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CITY BUILDING A MODEL FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING 一个北京社会福利住房的模型

THE BEIJING CASE STUDY


Book Design and Layout: Shelly Zhu Text Editor: Philip McBride Printing: Replica Creative, Philadelphia

GLOBAL SOCIAL HOUSING STUDIO Department of City Planning, Spring 2014


CITY BUILDING A MODEL FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING 一个北京社会福利住房的模型

THE BEIJING CASE STUDY

Stefan Al, Associate Professor of Urban Design Jai Agrawal, Minjoo Kim, Janet Lee, Suzanne Mahoney Philip McBride, Donny Zellefrow, and Shelly Zhu Department of City Planning, Spring 2014


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank all of the people we met during our time in Beijing. The exchanges we had with experts, professionals, and students were invaluable to our work, and greatly influenced our project. AECOM: Sandy Yan Wang + Staff Aiying Yang, Forbidden City Tour Eunice Chen: translator Jeffrey Bernstein: Managing Director of the Wharton China Center Peking University: Lu Bin Head and Professor, Department of Urban and Regional Planning + students The Beijing Urban Planning and Design Institute: Zhengxin Liao, Senior Planner Tsinghua: Professor Ying Wang, Dr. Lei Shao, Dean Emeritus Gary Hack Turenscape: Dr. Kongjian Yu & Stanley Lung + students We would like to thank our instructors Stefan Al, Nando Micale, and Evan Rose, who guided us along the way. Also thanks to Dean Marilyn Taylor and Professor John Landis for their continued support, and of course Kate Daniel and Roslynne Carter.


8

SECTION ONE

Executive Summary

10 Introduction to the Studio

24

SECTION THREE

36

Affordable Housing in China

Regional Analysis

50

56

Mega Block Explained

Block Typologies

104 Construction

Regional Approach

112

SECTION TWO

18

Background

SECTION FOUR

46

PennDesign in China

SECTION FIVE

66

Site Approach

SECTION SIX

Conclusion

128


FOREWARD The Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design (北京市城市规划设计研究院) had given graduate students of the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Design a 10 hectare site to explore new forms of affordable housing. This government agency is tasked with planning a staggering amount of 200,000 affordable housing units every year— roughly the equivalent of building the entire housing stock of a city like Dublin, year after year. Both in terms of speed and scale, it is an unprecedented housing challenge.    Instead of developing ideas for that particular site alone, students recognized that the provision of affordable housing at this immense scale is really a form of city building, and that it could be used as a major impetus to improve Beijing’s urban form and public realm. They tested how density zoning, urban design regulations, landscape and open space typologies, architectural forms, and economic policies could contribute to not only a more equitable, but also a more efficient, pleasant, and sustainable city. Stefan Al Associate Professor of Urban Design University of Pennsylvania


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

| Introduction

8

Challenges in Beijing

Unlike the cities of São Paulo and Toronto, the key challenge for Beijing is managing rapid population growth and urbanization. To put this into perspective, Beijing’s growth is about five times that of Manhattan every year. Affordable housing in China’s cities has become one of the government’s key priorities since the 1998 housing reforms, which abolished the danwei system. Danwei was a policy where employers provided housing for workers on site. Since this shift, social housing dropped from almost 100 percent to less than 10 percent. At the same time, housing prices have skyrocketed since the 1978 housing reform, which changed housing from a “free good” to a “commodity,” making housing unaffordable for many. Affordable housing in China today lies at the crux of finding a balance between economic growth and social welfare; between current needs and future problems; and most of all, between fidelity to the past and, while at the same time, looking toward the future.

in the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, have not been successful, and now stand as examples of the ghettoization of China’s new towns. Despite these plans, housing for migrant workers and the rural poor is still lacking. Their housing options are limited, since many are ineligible for the general housing distribution system, in addition to being excluded from homeownership because most of them have lower paid jobs. Many migrants end up living in urban villages, a form of urban informality, where rents are much lower. However, with real estate values rising, many of these villages are slated for demolition. Today, more than a thousand village redevelopment plans exist throughout China, with the potential to affect the homes of millions of people.

Under the current Five-Year Plan, Beijing is under the mandate to produce 200,000 units of affordable housing every year. The Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design is working frantically to meet the In view of the housing shortage in Chinese mandate and does not have the resources cities, China’s Twelfth Five-year Plan to strategize effectively about how to mandates the construction of 36 million accomplish this without large-scale megahomes by next year—an average of almost blocks of monotonous concrete buildings. As 20 thousand homes per day. Providing affordable housing is a key component of this an interdisciplinary design team of planners, plan. However, most of the housing is located architects, landscape architects and urban designers, we worked within the parameters on the outskirts of the city, isolated from of this mandate to find opportunities where their surroundings, and far away from job centers.  This further perpetuates social and design could significantly improve the class divisions. To date there has not been a implementation of this policy for the 7.4 successful model for social housing in China. million families that are in need of affordable housing this year. New model cities like Huaming, celebrated


9

Introduction |


| Introduction

10

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDIO A recent UN population growth model predicts that the world’s population will stop growing in 2050, topping out around 8.9 billion. Global population growth will be driven in numbers by regional growth in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and North America. This global growth represents an increase of more than 25% over the current estimated population of 7.1 billion. The UN also predicts a high range of 10.6 billion, which would represent a 50% increase. And, reflecting ever-increasing urbanization trends, it is estimated that 75% of this global population will live in cities at that time (up from 50% in 2007). Given such growth, it is no surprise that meeting the incredible demand for affordable housing in livable communities is one of the key challenges of our age, especially with approximately 1 in 5 people living in informal housing around the world by 2020. Whichever prediction of growth is correct, the increase is a combination of urbanization related to densification of metropolitan areas and the realization of the megalopolis concept of economies through dense city expansion. This expansion will put more pressures on communities to decrease the number of people living in substandard and unaffordable housing. The first step then, as designers and planners, is to cast aside this apprehension about affordable housing, and the daunting task at hand. It is necessary, rather, to view the creation of affordable housing for its value and as a tool for reshaping global cities like Beijing, São Paulo, and Toronto.

This super studio set out to create a new model for global affordable housing, which would be applicable and relevant to the respective cities as a whole or as individual neighborhoods. Working within this systems approach, the studio broke into groups to study trends and models pertaining to social housing from other global cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Singapore, Hong Kong, and national examples such as New York and San Francisco. These case studies provided inspiration for transformative projects in the areas of urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, and policy and revealed lessons that could be applied to a vision for affordable housing globally. As the manufacturing economy shifts, the need for new models of affordable housing in diverse locations will provide fertile ground for the exploration of inter-disciplinary approaches to community design. History and experience have clearly illustrated that creating housing on a large scale is challenging from many perspectives, from cost to community. Yet it is a challenge that we, as designers and planners, must embrace, as it is one of the major issues facing our rapidly urbanizing world. Whether pragmatic or visionary, the lessons that are learned from current models of affordable housing can be distilled, tested and challenged, and transformed to set in motion a new process for imagining the global development of affordable housing, and its potential for the future. This Global Social Housing Studio hopes the visions outlined in the following pages will spark some inspiration to set this in motion.


11

Introduction |


In 2008, there were about 7.4 million low-income households in need of GOvernment support for housing.


北京

BEIJING

Background Affordable Housing


ECONOMIC DRIVERS

PLANNING

URBAN POLICY

MAO ZEDONG

HUA GUOFENG

DECENTRALIZED URBAN DEVELOPMENT

XIA FA

XIA FANG INITIATED ONE-CHILD POLICY GRAIN CRISIS

OPEN HU KOU INITIATED

1ST 5YP

FOUNDING OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA CULTURAL REVOLUTION KOREAN WAR BEGINS

CH

“GREAT LEAP FORWARD”

