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question as to the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of the Constitution’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh aon ní san alt seo difear d’fheidhmeanna an Ard-Aighne maidir le haon cheist i dtaobh bailíocht aon dlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta’. ‘Such company shall not be entitled to question the validity of the policy’ is translated as ‘ní bheidh an chuideachta san i dteideal dleathacht an pholasaí … do chonspóid’ in s61(5)(a) of the Insurance Act, 1936, with ‘ní fheidhmeoidh aon rún den tsórt san chun dochair do dhleathacht éinní a déanfar roimis sin fén Ordú san’ translating ‘no such resolution shall operate to prejudice the validity of anything previously done under such Order’ in s19 of the Adaptation of Enactments Act, 1922. ‘Validity of purchases from Under Sheriff’ is translated as ‘Éifeachtúlacht ceannuíochtanna ó Fho-Shirriamh’ in the Margin Title of s8 of the Enforcement of Law (Occasional Powers) Act, 1923. Note, finally, that ‘or any valid private interest therein’ is translated as ‘no d’aon cheart dlisteanach príobháideach ’na leith’ in Article 11 of the 1922 Constitution. See further the commentary on Article 44.4.3o. a tharraingt anuas ‘Tarraingt’ is the verbal noun of ‘tarraing’, Ó Dónaill translating ‘tarraing anuas’ as (1) ‘pull, draw, down’ and (2) ‘introduce, bring forward’, citing ‘scéal a tharraingt anuas, to introduce a subject’. Dinneen translates ‘tarraingim anuas’ as ‘I pull down, introduce or mention’. The simple verb ‘tarraing’ comes from ‘do-srenga’, ‘draws, drags, pulls’, this being based on ‘sreng’ (‘string, cord’, Modern Irish ‘sreang’), which itself comes from Old Norse ‘strengr’. DIL cites ‘co motairrngend suas … in lia sain co na drolaibh’ (‘draws up ...’) from the Book of Ballymote, written c. 1400. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘a tharraingt anuas’ is the equivalent expression in Irish of ‘raise’ here, citing ‘tharraing sé ceist eile anuas’. ‘Where a person other than the Seanad returning officer proposes to raise a question at the completion of the panels’ is translated as ‘Má bheartaíonn duine seachas ceann comhairimh an tSeanaid ceist a tharraingt anuas le linn comhlánú na rollaí’ in s39(2) of the Seanad Electoral (Panel Members) Act, 1947. ‘An auditor … may … raise any such question as is mentioned in the foregoing sub-section’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh iniúchóir … aon cheist den tsórt a luaidhtear sa bhfo-alt san roimhe seo … do tharrac anuas’ in s12(2) of the Local Services (Temporary Economies) Act, 1934. ‘Any such question may be raised’ is translated as ‘Féadfar aon cheist den sórt sin a thógáil’ in s166(3) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, with ‘Where a question is raised as to the disqualification of a person to receive old age pension’ being translated as ‘I gcás ina dtógfar ceist i dtaobh duine a dhícháiliú chun pinsean seanaoise a fháil’ in the following subsection. ‘No question as to its correctness shall be raised on the hearing of an appeal’ is translated as ‘ní chuirfear a chirte faoi cheist le linn éisteacht … a bheith á thabhairt d’achomharc’ in s73(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1967. Note, finally, that ‘to raise a question’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘ceist do thógaint’ in translations for the Department of Agriculture. trí phléadáil ‘Pléadáil’ is translated as ‘plea’ in Téarmaí Dlí, this being the verbal noun of ‘pléadáil’, translated as

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‘plead’ in Ó Dónaill, who also gives the sense of ‘disputation, wrangle’. Dinneen translates ‘pléideail’ as ‘act of disputing, wrangling, jibing, pleading’, being followed by the abbreviation for ‘Ulster’. DIL gives but two citations of ‘pléideáil’, ‘pleading (a suit)’, both from O’Molloy’s Lucerna Fidelium (1676), this word perhaps being a formation from English ‘plead’, according to DIL, with ‘plé’ (‘pleading [a suit], arguing, disputing’) almost certainly coming from ‘plea’, according to Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú. ‘Without amendment of any writ, pleading, or other document’ is translated as ‘gan aon eascaire, pléadáil nó doiciméad eile a leasú’ in s107(2)(h) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. ‘The repeal of any enactment by this Act shall not … affect any established jurisdiction, form or course of pleading, practice or procedure derived from the repealed enactment’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh aisghairm aon achtacháin leis an Acht seo … difear d’aon dlínse, foirm nó cúrsa pléadála, cleachtas nó nós imeachta atá bunaithe agus a tháinig ón achtachán aisghairthe’ in s9(5) of the Succession Act, 1965. Looking at early Acts, ‘but nothing in this Act shall prevent any registered decree being pleaded and given in evidence by way of defence or set off in any proceeding’ is translated as ‘ach ní choiscfidh éinní san Acht so aon aithne chláruithe do phléideáil agus do thabhairt mar fhianaise chun cosanta no mar chur in aghaidh ní eile in aon imeachta’ in s5(5) of the Dáil Éireann Courts (WindingUp) Act, 1923. Note that ‘pléideáil’ also translates ‘plea’, with ‘In any such action tender of amends before the action was commenced may, in lieu of or in addition to any other plea, be pleaded’ being translated as ‘In ionad no i dteanta aon phléideála eile féadfar a phléideáil in aon aicsean den tsórt san gur tairgeadh sásamh sarar tosnuíodh an t-aicsean’ in s200(2) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. argóint This headword is translated as ‘argument’ in Téarmaí Dlí, citing ‘argóint dhlíthiúil, legal argument’. Ó Donaill gives ‘argóint’ as a verbal noun of ‘argóin’, the noun ‘argóint’ being translated simply as ‘argument’. ‘Argúint’ is the form of the headword in Dinneen (‘argóint’ given as a variant), translated as ‘act of arguing’, Dinneen also giving ‘argúinteacht, argumentation’. ‘After hearing argument on the appeal’ is translated as ‘tar éis argóint ar an achomharc a éisteacht’ in s431(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1967, with ‘tar éis argóna ar an athchomharc san d’éisteacht’ translating ‘after hearing argument on such appeal’ in s9(1) of the Finance Act, 1932. Taobh amuigh de chás dá socraítear a mhalairt ‘Save as otherwise provided by this Act’ is translated as ‘Ach amháin mar a fhoráiltear a mhalairt leis an Acht seo’ in s3(2)(b) of the Criminal Justice Act, 1990, this same English phrase being translated as ‘Ach amháin sa chás dá bhforáltar a mhalairt san Acht so’ in s157(1) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. See further the commentary on Articles 13.9, 15.11.1o and 25.2.1o. beidh dlínse ‘The jurisdiction under section 685 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, shall not extend to an application for compensation under this Act’ is translated as ‘Ní shroichfidh an dlínse faoi alt 685 den Merchant


A study of the Irish text

Shipping Act, 1894, chun iarratas ar chúiteamh faoin Acht seo’ in s24 of the Malicious Injuries Act, 1981. In s1 of Article 24 of the Second Schedule to the Arbitration Act, 1980, ‘The jurisdiction of the centre shall extend to any legal dispute arising directly out of an investment’ is translated as ‘Sroichfidh dlínse an Lárionaid chuig aon díospóid dhlíthiúil a eascróidh go díreach ó infheistíocht’. Finally, in s69(3) of the Land Act, 1923, ‘the jurisdiction of the County Court shall extend to any such proceedings’ is translated as ‘leathfidh údarás na Cúirte Contae chun na n-imeachta san’, with ‘Provided that the liabilitity of a Clerk of the Crown and Peace … shall not extend to any such increase in salary’ being translated as ‘Ach an ceangal a bheidh ar Chléireach Coróinneach agus Síochána … ní shroisfe sé aon mhéadú tuarastail den tsórt san’ in s14 of the Electoral Act, 1923. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú favours the variant ‘bainfidh dlínse na hArd-Chúirte le’ as being more intelligible than ‘sroichfidh dlínse na hArd-Chúirte chun’. ná eile ‘To recover any sum not exceeding £2,500 due to or recoverable by or on behalf of the State whether by way of penalty, debt or otherwise’ is translated as ‘chun aon suim a ghnóthú nach mó ná £2,500 atá dlite don Stát nó inghnóthaithe ag an Stát nó thar a cheann, cibé acu ar mhodh pionóis, féich nó eile’ in s6(a)(iii) of the Courts Act, 1981. ‘In relation to an order under this section creating a fisheries region (whether by union, subdivision or otherwise)’ is translated as ‘i ndáil le hordú faoin alt seo ag cruthú réigiúin iascaigh (trí nascadh, foroinnt nó ar dhóigh eile)’ in s10(13) of the Fisheries Act, 1980. Looking at ‘otherwise’ in early Acts, ‘shall be administered by the District Councils or otherwise as the County Council … may determine’ is translated as ‘riarfar é ag na Comhairlí Ceanntair no ar aon chuma eile a cheapfidh an Chomhairle Chontae’ in s12 of the ‘Galway County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘The Accounts of the Committee shall be audited half-yearly by the Auditor of the Local Government Department, or otherwise in accordance with such Orders or Regulations as may be made by that Department’ being translated as ‘Iniúchfar Cuntaisí an Choiste uair sa leath-bhliain ag Iniúchóir Roinn an Rialtais Áitiúla no, neachtar acu, do réir pé Orduithe no Rialacháin a dhéanfaidh an Roinn sin’ in s15. ‘And otherwise to enable the Trust to carry out the purposes of the said section’ is translated as ‘agus chun a chur ar chumas an Chóluchta ar shlite eile crícheanna an ailt sin do thabhairt chun críche’ in the Preamble to the Land Trust Powers Act, 1923. Finally, ‘an authorised undertaker shall not divest himself, by transfer or otherwise, of any such power … as is mentioned’ is translated as ‘ní scarfidh gnóthaire údaruithe, tré aistriú ná eile, le haon chomhacht … a luaidhtear’ in 70(2) of the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1927. dá socraítear See the commentary on Articles 8.3 and 15.5.2o regarding ‘socraigh’; ‘dá’ is a compound of the preposition ‘do’ and the relative particle ‘a’.

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Direct translation Ach amháin mar a fhoráiltear1 a mhalairt leis an Airteagal seo, sroichfidh dlínse na hArd-Chúirte chun 2 ceist bhailíocht aon dlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo, agus ní ardófar aon cheist den sórt sin (cibé acu trí phléadáil, trí argóint nó eile) in aon Chúirt arna bunú faoin Airteagal seo nó faoi aon Airteagal eile seachas san Ard-Chúirt nó sa Chúirt Uachtarach3.

Variants 1 ‘mar a bhforáiltear’ 2 ‘bainfidh dlínse na hArd-Chúirte le’ 3 ‘seachas an Ard-Chúirt nó an Chúirt Uachtarach’

ARTICLE 34.3.3O

AIRTEAGAL 34.3.3O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní bheidh dlínse ag Cúirt ar bith chun bailíocht dhlí nó fhorála ar bith de dhlí a chur in amhras is dlí a ndearna an tUachtarán an Bille lena aghaidh a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí faoi Airteagal 26 den Bhunreacht seo, ná chun bailíocht fhorála de dhlí a chur in amhras má rinne an tUachtarán an fhoráil chomhréire sa Bhille le haghaidh an dlí sin a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí faoin Airteagal sin 26. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No Court will have jurisdiction to put in doubt the validity of a law or of any provision of a law which is a law that the President submitted the Bill for it to the Supreme Court for decision under Article 26 of this Constitution, nor to put in doubt the validity of a provision of a law if the President submitted the corresponding provision in the Bill for that law to the Supreme Court for decision under that Article 26. ENGLISH TEXT

No Court whatever shall have jurisdiction to question the validity of a law, or any provision of a law, the Bill for which shall have been referred to the Supreme Court by the President under Article 26 of this Constitution, or to question the validity of a provision of a law where the corresponding provision in the Bill for such law shall have been referred to the Supreme Court by the President under the said Article 26.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

‘To question’ is twice rendered as ‘a chur in amhras’ (‘to put in doubt’) in the Irish text. ‘Referred to the Supreme Court’ is twice rendered as ‘a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí’ (‘submitted to the Supreme Court for determination/decision’) in the Irish text, as we have seen earlier.

Note that this is a new subsection inserted by the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941.

ag féachaint d(o) See the commentary on Article 16.2.4o. ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o.

Commentary bailíocht dhlí nó fhorála ar bith de dhlí According to the official standard, ‘dlí’ would not be lenited here in the


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genitive case following ‘bailíocht’ – d, t, s are usually not lenited after d, n, t, l, s, according to s6(I) of the chapter entitled ‘Séimhiú agus Urú’ in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, ‘cúirt dúiche’ being the relevant example cited there. One could also argue that ‘forála’, being qualified by ‘ar bith’, should also remain unlenited, the rule being that if followed by an adjective (and ‘ar bith’ here functions as an adjectival phrase) the noun in the genitive case following a feminine noun remains unlenited (see s6(I)(c), ibid, where ‘scian coise duibhe’ is given as an example). Note that ‘the question of the validity of any law’ is rendered as ‘(maidir leis) an gceist sin bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar aon dlí áirithe’ in the previous subsection – see the commentary on Article 34.3.2o. a chur in amhras ‘Amhras a chur i rud, to cast doubt on something’ is cited in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘amhras’ primarily as ‘doubt’, with the secondary sense of ‘suspicion’, citing ‘amhras a tharraingt, a chaitheamh ar dhuine, to draw, cast, suspicion on someone’. Dinneen translates ‘amhras’ as ‘doubt, suspicion, anxiety, distrust’, with ‘sochar an amhrais’ being translated as ‘benefit of the doubt’ in Téarmaí Dlí. The earlier form ‘am(a)ires’, literally ‘unbelief’, is composed of the negative particle ‘am-’ and ‘iress’ (‘faith’), and in Old Irish had the (theological) sense of ‘lack of faith’ (with the sense ‘religious doubt’ in later religious contexts), with the general sense of ‘doubt, disbelief, incredulity’. DIL cites ‘arna tarta amiris … don lobur hiressach’ (‘lest he bring unfaith … to the weak believer’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘If any person aggrieved by a compulsory purchase order … desires to question its validity’ is translated as ‘Aon duine arb éagóir leis ordú ceannaigh éigeantaigh … agus ar mian leis a bhailíocht a chur i gceist’ in s78(2) of the Housing Act, 1966. ‘To question the validity of such election of such person’ is translated as ‘chun dleathacht an toghacháin sin an duine sin do chonspóid’ in s4(1) of the Local Authorities (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1936. In s17(3) of the Housing (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1931, ‘If any person aggrieved by an order desires to question its validity’ is translated as ‘Más mian le héinne ar a ngoillfidh ordú amhrus do chaitheamh ar dhleathacht an orduithe sin’. ‘Nor shall the verdict thereon be impeached or questioned on account of the return of such person as a juror’ is translated as ‘ná ní déanfar breith an choiste sa triail sin do choiriú ná do chur in amhras mar gheall ar an duine sin do bheith cláruithe mar choisteoir’ in s3(3) of the County Courts (Amendment) Act, 1923. Finally, ‘Certificate of validity questioned’ is translated as ‘Deimhniú ar dhleathacht do theacht i gceist’ in the Margin Title of s132 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927, with ‘that the validity of any claim in the specification of the patent came in question’ being translated as ‘go dtáinig dleathacht aon éilimh in áireamhacht na paitinne i gceist’ in s132(1). an fhoráil chomhréire ‘Comhréire’ is the genitive singular of ‘comhréir’ as attributive adjective. Ó Dónaill translates ‘comhréir’ as (1) ‘accord, congruity’, (2) ‘proportion’ – translating ‘i gcomhréir (le)’ as ‘proportioned (to)’ – and (3) ‘syntax’. ‘I gcomhréir le’ is translated as ‘consistent with’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Cóimhréir’ is translated as ‘congruity, construction, syntax, concord, analogy; uniformity’ in

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Dinneen, while DIL translates ‘comríar’ as ‘submission, control, attendance’, this headword being based on ‘ríar’, translated principally as ‘will, wish, demand, request, decision’ in DIL. ‘As a reference to the corresponding provision of this Act’ is translated as ‘mar thagairt don fhoráil chomhréire den Acht seo’ in s124(4) of the Building Societies Act, 1989, as in s97(5) of the Building Societies Act, 1976. ‘A reference to the corresponding provision’ is translated as ‘tagairt don fhoráil chomhréireach’ in s24(1)(b) of the Finance (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1968, with ‘there shall be substituted a reference to the corresponding provision contained in Part II’ being translated as ‘cuirfar tagairt don fhoráil chó-réire atá i gCuid II’ in the Third Schedule to the Finance Act, 1929. See the commentary on Article 19.1, where ‘comhrollaí’ expresses ‘corresponding panels’, for early citations from the Acts. a chur faoi bhreith ‘Cás a chur faoi bhreith duine’ is translated as ‘to submit a case to someone for determination’ in Ó Dónaill. DIL cites ‘ní nár dhuit dol fár mbreithne’ (‘… to yield to our judgment’) from the seventeenthcentury ‘Contention of the Bards’. See the commentary on Articles 15.11.1o, 26.3.1o and 34.3.1o regarding ‘breith’ and the commentary on Article 26 regarding ‘a chur faoi bhreith’.

Standardised Irish text Ní bheidh dlínse ag Cúirt ar bith chun bailíocht dlí nó forála ar bith de dhlí a chur in amhras is dlí a ndearna an tUachtarán an Bille lena aghaidh a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí faoi Airteagal 26 den Bhunreacht seo, ná chun bailíocht fhorála de dhlí a chur in amhras má rinne an tUachtarán an fhoráil chomhréire sa Bhille le haghaidh an dlí sin a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí faoin Airteagal sin 26.

Direct translation Ní bheidh dlínse ag Cúirt ar bith chun bailíocht dlí, nó aon fhorála de dhlí, a cheistiú, a mbeidh an Bille lena aghaidh tarchurtha1 chun na Cúirte Uachtaraí ag an Uachtarán faoi Airteagal 26 den Bhunreacht seo, nó chun bailíocht forála dlí2 a cheistiú a mbeidh an fhoráil chomhréire sa Bhille le haghaidh an dlí sin tarchurtha1 chun na Cúirte Uachtaraí ag an Uachtarán faoin Airteagal 26 a dúradh3.

Variants 1 ‘curtha’ 2 ‘forála de dhlí’ 3 ‘faoin Airteagal sin 26’

ARTICLE 34.3.4O

AIRTEAGAL 34.3.4O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Beidh ar na Cúirteanna Céadchéime, fairis sin, Cúirteanna ag a mbeidh dlínse theoranta áitiúil maille le ceart achomhairc ina n-aghaidh faoi mar a chinnfear le dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Among the Courts of First Instance, moreover, will be


A study of the Irish text

Courts which will have limited local jurisdiction along with a right of appeal against them as will be determined by law. ENGLISH TEXT

The Courts of First Instance shall also include Courts of local and limited jurisdiction with a right of appeal as determined by law. Note that Article 34.3.4o was originally Article 34.3.3o before the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

‘With a right of appeal’ is expressed as ‘maille le ceart achomhairc ina n-aghaidh’ (‘along with a right of appeal against them’) in the Irish text. ‘Courts of local and limited jurisdiction’ is expressed as ‘Cúirteanna ag a mbeidh dlínse theoranta áitiúil’ (‘Courts which will have limited local jurisdiction’) in the Irish text, though this can also be read as ‘Courts which will have limited and local jurisdiction’, the conjunction ‘agus’ sometimes not being written between two qualifying adjectives. ‘The Courts … shall include’ is expressed as ‘Beidh ar na Cúirteanna’ (‘Among the Courts will be’) in the Irish text, as we saw in Articles 34.2 and 34.3. ‘Also’ is expressed as ‘fairis sin’, ‘along with that’, as we have seen in some earlier Articles; this phrase is preceded and followed by commas in the Irish text alone.

Note that Article 64 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: The Courts of First Instance shall include a High Court ..., and also Courts of local and limited jurisdiction, with a right of appeal as determined by law. Ar na Cúirteanna Céad-Chéime beidh Ard-Chúirt, … agus fós Cúirteanna go mbeidh a n-údarás go háitiúil agus go teoranta maille le ceart aith-éisteachta mar a cinnfear le dlí.

Commentary faoi mar ‘Faoi mar’ is translated as ‘according as’ by Ó Dónaill s.v. ‘mar’, citing ‘faoi mar atáimid ag dul ar aghaidh, at the rate at which we are progressing’, with the conjunction ‘mar’ being translated as ‘as’. Ó Dónaill s.v. ‘faoi’, translates ‘faoi mar’ as ‘as if, as’, citing ‘faoi mar a bheadh fearg air, as if he were angry’ and ‘faoi mar ba ghnáth leis, as was usual for him’. Dinneen gives ‘féibh mar’, ‘fé mar’ and ‘fá mar’ as ‘strengthened forms’ of ‘mar’, translating these forms as ‘just or exactly as’, citing ‘féibh mar léightear, as we read’. The original sense of ‘feb’ may be ‘way, manner, kind’, the meaning implicit in the adverbial use, according to DIL, the only form in the Glosses being the dative singular ‘feib’/‘fib’ (with force of a relative adverb), which Thurneysen regards as the dative singular of ‘fuí’ (‘quality, worth’). DIL cites the following from the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian as an example of the dative in the sense of ‘as, according as, in like manner as’: ‘feib fondúair som la auctora’ (‘as he has found it in authors’). ‘Mar’ comes from ‘immar’, which is not found in the Old Irish Glosses, DIL citing examples of ‘mar’ as a conjunction in the sense of ‘as, like as’ (‘express-

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ing manner or implying a comparison’) from Leabhar na hUidhre (written in Clonmacnois c. 1100) onwards. Turning to the Acts, in s208(1) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘In the case of a person who has no means as determined by this Chapter’ is translated as ‘I gcás duine gan acmhainn mar a bheidh cinnte leis an gCaibidil seo’. ‘Order him to pay … a sum not exceeding the full value of the article as determined by the court’ is translated as ‘a ordú dó suim nach lú ná luach iomlán an earra, mar a chinnfidh an chúirt é, a íoc’ in s25(2) of the Pawnbrokers Act, 1964. Finally, ‘to pay in respect of the dwelling a rent equal to the lawful rent of the dwelling as determined by the said order’ is translated as ‘cíos a íoc i leith na teaghaise is comhionann le cíos dleathach na teaghaise mar a cinneadh sin leis an ordú sin’ in s23(1)(c)(iii) of the Rent Restrictions Act, 1960. See Article 64 of the 1922 Constitution above. áitiúil This adjective is translated as ‘local’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘áiteamhail’ being similarly translated in Dinneen. ‘Áitiúil’ is based on ‘áit’, ‘átt’ being perhaps the original form of this word, DIL translating ‘áitt’ as ‘place, situation, position, dwelling’, citing ‘co cach inchruth a thige inna áttaib córaib’ (‘with all the furniture of the house in its proper position’) from the law-text Críth Gablach, compiled in the opening years of the eighth century. Note, in passing, that ‘locally’ is translated as ‘ina cheanntar féin’ in Iris an Phoist, 14/3/28, with ‘locally’ in the sense of ‘from local office’ being translated as ‘ón oifig áitiúil’ in Iris an Phoist, 28/4/26. ‘If work is done locally’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘má dintear an obair cois baile’ in translations for the Department of Finance. maille le This phrase is translated as ‘with, along with’ in Ó Dónaill, as ‘together with, along with, by means of, because’ in Dinneen – see the commentary on Articles 23 and 10.1. Beidh ar See the commentary on Article 34.2. fairis sin See the commentary on Article 10.4. dlínse See the commentary on Articles 3 and 34.3.2o. theoranta See the commentary on Article 34.1.

Direct translation Ar na Cúirteanna Céadchéime beidh1 Cúirteanna dlínse áitiúla teoranta2 chomh maith3 a mbeidh ceart achomhairc acu mar a chinnfear le dlí.

Variants 1 ‘Áireofar ar na Cúirteanna Céadchéime’ 2 ‘Cúirteanna dlínse áitiúla agus teoranta’ 3 ‘chomh maith,’, ‘freisin’

ARTICLE 34.4 AIRTEAGAL 34.4 TÉACS GAEILGE

1o

An Chúirt Uachtarach is teideal don Chúirt Achomhairc Dheiridh.


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An Príomh-Bhreitheamh is teideal d’uachtarán na Cúirte Uachtaraí.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

An Príomh-Bhreitheamh See the commentary on Articles 14.2.1o and 31.2.

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

1o 2o

It is the Supreme Court which is the title of the Court of Final Appeal. / The Supreme Court is the title of the Court of Final Appeal. It is the Chief Justice which is the title of the president of the Supreme Court. / The Chief Justice is the title of the president of the Supreme Court.

Direct translation 1o 2o

An Chúirt Uachtarach a thabharfar ar an gCúirt Achomhairc Dheiridh. An Príomh-Bhreitheamh a thabharfar ar uachtarán na Cúirte Uachtaraí.

ENGLISH TEXT

1o 2o

The Court of Final Appeal shall be called the Supreme Court. The president of the Supreme Court shall be called the Chief Justice.

ARTICLE 34.4.3O

AIRTEAGAL 34.4.3O

Divergences between the official texts 1

‘Shall be called’ is expressed as ‘is teideal do’, ‘is the title of’, in the Irish text.

Note that Article 64 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: These Courts shall comprise Courts of First Instance and a Court of Final Appeal to be called the Supreme Court. Beidh ar na Cúirteanna so Cúirteanna Céad-Chéime agus Cúirt Aith-éisteachta Deire dá ngairmfear an Chúirt Uachtarach.

Commentary is teideal do ‘Teideal’ is translated as ‘title’ in Ó Dónaill and in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 28.5.1o. ‘Titul’ is translated in DIL as (a) ‘title, heading’, (b) ‘epithet, title’, citing ‘gairm 7 teidiol Chríost’ from Keating’s seventeenth-century Eochair-sgiath an Aifrinn, and (c) ‘prescriptive right, title (in legal sense)’. The phrase ‘is teideal do’ parallels the common ‘is ainm do’. In s2(1) of the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution (Adoption) Act, 1979, for example, following earlier Acts amending the Constitution, ‘The amendment of the Constitution effected by this Act shall be called the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution’ is translated as ‘An Séú Leasú ar an mBunreacht a bhéarfar ar an leasú a dhéantar ar an mBunreacht leis an Acht seo’. ‘A body established under the said subsection (1) shall be called and known by such title as may be specified in the establishment order’ is translated as ‘Is é cibé teideal a shonrófar san ordú bunaithe a thabharfar ar chomhlacht, agus a ghairfear de chomhlacht, a bhunófar faoin bhfo-alt sin (1)’ in s3(5) of the Local Government Services (Corporate Bodies) Act, 1971. In s13(1) of the Health Act, 1970, ‘There shall be appointed … a person who shall be called and shall act as the chief executive officer of the board’ is translated as ‘Ceapfar … duine ar a dtabharfar príomh-oifigeach feidhmiúcháin an bhoird agus a ghníomhóidh mar phríomh-oifigeach feidhmiúcháin don bhord’. Finally, ‘The central office shall be under the management and control of an officer who shall be called the Registrar of Titles’ is translated as ‘Beidh an phríomhoifig faoi bhainistíocht agus urlámhas oifigigh dá ngairfear Cláraitheoir na dTeideal’ in s9(1) of the Registration of Title Act, 1964.

TÉACS GAEILGE

Taobh amuigh de cibé eisceachtaí agus faoi chuimsiú cibé rialacha a ordófar le dlí, beidh dlínse achomhairc ag an gCúirt Uachtarach ar bhreitheanna uile na hArd-Chúirte agus, fairis sin, ar na breitheanna sin ó chúirteanna eile a ordófar le dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Apart from whatever exceptions and within the constraint/ scope of whatever rules that will be enjoined by law, the Supreme Court will have appellate jurisdiction on all the judgements of the High Court and, moreover, on those judgements by other courts that will be enjoined by law. ENGLISH TEXT

The Supreme Court shall, with such exceptions and subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by law, have appellate jurisdiction from all decisions of the High Court, and shall also have appellate jurisdiction from such decisions of other courts as may be prescribed by law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3

4

5

6

‘Regulations’ is expressed as ‘rialacha’, ‘rules’, in the Irish text. ‘Appellate jurisdiction from’ is expressed as ‘dlínse achomhairc … ar’ (‘appellate jurisdiction on’) in the Irish text, with ‘appellate jurisdiction’ being repeated in the English text alone. ‘As may be prescribed by law’ is twice expressed as ‘a ordófar le dlí’ (‘as will be enjoined by law’) in the Irish text, as we have seen earlier. ‘With such exceptions’ is expressed as ‘Taobh amuigh de cibé eisceachtaí’ (‘apart from whatever exceptions’) in the Irish text, ‘such regulations’ being expressed as ‘cibé rialacha’ (‘whatever rules’). ‘And shall also’ is expressed as ‘agus, fairis sin,’ (‘and, moreover,’) in the Irish text, the comma preceding the ‘and’ in the English text, no comma following ‘also’. ‘Subject to’ is expressed as ‘faoi chuimsiú’ (‘within the constraint/scope of’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in many earlier Articles.

Note that Article 66 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows:


A study of the Irish text

The Supreme Court of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) shall, with such exceptions (not including cases which involve questions as to the validity of any law) and subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by law, have appellate jurisdiction from all decisions of the High Court. Gan dochar do pé rialacha agus maille le pé eisceachtaí a cinnfear le dlí (lasmuich d’aon chás do thabharfadh ceist dlisteanachta aon dlí anuas) beidh údarás aith-éisteachta ag Cúirt Uachtarach Shaorstáit Éireann ar gach breith den Ard-Chúirt.

