated.

There are also two surrounding areas for which we have physical plan and design. But since the private parties control them, we don’t consider phasing and financing for the development on these peripheral areas.

As mentioned earlier, in the traditional TCHC model, land is sold to private developers and money is acquired to replace affordable units. Based on this, we identified potential partnerships that enhance financial feasibility. In addition, social housing in prior phases could stage the residents to be relocated in the following phases. The phasing plan

The general strategy of phasing follows three principles. First, we ensure that the development capacity can accommodate

PERIPHERAL AREA PHASE1 AREA PERIPHERAL PHASE2 PHASE1 PHASE3 PHASE2 PHASE4 PHASE3 PHASE5 PHASE4 PHASE6 PHASE5

4

PHASE6

MASTER PLAN Core Area and Peripheral Area MASTER PLAN Core Area and Peripheral Area

Overall phasing based on zones and peripheral area.


2220

Overall Units

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

574

verall units

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

101

4

T-RATE

overall units

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

106

4

RATE

hase 1

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

Phase 1

Relocation Plan 1

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

106

4

RATE

elocation Plan 1

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

Relocation Plan 1

Phase 2

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

781

RATE

hase verall2units

781

108 106

4

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

overall2units Phase

section vi | phasing

Phase 1

AffoRdAbLE


$

$

$

5

Phasing Strategy

2

city developer

financing for phasing

$

3 $

city

$

city developer

$

4 $

1

v

v $

5 $

BanK

v

v

v

city developer

school board developer

conservation

conservation

$

6 $

102

phasing | section vi

consists of money and population flow within development on the south side could the site. further reinforce the value along the road. A community center will be built on this Overall, we propose to develop 574 affordable southern site as well. units, and 2,220 market-rate units in six phases. In Phase 4, we exchange the riverfront land to Conservation Authority for this parcel that In phase 1, a loan will be taken out to build they own on the north. By building two new 106 affordable units on TCHC owned land. schools and a community green, we hope to The lender of set the tone for the whole development. After “leveraging the the loan could the phase 4 is finished, two existing schools land value on be the bank or will be demolished and the land they currently the Jane Street� the government. occupy are freed for further phasing. The units could hold the residents relocated from the current In Phase 5, the central spine and the central senior housing and affordable family housing, park will be finished on the school board and free the land to be developed in the land. One more school will be built by private second phase. developers as a part of the land sale package. Additionally, TCHC will build a parking garage In Phase 2, we aim at leveraging the land on this parcel for the Conservation authority, value on the Jane Street, which is the North- and in return get the right to develop the land. South axis. Commercial properties will be built in the Jane-Driftwood corner to anchor the In the last phase, the land on the riverfront, retailers. The relocation follows the principles which we deem as the most valuable land, mentioned earlier. will be developed. We could seize the highest land value by putting it at the last phase. Traditional TcHc Model After residential units are built on the north area of Shoreham Street, comprehensive

school board developer


AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

Relocation Plan 2

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

781

781

108 106

elocation Plan 2

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

103

4

-RATE

Relocation Plan 2

Phase 3

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

233

233

781

781 128 108 106

4

ATE

erall ase 3units

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

overall3units Phase

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

Relocation Plan 3

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

233

233

781

781 128 108 106

4

T-RATE

Relocation Plan 3

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

Relocation Plan 3

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

Phase 4

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER SCHooL

SCHooL

130

130

233

233

781

RATE

hase verall4units

781

42 128 108 106

4

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

overall4units Phase

section vi | Phasing

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE


phasing | section vi 104


Relocation Plan 4 AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

SCHooL

SCHooL

130

130

233

233

781

781

42 128 108 106

elocation Plan 4

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

105

4

T-RATE

Relocation Plan 4 AffoRdAbLE MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

SCHooL

SCHooL 886

886

130

130

233

233

110 781

781

42 128 108 106

4

T-RATE

hase verall5units

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

overall5units Phase

Relocation Plan 5 AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

SCHooL

SCHooL

886

886

130

130

233

233

110 781

781

42 128 108 106

4

T-RATE

Relocation Plan 5 190

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

Relocation Plan 5 190

Phase 6

AffoRdAbLE

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MARkET-RATE

CoMMuNITy CENTER

CoMMuNITy CENTER

SCHooL

SCHooL

886

886

130

130

233

233

80 110

781

ET-RATE

overall6units Phase

781

42 128 108 106

4

AffoRdAbLE

MARkET-RATE

MASTER PLAN

overall6units Phase

section vi | phasing

Phase 5

AffoRdAbLE


SECTION VII


Project Funding and Realization

Financing


financing

Project Funding and Realization

financing | section Vii

110

In the traditional model, TCHC sells land to private developers to cover the replacement costs. We also intend to add partnership to the model.