TOTAL POP 541.6 MIL

1950

URBAN EXPERIMENTATION

URBANIZATION RATE 10.6%

RUSTIFICATION

INDUSTRIALIZATION

VIETNAM WAR

55

1960

65

1970

75

198


ZHAO ZIYANG HU YAOBANG DENG XIAOPING

HU JINTAO

JIANG ZEMIN

URBAN ECONOMIC FOCUS

ECONOMIC REFORM

BALANCED URBAN DEVELOPMENT

ANG REVERSED

END OF THE DAN WEI LEASE OF LAND-USE RIGHTS

DOOR POLICY

HUKOU MODIFIED

REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY EMERGES

LEASE OF LAND-USE RIGHTS PRIVATIZED 12TH 5YP

HINA-US RELATIONS BEGIN

80

WORLD EXPO COLD WAR ENDS

BEIJING HOSTS OLYMPICS

URBANIZATION RATE 51.25%

85

1990

HYPERURBANIZATION

URBAN PROLIFERATION

TOTAL POP 1.366 BILL

95

2000

05

2010


BACKGROUND

Background | BEIJING

18

Welcome to Beijing

The earliest recorded settlement on the site of Beijing was founded in the 13th century, but it was in the 15th century that Beijing became a major center of the country with the construction of the Forbidden City between 1406 and 1426. The city housed the Imperial household and retinue, and was separated from common people by a great wall that surrounded the complex. To the south of this wall, common people settled and set up markets, forming a physical divide between north and south that is still in evidence in today’s Beijing. The original city was formed around a central north-south axis that ran from the Bell and Drum Towers at the northern end of the city walls, to the Temple of Heaven at the southern end. Outside of the Forbidden City, streets running north to south and east to west create a series 
of nine quadrants that comprise the traditional gridded form of the city, a form which has expanded outward as the city grew in the centuries following its founding. The

large blocks created by this quadrant pattern can be seen throughout the city, and have produced Beijing’s megablock form. Outside of the central core, Beijing’s traditional neighborhoods are organized around the traditional Chinese fishbone structure. A north- south road forms the central spine of the fishbone and is the largest in a hierarchy of streets, while eastwest roads of varying sizes create a series of layers of streets. The fishbone structure creates a densely packed network of housing with a very clear hierarchy of roads ranging from those wide enough to handle vehicular traffic, to smaller pedestrian and vehicle roads, to the smallest and most private pedestrian pathways that bring residents to their doors. This network of roads comprises the hutong (胡同), a neighborhood comprised of this hierarchy of streets that surround single- story siheyuan (四合院) courtyard homes.

A siheyuan (四合院) is a historical type of residence that was commonly found throughout China, most famously in Beijing. Often referred to as Chinese quadrangles, the name literally means a courtyard surround by buildings on all four sides.


Hutongs (čƒĄĺ?Œ) are a type of narrow streets or alleys, commonly associated with northern Chinese cities. The alleys are formed by lines of siheyuan courtyard houses, most prominently in Beijing.


A Changing City

Background | BEIJING

20

It is not difficult to see from the city’s appearance the radical changes that it has undergone in recent years. In the 1950s, 150.7 million square feet of siheyuan were demolished to make way for modern buildings. This pattern of demolition has continued to the present as the government continues to upgrade the housing stock.

From 19901998, 45.2 million square feet of single-story housing was demolished.

The replacement for the siheyuan is the high-rise residential tower. A similar form is used for public, low-income, and high-income housing complexes alike. Typical residential towers range from six to
15 stories, which are placed throughout a typical block measuring 1,600 by 1,700 meters. Towers are located in gated residential enclaves, contributing to the lack of publicly-accessible green and open spaces in the city.


21

BEIJING | Background


Background | BEIJING

22

These high-rise tower blocks are scattered everywhere, puncturing the landscape of a historic imperial city. These changes are more sharply realized when looking at the city’s massive urban growth. Until the 1950s, Beijing’s built up areas were still confined roughly within the old imperial city walls. Thereafter, these built-up areas of the city have been enlarged by more than a factor of 10 during the past 50 years in the form of

1980

squared ring roads that encircle the center. The original Ming-era city wall was torn down in the 1970s and replaced with the Second Ring Road, which is actually the first in a series of six roads that encompass increasingly large suburban areas. The most recent Sixth Ring Road was completed in 2001, and contributes to the increasingly sprawling form of the city. The most recent areas of growth have been the northern suburbs between the 5th and 6th Ring Roads, which have mainly been settled by migrants to the city.

1990

2000

Beijing’s rapid and large-scale population growth has further fueled the physical expansion of the city. From 1980 to 2012, the population more than doubled from 9.3 to 20.7 million people.

2012


Compared to peer cities such as Tokyo, Shanghai, and New York City, Beijing has a similar population to that of New York, but a far higher population density based on its smaller land area, giving it a density close to that of Tokyo. While cities such as Shanghai and New York are expected to maintain their current population levels, Beijing’s population continues to grow due to continued urbanization. 23

Tokyo Tokyo

Shanghai Shanghai

BEIJING | Background

The GDP, however, is growing faster than population, indicating increased wealth among residents as the economy has grown. GDP is expected to increase by 400% between 2012 and 2015, which will place Beijing close to Tokyo and New York in per capita wealth and potentially in quality of life standards.

New NewYork YorkCity City

Beijing Bejing

Population

Population Millions Millions

35.7

18.9

23

Area Area 2 km2km

Density Density

per per km2km2

19.1

17,400

13,600 6,300 2,700

3,600

8,900 1,100

SOURCE: http://www.newgeography.com/content/002218-china-urbanizing-and-moving-east-2010-census

2,200


AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN CHINA

Affoirdable Housing in China | BEIJING

24

In addition to the rapid expansion of urban areas, the recent economic reforms have altered the real estate market through the commercialization and privatization of the urban public housing, and in doing so the traditional Beijing residential structure. Most significant of these changes has been the termination of the direct housing distribution to employees through the former danwei or employer-based system, where housing was required to be provided as part of an employment-based work unit.

RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

FACTORY

OFFICE/ADMINISTRATIVE

A danwei (单位) is the name given to a place of employment in the People’s Republic of China. While the term danwei remains in use today it is more properly used to refer to a place of employment during the period when the Chinese economy was still more heavily socialist or when used in the context of one of state-owned enterprises.


The Basics

affordable housing system targeted at middle-income households was established to provide support to nearly 70 percent of

high-income families at the top 15 percent of the economic spectrum that have access to mortgage financing.1 1 AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN CHINA, LINCOLN INSTITUTE OF LAND POLICY, 2011

URBAN ONLY

HOUSING REFORM POLICY HIGH-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

15%

MIDDLE-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

70%

LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

15%

Commercial Market Rate Housing Mortgage Financing

Economic Housing Subsidized loans

Low Rent Public Housing Government-owned

SOURCE: AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN CHINA, LINCOLN INSTITUTE OF LAND POLICY, 2011

BEIJING | Affoirdable Housing in China

urban families. It also introduced housing cash subsidies to new employees and set up a Housing Provident Fund-- a compulsory housing savings system to provide subsidized loans to employed homebuyers. Low-rent public housing is provided by the government to low-income urban households, while commercial housing is provided by the market to meet the needs and demands of 25

Currently, the government provides affordable housing by subsidizing commercial housing purchases or by offering low-rent public housing to middle and low-income families. At the same time, with the push towards a market-based economy, it relies on the private housing market to meet the needs of the higher-income groups. According to government plans, the current


Affoirdable Housing in China | BEIJING

26

This housing reform has resulted in a vigorous and fast growing urban housing market, however with the termination of the danwei system, the construction and supply of affordable housing has declined. While the demand remains high and the supply quite limited, urban housing prices have skyrocketed since 2005, making housing affordability a major issue.

Housing Affordability Compared to the United States and Canada, the Chinese housing stock is considered severely unaffordable in terms of price to income ratios (PIR). In the United State and Canada, the PIR is 3.2 and 3.5 respectively, which meet the international standard for a normal or affordable level of housing.2 According to research conducted by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, the PIR of urban China was found to have a value of 5.56 nationwide. This ratio falls in the

category of “severely unaffordable” according to the criteria proposed by UN-HABITAT. It indicates that the The Chinese median price of the housing stock housing stock is is considered more than five times severely annual household unaffordable. median incomes. The average household income in Beijing was 48,000 RMB in 2012 ($7,700 USD). Median incomes have increased steadily from 27,700 RMB ($4,450 USD) in 2008, yet they have not kept pace with
the rising cost of housing. The average price of housing in 2008 was 27,000 RMB ($4,400 USD), demonstrating how unaffordable housing is compared to median income.

2 AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN CHINA, LINCOLN INSTITUTE OF LAND POLICY, 2011

Normal

PRICE-TO-INCOME

1

UNITED STATES

CANADA

CHINA SOURCE: AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN CHINA, LINCOLN INSTITUTE OF LAND POLICY, 2011

2

3


CHINA HOUSING PRICES IN REAL TERMS

27

2004-2009

2009-2014

SOURCE: THE ECONOMIST, National bureau of statistics china

“Severely Unaffordable”

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

BEIJING | Affoirdable Housing in China

1999-2004


The Government’s Response

Affoirdable Housing in China | BEIJING

28

To somewhat answer this, the Chinese Central government has been setting policies with respect to affordable housing. In its latest five-year plan, the government has mandated the construction of 36 million homes by the end of 2015. However, it is the local governments who are responsible for the construction,

“Construct and renovate 36 million homes for urban lowincome families.”

financing, and management of that housing mandate. In order to meet the 200,000 unit of affordable housing per year quota, the local governments must generate their own revenue, and do so primarily through land lease sales to private developers. Middle-income families seeking market-oriented commercial housing may receive a subsidized loan from the Housing Provident Fund, but with prices lingering at levels inaccessible even to average salary earners, the current affordable housing system has encountered a number of serious challenges.