Commentary dlínse achomhairc This phrase is translated as ‘appellate jurisdiction’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, ‘achomhairc’ (‘appeal’) as an attributive genitive – see the commentary on Article 34.2 regarding ‘achomharc’. ‘With such appellate jurisdiction as is prescribed by the Constitution’ is translated as ‘agus pé údarás achomhairc aici a horduítear leis an mBunreacht’ in s18 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924. ‘Whether in a court of first instance or a court having appellate jurisdiction in respect of such proceedings’ is translated as ‘pé’ca i gcúirt chéad-chéime é no i gcúirt go ndlighinse athchomharcach maidir leis na himeachta san’ in s2(3) of the Electricity (Supply) (Amendment) Act, 1935. ‘No appeal from any order made under subsection (5) shall be brought after the expiration of one month from the date of perfection of the order’ is translated as ‘Ní thionscnófar aon achomharc i gcoinne aon ordaithe faoi fho-alt (5) tar éis mí a bheith caite ón dáta ar cuireadh an t-ordú i gcrích’ in s105(7) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. ‘An order made by a court on appeal from another court shall be treated as if it had been made by that other court’ is translated as ‘déileálfar le hordú a rinne cúirt ar achomharc ó chúirt eile ionann is dá mba í an chúirt eile sin a rinne é’ in s1(2) of the Family Law (Protection of Spouses and Children) Act, 1981. a ordófar See the commentary on Article 27.2. ‘Such court established under this Constitution as may be established by law’ is rendered as ‘cibé cúirt do bunuigheadh faoin mBunreacht so agus a ordóchar le dligheadh’ in the new subsection 2o of Article 41.3 proposed by the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1986 [as outlined in s1 of Part II of the Electoral (Amendment) Act, 1986] to be substituted for Article 41.3.2o. ‘Or such other sum as may be prescribed by the Central Bank in regulations’ is translated as ‘nó cibé suim eile a fhorordóidh an Banc Ceannais i rialacháin’ in s17(10) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. ‘Within such period as may be prescribed by regulations under this section’ is translated as ‘laistigh de cibé tréimhse a fhorordófar le rialacháin faoin alt seo’ in s11(1) of the Maternity Protection of Employees Act, 1981. eisceachtaí The plural form of ‘eisceacht’, translated as ‘exception’ in Téarmaí Dlí, Ó Dónaill and Dinneen, DIL giving examples of ‘uisgeacht’ from Keating’s seventeenth-century Three Shafts of Death, stating that the first edition of that work had ‘eisceacht’. See the commentary on Article 11. rialacha See the commentary on Article 6.1 regarding ‘riail’ and see the commentary on Article 12.5 regarding ‘rialaigh’, ‘regulate’. ‘Rialachán’ translates ‘regulation’ in

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the modern Acts. Note that De Bhaldraithe, while translating this sense of ‘regulation’ as ‘rialachán’, cites ‘hospital regulations, rialacha ospidéil ’. faoi chuimsiú See the commentary on Articles 12.5 and 18.7.2o. fairis sin See the commentary on Article 10.4.

Direct translation Beidh ag an gCúirt Uachtarach, leis na heisceachtaí sin agus faoi réir na rialachán sin1 a fhorordófar le dlí, dlínse achomhairc ó chinntí uile na hArd-Chúirte, agus beidh dlínse achomhairc aici chomh maith2 ó na cinntí sin3 le4 cúirteanna eile a fhorordófar le dlí.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘le cibé eisceachtaí agus faoi réir cibé rialachán’ ‘freisin’ ‘ó cibé cinntí’ ‘de chuid’

ARTICLE 34.4.4O

AIRTEAGAL 34.4.4O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead aon dlí a achtú a chuirfeadh ar an taobh amuigh de dhlínse achomhairc na Cúirte Uachtaraí cásanna ina mbeadh ceisteanna le réiteach i dtaobh bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar aon dlí, ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact any law which would put beyond the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court cases in which questions needed to be settled regarding any law’s having validity or not, having regard to the provisions of this Constitution. ENGLISH TEXT

No law shall be enacted excepting from the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court cases which involve questions as to the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

‘Cases which involve questions’ is expressed as ‘cásanna ina mbeadh ceisteanna le réiteach’ (‘cases in which questions needed to be settled’) in the Irish text. ‘Excepting from the … jurisdiction’ is expressed as ‘a chuirfeadh ar an taobh amuigh de dhlínse …’ (‘which would put on the outside of the … jurisdiction’) in the Irish text. ‘Questions as to the validity of any law’ is expressed as ‘ceisteanna … i dtaobh bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar aon dlí’ (‘questions regarding any law having or not having validity’) in the Irish text, this Irish expression being also found earlier.


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‘No … shall be’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in some earlier Articles.

Commentary ar an taobh amuigh de ‘Taobh amuigh de’ is generally used, without preceding article, in the sense of ‘outside of’, ‘apart from’, as we have seen in the previous subsection – ‘Taobh amuigh de cibé eisceachtaí’, literally ‘Apart from such exceptions’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘taobh amuigh den gheata, outside the gate’ and ‘taobh amuigh de sin, apart from that’, translating ‘ar an taobh amuigh de’ as ‘at most’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘an taobh amuigh’ as ‘the outside, the exterior’, citing ‘bíodh an taobh amuigh agat, get out’. ‘Ar an dtaobh amuigh de’ is translated as ‘on the outside, at most’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘taobh amuigh de sin, not counting that’. DIL cites ‘ataid don taobh amuigh don Eaglais’ from Parrthas an Anma (1645). See the commentary on Articles 12.3.3o and 13.9 regarding ‘taobh amuigh/istigh’. Modern Irish ‘amuigh’ comes from Middle Irish ‘ammaig’, earlier ‘immaig’, literally ‘in the plain’ (‘mag’, Modern Irish ‘maigh’/‘má’ (‘plain’) as in ‘Maigh Nuad’, ‘Maynooth’) – in early Irish laws, ‘in fer amuigh’ (literally, ‘the man outside’) refers to the ‘plaintiff’. See the commentary on Articles 21.2.2o and 48 respectively regarding ‘istigh’ and ‘amach’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘except’ as ‘eiscim, déanaim eisceacht de, fágaim amach, fágaim as’, translating ‘present company excepted’ as ‘ach amháin a bhfuil láithreach’. ‘Power of High Court … to except innocent act from being illegal practice’ is translated as ‘Comhacht ag an Ard-Chúirt … gníomh nea-chiontach d’eisceacht o bheith ina chleacht nea-dhleathach’ in the Margin Title of s28 of the Prevention of Electoral Abuses Act, 1923. ‘This Act applies to every company which … is not excepted from this Act by the next sub-section’ is translated as ‘Baineann an tAcht so le gach cuideachtain … ná dintar í eisceacht ón Acht so leis an gcéad fho-alt eile’ in s1(1) of the Companies (ReConstitution of Records) Act, 1924. Looking at modern Acts, ‘the regulations may provide … for excepting from the obligation to pay levy any specified class or classes of persons’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh na rialacháin foráil a dhéanamh … maidir le haon aicme nó aicmí sonraithe daoine … a eisiamh ón oibleagáid tobhach a íoc’ in s12(6) of the Bord Glas Act, 1990. In s56(1) of the Copyright Act, 1963, ‘make regulations excepting from the provisions of this subsection … publications wholly or partly in the nature of trade advertisements’ is translated as ‘rialacháin a dhéanamh ag eisceadh foilseachán ó fhorálacha an fho-ailt seo … is foilseacháin arb éard iad ar fad nó go formhór cineál fógraí trádála’. Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o. de dhlínse achomhairc previous subsection.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Direct translation Ní dhéanfar aon dlí a achtú1 a dhéanfadh cásanna lena ngabhann ceisteanna i dtaobh bhailíocht2 aon dlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo a eisiamh3 ó dhlínse achomhairc na Cúirte Uachtaraí.4

Variants 1 2 3 4

ARTICLE 34.4.5O

Is é a chraolfas breith na Cúirte Uachtaraí ar cheist i dtaobh bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar dhlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo ná an duine sin de bhreithiúna na Cúirte sin a cheapfaidh an Chúirt sin chuige sin, agus ní cead tuairim ar bith eile ar an gceist sin, ag aontú nó ag easaontú leis an mbreith sin, a chraoladh ná ní cead a nochtadh tuairim ar bith eile den sórt sin a bheith ann. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

He who will announce the judgement of the Supreme Court on a question regarding a law’s having validity or not having regard to the provisions of this Constitution is that one of the judges of that Court which that Court will appoint for that (purpose), and it is not permitted to announce any other opinion on that question, agreeing or disagreeing with that decision, nor is it permitted to disclose there being any other opinion of that kind. ENGLISH TEXT

The decision of the Supreme Court on a question as to the validity of a law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution shall be pronounced by such one of the judges of that Court as that Court shall direct, and no other opinion on such question, whether assenting or dissenting, shall be pronounced, nor shall the existence of any such other opinion be disclosed.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

réiteach See the commentary on Article 23.1.2o.

ag féachaint d(o) See the commentary on Article 16.4.2o.

AIRTEAGAL 34.4.5O

TÉACS GAEILGE

See the commentary on the

bail a bheith nó gan a bheith See the commentary on Articles 15.4.2o and 34.3.2o.

‘Ní achtófar aon dlí’ ‘bailíochta’ ‘eisceadh’ ‘Ní dhéanfar aon dlí a achtú a dhéanfadh eisceacht, maidir le dlínse achomhairc na Cúirte Uachtaraí, de chásanna lena ngabhann ceisteanna i dtaobh bhailíocht aon dlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo.’

4

‘Pronounce’ is rendered by ‘craol’, the term generally used today to translate ‘broadcast’; ‘craol’ also has the sense of ‘announce, proclaim’; ‘I pronounce (judgement)’ is translated as ‘fógraím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘As that Court shall direct’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘a cheapfaidh an Chúirt sin chuige sin’, ‘which that Court shall appoint for that (purpose)’. ‘A question as to the validity of a law’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘ceist i dtaobh bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar dhlí’ (‘a question regarding a law having validity or not’), the same phraseology as in the previous section. ‘No . . . shall’ is again rendered as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in the previous subsection and in some earlier Articles.


A study of the Irish text

Note that this subsection was inserted into the text following the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941.

Commentary a chraolfas The special relative form of the future tense of ‘craol’ – see the commentary on Article 6.1 regarding the special relative in ‘-s’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘craol’ as ‘announce, proclaim’, citing ‘rud a chraoladh ón altóir, to announce something from the altar’, with secondary (‘wireless telephony and telegraphy’) sense of ‘broadcast’, this being the usual current usage of ‘craol’. Dinneen translates ‘craolaim’ as ‘I announce, especially from the altar or pulpit’, followed by the abbreviation for ‘Waterford’ and referring the reader to ‘creidhill’, ‘a knell’, ‘creidhill báis’ being translated as ‘the death-knell; death, news of death’; ‘a proclamation’ is also given as a sense of ‘creidhill’, Dinneen referring to ‘do chrael (chraol) sé ón altóir é, he announced it from the altar’, giving Most Rev. Dr Michael Sheehan, Sean-chaint na nDéise (1906) as source. DIL does not appear to give the verb ‘craol’ as a headword, and gives English ‘knell’ as the source of ‘creidil’; DIL also has a headword ‘craidail’, translated as ‘proclamation, announcement’, referring the reader to English ‘cry’ as a possible source. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú has kindly written the following note (which is translated here) on ‘craol’: Apparently this is another unhistorical form (see the note on ‘aiceanta’ in the commentary on Article 10.1). It would appear that it is from Dinneen that the drafters and others of that generation took the word. Dinneen got it from Mícheál Ó Síothcháin, but ‘crael’ is the form he had in Sean-Chaint na nDéise, and Sean-Chaint na nDéise II shows that it was pronounced ‘craeil’ /kre:l′/; that was also the form of the verbal noun. As recognised by DIL, it probably contains some trace of English ‘cry’, in the sense of ‘proclaim publicly’ (“fógairt os ard”). Conchobhar Ó Síothcháin has a clear illustration of that range of sense and terminology in his account of his first trip to Skibbereen: ‘A Mhuire!’ arsa mise ‘godé a chuir an bhéic as?’ ‘Arú’, arsa duine de sna fearaibh, ‘sin é an craidhire, agus gach uair a bhuailfidh an clog geobhaidh sé thríd an sráid ag callaireacht ar an gcuma san, go maidean gheal amáireach …’. Of the two words, ‘craidhire’ (< ‘cry’ + (a)ire) and ‘callaire(acht)’ (< ‘call’ + aire), the first one has received little formal recognition, though the second one is fully recognised. Most likely it is following the diversification of the sense of ‘callaire’ that ‘craidhire’ was introduced in the particular sense and, therefore, also that it appeared to lexicographers of this time that ‘callaire’ was more native (“níos tíorachasúla”). ‘Craobhscaoileadh’ is the older term in this range of sense – ‘go bhfuil an reacht go foirleathan arna chraobhsgaoileadh 7 arna fhógra’ (TBGB, l. 3488-9); ‘cryer’/ ‘creidher’ is found in the same clause with ‘craobhsgaoileadh’ in Pairlement Chloinne Tomáis (‘tugsad rena gcraobhsgaoileadh don chreidher’, ll. 1561-2, Williams) – and perhaps some trace of this, in sense and form, is found in the Decies ‘craeil’. It is clear, at any rate, that Mícheál Ó Síothcháin, and perhaps his informants, recognised some connection between the two words.

Turning to the Acts, ‘as security for the satisfaction of

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any judgement which may eventually be pronounced by a Court having jurisdiction so to decide’ is translated as ‘mar urrús chun aon bhreithiúnas a shásamh a fhógróidh Cúirt faoi dheoidh ag a mbeidh dlínse cinneadh a dhéanamh amhlaidh’ in s2 of Article 7 of the First Schedule to the Jurisdiction of Courts (Maritime Conventions) Act, 1989. ‘Until … the date upon which the decision of the Court is pronounced’ is translated as ‘go dtí an dáta a bhfógrófar breith na Cúirte’ in s21(5)(b) of the Fire Services Act, 1981. See further the commentary on Article 26.2.1o where ‘breith a thabhairt’ expresses ‘pronounce a decision’; see the commentary on Articles 13.3.2o and 25.1 regarding ‘fógair’. ag aontú nó ag easaontú See the commentary on Article 26.2.2o. ‘Aontú’ is the verbal noun of ‘aontaigh’, ‘easaontú’ being the verbal noun of ‘easaontaigh’, the latter verb being composed of the negative prefix ‘eas-’ (generally indicating ‘a ceasing to be what the second element implies’, according to Dinneen, as distinguished from the prefixes ‘an-’, ‘éa-’ or ‘dí-’) combined with ‘aontaigh’. ‘Aontaím’ is translated as ‘I assent’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘aontuighim’ being translated as ‘I unite, assent to, consent, agree’ in Dinneen, who translates the verbal noun ‘easaontughadh’ as ‘act of disagreeing’, giving ‘schism’ as the sense of the noun ‘easaontughadh’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘easaontaigh’ with the preposition ‘le’ as ‘disagree (with), dissent (from)’, citing ‘easaontú le duine, to disagree with someone’ and ‘easaontú le teagasc, to dissent from a doctrine’. ‘Aontaigh’ followed by ‘le’ is translated as ‘assent, agree’ by Ó Dónaill. The earlier ‘oentaigid’, based on ‘oen’ (‘one’), is translated principally as ‘unites, joins with, consorts with, makes one’ in DIL, ‘aentochmaid let’, from one early source, being translated as ‘we shall be one with thee’. DIL cites only one example of the verb ‘esóentaigid’ (‘disagrees, opposes’): ‘ro chinnset a comairli 7 nir easaentaig in t-ardflaith ’na n-agaid sein’ (‘… did not dissent from them’), from the Banquet of Dún na nGedh and the Battle of Magh Rath. ‘The decision of the Court shall be pronounced by the chairman or such other member as the chairman shall authorise for the purpose, and no other opinion, whether assenting or dissenting, shall be pronounced nor shall the existence of any such other opinion be disclosed’ is translated as ‘Is é an cathaoirleach nó pé comhalta eile a údarós an cathaoirleach chuige sin a chraolfas breith na Cúirte, agus ní craolfar aon tuairim eile, ag aontú nó ag easaontú leis an mbreith sin, ná ní nochtfar tuairim ar bith eile den tsórt sin a bheith ann’ in s20(4) of the Industrial Relations Act, 1946. Note in passing from the early Acts that ‘and the verdict of such nine members or upwards shall be taken and recorded as the verdict of the jury, without disclosure of dissentients, if any such there be’ is translated as ‘agus déanfar breith-fhocal an naonúir sin no níos mó do thógaint agus do chur ar breaca mar bhreith-fhocal ón gcoiste, gan scéith ar an méid nár aontuigh léi, má bhí a leithéidí ann’ in s95 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924. ‘And every person having such turbary rights shall have the like rights of making objections to and of expressing assent to or dissent from the scheme as are conferred on such occupiers by virtue of this Act’ is translated as ‘agus gach duine ag á mbeidh cirt mhóna den tsórt san beidh aige na cirt chéanna a bronntar ar na sealbhairí sin de bhua an Achta so chun cur i gcoinnibh


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Bunreacht na hÉireann

na scéime no chun a rá ce’ca aontuíd leis an scéim no ná haontuíd’ in s18(c) of the Arterial Drainage (Minor Schemes) Act, 1928, with ‘for the purpose of determining whether the number of dissents from the scheme is or is not sufficient to prevent the confirmation of the scheme’ being translated as ‘chun a dhéanamh amach ce’ca is leor no nách leor chun cosc do chur le daingniú na scéime an líon daoine ná haontóidh leis an scéim’ in s18(d). a cheapfaidh ‘The amendment must be directed to’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘ní foláir an leasú do bheith ceaptha chun’ in the 1926 Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann, with ‘the amendment must be directed to omitting words’ being translated as ‘caithfidh an leasú bheith ar intinn focail do leigeant ar lár’. ‘I am directed by … to acknowledge receipt of your letter’ is cited as being translated as ‘dubhairt … liom a rádh leat go bhfuair sé do litir’ in translations for the Department of Industry and Commerce. ‘I direct (jury)’ is translated as ‘treoraím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Looking at modern Acts, ‘under the control of such other person … as the court shall direct’ is translated as ‘faoi urlámh cibé duine eile … a ordóidh an chúirt’ in s40(1)(b) of the Status of Children Act, 1987. ‘Such notice of an application under this section as the High Court shall direct’ is translated as ‘cibé fógra i dtaobh iarratas faoin alt seo a ordóidh an Ard-Chúirt’ in s21(3) of the Plant Varieties (Proprietary Rights) Act, 1980. See the commentary on Articles 6.1, 13.1.1o and 15.10 where ‘ceap’ respectively expresses ‘designate’, ‘appoint’ and ‘attach’. Note that ‘stiúir’ expresses ‘direct’ in Article 12.8 and ‘ordaigh’ renders direct in Article 40.4.4o – see the commentary on that Article for further examples of official translations of ‘direct’. nochtadh See the commentary on Articles 26.2.2o and 40.6.1oi and note that ‘nochtaim’ is translated as ‘I disclose’ in Téarmaí Dlí. tuairim See the commentary on Article 40.6.1oi.

Gender-proofed Irish text Is é nó is í a chraolfaidh breith na Cúirte Uachtaraí ar cheist i dtaobh bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar dhlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo ná an duine sin de bhreithiúna na Cúirte sin a cheapfaidh an Chúirt sin chuige sin, agus ní cead tuairim ar bith eile ar an gceist sin, ag aontú nó ag easaontú leis an mbreith sin, a chraoladh ná ní cead a nochtadh tuairim ar bith eile den sórt sin a bheith ann.

Direct translation Déanfaidh cibé duine de bhreithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí a ordóidh an Chúirt sin breith na Cúirte sin a fhógairt ar cheist maidir le bailíocht1 dlí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo,2 agus ní fhógrófar aon tuairim eile ar an gceist sin, cibé acu ag aontú nó ag easaontú,3 ná ní nochtfar aon tuairim eile den sórt sin4 a bheith ann.

Variants 1 ‘faoi bhailíocht’ 2 ‘Déanfaidh cibé duine de bhreithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí a ordóidh an Chúirt sin breith na Cúirte sin ar cheist maidir le

bailíocht dlí, ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo, a fhógairt,’ 3 ‘cibé acu ag aontú nó ag easaontú leis an tuairim sin,’ 4 ‘a leithéid sin eile de thuairim’

ARTICLE 34.4.6O

AIRTEAGAL 34.4.6O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní bheidh dul thar breith na Cúirte Uachtaraí i gcás ar bith. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

There will be no passing over / bypassing the judgement of the Supreme Court in any case. ENGLISH TEXT

The decision of the Supreme Court shall in all cases be final and conclusive.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

‘The decision … shall be final and conclusive’ is expressed as ‘Ní bheidh dul thar breith’ (‘there will be no passing over / bypassing the judgement’) in the Irish text. ‘In all cases’ is expressed as ‘i gcás ar bith’, ‘in any case’, in the Irish text.

Note that Article 66 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: The decision of the Supreme Court shall in all cases be final and conclusive .... Ní bheidh dul thar breith na Cúirte Uachtaraighe in aon chás.

Commentary dul thar breith na Cúirte ‘Breith’ would be lenited here according to the official standard, ‘thar’ leniting except in the case of adverbial phrases like ‘thar bráid, thar sáile’, etc. – see An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, s4(e) of the chapter entitled ‘Séimhiú agus Urú’. According to Ó Dónaill, ‘thar’ lenites in qualified or particularised references, citing ‘dul thar dhuine sa tsráid, to pass someone on the street’. ‘Dul’ is the verbal noun of ‘téigh’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘téigh thar’ principally (literally) as ‘go, pass, over’, giving ‘exceed’ and ‘surpass’ as secondary senses, citing ‘ná téigh thar ceart, don’t go beyond what is right’ and ‘ní féidir dul thairis, it can’t be surpassed’ respectively – Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that this latter sense is not the sense involved in the present Article 34.4.6o. Ó Dónaill also cites ‘níl dul thairis agat, you can’t evade it’ s.v. ‘thar’. Dinneen cites ‘ní raghainn thársta, I would not ask any better than these’. DIL gives ‘exceeds, surpasses’ as a secondary sense of ‘téit tar’, citing ‘ní thét a ccu dar cona’ (‘their Hound outstrips hounds no more’) from the Wasting Sickness of Cú Chulainn in Leabhar na hUidhre (written in Clonmacnois c. 1100), giving examples of the senses ‘goes over, across, past’ and ‘transgresses, violates (a law, etc.)’ from the Glosses of the eighth and ninth centuries onwards.


A study of the Irish text

‘Conclusive evidence’ and ‘conclusive presumption’ are translated respectively as ‘fianaise dochloíte’ and ‘toimhde dochloíte’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘final order’ being translated as ‘ordú críochnaitheach’. ‘The decision of the local pension committee … shall be final and conclusive’ is translated as ‘Is cinneadh críochnaitheach, dochloíte cinneadh an choiste phinsin áitiúil’ in s164(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, for example. See further the commentary on Article 22.2.1o.

Standardised Irish text Ní bheidh dul thar bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí i gcás ar bith.

Direct translation Cinneadh críochnaitheach, dochloíte1 a bheidh i gcinneadh na Cúirte Uachtaraí i ngach cás.2

Variants 1 ‘críochnaitheach dochloíte’ 2 ‘Is cinneadh críochnaitheach, dochloíte cinneadh na Cúirte Uachtaraí i ngach cás.’

ARTICLE 34.5.1O

AIRTEAGAL 34.5.1O

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

503

faithfully and to the best of my knowledge and power execute the office of Chief Justice (or as the case may be) without fear or favour, affection or ill-will towards any man, and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws. May God direct and sustain me.”

Divergences between the official texts 1

‘Affection’ is expressed as ‘bá, ‘partiality, friendship’, in the Irish text, whereas ‘gean’ translates ‘affection’ in Téarmaí Dlí. 2 ‘Favour’ is expressed as ‘claonadh’, ‘bias’, in the Irish text. 3 ‘The Constitution and the law’ is expressed as ‘Bunreacht agus dlíthe Éireann’ (‘the Constitution and laws of Ireland’) in the Irish text. 4 ‘Execute the office’ is expressed by ‘oifig a chomhlíonadh’ (‘perform/fulfil the office’) in the Irish text. 5 ‘Sincerely’ is expressed by ‘go fírinneach’, more usually ‘truthfully’, in the Irish text, again as we already saw in Article 12.8. 7 ‘Subscribe’ is expressed as ‘a lámh a chur le’ (‘put his hand to’) in the Irish text, as we have already seen in Article 12.8. 8 ‘Shall’ is expressed as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in some earlier Articles. 9 ‘Any man’ is expressed as ‘duine ar bith’ (‘any person’) in the Irish text. 10 ‘As the case may be’ is expressed as ‘nó de réir mar a oireas’ (‘or according as suits’) in the Irish text.

TÉACS GAEILGE

Gach duine a cheapfar chun bheith ina bhreitheamh faoin mBunreacht seo ní foláir dó an dearbhú seo a leanas a dhéanamh agus a lámh a chur leis: “I láthair Dia na nUilechumhacht táimse, , á ghealladh agus á dhearbhú go sollúnta agus go fírinneach go gcomhlíonfad go cuí agus go dílis, chomh maith agus is eol agus is cumas dom, oifig an Phríomh-Bhreithimh (nó de réir mar a oireas) gan eagla gan claonadh, gan bá gan drochaigne chun duine ar bith, agus go gcumhdód Bunreacht agus dlíthe Éireann. Dia do mo stiúradh agus do mo chumhdach.” LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every person who will be appointed to be a judge under this Constitution (he) must make the following declaration and put his hand to it: “In the presence of God the Almighty I, , (am) promising and declaring solemnly and truthfully that I will duly and faithfully perform, to the best of my knowledge and ability, the office of Chief-Justice (or according as suits) without fear or bias, without partiality or malevolence/ill-will to anyone, and that I will uphold the Constitution and laws of Ireland. God direct and protect me.” ENGLISH TEXT

Note that s99 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924, reads as follows: The Declaration to be taken on appointment by every Judge of the Supreme Court, the High Court and the Circuit Court and by every Justice of the District Court shall be as follows:I do solemnly and sincerely before God promise and declare that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my skill and power execute the office of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (or President of the High Court … or Justice of the District Court as the case may be) of Saorstát Éireann without fear or favour, affection or ill-will towards any man, and that I will uphold the Constitution of Saorstát Éireann as by law established. Mar leanas a bheidh an Fhaisnéis a dhéanfidh gach Breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtaraigh, den Ard-Chúirt, agus den Chúirt Chuarda, agus gach Breitheamh den Chúirt Dúithche, tar éis a gceaptha:Dinim-se a gheallúint agus a fhaisnéis go solamanta agus go macánta i láthair Dé go bhfeidhmeod go cuibhe agus do dílis agus chó fada lem’ éirim agus lem’ chomhacht oifig PhrímhBhreitheamh Chúirt Uachtarach (no Uachtarán Ard-Chúirt … no Breitheamh de Chúirt Dúithche, pe’ca aca é) Shaorstáit Éireann gan faitios ná fabhar, gan grá ná fuath d’éinne, agus go seasód le Bunreacht Shaorstáit Éireann mar atá sé bunuithe do réir dlí.

Every person appointed a judge under this Constitution shall make and subscribe the following declaration:

Commentary

“In the presence of Almighty God I, do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will duly and

gan claonadh The preposition ‘gan’ lenites a following single word unless it begins with d, t, s or f, according to


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An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (s4(c) of the chapter headed ‘Séimhiú agus Urú), where ‘gan chuid, gan chiall’ are cited. Ó Dónaill cites ‘gan chaint gan chomhrá, without talk or conversation’, along with ‘gan tús gan deireadh, without beginning or end, in utter confusion’, these also being examples of the repetition of ‘gan’ in the sense of ‘without … or’. Dinneen cites ‘gan aithne, gan urlabhra, unconscious and speechless’. As ‘claonadh’ and ‘bá’ here are linked with ‘gan duine ar bith’ they would remain unlenited here, according to Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘gan cúis chóir, without just cause’, for example. ‘Claonadh’ is translated as ‘inclination; tendency, trend’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘claonadh chun na trócaire, leaning toward mercy’. ‘Claonadh’ is the verbal noun of ‘claon’, Dinneen translating ‘claonaim’ as ‘I incline, slant, diverge; bend, pervert, turn away; am inclined’, citing ‘ó chlaonais le Lútar, since you turned over to Luther’. The earlier form, ‘cláenad’, verbal noun of ‘cláenaid’, is translated principally as ‘act of bending, bringing low, inclining; inclination’ in DIL, where ‘clointa cinn són’ (‘of bending the head’) is cited from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, glossing Latin ‘hoc gestu’. The adjective ‘cláen’, upon which the verb ‘cláenaid’ is based, is translated in DIL as ‘uneven, crooked, sloping; aslant, bending, stooped; curving, curved’, with the moral sense of ‘iniquitous, perverse, unjust, biased’. The following Declaration is found in the First Schedule to the District Justices (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923: “I …… do swear that I will well and truly serve the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) in the office of District Justice without favour or affection, malice or ill-will; that I will see and cause the peace to be preserved; that I will prevent to the best of my power all offences against the same; that while I shall continue to hold the said office I will to the best of my skill and knowledge discharge all the duties thereof in the execution of Warrants and otherwise faithfully according to law … So help me God.” “Bheirimse …… mo mhóid go dtabharfad seirbhís mhaith mhacánta uaim do Shaorstát Éireann in oifig Ghiúistís Dúithche gan fabhar ná páirt, gan mailís ná droch-aigne; go bhféachfad chuige agus go n-abharód go ndéanfar an tsíocháin do chimeád agus do choinneáil; go gcoiscfead chó fada lem’ chumas gach cionta i gcoinnibh an chéanna; go ndéanfad mo dhícheall, do réir mo thuisgiona agus m’eolais, an fhaid a bhead i seilbh na hoifige roimh-ráite, ar dhualgaisí uile na hoifige do chó-líona go macánta do réir dlí maidir le feidhmiú Barántas agus gach ní eile … A Dhia dem’ neartú.”

