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BUILDING Construction ii PROJECT 1 Skeletal Construction Temporary Bus Shelter 0324272 0324679 0323813 0323529 0323008 0323713

LIM PEIDI LEE SHI YIN LAW ZHI CHANG CHIN CHEONG SOON LEE FEI SYEN NG JI YANN


05 26

34

RENDERINGS

DESIGN ANALYSIS

36

LOAD TEST

04

10

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

14

06

ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

35

03

INTRODUCTION

33

PG

CONREFERENCES

DESIGN CONSIDERATION

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

CONCLUSION


In this project, we were to construct a temporary bus shelter that is 600mm in height, with a base of 400mm x 800 mm. We had to understand and demonstrate the knowledge of skeletal frames and its joints in order to produce a strong and stable structure. The joints should be constructed to reflect the actual joints. We were required to clearly define all the building components including roofs, walls, floors and columns. After several discussion and tutorials among the tutor and team members, the constructed bus shelter was in the scale of 1:5 focused on the strength and flexibility of chosen materials. The final outcome was tested to endure lateral/horizontal force and the weight of 5 to 6 people.

introduction

introduction

03.


WEATHER RESISTANCE •

Materials to withstand hot and humid tropical climate of Malaysia

Good air ventilation to provide users’ thermal comfort

STABILITY Skeletal structure to resist vertical and horizontal loads imposed on it

Stable structure to resist wind loads preventing uplift and overturning

SAFETY •

Suitable openness to provide visibility in and out of the shelter, allowing users to see traffic conditions. Considering human ergonomics and sufficient seating to provide convenience for users.

MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION •

Recycle unused steel from formal construction which are readily available

Selection for material with high durability and strength

Design development

DESIGN C O N S I D E R AT I O N S

04.


INSPIRATION The design inspiration came from an original shape of square pyramid and cuboid, which can be found in everywhere because it’s stable and rigid.

INITIAL IDEAS

DESIGN development

DEVELOPMENT We improvise our bus shelter structure by building proper joints and skeletal so that our structure could be more stable and safe.

FINAL OUTCOME The final outcome of the bus shelter of our structure consist of inclined column which is based on axial compression besides bending and distribute the force.

Design development

The design of just straight columns is too common to be found, so we had decided to make it oblique for the bus shelter. We wanted to make the structure looks like slanting bus shelter.

05.


4920 mm

Floor Plan 1:25

Orthographic drawings

2835 mm

Orthographic drawings

06.


4920 mm

Orthographic drawings

3370 mm

Roof Plan 1:25

07.


4920 mm

4920 mm

Front Elevation 1:25

Orthographic drawings

3800 mm

Side Elevation 1:25

08.


Exploded axonometric

n.t.s

Polycarbonate sheets Face boards Metal plate Roof frame

Supporting element

Metal plate seating H column

Metal plate seat backing

Metal mesh flooring

Base frame Metal knee brace

Base plate

Stump Footing

Orthographic drawings

Roof beam

09.


1

PRE-CONSTRUCTION

1

A mock-up of 1:20 physical model was made, then proceeded to a detailed 3D model generated with Autodesk Revit software. The detailed 3D model includes all specific dimensions of the bus shelter which was extracted to be used later.

2

Construction process

FOUNDATION

3

Plywood formworks were created according to the dimensions of the model’s pad footing.

3

4

Concrete mixture was mixed and poured into the plywood formwork. It was let dry for a few days before steel base plate was bolted into it.

4

Construction process

2

The dimensions obtained from the 3D model were scaled down to 1:5 to ease the final physical construction.

10.


STEEL BASE FRAMEWORK

5

Metal mesh was secured to the frame by welding it to the RHS framework.

6

8

Bigger RHS were welded together to form the primary member of the frame, while RHS with smaller dimension were welded together in between the primary member to form the secondary member.

5

7

It was later screwed into the RHS base frame to increase stability.

8

9

COLUMNS Long scrap steel plates 9 were welded together to form model’s 1:5 scale H column. The mild H column were 10 cut accordingly to the dimensions of the model using a steel cutter chop saw.