CHALLENGE 1 There is an enormous and growing demand for affordable housing in China. By the end of 2008, there were about 7.4 million low-income urban households in need of government support for housing. In addition, government population and labor statistics indicate that cities have an estimated “floating population” of 147 million, most of whom are migrant workers who often fall within the low-income group. Most of these migrant workers do not have hukou status, or city registration, which is a requirement to

be eligible for urban public housing. Without city registration, migrants cannot access basic social services such as public housing, education, or health care offered by the government. Despite these restrictions, Beijing’s population has continued to grow due to migration from the countryside to city for access to jobs and a higher quality of life. In 2010, 34% of Beijing’s population were identified as registered migrants, who are legally allowed to be in the city, but these people do not have legal access to work or social services. Another 17% are unregistered migrants, who are technically not allowed to be in the city, and so likewise cannot access jobs or services. This system has resulted in high inequality between city dwellers, with over half of the population unable to access basic services and housing. While there have been recent efforts to dismantle the system, it will likely not be a quick transition process.


CHALLENGE 2 Affordable housing accounts for only a small portion of the total housing stock, underscoring inadequate government support for middle and low-income households in urban China. Governmentsponsored low-rent housing, as well as heavily subsidized economical and comfortable housing, accounts for only 7 percent and 4 percent of the total housing 29

stock respectively. In contrast, the two most prevalent types of housing are commercial and privatized public housing.

BEIJING | Affoirdable Housing in China

URBAN HOUSING TENURE TYPE Other Economical/Comfortable Public Rental Private Rental Original Private 7% 4%

SOURCE: NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA, 2007

Commercial Housing Privatized Public Housing


CHALLENGE 3

Affoirdable Housing in China | BEIJING

30

Local governments in China lack incentives and financial means to provide affordable housing. The fiscal reform of the early 90s left subnational governments with the obligation to provide nearly 80 percent of total government expenditures, but with direct receipt of only 47 percent of total government revenues. Such fiscal imbalances has driven many local

This system is slightly flawed because local governments prefer to offer state-owned land to the highest bidder among developers to maximize local revenues, but are required to appropriate land leases to developers who are willing to finance, construct, and sell affordable housing, often at a reduced price, which is significant in Beijing as land value is roughly 60% of a total development cost. In

addition, the financing of affordable housing governments to rely on land leasing fees for revenue to finance infrastructure investments depends upon funds from the Housing Provident Fund, but its deposits come from and economic development. sources such as fees from land transfers that are unstable and inadequate to sustain affordable housing investment.

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

PRIVATE DEVELOPERS

Construction Financing Management

LAND SALES

$$$ REVENUE


The construction of new housing developments continue to spread into the countryside, as the sale of land is profitable to municipalities.


32 Affoirdable Housing in China | BEIJING

Conclusions In light of the current affordable housing policies, and considering the rate of urbanization in Beijing alone, affordable housing developments are happening lightning quick, with little thought able to be given to the quality of block composition, architecture, or public realm. With the danwei no longer in place, new residential districts have spread out so far enhancing spatial mismatches and increasing the gap between socioeconomic classes. This has no only destroyed the traditional city scape, but so also its original residential structure.

Increasingly dense development and block typologies has translated into somewhat of a one-track, fast pace, monotonous development pattern with scant attention paid to important quality of life and environmental issues. These factors have posed risks and challenges for Beijing to be a stable, competitive, and sustainable city as sought by the Central Government. With the system of affordable housing, current development policies in mind, there are several significant regional implications this has had on Beijing’s city spatial patterns.


A child’s Kevin Lynch-esque depiction of housing in Beijing, courtesy of Tsinghua University housing experts.


背景

CONTEXT

Regional Analysis Visiting Beijing The megablock Typology studies


REGIONAL ANALYSIS Transit Investments

Regional Analysis | CONTEXT

36

The regional implications of these recent economic trends and policy changes are reflected in Beijing’s rapid scale of growth. The expansion of the ring road network has contributed to large-scale pollution and congestion. In 2008, Beijing sought to regulate the number of cars on the road at a given time by requiring car owners to register their cars. This lottery system allows cars with even and odd numbers to drive only on alternating days of Between 2009 the week. Despite and 2011, this policy, the the number number of cars in of new car Beijing continues registrations to increase.1

increase 19.7%.

However, public transportation remains the key regional circulation system. To this end, the rapid expansion of the Beijing subway system can be seen as another sign of Beijing’s growing pains. The subway system is slated to increase almost ten-fold between its current service area in 2012 and its project service area in 2015, with the addition of 8 new lines and 2 extensions of existing ones. 1 (http://chinaautoweb.com/2011/03/update-how-many-carsare-there-in-china/)


SUBWAY 2015

SUBWAY 2012


New Economic Centralities

Regional Analysis | CONTEXT

38

Beijing’s concentration of economic and job centers further contributes to regional congestion. The traditional CBD economic centers are located in Guomao and the Financial Street in Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen. In the Chaoyang district, is where many international companies have chosen to locate. Many of Beijing’s tech companies are located in Zhongguancun, while many pharmaceutical companies are located in Yizhuang, and Shijingshan is a main industrial center.2

SHANHOU TECH INNOVATION CENTER

Due to these factors, Beijing currently faces three major regional challenges.

2 (http://www.beijing-travels.com/beijing_guide/overview/ economy.html)

SHIJING SHAN MIXED-SERVICE


SHUNYI MODERN INDUSTRY CENTER

POLITICAL + CULTURE CENTER CBD

TONGZHOU MIXED-SERVICE

YIZHUANG HIGH-TECH CENTER


Regional Analysis | CONTEXT

40

The first challenge is to find a way to manage the transition from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. Beijing’s economic powerhouse has long been in the center of the city. Thus, in the past forty years, the density and land-use patterns show that the city industrialized around this area. Within the past five years, however, Beijing has been diversifing from merely being “the workshop of the world.” Accordingly, the Tweflth Five-Year Plan outlines a plan for new economic zones. As with other global cities such as London and New York, Beijing is attempting to transition into a metropolitan area with multiple centralities based off of these economic zones. High demand for Class A office space in the Chaoyang and Finance centers has resulted in higher office rents and lower vacancy rates, indicating room in the market for new economic centralities. Yet, there is a spatial mismatch between projected jobs and affordable housing. The current subway lines do not necessarily create direct connections to growing economic centers. Many residents, who use public transit living in locations beyond the third ring road, must travel towards the center, then travel back out to a different part of the outer ring.

AVERAGE COMMUTE TIME With an average commute time of 52 minutes, Beijing comes in first, as the city with the longest average commute. Although this is a problem throughout the city, the increasingly distant location of all the recent affordable housing developments makes the commute time a particularly worrying trend.

52 52 BEIJING

45 4525.4 25.4 GLOBAL CITIES

U.S. AVERAGE

AVERAGE AVERAGE COMMUTE COMMUTE TIME TIME 5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

5TH RING ROAD

4TH RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

3RD RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD

2ND RING ROAD


COMMUTE TIMES Walk: 15 minutes Subway: 30 minutes

Bus: 45 minutes


Regional Analysis | CONTEXT

42

The second challenge is environmental. At times the air quality is at such hazardous levels that the entire city must shut down for several hours at a time. According to a recent study done by MIT, the air quality has a $112 billion impact on the economy.3  Not only does this type of pollution affect the functioning of Beijing, but it also has severe impacts on the nearby rivers, forests, and farmland supporting the city. Beijing has proposed green belts that would greatly decrease these impacts. However, the municipality has had great difficulty implementing these plans, due in large part because rural annexation is the prime source of revenue for cities through the current landlease system. In addition to these struggles to counterbalance urban growth with environmental concerns, the post industrialization of the city itself has left some severely contaminated brownfields and superfund sites within the heart of Beijing. At the site level, these conditions translate to poor water quality, heat island effect, and thick smog that contribute to a persistently unhealthy condition of life for most of the inhabitants of affordable housing. ENVIRONMENT

WATER QUALITY

ENERGY

AIR QUALITY


AIR QUALITY INDEX 110-130 90-110 80-90 60-80 40-60 10-40


Regional Analysis | CONTEXT

44

The third challenge is access to civic amenities. Most of the commercial corridors, industrial hubs, and educational centers are still very much located in the central core of the city – an hour-long subway ride from the majority of the affordable housing developments built beyond the fourth ring road. The lack of access is further exacerbated by the single-use zoning that dominates most of the city. In fact, there are only 10 areas in the entire sprawling city of Beijing that are zoned multiple-use. The lack of access to simple amenities is further exacerbated by the mega-block (or even the super-block) structure for developing affordable housing. If we compare block sizes across Beijing, Philadelphia, and New York City, the sheer size of a single-use, purely residential housing block in Beijing far outpaces the other two cities and limits the opportunity to create walkable urban environments with amenities located within a 5-minute walking radius.