The ‘Form of Declaration’ in the Second Schedule to the Gárda Síochána Act, 1924, commences as follows: “I …… do solemnly and sincerely before God declare and affirm and my word and honour pledge that I will be faithful to the utmost of my ability in my employment by the Executive Council of Saorstát Éireann in the office of … in the Gárda Síochána and that I will render good and true service and obedience to Saorstát Éireann and its constitution and government as by law established without favour or affection, fear, malice or ill-will, and that I will see and cause the peace to be kept and preserved, and that I will prevent to the best of my power all offences against the same, and that while I shall continue to hold the said office, I will to the best of my knowledge discharge all the duties thereof faithfully according to law ...”. “Dinim-se …… a fhaisnéis agus a dheimhniú agus m’fhocal agus

Bunreacht na hÉireann

m’onóir do thabhairt, go solamanta agus go macánta i láthair Dé, go mbead dílis chó fada lem’ chumas sa bhfostaíocht ina bhfuil Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstáit Éireann am chur in oifig … sa Ghárda Síochána agus go dtabharfad seirbhís agus go mbead umhal, go maith agus go dílis macánta, do Shaorstát Éireann agus dá bhunreacht agus dá rialtas fé mar a buníodh do réir dlí, gan báidh ná páirt, gan eagla, mailís ná droch-aigne, agus go bhféachfad chuige agus go gcuirfad fé ndeár go gcimeádfar agus go gcosnófar an tsíocháin, agus chó fada lem’ dhícheall go gcoiscfead gach cionta in aghaidh an chéanna, agus an fhaid a bheidh an oifig sin agam go ndéanfad chó fada lem’ eolas gach dualgas a bhaineann leis do chó-líona go dílis do réir dlí ...”.

Finally, ‘performing their duty according to their oath without fear or favour’ is translated as ‘a ndualgas do chólíona do réir a mionna gan fabhar gan faitcheas’ in s7(5) of the Juries (Protection) Act, 1929. gan bá See the commentary on ‘gan claonadh’ above regarding lenition after ‘gan’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘bá’ as ‘sympathy, liking’, citing ‘tá bá agam leis, I like him’. Dinneen cites ‘tá báidh agam leat, I have a feeling of friendship for you’, translating ‘báidh’ as ‘love, friendship, hospitality; leniency; humanity’. DIL translates ‘báid’ as ‘affection, fondness, attachment, partiality’, with the object of affection expressed by the genitive or the preposition ‘fri’ (‘la’, Modern Irish ‘le’), ‘i’ or ‘im(m)’. DIL cites the phrase ‘breith le báidh’ (‘partial judgement’) from the seventeenth-century ‘Contention of the Bards’. Originally, according to DIL, ‘báid’ may not have been distinct from ‘bág’, ‘boast, threat, promise, undertaking, declaration’. In the ‘Form of Declaration to be made by a Commissioner for Offices’ in Schedule 17 of the Income Tax Act, 1967, ‘that I will judge and determine upon all matters and things which shall be brought before me under the said Acts without favour, affection or malice’ is translated as ‘agus go ndéanfaidh mé breithiúnas agus cinneadh gan fabhar, dáimh ná mailís ar gach uile ábhar agus ní a thabharfar os mo chomhair faoi na hAchtanna sin’, with ‘gan fabhar ná dáimh’ translating ‘without favour or affection’ in another such ‘Form of Declaration’ in the same Schedule. ‘Natural love and affection’ is translated as ‘grá agus gean nádúrtha’ in Téarmaí Dlí. gan drochaigne This compound of ‘droch’ and ‘aigne’ is translated as ‘evil disposition, evil mind; ill-will, malevolence’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘droch-aigne’ being translated as ‘malevolence; malice, evil disposition, ill-will’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘ag bailiughadh droch-aigne chum, cherishing ill-will towards’ and ‘corp droch-aigne, sheer spite’. ‘Aigne’ comes from the earlier form ‘aicned’, the primary sense of which is ‘inherent quality, essence, nature’, DIL citing ‘combad aicned nindib a nolc’ (‘that the evil is natural to them’), from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, where it glosses Latin ‘naturalis’. The first citation in DIL of the sense ‘mind, spirit, feeling’ is from the Irish version of Lucan’s Pharsalia, where it is linked with ‘ergna’ (‘understanding, discrimination, discernment’) and ‘intliucht’ (‘intellect’) – see further the commentary on Article 10.1. do mo stiúradh … do mo chumhdach See the commentary on Article 12.8. Note that Ó Dónaill cites ‘Dia ár gcumhdach, God protects us’ and ‘Go gcumhdaí Dia sibh,


A study of the Irish text

may God help you’ as examples of the sense ‘keep, preserve’ s.v. ‘cumhdaigh’, and ‘an dlí a chumhdach, to uphold the law’ as an example of the sense of ‘uphold’. DIL cites ‘Día már romc[h]umhdaighfea’ as an example of the sense ‘protects, preserves’ of ‘con-utaincc’ in later language, the principal sense being ‘builds, constructs’. go gcomhlíonfad … go gcumhdód The synthetic forms, first person singular, future tense, of ‘comhlíon’ and ‘cumhdaigh’ respectively – see the commentary on Article 14.5.1o regarding the synthetic and analytic forms of the verb, the commentary on Articles 12.1 and 13.9 regarding the verb ‘comhlíon’ (generally expressing ‘perform’ in the Constitution), and on Article 12.8 regarding ‘cumhdaigh’. ‘There shall be paid to any person who shall have executed the office of Comptroller and Auditor-General’ is translated as ‘aon duine a bheidh tar éis oifig an Árd-Scrúdóra do chó-líona díolfar leis …’ in s2(2) of the Comptroller and Auditor-General Act, 1923. In s5 of the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1980, ‘to execute the office of a Minister of the Government having charge of a Department of State’ is translated as ‘chun oifig Aire Rialtais i gceannas ar Roinn Stáit a fheidhmiú’. ‘That I will truly, faithfully, impartially and honestly, according to the best of my skill and knowledge, execute the powers and authorities vested in me as a Commissioner for Offices’ is translated as ‘go ndéanfaidh mé go fírinneach, go fíreata, go cothrom agus go macánta, feadh iomlán mo chumais agus m’eolais, na cumhachtaí agus na húdaráis a dhílsítear dom mar Choimisinéir d’Oifigí … a fhorghníomhú’ in Schedule 17 of the Income Tax Act, 1967. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that he recognises no sense in ‘oifig … a fhorghníomhú’ and that De Bhaldraithe associates ‘forghníomhú’ with ‘order’. However deficient, according to Máirtín Ó Murchú, the original verb ‘comhlíon’ is the best available. is eol ‘Is eol dom (go)’ is translated as ‘I know (that)’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘déan é mar is eol duit, do it as best you know’. Dinneen translates ‘mar is eol dom’ as ‘as best I know how to’. ‘Eól’ is translated as ‘knowledge (of a person or thing); acquaintance (with person or thing); experience in, skill’ in DIL, where the phrase ‘is eol dom’ is translated as ‘I know, am experienced; skilled’, with ‘in eól dúib a dindshenchas?’ (‘know ye its legend?’) being cited from the twelfth-century Book of Leinster. Regarding early citations of ‘knowledge’ and ‘ability’, ‘unless it is proved that the copies were to his knowledge pirated copies’ is translated as ‘mara gcruthuítear gur chóipeanna píoráidithe na cóipeanna go bhfios do’ in s184(1) of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927. ‘Shall to the best of his knowledge, ability, or belief (as the case may require) duly and correctly fill up or otherwise complete such document’ is translated as ‘déanfa sé, chó fada le n-a eolas, le n-a chumas no le n-a thuairim (pe’ca aca é), an scríbhinn sin do líona no do chríochnú ar an slí eile sin go cuibhe agus go cóir’ in s7(1) of the Statistics Act, 1926. ‘That such person is fully qualified as to age, sex, health, character, knowledge, and ability for that situation’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil an duine sin lán-cháilithe i gcóir an phoist sin maidir le haois, innscin, sláinte, carachtar, eolas, agus ábaltacht’ in s3 of

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

505

the Civil Service Regulations (Amendment) Act, 1926. ‘That … I will in all respects act diligently and honestly, and without favour or affection, to the best of my knowledge and belief’ is translated as ‘go ndéanfaidh mé … gníomhú i ngach slí go dícheallach agus go macánta gan fabhar ná dáimh de réir mar is fearr is eol dom agus mar a chreidim’ in a ‘Form of Declaration’ in Schedule 17 of the Income Tax Act, 1967, with ‘that I will diligently and faithfully execute the office of clerk according to the Acts relating to income tax, to be best of my knowledge and judgement’ being translated as ‘go ndéanfaidh mé go dícheallach agus go fíreata oifig chléirigh a fhorghníomhú de réir na nAchtanna a bhaineann le cáin ioncaim, feadh m’eolais agus mo bhreithiúnais’ in another such ‘Form of Declaration’ in that Schedule. is cumas ‘Cumas’ is translated as ‘capability, power’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘rud a chur ar chumas duine, ar a chumas do dhuine, i gcumas do dhuine, to enable someone to do something’, along with ‘de réir a chumais, as far as he is able, according to his means’. Ó Dónaill also cites ‘chomh maith agus a bhí ar a chumas, to the best of his ability’ s.v. ‘chomh’. Dinneen cites ‘ní’l sé ar mo chumas, ar chumas (or gcumas) dam, im’ chumas, I am not able to do it, I have it not in my power or at my disposal’, translating ‘do réir a chumais’ as ‘all things considered in regard to him’. ‘Commus’ is the verbal noun of ‘con-midethar’ (‘is competent, able; rules, governs, controls’), and is translated as (a) ‘act of controlling, arranging, directing’ and (b) ‘power, ability, capacity’ in DIL, the latter senses being the usual senses according to DIL. David Greene (in his edition of Fingal Rónáin and Other Stories [1955, p. 42]) translates ‘Ad coimse mo chrod dot chainmacniu’ as ‘you are capable (of taking) my cattle for your fair sons’ in a rhetorical passage in the Old Irish story ‘Esnada Tige Buchet’. See further the commentary on Articles 14.2.2o and 31.2. a oireas The special form of the relative, present tense, of ‘oir’ – see the commentary on Article 6.1 regarding the special form of the relative in ‘-s’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘oir’ as ‘suit, fit, become’, citing ‘oireann sé don chás, it suits the case’. The intransitive verb ‘oirid’ is translated as ‘is suited or adapted (to), corresponds (to), is in keeping (with)’ in DIL, the first of but a few relatively late examples cited there being ‘don droing oirios annró’ (‘the gang whose just lot might be misery’) from O’Grady’s Catalogue of Irish Manuscripts in the British Museum. In Article 45.4.2o ‘nach n-oireann dá ngné’ expresses ‘unsuited to their sex’. As regards ‘as the case may be’ in the Acts, ‘At the end of the accounting period or, as the case may be, at the beginning of an immediately succeeding accounting period’ is translated as ‘i ndeireadh tréimhse cuntasaíochta nó, de réir mar a bheidh, i dtosach tréimhse cuntasaíochta díreach ina dhiaidh sin’ in s9(c) of the Finance Act, 1990, for example. I láthair Dia na nUilechumhacht See the commentary on Article 12.8o and note that this phrase is followed by a comma in that Article, as in Article 31.4, unlike the present Article. go cuí ‘I gcúrsa cuí’ is translated as ‘in due course’, for example, in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 43.2.1o.


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de réir This phrase is translated as ‘in accordance with’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 1. o

dearbhú See the commentary on Article 12.8 . a lámh a chur leis See the commentary on Article 12.8o. go sollúnta agus go fíreannach See the commentary on Article 12.8. go dílis See the commentary on Article 31.4. Bunreacht Éireann See the commentary on Article 12.8.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Gach duine a cheapfar chun bheith ina bhreitheamh nó ina breitheamh faoin mBunreacht seo ní foláir dó nó di an dearbhú seo a leanas a dhéanamh agus a lámh a chur leis: “I láthair Dhia na hUilechumhachta táimse, , á ghealladh agus á dhearbhú go sollúnta agus go fírinneach go gcomhlíonfaidh mé go cuí agus go dílis, chomh maith agus is eol agus is cumas dom, oifig an PhríomhBhreithimh (nó de réir mar a oireann) gan eagla gan claonadh, gan bá gan drochaigne chun duine ar bith, agus go gcumhdóidh mé Bunreacht agus dlíthe na hÉireann. Dia do mo stiúradh agus do mo chumhdach.”

Bunreacht na hÉireann

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is in the presence of the President that the Chief Justice will make that declaration and put his hand to it, and it is in the court publicly and in the presence of the Chief Justice or of the most senior judge of the Supreme Court who will be available that every other judge of the Supreme Court and every judge of the High Court and of every other Court will make that declaration and put his hand to it. ENGLISH TEXT

This declaration shall be made and subscribed by the Chief Justice in the presence of the President, and by each of the other judges of the Supreme Court, the judges of the High Court and the judges of every other Court in the presence of the Chief Justice or the senior available judge of the Supreme Court in open court.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

Direct gender-proofed translation Gach duine a cheapfar ina bhreitheamh nó ina breitheamh faoin mBunreacht seo déanfaidh agus síneoidh sé nó sí an dearbhú seo a leanas:1 “I láthair Dhia na hUilechumhachta, táimse, á ghealladh agus á dhearbhú go sollúnta fíreata go ndéanfaidh mé2 oifig an Phríomh-Bhreithimh (nó de réir mar a bheidh) a fheidhmiú3 go cuí agus go dílis agus ar feadh m’eolais agus mo chumais, gan eagla ná fabhar, gean ná drochaigne 4 i leith aon duine, 5 agus go gcumhdóidh mé an Bunreacht agus na dlíthe. Go stiúraí agus go gcumhdaí Dia mé.”

Variants 1 ‘Déanfar an dearbhú seo a leanas agus síneofar é ag gach duine a cheapfar ina bhreitheamh nó ina breitheamh faoin mBunreacht seo:’ 2 ‘déanaimse, a ghealladh agus a dhearbhú go sollúnta fíreata’ 3 ‘a chomhlíonadh’, ‘a fhorghníomhú’ 4 ‘eagla nó fabhar, gean nó drochaigne’ 5 ‘gan eagla gan fabhar, gan gean gan drochaigne chun duine ar bith,’

ARTICLE 34.5.2O

AIRTEAGAL 34.5.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Is i láthair an Uachtaráin a dhéanfaidh an PríomhBhreitheamh an dearbhú sin agus a chuirfidh a lámh leis, agus is sa chúirt go poiblí agus i láthair an PhríomhBhreithimh nó an bhreithimh den Chúirt Uachtarach is sinsearaí dá mbeidh ar fáil a dhéanfaidh gach breitheamh eile den Chúirt Uachtarach agus gach breitheamh den Ard-Chúirt agus de gach Cúirt eile an dearbhú sin agus a chuirfidh lámh leis.

3

4

‘In open court’ is expressed as ‘sa chúirt go poiblí’ (‘in the court publicly’) in the Irish text, ‘i gcúirt oscailte’ translating ‘in open court’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘The senior available judge of the Supreme Court’ is expressed by ‘an breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtarach is sinsearaí dá mbeidh ar fáil’ (‘the most senior judge of the Supreme Court who will be available’) in the Irish text. ‘Each of the other judges of the Supreme Court, the judges of the High Court and the judges of every other Court’ is rendered as ‘gach breitheamh eile den Chúirt Uachtarach agus gach breitheamh den Ard-Chúirt agus de gach Cúirt eile’ (‘every other judge of the Supreme Court and every judge of the High Court and of every other Court’) in the Irish text. The phrase expressing ‘This declaration shall be made and subscribed’ is repeated in the Irish text alone, ‘subscribe’ being expressed as ‘a chuirfidh (a) lámh leis’ (‘put [his] hand to’).

Note that the words ‘den Chúirt Uachtaraigh is sinsearaighe dá mbeidh ar fagháil a dhéanfaidh gach breitheamh eile den Chúirt Uachtaraigh agus’ were inserted following the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941, replacing ‘is neasa sinsearacht dó a bheas ar fagháil de bhreitheamhnaibh na Cúirte Uachtaraighe a dhéanfaidh’, no corresponding amendment being made to the English text. Note also that s99 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924, contains the following: Such declaration shall be made and subscribed by the Chief Justice in the presence of the Governor-General and by each of the other judges and justices in the presence of the Chief Justice in open court. Déanfar agus sighneofar an fhaisnéis sin ag an bPrímh-Bhreitheamh i bhfianaise an tSeanascail agus ag gach duine de sna breithimh roimhráite i bhfianaise an Phrímh-Bhreithimh sa chúirt go hoscailte.

Commentary is sinsearaí The superlative of the adjective ‘sinsearach’, which adjective is translated as (a) ‘senior’ and (b)


A study of the Irish text

‘ancestral’ in Ó Dónaill. While Dinneen gives two headwords ‘sóisear’, ‘junior’, as both adjective and noun, he does not appear to give an adjectival form of ‘sinnsear’ as a headword. DIL s.v. ‘sinserda’, gives one (late) example of the senses (a) ‘ancestral’ and (b) ‘olden, of yore’, this adjective being based on ‘sinser’, ‘the elder, the eldest, a senior; in plural elders, ancestors, forefathers’. The opposite of this, ‘ósar’, has the same ending as ‘sinser’ combined with ‘óa’, the comparative of ‘oac’/‘óc’, Modern Irish ‘óg’, ‘young’ – as Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks, ‘ósar’ later became ‘sósar’ and eventually ‘sóisear’. ‘All proofs … shall be held by or at the order and disposal of the judge or the senior of the judges by or before whom such suit or matter is heard’ is translated as ‘Gach cruthúnas … cimeádfar iad i seilbh no fé ordú agus fé dheighleáil an bhreithimh no sinsir na mbreithiún ag á mbeidh no gur ina láthair a bheidh an chúis no an ní sin á éisteacht’ in s65(3) of the Court Officers Act, 1926. ‘By the senior ordinary Judge of the Supreme Court’ is translated as ‘isé gnáth-Bhreitheamh sinsearach na Cúirte Uachtaraí a dhéanfidh san’ in s2 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1928. ‘With a Chairman who shall be the senior judge of the Supreme Court able and willing to act’ is translated as ‘agus mar Cheann Comhairle ortha an breitheamh is aoirde céim den Chúirt Uachtarach a bheidh ábalta agus toilteannach ar fheidhmiú’ in Article 35 of the 1922 Constitution. Finally, ‘All jurisdictions, powers, authorities and functions for the time being vested in him … shall be exercised or performed by the senior ordinary judge of the High Court who is for the time being available’ is translated as ‘déanfaidh an gnáth-bhreitheamh den ArdChúirt is sinsearaí a bheidh ar fáil de thuras na huaire na dlínsí, na cumhachtaí, na húdaráis agus na feidhmeanna go léir a bheidh dílsithe dó de thuras na huaire … a fheidhmiú nó a chomhlíonadh’ in s18(2) of the Courts Act, 1981. See further the commentary on Article 40.4.4o. a chuirfidh a lámh leis See the commentary on Articles 12.8 and 13.3.1o and note that we find ‘a chuirfidh lámh leis’ at the end of this subsection. go poiblí See the commentary on Article 26.2.1o. ‘Hearing in open court’ is translated as ‘éisteacht i gcúirt oscailte’ in Téarmaí Dlí. an dearbhú See the commentary on Article 12.8. sin See the commentary on Articles 6.2 and 13.1.1o.

Direct translation Déanfar an dearbhú seo agus síneofar é1 ag an bPríomhBhreitheamh2 i láthair an Uachtaráin, agus ag gach duine de na breithiúna eile den Chúirt Uachtarach, ag breithiúna na hArd-Chúirte agus ag breithiúna gach Cúirte eile i gcúirt oscailte i láthair an Phríomh-Bhreithimh nó i láthair an bhreithimh is sinsearaí3 den Chúirt Uachtarach a bheidh ar fáil.

Variants 1 ‘Déanfar agus síneofar an dearbhú seo’ 2 ‘Déanfaidh agus síneoidh an Príomh-Bhreitheamh an dearbhú seo’ 3 ‘an bhreithimh sinsir’

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ARTICLE 34.5.3O

507

AIRTEAGAL 34.5.3O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní foláir do gach breitheamh an dearbhú a dhéanamh agus a lámh a chur leis sula dté i gcúram dualgas a oifige, agus cibé scéal é, ar dháta nach déanaí ná deich lá tar éis lae a cheaptha, nó dáta is déanaí ná sin mar a chinnfidh an tUachtarán. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every judge must make the declaration and put his hand to it before (he) takes up the responsibilities of the duties of his office, and at any rate, on a date not later than ten days after the day of his appointment, or a date which is later than that as the President will decide. ENGLISH TEXT

The declaration shall be made and subscribed by every judge before entering upon his duties as such judge, and in any case not later than ten days after the date of his appointment or such later date as may be determined by the President.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

‘Before entering upon his duties as such judge’ is expressed as ‘sula dté i gcúram dualgas a oifige’ (‘before he takes up responsibility of the duties of his office’) in the Irish text. ‘Not later than ten days after the date of his appointment’ is expressed as ‘ar dháta nach déanaí ná deich lá tar éis lae a cheaptha’ (‘on a date not later than ten days after the day of his appointment’) in the Irish text, ‘lá’ (‘day’) expressing ‘date’ as we have seen in some earlier Articles. ‘Subscribe’ is expressed as ‘a lámh a chur leis’ (‘put his hand to’) as we have seen in the two previous subsections. ‘Shall’ is expressed as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in some earlier Articles.

Commentary cibé scéal é This phrase is translated as ‘anyhow’ in Ó Dónaill, who similarly translates ‘pé scéal é’. Dinneen translates ‘pé scéal é’ as ‘anyhow, at any rate, in any case’. The earlier form of ‘cibé’, ‘cía bé’, is cited in DIL in ‘cia bé a mmet’ (‘however great it may be’) from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. Note, incidentally, that ‘cip’ with ‘cruth’ had the sense of ‘however it be, at all events’, DIL citing ‘cipcruth bíid páx libsi’ (‘however it be, let there be pax with you’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘The landlord shall, as soon as may be, and in any case not later than six months after the expiration of such fourteen days, execute and complete … the improvement mentioned therein’ is translated as ‘déanfaidh agus críochnóidh an tiarna talún an feabhsúchán a luaitear sa gheallúint feabhsúcháin sin chomh luath agus is féidir é, agus in aon chás tráth nach déanaí ná sé mhí tar éis na ceithre lá dhéag sin a bheith caite’ in s51(2) of the Landlord and Tenant (Amendment) Act, 1980. In s7(2) of the Transport Act, 1958, ‘to conduct its undertaking so that,


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Bunreacht na hÉireann

as soon as may be, and in any case not later than the 31st day of March, 1964’ is translated as ‘a ghnóthas a stiúradh ar chuma go dtarlóidh, a thúisce is féidir, agus ar aon chor ar dháta nach déanaí ná an 31ú lá de Mhárta, 1964’. ‘As soon as may be after, and in any case not later than the second week day after, whichever of the following events first occurs’ is translated as ‘chó luath agus is féidir tar éis pé trátha aca so leanas is túisce agus ar aon chuma uair nach déanaighe ná an dara lá seachtaine tar éis an trátha san’ in s3(2)(b) of the General Elections (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1943.

sula dté The present subjunctive of ‘téigh’, the future tense now usually expressing the present subjunctive except in the case of the optative (e.g. ‘go dté tú slán, safe home’) – see the commentary on Article 12.3.1o.

i gcúram dualgas a oifige According to the official standard, ‘dualgas’ would be lenited and remain in the nominative (plural) rather than the genitive (plural), as above, after the prepositional phrase ‘i gcúram’, ‘oifig’ (as it is preceded by a possessive pronoun) being a definite noun – see the commentary on Article 1 regarding the nominative in place of the genitive. See the commentary on Article 12.3.1o, where ‘enter office’ is expressed by ‘dul i gcúram oifige’, regarding ‘i gcúram’. ‘He possesses the requisite knowledge and ability to enter on the discharge of his duties in that situation’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil an t-eolas agus an ábaltacht san aige is gá dho a bheith aige chun dul i mbun a dhualgaisí sa phost san’ in s3(2)(d) of the Civil Service Regulation Act, 1923. In s13(2) of the Veterinary Surgeons Act, 1931, ‘The Council shall meet at the time and place appointed under this section for their meeting and shall thereupon enter upon their duties under this Act’ is translated as ‘Tiocfaidh an Chomhairle le chéile san am agus san áit a ceapfar fén alt so dá gcruinniú agus leis sin tosnóid ar a ndualgaisí fén Acht so do chólíonadh’. ‘Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their election has been approved by the detaining authorities’ is translated as ‘Rachaidh na himtheorannaithe a thoghfar amhlaidh i mbun a ndualgas tar éis na húdaráis choinneála a ghlacadh lena dtoghadh’ in Article 102 of the Fourth Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. ‘The head of a consular post shall not enter upon his duties until he has received an exequatur’ is translated as ‘ní rachaidh ceann poist chonsalachta i mbun a dhualgas go dtí go mbeidh exequatur faighte aige’ in s3 of Article 12 of the Second Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. Regarding ‘as such judge’ following ‘entering upon his duties’ in the English text, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú questions the meaning of this phrase, which is unexpressed in the Irish text. Máirtín Ó Murchú recommends a translation such as the following in place of the direct translation given below: ‘… sula rachaidh an breitheamh sin i mbun a dhualgas nó a dualgas’.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text

a chinnfidh See the commentary on Article 1; ‘cinnim’ is translated as ‘I determine (issue etc.), I find (as a fact, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘And the scheme as so amended shall have effect from such date as may be determined by the Minister’ is translated as ‘agus beidh éifeacht ag an scéim agus í leasuithe amhlaidh ón dáta a cheapfaidh an tAire’ in s4(2) of the National Health Insurance Act, 1942. ‘Or on such earlier date as may be determined by the Council at its discretion’ is translated as ‘nó ar pé dáta is luaithe ná sin a chinnfeas an Chomhairle dá rogha féin’ in s5(3) of the Medical Practitioners Act, 1955.

tar éis lae a cheaptha As above, this would read as ‘tar éis lá a cheaptha’ according to the official standard, ‘lá’ remaining in the nominative case in place of the genitive, but unlike ‘dualgas’ above no lenition is shown in the case of ‘lá’.

Ní foláir do gach breitheamh an dearbhú a dhéanamh agus a lámh a chur leis sula rachaidh i gcúram dhualgais a oifige nó a hoifige, agus cibé scéal é, ar dháta nach déanaí ná deich lá tar éis lá a cheaptha nó a ceaptha, nó dáta is déanaí ná sin mar a chinnfidh an tUachtarán.

Direct gender-proofed translation Déanfaidh agus síneoidh gach breitheamh an dearbhú1 sula rachaidh sé nó sí i mbun a dhualgas nó a dualgas mar bhreitheamh den sórt sin,2 agus in aon chás tráth nach déanaí ná deich lá tar éis dháta a cheaptha nó a ceaptha nó cibé dáta is déanaí a chinnfidh3 an tUachtarán.

Variants 1 ‘Déanfaidh gach breitheamh an dearbhú agus síneoidh sé nó sí é’, ‘Déanfar agus síneofar an dearbhú ag gach breitheamh’ 2 ‘sula rachaidh an breitheamh sin i mbun a dhualgas nó a dualgas,’ 3 ‘mar a chinnfidh’

ARTICLE 34.5.4O

AIRTEAGAL 34.5.4O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Aon bhreitheamh a dhiúltós nó a fhailleos an dearbhú réamhráite a dhéanamh ní foláir a mheas go bhfuil scartha aige lena oifig. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any judge who will refuse or neglect to make the aforesaid declaration (it) must be deemed that he has relinquished his office. ENGLISH TEXT

Any judge who declines or neglects to make such declaration as aforesaid shall be deemed to have vacated his office.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

‘To make such declaration as aforesaid’ is expressed as ‘an dearbhú réamhráite a dhéanamh’ (‘to make the aforesaid declaration’) in the Irish text. ‘Declines to’ is expressed as ‘a dhiúltós’ (‘refuses to’) in the Irish text. ‘To have vacated his office’ is expressed as ‘go bhfuil scartha aige lena oifig’ (‘to have relinquished his office’) in the Irish text.


A study of the Irish text

4

‘Shall’ is expressed as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in the previous subsection and in many earlier Articles.

Note that s99 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924, concludes as follows: Any judge or justice who declines or neglects to take the declaration aforesaid in the manner aforesaid shall be disqualified from entering on and shall be deemed to have vacated his office of judge or justice (as the case may be). Aon bhreitheamh a eiteoidh no a leigfidh i bhfaillí an fhaisnéis roimhráite a dhéanamh ar an gcuma roimhráite beidh sé gan teideal chun dul i mbun a oifige mar bhreitheamh agus tuigfar é bheith tar éis an oifig sin d’fhágaint.