Project-based Tool:

a. ppp b. tif c. tax credit City-wide Policy:

d. corporate tax e. sales tax

Right now the land price is around $20 per square foot. Under the traditional model, there is a 111-million-dollar gap. Only less than onefourth of our target number can be built.

“111-million-dollar gap� Take Lawrence Height as an example. Compared to the study area, it is half as far from downtown Toronto. The land value at Lawrence Height could sustain a 4-1 market to affordable ratio. However, in the study area, the land price is only one third that of Lawrence Height given its remote location and its low density characteristic. As a consequence, the traditional model only works here if the FAR in the area is up zoned to around 6, which does not agree with local market demand. Although our site is far from downtown, the new subway station and this revitalization plan will largely increase the land price. We came up with 3 price baselines for our financial plan. In the first, the land price remains the same as present with the financial gap of $111 millions. In the second baseline, the land price grows 50% to $30/sqft, and then the gap declines to about $99 millions. In the third, the land value increases aggressively 100% to $40/sqft, and the gap is reduced to $93 millions.


city developer

$

4

$

5

city developer

school board developer

conservation

conservation

$17,086,006

$12,873,553

$15,960,182

$25,238,064

$27,197,810

$25,758,000

$

$

3 $

city developer

$

$

6

school board developer

$

Traditional TCHC Model of Financial Strategy and Financial Gap.

financing financial gap

To fill the gap, we came up with our new model that incorporates multiple solutions. We devised five strategies in total. Three of them are specific to our project and the rest are citywide policies.

structure to replace the cash flow from the current ground parking space. Then TCHC could acquire the land, sell the land to the private sector, and build more affordable units.

The first strategy is to form partnerships with other parties in the “exchange the area. By trading the new school land they own with with currently the buildings they underutilized need, the TCHC can capitalize upon its campus� expertise in property development while getting appreciating land at a cheap price.

In Phase 5, the school board is our major partner. In this phase, TCHC could build a school for the school board, and propose to exchange the new school with currently underutilized campus. The school board acquires a new facility by giving out the strategic locations that are much more valuable to commercial development. The plan benefits both parties in the transaction, which is why we consider this scheme feasible.

One of the partners in the area is the conservation authority. Their mission is to preserve the natural treasure of the Black Creek area. We provide them the strip of land by the river and in return build a parking

One way to push this partnership one step further is to let TCHC play a more entrepreneurial role. In prior projects, TCHC does not contribute any cash equity towards the market project, thus having no

section vii | financing

5

2

$111,981,460 461 units

111

city

$

$

1

$

BanK

GAP

$

$20 /sqft


financing | section vii

112

obligation or risk of market project. However, in such an area where the land value could be elevated by the design and plan, TCHC could be more speculative. One possible attempt is to build affordable student housing with York University and sign a long-term lease with the university. The cash flow from the project could support more sustainable affordable housing development. These partnerships essentially trade fixed construction costs with land held by other parties in the “TIF has never been area. The practiced in Toronto� prerequisite for the approach to make money is that land value is high enough to exceed the construction cost. When the starting land value is below $30, the partnership, to the opposite, enlarges the gap. However, the approach transfers the liability of housing development to that of providing public

A.PPP $40

B. TiF

$12,485,413 $29,383,509

The second solution is to finance the public facilities and amenities through a site-wide TIF. TIF has never been practiced in Toronto. After looking at some of precedents in the US from different cities, we concluded the following. The fixed coupon rate was decided through the risk of projects and the size of the bond. The higher the coupon rate, the lower the proceeds from the TIF. In our TIF model, we calculated the expected revenues in different coupon rates through all three baselines with different coupon rates. And this is how much gap it could fill given different assumptions. The Low Income Housing Tax Credit has been one of the most common methods for social housing financing in the US. There are tax credits in Canada, but they cannot be traded,

C. Tax Credit $93,763,497 350 units

/sqft

$30

facilities, which could be covered by more financing tools.