1 in 5 cannot access civic institutions


MIXED USE ZONING Mixed Use Commercial Industrial Education


PennDesign in China | CONTEXT

46

VISITING BEIJING As part of the course curriculum, the studio was fortunate to be able to travel to Beijing to meet with local experts and see the manifestation of the affordable housing crisis first hand. While in Beijing, the students spent time sightseeing famous landmarks such as the Great Wall of China, The Ming Tombs, The Summer Palace, and The Forbidden City. Apart from seeing historic sites, it was a great opportunity to see examples of contemporary architecture and urbanism.

When the students were not sightseeing, they had the opportunity to present work to Chinese city planning, landscape architecture, and architecture students, as well as Chinese experts in the field.   The studio visited Peking University, where they presented initial work to students at Turenscape, a renowned landscape architecture firm headed by Kongjian Yu.  

The students met with Kongjian Yu, principal of Turenscape, a renowned Chinese landscape architecture firm.


PENNDESIGN ABROAD

47

CONTEXT | PennDesign in China


in China, and helped clear some initial misconceptions.  

PennDesign in China | CONTEXT

48

They also met and presented initial work to Peking University city planning students and Professor Lu Bin, an expert on the preservation of traditional hutongs. Professor Lu and his students gave a private tour through a traditional hutong neighborhood. Being able to interact and get feedback from Chinese counterparts, was an invaluable experience that helped the students gain more insight and clarity about housing

The students on a tour of a traditional Beijing hutong neighborhood from an expert on hutong preservation from Peking University.


At Tsinghua University, the students had the opportunity to meet with Chinese housing experts and the former University of Pennsylvanie School of Design Dean, Gary Hack, who has been teaching courses at Tsinghua for over 30 years.  The housing experts gave presentations that provided us statistics and crucial information about the affordable housing situation in China.

CONTEXT | PennDesign in China

The students were invited to attend a meeting with the director of affordable housing at The Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design, where they learned the scale and scope of what the current construction is like.

49

The meetings were not limited to students and professors. The studio had the wonderful opportunity to meet the director of affordable housing in Beijing at the Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design.  ] The presentation given by the director of affordable housing really highlighted the gravity and scale of Beijing’s need for affordable housing.


THE MEGABLOCK EXPLAINED

The Megablock Explained | CONTEXT

50

In China, the default solution for acomodating the millions of new urban inhabitants seeking housing, is megablock development, a carry-over from the Soviet era danwei-type urban development planning, and the Modernist’s housing block.1 This form of built environment is a selfcontained residential enclave, and, in essence, have evolved to be the basic unit of urban planning and development in Beijing. This embodies potential benefits for integrating commerce and community, maintaining density, and localizing infrastructure, but induces consequences for transit connectivity and adaptive growth. Megablock organization fractures the urban fabric, hindering the same sort of amenities normally found in traditional hutong and siheyuan urban structure. Moreover, the image of generic housing blocks repeating across the landscape raises questions about the role of aesthetics and public realm in the city.

To put the scale of megablock developments in persepctive, when compared to typical block sizes of New York and Philadelphia, the Chinese megablock is singular and massive, and with little block porocity. These mega block developments typically have three components: the enclosure, the open space, and the buildings themselves. The buildings usually come in two forms: mid-density slab and high-density towers. The site provided to the studio by the Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design operates as a testing ground for understanding this megablock structure of a typical affordable housing development.

1 Jeffrey Johnson, China-Lab at GSAPP CIVIC AMENITIES_BLOCK SIZE

BEIJING BEIJING

PHILADELPHIA PHILADELPHIA

NEW CITY NEW YORK YORK CITY

86,102sm SqM 86,102 275,526 SqFt

19,687 sm SqM 19,687 63,000 SqFt

30,937 SqM 30,937 sm 99,000 SqFt


Megablocks are typically enclosed with only two or three gates. On this site, there are also interior enclosures in the form of seperation between residences. This nested structure causes block fragmentation, making it difficult and inconvenient to move through the development.


The Site

The Megablock Explained | CONTEXT

52

This development is located in northern Beijing about 14 km from the Forbidden City.  It is located along the two metro lines, Lines 5 and 13, with access to three stations. However, the site is still a long walk away from the stations, with each station being over one kilometer away. The surrounding land-uses are relatively separate, and comprise of super blocks. The majority of the surrounding area is residential, with some retail, shopping centers, and office buildings along the major thoroughfares. At a total of over 10 hectares, the site is a mix of commodity and affordable housing units.   


Open Space

Slab

Tower

CONTEXT | The Megablock Explained

Enclosure

53

BLOCK COMPONENTS


The Megablock Explained | CONTEXT

54

In this example shown, the buildings are oriented to the south, with large spacing between, to maximize solar access. This is a result of the sunlight ratio requirements. These strict requirements greatly impact the quality of the public realm.

The open space in this example is typical of Chinese residential developments. Though, the space is not bad per-se, it lacks an identity and sense of place.

As enclosure is typical of Chinese residential developments. In this example, the means of creating this enclosure is a physical wall. The wall contributes to an incomplete streetscape, which creates a poor public realm for pedestrians. There is a poor edge condition as well between blocks


Development Restrictions One of the other major reasons that megablocks are so large is due to strict building regulations, specifically traditional sunlight ratio requirements. All buildings are required to be a set distance apart to ensure that windows on the lowest floor get an hour of sunlight on the shortest day of the year. This causes residential towers to

CONTEXT | The Megablock Explained

The megablock is both architecture and urbanism. When it is at its best it can provide the services, vitality and energy of a city yet promote notions of community and social and environmental sustainability. At its worst, its autonomy can disconnect the development from the urban flows of the city and create dehumanizing isolation. Culture and construction paradigms and shifts in policy and design of the megablock today may have massive long-term impacts on Beijing’s goal of affordable housing development. So, the design challenge is perhaps not how to redesign the components of the megablock, but how to provide alternatives to these components that organize the megablock in a more efficient way. The following section tests these potential design alternatives.

55

be far apart from one another, which makes it difficult to integrate buildings and create street life, further exacerbating montonous block organization. The sunlight ratio requirements are one of the prime drivers of Beijing’s urban sprawl, as it decreases the potential achievable density on a site. In its current state, the example development has an FAR (Floor Area Ratio) of only 1.9.  This, in conjunction with a typical 30% open space requirement, further limits the achievable density on any given site.


BLOCK TYPOLOGY STUDES

Block Typologies | CONTEXT

56

Enclosure

Through an understanding of the typical Chinese block structure, physical typologies of Enclosure, Open Space, and Building are accepted and tested throughout the semester recognizing these typologies as culturally sensitive, efficient, and affordable. Understanding the cultural desire for privacy and security from enclosures, typologies are created to suggest varying levels of porosity and materiality.


57

CONTEXT | Block Typologies


Open Space

Block Typologies | CONTEXT

58

Open space typologies were generated from experiences and discussions in Beijing and intensity of use and scale. A few open space typologies include Markets, Play Fields, Community Gardens, and Storm Water Management. Open space is often the primary driver in cultivating the public realm and therefore requires variation and hierarchy.


59

CONTEXT | Block Typologies


Podium

Block Typologies | CONTEXT

60

The Podium is introduced at this point in the semester as a useful building typology to generate active street fronts, provide varying levels of public space within private developments, and house parking. This typology is currently only seeing in high end commercial developments such as JanWei SOHO in Beijing, China, but has the potential to activate residential developments as well.   


CASE STUDY JianWai SOHO

While recognizing that Jianwai SOHO is a high-end development and not an affordable housing project, lessons can be learned about the treatment and strong presence of the public realm in a Beijing

multi-level terraces within the premises. This project was primarily conceived as residential, but additional commercial and retail has been added in the wake of the Central Business District in the precinct.

CONTEXT | Block Typologies

SOURCE: http://jianwaisoho.sohochina.com/en

61

Gathering physical typologies as seen in the Beijing affordable housing case studies and some of the successes of higher-end context. Consideration of the public realm residential models, as seen in Jianwai in affordable housing developments has Soho, our studio has begun to strategize the ability to generate added value to those about how to move forward with designing communities as well as future adjacencies an affordable housing model for Beijing. as seen in some international examples Two of the key takeaways from this project such as the Paris Rive Gauche and Bercy are the importance of a quality public neighborhoods. Jianwai SOHO is located realm through the use of a podium, and within beijing’s newly branded CBD around the potential that the introduction of the the China World Trade Center and it utilizes podium in affordable housing projects commercial and retail frontage as well as could have. The podium is a way to create the enclosure that is valued by many Chinese residents, without building a literal wall. At the same time, it allows for the creation of a strong public realm that is of a human scale. While Jianwai SOHO still comprises of a super block, the use of the podium allows for much more movement and porosity of the block, than in typical developments.