Commentary a dhiúltós nó a fhailleos The special form of the relative, future tense, of ‘diúltaigh’ and ‘failligh’ – see the commentary on Article 6.1 regarding the special form of the relative in ‘-s’. ‘Diúltaím’ is translated as ‘I refuse’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘diúltuighim’ being translated as ‘I deny, refuse, oppose’ in Dinneen. Ó Dónaill translates ‘diúltaigh’ principally as ‘deny, refuse’, translating ‘diúltú rud a dhéanamh’ as ‘to refuse to do something’. DIL translates ‘diúlta(ig)id’ as ‘refuses, rejects’, this verb being based on the verbal noun of the earlier compound verb ‘do-sluindi’, which verb has the sense of ‘denies’ (i.e. ‘refuses to believe’), glossing Latin ‘negare’ in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, DIL also citing ‘is ed insin dorosloinn íc n-erum-sa, ised insin dorosluind cainchomrac ar mu chnamaib-se’ (‘that denied healing to me … that denied peace to my bones’), from the same collection of Glosses, as an example of the sense of ‘refuses (a request, gift, etc.)’. See the commentary on Article 26.3.1o where ‘diúltaigh do’ expresses ‘decline’. ‘Any officer of the Forces who declines or neglects to take an oath or make the declaration aforesaid in the manner aforesaid, shall be deemed to have resigned his commission and appointment as an officer in the Forces’ is translated as ‘Aon oifigeach de sna Fórsaí dhiúltóidh no fhailleoidh an mionn roimhráite do thabhairt no an dearbhú roimhráite do dhéanamh sa tslí roimhráite, tuigfear é d’eirghe as a choimisiún agus a cheapachán mar oifigeach sna Fórsaí’ in s6(3) of the Defence Forces Act, 1937. ‘This paragraph shall not have effect if the Minister declines to reappoint him because of stated misconduct or incapacity’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh éifeacht ag an mír seo má éarann an tAire é d’athcheapadh de dheasca mí-iompair nó éagumais shonraithe’ in s4(b) of the Schedule to the Industrial Development Authority Act, 1950. In s4 of Article 12 of the First Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1936, ‘if the consignee declines to accept the consignment note or the goods’ is translated as ‘má dhiúltaíonn an consighní an nóta consighneachta no na hearraí do ghlacadh’. Finally, ‘where the person has declined to retain one of the sealed containers’ is translated as ‘i gcás ar dhiúltaigh an duine ceann de na coimeádáin shéalaithe a choimeád’ in s20(3) of the Road Traffic (Amendment) Act, 1978. ‘Failligh’ is translated as ‘neglect; omit, delay’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘rud a fhailliú, to neglect something’.

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Dinneen translates ‘faillighim’ as ‘I fail, neglect, delay’, citing ‘ná failligh do dhinnéar go háirthid, do not neglect your dinner anyway’ from Inis Meáin. DIL cites ‘arna . follaigdis gudi nDae’ (‘they should not neglect to pray to God’) from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, translating ‘follaigid’/‘fallaigid’ as ‘neglects, omits, fails (to do)’. In early Irish laws, this verb is used in the sense of ‘omission, evasion’, DIL citing the following from an early Irish law-tract: ‘cuic seoit hi lobud cacha hathgabala … noch fil tri seota cacha tratha ro follaigther’ (‘five “seds” for neglecting [to redeem] every distress … and there are three “seds” for every day that it is neglected [to be redeemed]’). In his Guide to Early Irish Law (p. 152), Fergus Kelly states that the early Irish law-texts employ a number of terms to cover various forms of negligence, ‘most commonly étged, anfot, anfaitches, and díchell’, the phrase ‘aithgein cach étged’ (‘every negligence requires restitution’) being quoted in a number of texts – Professor Kelly explains this phrase as ‘an offence against property through negligence requires merely the replacement of the object damaged or destroyed’. See the commentary on Article 41.2.2o regarding ‘faillí’. ‘Where any registration officer … refuses, neglects, or fails without reasonable cause to perform his duties in that behalf’ is translated as ‘Má dhineann aon oifigeach clárathachta …, gan cúis réasúnta, có-líona na ndualgaisí sin a bheidh air d’oba no do leigint i bhfaillí no gan déanamh’ in s63(1) of the Electoral Act, 1923. ‘Unlawfully inducing … any officer of the Government of Saorstát Éireann to refuse, neglect or omit to discharge his duty as such officer’ is translated as ‘Aon oifigeach do Rialtas Shaorstáit Éireann do mhealla …, go nea-dhleathach, chun có-líona a dhualgais mar oifigeach den tsórt san do dhiúltú no chun é leigint i bhfuaire no i bhfaillí’ in s2 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Powers of Arrest and Detention) Temporary Act, 1924. In s141(1)(b) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘if he fails or neglects to comply with the provisions of paragraph (a)’ is translated as ‘má mhainníonn sé nó má fhaillíonn sé forálacha mhír (a) a chomhlíonadh’. scartha … le ‘Scartha’ is the past participle of ‘scar’, ‘scaraim le’ being translated as ‘I relinquish’ in Téarmaí Dlí and as ‘I part with, leave, give up, go away from, escape’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘scaraim le céill, I take leave of my senses’, translating ‘scartha le’ as ‘separated from, parted from, through with, done with, devoid of’, citing ‘táim scartha le céird, I have given up my trade’. DIL cites ‘in corp marbde frissa roscar-som’ (‘the mortal body from which He has parted’), from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, as an example of the sense of ‘relinquishes, gives up, is without, desists from’ of ‘scaraid’, the principal sense being ‘separates, parts’. See further the commentary on Article 12.6.2o and note that ‘vacate’ is expressed by ‘éirigh as’ in Article 15.14. ‘The office of any judge of the High Court … may be vacated by resignation in writing under his hand’ is translated as ‘Féadfar oifig aon bhreithimh den Ard-Chúirt … d’fholamhú tríd an mbreitheamh féin d’éirghe aisti le scríbhinn uaidh fé n-a láimh’ in s11 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924, with ‘Every Circuit Judge who resigns or otherwise for any cause vacates his office’ being translated as ‘Gach Breitheamh Cuarda a imeoidh as oifig no a fhágfidh a oifig ar aon tslí eile ar chúis ar bith’ in s41. ‘Ag


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imeacht as oifig’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘vacating office’ in Iris Oifigiúil, 1922/23. Finally, ‘he shall thereupon vacate his office and give notice in writing to the society concerned … that he has vacated his office by reason of such disqualification’ is translated as ‘scarfaidh sé air sin lena oifig agus tabharfaidh sé fógra i scríbhinn don chumann lena mbaineann … go bhfuil scartha aige lena oifig mar gheall ar an dícháilíocht sin’ in s87(3) of the Building Societies Act, 1989.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Aon bhreitheamh a dhiúltóidh nó a fhailleoidh an dearbhú réamhráite a dhéanamh ní foláir a mheas go bhfuil scartha ag an mbreitheamh sin lena oifig nó lena hoifig.

Direct gender-proofed translation Aon bhreitheamh a dhiúltóidh nó a fhailleoidh dearbhú den sórt sin a dhéanamh mar a dúradh measfar go mbeidh1 scartha aige nó aici lena oifig nó lena hoifig.

Variants 1 ‘go bhfuil’

ARTICLE 35.1

AIRTEAGAL 35.1

TÉACS GAEILGE

Is ag an Uachtarán a cheapfar breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, na hArd-Chúirte agus an uile Chúirte eile a bhunaítear de bhun Airteagal 34 den Bhunreacht seo. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by the President that the judges of the Supreme Court, the High Court and every other Court which is established in pursuance of Article 34 of this Constitution will be appointed. ENGLISH TEXT

The judges of the Supreme Court, the High Court and all other Courts established in pursuance of Article 34 hereof shall be appointed by the President.

Divergences between the official texts 1

‘Article 34 hereof’ is expressed as ‘Airteagal 34 den Bhunreacht seo’ (‘Article 34 of this Constitution’) in the Irish text, the more natural construction in the language.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Commentary breithiúna … an uile Chúirte eile This would generally be written today as ‘breithiúna … na huile Chúirte eile’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘tobar na huile mhaitheasa, the fount of all goodness’ and ‘aiséirí na n-uile mharbh, the resurrection of the dead’, with Dinneen citing ‘thugadar rátha na n-uile dúl, they cited all the elements as surities’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘uile’ as ‘all, every’, translating ‘an uile ní’ as ‘all things’. Dinneen translates ‘uile’ as ‘all, whole’, translating ‘an uile’/‘gach uile’ as ‘every, each’, and ‘an uile nídh’ as ‘everything’. DIL translates ‘uile’ as ‘every, the whole’, citing ‘esseírge inna nuile marb’ from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, the very phrase Ó Dónaill cites in Modern Irish. ‘For the purposes of this paragraph and for the purposes of all other provisions of this Act’ is translated as ‘Chun críocha na míre seo agus chun críocha gach forála eile den Acht seo’ in s3(2) of the First Schedule to the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, for example, with ‘chun críocha gach ailt eile den Acht sin’ translating ‘for the purposes of all other sections of that Act’ in s2(3) of the Diseases of Animals (Bovine Tuberculoisis) Act, 1957. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘uile’ can be omitted if one wishes, having only a reinforcing sense (“brí threisithe”) in this context. den Bhunreacht seo ‘On the date hereof’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘ar an dáta atá air seo’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health. ‘Subject to subsection (2) hereof’ is translated as ‘Faoi réir fho-alt (2) den alt seo’ in s27(1) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, for example, as in s22(1) of the Wildlife Act, 1976. ‘Provided that on the happening of any of the events specified in Paragraph 5 hereof’ is translated as ‘Ach ar thárla d’éinní dá luaidhtear i Mír 5 de seo’ in s6 of the Second Schedule to the Creamery Act, 1928. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below, remarks that ‘den Bhunreacht seo’ is perhaps clearer but ‘de seo’ is as correct and as clear as the English text’s ‘hereof’. de bhun This phrase is translated as ‘in pursuance of; on foot of; pursuant to’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 28.3.3o. Note that we find the genitive singular ‘Airteagail’ following this phrase in the original text.

Standardised Irish text Is ag an Uachtarán a cheapfar breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, na hArd-Chúirte agus na huile Chúirte eile a bhunaítear de bhun Airteagal 34 den Bhunreacht seo.

Note that Article 68 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: The judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Court and all other Courts established in pursuance of this Constitution shall be appointed by the Representative of the Crown on the advice of the Executive Council. Is é Ionadaí na Coróinneach a cheapfaidh ar chomhairle na hArd-Chomhairle breithiúin na Cúirte Uachtaraighe agus na hArd-Chúirte agus na gCúirteanna eile go léir a bunófar do réir an Bhun-reachta so.

Direct translation Déanfaidh an tUachtarán breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, na hArd-Chúirte agus gach uile Chúirte1 eile a bhunófar de bhun Airteagal 34 de seo2 a cheapadh.3

Variants 1 ‘gach Cúirte’ 2 ‘den Bhunreacht seo’ 3 ‘Is é nó is í an / An tUachtarán a cheapfaidh breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, na hArd-Chúirte agus gach uile Chúirte eile a bhunófar de bhun Airteagal 34 de seo.’


A study of the Irish text

ARTICLE 35.2

AIRTEAGAL 35.2

TÉACS GAEILGE

Beidh gach breitheamh saor neamhspleách maidir lena fheidhmeanna breithimh a oibriú, gan de smacht air ach an Bunreacht seo agus an dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Every judge will be free (and) independent as regards the operation of his judicial functions, with no restriction on him except this Constitution and the law. ENGLISH TEXT

All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their judicial functions and subject only to this Constitution and the law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3

4

5

‘Independent’ is expressed as ‘saor neamhspleách’, ‘free (and) independent’, in the Irish text. ‘Subject only to’ is expressed as ‘gan de smacht air ach’ (‘with no restriction/control on him except’) in the Irish text, ‘subject to’ being translated as ‘faoi réir’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘In the exercise of’ is expressed as ‘maidir le … a oibriú’ (‘as regards exercising/operating’), the verb ‘oibrigh’ being translated as ‘operate’ in Téarmaí Dlí but here expressing ‘exercise’, as we have seen in some earlier Articles. ‘Judicial’ is expressed by the attributive genitive singular of ‘breitheamh’ (‘judge’), ‘judicial’ being translated as ‘breithiúnach’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘All judges … their’ is expressed as ‘gach breitheamh … a [plus lenition]’ (‘each judge … his’) in the Irish text.

Note that Article 69 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their functions, and subject only to the Constitution and the law. Le linn feidhmithe dhóibh beidh na breithiúin uile nea-spleách agus fé riail an Bhun-reachta agus an dlí amháin.

Commentary gan de smacht air The preposition ‘de’, used mainly with the substantive verb and copula, expresses ‘extent’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘ní raibh de chiall aige ach seasamh, he had no more sense than to stand’. Dinneen cites ‘tá sé de bhuaidh, de chéill, de chéird, agam, I have the virtue of, the good senses to, the art of’ as examples of ‘de’ in appositions in the sense of ‘as, by way of’. Turning to ‘smacht’, Dinneen cites ‘tá smacht orm-sa, I am not my own master’ and ‘beidh siad le smacht ar dhaoine, they will be rulers of men’, translating ‘smacht’ as ‘control (often parental control), restraint, authority, sway, institute, discipline, chastisement, oppression’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘smacht’ as ‘rule, dominion, sway; subjection’ and ‘control, restraint, discipline’, citing ‘smacht a bheith agat ort féin, to be able to control oneself’. DIL translates ‘smacht’ principally as ‘rule, ordinance, regulation, command, stipulation’, citing ‘tect fo smachtu rechto’ (‘to go under the rules of the

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

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Law’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. In early Irish laws, ‘smacht’ had the sense of ‘penalty, fine for breach of law, trespass, non-payment of debt, etc.’ (DIL) – according to one law-tract, for example, if an advocate changes from one ‘path’ to another when pleading a case, he must pay a ‘smacht’ of one cow (see Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 192). ‘Subject to’ is translated as ‘faoi réir’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Except upon the terms of making that person … if the Court thinks fit, subject only to the same liabilities and obligations as if the lease had been assigned to that person at that date’ is translated as ‘ach amháin ar théarmaí lena gcuirfear an duine sin … más cuí leis an gCúirt é, faoi réir na ndliteanas agus na n-oibleagáidí céanna sin amháin a mbeadh an duine sin faoina réir dá sannfaí an léas dó ar an dáta sin’ in s56(8) of the Bankruptcy Act, 1988. ‘The decision of the returning officer … shall be final, subject only to reversal on a petition questioning the Assembly election’ is translated as ‘Is cinneadh críochnaitheach cinneadh an cheann comhairimh … agus ní fhéadfar é a fhreaschur ach amháin le hachainí ag tabhairt an toghcháin Tionóil faoi cheist’ in s67 of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977. ‘The allowance or disallowance by the Seanad returning officer of any application … shall be final and conclusive, subject only to such appeal as is provided for by this Act’ is translated as ‘Nuair a lamhálfas nó a dhílamhálfas ceann comhairimh an tSeanaid don iarratas … is breith chríochnaitheach dosháruithe an lamháil nó an dílamháil sin, agus ní féadfar achomharc a dhéanamh ina coinne ach amháin mar forálfar leis an Acht seo’ in s11(8) of the Seanad Electoral (Panel Members) Act, 1947. Finally, ‘subject only to the proviso that the action taken by the Central Bank shall not be such as to render compliance with the conditions of the licence more onerous’ is translated as ‘faoi réir an choinníll, agus faoina réir sin amháin, nach ndéanfaidh an Banc Ceannais gníomh a fhágfaidh go mbeidh sé níos dochraidí coinníollacha an cheadúnais a chomhlíonadh’ in s12(3)(d) of the Trustee Savings Bank Act, 1989. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, where the final clause was translated as ‘agus ní bheidh siad ach faoi réir an Bhunreachta agus an dlí amháin’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that this would correspond to an English text which read ‘they will be just subject to the Constitution and the law’. Commenting on the variant ‘agus gan iad faoi réir ach ag an mBunreacht seo agus ag an dlí amháin’, Professor Ó Murchú remarked that the syntax requires that ‘faoi réir’ have a headword, e.g. ‘faoi réir aon ní’. Máirtín Ó Murchú notes the merits of the syntax involving ‘gan’ in the neat original text and suggests ‘gan de threoir/smacht/d’fhorlámhas/d’údarás orthu ach an Bunreacht seo agus an dlí’. saor neamhspleách As regards ‘neamhspleách’, see the commentary on Article 5, ‘Ireland is a sovereign, independent, democratic state’ being expressed in that Article as ‘Is Stát ceannasach, neamhspleách, daonlathach Éire’. ‘Conraitheoir neamhspleách’ is translated as ‘independent contractor’ in Téarmaí Dlí, for example. The adjective ‘saor’ is translated primarily as ‘free’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘na tíortha, na ciníocha, atá saor, the countries, the races, that are free’ as an example of the sense of ‘independent’. Dinneen cites ‘saor slán, safe and sound’. ‘The Board shall be independent in the exercise of its


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functions’ is translated as ‘Beidh an Bord neamhspleách ag feidhmiú a fheidhmeanna’ in s1(2) of the First Schedule to the Garda Síochána (Complaints) Act, 1986, for example. Regarding ‘in the exercise of’, note that ‘Where this Act, or the Central Bank in the exercise of its functions under this Act, requires’ is translated as ‘I gcás ina gceanglaíonn an tAcht seo, nó an Banc Ceannais i bhfeidhmiú a fheidhmeanna faoin Acht seo’ in s36(16) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. lena fheidhmeanna breithimh ‘Breithimh’ is the genitive singular of ‘breitheamh’ as an attributive adjective. Note that Téarmaí Dlí gives ‘breithiúnach’ as an adjectival form of ‘breitheamh’, citing ‘aird bhreithiúnach, judicial notice’ and ‘rogha bhreithiúnach, judicial discretion’, for example, Ó Dónaill also having this headword. Dinneen gives ‘breitheamhdha’ as a headword, translating that adjective as ‘judicial, judge-like’. See the commentary on Article 29.2, where ‘judicial determination’ is expressed as ‘cinneadh breithiúnach’, regarding ‘judicial’. ‘Judicial functions’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘feidhmeanna breithiúntais’ in a 1928 Report of the Public Accounts Committee. ‘The Judicial Separation and Family Law Reform Act, 1989’, is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht um Idirscaradh Breithiúnach agus Athchóiriú an Dlí Teaghlaigh, 1989’, for example, with the ‘Public Authorities (Judicial Proceedings) Act, 1954’ being cited as ‘Acht na nÚdarás Poiblí (Imeachta Breithiúnacha), 1954’. ‘For so long as he continues to hold the judicial office held by him’ is translated as ‘fad a shealbhóidh sé an oifig bhreithiúnach a shealbhaigh sé’ in s2 of the Courts (No. 2) Act, 1981, with ‘in the said judicial office’ being translated as ‘san oifig bhreithiúntais sin’ in s17(b) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936. o

a oibriú See the commentary on Articles 3 and 13.5.1 ; again Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below, recommends using ‘oibrigh’ in order to avoid ‘feidhmeanna … a fheidhmiú’.

Gender-proofed Irish text Beidh gach breitheamh saor neamhspleách maidir lena fheidhmeanna, nó lena feidhmeanna, breithimh a oibriú, gan de smacht air nó uirthi ach an Bunreacht seo agus an dlí.

Direct gender-proofed translation Beidh na breithiúna go léir1 neamhspleách le linn a bhfeidhmeanna2 breithiúnacha a fheidhmiú3 agus iad faoi réir an Bhunreachta seo agus an dlí amháin4.

Variants 1 ‘uile’ 2 ‘Beidh gach breitheamh neamhspleách le linn a fheidhmeanna nó a feidhmeanna’ 3 ‘a oibriú’, ‘Beidh na breithiúna go léir neamhspleách ag feidhmiú / i bhfeidhmiú a bhfeidhmeanna breithiúnacha’ 4 ‘agus gan iad faoi réir ach ag an mBunreacht seo agus ag an dlí amháin’, ‘agus gan de threoir/smacht/d’fhorlámhas/d’údarás orthu ach an Bunreacht seo agus an dlí’

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ARTICLE 35.3

AIRTEAGAL 35.3

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead aon bhreitheamh a bheith ina chomhalta de cheachtar de Thithe an Oireachtais, ná bheith in aon oifig ná post sochair eile. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted that any judge be a member of either of the Houses of the Oireachtas, nor be in any other gainful post or office. ENGLISH TEXT

No judge shall be eligible to be a member of either House of the Oireachtas or to hold any other office or position of emolument.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

‘Eligible to be a member’ and ‘(eligible) to hold’ are expressed in the Irish text simply as ‘a bheith ina chomhalta’ (‘to be a member’) and ‘bheith in’ (‘to be in’), these same Irish phrases expressing ‘be a member’ and ‘(to) hold’ rather than ‘eligible to be a member’ and ‘(eligible) to hold’ in Article 33.3. ‘Or to hold any other office’ is expressed as ‘ná bheith in aon oifig … eile’ (‘nor to be in any other office’) in the Irish text, this being preceded by a comma not found in the English text. See the divergences noted in the commentary on Article 33.3 regarding ‘any other office or position of emolument’ and ‘No … shall’.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 211, writing on ‘Conflicts which have not yet surfaced’ between the texts of the Constitution, remarks: Another discordance appears to exist in Article 35.3, where the English text makes a judge “ineligible” to be a member of the Oireachtas (i.e. arguably, debarred from standing for election) while the Irish text merely says he may not be a member (“bheith ina chomhalta”).

See the Report of the Constitution Review Group (May 1996, p. 182): It seems to the Review group that the English phrase more accurately reflects the underlying purpose of this section, in that a serving judge would be simply debarred from standing for election. The Irish text should be brought into conformity by substituting “intofa mar chomhalta” for “ina chomhalta”.

Note that Article 69 of the 1922 Constitution concludes as follows: A judge shall not be eligible to sit in the Oireachtas and shall not hold any other office or position of emolument. Ní bheidh breitheamh iontoghtha chun suidhe san Oireachtas, agus ní bheidh aon oifig ná ionad eile sochair aige.

Commentary a bheith See the commentary on Articles 12.3.2o and 12.4.1o respectively, where ‘intofa’ expresses ‘eligible for


A study of the Irish text

re-election’ and ‘eligible for election’. ‘Inghlactha’ expresses ‘eligible’ (to become) in Article 18.2. ‘A person shall not be eligible to be a member of the Governing Body’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh duine i dteideal bheith ina chomhalta den Chomhlacht Ceannais’ in s6(b) of the First Schedule to the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick, Act, 1980, for example. Regarding ‘hold’, ‘Where a pensionable officer of a local authority ceases to hold any office under them’ is translated as ‘Má scoireann oifigeach inphinsin d’údarás áitiúil d’aon oifig a shealbhú fúthu’ in s9 of the Local Government Superannuation Act, 1956. ‘I seilbh oifige’ expresses ‘hold office’ in Article 12.3.1o, with ‘hold’ expressed simply by ‘ina’ in the following subsection. See also the commentary on Article 13.5.2o regarding ‘hold’. As ‘eligible’ occurs only once in the English text, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú recommends ‘i dteideal ar’ in the direct translation below, with the repetition of ‘ar’ in the final clause, i.e. ‘Ní bheidh aon bhreitheamh i dteideal ar a bheith ina chomhalta … ná ar aon oifig … eile a ghlacadh’. post sochair The genitive singular of ‘sochar’ as an attributive adjective, ‘sochar an amhrais’ and ‘sochar míchumais’ being translated respectively in Téarmaí Dlí as ‘benefit of the doubt’ and ‘disablement benefit’ – see the commentary on Article 33.3.

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

mura rithid Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann rúin á éileamh é a chur as oifig. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to put a judge of the Supreme Court nor of the High Court out of office except because of misconduct or mental disability which will be mentioned, nor even at that time unless Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann pass resolutions demanding he be put out of office. ENGLISH TEXT

A judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court shall not be removed from office except for stated misbehaviour or incapacity, and then only upon resolutions passed by Dáil Éireann and by Seanad Éireann calling for his removal.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

ná While the English text has ‘or’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘ná’ (‘nor’) is essential in the Irish text when two separate things are involved. ná bheith in aon oifig Note that we find ‘ná a bheith in aon oifig’ in Article 33.3, which agrees substantially with the present Article.

3

Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Ní cead aon bhreitheamh a bheith ina chomhalta nó ina comhalta de cheachtar de Thithe an Oireachtais, ná a bheith in aon oifig ná post sochair eile.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ní bheidh aon bhreitheamh i dteideal1 bheith ina chomhalta nó ina comhalta de cheachtar Teach den Oireachtas ná2 i dteideal aon3 oifig nó post sochair4 eile a bheith aige nó aici5.

Variants 1 2 3 4 5

‘i dteideal ar’ ‘nó’ ‘ná ar aon’, ‘ná aon’ ‘díolaíochta’ ‘bheith i seilbh aon oifige nó poist sochair eile’, ‘aon oifig nó post sochair eile a shealbhú’

ARTICLE 35.4.1O

AIRTEAGAL 35.4.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtarach ná den Ard-Chúirt a chur as oifig ach amháin de dheasca mí-iompair nó míthreorach a luafar, ná an uair sin féin

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4

‘Disability’, as in previous Articles, is expressed in the Irish text by ‘míthreoir’, a term which would today be interpreted more as ‘(mental) disabillity/incapacity’ though ‘disability’ is the primary sense of the term in Dinneen. ‘Be removed from office’ and ‘calling for his removal’ are expressed respectively as ‘a chur as oifig’ (‘be put out of office’) and ‘á éileamh é a chur as oifig’ (‘demanding he be put out of office’) in the Irish text, as we have already seen in Article 33.5.1 o , which is substantially the same as the present Article. Again as in Article 33.5.1o, ‘and then only upon resolutions passed by Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann’ is expressed as ‘ná an uair sin féin mura rithid Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann rúin’ (‘nor even at that time unless Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann pass resolutions’) in the Irish text. ‘Shall not’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’), as we have seen in the previous section and in some earlier Articles, with the following ‘or’ then being expressed as ‘ná’, ‘nor’, in the Irish text.

Note that Article 68 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: The judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Court shall not be removed except for stated misbehaviour or incapacity, and then only by resolutions passed by both Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann. Ní cuirfear breithiúin na Cúirte Uachtaraighe ná na hArd-Chúirte as oifig ach mar gheall ar mhí-iompar no mhí-chumas a luadhfar, agus ansan féin le rúin a rithfear ag Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann araon.

Commentary de dheasca … míthreorach Note that we find ‘de dheasca … míthreora’ in Article 33.5.1o (which is substantially the same as this Article); ‘treorach’ is given as the form of the genitive singular of ‘treoir’ in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (chapter headed ‘An tAinmfhocal’, section on ‘An Cúigiú Díochlaonadh’), ‘mithreoir’ being listed in the Glossary appended to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil as being a noun of the fifth declension, the genitive of such nouns ending in a broad consonant (-ch, -d; (n)n or -r). Ó Dónaill also gives ‘míthreorach’ as the form of the genitive, Dinneen


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giving ‘treora’, ‘treoire’ and ‘treorach’ as forms of the genitive singular of ‘treoir’. DIL cites examples of both ‘tréora’ and ‘treorach’ as forms of the genitive of ‘treóir’, both forms being found in the Irish Lives of the Saints, for example (‘aingeal Dé ag deanamh tréora dhó’ and ‘innraic treorach do Caoimgin’ [‘excellent of guidance to Coemgen’]).

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Divergences between the official texts 1

Ní cead breitheamh Note that we find ‘Ní cead aon bhreitheamh’ in the previous section; Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that the more emphatic expression with ‘aon’ was possibly suggested by the English form ‘no judge’. See further the commentary on Article 33.5.1o for this subsection in general.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Ní cead breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtarach ná den Ard-Chúirt a chur as oifig ach amháin de dheasca mí-iompair nó míthreorach a luafar, ná an uair sin féin mura ritheann Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann rúin á éileamh é nó í a chur as oifig.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ní chuirfear breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtarach nó den Ard-Chúirt as oifig ach amháin de dheasca mí-iompair nó éagumais shonraithe1, ná an uair sin2 féin ach tar éis do Dháil Éireann agus do Sheanad Éireann rúin a rith á iarraidh3 é nó í a chur as oifig.

2

This subsection is substantially the same as Article 33.5.2o. Note, however, that we do not find ‘as aforesaid’ in the English text here, as we did in Article 33.5.2o; that phrae was not specifically expressed in the Irish text, the initial clause of which corresponds directly to the initial clause of the Irish text of the present subsection. Whereas there is no comma in the English text of Article 33.5.2o corresponding to that before the final clause in the Irish text, the reverse situation occurs in the present Article 35.4.2o. ‘Each such resolution’ in the former Article appears as ‘every such resolution’ in the English text above; the Irish text’s ‘gach rún den tsamhail sin’ in the former Article appears as ‘gach rún díobh’ above. Apart from the above, the same divergences noted as regards Article 33.5.2o also apply in regard to the present Article.

Commentary See the commentary on Article 33.5.2o.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Rúin ar bith den sórt sin a rithfidh Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann ní foláir don Taoiseach scéala a thabhairt don Uachtarán ina dtaobh go cuí agus cóip de gach rún díobh a sheoladh chuige nó chuici faoi theastas chathaoirleach an Tí den Oireachtas a rith é.

Direct gender-proofed translation Cuirfidh an Taoiseach an tUachtarán ar an eolas go cuí1 i dtaobh aon rún den sórt sin a rithfidh Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann, agus seolfaidh sé nó sí cóip de gach rún den sórt sin chuige nó cuici arna dheimhniú ag Cathaoirleach an Tí den Oireachtas a mbeidh sé rite aige.