10

Construction process

6

7

Rectangular hollow section (RHS) were cut into the dimensions of the model

11.


11

11

Steel H column and steel plates were placed on a bench type drilling machines to drill the desired holes for the installation of nuts and bolts.

12

The steel H column was connected to the concrete stump through a base plate by using bolts and nuts

13 BENCH

14 A RHS was welded vertically to the H columns. A metal plate was welded on top of the RHS as the seating area.

An additional member was added behind the three H columns. Steel plates were welded to the additional members, then was connected to the H column with bolts and nuts.

14

15

ROOF Steel plates were welded 15 on top of the H columns. The roof H beams were connected to the H columns through the welded steel plates.

16 RHS were cut following the dimensions of the model. Later the RHS was welded together to form the roof framing.

16

Construction process

12

13

12.


17

17

19

18 4 acrylic sheet were arranged together with 3 metal plates placed on top between each acrylic sheet. The acrylic sheet is secured in between metal plates and roof frame using bolts and nuts. POLISH The metals were polished 19 By using grinder, and later being painted to prevent corrosion.

20

Construction process

18

4 steel plates were welded into the corners of the roof frame, then it was bolted to the I beams of the roof.

COMPLETED MODEL

13.


Construction DETAILS

Con struction DETA IL S

03. 14.


SSTTEEEELL BBAASSEE FFRRAAMMEE DIMENSIONS OF STEEL BASE PLATE 50 mm

810 mm

810 mm

1000 mm 595 mm

1720 mm

50 mm

4200 mm

1812 mm

Construction DETAILS

80 mm

15.


STEEL BASE FRAME PLAN VIEW OF STEEL BASE FRAME

A

PRIMARY MEMBERS To connect the front and back concrete pad footing

150mm

Dimension of RHS: 150mm x 50mm Length: 1812mm

5mm 50mm

B B

PRIMARY MEMBERS To connect the concrete pad footing in a single row. 100mm

Dimension of RHS: 150mm x 50mm Length: 4200mm

5mm 50mm

C • •

Steel base frame situated above the concrete pad footing. It is the lowest layer of the shelter’s base. It serves to connect and carries load from H columns and the metal deck flooring above to the concrete pad footing.

CONNECTIONS

SECONDARY MEMBERS Serves as a floor beam to support the load from the metal deck flooring.

100mm

Dimension of RHS: 100mm x 50mm Length: 1720mm

5mm 50mm

CONNECTOR 1. HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT H

The RHS are welded together The steel base frame is welded to the H column and connected by using brackets.

F

F: 30mm C: 34.64mm H: 12.88mm D: 20mm

D

Construction DETAILS

A

C

C

T L

03.

16.


Concrete pad footing SIDE ELEVATION OF CONRETE PAD FOOTING

DETAILS AND CONNECTIONS H column

STEEL BASE FRAME (RHS)

5 mm thick Metal plate

FRONT

The steel base plate is bolted into the concrete pad footing and welded to the steel base frame (RHS).

Metal plate

The steel base plate is welded to the H column in order to connect the columns with the foundation. It also serves to distribute the concentrated load imposed by the columns above so that it does not exceed the bearing pressure towards the concrete pad footing.

PAD FOOTING (BACK)

H column

Height B Height A Width Length

The size of the back footing is bigger than the front to support the H beam and steel base frame. It transfer the load to the ground. Width: 50mm Length: 80mm Height A: 200mm Height B: 200mm

Metal plate J bolt Concrete Pad Footing

PAD FOOTING (FRONT)

Height A Length

1. J BOLT

WH

Width: 50mm Length: 50mm Height A: 200mm Height B: 200mm

D

2. H BEAM 200mm

D

WH

Height B Width

DIMENSIONS

J BOLT WASHER NH

The front concrete footing also serves as the foundation of the bus stop to support the steel base frame.

The usage of J bolt enhance the stability to support the slanted H beam.