Architecture

Block Typologies | CONTEXT

62

Architectural typologies include the primary components of Slab and Tower. In order to accommodate the densities needed to house the number of people in need of affordable housing, the slab and tower are accepted as a reality of affordable housing developments. This does not mean that slabs and towers cannot be manipulated and formed to create more livable spaces. By using the slab and tower in conjunction with the introduction of the podium, new ways are explored to create a higher quality public realm.


63

CONTEXT | Block Typologies


态度

APPROACH

Site Approach Construction in China Regional Approach


Site Approach | APPROACH

66

APPROACH

A significant part of the affordable housing problem is that the same building and block strategy is repeated on many sites across the city, regardless of the context, users, or program -- We crafted a three-part strategy to this that shows that affordable housing in Beijing can produce variety and be an integral part of the urban fabric, while still being cost effiicient and affordable for those seeking housing. 1) The first part of the strategy focused on building an extensive toolkit of buildings, walls, and open space typologies at different price points that could be used to start a conversation with developers about variety and integration with the megablock and surrounding urban fabric. We then generated three different density scenarios (high, medium, low) to show how developers could create affordable user and context-specific environments by making trade-offs in programmatic elements. 2) The second part of the strategy focused on implementation. In both architectural and policy cases, we analyzed the current practices and found three places where strategic government intervention could trigger the most response from the private sector, since the privatemaket is responsible for actually building the affordable housing developments. Within the realm of policy, we found that the intersection of public good and private profit yielded the most potential in the following areas: updating the sunlight ratio with a new density zoning, implementing a transfer of development rights policy as an

incentive to preserve critical environmental zones and provide density bonuses, and adding a social enterprise mixed-use zoning to triage the needs of non-profits, developers, and residents. 3) The third part of the strategy examined regional coordination of the density scenarios and where they would be implemented to ameliorate some of the larger-scale issues endemic to the overall affordable housing pattern in Beijing. These issues include spatial mismatch between housing and jobs, environmental preservation, and access to civic amenities.


67

APPROACH | Site Approach


Moving from a set of fixed typologies including: block, enclosure, open space, podium, and building, the approach to the design component of this studio emerged with an understanding of how development in Beijing typically occurs: by private developers across the entire city. The problem of affordable housing is far greater than one site.  Therefore, multiple development scenarios are put forth to test varying levels

of investment and densities on varying site typologies. Each scenario pulled physical typologies from a Matrix of Investment organized into the general categories of Site, Block, Open Space, and Architecture. Through this scenario-based approach, the models are evaluated and the outcomes are compared, to draw conclusions for a new

SITELOCATION TYPOLOGY SITE

BLOCK BLOCK

$

PERIPHERAL

SURFACE / STREET PARKING BASIC ENCLOSURE (WALL / FACE) BASIC UTILITIES

$$

NEW CENTRALITY SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE

GARAGE PARKING CUSTOMIZED ENCLOSURE UPGRADED UTILITIES

$$$

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT EXISTING CENTRALITY

UNDERGROUND PARKING PODIUM AS ENCLOSURE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY GENERATION

Site Approach | APPROACH

68

SITE SCENARIOS

model of affordable housing in Beijing.


69

ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE

STOCK FURNISHINGS STOCK PLAYGROUND SPORTS FIELD COMMUNITY GARDEN SWALES SMALL RETENTION POND

PRIVATE BALCONIES SIMPLE COLOR COMBINATIONS PODIUM AT SIDEWALK CLASS C PRE-FAB MATERIALS

CUSTOM FURNISHINGS TEMPORARY PAVILIONS SIMPLE WATER FEATURE CUSTOM PLAYGROUND SPORTS FACILITY RECREATION CENTER GREENHOUSE URBAN AGRICULTURE LARGE RETENTION POND

PUNCTURE MASS FOR WIND PLAZAS TERRACED SLABS FOR ROOF ACCESS SEMI-INTENSIVE GREENROOFS “TOWNHOUSE” TYPOLOGY COMMUNITY CENTER / SHARED AMENITIES CLASS B PRE-FAB MATERIALS

CUSTOM FURNISHINGS PERMANENT PAVILIONS CUSTOM WATER FEATURE SPORTS COMPLEX AQUAPONICS / HYDROPONICS VERTICAL FARMING RESEARCH FACILITY WETLAND COMPLEX

INTENSIVE PUBLIC & PRIVATE TERRACING DYNAMIC, ICONIC MASSING BUILDING CANTILEVERS WIND-OPTIMIZED LAYOUT HIGH-DENSITY MULTILEVEL PODIUMS CLASS A PRE-FAB MATERIALS

APPROACH | Site Approach

OPEN SPACE SPACE OPEN


Site Approach | APPROACH

70

The three scenarios are based on hypothetical contexts, incorporating high, medium, and low densities. Within each scenario specific criteria for FAR, number of units, and parking have all been outlined to achieve appropriate densities. The three broad site typologies include peripheral urban zones, new centralities, and existing CBDs. Developing models at these three site typologies tested the ranges of achievable

SITELOCATION TYPOLOGY SITE

PERIPHERAL

density while designing clearly organized public space with purpose.

NEW CENTRALITY SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT EXISTING CENTRALITY


Upon these sites, three block typologies have been deployed, testing levels of porosity, organization, and utility. The organization of the entire mega block needs to be addressed in order to alleviate traffic congestion, generate walkable districts, and create a hierarchy of public spaces. Enclosure of the block varies according to surrounding site context. Stringent parking requirements often limit site flexibility, and

SITE LOCATION

BLOCK BLOCK

SURFACE / STREET PARKING BASIC ENCLOSURE (WALL / FACE) BASIC UTILITIES

71

add to water runoff problems. Reconsidering parking requirements and investment in porous paving or underground parking could alleviate some of these issues.

UNDERGROUND PARKING PODIUM AS ENCLOSURE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY GENERATION

APPROACH | Site Approach

GARAGE PARKING CUSTOMIZED ENCLOSURE UPGRADED UTILITIES


A combination of open spaces has also been utilized to create flexible, passive, productive, and infrastructural landscapes. These landscapes reflect the needs of various user groups ranging from the elderly, young professionals, blue-collar workers, and families. Open space typologies also vary depending on context and act as the primary vehicle for public gathering requiring a hierarchy of scales.

N

OPEN SPACE SPACE OPEN

STOCK FURNISHINGS STOCK PLAYGROUND SPORTS FIELD COMMUNITY GARDEN SWALES SMALL RETENTION POND

Site Approach | APPROACH

72

BLOCK

CUSTOM FURNISHINGS TEMPORARY PAVILIONS SIMPLE WATER FEATURE CUSTOM PLAYGROUND SPORTS FACILITY RECREATION CENTER GREENHOUSE URBAN AGRICULTURE LARGE RETENTION POND

CUSTOM FURNISHINGS PERMANENT PAVILIONS CUSTOM WATER FEATURE SPORTS COMPLEX AQUAPONICS / HYDROPONICS VERTICAL FARMING RESEARCH FACILITY WETLAND COMPLEX


The architectural typologies are manipulated to include simple upgrades of material or color, to major alterations in structure. These include terracing and other volumetric shifts and lifts. Using a double loaded corridor slab as a base typology, private balconies are included to add a sense of individually through color and material change. Construction of these architectural typologies includes a modular prefab post and beam

OPEN SPACE

ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE

PRIVATE BALCONIES SIMPLE COLOR COMBINATIONS PODIUM AT SIDEWALK CLASS C PRE-FAB MATERIALS

73

skeletal system to support overall efficiency and affordability.

INTENSIVE PUBLIC & PRIVATE TERRACING DYNAMIC, ICONIC MASSING BUILDING CANTILEVERS WIND-OPTIMIZED LAYOUT HIGH-DENSITY MULTILEVEL PODIUMS CLASS A PRE-FAB MATERIALS

APPROACH | Site Approach

PUNCTURE MASS FOR WIND PLAZAS TERRACED SLABS FOR ROOF ACCESS SEMI-INTENSIVE GREENROOFS “TOWNHOUSE” TYPOLOGY COMMUNITY CENTER / SHARED AMENITIES CLASS B PRE-FAB MATERIALS


Site Standard Approach | APPROACH Modular, Rehabilitation,

74

SCENARIO 1: LOW DENSITY Within a peripheral urban zone site typology, requirements include a relatively low FAR of 3.5. Investment in block typology remains low as well including a major quadrant grid comprised of secondary and tertiary axes to provide fairly regularized access points with parking both underground and at the surface. Enclosure is provided by a storm water management system buffering the development from the busy street edge while actively reducing water runoff from site. Using landscape as enclosure softens the divide between the development and neighboring context. Other landscape features on site include a large organizing civic plaza connecting interior spaces to the edge. These interior spaces are comprised of small scale community gardens and passive lawns. Minimal investment in architecture limits the design to include slab and tower typologies. Architectural adjustments include individualized balconies though a modular panelized construction system. Some podiums are introduced at the base of towers to house parking, connect open space, and activate street frontage.