Variants 1 ‘mar gheall ar mhí-iompar nó éagumas sonraithe’ 2 ‘ansin’ 3 ‘ag éileamh’

Variants

ARTICLE 35.4.2

O

AIRTEAGAL 35.4.2

1 ‘Tabharfaidh an Taoiseach eolas cuí don Uachtarán’ O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Rúin ar bith den sórt sin a rithfid Dáil Éireann agus Seanad Éireann ní foláir don Taoiseach scéala a thabhairt don Uachtarán ina dtaobh go cuí agus cóip de gach rún díobh a sheoladh chuige faoi theastas Chathaoirleach an Tí den Oireachtas a rith é. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any resolutions of that kind which Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann will pass the Taoiseach must duly give account of them to the President and send a copy of each of those resolutions to him under the certification of the Chairman of the House of the Oireachtas that passed it. ENGLISH TEXT

The Taoiseach shall duly notify the President of any such resolutions passed by Dáil Éireann and by Seanad Éireann, and shall send him a copy of every such resolution certified by the Chairman of the House of the Oireachtas by which it shall have been passed.

ARTICLE 35.4.3O

AIRTEAGAL 35.4.3O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Láithreach d’éis na scéala sin agus cóipeanna de na rúin sin a fháil don Uachtarán ní foláir dó, le hordú faoina láimh is faoina Shéala, an breitheamh lena mbainid a chur as oifig. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Immediately after the President receives that account and copies of those resolutions he must, by order under his hand and under his Seal, put the judge to whom they relate out of office. ENGLISH TEXT

Upon receipt of such notification and of copies of such resolutions, the President shall forthwith, by an order under his hand and Seal, remove from office the judge to whom they relate.


A study of the Irish text

Divergences between the official texts 1

The Irish text is substantially the same as that of Article 33.5.3o, with ‘an breitheamh lena mbainid’ replacing ‘an tArd-Reachtaire Cuntas agus Ciste’, and ‘remove from office the judge to whom they relate’ replacing ‘remove the Comptroller and Auditor General from office’ in the English text. Otherwise the same divergences as noted regarding Article 33.5.3o also apply to the present Article 35.4.3o.

Commentary lena mbainid The third person plural, synthetic form, of the present indicative of ‘bain’ – see the commentary on Article 14.5.1o as regards the synthetic and analytic forms in the Constitution.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Láithreach d’éis an scéala sin agus cóipeanna de na rúin sin a fháil don Uachtarán ní foláir dó nó di, le hordú faoina láimh is faoina Shéala nó faoina Séala, an breitheamh lena mbaineann siad a chur as oifig.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ar fhógra den sórt sin agus cóipeanna de rúin den sórt sin1 a fháil,2 déanfaidh an tUachtarán láithreach,3 le hordú faoina láimh agus faoina Shéala nó faoina Séala, an breitheamh lena mbaineann siad a chur as oifig.

Variants 1 ‘de na rúin sin’ 2 ‘Ar an eolas sin a fháil, i dteannta cóipeanna de na rúin sin,’ 3 ‘, láithreach,’

ARTICLE 35.5

AIRTEAGAL 35.5

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

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Note that Article 68 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: Such remuneration may not be diminished during their continuance in office. Ní féadfar an luach saothair sin do luigheadú an fhaid a leanfaid in oifig.

Commentary an fad is bheidh in oifig The third person singular personal pronoun is understood, this allowing for ‘sé’ or ‘sí’ refering to the judge. Regarding ‘an fad is bheidh’, this phrase would generally be written today as ‘fad a bheidh’ or ‘fad is a bheidh’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘fad (is), a fhad (is)’, translating that phrase as ‘as long as’, citing ‘fad is a bhí mé ann, while I was there’. Dinneen cites ‘an fhaid is bheidh airgead agat, while you have money’, translating ‘fad’, as an adverb, as ‘while, as long as’, with ‘fad is (or an fad)’ having the same sense, Dinneen citing ‘fad do bhí sé ann, while (as long as) he was there’, giving ‘faid, an fhaid’ as variants. DIL cites ‘figlis fut baí’ (‘[he kept vigil] as long as he existed’) from Leabhar na hUidhre (written in Clonmacnois c. 1100) as an example of ‘fot’/ ‘fat’ as a relative adverb. ‘Whether during his continance in office or afterwards’ is translated as ‘cibé acu le linn dó bheith fós i seilbh oifige nó dá éis sin’ in s4(2) of the Courts (Supplemental Provisions) (Amendment) Act, 1991. ‘Every order … which … regulates the continuance in office of holders of any office’ is translated as ‘Gach ordú … le n-a rialáltar i dtaobh sealbhóirí aon oifige áirithe do leanúint in oifig’ in s14 of the Local Government Act, 1941. Note that ‘fanacht i seilbh oifige’ expresses ‘continue in office’ in Article 12.10.7o, with ‘lean dá oifig’ expressing ‘continue to hold office’ in Article 18.9. tuarastal See the commentary on Article 15.9.2o. Again Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that he sees no reason why ‘tuarastal’ should not be used when it is a set general figure (“suim sheasta choiteann”) which is involved.

Standardised Irish text TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead laghdú a dhéanamh ar thuarastal breithimh an fad is bheidh in oifig.

Ní cead laghdú a dhéanamh ar thuarastal breithimh an fad a bheidh in oifig.

Direct gender-proofed translation LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to reduce the salary of a judge while (he) is in office. ENGLISH TEXT

The remuneration of a judge shall not be reduced during his continuance in office.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

‘Remuneration’ is again expressed as ‘tuarastal’ (‘salary’) in the Irish text, ‘luach saothair’ translating ‘remuneration’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘During his continuance in office’ is expressed as ‘an fad is bheidh in oifig’ (‘while [he] is in office’) in the Irish text. ‘Shall not’ is again expressed as ‘Ní cead’, ‘it is not permitted’, in the Irish text.

Ní laghdófar luach saothair1 breithimh2 le linn dó nó di bheith3 fós i seilbh oifige4.

Variants 1 ‘tuarastal’ 2 ‘Ní dhéanfar luach saothair breithimh a laghdú’, ‘Ní dhéanfar laghdú ar luach saothair breithimh’ 3 ‘fad a bheidh sé nó sí’ 4 ‘in oifig’, ‘i mbun oifige’, ‘fad a leanfaidh sé nó sí in oifig’

ARTICLE 36

AIRTEAGAL 36

TÉACS GAEILGE

Faoi chuimsiú na bhforálacha sin romhainn den Bhunreacht seo a bhaineas leis na Cúirteanna is de réir dlí a rialófar na nithe seo a leanas .i.


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líon breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, agus na hArdChúirte, tuarastal, aois scortha agus pinsin na mbreithiúna sin, líon breithiúna gach Cúirte eile, agus na coinníollacha faoina gceaptar iad, agus comhdhéanamh agus comheagraíocht na gCúirteanna sin, roinnt na dlínse agus na hoibre ar na Cúirteanna sin agus ar na breithiúna sin, agus gach ní a bhaineas le nós imeachta.

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Within the constraint/scope of the foregoing provisions of this Constitution which relate to the Courts it is in accordance with law(s) that the following matters will be regulated i.e. i the number of judges of the Supreme Court, and of the High Court, the salary, age of retirement and pensions of those judges, ii the number of judges of every other Court, and the conditions under which they are appointed, and iii the constitution and the co-ordination of those Courts, the division of jurisdiction and work among those Courts and among those judges, and everything that relates to procedure. ENGLISH TEXT

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Constitution relating to the Courts, the following matters shall be regulated in accordance with law, that is to say:i the number of judges of the Supreme Court, and of the High Court, the remuneration, age of retirement and pensions of such judges, ii the number of the judges of all other Courts, and their terms of appointment, and iii the constitution and organization of the said Courts, the distribution of jurisdiction and business among the said Courts and judges, and all matters of procedure.

Divergences between the official texts 1 ‘Their terms of appointment’ is expressed as ‘na coinníollacha faoina gceaptar iad’ (‘the conditions under which they are appointed’) in the Irish text. 2 ‘Organization’ is expressed by the compound ‘comh’ + ‘eagraíocht’, the force of the prefix ‘comh-’ in a context such as this where a single entity is concerned being normally intensive, according to Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, i.e. ‘fully, in every detail’; ‘comheagraíocht’ is the abstract noun, i.e. ‘the activity of organizing fully’ – the verbal noun ‘comheagrú’ is found in Article 28.12 in the expression of the English ‘organization’. 3 ‘Business’ is expressed by ‘obair’ in the Irish text, which term is translated as ‘work’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘gnó’ translates ‘business’. 4 ‘All matters of procedure’ is expressed as ‘gach ní a bhaineas le nós imeachta’ (‘everything that relates to procedure’) in the Irish text. 5 ‘Of all other Courts’ is expressed as ‘gach Cúirte eile’ (‘of every other Court’) in the Irish text. 6 ‘Remuneration’ is again expressed as ‘tuarastal’, ‘salary’, in the Irish text.

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7 ‘That is to say’ is expressed by the native abbreviation for Latin ‘id est’ (‘that is’) in the Irish text, no comma preceding the abbreviation corresponding to the comma in the English text. 8 ‘Regulate’ is expressed by ‘rialaigh’, the term for ‘rule’/ ‘control’ in Téarmaí Dlí, as seen in many earlier Articles. 9 ‘Matters’ is expressed in the Irish text by ‘nithe’, ‘things’; ‘matter’ is translated as ‘ábhar’ rather than ‘ní’ in Téarmaí Dlí, however. 10 ‘Subject to’ is expressed as ‘Faoi chuimsiú’ (‘within the scope/constraint of’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in some earlier Articles, this phrase being translated as ‘faoi réir’ in Téarmaí Dlí. 11 A comma follows ‘Courts’ in the English text, no corresponding comma being found in the Irish text. J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 208, reports as follows on reference made to Article 36iii in the courts: In The State (Walshe) v Murphy ([1981] IR 275) Finlay P used the Irish equivalent “comhdhéanamh” in order to construe the English word “constitution” (of the courts), so as to make it include (via “comhdhéanaim” = “I make up”) the determination of qualifications for judicial appointment.

Note that Article 67 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: The number of judges, the constitution and organisation of, and distribution of business and jurisdiction among, the said Courts and judges, and all matters of procedure shall be as prescribed by the laws for the time being in force and the regulations made thereunder. De réir na ndlithe bheidh i bhfeidhm de thuras na huaire agus do réir na rialacha a déanfar fútha iseadh bheidh uimhir na mbreithiún, bunú agus có-ghléasa agus roinnt ghnótha agus údaráis imeasg na gCúirteanna agus na mbreithiún roimh-ráite, agus gach ní bhaineas le nós imeachta.

Article 68 contains the following: The age of retirement, the remuneration and the pension of such judges on retirement and the declarations to be taken by them on appointment shall be prescribed by law …. The terms of appointment of the judges of such other courts as may be created shall be prescribed by law. Socrófar le dlí aois oifige d’fhágaint, luach saothair agus pinsean a leithéidí de bhreithiúin ar oifig d’fhágaint dóibh agus an dearbtha a thabharfaid uatha le linn a gceaptha .... Socrófar le dlí téarmaí ceaptha breithiún aon chúirteanna eile a bunófar.

Commentary líon breithiúna na Cúirte … gach Cúirte According to the official standard one would expect ‘breithiúna’ to be lenited here, the nominative replacing the genitive, as ‘Cúirt’ is a definite noun – see the commentary on Article 1. Note, however, that Ó Dónaill cites ‘líon suíochán an halla, the seating capacity of the hall’, ‘suíochán’ being the genitive plural, ‘líon suíochán’ being taken as a unit. ‘Notwithstanding the increase made by this section in the number of the judges of the Supreme Court’ is translated as ‘D’ainneoin an mhéaduithe deintear leis an alt so ar líon breithiún na Cúirte Uachtaraighe’ in s4(3) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936, with ‘So much of section 37 …


A study of the Irish text

as limits the number of the Judges of the Circuit Court’ being translated as ‘An méid d’alt 37 … a chuireann teora le líon Breithiún na Cúirte Cuarda’ in s9(1) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1928. ‘lt shall be necessary … that the number of the members of the planning authority voting in favour of the resolution exceeds one-third of the total number of the members of the planning authority’ is translated as ‘Is gá … gur mó ná trian de líon iomlán comhaltaí an údaráis phleanála a vótálfaidh i bhfabhar an rúin’ in s39(d) of the Local Government (Planning and Development) Act, 1976. Note that ‘The number of the directors of the Agency shall be eleven’ is translated as ‘Aon duine dhéag is líon do stiúrthóirí na gníomhaireachta’ in s7(1) of the Youth Employment Agency Act, 1981. See further the commentary on Articles 14.3 and 16.2.2o. aois scortha ‘Scortha’ is the past participle and adjectival form of the verb ‘scoir’; ‘scoir’ is the genitive or attributive form of the noun, or verbal noun, ‘scor’. Both forms may function interchangeably as attributes, e.g. ‘am scoir’ or ‘am scortha’, the second possibly giving slightly more emphasis to the action, according to Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú. Ó Dónaill gives the following examples of usage: ‘ordú scoir, retirement order’, ‘cead scoir, permission to leave off work’ and ‘am scoir, leaving off time’. Dinneen, in addition to ‘scoir’ (‘scuir’) and ‘scortha’, the latter being given a separate entry, lists ‘scora’ as a variant genitive/ attributive inflection of the noun ‘scor’, and gives the following examples of usage: ‘gan dáil scuir, for ever’ and ‘in am scora nó gabhála an iarainn, when removing or fixing the coulter’. ‘Scoirim as oifig’ is translated as ‘I retire from office’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘scor as oifig de réir oird’ is translated as ‘retirement by rotation’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘release, dismiss’ as one of the senses of ‘scoir’, citing ‘duine a scor as a phost, to retire someone from his post’, with ‘scor éigeantach, compulsory retirement’ being cited s.v. ‘scor’. This specific sense of ‘retire’ is not found in Dinneen, who cites ‘tá siad ag scor indiu, they are removing their furniture, breaking up camp, etc., to-day’, the principal sense of ‘scoraim’ there being ‘I unyoke or unharness, unloose, unbind’. Dinneen gives ‘freed from duty’ as one of the senses of the participial adjective ‘scortha’, along with ‘separated, divorced’, citing ‘an bhlonagach mhná so ’bhfuilim scortha go fáilteach as a cúram, this obese woman from whose care I am, I am glad to say, set free’ – Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘responsibility for whom’, rather than ‘from whose care’, is what is involved here. ‘Scor’ is translated principally as ‘act of unyoking, unharnessing (horses)’ in DIL, where ‘cosmulius tuib arataat ilsenman do suidiu … is sain fri cath sain fri scor’ (‘a similitude of a trumpet: for it hath many sounds … it is different for battle, different for unyoking’) is cited from the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. DIL cites ‘mo nert do scor ó nirt mná’ (‘to let loose my strength [that my strength should vanish(?)] on account of the strength of a woman’), from the version of the WastingSickness of Cú Chulainn contained in Leabhar na hUidhre (written in Clonmacnois c. 1100), as an example of the sense of ‘act of desisting from, ceasing, coming to an end’, with ‘nir scuir dind fhognam’ (‘she ceased not from the service’) being cited from a later text. Looking at early Acts, ‘The ordinary day of retirement of county councillors shall be the seventh day after the

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ordinary day of election of such councillors’ is translated as ‘Isé a bheidh mar ghnáth-lá do chomhairleoirí contae chun dul as oifig ná an seachtú lá tar éis an ghnáth-lae thoghacháin do chomhairleoirí den tsórt san’ in s7(1) of the Local Elections Act, 1927. ‘Continuance in office, retirement, and election of certain members of the Board’ is translated as ‘Baill áirithe den Bhord do leanúint in oifig, d’fhágáil oifige, agus a dtogha’ in the Margin Title of s6 of the Dublin Port and Docks Act, 1925, with ‘to a county registrar on retirement’ being translated as ‘do chlárathóir chontae … ar imeacht as oifig do’ in s35(5) of the Court Officers Act, 1926. The current term, ‘scur’, is found in s16(b) of the Gárda Síochána Act, 1924, where ‘the promotion, retirement, degradation, dismissal, and punishment of members of the Gárda Síochána’ is translated as ‘baill den Ghárda Síochána d’árdú, do scur, d’ísliú, do bhrise, agus do chur fé phionós’. ‘Eirighe as’ translates ‘retirement’ in Iris Oifigiúil, 1928, p. 575. ‘The age of retirement of a judge of the Circuit Court shall be seventy years’ is translated as ‘Seachtó bliain an aois scortha do bhreitheamh den Chúirt Chuarda’ in s18(1) of the Courts (Supplemental Provisions) Act, 1961. ‘But that age of retirement may … be extended by the Minister for Justice’ is translated as ‘ach féadfaidh an tAire Dlí agus Cirt … an aois scortha sin a fhadú’ in s9(7) of the Registration of Title Act, 1964. See further the commentary on Article 12.4.2o. nós imeachta See the commentary on Article 29.4.2o. ‘Regulations may provide for any matters of procedure in relation to appeals to the Minister’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh foráil a bheith i rialacháin faoi aon ábhair a bhaineann le nós imeachta i ndáil le hachomhairc’ in s42(a) of the Local Government (Planning and Development) Act, 1976, for example. In s24(5) of the Housing (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1992, ‘Regulations … may make provision in relation to matters of procedure and administration’ is translated as ‘Féadfar, le rialacháin …, foráil a dhéanamh i ndáil le nithe a bhaineann le nós imeachta agus riarachán’. ‘Regulating any matters of procedure’ is translated as ‘ag rialáil aon ábhar maidir le nós imeachta’ in s31(3)(b) of the Solicitors (Amendment) Act, 1960. Finally, ‘divers matters of procedure’ is translated as ‘cúrsaí áirithe nós imeachta’ in the Margin Title of s195 of the Defence Act, 1954. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below containing the phrase ‘gach ábhar nóis imeachta’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that this type of arrangement (“comhghléas”), i.e. Noun1 + indefinite Noun2 + indefinite Noun3, was very unusual and on the border as regards grammar (“ar imeall na gramadúlachta”). Professor Ó Murchú states that, while Dinneen has ‘fear mine cáirde’ and Ó Dónaill has ‘arán mine cruithneachta’, usually one would find, even from the best speakers in Munster, ‘arán min choirce’ (cf. the form from 1954 above). Whatever about Noun2 being in the genitive, Máirtín Ó Murchú doubts whether the construction would be found except in old established phrases and remarks that, at any rate, Noun1 and Noun2 must be grammatical (“gramadúil”) in themselves, or in agreement with the whole sense. Professor Ó Murchú maintains that ‘ábhar nóis’ is not what is involved here but ‘ábhar a bhaineann le nós’, and recommends ‘na nithe uile a bhaineann le nós imeachta’ as a direct translation of the final clause.


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comheagraíocht See the commentary on Article 28.12 regarding ‘a chomheagrú’ expressing ‘organization’. This compound of ‘comh’ and ‘eagraíocht’ does not appear to be given as a headword either in Ó Dónaill or in Dinneen, the former having a headword ‘comheagar’, translated as ‘co-ordination’, citing ‘comheagar a chur ar rudaí, to co-ordinate things’, the latter translating ‘cóimheagar’ as ‘arrangement, order, array; ornament’, citing ‘cath cóimheagair, a squadron in array’, also giving the indeclinable adjective ‘cóimheagartha’ as a headword, translated as ‘arranged, set with (de)’. ‘Eagraíocht’ is translated as ‘organization’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘eagras’ being cited as a variant, and ‘eagrú’ being the verbal noun of ‘eagraigh’ (‘arrange, organize’), translated as ‘arrangement, organization’. ‘Eagraim’ is translated as ‘I set in order; digest, ordain, regulate, I edit (as a book, etc.); I set with (as jewels)’ in Dinneen, ‘eagairt’ and ‘eagar’ being given as forms of the verbal noun. The earlier form of ‘eagar’, ‘ecor’/‘ecar’, is the verbal noun of ‘in-cuirethar’ and is translated principally as ‘arranging, disposing, setting in order; arrangement, array (of persons, places, things)’ in DIL, where ‘a n-ecor 7 a corugud’ (‘their array’ [of the host of Heaven]) is cited from Leabhar na hUidhre (compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100). comhdhéanamh This headword is translated as ‘constitution, structure, composition’ in Ó Dónaill, being the verbal noun of the compound verb ‘comhdhéan’, ‘make up, constitute’ – see the commentary on Article 15.1.1o. ‘The convening and constitution of Courts Martial’ is translated as ‘Có-ghairm agus córú Arm-Chúirteanna’ in s125(1)(b) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘In regard to its constitution, membership, employers, organisation and activities’ is translated as ‘maidir le cóiriú, comhaltas, fostaithe, eagraíocht agus gníomhaíocht an chumainn’ in s38(1)(a) of the Adoption Act, 1952. ‘Constitution and Organisation of the Defence Forces’ is translated as ‘Comhdhéanamh agus Eagraíocht Óglaigh na hÉireann’ in the Heading of Part III of the Defence Act, 1954. roinnt … na hoibre ‘Obair’ is translated as ‘work’ in Téarmaí Dlí, while ‘business premises’ is translated as ‘áitreabh gnótha’ – ‘ráiteas gnóthaí’, however, is translated there as ‘statement of affairs’. ‘Opar’ (‘opair’) comes from Latin ‘opera’, the dative plural ‘oiprib’ being cited from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles in DIL, where this headword is translated principally as ‘work, activity, employment, occupation’. See the commentary on Article 3 regarding ‘oibrigh’. na coinníollacha See the commentary on Article 16.1.2o, where ‘coinníoll’ expresses ‘provision’, and on Article 33.6 where ‘coinníoll’ expresses ‘term’, as in the present Article. ‘The remuneration, terms of appointment and conditions of service of the Chairman … may be fixed by contracts’, for example, is translated as ‘Féadfar luach saothair, téarmaí ceapacháin agus coinníollacha seirbhíse an Chathaoirligh … a shocrú trí chonarthaí’ in s24 of the Industrial Development Act, 1969, following s4(5) of the Industrial Development Authority Act, 1950. a bhaineas … a leanas The special form of the relative, present indicative, of ‘bain’ and ‘lean’ respectively, the

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latter form being always used in this phrase – see the commentary on Article 6.1 regarding the special form of the relative. roinnt … ar See the commentary on Article 28.12, where ‘gnó a roinnt orthu’ expresses ‘distribution of business amongst Departments of State’. na hArd-Chúirte Note that a semi-colon follows this phrase in the first paragraph in the original Irish text. de réir This phrase is translated as ‘in accordance with’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 1. Faoi chuimsiú See the commentary on Articles 12.5 and 18.7.2o. a rialófar See the commentary on Articles 10.3 and 12.5. .i. See the commentary on Article 7.

Standardised Irish text Faoi chuimsiú na bhforálacha sin romhainn den Bhunreacht seo a bhaineann leis na Cúirteanna is de réir dlí a rialófar na nithe seo a leanas, .i. i líon breithiúna na Cúirte Uachtaraí, agus na hArdChúirte, tuarastal, aois scortha agus pinsin na mbreithiúna sin, ii líon breithiúna gach Cúirte eile, agus na coinníollacha faoina gceaptar iad, agus iii comhdhéanamh agus comheagraíocht na gCúirteanna sin, roinnt na dlínse agus na hoibre ar na Cúirteanna sin agus ar na breithiúna sin, agus gach ní a bhaineann le nós imeachta.

Direct translation Faoi réir na bhforálacha sin romhainn den Bhunreacht seo a bhaineann leis na Cúirteanna, déanfar na hábhair seo a leanas a rialáil de réir dlí, is é sin le rá:i líon bhreithiúna1 na Cúirte Uachtaraí, agus na hArdChúirte, luach saothair2, aois scoir agus pinsin na mbreithiúna sin, ii líon bhreithiúna1 na gCúirteanna eile go léir, agus téarmaí a gceapacháin, agus iii comhdhéanamh agus eagrú na gCúirteanna sin, dáileadh dlínse agus gnó ar na Cúirteanna sin agus ar na breithiúna sin, agus gach ábhar3 a bhaineann le nós imeachta.

Variants 1 ‘breithiúna’ 2 ‘tuarastal’ 3 ‘na nithe uile’

ARTICLE 37.1

AIRTEAGAL 37.1

TÉACS GAEILGE

Aon duine nó aon dream a n-údaraítear go cuí dóibh le dlí feidhmeanna agus cumhachtaí teoranta breithiúnais a oibriú i gcúrsaí nach cúrsaí coireachta, má oibríd na


A study of the Irish text

feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin ní bheidh an t-oibriú sin gan bhail dlí de bhíthin aon ní sa Bhunreacht seo, siúd is nach breitheamh ná cúirt a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt faoin mBunreacht seo an duine nó an dream sin. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Any person or any group who are duly authorized by law to operate limited functions and powers of judgement in matters that are not criminal matters, if they operate those functions and powers that operation will not be without legal validity by reason of anything in this Constitution, even though that person or group is not a judge or a court which was appointed or established as a judge or as a court under this Constitution. ENGLISH TEXT

Nothing in this Constitution shall operate to invalidate the exercise of limited functions and powers of a judicial nature, in matters other than criminal matters, by any person or body of persons duly authorised by law to exercise such functions and powers, notwithstanding that such person or such body of persons is not a judge or a court appointed or established as such under this Constitution.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

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‘Nothing in this Constitution shall operate to invalidate the exercise of such functions and powers’ is expressed as ‘má oibríd na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin ní bheidh an t-oibriú sin gan bhail dlí de bhíthin aon ní sa Bhunreacht seo’ (‘if they operate those functions and powers that operation will not be without legal validity by reason of anything in this Constitution’) in the Irish text, ‘exercise’ being expressed by ‘oibrigh’, which term is translated as ‘operate’ in Téarmaí Dlí, as we have seen in some earlier Articles. ‘Functions and powers of a judicial nature’ is expressed simply as ‘feidhmeanna agus … cumhachtaí … breithiúnais’ (‘judicial functions and powers’) in the Irish text. ‘In matters other than criminal matters’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘i gcúrsaí nach cúrsaí coireachta’ (‘in matters that are not criminal matters’), with ‘coireacht’, the term expressing ‘criminal’, being the abstract noun generally translated as ‘wickedness, guiltiness’, ‘coiriúil’ translating ‘criminal’ in Téarmaí Dlí; this phrase is preceded by a comma in the English text alone. ‘Body of persons’ is expressed by ‘dream’, the same term that expresses ‘group’ in earlier Articles; Ó Dónaill translates ‘dream’ principally as ‘body of people’, however. ‘Notwithstanding that’ is expressed as ‘siúd is (nach)’, ‘even though’, in the Irish text, ‘notwithstanding that’ being translated as ‘d’ainneoin go’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Appointed or established as such’ is expressed as ‘a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt’ (‘appointed or established as a judge or as a court’) in the Irish text.

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Commentary siúd is nach ‘Siúd is go’ is translated as ‘even though’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘siúd is go raibh an ceart agat, granted that you were right’ and ‘siúd is nach bhfaca mé iad, even though I didn’t see them’. Dinneen translates ‘siúd is go (nach)’ as ‘granted that (not), although (not), even if (not)’, citing ‘siúd is ná beadh sé uaithe, even if she did not want it’, stating that ‘siúd = bíodh siúd’. DIL cites ‘sud 7 nach mbiadh sé air ar gcumas’ (‘what if it should not be in our power’) from Donlevy’s An Teagasc Críosduidhe (1742). ‘Notwithstanding that’ is translated as ‘d’ainneoin go’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Notwithstanding the existence of the patent or registration’ is translated as ‘d’ainneoin an phaitinn no an clárú do bheith ann’ in s130(1) of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927, for example. ‘To drive during the Congress period … any motor car of that class notwithstanding that such person is not the holder of a driving licence’ is translated as ‘gluaisteán ar bith den tsaghas san do thiomáint le linn tréimhse an Chomórtha, d’ainneoin gan ceadúnas tiomána do bheith ag an duine sin’ in s6(2) of the Eucharistic Congress (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1932. ‘Such certificate … may be given in respect of a person notwithstanding that such person … has retired’ is translated as ‘Féadfar an deimhniú san … do thabhairt alos duine d’ainneoin gur thárla … an duine sin d’éirghe as’ in s8(2) of the Superannuation Act, 1936. See further the commentary on Article 14.3 where ‘d’ainneoin’ expresses ‘notwithstanding’. dream See the commentary on Article 10.1, where this term expresses ‘body’, and on Article 19 where ‘dream’ expresses ‘group’. Note that Ó Dónaill translates ‘dream’ principally as ‘body of people’. ‘Comhlacht’ expresses ‘body’ in Article 13.8.2o. ‘The word “employer” includes any employer being a body of persons, corporate or unincorporate, as well as an employer who is an individual’ is translated as ‘foluíonn an focal “fostathóir” aon fhostathóir is cólucht daoine, ionchorpruithe no neamhionchorpruithe, chó maith le fostathóir is duine aonaránach’ in s47(2) of the Finance Act, 1925. ‘It shall be unlawful for any person or body of persons … to carry on business as the promoter of a trading stamp scheme’ is translated as ‘Ní dleathach d’aon duine ná d’aon chomhlacht daoine … gnó a sheoladh mar thionscnóir scéime stampaí trádála’ in s2(1) of the Trading Stamps Act, 1980. feidhmeanna … breithiúnais ‘Breithiúnais’ is the genitive singular of ‘breithiúnas’ used attributively. ‘Breithiúnas’ is translated as ‘judgment’ in Téarmaí Dlí (where ‘Cúirt Bhreithiúnais’ is translated as ‘Court of Justice’) and in Ó Dónaill. ‘Breitheamhas’ is translated as ‘a decision, a judgment; the office of a brehon’ in Dinneen, Old Irish ‘brithemnas’, based on ‘breithem’ (‘judge’), being translated as ‘adjudication, judgment; jurisdiction’ in DIL. The ninthcentury story ‘The Conversion of Loígure’ refers to ‘brithem fri brithemnas ar roscadaib 7 fasaigib’ (‘a judge for judgement based on roscads [legal verses] and fasachs [maxims]’ – see Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 196, n. 39). See the commentary on Article 29.2 regarding ‘judicial’, expressed in that Article by ‘breithiúnach; ‘breithimh’ expresses ‘judicial’ in Article 35.2.