$14,617,938

$99,854,992 372 units

/sqft

-$6,268,405

$20

$13,348,220

/sqft

-$12,132,155

financing Tax increment financing

$111,981,460 461 units


Black Creek

$20/sqft

Lawrence Heights

$65/sqft

113

Central Downtown

section vii | financing

Location and Price Comparison.

ncing Location and Price comparison and thus does not commit private money raise from $70 million to $91 million for the to public projects. The money is essentially proposed project. received from the federal government. The program is highly competitive in the US. If a Corporate surtax is a more direct financial source of affordable housing. Toronto is such “The Low Income Housing Tax a city where immigrants play an important Credit has been one of the most role in the labor force. Businesses in the city enjoy the cheap labor without paying for their common methods for social living expenses. This corporate surtax could housing financing in the US� establish the nexus that connects the low labor project is located in a HUD designated high cost in the city to the prosperity of commercial cost area, the eligible basis receives a 130% activities. There are currently around 60,000 adjustment. If similar tools in the US can units under TCHC’s management. Assuming be utilized, TCHC could sell the credits to the buildings need renovation or replacement investors to raise the capital; the gap can be every 30 years, adding 250 percentage points largely filled. Same rule applied, the tool could to the current corporate tax rate could help


B.TiF B.TiF

B.TiF

TiF ComPARABLeS in THe UniTeD STATeS YeAR

iTY

AnnUAL TAx inCRemenT

CoUPon RATe

114

TiF ComPARABLeS in THe UniTeD STATeS RABLeS in THe UniTeD STATeS iTTsBurgH, Pa 2001 $6,100,000 6.5%

AnnUAL TAx CiTY ew YeAR YorK ciTY, nY 2002 inCRemenT

financing chapter| |section Building vii

CoUPon YeAR $23,000,000 RATe PiTTsBurgH, Pa $8,250,000 2001 MinneaPoLis, Mn$6,100,000 2004 2001 6.5% new YorK ciTY, nY 2002 as 2005 Y Vegas, 2002 nV $23,000,000 5.0%$14,000,000 MinneaPoLis, Mn 2004 eaTTLe, 2005 $15,000,000 2004wa $8,250,000 11.0% Las Vegas, nV 2005 2005 iL $14,000,000 7.8%$12,000,000 Hicago, 2006 seaTTLe, wa 2005 2005 5.9% acKsonViLLe, fL$15,000,000 2007 $5,000,000 cHicago, iL 2006 2006 $12,000,000 6.0% KLaHoMa ciTY, oK JacKsonViLLe, 2007 fL $9,500,000 2007 2007 $5,000,000 9.5% oKLaHoMa 2007 ouisViLLe, KY 2011 ciTY, oK $6,000,000 oK 2007 $9,500,000 6.9% LouisViLLe, 2011 enVer, 2012 KY7.7%$7,000,000 2011co $6,000,000 DenVer, co 2012 wasHingTon, Dc$7,000,000 2013 $18,000,000 2012 12.0% wasHingTon, Dc 2013 2013 $18,000,000 4.9%$15,500,000 aLLas, TX 2014 DaLLas, TX 2014 2014 $15,500,000 5.9%

AnnUAL TAx inCRemenT 5.0%

CoUPon RATe

$23,000,000 7.8%

5.0% CoUPon RATe 11.0% 6% 7% 7.8% 8% 9% 5.9% 10% 6.0% 6% 9.5% 7% 8% 6.9% 9% 10% 7.7%

neT PRoCeeDS To in DiFFeRenT RATe CoUPon

neT PRoCeeDS

RATe Toin PRojeCT neT PRoCeeDS To DiFFeRenT RATe neT PRoCeeDS RATe $6,100,000 6.5% To in DiFFeRenT 6% $47,057,866 11.0% $8,250,000

5.9%

$14,000,000

6.0% $40

$15,000,000

9.5%

$12,000,000

6.9% $5,000,000

$30

$9,500,000 7.7% $6,000,000 12.0% $7,000,000

4.9%

$18,000,000

5.9% $20

$15,500,000

12.0% 6% 7% 4.9% 8% 5.9% 9% 10%

7%

$40

CoUPon RATe 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%

neT PRoCeeDS 8% To PRojeCT 9% $47,057,866 10% $36,003,842 $28,211,695 $21,990,454 6% $16,898,096 7%