75 Site Approach APPROACH | Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

FAR - >3.5 AFFORDABLE UNITS - 900 (45,000 SQ M) COMMODITY SQ M - 1,600 (143,910 SQ M) TOTAL RESIDENTIAL - 2,500 (188,910 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE PARKING - 90 (2,165 SQ M) # COMMODITY PARKING - 1,600 (38,480 SQ M) TOTAL # OF PARKING - 1,780 (40,645 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE BIKE PARKING - 1,800 (8,712 SQ M) # OF COMMODITY BIKE PARKING - 3,200 (15,488 SQ M) TOTAL # OF BIKE PARKING - 5,000 (24,200 SQ M)


$

BLOCK


77

Site Approach APPROACH | Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard


INVESTMENT EMPHASIS:

Site Approach | APPROACH

78

Open Space


79

Infrastructural

APPROACH | Site Approach

Productive

Community

Civic


$$

OPEN SPACE


$

ARCHITECTURE


APPROACH | Site Approach Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

83


Site Approach | APPROACH

84

SCENARIO 2: MEDIUM DENSITY In recognizing Beijing’s continued growth, new centralities are a crucial site typology to test an affordable housing model. Within a new centrality, an appropriate FAR ranges from 3 - 5.5, while parking and unit requirements are also increased from the Low scenario. Block investment falls into a mid level range exploring a hybridized block configuration partly accessed through a street grid and partly through a podium containing a majority of the parking. The podium is manipulated through multiple changes in level while open space, including an orchard, is partially provided atop the podium. Ground level open space connects both civic and community spaces as well. Both open space and architectural investment fall into a mid level range. Architecture typologies include slabs and towers as the Low scenario explored, however; with an increase in investment, better materials as well as structural manipulation are tested. Large structural cut outs within towers aim to provide public gathering spaces within the towers and buildings themselves. Green roofs are also introduced in this scenario as a means to alleviate heat island effects within new centralities.


85

APPROACH | Site Approach

FAR - 3 TO 5.5 AFFORDABLE UNITS - 1,080 (54,000 SQ M) COMMODITY SQ M - 1,800 (162,000 SQ M) TOTAL RESIDENTIAL - 2,808 (216,000 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE PARKING - 108 (2,597 SQ M) # COMMODITY PARKING - 1,800 (43,290 SQ M) TOTAL # OF PARKING - 1,908 (45,887 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE BIKE PARKING - 2,160 (10,454 SQ M) # OF COMMODITY BIKE PARKING - 3,600 (17,424 SQ M) TOTAL # OF BIKE PARKING - 5,760 (27,878 SQ M)


Site Approach | APPROACH 86

INVESTMENT EMPHASIS:

Block


87

Figure-ground

Block Structure

APPROACH | Site Approach

Circulation


$$

BLOCK


$

OPEN SPACE


91

APPROACH | Site Approach


$$

ARCHITECTURE


APPROACH | Site Approach Modular, Rehabilitation, Standard

93


Site Approach | APPROACH

94

SCENARIO 3: HIGH DENSITY The third and most dense site typology of the scenarios is the Central Business District of Beijing located in the Chaoyang District with a determined achievable FAR of 5.5+. The block configuration of the High scenario is responsive to a shifting architectural typology providing unique paths angled along buildings. This block aims to be entirely porous through publicly accessible podiums with a highly active surrounding context. Parking is provided entirely underground, while civic and transitional open space requires minimal investment as the emphasis of this scenario is on architectural improvements. The architectural agenda of this scenario aims to build upon the structural moves tested in the Medium scenario by adding large public terraces. Shifts within the architecture also contribute to nuances within the ground level and greater solar access within the building. Focusing on the architectural form, this development lends itself to a more iconic representation and attraction within the CBD. Providing such commercial amenities and civic spaces allows this residential development to promote social mixing and class integration.


95

APPROACH | Site Approach

FAR - 5.5< AFFORDABLE UNITS - 1,200 (60,000 SQ M) COMMODITY SQ M - 2,100 (189,000 SQ M) TOTAL RESIDENTIAL - 3,300 (249,000 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE PARKING - 120 (2,886 SQ M) # COMMODITY PARKING - 2,100 (50,505 SQ M) TOTAL # OF PARKING - 4,200 (20,328 SQ M) # OF AFFORDABLE BIKE PARKING - 2,400 (11,616 SQ M) # OF COMMODITY BIKE PARKING - 4,200 (20,328 SQ M) TOTAL # OF BIKE PARKING - 6,600 (31,944 SQ M)


$$$

BLOCK


97

APPROACH | Site Approach


$

OPEN SPACE


99

APPROACH | Site Approach


INVESTMENT EMPHASIS:

| APPROACH

100

Architecture


Tower 101

Slab

Podium

Site Coverage

APPROACH | Site Approach

Hybrid


$$$

ARCHITECTURE


CONSTRUCTION

The last several decades of economic growth in China have created an intense demand for housing at all levels of family income. Private developers meet this need by risking enormous capital and moving quickly to maximize their investments. This tremendous demand for quick and costefficient construction techniques gave rise to heavy industry that can deliver with incredible speed and value, but only through the excessive use of energy and energyrich raw materials such as concrete, steel, sheetrock, and glass. Once produced, these bulky raw materials must be transported to site, trimmed, and meticulously layered together into massive buildings that are extremely difficult to adapt, dismantle, or reuse. And while nearly every step of this

process is destructive for the environment, it is also absolutely critical to maintaining growth and balance in the national economy. So while sustainable construction must be employed immediately to prevent further damage to the Earth, it must be done carefully so as not to jeopardize China’s greater economic growth. The graph below ranks common industrywide building materials by embodied energy and carbon. It reveals that concrete, insulation, and steel represent roughly 2/3 of both embodied energy and embodied carbon. These materials are used liberally in both market-rate and affordable real-estate developments.

EMBODIED ENERGY + CARBON BY MATERIAL 100

Miscellaneous Copper

80

Contribution: %

Construction | APPROACH

104

Construction in China

Miscellaneous CopperPlaster Plaster Plastics Plastics Window + Glazing Windows + Glazed Doors TimberTimber Steel Clay Steel Insulation Clay Concrete + Bricks

60

40

20

Insulation

Concrete + Bricks 0

Embodied Energy

Embodied Carbon

Embodied Energy + Carbon by Material Source: Jones, C. I., and G. P. Hammond. “Embodied Energy and Carbon in Construction Materials.” Proceedings of the ICE - Energy 161.2 (2008): 87-98. Print


Status quo explained

Typical floor plan configurations of affordable housing units in China

Finally, little regard is given to the design of a building once it has reached the end of its developerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s timetable. Adaptability is rarely designed into construction systems, and so any alteration, adaptation, upgrade, or enhancement to any of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spaces, structures, or systems will require the demolition and disposal. And if the building does not or cannot adapt to maintain usefulness, its financial value and design quality will simply plummet.

APPROACH | Construction

Worse, these building systems are notoriously inflexible over time. Often custom-tailored to highly specific requirements, these buildings cannot be adapted, modified, or enhanced in any way without cost-intensive demolition and intervention. Any development that is infused with this rigidity will not be able to adapt to the shifting landscapes of cultural attitudes and disruptive technologies. Over time, the more fixed and rigid any building is, the more it will be prone to obsolescence and turnover.

105

The next stage, construction, is woefully inefficient in two regards: material The inefficiencies of current residential construction fall into 3 stages. The first stage procurement, and on-site construction. Buildings are still largely built from highis design, in which developers work with energy raw materials that arrive on site in architects to realize typical floor plans and baseline construction methods for each site. bulk to be trimmed, processed, and tediously assembled with a very high degree of Residential floor plans are typically dense repetition. Material wastage at construction and often feature many smaller-sized rooms alone can account for up to 20% of the arranged in highly repetitive patterns. This buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s embodied energy (Hammond, invites designs that make excessive use of these inexpensive, yet energy-rich materials. Jones 96).


Old modes, and a new way of building

All-Slab

Construction | APPROACH

106

The many stakeholders, environmental, and economic factors on the ground have combined to produce two main modes of building which we will call “all-slab,” and “post-and-slab.”

Pros: Cheap. Fast. Strong. Fireproof. Readily-available. Provides up-front design flexibility.