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In s5(b) of the Prohibition of Incitement to Hatred Act, 1989, ‘proceedings publicly heard before a court, or a tribunal exercising functions or powers of a judicial nature’ is translated as ‘imeachtaí a éisteadh go poiblí os comhair cúirte nó binse a bheidh ag feidhmiú feidhmeanna nó cumhachtaí de chineál breithiúnach’. As regards other examples of ‘nature’ in this context, ‘other assets of a financial nature’, for example, is translated as ‘sócmhainní eile de chineál airgeadais’ in s4(2) of the Fifth Schedule to the Finance Act, 1990. ‘Five shall form a quorum for any business which, in the opinion of the Chairman of the Committee, may be considered of a special nature’ is translated as ‘cúigear is quorum i gcóir aon ghnótha is gnó speisialta dar le Cathaoirleach an Choiste’ in s6 of the ‘Mayo County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. The Long Title of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, ‘An Act to declare divers acts of a treasonable nature … to be offences’, is translated as ‘Acht chun a fhaisnéis gur ciontaí gníomhartha áirithe de shaghas tréasúnta’. cúrsaí coireachta ‘Matter, affair; circumstance’ is given by Ó Dónaill as a secondary sense of ‘cúrsa’ (primarily ‘course’), citing ‘cúrsaí dlí, creidimh, legal, religious matters’. Dinneen also gives ‘affair, matter, event’ as one of the senses of ‘cúrsaí’, translating ‘cúrsaí dlighidh’ as ‘legal proceedings (or matters)’ – see the commentary on Article 15.12. ‘Coireacht’ is translated as ‘wickedness, guiltiness’ in Ó Dónaill and simply as ‘guiltiness’ in Dinneen, ‘coireamhlacht’ being similarly translated, and Ó Dónaill translating ‘coiriúlacht’ as ‘criminality, guiltiness’. ‘Coireach’, on which ‘coireacht’ is based, is translated as ‘offender, transgressor’, as noun, and as ‘wicked, sinful; guilty’ as an adjective, in Ó Dónaill. ‘Coir’ is translated as ‘crime, offence; fault, transgression’ in Ó Dónaill – see the commentary on Article 30.3. See also the commentary on Article 34.3.1o where ‘criminal’ is expressed as ‘coiriúil’. The adjective ‘criminal’ is translated as ‘coiriúil’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In the Long Title of the Criminal Justice Bill, 1997, ‘… to amend the law relating to proceedings in criminal matters’, is translated as ‘… do leasú an dlí a bhaineann le himeachtaí in ábhair choiriúla’, with ‘mutual assistance in criminal matters’ being translated as ‘cúnamh frithpháirteach in ábhair choiriúla’ in s2 of Article 11 of the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1975. In s4 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1926, ‘The Central Criminal Court shall have and may exercise every jurisdiction in criminal matters for the time being vested in the High Court’ is translated as ‘Beidh ag an bPríomh-Chúirt Choiriúil gach údarás a bheidh ag an Ard-Chúirt de thuras na huaire i gcúrsaí coiriúla’. a oibriú … má oibríd See the commentary on Article 3 regarding ‘oibrigh’ and on Article 14.5.1o regarding the synthetic (‘oibríd’) and analytic (‘oibríonn siad’) form of the verb. a n-údaraítear See the commentary on Article 37.2.

Standardised Irish text Aon duine nó aon dream a n-údaraítear go cuí dóibh le dlí feidhmeanna agus cumhachtaí teoranta breithiúnais a oibriú i gcúrsaí nach cúrsaí coireachta, má oibríonn siad na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin ní bheidh an t-oibriú sin gan bail dlí de bhíthin aon ní sa Bhunreacht seo, siúd is nach breitheamh ná cúirt a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt faoin mBunreacht seo an duine nó an dream sin.

Direct translation Ní oibreoidh aon ní sa Bhunreacht seo chun feidhmiú1 feidhmeanna agus cumhachtaí teoranta de chineál breithiúnach, in ábhair seachas ábhair choiriúla, ag aon duine nó ag aon chomhlacht daoine a bheidh údaraithe go cuí le dlí chun na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin a fheidhmiú, a chur ó bhail, d’ainneoin nach breitheamh ná2 cúirt a bheidh ceaptha nó bunaithe mar sin3 faoin mBunreacht seo a bheidh sa duine nó sa chomhlacht daoine sin.

Variants 1 ‘oibriú’ 2 ‘nó’ 3 ‘nach breitheamh a bheidh ceaptha mar bhreitheamh nó cúirt a bheidh bunaithe mar chúirt’

ARTICLE 37.2

AIRTEAGAL 37.2

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní raibh ná ní bheidh aon uchtáil ar dhuine a ghlac éifeacht nó a bhfuil sé sainráite gur ghlac sí éifeacht aon tráth tar éis don Bhunreacht seo a theacht i ngníomh faoi dhlíthe a d’achtaigh an tOireachtas agus is uchtáil de bhun ordú a rinne nó údarú a thug aon duine nó aon dream a bhí sonraithe leis na dlíthe sin chun na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin a oibriú ó bhail dlí de bhíthin amháin nár bhreitheamh ná cúirt a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt faoin mBunreacht seo an duine nó an dream sin. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No adoption of a person which took effect or which is expressed to have taken effect at any time after the coming into operation of this Constitution under laws which the Oireachtas enacted and which is an adoption in pursuance of an order made by or an authorisation given by any person or any group which was specified by those laws to operate those functions and powers did not nor will not lack legal validity for the sole reason that that person or that group was not a judge or a court which was appointed or established as a judge or a court under this Constitution. ENGLISH TEXT

teoranta See the commentary on Article 31.1. o

gan bhail dlí See the commentary on Articles 15.4.2 and 34.3.2o. de bhíthin See the commentary on Article 23.2.1o.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

No adoption of a person taking effect or expressed to take effect at any time after the coming into operation of this Constitution under laws enacted by the Oireachtas and being an adoption pursuant to an order made or an authorisation given by any person or body of persons


A study of the Irish text

designated by those laws to exercise such functions and powers was or shall be invalid by reason only of the fact that such person or body of persons was not a judge or a court appointed or established as such under this Constitution.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

4

5

6

7

‘Taking effect or expressed to take effect’ is rendered as ‘a ghlac éifeacht nó a bhfuil sé sainráite gur ghlac sí éifeacht’ (‘which took effect or which is expressed to have taken effect’) in the Irish text. ‘Body of persons’ is rendered as ‘dream’, ‘group’, as in the previous section. ‘Designated’ is rendered as ‘sonraithe’ (‘specified’) in the Irish text, ‘sonraím’ being translated as ‘I specify’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Exercise’ is rendered in the Irish text by ‘oibrigh’, which term is translated as ‘operate’ in Téarmaí Dlí, as we have seen in some earlier Articles. ‘Invalid’ is rendered as ‘ó bhail dlí’ (‘lacking legal validity’); ‘invalid’ is translated as ‘neamhbhailí’ in Téarmaí Dlí; note that ‘invalidate’ is expressed as ‘gan bhail dlí’ in the previous section. ‘By reason only of the fact that’ is rendered simply as ‘de bhíthin amháin’ (‘for the sole reason that’) in the Irish text. ‘Appointed or established as such’ is rendered as ‘a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt’ (‘appointed or established as a judge or as a court’) in the Irish text, as we saw in the previous section.

Note that this section was added to the text following the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1979.

Commentary sainráite The past participle of a compound of ‘sain-’ (‘special, particular, specified, characteristic’) and ‘abair’ (‘say’), as a participial adjective, is translated as ‘express’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, where ‘barántas sainráite, express warranty’ and ‘coinníoll sainráite, express condition’ are cited, for example. This compound does not appear to be given as a headword in Dinneen. The prefixed adjectival ‘sain-’ as an independent adjective is translated as ‘different, distinct, separate’ in DIL, where ‘sain dán cáich’ (‘different [is] every one’s gift’) is cited from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, with ‘ní nomsainmescca ó mac Dé’ (‘whatever sunders me from the Son of God’) being cited from a later source as an example of ‘sain’ compounded with a verb (‘mescaid’, also here with the preverb ‘no’ and infixed pronoun). ‘As from the said date from which the certificate is expressed to take effect’ is translated as ‘ón dáta san o n-a deirtar sa deimhniú go bhfuil an deimhniú le bheith in éifeacht’ in s62(2) of the Court Officers Act, 1926, this same English text (without ‘said’) being translated as ‘amhail ón dáta a mbeidh sainráite sa deimhniú éifeacht a bheith aige uaidh’ in s3(2)(b) of the Court Officers Act, 1951. ‘The expiration of a period of four months from the date on which the resolution is expressed to take effect’

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is translated as ‘tréimhse ceithre mhí a bheith caite ón dáta a déarfaidh an rún a bheidh sé le teacht in éifeacht’ in s85(1) of the Finance Act, 1974. See further the commentary on Article 24.1. ‘Luaigh’ consistently expresses ‘express’ in the original text of the Constitution: ‘a Bill expressed to be a Bill containing a proposal to amend the Constitution’ is expressed as ‘Bille a luaitear a bheith ina Bhille a bhfuil togra ann chun an Bunreacht a leasú’ in Articles 24.1, 25.1, 26 and 27, ‘má luaitear ann’ expressing ‘which is expressed to be’ in Article 28.3.3o, ‘a luaitear sa Bhunreacht a bheith’ expressing ‘as are by this Constitution expressed’ in Article 31.1, ‘a luaitear ina dtaobh sa Bhunreacht seo’ expressing ‘which are by this Constitution expressed’ in Article 32, ‘Every Bill shall be expressed to be’ being expressed as ‘Ní foláir a lua i ngach Bille’ in Article 46.3 and, finally, ‘Dlíthe … a mbeidh luaite iontu’ expressing ‘Laws … expressed to’ in Article 50.2. Note also how ‘democratically expressed’, in the new Article 3 contained in Article 29.7, is rendered as ‘á chur in iúl go daonlathach’. de bhun ordú … nó údarú The genitive would normally follow the prepositional phrase ‘de bhun’, but as ‘ordú’ and ‘údarú’ are both verbal nouns following directly after the compound preposition they are not inflected – see An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, chapter headed ‘Form of the Nominative in place of the Genitive’, s5(b), where ‘tá an lá ag dul chun síneadh’ is cited as example. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú comments, regarding a draft of the direct translation below, that the genitive inflection is unnecessary. Looking at ‘authorisation’ in early Acts, ‘Where any person duly authorised by a sanitary authority has reasonable cause to suppose’ is translated as ‘Má bhíonn ag éinne dar thug údarás sláintíochta údarás cuibhe cúis réasúnta chun a cheapa’ in s20(3) of the Local Government Act, 1925. ‘Authorisation of contracts in reference to road motor services’ is translated as ‘Údarú connartha bhaineann le seirbhísí gluaisteáin ar bhóithre’ in the Margin Title of s7 of the Railways (Road Motor Service) Act, 1927. In s60(4) of the Pigs and Bacon Act, 1935, ‘The Minister may at any time revoke an authorisation given under this section’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an tAire, uair ar bith, údarú do tugadh fén alt so … do cheiliúradh’. Looking at modern Acts, in s3 of the Tea (Purchase and Importation) (Amendment) Act, 1966, ‘imports it under and in accordance with an authorisation given by the Minister’ is translated as ‘é a allmhairiú faoi réim agus de réir údaráis ón Aire’. Finally, in s6(7) of the Animals Act, 1985, ‘on foot of an authorisation given in a notice’ is translated as ‘de dhroim údarú a tugadh i bhfógra’. uchtáil This headword is translated as ‘adoption’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘uchtú’ being given as the standard form in Ó Dónaill. ‘Leanbh a uchtú, to adopt a child’ is cited by Ó Dónaill as an example of ‘uchtú’ as a verbal noun, ‘uchtú’ as a noun being translated as ‘adoption’. In a list of additional headwords appended to the Glossary in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, however, we find ‘uchtáil’ as the verbal noun of ‘uchtaigh’. Dinneen does not give either verbal noun or verb as a separate headword, but s.v. ‘ucht-’, i.e. ‘breast-’, in compounds, he includes the following: ‘ucht-mhac, an adopted son’, ‘uchtcach, adoptive’, ‘uchtcacht (uchtcandacht), adoption’, ‘uchtcadh, adopting’ and ‘uchtcaim, I adopt as a son’. Dinneen refers to the glossary


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appended to the second edition of Bedell’s Irish Bible, 1690, as his source, where we find ‘athargadh, ochdmhacadh’ – this is cited in DIL s.v. ‘ucht’, ‘breast, bosom’, where the compound ‘uchtmacad’ is translated as ‘adoption’, with ‘uchtmhacadh, the adoption of a son’ being cited from the transcript of Peter O’Connell’s Irish-English Dictionary in the Royal Irish Academy. In early Irish law ‘mac fáesma’ expressed ‘adopted son’, one of the senses of ‘fáes(s)am’ in DIL being ‘taking into protection, adopting’. In his ‘Index of Irish Terms’ in A Guide to Early Irish Law, Fergus Kelly translates the earlier form ‘fóesam’, verbal noun of ‘fo-sisedar’ (‘stands under, acknowledges, protects’), as ‘legal protection, adoption into kin’ and states (ibid, p.105): Rights of inheritance may be acquired by a person adopted into a kin-group, either through payment of an adoption fee (lóg fóesma) or through invitation .... His adoption (fóesam lit. ‘taking into protection’) is a contract which must be bound by sureties, and ratified by the head of the kin .... a man may disinherit a son who fails to carry out his filial duties (goire) and adopt another person in his stead.

In s9 of the Status of Children Act, 1987, ‘any order made or decree granted outside the State, providing for the adoption of a person’ is translated as ‘aon ordú arna dhéanamh, nó foraithne arna deonú, lasmuigh den Stát, lena ndéantar socrú maidir le huchtáil duine’. In s1 of the Adoption Act, 1991, ‘“foreign adoption” means an adoption of a child who … was under the age of 21 years’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “uchtáil choigríche” uchtáil linbh a bhí … faoi bhun 21 bliain d’aois’. ó bhail dlí ‘Validity’ is given as one of the senses of ‘bail’, principally translated as ‘prosperity’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘ionas go mbeadh bail ar a fhaoistin, so that his confession might be valid’, translating ‘gan bhail’ as ‘invalid, void’. ‘Invalid’ is translated as ‘neamhbhailí’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘bailí’ is translated as ‘valid’ and ‘I validate’ is translated as ‘déanaim bailí’. Dinneen translates ‘gan bhail’ as ‘void, ineffective (of a sacrament)’, giving Donlevy’s Irish Catechism (1742) as source; Dinneen does not appear to give ‘bailí’ as a headword. DIL cites ‘bídh buil ar an bpósadh gan fhios, gan fhiadhain’ (‘a clandestine marriage is valid’), from Parrthas an Anma (Gearnon, 1645), as an example of the sense ‘of the efficacy of a sacrament or judgement’ of ‘bal’, also citing ‘bídh a bpósadh ar bhail’ (‘valid’) from Ó Heoghusa’s An Teagasg Criosdaidhe (1611). See further the commentary on Article 40.4.3o. In Article 28.3.3o, ‘Nothing in this Constitution shall be invoked to invalidate any law enacted by the Oireachtas’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead aon ní dá bhfuil sa Bhunreacht seo a agairt chun aon dlí dá n-achtaíonn an tOireachtas a chur ó bhail’, with ‘No provision of this Constitution invalidates laws enacted’ being rendered as ‘Ní dhéanann aon fhoráileamh atá sa Bhunreacht seo aon dlíthe a d’achtaigh … a chur ó bhail dlí’ in Article 29.4.7o. ‘Gan bhail’ expresses ‘invalid’ in Articles 15.4.2o, ‘gan bhail dlí’ expressing ‘invalidate’ in Article 37.1. In Article 40.4.3o, however, following the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941, ‘but that such law is invalid’ is rendered as ‘ach an dlí sin a bheith neamhbhailí’. Turning to the Acts, ‘No such resolution shall be invalid or, in the case of any such resolution passed before the passing of this Act, ever have been invalid by reason only

Bunreacht na hÉireann

of the failure to give such notice’ is translated as ‘ní bheidh aon rún den tsórt san nea-mbailidhe no, i gcás aon rúin den tsórt san do ritheadh roimh an Acht so do rith, ní tuigfear é bheith nea-mbailidhe riamh de bhíthin gan an fógra san do thabhairt’ in s6 of the Town and Regional Planning (Amendment) Act, 1939. Finally, in s6(6) of the Schedule to the Pilotage Order Confirmation Act, 1927, ‘No act or proceeding of the Committee shall be invalid on account of any vacancy in their body’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh aon ghníomh ná imeacht de chuid an Choiste nea-dhleathach de dheascaibh aon fholúntais ar a measc’. See further the commentary on Article 15.4.2o. de bhíthin amháin See the commentary on Article 29.4.3o where ‘de bhíthin’ renders ‘necessitated by’. ‘A notice of appeal … shall not be invalid by reason only of the fact that an appeal town … did not stand specified’ in translated as ‘Fógra achomhairc … ní bheidh sé neamhbhailí toisc amháin nach raibh baile achomhairc … sonraithe’ in s1(2)(b) of the Courts Act, 1986. In s6(1) of the Local Government (Planning and Development) Act, 1982, ‘A permission or approval granted on appeal … shall not be, and shall not be regarded as ever having been, invalid by reason only of the fact that the development concerned contravened, or would contravene, materially the development plan’ is translated as ‘Aon chead nó ceadú a bheidh tugtha ar achomharc … ní bheidh sé, agus ní mheasfar go raibh sé riamh, neamhbhailí de bhíthin amháin gur sháraigh, nó go sáródh an fhorbairt áirithe, ar mhodh ábhartha, an plean forbartha’.

Standardised Irish text Ní raibh ná ní bheidh aon uchtáil ar dhuine a ghlac éifeacht nó a bhfuil sé sainráite gur ghlac sí éifeacht aon tráth tar éis don Bhunreacht seo a theacht i ngníomh faoi dhlíthe a d’achtaigh an tOireachtas agus is uchtáil de bhun ordaithe a rinne nó údaraithe a thug aon duine nó aon dream a bhí sonraithe leis na dlíthe sin chun na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin a oibriú ó bhail dlí de bhíthin amháin nár bhreitheamh ná cúirt a ceapadh nó a bunaíodh mar bhreitheamh nó mar chúirt faoin mBunreacht seo an duine nó an dream sin.

Direct translation Ní raibh ná ní bheidh aon uchtáil ar dhuine a ghlacfaidh éifeacht nó a bhfuil sé sainráite go nglacfaidh sí éifeacht tráth ar bith tar éis don Bhunreacht seo teacht i bhfeidhm faoi dhlíthe arna n-achtú ag an Oireachtas agus is uchtáil de bhun ordú1 a rinne nó údarú2 a thug aon duine nó comhlacht daoine a bheidh ceaptha ag na dlíthe sin chun na feidhmeanna agus na cumhachtaí sin a oibriú3 neamhbhailí toisc amháin gurbh amhlaidh nár bhreitheamh ná nár chúirt a bhí ceaptha nó bunaithe mar sin faoin mBunreacht seo an duine sin nó an comhlacht daoine sin.

Variants 1 ‘ordaithe’ 2 ‘údaraithe’ 3 As Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks, some punctuation would be an addition to the easier reading of the above text, a comma here following ‘a oibriú’, for example.


A study of the Irish text

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TRIAL OF OFFENCES TRIAIL I gCIONTA ARTICLE 38.1

AIRTEAGAL 38.1 os comhair coiste é, he was tried before a jury’ as examples of the sense of ‘triail’, ‘try, test’, in Jurisprudence, ‘triail’ being the verbal noun of ‘triail’. DIL does not appear to cite any examples of either verb or verbal noun ‘triail’ which, being borrowed from English is, according to Dinneen, influenced by the Irish word ‘triall’ – ‘attempts, endeavours’ is one of the senses of the verb ‘tríallaid’ in DIL. Note that De Bhaldraithe, while translating ‘try’ as ‘triailim (cúis, príosúnach)’ cites ‘He was tried for theft, cuireadh cúirt as gadaíocht air’. The Margin Title of s231 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘Trial of offences’, is translated as ‘Ciontaí do thriail’, ‘Triail chiontaí’ being found in the Margin Title of s73 of the Foyle Fisheries Act, 1952, and ‘Cionta a thriail’ in the Margin Title of s21 of the Fisheries (Statute Law Revision) Act, 1956, as in the Margin Title of s49 of the Fisheries Act, 1980.

TÉACS GAEILGE

TRIAIL I gCIONTA Ní cead aon duine a thriail in aon chúis choiriúil ach mar is cuí de réir dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

TRIAL IN OFFENCES It is not permitted to try any person in any criminal case/ prosecution except as is proper according to law. ENGLISH TEXT

TRIAL OF OFFENCES No person shall be tried on any criminal charge save in due course of law.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

The title ‘Trial of Offences’ is expressed as ‘Triail i gCionta’ (‘Trial in Offences’) in the Irish text, the same preposition ‘i’ following ‘triail’ expressing ‘on’ in the section itself (‘a thriail in aon chúis’, ‘tried on any … charge’); note that we find ‘cionta a thriail’ expressing ‘trial of offences’ in s3.1o of this Article. While the Irish term expressing ‘charge’, ‘cúis’, has this sense, this term also renders ‘case’ (‘lawsuit’), and is translated simply as ‘cause’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘charge (i.e. criminal)’ is translated as ‘cúiseamh’ rather than ‘cúis’. ‘In due course of law’ is expressed as ‘mar is cuí de réir dlí’ (‘as is proper/due according to law’) in the Irish text. ‘No … shall’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted to’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in many earlier Articles.

i gcionta ‘Cion’ is translated as ‘offence’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 30.3. Ó Dónaill cites ‘cion sa chion, as an eye for an eye’ and Dinneen cites ‘cion san chion, trepass for trepass (part of the lex talionis’). DIL cites ‘brithemnacht forsin cin-sa’ (‘judgment on this crime’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Do bhreitheamhnus for na huile chin doní gach cintach’ (‘On judgement on every crime which an offender commits’) is the late title of a fragmentary early Irish law-text which deals mainly with the liability of relatives for a person’s crimes – see Fergus Kelly, op. cit, p. 273. See further the commentary on Article 47.2.1o. aon chúis ‘Case, charge’ is a secondary sense of ‘cúis’, primarily ‘cause’, in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘cúis dlí, lawsuit’ along with ‘cúis a bheith agat ar dhuine, to have a case against someone’ and ‘cúis a chur in aghaidh duine, to lay a charge against someone’. ‘Cúis’ is translated simply as ‘cause’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Dinneen gives ‘case in the courts’ as a sense of ‘cúis’, also giving ‘charge, accusation; cause of quarrel’, citing ‘cúis dlighidh, lawsuit, legal process’ and ‘do glaodhadh an chúis, the case was called’. DIL gives ‘cause, case; debate, dispute, controversy’ as one of the senses of ‘cúis’ (which comes from Latin ‘causa’), citing ‘doracartmar cois caích’ (‘we have argued the cause of every one’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Dia fis cía is breitheamh i ngach cúis’ (‘To find out who is a judge for every case’) is the late title of an early Irish law-text on the duties of a judge – see Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 267. See the commentary on Article 12.10.2o.

Note that Article 70 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: No one shall be tried save in due course of law .... Ní trialfar éinne ach do réir chúrsaí cuibhe na dlí.

Article 72 commences as follows: No person shall be tried on any criminal charge without a jury .... Ní trialfar aon duine in aon chúis choiriúil gan choiste.

Commentary Triail … a thriail ‘Triail’ is translated as ‘trial’ and ‘trialaim’ as ‘I try (i.e., a case)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Triailim’ is translated as ‘I try juridically, test, put to ordeal, prove myself …’ in Dinneen, who translates ‘triail’ as ‘act of trying, judging, testing, venturing; a trial (juridical), a test or ordeal …’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘cás a thriail, to try a case’ and ‘triaileadh

de réir dlí See the commentary on Article 1 regarding ‘de réir’. ‘Or otherwise to allow to be paid out of his assets in due course of law (any money due from the

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bankrupt)’ is translated as ‘nó chun a cheadú ar dhóigh eile go n-íocfar é as a eastát i gcúrsa cuí an dlí’ in s211(a) of the Companies Act, 1963, with ‘until discharged or delivered over in due course of law’ being translated as ‘go dtí go scaoilfear nó go seachadfar anonn iad i gcúrsa cuí an dlí’ in s231(1) of the Defence Act, 1954. Finally, in s9(2) of the Finance Act, 1927, ‘that the whole or any part of the amount of such uncollected tax shall be deemed to have been discharged in due course of law’ is translated as ‘go dtuigfar méid iomlán no aon chuid de mhéid iomlán na cánach nea-bhailithe sin do bheith glanta go cuibhe do réir dlí’. aon chúis choiriúil The adjective ‘coiriúil’ is translated as ‘criminal’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘cúis choiriúil, criminal charge’. Dinneen translates ‘coireamhail’ as ‘guilty’. This adjective is based on ‘coir’, ‘crime’ – see the commentary on Article 34.3.1o. Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o. cuí See the commentary on Article 43.2.1o.

Direct translation CIONTA A THRIAIL Ní dhéanfar aon duine a thriail ar aon chúiseamh coiriúil ach i gcúrsa cuí an dlí.

ARTICLE 38.2

AIRTEAGAL 38.2

TÉACS GAEILGE

Féadfar mionchionta a thriail ag cúirteanna dlínse achomaire. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Minor offences may be tried at courts of summary jurisdiction. ENGLISH TEXT

Minor offences may be tried by courts of summary jurisdiction.

Divergences between the official texts 1

There appears to be no divergences between these two texts, though ‘ag cúirteanna’ can also be read as ‘at courts’ rather than ‘by courts’.

Note that Article 72 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: No person shall be tried on any criminal charge without a jury save in the case of charges in respect of minor offences trialable by law before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction .... Ní trialfar aon duine in aon chúis choiriúil gan choiste ach i gcás cúiseanna timpeal mion-choirthe atá intrialta le dlí i láthair Chúirt Údaráis Achmair.

Commentary mionchionta ‘Mionchion’ is translated as ‘minor offence’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, this being a compound

Bunreacht na hÉireann

of the prefix ‘mion’, translated as ‘small, minute; minor, petty; micro-’ in Ó Dónaill, and ‘cion’, translated as ‘offence’ in Tearmaí Dlí – see the commentary on the previous section. DIL translates ‘min’ as ‘small (of size and quantity), minute, fine; petty, trivial’, ‘minpeccad’ (‘a venial sin’) being given as an example of a compound with ‘min’, the accusative plural of which, ‘minpeccthu’, is cited from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘If … the Justice shall be of opinion that the facts proved against the accused constitute a minor offence fit to be tried summarily’ is translated as ‘má sé barúil an Bhreithimh gur mion-chionta is intrialta ar an slí achmair an méid a cruthuíodh i gcoinnibh an duine chúisithe’ in s77B of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924. ‘If the Justice is of opinion that the facts proved or alleged against a defendant charged with such an offence constitute a minor offence fit to be tried summarily’ is translated as ‘más é tuairim an Bhreithimh gur mionchion is intriailte go hachomair na fíorais a cruthaíodh nó a líomhnaíodh i gcoinne chosantóir a bheidh cúisithe i gcion den sórt sin’ in s8(2)(a) of the Dumping at Sea Act, 1981. cúirteanna dlínse achomaire ‘Cúirt dlínse achomhaire’ is translated as ‘court of summary jurisdiction’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘dlínse achomair’ being translated as ‘summary jurisdiction’ and the adjective ‘achomair’ as ‘summary’ – see the commentary on Article 30.3. Ó Dónaill gives ‘summary’ as a secondary sense of ‘achomair’, translated principally as ‘concise, brief’, ‘athchomair’ being translated in Dinneen as ‘near, approximate; concise, compendious; quick, sudden’. Note that ‘achoimre’ rather than ‘achomaire’ is the form of the genitive singular in Ó Dónaill. ‘Athchummair’ is translated as ‘concise, brief’ in DIL; this headword is a compound of the prefix ‘ath-’, usually with the sense of ‘second, a further’ when combined with nouns, and ‘cummair’ (‘short, brief’), which is itself a compound of ‘com’ plus ‘berr’ (‘short’, ‘berraid’ being translated as ‘shears, clips; shaves’). In s4(5) of the Interpretation Act, 1923, ‘the expression “court of summary jurisdiction” shall mean a District Court’ is translated as ‘ciallóidh an focal “cúirt údaráis achmair” Cúirt Dúithche’. ‘All the penalties under this Act may be recovered and enforced in manner directed by the Summary Jurisdiction Acts before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction’ is translated as ‘Féadfar na pionóisí uile fén Acht so do bhaint amach agus d’fhoirfheidhmiú, sa tslí a horduítear leis na hAchtanna Dlighinse Achmair, os cóir Cúirte Dlighinse Achmair’ in s27 of the Cork Milling Company Railway Act, 1935, with ‘os cóir cúirte dlighinse achmaire’ translating ‘before a court of summary jurisdiction’ in s38(2) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) (No. 2) Act, 1940. ag The principal sense of this prepostion is ‘at’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘ag baile, at home’ and ‘ag Bealach an Doirín, at, when at, Ballaghadereen’, these being examples of this preposition not being followed by the definite article. ‘Ag’ is also used in the sense of ‘agent or instrument’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘tá sé briste agat, you have broken it’ and ‘caite ag an aois, worn out by age’. Dinneen states that this preposition ‘denotes the agent of actions going on or finished’, citing ‘tá sé scríobhtha agam, I have written it’ and ‘cad tá agat dá scríobhadh? what are you writing’. Dinneen adds the following:


A study of the Irish text

[Ag] is not used of agent generally except after past participle constructions or the verbal corresponding to the present participle in English. When the tense of the verb expressing the action is simply stated with a past participle or a verbal corresponding to the English present participle ag is not used. Thus we do not say ithtear agam é, it is being eaten by me.