ND

T

B 200mm

W.Diameter: 30mm W.Height: 6mm N.Diameter:. 25mm N.Height: 20mm

D: 50mm B: 152mm T: 25mm

9mm

170mm

Construction DETAILS

BACK

H column is welded to the metal plate which is bolted into the concrete pad footing.

15mm

17.


Slanted steel structure DIMENSIONS OF STEEL STRUCTURE

2660 mm

3281 mm 2688 mm 2721 mm

Side Elevation 1:25

1715 mm

Front Elevation 1:25

1715 mm

Construction DETAILS

10 ÌŠ

18.


Slanted steel structure PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BUS STOP

CONNECTIONS OF H COLUMN DETAIL A H COLUMN

I BEAM

B RHS

A H COLUMN

DETAIL B A steel plate is welded to the H column. The end plate of the H column is connected with the I beam using 8 bolts and nuts to increase the stability and prevent it from slipping.

I BEAM

The main load of the bus stop is carried by the I beams and the H columns. The load from the beams and columns is transferred to the floor which is supported by the concrete pad footing. RHS was added in between the H columns to withstand the load transferred.

H COLUMN

A metal bracing is added in between the I beam and H column to reinforced the stability of the structure and distribute the load applied from the roof.

DIMENSIONS 2. RHS (RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)

1. HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT

Length of RHS: 4030mm

F

H F: 30mm C: 34.64mm H: 12.88mm D: 20mm

D

200mm

C 100mm

T

200mm

9mm

170mm

19.

5mm L

3. H COLUMN

Construction DETAILS

RHS was added behind the H columns to increase the stability of the H columns.

50mm

15mm


Bench & wire mesh flooring DIMENSION

1852 mm

1852 mm

1810 mm

4200 mm

Floor Plan 1:25

Construction DETAILS

600 mm

20.


Bench & wire mesh flooring DIMENSION OF BENCH & WIRE MESH FLOORING

88 mm 450 mm

Front Elevation 1:25

Bench thickness: 75mm

Construction DETAILS

450 mm

21.


Bench & wire mesh flooring PERSPECTIVE OF WIRE MESH FLOORING

DETAIL DRAWING AND CONNECTION OF BENCH

The metal mesh flooring is placed on top the steel base frame and welded onto it.

H COLUMN

WIRE MESH FLOORNG

Metal bar is welded to the H column it is welded to the RHS.

STEEL BASE FRAME

DIMENSIONS RHS

1. H COLUMN

2. HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT

200mm

H

F D

9mm 170mm

200mm

T L

15mm

F: 30mm C: 34.64mm H: 12.88mm D: 20mm

3. RHS

BENCH

C

The seat is bolted to the RHS.

Construction DETAILS

The bench seating is attached to the H column. A metal plate is welded to the H column and 2 RHS is welded to the metal plates.

(RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)

100mm 5mm 50mm

22.


roof DIMENSION OF ROOF

1050 mm

2846 mm

4200 mm

Roof Plan 1:25

Construction DETAILS

Distance between bolt 243mm

23.


roof DIMENSION OF ROOF FRAME

1000 mm

4200 mm

Roof Frame 1:25

Construction DETAILS

1813 mm

24.


roof CONNECTION OF ROOF

CONNECTION OF ROOF FRAME AND I BEAM Steel plate is welded under the roof frame so it can be bolted to the H beam under it.

ROOF FRAME

ROOF FRAME

RHS

I BEAM

The size of RHS used smaller than the base frame and having same dimension for both primary and secondary frame structure as it does not have a lot of loads on it.

FACE BOARD Face boards are added to the side of the roof frame to cover up the H beam under it so that it is visually pleasure to the public.

H COLUMN

CONNECTION OF POLYCARBONATE ROOF The polycarbonate roof is placed on top of the roof frame.

4

1

A metal plate is placed on top and in between 2 roof panels and screwed to the roof frame below to lock the polycarbonate sheets in place.