Cons: High embodied-energy. High transport cost due to mass. Prone to excessive use. Inflexible; can be difficult/costly/prohibitive to adapt over time. Also uses least prefabricated materials (mainly at windows and interior fittings)

Post-and-slab

Pros: Thin steel columns can produce highly flexible open floor plans. The reduction of material quantities can speed up construction, and the greater use of prefabricated components can provide more flexible and modern arrangements within the building.

Cons: Efficiency gains are well-suited for commercial applications, but are not as applicable to housing.

Post-and-beam

Pros: Modular dimensions are flexible within each structural bay and maximizes material efficiency and construction speed. Includes a greater percentage of prefabricated components which introduces customizability while improving cost and time efficiency.

Cons: Untested in the general building market. Higher tolerances of prefab components increase the need for careful coordination.


CASE STUDY Atlantic Yards

One of our case studies, SHoPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Atlantic Yards in Brooklyn, is especially innovative with its approach. Currently under construction, these buildings are 60% pre-fabricated. The steel-box units are 107

currently being fabricated at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, hoisted to the site, and simply fixed in place within a larger structural grid. Tenants can choose from 23 different apartment configurations with 64 different layout options, 50% of the 1500 units have been made affordable to low and middle-income families. This project stands out among its peers by beautifully demonstrating the incredible new range of possibilities, efficiencies, and flexibility that prefabrication can offer for the developers, the tenants, and the city at large.

APPROACH | Construction

SOURCE: SHoP Architects


Desgin Recommendations

Construction | APPROACH

108

We suggest a similarly dramatic approach to prefabricated construction that uses a skeletal structural frame system with a series of modular infill panels for ALL surfaces, including all ceilings and floors. This system will separate volume from structure and create a strong, supportive internal framework that is capable of supporting continuous change. Modularity allows for much faster retrofits and fine-tuning of building performance. Also, this very same interchangeability can be offered to potential tenants as a unique benefit of living in this new kind of modular community. Lowincome tenants, who must often deal with higher levels of transience, can benefit from this new spatial flexibility as well. As their financial situations improve, they may one day have the option of expanding their units in place, rather than remaining crammed in place or being forced to relocate to a

larger home.The diagram below completes the progression from all-slab construction by demonstrating the ways in which a skeletal system can support continuous replacements of all surface panels, including all floors and ceilings. Finally, on the opposite page, are a few options that demonstrate the wide range of flexibility that can be designed into any housing development that uses this modular-component prefabricated approach. Building owners and tenants alike can enjoy the flexibility of easy upgrades and enhancements thanks to the simple use of a complete skeletal frame. Much like the structure of a coral reef, this skeletal framework is designed to support the continuously changing shapes, sizes, and tastes of a community that is constantly growing and expanding.


Green Soleil

Articulated Green

Bay Patio

Garden Wall

APPROACH | Construction

Flush Patio

109

Sunken Patio


Value-added Design These scenarios and construction strategies show how developers could create affordable environments with variety and designed enclosure, open space, and architecture through thoughtful trade offs in investment priorities. Each scenario attempts to provide an added layer of value by targeting aspects of designing and improving the public realm. The success of the scenarios can be evaluated through the categories of added environmental value and social value. Each scenario fluctuates with success in these categories based on the affordable strategy deployed as well as the designer’s intent. We have identified three primary elements of focus: the introduction and manipulation of the podium, the massing of varying architectural and open space typologies and, the manner in which these scenarios address the edge condition of the site. The podium is an architectural element that can have a great impact on the public realm, particularly in Chinese cities. Podiums promote social mixing by providing space for community amenities at the ground floor. Manipulation of ground plane also allows

Materiality

Building Energy Efficiency

Ag. Land Conservation

Solar Orientation

Microclimate

Ware Management

Uiversal Design

Mixed-Use

Access to public spaces

Permeability

Public Realm

Access to Services

Mixed Tenancy

110 Construction | APPROACH

SOCIAL VALUE

ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE

for unique programming within the podium as well as above. Furthermore, the podium allows for a greater achievable density to maximize land in a rapidly growing city. The strategic massing of the site, which incorporates varying architectural typologies and open space, allow for multiple scales of the public realm.  These include green roofs, both intensive and extensive, which alleviate heat island effect while providing visual aesthetics in denser developments.   Varying open space scales include large civic plazas and lawns, to smaller residential community gardens and community parks. The ability to establish relationships between the open space public realms occurrs at various scales and levels. Lastly, we explored the edge and street conditions of affordable housing developments, testing the permeability of these sites through landscape buffers, which protect and surround a site without visually obscuring the street edge. The podium also allows for some level of protection and distance while providing amenities for both residents and visitors of the site.


实现

Implementation Construction

FAR Density Zoning TDR Zoning Social Enterprise Zoning


LOCAL AND REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION

Regional Approach | IMPLEMENTATION

112

Strategies for change

While the three scenarios challenge the physical form and design of affordable housing developments, and show how certain design decisions can have a large impact on an affordable housing development, the implementation of strategies and policies at a local and regional scale can help provide cost-effective ways of value creation. Three economic drivers have been identified that contribute to value creation. These drivers being local and regional policy, business, and community engagement. Using a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats), the variables that exist on a site can be examined to show how they affect these local drivers. In order to reach and surpass the tipping point, which represents the marginal cost and the marginal generated-value, the implementation impact index exceeds 1. The following chart shows a SWOT analysis for affordable housing developments in Beijing.

From the analysis, the largest barriers to affordable housing development in beijing are outdated sunlight ratios policies, environmental degradation, and insufficient civic and financial support in affordable housing developments. In order to combat these challenges, we have identified three implementation policies that would be the most cost-effective and feasible: (1) revised density zoning, (2) TDR (transfer of development rights), and (3) social enterprise zoning. Because working to solve these challenges at the local level will have regional implications, we were interested in projecting what kind of impacts these policy changes could have at the citywide level.


113

Strong demand from both top-down, bottom-up

Strong sense of community

Diversified communities

Government mandates to build affordable housing Mixed social structure

Opportunities

Increase of public revenue Open to new design

Strengths

Responsiblity of property owner, dawei, municipal / local government in housing management

Shequ (community) establishment to strengthen local communities & urban governance

Urban area

Reemphasis of social housing by central and municipal government

HIGH RISKS fast urban population growth residential differentiation

HIGH FEASIBILITY

aging populatoin

tax structure malfunctioning civic services

urban sprawl

outdated policy (sunlight ratio) environment issue

social poloarization & spatial segregation

lack of coordination between government & social sector

Threats

financial constratins & limited funding from government

destruction of lively & low-investment from private sector mixed community

corruption in administration insufficient social housing

conflict

mixture & ambiguity in housing ownership

Physical deterioration of outdoor, environment, commual facilities & infrastructures

over-privatized & speculative housing stock high -rising price property gated community deterioration of early-built & old housing areas in city

Weaknesses confusion in housing management & inefficient public intervention

NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES

illegal privatization of public space

decline of living conditions

IMPLEMENTATION | Regional Approach

POSITIVE EXTERNALITIES

Economic growth


1- FAR Density Zoning

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The following chart illustrates how making the FAR more flexible under density zoning could impose better usage of given spaces. In 2006–2010, there was an increase of 8.93 million residents in suburban areas of Beijing, whereas there are 0.27 million fewer people in urban areas.1 This is not because people are moving to suburban areas but because urban sprawl has been affected by the outdated sunlight-ratio policy. Urban sprawl undermines fast local development and affordable housing neighborhoods, often in places that are less developed and face greater financial constraints. Density zoning revisions would allow neighborhoods to have new centralities that could facilitate local economic growth. Having considered the inputs and outputs of density zoning revisions, they would have 46% more benefit, in addition to appreciating social and environmental values than the base output, “business as usual.”

1 Hui, Xiaoxi, “Housing, Urban Renewal and Socio-Spatial Integration: A Study on Rehabilitating the Former Socialistic Public Housing Areas in Beijing,” Beijing: Architecture and the Built Environment, 2013. ​

FAR increase as lot coverage remains the same

Looking at the current trend, residential development has been concentrated mainly along three corridors, that do not alight with the main employment centers. This is troubling on one hand, because land will only be further and further from the central business district -- but it is hopeful on the other, because it shows how affordable housing can reinforce trends.  


CASE STUDY

Inclusionary Zoning Inclusionary zoning is a regulatory tool that incentivizes or mandates the inclusion of affordable housing units in new developments. This method has been implemented in American

IMPLEMENTATION | Regional Approach

SOURCE: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ aguichard/4844692421/

In New York City, there are 3 types of inclusionary zoning throughout the city to meet the needs of those specific areas. Density bonuses and tax exemptions are an incentive given to developers who include affordable units in their developments. This model promotes social integration because the social housing units appear the same as the market rate units. It expands the supply of affordable housing and can prevent the displacement of lower-income residents in gentrifying areas and can alleviate the spatial mismatch of where workers live and work.