DIL gives examples of ‘oc’, ‘almost in sense of agent’, stating: Strictly, oc idicates, not the agent, but the quarter, group of individuals, etc., in which the action takes place or has its origin. With passive often employed instead of do where that preposition is needed in another sense. (In Modern Irish ag is commonly used to denote the agent after a participle in periphrasis for perfect tense: atá an litir scríobhtha agam, I have written.)

From earlier literature, DIL cites ‘co torchair acu iarsin iar cur a n-áir’ (‘he fell at their hands after slaying many of them’) and ‘cia coa [recte oca?] ndernad in chet-long?’ (‘by whom was the first ship made?’) Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú cites ‘ní maith do gabhadh an creidiomh sin ag Tomás’ from Pairlement Chloinne Tomáis (Bergin, l. 40). ‘Such person may be tried by any class of court-martial’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh aon chineál armchúirte … an duine sin a thriail’ in s121(a) of the Defence Act, 1954, with ‘féadfar é a thriail ag ceachtar acu’ translating ‘(A person) may be tried by either of them’ in s243(4).

Direct translation

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Féadfar mionchionta a thriail ag cúirteanna dlínse achomaire.1

Variants

525

‘Faoi leith’ in the Irish text is usually taken to mean ‘specific’, ‘separate’, ‘distinct’; ‘special’ is translated simply as ‘speisialta’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Where it may be determined’ is expressed as ‘a gcinnfear ina dtaobh’ (‘regarding which it will be determined’) in the Irish text. ‘Are inadequate’ is expressed as ‘nach leor’ (‘are not adequate’) in the Irish text, ‘leor’ generally expressing ‘enough, sufficient’, whereas ‘inadequate’ is translated as ‘neamhleor’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘To secure the effective administration of justice’ is expressed as ‘chun riaradh cirt a chur i bhfeidhm le héifeacht’ (‘to enforce [the] administration of justice effectively’) in the Irish text, ‘secure’ being expressed by ‘cuir i bhfeidhm’ (‘enforce’), and ‘le héifeacht’ (‘effectively’) qualifying ‘a chur i bhfeidhm’ rather than ‘riaradh cirt’ (‘the administration of justice’), as in the English text. ‘Public’ qualifies both ‘peace’ and ‘order’ in the English text (though one might perhaps read the text as if only ‘peace’ was so qualified), but as ‘poiblí’ in the Irish syntax cannot be regarded as qualifying ‘síocháin’ (‘poiblí’ being unlenited), it necessarily qualifies ‘ord’ only, i.e. the Irish means ‘peace and public order’. ‘Justice’ is expressed by ‘ceart’, which term is translated simply as ‘right’ in Téarmaí Dlí, though it has the sense of ‘justice’ in general usage, while ‘justice’ is specifically translated as ‘ceartas’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘De réir an dlí sin’ (‘in accordance with such law’) is preceded and followed by a comma in the Irish text, no corresponding commas being found in the English text, which text alone has a comma following ‘justice’, before the final clause.

1 ‘Féadfaidh cúirteanna dlínse achomaire mionchionta a thriail.’

Commentary

ARTICLE 38.3.1

O

AIRTEAGAL 38.3.1

O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Féadfar cúirteanna faoi leith a bhunú le dlí chun cionta a thriail i gcásanna a gcinnfear ina dtaobh, de réir an dlí sin, nach leor na gnáthchúirteanna chun riaradh cirt a chur i bhfeidhm le héifeacht agus chun síocháin agus ord poiblí a chaomhnú. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Specific courts may be established by law to try offences in cases regarding which it will be determined, in accordance with that law, that the ordinary courts are not adequate to enforce effectively the administration of justice and to preserve public order and peace. ENGLISH TEXT

Special courts may be established by law for the trial of offences in cases where it may be determined in accordance with such law that the ordinary courts are inadequate to secure the effective administration of justice, and the preservation of public peace and order.

faoi leith See the commentary on Articles 12.3.3o and 15.9.1o regarding ‘ar leith’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘ar leith, faoi leith’ as ‘apart, separate; several, distinct; remarkable, special’, citing ‘cás ar leith, separate, exceptional, case’ and ‘aire ar leith, special care’. Dinneen translates ‘ar leith’ as ‘apart, separately, severally’, citing ‘do rónsad sluagh ar leith díobh féin, they formed themselves into a distinct host’. DIL cites ‘gnáe far leth’ from the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian (where this phrase glosses Latin ‘separatim’), as an example of the quasi-adjectival use of ‘leth’ with ‘for’ in the sense of ‘apart, separate, different, special’. Turning specifically to ‘special’, ‘special agent’ is translated as ‘gníomhaire speisialta’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘the Special Criminal Court’ is styled ‘an Chúirt Choiriúil Speisialta’ and ‘special sitting’ is translated as ‘suí speisialta’. Looking at early Acts regarding ‘special’, ‘unless the Court on any special ground shall otherwise order’ is translated as ‘mara n-ordóidh an Chúirt a mhalairt mar gheall ar aon chúis fé leith’ in s18(1) of the Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest (Restrictions) Act, 1923. In Schedule (B) of the Appropriation Act, 1923, however, ‘For the salaries and other expenses of Temporary Commissions, Committees and Special Inquiries’ is translated as ‘chun tuarastail agus costaisí eile Coimisiún Sealadach, Coistí agus Fiosrúchán Speisialta’. The title of Part III of the Public Safety Act,


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1927, ‘Proclamation Authorising Special Courts’ is translated as ‘Furógra Ag Údarú Cúirteanna Speisialta’. riaradh cirt ‘Riaradh’ is given as a variant of ‘riar’, verbal noun of the verb ‘riar’, in Ó Dónaill, citing ‘riar cirt, administration of justice’. ‘Riaraim’ is translated as ‘I administer (estate, justice, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Dinneen gives both ‘riar’ and ‘riaradh’ as forms of the verbal noun of this headword, ‘act of administering’ being given as one of the senses of a separate headword ‘riaradh’. The earlier ‘ríarad’, verbal noun of ‘ríaraid’, is translated in DIL as (a) ‘serving’ and (b) ‘ministering to, attending on, supplying’, the verb being based on ‘ríar’, translated principally as ‘will, wish, often of expression of will, demand, request, decision’ in DIL, where ‘mad mo ríar-sa dognethe’ (‘if it were my will that ye did’) is cited from the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Uraicecht na Ríar’ (‘the Primer of the Stipulations’) is the title of an early Irish law-tract which deals with the qualifications of the various grades of poet – see the 1987 edition and translation by Liam Breatnach. See the commentary on Articles 34.1 and 43.2.1o regarding ‘ceart’ (genitive singular ‘cirt’), translated as ‘right’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘ceartas’ translates ‘justice’. Following this subsection, however, ‘ar mhaithe le riaradh cirt ag Cúirt’ renders ‘in the interests of the administration of justice by a Court’ in Article 28.4.3o, which subsection was added to the text by the Seventeenth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1997. ‘Proceedings before the High Court … shall be as informal as is practicable and consistent with the administration of justice’ is translated as ‘Beidh imeachtaí os comhair na hArd-Chúirte … chomh neamhfhoirmiúil agus is féidir agus i gcomhréir le riaradh ceartais’ in s29(4) of the Child Care Act, 1991. ‘Persons concerned with administration of justice’ is translated as ‘Daoine a bhfuil baint acu le riaradh ceartais’ in the heading in Schedule 1 of the Juries Act, 1976. In s48(a) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939, ‘that the ordinary Courts are … inadequate to secure the effective administration of justice and the preservation of public peace and order’ is translated as ‘nach leor na gnáth-chúirteanna chun a chur in áirithe go riarfaí ceart go héifeachtúil agus go gcoimeádfaí an tsíocháin agus an t-ord puiblí’. The Long Title of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936, ‘An Act to make further and better provision in relation to the administration of justice’, is translated as ‘Acht chun socruithe bhreise agus fheabhsa do dhéanamh maidir le riaradh cirt’, with ‘for purposes relating to the better administration of justice’ being translated as ‘chun crícheanna a bhaineas le feabhsú riara cirt’ in the Long Title of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924. ‘Whenever the Executive Council is of opinion that it is necessary in order to secure the due administration of justice and the sure punishment of crime’ is translated as ‘Pé uair gurb é tuairim na hArd-Chomhairle, chun a chur in áirithe go riarfar ceart go cuibhe agus go bpionósfar coirthe go siúrálta’ in s20(1) of the Public Safety Act, 1927. Note finally that ‘justice’ is expressed as ‘cothrom’ in Article 29.1. a chur i bhfeidhm ‘I bhfeidhm’ is translated as ‘in force’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘cuirim i bhfeidhm’ is translated as ‘I enforce’, this phrase being translated as ‘I carry out (as an order), use (as a tool), make operative (as an Act of Parliament)’ in Dinneen. ‘Rud a chur i bhfeidhm’ is trans-

Bunreacht na hÉireann

lated as ‘to put something into operation’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘caithfear an dlí a chur i bhfeidhm, the law must be enforced’. The primary meaning of ‘feidhm’ seems to be ‘load, stress, strain’, passing into the senses of ‘utmost effort, effort, exertion, burden, service, function’ according to DIL. See the commentary on Article 28.3.3o regarding ‘secure’ (expressed in that Article by ‘cuir in áirithe’) and note above s.v. ‘riaradh cirt’, how this is translated as ‘a chur in áirithe’ in the present context in s20(1) of the Public Safety Act, 1927. ‘To facilitate the proper administration of justice, secure the observance of police regulations’ is translated as ‘chun cuí-riaradh an cheartais a urasú, chun a áirithiú go gcomhallfar rialacháin phóilíneachta’ in s21 of the Third Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. Regarding the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú comments that he would prefer ‘a dheimhniú’, or even ‘a chinntiú’, to ‘a áirithiú’. le héifeacht ‘Rud a dhéanamh le héifeacht’ is translated as ‘to do something competently, effectively’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘labhair sé le héifeacht, he spoke strongly, to good effect’. Dinneen translates ‘éifeacht’ as ‘force, point, substance; avail; sense, wisdom; maturity’, citing ‘cé file tú le héifeacht, though you are a poet composing with sense’, concluding his entry, s.v. ‘éifeacht’ with ‘cf, effect’. DIL translates ‘éifecht’ as ‘efficacy, vigour, substance, meaning, purport’, seventeenth-century texts being the source of most of DIL’s citations. Looking at early translations of ‘effective’, ‘A person shall not receive any part of a grant which may be made in pursuance of this Act for non-effective services’ is translated as ‘Ní bhfaghaidh neach aon chuid de dheontas a déanfar ar aon seirbhísí neamh-fheidhmiúla do réir an Achta so’ in s4 of the Appropriation Act, 1922. ‘Every act, matter and thing done … shall … be as valid and effective as if the same had been regularly done by a Magistrate’ is translated as ‘Gach gníomh, rud agus ní dineadh … beid chó stóinsithe agus chó héifeachtach is dá ndintí an céanna go rialta ag Máistreoir’ in s9(2) of the District Justices (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. Turning to the modern Acts, ‘local facilities and services for the proper and effective administration of the assistance’ is translated as ‘saoráidí agus seirbhísí logánta chun an cúnamh a riar ar bhealach iomchuí agus éifeachtach’ in s(b) of Article 3 of the Second Schedule to the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, for example. ‘And generally for the effective administration of the Scheme’ is translated as ‘agus, i gcoitinne, chun an Scéim a riaradh go héifeachtúil’ in s5 of the Employment Premium Act, 1975. a chaomhnú See the commentary on Article 28.3.3o. Ó Dónaill cites ‘nós, teanga, a chaomhnú, to preserve a custom, a language’. The verb ‘cáemnaid’ is based on ‘cáemna’, translated primarily as ‘act of protecting, keeping’ in DIL, where ‘sírchóemna m’anmasa’ is cited from Leabhar na hUidhre, compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100. See the commentary on Article 24.1 as regards ‘preservation’. Note that ‘that in the interests of the preservation of public peace and order it is expedient that the sale of intoxicating liquor in any town or village should immediately cease’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil sé oiriúnach, chun síocháin agus ordú puiblí do chimeád, stad do chur


A study of the Irish text

láithreach le deocha meisciúla do dhíol in aon bhaile no sráidbhaile’ in s2 of the Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1924. ‘Lawfully engaged on duties relating to the preservation of peace and order’ is translated as ‘bheidh ag gabháil go dleathach do dhualgaisí bhainfidh le síocháin agus ordú do choimeád’ in s3 of the Treason Act, 1939, with ‘a chólíonann, go dleathach, dualgaisí a bhaineann le síocháin agus ordú do chimeád’ translating the above in s2 of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925. ‘That I will see and cause the peace to be kept and preserved’ is translated as ‘go bhféachfad chuige agus go gcuirfad fé ndeár go gcimeádfar agus go gcosnófar an tsíocháin’ in the ‘Form of Declaration’ in the Fourth Schedule to the Police Forces Amalgamation Act, 1925. Note finally that ‘cosain’ expresses ‘preserve’ in Article 24.1. ord poiblí ‘Ord’ is translated basically as ‘order’ in Ó Dónaill, who does not cite this phrase. Dinneen translates ‘órd’ as ‘order, arrangement, series; custom, law, practice, procedure; ordo, ritual, office, liturgy …’. Old Irish ‘ord(d)’ is a learned loanword from Latin ‘ordo’, translated as ‘order, sequence’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the eighth-century Glosses onwards – see the commentary on Article 40.6.1o. ‘Subject to public order and morality’ is translated as ‘gan dochar don rialtacht ná don mhoráltacht phuiblí’ in Article 8 of the 1922 Constitution. ‘The officer so appointed shall keep order at his station’ is translated as ‘déanfaidh an t-oifigeach a ceapfar amhlaidh órdathacht do chimeád ina stáisiún’ in s19 of the Fifth Schedule to the Electoral Act, 1923. ‘Any message or communication subversive of public order’ is translated as ‘aon teachtaireacht no conbharsáid a bheadh díobhálach don ordú phuiblí’ in s11(1)(b) of the Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1926. ‘The Criminal Justice (Public Order) Act, 1994’ is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht um Cheartas Coiriúil (Ord Poiblí), 1994’. ‘In the interests of public order or security or safety’ is translated as ‘ar mhaithe le dea-ord poiblí nó slándáil nó sábháilteacht’ in s10(1) of the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1988. ‘To aid the civil power in the preservation of public order’ is translated as ‘chun cabhrú leis an gcumhacht síbhialta chun an t-ord poiblí a choimeád’ in s273(9) of the Mental Treatment Act, 1945. See further the commentary on Article 40.6.1o. nach leor ‘Is leor sin’ is translated as ‘that is enough’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘Is leor a rá (go), suffice it to say (that)’. Dinneen cites ‘an leor sain? is that enough? is leor sain, enough’. DIL translate ‘lór’ as ‘enough, sufficient; also adequate, competent’, citing ‘am loor fri cach reit’ (I am ‘competent to deal with any eventuality’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Inadequate consideration’ is translated as ‘comaoin neamhleor’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘If it appears to the Minister for Justice that the provisions of this section are inadequate to prevent the negligent or fraudulent handling of money for a client’ is translated as ‘Más dealraitheach don Aire Dlí agus cirt nach leor forálacha an ailt seo chun cosc a chur le faillí agus calaois ag láimhsiú airgid do chliant’ in s5(9)(a) of the Auctioneers and House Agents Act, 1967. ‘If and wherever and so often as the Government is satisfied that the ordinary courts are inadequate to secure the effective administration of justice and the preservation of public

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

527

peace and order’ is translated as ‘Más deimhin agus pé uair agus chó minic agus is deimhin leis an Riaghaltas nach leor na gnáth-chúirteanna chun a chur in áirithe go riarfar ceart go héifeachtúil agus go gcoimeádfar an tsíocháin agus an t-ord puiblí’ in s35(2) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939. a gcinnfear 12.11.2o.

See the commentary on Articles 1 and

Direct translation Féadfar cúirteanna speisialta a bhunú1 le dlí chun cionta a thriail i gcásanna ina gcinnfear de réir an dlí sin nach leor2 na gnáthchúirteanna chun riaradh3 éifeachtach ceartais a áirithiú4, agus síocháin phoiblí agus ord poiblí a chaomhnú.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘a chur ar bun’ ‘gur neamhleor’ ‘riar’ ‘a dheimhniú’, ‘a chinntiú’

ARTICLE 38.3.2O

AIRTEAGAL 38.3.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Is le dlí a shocrófar comhdhéanamh, cumhachtaí, dlínse agus nós imeachta na gcúirteanna faoi leith sin. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is by law that the constitution, powers, jurisdiction and procedure of those specific courts will be arranged. ENGLISH TEXT

The constitution, powers, jurisdiction and procedure of such special courts shall be prescribed by law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

‘Prescribe’ is expressed by ‘socraigh’, which term is translated as ‘settle’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Special’ is expressed by ‘faoi leith’, ‘specific’, as in the previous subsection, with ‘speisialta’ translating ‘special’ in Téarmaí Dlí, as we have seen.

Commentary a shocrófar See the commentary on Articles 27.2 and 34.4.3o, where ‘prescribe’ is expressed by ‘ordaigh’. Again Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below, favours ‘ordaigh’ to the term generally used in the modern Acts, ‘forordaigh’, remarking that ‘for-’ adds nothing but affectation of expression (“forcamás friotail”) to that version. nós imeachta See the commentary on Articles 29.4.2o and 36iii. faoi leith See the commentary on the previous subsection. comhdhéanamh See the commentary on Article 36iii. dlínse See the commentary on Article 3.


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Direct translation Déanfar comhdhéanamh, cumhachtaí, dlínse agus nós imeachta na gcúirteanna speisialta sin a fhorordú1 le dlí.

Variant 1 ‘a ordú’

ARTICLE 38.4.1O

AIRTEAGAL 38.4.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Féadfar binsí míleata a bhunú chun daoine a thriail i gcionta in aghaidh dlí mhíleata a deirtear a rinneadar le linn a mbeith faoi dhlí mhíleata, agus fós chun broic le heisíth nó le ceannairc faoi arm. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Military benches may be established to try people in offences against military law which it is said they did while they were under military law, and moreover to cope with unrest or with armed rebellion. ENGLISH TEXT

Military tribunals may be established for the trial of offences against military law alleged to have been committed by persons while subject to military law and also to deal with a state of war or armed rebellion.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4 5

6

7

‘For the trial of offences … committed by persons’ is expressed as ‘chun daoine a thriail i gcionta … a rinneadar’ (‘to try people in offences … they committed/did’) in the Irish text, whereas ‘chun cionta a thriail’ expresses ‘for the trial of offences’ in s3.1o of this Article. ‘Offences … alleged to have been committed’ is expressed as ‘cionta … a deirtear a rinneadar’ (‘offences … said to have been committed [by them]’) in the Irish text; ‘I allege’ is translated as ‘líomhnaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Subject to military law’ is expressed as ‘faoi dhlí mhíleata’ (‘under military law’) in the Irish text, ‘subject to’ being translated as ‘faoi réir’ in Téarmaí Dlí. The phrase expressing ‘military law’ in the Irish text, ‘dlí míleata’, can also be read as ‘martial law’. ‘To deal with’ is expressed in the Irish text by a phrase generally understood to be ‘to tolerate’, ‘broic le’, having the earlier sense of ‘to meddle with’. ‘State of war’ is expressed by ‘eisíth’, a term literally meaning ‘non-peace’ and, while it is translated by Dinneen as ‘state of war’, in Ó Dónaill it is translated as ‘lack of peace; dissension, strife, quarrel’. The final clause is preceded by a comma in the Irish text, no corresponding comma being found in the English text.

Note that Article 70 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: … extra-ordinary military courts shall not be established, save only such Military Tribunals as may be

Bunreacht na hÉireann

authorised by law for dealing with Military offenders against military law. The jurisdiction of Military Tribunals shall not be extended to or exercised over the civil population save in time of war or armed rebellion …. ní bunófar cúirteanna nea-choitianta, ach amháin pé Binsi Airm a údarófar le dlí chun lucht airm a bhrisfidh dlí airm a thriail. Ní shroichfidh údarás na mBinsi Airm chun an phobail shíbhialta ná ní cuirfear i bhfeidhm ortha é ach in aimsir chogaidh no rebiliúntachta armtha agus mar gheall ar ghníomhartha a déanfar in aimsir chogaidh no rebiliúntachta armtha.

Commentary binsí ‘Binse’ is translated as ‘tribunal’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘barántas binse’ is translated as ‘bench warrant’. Ó Dónaill gives the following senses of ‘binse’ in Jurisprudence: ‘An Binse, the Bench’, ‘binse breithimh, judge’s bench; tribunal’, citing ‘idir barra is binse, in open court’. ‘Bínse’ is translated as ‘a seat, a bench; bench in court’ in Dinneen and ‘bein(n)se’/‘béinse’ is translated as ‘bench, table; the Judicial Bench’ in DIL, this word being either a French or an English loanword. DIL cites ‘do Justis beinnsi an rígh’ (‘King’s bench’) from the Annals of the Four Masters. ‘Binse Airm’ translates ‘Military Tribunal’ in the 1922 Constitution and in the Long Title of the Indemnity Act, 1923, which commences as follows: An Act to restrict the taking of legal proceedings in respect of certain acts and matters done during the suppression of the state of armed rebellion created by the attempt to overthrow by force the lawfully established Government of Saorstát Éireann, and to validate sentences imposed by military tribunals established in the course of the suppression of the state of armed rebellion aforesaid …. Acht chun teora do chur le himeachta dlí do bhunú i dtaobh gníomhartha agus nithe áirithe a dineadh le linn cur-ar-ceal do bheith á dhéanamh ar an staid rebeliúntachta armtha a tháinig as an iarracht a tugadh fén Rialtas a bunuíodh go dleathach do Shaorstát Éireann do threascairt, agus chun dleathacht do thabhairt do bhreitheanna a thug bínsí airm a bunuíodh le linn an staid rebeliúntachta armtha san do bheith á chur ar ceal.

‘The Minister, if he so thinks fit, may direct in writing that the charge shall be dealt with by a military tribunal’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an tAire, más oiriúnach leis é, a ordú i scríbhinn gur binse míleata a thriailfeas an cúiseamh’ in s7(1) of the Prisoners of War and Enemy Aliens Act, 1956. As regards ‘tribunal’ alone, the ‘Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) (Amendment) Act, 1979’ is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht um Binsí Fiosrúcháin (Fianaise) (Leasú), 1979’, for example. faoi dhlí mhíleata On the lenition of the adjective in the dative case, following a masculine noun, see the commentary on Article 45. ‘Míleata’ is translated as ‘military; soldierly, martial’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘seirbhís mhíleata, military service’ and ‘iompar míleata, soldierly bearing’, citing ‘dlí míleata, martial law’ s.v. ‘dlí’. Dinneen translates ‘míleata’ as ‘knightly, valorous, military’. DIL translates ‘míleta’ as ‘pertaining to or befitting a warrior, martial’, . citing ‘co barrúachtar a dondfúathróci donddergi míleta’ (‘[reaching] to the top of his dark apron, dark-red,


A study of the Irish text

soldierly’) from the description of Cú Chulainn in the version of the Táin in Leabhar na hUidhre (compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100). This adjective is based on ‘míl’ (‘a soldier’), which is an early loanword from Latin ‘miles’, the dative plural form, ‘do miledaib’, being cited in DIL from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. We find ‘mílid’ as the form of the nominative singular in Middle Irish, this being the form of the accusative singular in Old Irish. ‘Mílid Espáine’ (‘soldier of Spain’) was the name given to Golam son of Bile, ‘mythical ancestor of the Goídil’, i.e. the Gaels or the Milesian stock in Ireland and Scotland. Dr Dáithí Ó hÓgáin writes as follows in his encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition, Myth, Legend & Romance (1990, p. 296) s.v. ‘Míl’: Fictional ancestor of the Irish people. His full name is given as Míl Easpáine and is an invention of the - Hispaniae’ historians, patterned on the Latin term ‘miles (soldier of Spain). Though it is possible that there was a character called Míl in genuine Celtic mythology, the idea of such a Spanish ancestor developed from the fanciful derivation of the Latin word for Ireland, - or Hiberia. Hibernia, from Iberia

The expression ‘meic (clann, etc.) Míled’ (= ‘Gaels, Irishmen’) is common in poetry – see DIL s.v. ‘míl’. Looking at early official translations, we see above in ‘Bínse Airm’ translating ‘Military Tribunal’ that the genitive singular of ‘arm’ acted as an attributive adjective to translate ‘military’. We find other phrases similarly translated, such as ‘military districts’ (‘ceanntair airm’) and ‘military reward’ (‘duais airm’) in Acts of 1923. Note that ‘in occupation of the military’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘i seilbh an airm’ in a ‘Cover’ of an Official Report of Dáil Debates, 17/1/24. Note, finally, that ‘martial court’ is translated as ‘armchúirt’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Forms part of a force which is engaged in operations against the enemy or is engaged in military operations in a place wholly or partly occupied by the enemy’ is translated as ‘ina chuid d’fhórsa atá ag oibriú i gcoinnibh an namhad no atá ag déanamh oibre cogaidh in áit atá fé ghabháil go hiomlán no go leathrannach ag an namhaid’ in s16 of the Army Pensions Act, 1923. The form ‘mileata’ – a historically inaccurate form, as Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks – is found in the 1923 Acts, with ‘the Irish Military College’ styled ‘An Coláiste Mileata’ in s23(2) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, and ‘Ceannas Mileata in aimsir cogaidh’ translating ‘Military Command in time of war’ in the Margin Title of s27, for example. As regards more modern Acts, ‘the Military Service Pensions (Increase) Act, 1962’ is cited in Irish as ‘Acht na bPinsean Seirbhíse Míleata (Méadú), 1962’, for example. broic le ‘Broic’ is the verbal noun of the verb ‘broic’ which, with the preposition ‘le’, is translated as ‘bear, tolerate’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘bheith ag broic le rud, to put up with something’. ‘Broicim (le)’ is translated as ‘I tolerate, endure’ in the ‘additional words’ added to the Glossary appended to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘broic’ implies a sense of ‘struggle’, and has more explicitly that meaning in the poetry of Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625-1698): ‘sagart súgach mé gan Laidin / lé ní bhroicim’, where the editor (not very accurately, according to Máirtín Ó Murchú) translated ‘ní bhroicim’ as ‘I don’t bother with it’, and ‘broic re rámhain

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i n-aois úcaidh’, where the editor (equally inaccurately, according to Professor Ó Murchú) translated ‘broic’ as ‘meddling’ (‘meddling with a spade …’); as a consequence these meanings are given for ‘broic’ in Dinneen and DIL. ‘Déileáil’ generally translates ‘deal (with)’ today, and is found in s21(5) of the Electoral Act, 1923, where ‘in sending out, receiving and otherwise dealing with the ballot papers of postal voters’ is translated as ‘Ag cur amach agus ag fáil páipéirí ballóide post-vótáluithe dho, agus ag deighleáil leo ar shlite eile dho’. ‘To assist in the planning and implementation of measures to deal with radiological emergencies’ is translated as ‘cabhrú chun bearta le déileáil le héigeandálaí raideolaíocha a phleanáil agus a chur i gcrích’ in s7(1)(e) of the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, for example. Note, finally, as we saw above, that ‘The Minister, if he so thinks fit, may direct in writing that the charge shall be dealt with by a military tribunal’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an tAire, más oiriúnach leis é, a ordú i scríbhinn gur binse míleata a thriailfeas an cúiseamh’ in s7(1) of the Prisoners of War and Enemy Aliens Act, 1956. a deirtear The passive, present indicative, of ‘abair’, ‘say’. Ó Dónaill gives the sense of ‘state, allege’ as one of the senses of ‘abair’, citing ‘deir sé go bhfuil ocras air, he says he is hungry’ and ‘sin é a deir na húdair, that is what the authorities state’. DIL translates ‘as-beir’ simply as ‘says, speaks’. See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o where ‘á rá’ expresses ‘alleging’. ‘I allege’ is translated as ‘líomhnaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘líomhnaim’ being translated by Dinneen as ‘I impute (a crime, etc., to ar), inculpate, ascribe to’, as well as ‘I woo, have carnal intercourse with (ar)’ – Keating’s seventeenthcentury History of Ireland being cited as source of the latter sense. Dinneen also cites ‘ní féidir coir im’ leith do líomhnadh, ní dheárnas goid ná broid ná bruighneas, no crime can be imputed to me, I have not robbed, plundered nor quarrelled’ from the eighteenth-century Clare poet, Andrew MacCurtin. Ó Dónaill translates ‘líomhain’ principally as ‘allege, impute’. The verb ‘líamnaid’ is translated as ‘charges, accuses’ in DIL, citing ‘file … do bhí ag Conchubhar … do liamhnadh ar Mhaghain bean Chonchubhair’ (‘… he was accused of carrying on an intrigue with …’). ‘Líamnaid’ is based on ‘líamain’, which is translated in DIL as (a) ‘reproach, fault’ and (b) ‘act of imputing, slandering’, frequently of accusation of sexual misdemeanour, according to DIL, citing ‘oc liamain a fir for mnai aile’ from the twelfth-century Book of Leinster. ‘Líamain’ itself is a late verbal noun of the verb ‘líid’, translated as ‘charges, accuses, imputes to’ in DIL, where ‘liimse forrusom díltud esséirge Crist’ (‘I accuse them of denying Christ’s resurrection’) is cited form the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Deir’ translates ‘allege’ in early Acts. In s1(3)(b) of the Indemnity Act, 1923, ‘any proceedings in respect of any alleged rights under, or breaches of, any contract’ is translated as ‘aon imeachta i dtaobh aon chearta adeirtar atá ann fé aon chonnra no i dtaobh aon bhriseanna ar aon chonnra’. ‘An alleged invention’ is translated as ‘rud go ndeirtear gur cumadóireacht é’ in s3 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927, with ‘satisfies him that such allegation is untrue’ being translated as ‘a chur ina luighe air nách fíor an rud san adubhradh’ in s6(1) of the Public Safety (Punishment of Offences) Temporary Act, 1924. ‘Whether the allegations made by


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the person making the claim are or are not true’ is translated as ‘ce’ca fíor no bréagach na ráitisí a dhin an té a bheas ag déanamh an éilimh’ in s6(2) of the Indemnity Act, 1924. In s9(1) of the Oil in Navigable Waters Act, 1926, ‘Where any offence under this Act is alleged to have been committed by the master of a vessel’ is translated as ‘Má deirtar aon chionta fén Acht so do bheith déanta ag máistir árthaigh’. Note that ‘Alleged personation’ is translated as ‘Pearsanú do chur i leith duine’ in the Margin Title of s25 of the Fifth Schedule to the Electoral Act, 1923. Finally, to give an example from modern Acts, ‘in relation to an offence alleged to have been committed by a person acting on behalf of a trade union’ is translated as ‘maidir le cion a líomhnaítear a rinne duine ag gníomhú dó thar ceann ceardchumainn’ in s9(6) of the Electricity (Special Provisions) Act, 1966. See further the commentary on Article 40.4.2o. le linn a mbeith This phrase would generally be replaced by ‘le linn dóibh bheith’ today. Dinneen cites ‘le linn iad do bheith ag dul thar brághaid, just as they were passing’. ‘Where imported goods … are supplied while warehoused’ is translated as ‘I gcás ina ndéanfar earraí allmharaithe … a sholáthar le linn dóibh bheith i stóras’ in s12(4) of the Value-Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978, for example, with ‘a fuair bás le linn dó a bheith ag fónamh sna fórsaí’ translating ‘died while serving in the forces’ in s11(1)(b) of the Army Pension Act, 1973. a rinneadar The synthetic form of the third person plural, perfect tense, of ‘déan’ – see the commentary on Article 14.5.1o regarding the synthetic and analytic (i.e., ‘a rinne siad’) forms of the verb. le heisíth See the commentary on Article 40.4.6o, ‘eisíth’ being translated as ‘lack of peace; dissension, strife, quarrel’ in Ó Dónaill and ‘eisíoth’ being translated as ‘state of war’ in Dinneen.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ARTICLE 38.4.2O TÉACS GAEILGE

Duine de na Fórsaí Cosanta nach bhfuil ar fianas ní cead é a thriail i láthair aon armchúirte ná binse míleata eile i gcion is intriailte sna cúirteanna sibhialta, mura cion é atá faoi dhlínse aon armchúirte nó binse míleata eile faoi aon dlí chun smacht míleata a chur i bhfeidhm. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

A person of the Defence Forces who is not on (military) service it is not permitted to try him before any army court or other military bench in an offence that can be tried in the civil courts, unless it is a crime which is under the jurisdiction of any army court or other military bench under any law to enforce military discipline. ENGLISH TEXT

A member of the Defence Forces not on active service shall not be tried by any courtmartial or other military tribunal for an offence cognisable by the civil courts unless such offence is within the jurisdiction of any courtmartial or other military tribunal under any law for the enforcement of military discipline.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3

4

ceannairc faoi arm See the commentary on Articles 28.3.3o and 40.4.6o, ‘ceannairc faoi airm’ being translated as ‘armed rebellion’ in Téarmaí Dlí.