3

2

Polycarbonate roof thickness: 12mm

DIMENSIONS 2. HEX HEAD BOLT & NUT

1. H COLUMN 200mm

200 mm

9mm 170mm

15mm

3. RHS OF ROOF FRAME

H D

309mm

C

T L

4. FACE BOARD (thickness 3mm) 4200mm

F

F: 30mm C: 34.64mm H: 12.88mm D: 20mm

METAL PLATE

100mm 5mm

2833mm 309mm

50mm

Construction DETAILS

The RHS are welded together to form a roof frame.

25.


The temporary bus shelter was designed with maximum openness to ease the circulation for the users. The bus shelter was designed to be placed in a city center. The wide opening at the front and side of the bus shelter eases the business of city life. The height of the roof, the bench, as well as the interior space was designed with consideration of anthropometry and human ergonomics which follows the basic measurement of human body. Our design was not only users friendly, but also simple and complements the modern lifestyle in the city.

Design analysis

D e s i g n a n a ly s i s

Accessibility and users’ experience

ACCESSIBILITY AND USERS’ EXPERIENCE

26.


Heat

Rainwater

D E S I G N A N A LY S I S

RAIN

The transparency of the roof allows natural lighting into the bus shelter, as well as provides a slight shading to the users. It prevents direct sunlight penetration into the structure and illuminates the interior.

The bus shelter was designed to protect its users from rain. The slanted roof was tilted at a 10° angle to ensure rainwater was channelled smoothly to the back of the shelter.

Painting over mild steel

Rainwater flow out

HUMIDITY AND CORROSION Treated carbon steel and stainless steel was used due to its ability to withstand humidity. To prevent rain water clogging in the shelter, metal mesh was used as the base flooring to allow rainwater to flow out.

VENTILATION The openness of the bus shelter allows natural ventilation at all sides of the shelter. The usage of metal mesh instead of metal plate as the flooring enhances natural ventilation from the ground. Wind movement is at its maximum to reduce stuffiness and lower the humidity level.

Design analysis

SUNLIGHT

27.


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Metal frame structure consists of primary structural elements and secondary structural elements to support the floor and roof which are connected to the metal frame structures. The metal frame structure is to withstand vertical forces and lateral forces, such as live load, gravity and wind.

Roof frame

Columns

Metal Knee brace Base frame

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Primary structural elements are the main supports of the structure. It is used to support the members under compressive force.

SECONDARY STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Secondary structural elements increases the stability of the whole structure and enable it to withstand more loads.

Design analysis

Foundation

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Beam

28.


Concentrated Load

Concentrated Load

Concentrated Load

The load transfer mechanism of the structure for transferring the loads to the ground acts in one direction only.

Concentrated Load

Concentrated Load

Concentrated Load

Design analysis

LOAD SYSTEM : ONE-WAY SYSTEM

LOADS AND FORCES

One way load distribution

LOADS & FORCES

29.


EXTERNAL FORCES

There are 3 external forces which are the dead load, live load, and wind load applying towards the bus shelter.

Weight of structural elements

Precipitation

Loads

Loads

STATIC LOAD / DEAD LOAD The weight of the structure permanent elements such as the roof and the beam cause a force applies towards the structure column for its entire lifespan.

LIVE LOAD Live load are the forces applied by non-permanent objects such as human and animals. The intensity of the force towards the bus shelter varies according to the number and weight of non- permanent objects at the bus shelter.

Design analysis

Human weight

LOADS AND FORCES

Loads

30.


EXTERNAL FORCES

There are 3 external forces which are the dead load, live load, and wind load applying towards the bus shelter.

WIND LOAD The wind force acts on both primary structural elements such as columns and secondary structural elements such as polycarbonate sheet on the roof.

LOADS AND FORCES

Wind force acts on roof Wind flows through Wind force acts on columns

The openness design of the bus shelter reduces wind force, it provides maximum natural ventilation throughout the shelter.

Design analysis

The inclined column of the bus shelter is strongly anchored to the ground using concrete pad footing. The usage of Jbolts prevents uplifting and overturning of the bus shelter.

31.