$40

$30

8%

$44,575,116 9% $34,495,225 10% $27,115,612 $20,886,343 $16,225,914 6%

$20

$30

7%

$42,092,366 8% $32,909,202 9% $25,480,375 10% $19,782,232 $15,553,733

$20

6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10%

neT PRoCeeDS $36,003,842 To PRojeCT $28,211,695 $21,990,454 $47,057,866 $36,003,842 $16,898,096 $28,211,695

$21,990,454 $44,575,116 $16,898,096 $34,495,225 $27,115,612 $44,575,116 $20,886,343 $34,495,225 $27,115,612 $16,225,914

$20,886,343 $16,225,914

$42,092,366 $32,909,202 $42,092,366 $25,480,375 $32,909,202 $19,782,232 $25,480,375 $19,782,232 $15,553,733 $15,553,733

5C.

Tax increment Tax Credit financing Tax increment financingfinancing financing Tax increment financing ng HCA multiple=100% PHASe

PHASe

PHASe

PHASe

PHASe

PHASe

AnnUAL CReDiT (THoUSAnD)

2,001

2,189

2,544

835

2,251

1,611

PV oF CReDiTS (THoUSAnD)

12,298

13,454

15,629

5,134

13,833

9,900

$70,000,000 HCA multiple=130% AnnUAL CReDiT (THoUSAnD)

PHASe 2,601

PHASe 2,846

PHASe 3,306

PHASe 1,086

PHASe 2,927

PHASe 2,095

PV oF CReDiTS (THoUSAnD)

15,987

17,490

20,318

6,675

17,984

12,870

$91,000,000

5

financing Tax credit


the city raise enough money to renovate and replace old stocks.

58,500 uniTs THrougHouT THe ciTY

Add-on Tax Rate

0.25%

1.00%

2.50%

Tax Revenue (mil)

53.1

212.3

530.8

Buildable Units

212

849

2123

Assumption: revenue distributed pro rAtA to populAtion

e. Corporate Tax Add-on Tax Rate

5

0.25%

0.50%

1.00%

Tax Revenue (mil)

82.6

165.1

330.3

Buildable Units

330

661

1321

financing corporate Tax

Assumption: revenue distributed pro rAtA to populAtion

section vii | financing

D. Corporate Tax

115

Another possible subsidy for public facilities is sales surtax. The tax revenue could be used to improve public transit, build schools and church or build garage. There i s a t r an si t improvement tax at the rate of 0.25% in s ever al c oun t i e s in Minne s o t a. Also in Texas, the rate ranges from .25% to 1%. The rationale is that public improvement helps enhance the local commercial opportunity. As mentioned earlier, the partnership could shift the liability of housing development to building public facilities. With the tax revenue, this shifted liability could be covered.


SECTION VIII


Vision in Mind

Conclusion


During Spring Break, prof. Nando Micale and students had the opportunity to travel to Toronto (Canada), where they visited Black Creek, Regent Park, and St. Lawrence neighborhoods. They also met

and exchanged ideas with local

planners.


conclusion Vision in Mind

section viii | conclusion

green-space focused one. We also proposed programs that could turn underutilized Black Creek to a productive landscape and a regional destination, and pair it up with various social programs. Finally, we devised a financial model that could sustain the revitalization in such a remote area. With this plan, we hope to realize our goal of building the 21st century Garden Suburb.

121

To conclude, Toronto is faced with a housing crisis characterized by a long waitlist for social housing and the deterioration of the current stock. The disinvestment of national and provincial money further aggravates the situation. We came up with a design that seizes the opportunities on the site, and changes the current street-oriented community pattern to a pedestrian friendly,


Design and Text: CPLN 702 Studio (PennDesign) Print: Replica Creative

University of Pennsylvania Department of City and Regional Planning Spring 2014


acknowledgments We would like to thank the following people for their support and guidance throughout this project: CPLN 702 Global Housing Studio Instructors: Nando Micale, Evan Rose, Stefan Al PennPlanning: John Landis (City of Regional Planning Department Chair), Kate Daniel Toronto Community Housing Corporation (TCHC): Kelly Skeith (Development Manager) Planning Alliance (Toronto, CA): John van Nostrand (Founding Principal) Toronto City Planning Division: Kyle Knoeck (Senior Planner) Wellesley Institute (Toronto, CA): Michael Shapcott (Director of Afford. Housing & Social Innovation)


pennplanning | cpln 702 studio | spring 2014


Global Housing Studio-Toronto