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cities such as New York City. A certain percentage of units in every new marketrate developments are to be reserved

for low and moderate-income people. Importantly, these projects are developed by private developers, not by a government agency. In order to make this appealing to developers, incentives are given to developers to include affordable units


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Because there is currently no density zoning in Beijing, we propose a Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Density Zoning plan that corresponds with the city’s planned new centralities. The FAR densities from the scenarios in the previous section are used as a standard for the proposed density zoning.  New centralities would have a density of FAR 3.5 to 5.5.  Areas in-between denser areas would see an  increase in FAR from 2.0 to an FAR of 2.5 to 3.5.  Finally, for the Central Business District, the most dense area, we propose an FAR of 5.5+ to assist in the development of both economic and residential properties in an area with the highest land values.

2.5-3.5 NEW CENTRALITIES


3.5- 5.0

5.0+

URBAN ZONES

CENRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT

FAR ZONING High Medium Low Rural


2- Transfer Development Rights

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In coordination with density zoning, transfer of development rights (TDR) is a policy that will incentivize both the preservation of land, as well as, densification in certain areas. The rights of the development of land that is to be preserved, the “sending zone”, are sold in exchange for a higher density development in another area, the “receiving area.” This tool can be used to preserve open space, agricultural land, or historical sites.  This is a successful policy because it allows landowners in sensitive areas to receive the economic benefit of the land, while it also allows developers to build more densely, which maximizes profits. While a rise in the density of land increases the land value, it decreases when it reaches certain points. However, by generating positive externalities such as environmental or social value as positive externalities, land prices can continue to increase. Considering the cost-effectiveness, TDR would bring 38% more benefit to the sites’ base value, in addition to appreciating social and environmental values.

Agricultural Land on the periphery of the city

The rights to develop the agricultural land can be transfered to another site

The transfered development rights are an incentive to allow developers to built denser

Agriculatural land is preserved


CASE STUDY

Transfer Development Rights Transfer of development rights (TDR) is a growth management tool that helps incentivize development in certain areas, while preserving land in others. The rights

of the development of land that is to be preserved, the sending zone, are sold in exchange for a higher density development in another area, the receiving zone. This tool is can be used to preserve open space,

IMPLEMENTATION | Regional Approach

SOURCE: http://destinationli.org/wp-content/ uploads/2012/11/rockvilletownsquare_aerial_01.jpg

Rockville Maryland is a small city in the Washington DC metro area, that densified as a targeted growth area, in order to preserve land, as part of the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s TDR policies.

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agricultural land, or historical sites. This is a successful policy because it allows landowners in sensitive areas to receive the economic benefit of the land, while it also allows developers to build more densely, which maximized profits.


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The implementation of transfer of development rights (TDR) zoning at a regional level is a crucial component to the proposed density zoning.  Transfer of development rights is a tool that can be used to implement Beijing’s proposed greenbelt plan, which it has had trouble implementing because of current policies.  The implementation of the green belt would have significant environmental implications.  Zoning the proposed greenbelt areas as TDR “sending zones,”  the needed land is preserved to implement the greenbelt. The TDR sending zones have different characteristics depending on which “receiving zone” they are offering credit in, and the highest priority areas are juxtaposed to the highest development priorities.  The TDR sending zones would have corresponding receiving zones, based upon the desired densities and open space.

NEW CENTRALITIES


1

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT URBAN ZONES

TDR ZONING Sending Zone 1 Sending Zone 2 Sending Zone 3 Sending Zone 4


3- Social Enterprise Zoning

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As affordable housing neighborhoods face a lack of access to civic institutions, as well as financial constraints, their development has been thwarted. While the need for financial and civic services is greater among residents living in affordable housing, there is a low investment in the neighborhoods, as private entities do not see opportunities to maximize their profits in these areas. This is more problematic in China since the government has had greater difficulties in providing civic services after marketization, but there is a wider disconnect between the government and non-profit organizations. Nonprofit organizations do not want the influence or restrictions from the government, and more than 8 million organizations decide not to officially register with the government. Thus, nonprofit organizations in Beijing have greater challenges in finding sustainable funding streams. Many developed countries, including the United Kingdom and United States, have had success with social enterprises, and the UK government implemented social enterprise zoning to facilitate growth in December 2013.2 The implementation impact index calculation projects 72% greater benefit at sites with social enterprise zoning, in addition to appreciating social and environmental values. 2 http://www.socialenterprise.org.uk/news/cornwallrecognised-social-enterprise-zone

LACK OF ACCESS Lack of Access

LACKofOF FUNDING Lack Funding

MIXED USEZoning ZONING Mixed-Use INCLUSIONARY ZONING SOCIAL ENTERPRISE ZONING


CASE STUDY

Social Enterprise Zoning

IMPLEMENTATION | Regional Approach

SOURCE: http://cep.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/ Social-Enterprise-Zone-620x330.jpg

foundations, focus primarily on maximizing social values through grants, endowments, donations. The private business sector focuses primarily on creating value through financial investments, while social enterprise seeks to maximize social return on financial investment. In this way, social enterprises embrace both sectorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; strategies of maintaining sustainability and mutual-benefits between the recipients and contributors, as the social sector has always struggled with financial support. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form of a co-operative, a social venture, or a charity organization. The creation of social enterprise zones has taken off in the United Kingdom. These designated zones, foster an environment that incentivises social enterprises, and help address larger social and environment issues.

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Social enterprise is a term that explains an organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sources of investment and returns of investment. A social enterprise is a social missiondriven organization that applies mixed commercial and philanthropic strategies to address social needs. Social sector organizations such as non-profits or


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To reinforce both the FAR zoning and the TDR zoning, we propose a robust Mixed Use Zoning to correspond with both areas of increased FAR, and specific TDR â&#x20AC;&#x153;receiveâ&#x20AC;? zones, where developers can receive density bonuses. The Mixed Use Zoning will incorporate a Social Enterprise Zoning component, which will solve two problems with one stroke. By offering non-profits a space to locate within the bottom floors of the increased density zones. The policy will effectively increase access to amenities and civic services while also helping both the developers and non-profits better connect with each other to create the kind of environment that could draw a more mixed-income resident population. This type of coordination will also encourage more income mixing activities among the residents in these developments, who are often segregated according to income levels.


MIXED-USE ZONING Receiving Zone 1 Receiving Zone 2 Receiving Zone 3 Receiving Zone 4


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A combination of (1)  density zoning, (2) the transfer of development rights, and (3) social enterprise zoning policy interventions would create an implementation impact index of 2.56, which is greater than the tipping point and would significantly strengthen the policy drive in the area.  At a site scale, these policy changes can make a big improvement in the quality of life for the residents of affordable housing developments. But if we look at the aggregate impact of these changes over building 200,000 units a year for years  – these simple policy changes add up to a powerful commitment to building a humane, sustainable city that can continue to preserve the traditions and hopes of China’s capital city.


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CONCLUSION The problem of affordable housing in China is complex. There is the problem of migrating populations and the debate about retrofitting older buildings within the city core. There is the larger issue of how to phase development and balance the need for rural land with the need to make enough revenue through annexing and developing such land. Most contentious of all is the issue of hukou, where one in every five people are denied access to affordable housing and civic institutions because they do not have an official Beijing registration status and are thus relegated to urban villages that constitute housing for about thirty percent of the Beijing population. From the scenarios we tested different ways that affordable housing developments can be designed to improve the public realm, and ultimately, the quality of life of those who live in affordable housing in Beijing.  The issue of affordable housing in Beijing is not limited to one site.  Thus, the studio sought to create a tool kit of parts, that can be adaptable, replicable, cost effective, and be deployed on multiple sites.  As affordable housing in Beijing is not limited to one site, the studio also looked as affordable housing at a regional level.  Because the scale of demand for social

housing is so large, it is at a scale of city building.  Therefore, regional interventions that address issues of density, transportation and the spatial mismatch of housing and jobs, and environmental issues, particularly air quality, are important to building affordable housing in Beijing.  By introducing density, mixed-use, and social-enterprize  zoning in conjunction with a transfer of development rights (TDR) policy, new development can be concentrated in Beijing’s new planned centralities, while at the same time, the proposed green belt can be implemented.  This would greatly benefit the environment and preserve land.   The problem in Beijing is ambitious, and calls for both imagination and rigor to address any of the above issues. Ultimately, however, the issue that touched us most was the earnestness and generosity of our fellow designers and planners in China who took the time to share their work with us and we chose a very narrow corner of the affordable housing situation to remedy: how to coordinate and construct new housing. We hope that our careful analysis of Beijing and the tactical suggestions culled from international case studies can be of use to them in the days to come.


Global Social Housing Studio, Spring 2014


Global Housing Studio- Beijing