MATERIALITY

STAINLESS STEEL

POLYCARBONATE SHEETS ROOFING

Characteristics of stainless steel: • Aesthetic appearance • Great strength • High corrosion resistance • Fire and heat resistance

It is widely used in construction industry as it is cheap in price and not brittle. Characteristics of carbon steel: • Tough • Ductile • Malleable • Good tensile strength • Poor resistance to corrosion

• • • •

Characteristics of polycarbonate roof: Lightweight Durable Fire resistance Modern view

CONCRETE The concrete pad footing is used for vertical support and helps to transfer loads to earth. It is simple to be built and cost effective.

Design analysis

CARBON STEEL

Polycarbonate roof is known for its strength in withstanding force and are virtually unbreakable.

MATERIALITY

Stainless steel is an alloy of Iron with a minimum of 10.5% Chromium which prevents rusting.

32.


WIRE MESH FLOORING Test subject: 6 litres water bottle (6kg each) Unit: 3 water bottles Total load: 18kg Representation: Live load imposed onto the wire mesh flooring. Test result: Successful. The wire mesh flooring is able to withstand the loads imposed on the structure.

BENCH

ROOF Te st su b j e c t : 500ml water bottle (0.5kg each) U n i t : 3 water bottles To t a l l o a d : 1.5kg Re p re se n t a t i o n : Live load imposed onto the wire mesh flooring. Te st re su l t : Successful. The roof beam is able to withstand the loads imposed on the structure.

Load test

Load test

Te st su b j e c t : 500ml water bottle (0.5kg each) U n i t : 6 water bottles To t a l l o a d : 3kg Representation: Live load imposed onto the bench. Te st re su l t : Successful. The bench is able to withstand the loads imposed on the structure.

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RENDERING 34.


CONCLUSION

There are a lot of factors such as weather resistance, safety and stability of the structure that we should consider at the early stage before going into the construction stage to ensure that the bus shelter constructed is able to meet the user’s requirements and achieve user’s comfort. We conducted a detail research on the connections between each elements to assure the stability of the bus shelters. After our research, we consult our tutor, Mr. Edwin for his advice in order to come out with a better solution. Materiality, loads and forces aspect are also considered to make sure that the bus shelter can withstand the live load and dead load in it. In conclusion, different small elements has to work well with each other in order to produce a stable structure. Hence, every details in construction process should be take into concern.

CONCLUSION

Throughout this project, we are able to learn more as we involve ourselves in a larger scale construction.

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WEBSITE •

• •

CONCLUSION

BOOK •

Blanc, A. (1993). Architecture and construction in steel. London: Spon.

Ching, F., & Adams, C. (2001). Building construction illustrated. New York,NY: Wiley

Load test

Brakefield, K. (n.d.). How is a Girder Different From a Beam? Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://blog.swantonweld.com/how-is-a-girderdifferent-from-a-beam BRITISH STAINLESS STEEL ASSOCIATIONMaking the Most of Stainless Steel. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.bssa.org.uk/about_stainless_steel.php DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS. (2014, November 11). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://theconstructor.org/structuralengg/design-of-reinforced-concrete-foundations/7325/ Ed, S. Q. (2013, March 28). Footing. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.abis.com.au/footing Faerina MNasir Follow. (2012, November 22). Building Sem 2 (EMT 157). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/faerinamnasir/building-sem-2-emt-157 Khaled Eid, Head of Dpt Follow. (2014, November 28). Design of column base plates anchor bolt. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/KhaledEid/design-of-column-base-platesanchor-bolt McGee, M., & Fritsky, L. (2017, September 20). What is a Bearing Plate? Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-abearing-plate.htm# Properties of Mild Steel. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.laser-cutting-online.com/properties-of-mild-steel.html Shahul130103 Follow. (2016, March 08). Basic structural system in architecture. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/shahul130103/basic-structural-system-inarchitecture Simple connections. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.steelconstruction.info/Simple_connections Www.thatweb.co, T. W. (n.d.). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Polycarbonate Roofing26 May 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.morganasphalte.co.uk/news/the-advantages-anddisadvantages-of-polycarbonate-roofing/

36.

b.con 2  

*for academic purpose only*

b.con 2  

*for academic purpose only*

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