5

fós See the commentary on Articles 15.3.2o and 29.2. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú favours ‘fós’ to ‘freisin’ in the direct translation below.

6

Standardised Irish text Féadfar binsí míleata a bhunú chun daoine a thriail i gcionta in aghaidh dlí mhíleata a deirtear a rinne siad le linn iad a bheith faoi dhlí míleata, agus fós chun broic le heisíth nó le ceannairc faoi arm.

7

8

Direct translation Féadfar binsí míleata a bhunú chun cionta in aghaidh dlí mhíleata a thriail ar cionta iad a líomhnaítear a rinne daoine le linn dóibh a bheith faoi réir dlí mhíleata agus fós1 chun déileáil le staid chogaidh nó ceannairc faoi airm.

Variant 1 ‘freisin’

AIRTEAGAL 38.4.2O

9

‘A member’ is expressed as ‘Duine’, ‘A person’ / ‘One’, in the Irish text. The Irish phrase expressing ‘on active service’, ‘ar fianas’, can be read as ‘on a military expedition’ or simply as ‘on service’; it is a term which carries echoes of early Irish history and society. ‘Tried by any court martial’ is expressed as ‘a thriail i láthair aon armchúirte’ (‘tried before any court martial’) in the Irish text. ‘The Defence Forces’ are styled ‘Óglaigh na hÉireann’ in the Acts, rather than the literal translation, ‘na Fórsaí Cosanta’, as here. ‘Tried … for an offence’ is expressed as ‘a thriail … i gcion’ (‘tried … in an offence’) in the Irish text, the phrase we find in the heading of this Article, for example. As in the Acts, ‘cognisable by the civil courts’ is expressed as ‘is intriailte sna cúirteanna sibhialta’ (‘that can be tried in the civil courts’) in the Irish text, this being followed by a comma in that text alone. ‘Any court martial or other military tribunal’ is expressed as ‘aon armchúirte ná binse míleata eile’ (‘any court martial nor other military tribunal’) in the Irish text. ‘Within the jurisdiction’ is expressed as ‘faoi dhlínse …’ (‘under the jurisdiction’) in the Irish text. ‘Shall not’ is expressed as ‘ní cead’ (‘it is not permitted to’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in many earlier Articles.

Note that Article 71 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: A member of the armed forces of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) not on active service shall not be tried by any Court Martial or other Military Tribunal


A study of the Irish text

for an offence cognisable by the Civil Courts, unless such offence shall have been brought expressly within the jurisdiction of Courts Martial or other Military Tribunal by any code of laws or regulations for the enforcement of military discipline which may be hereafter approved by the Oireachtas. Aon duine d’fhórsaí armtha Shaorstáit Éireann ná beidh ar seirbhís chogúil ní thrialfaidh aon Chúirt Airm ná aon Bhinse eile Airm é in aon choir intrialta ag sna Cúirteanna Síbhialta mara dtabharfar an choir sin go speisialta laistigh d’údarás Chúirteanna Airm, no aon Bhinse eile Airm, le haon chórus dlithe no rialacha chun smacht airm do chur i bhfeidhm a mholfaidh an t-Oireachtas ’na dhiaidh seo.

Commentary ar fianas ‘Fiannas’ is given as the standard form of ‘fianas’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘ar fiannas’ as ‘on a military expedition’. The principal sense of ‘fiannas’ in Ó Dónaill is ‘the profession of a warrior, of a soldier’, being preceded by the abbreviation indicating that this use is found only in earlier literary sources. ‘Active service’ is given as the secondary sense of ‘fiannas’, preceded by the abbreviation for ‘Military’. Dinneen translates ‘ar fiannas’ as ‘with the Fiann, on service, on the warpath’. DIL translates ‘fíanas’ as ‘the profession of a roving hunter and warrior; military service in a “fían”; warfare as a calling (especially of roving, of irregular warfare)’, citing ‘doluid Creidne … for fiannas’ (‘Creidne entered upon fíannas’) from the twelfth-century manuscript Rawlinson B 502. This term is based on ‘fían’, explained in DIL as follows: A band of roving men whose principal occupations were hunting and war, also a troop of professional fighting-men under a leader. In later application especially the warrior-bands under Finn son of Cumall, who are described as constituting a military caste.

See also Dáithí Ó hÓgáin, op. cit., p. 203: The word ‘fianna’ was used in early times for young hunter-warriors. Such groups of young men were a social reality in many early societies, as it was part of a warrior’s training to live for a period in the wilderness in order to learn how to hunt and fight. The singular of ‘fianna’ was ‘fian’, a cognate of the Latin ‘venatio’ (‘hunting’) and of the word which appears in English as ‘win’. Originally, it had no connection with the name ‘Fionn’, but when the Leinsterman used Fionn as a symbol of their efforts in the 5th-6th centuries to regain the Boyne valley from their Uí Néill foes, it is apparent that a Leinster version of the hunter-warrior cult got especially connected with Fionn. Thus in narrative Fionn came to be regarded as a great ‘feinnidh’, or leader of a troop of fianna.

‘Comhaltaí ar fiannas’ translates ‘Members on active service’ in the Margin Title of s4 of the Defence (Amendment) Act, 1990, with ‘a member who is on active service’ being translated as ‘(do) chomhalta atá ar fiannas’ in that section. ‘Unless such offence was committed while such person was on active service’ is translated as ‘mura le linn don duine sin a bheith ar fianas a rinneadh an cion sin’ in s5(3) of the Genocide Act, 1973. ‘If he commits such offence not on active service and is an officer, dismissal with ignomy from the Defence Forces’ is translated as ‘murab ar fianas a dhéanfas sé an cion sin agus más oifigeach é, é a dhífhostú faoi aithis as Óglaigh na hÉireann’

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in s126(2)(ii) of the Defence Act, 1954, with ‘and if the offence was committed not on active service, dismissal with ignomy’ being translated as ‘agus ná raibh sé ar seirbhís chogúil agus é ag déanamh an chionta, féadfar é do chur as an arm fé aithis’ in s38(1) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. In the Sixth Schedule to the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) (No. 2) Act, 1940, we find the following: If committed on active service, death. If committed when not on active service, penal servitude. I gcás an cionta do dhéanamh le linn seirbhíse cogúla – an bás. I gcás an cionta do dhéanamh tráth ar bith eile – pian-tseirbhís.

‘Seirbhís chogaidh’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘active service’ in translations for the Department of Defence. smacht ‘References to military discipline shall be construed as references to naval discipline’ is translated as ‘déanfar tagairtí do smacht míleata a léiriú mar thagairtí do smacht cabhlaigh’ in s8(1)(a)(v) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1947. Looking at early Acts regarding ‘discipline’, ‘She shall exercise supervision over discipline in the Institution’ is translated as ‘Déanfa sí maoirseacht ar an smachtúchán sa bhFúndúireacht’ in the ‘Galway County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘and to maintain proper order and discipline in the sick wards in her charge’ being translated as ‘agus í do chimeád rialtachta agus disciplín mar is cóir sna haireagail a bheidh féna cúram’ in the same Schedule. i láthair aon armchúirte ‘Dul i láthair na cúirte’ is translated as ‘to appear before the court’ in Ó Dónaill, with ‘dul i láthair an bhreithimh (na cúirte), to appear before the judge (court)’ being cited by Dinneen. DIL s.v. ‘láthar’, translates ‘i láthair’ as ‘in(to) the presence of’ – see the commentary on Article 28.8. ‘Armchúirt’ is translated as ‘court martial’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, with ‘cúirt airm, court-martial’ being cited in the latter s.v. ‘cúirt’. This compound of ‘arm’ and ‘cúirt’ does not appear to be given as a headword in Dinneen. ‘The Courts-Martial Appeals Act, 1983’ is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht um Achomhairc Armchúirteanna, 1983’. ‘Proceedings before a court (including a courtmartial) exercising jurisdiction under the law of any legislature’ is translated as ‘imeachtaí os comhair cúirte (lena n-áirítear armchúirt) a mbeidh dlínse á hoibriú aici faoi dhlí aon reachtais’ in s4 of the Second Schedule to the Defamation Act, 1961. ‘He shall remand the accused for trial by General Courtmartial’ is translated as ‘déanfa sé an duine cúisithe do chur siar chun go dtrialfidh Arm-Chúirt Ghinerálta é’ in s5 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1925. sibhialta See the commentary on Article 34.3.1o. ‘Civil proceedings’ is translated as ‘imeachtaí sibhialta’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘ordinary civil process’ being translated as ‘gnáthphróis shibhialta’. ‘The expression “Civil Court” means with respect to any crime or offence, a Court of ordinary criminal jurisdiction’ is translated as ‘Cialluíonn an focal “Cúirt Shíbhialta”, maidir le haon choir no cionta, Cúirt ghnáth-udaráis choiriúla’ in s3(18) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Unless the


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existing laws of the Detaining Power expressly permit the civil courts to try a member of the armed forces’ is translated as ‘mura rud é go gceadaíonn dlíthe na Cumhachta Coinneála faoi láthair do na cúirteanna sibhialta duine d’fhórsaí armtha na Cumhachta Coinneála a thriail’ in Article 84 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, for example. intriailte This compound of the separable prefix ‘in-’ with the genitive, ‘denoting fitness, aptitude, worthiness’, according to Dinneen, and the genitive of ‘triail’ (‘try’), is not given as a headword either in Téarmaí Dlí or in Ó Dónaill. In s9(2) of the Courts-Martial Appeals Act, 1983, ‘For the purpose of hearing and determining any particular appeal cognisable by the Court’ is translated as ‘Chun aon achomharc ar leith is intriailte ag an gCúirt a éisteacht agus a chinneadh’. ‘To sit on the hearing of any appeal to or other matter cognisable by the Supreme Court’ is translated as ‘suí le linn éisteacht aon achomhairc chun na Cúirte Uachtaraí nó aon ábhair eile is intriailte ag an gCúirt Uachtarach’ in s1(4) of the Courts (Establishment and Constitution) Act, 1961. ‘Any appeal to or other matter cognisable by the Supreme Court may be heard and determined by such number’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh líon … (de sna breithiúin) aon athchomharc chun na Cúirte Uachtaraighe no ní eile is intrialta ag an gCúirt Uachtaraigh d’éisteacht agus breith do thabhairt air’ in s4(3) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936. In the Preamble to the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘a member of the armed forces of Saorstát Éireann not on active service shall not be tried by any court-martial or military tribunal for an offence cognisable by the Civil Courts’, following Article 71 of the 1922 Constitution, is translated as ‘ná déanfidh aon arm-chúirt ná aon bhínse eile airm aon duine d’fhórsaí armtha Shaorstáit Éireann ná beidh ar seirbhís chogúil do thriail in aon choir intrialta ag na Cúirteanna Síbhialta’. Note that ‘except by Order of the Dáil or of a tribunal having cognizance of petitions complaining of undue returns or undue elections’ is translated as ‘ach le hOrdú ón Dáil no ó bhínse atá in aitheantas ar achuingíocha a ghearánann i dtaobh tortha nea-chuibhe no i dtaobh toghachána nea-chuibhe’ in s39 of the Fifth Schedule to the Electoral Act, 1923. ‘The expression “election tribunal” means a court lawfully having cognisance of petitions complaining of undue return or undue election at a Seanad election’ is translated as ‘cialluíonn an focal “binse toghacháin” cúirt ag á mbeidh údarás go dleathach deighleáil le hachuingheacha ag gearán mar gheall ar thuairisciú nea-chuibhe no ar thogha nea-chuibhe i dtoghchán Seanaid’ in s33 of the First Schedule to the Seanad Electoral Act, 1928. binse míleata eile In both cases of its usage here this phrase is in the genitive, following the prepositional phrases ‘i láthair’ and ‘faoi dhlínse’. In both the Glossary accompanying An Caighdeán Oifigiúil and in Ó Dónaill, ‘binse’ is given as a masculine noun, and the adjective qualifying it in the genitive singular would therefore be lenited. ‘Bínse’ is given as feminine in Dinneen, however. DIL gives the earlier ‘bein(n)se’/‘béinse’ as masculine – see the commentary on the previous subsection regarding this term.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

a chur i bhfeidhm ‘Cuir i bhfeidhm’ expresses ‘secure’ in Article 38.3.1o. Looking at ‘enforce’ in early Acts, ‘A contract … shall not be enforceable against a candidate at such election’ is translated as ‘ní féadfar é do chur i bhfeidhm i gcoinnibh iarrthóra sa toghachán sin’ in s32(2) of the Prevention of Electoral Abuses Act, 1923. ‘The Enforcement of Law (Occasional Powers), Act, 1923’ is cited in Irish as ‘an t-Acht um Fheidhmiú Dlí (Comhacht Ócáideach), 1923’,with ‘to provide for the better enforcement of law’ being translated as ‘chun soláthair do dhéanamh d’fheabhas-fheidhmiú an dlí’ in the Long Title. Note, finally, that ‘for enforcing the attendance of witnesses’ is translated as ‘chun a chur fhiachaint ar fhínnithe teacht i láthair’ in s5(1) of the Tariff Commission Act, 1926. Turning to the modern Acts, ‘Subject to the law relating to bankruptcy and to the enforcement of judgments and orders’ is translated as ‘faoi réir an dlí a bhaineann le féimheacht agus le breithiúnais agus orduithe a chur i bhfeidhm’ in s121(b) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981. ‘Any reference in this part to the enforcement of an award’ is translated as ‘aon tagairt sa Chuid seo d’fhorghníomhú dámhachtana’ in s7(2) of the Arbitration Act, 1980. ‘An Act to make provision in relation to the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of maintenance orders as between the State and Northern Ireland …’ is translated as ‘Acht do dhéanamh socrú maidir le horduithe cothabhála a aithint agus a fheidhmiú go cómhalartach idir an Stát agus Tuaisceart Éireann’ in the Long Title of the Maintenance Order Act, 1974. na Fórsaí Cosanta See the commentary on Article 13.4.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Duine de na Fórsaí Cosanta nach bhfuil ar fiannas ní cead é nó í a thriail i láthair aon armchúirte ná binse mhíleata eile i gcion is intriailte sna cúirteanna sibhialta, mura cion é atá faoi dhlínse aon armchúirte nó binse mhíleata eile faoi aon dlí chun smacht míleata a chur i bhfeidhm.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ní dhéanfar comhalta d’Óglaigh na hÉireann nach bhfuil ar seirbhís ghníomhach1 a thriail ag aon armchúirt nó binse míleata eile i leith ciona atá intriailte ag na cúirteanna sibhialta mura bhfuil an cion sin laistigh de dhlínse aon armchúirte nó binse mhíleata eile faoi aon dlí chun smacht míleata a chur i bhfeidhm.

Variants 1 ‘ar fiannas’, ‘ar seirbhís chogaidh’

ARTICLE 38.5

AIRTEAGAL 38.5

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead duine a thriail in aon chúis choiriúil ach i láthair choiste tiomanta, ach amháin i gcás cionta a thriail faoi alt 2, alt 3 nó alt 4 den Airteagal seo. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to try a person in any criminal charge/ prosecution except in the presence of a sworn committee,


A study of the Irish text

except in the case of trial of offences under section 2, section 3 or section 4 of this Article. ENGLISH TEXT

Save in the case of the trial of offences under section 2, section 3 or section 4 of this Article no person shall be tried on any criminal charge without a jury.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3 4 5

‘Without a jury’ is expressed as ‘ach i láthair choiste tiomanta’ (‘except in the presence of a sworn committee’) in the Irish text; while ‘coiste’ has the sense of ‘jury’, the latter term is translated as ‘giúiré’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Charge’ is expressed by ‘cúis’, which term, although it can have this sense in general usage, is translated simply as ‘cause’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘cúiseamh’ translating ‘charge’. As we have seen earlier, ‘tried on’ is expressed as ‘a thriail in’, ‘tried in’, in the Irish text. The order of the clauses is reversed in the two texts. ‘No … shall’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in many earlier Articles.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 208, reports as follows on reference made to this Article in the courts: In The People (Attorney General) v Conmey ([1975] IR 341) Walsh J emphasised that the result of a trial on indictment was not a conviction or acquittal “by” the jury, but by the court; the wording of Article 38.5 referred not to trial “by” jury but to trial “with” a jury; this interpretation, he said, was “borne out by reference to the Irish language text of the Constitution” (“i láthair choiste tiomanta”). In In re Haughey ([1971] IR 217) Ó Dálaigh CJ cited the Irish text of the section to reinforce the obviously mandatory meaning of the English text.

Note that Article 72 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: No person shall be tried on any criminal charge without a jury save in the case of charges in respect of minor offences triable by law before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction and in the case of charges for offences against military law triable by Court Martial or other Military Tribunal. Ní trialfar aon duine in aon chúis choiriúil gan choiste ach i gcás cúiseanna timpeal mion-choirthe atá intrialta le dlí i láthair Chúirt Údaráis Achmair agus i gcás cúiseanna timpeall coirthe i gcoinnibh dlí airm atá intrialta ag Cúirt Airm no Binse eile Airm.

Commentary i láthair choiste tiomanta According to the official standard, ‘coiste’ would not be lenited following the prepositional phrase ‘i láthair’, lenition following a compound preposition only in the case of a definite noun and a proper noun – see s5 of the chapter headed ‘Séimhiú agus Urú’ in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. On the other hand, ‘tiomanta’, being a participial adjective qualifying the masculine noun ‘coiste’ in the genitive case, would be lenited, according to the official standard. Note, however,

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that while ‘coiste’ is given as being masculine in Ó Dónaill and in the Glossary accompanying An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, according to Dinneen, ‘coiste’ is sometimes feminine. ‘Coiste’ is given as masculine in DIL, this word coming from English ‘quest(e)’, according to Douglas Hyde, DIL translating this headword as ‘jury’, citing ‘do Philip féin / fá coisde’ (‘being tried by jury’) from the collection of bardic poems to the O’Reillys (edited by James Carney, 1950). Dinneen translates ‘coiste’ as ‘a deliberative body, especially a jury, a quest; a committee’, citing ‘coiste mór, grand jury’. ‘Coiste’ is translated primarily as ‘jury’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘coiste cróinéara, coroner’s jury; coroner’s inquest’ and ‘coiste dháréag, cúirte, common, court, jury’, also citing ‘coiste mór, grand jury’. ‘Committee’ is the secondary sense of ‘coiste’ given by Ó Dónaill, citing ‘coiste iniúchta, stiúrtha, inspection, steering-, committee’. This is the general sense today of ‘coiste’, and ‘coiste’ is translated solely as ‘committee’ in the Glossary appended to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil and in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘coiste iniúchta, committee of inspection’ is cited, with ‘jury’ being translated as ‘giúiré’. ‘Tiomanta’ is the past participle of ‘tiomain’ and is translated as ‘sworn; set, determined’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘tá sé tiomanta é a dhéanamh, he is sworn, determined, to do it’ and the asseveration ‘diabhal thiomanta duine acu, devil a one of them’. ‘Tiomanta’ is translated as ‘bequeathed, assigned, consigned, dedicated, devoted (to, chum), sworn to or resolved on (ar); extreme’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘tiomanta chum oibre, devoted to work’ and ‘tiomanta chum óil, addicted to drink’. The earlier form of the verb ‘tiomain’ was ‘do-im(m)na’, which had ‘timna’ as verbal noun, one of the senses of which is ‘act of bequeathing; will, testament’, this being in general usage today particularly in ‘an Tiomna Nua’ (‘the New Testament’) and ‘an Sean-Tiomna’ (‘the Old Testament’). Looking at early Acts, ‘The Grand Jury (Ireland) Act, 1836’ is cited in Irish as ‘An t-Acht um Ard-Choistí (Éirinn), 1836’ in the Second Schedule to the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923. ‘Coiste dáréag’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘jury’ in a Bill, 13/3/24. ‘Power to hold inquest without a jury in certain cases’ is translated as ‘Comhacht chun coiste do dhéanamh gan giúiré i gcásanna áirithe’ in the Margin Title of s3 of the Coroners (Amendment) Act, 1927, which Act is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht Coróinéirí (Leasú), 1927’, with ‘the Juries Act, 1927’ being cited in Irish as ‘Acht na nGiúirithe, 1927’, and ‘sa ghiúiré-bhosca’ translating ‘in the jury box’ in s47(5). ‘And the trial is being or to be held without a jury’ is translated as ‘agus go mbeidh an triail á seoladh nó le seoladh gan giúiré’ in s1(1) of the Criminal Justice (Verdicts) Act, 1976. ‘Any action under that Act may … be heard … by a judge without a jury’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh breitheamh gan giúiré aon aicsean fén Acht san d’éisteacht’ in s83(1) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936. Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o. aon chúis choiriúil See the commentary on Article 38.1.

Standardised Irish text Ní cead duine a thriail in aon chúis choiriúil ach i láthair coiste thiomanta, ach amháin i gcás cionta a thriail faoi alt 2, alt 3 nó alt 4 den Airteagal seo.


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Direct translation Ach amháin i gcás cionta a thriail faoi alt 2, alt 3 nó alt 4 den Airteagal seo ní dhéanfar aon duine a thriail in aon chúiseamh coiriúil gan ghiúiré.

ARTICLE 38.6

AIRTEAGAL 38.6

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní bhainfidh forálacha Airteagal 34 ná Airteagal 35 den Bhunreacht seo le haon chúirt ná le haon bhinse a bhunófar faoi alt 3 nó alt 4 den Airteagal seo. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The provisions of Article 34 nor of Article 35 of this Constitution will not concern any court nor any bench which will be established under section 3 or section 4 of this Article.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

chur ar an Stát, nó iarracht a dhéanamh le harm nó ar mhodh fhoréigneach eile ar na horgain rialtais a bhunaítear leis an mBunreacht seo a threascairt, nó páirt nó baint a bheith ag neach lena leithéid sin d’iarracht, nó aon duine a shaighdeadh nó bheith i gcomhcheilg leis chun a déanta nó chun páirt nó baint a bheith aige léi. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

What treason is solely is to undertake war against the State, or to assist any state or person whatever, or to incite a person, or to be in conspiracy with a person, to undertake war against the State, or to make an attempt with arms or in another violent manner to overthrow the organs of government which are established by this Constitution, or someone to have a part (in) or connection with such an attempt, or to incite any person or to be in conspiracy with him in order to do it or in order that he have a part (in) or connection with it. ENGLISH TEXT

ENGLISH TEXT

The provisions of Articles 34 and 35 of this Constitution shall not apply to any court or tribunal set up under section 3 or section 4 of this Article.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

‘Of Article 34 and 35’ is expressed as ‘Airteagal 34 ná Airteagal 35’, ‘(of) Article 34 nor (of) Article 35’, in the Irish text – with repetition of ‘Airteagal’ – and ‘to any court or tribunal’ is expressed as ‘le haon chúirt ná le haon bhinse’ (‘to any court nor to any tribunal’). ‘Shall not apply to’ is expressed as ‘Ní bhainfidh … le’ (‘will not concern’) in the Irish text, this phrase also translating ‘apply to’ in the Acts.

Treason shall consist only in levying war against the State, or assisting any State or person or inciting or conspiring with any person to levy war against the State, or attempting by force of arms or other violent means to overthrow the organs of government established by this Constitution, or taking part or being concerned in or inciting or conspiring with any person to make or to take part or be concerned in any such attempt.

Divergences between the official texts 1

Commentary ná le haon bhinse Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú recommends ‘ná’ here in the direct translation below in the case of two separate things being involved, that being the understanding of the drafters of the Irish text. Ní bhainfidh … le See the commentary on Article 3.

2

3

Direct translation

The Irish phrase involved in expressing ‘taking part or being concerned in … any such attempt’, ‘páirt nó baint a bheith ag x le y’, can be read simply as ‘x having something to do with y’, this complete English text being expressed as ‘páirt nó baint a bheith ag neach lena leithéid sin d’iarracht’ (‘a peson / one having a part [in] or connection with such an attempt’) in the Irish text, ‘páirt a ghlacadh i rud’ usually rendering ‘to take part in something’. Although ‘saighdeadh faoi’ and ‘a shaighdeadh’ have the sense of ‘inciting’, ‘I incite’ is translated as ‘gríosaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Any person’, in the first part of the Article, is twice expressed as ‘a person’ (‘faoi dhuine’, ‘le duine’) in the Irish text. ‘By force of arms’ is expressed as ‘le harm’, ‘with arms’, in the Irish text. ‘State’ has a capital ‘S’ in ‘assisting any State’, a lower-case ‘s’ corresponding to this in the Irish text.

Ní bheidh feidhm ag forálacha Airteagail 34 agus 35 den Bhunreacht seo maidir1 le haon chúirt nó2 le haon bhinse a bhunófar faoi alt 3 nó alt 4 den Airteagal seo.

4

Variants

Note that s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, reads as follows:

1 ‘Ní bhainfidh forálacha Airteagail 34 agus 35’ 2 ‘ná’

ARTICLE 39

AIRTEAGAL 39

TÉACS GAEILGE

Is é amháin is tréas ann cogadh a chur ar an Stát, nó cabhrú le stát nó le duine ar bith, nó saighdeadh faoi dhuine, nó bheith i gcomhcheilg le duine, chun cogadh a

5

Every person who commits in Saorstát Éireann any of the following acts, that is to say:(a) levies war against Saorstát Éireann, or (b) assists any state or person engaged in levying war against Saorstát Éireann, or (c) conspires with any person (other than his or her wife or husband) or incites any person to levy war against Saorstát Éireann, or (d) attempts or takes part or is concerned in an attempt to overthrow by force of arms or other violent means the Government of Saorstát Éireann


A study of the Irish text

as established by or under the Constitution, or (e) conspires with any person (other than his or her wife or husband) or incites any person to make or to take part or be concerned in any such attempt, shall be guilty of treason and shall be liable on conviction thereof to suffer death. Gach éinne a dhéanfidh i Saorstát Éireann aon ghníomh acu so a leanas, sé sin le rá:(a) coga do dhéanamh i gcoinnibh Shaorstáit Éireann, no (b) cabhrú le haon stát no duine a bheidh ag déanamh cogaidh i gcoinnibh Shaorstáit Éireann, no (c) cogar do dhéanamh le héinne (seachas a bhean no a fear) no éinne do ghríosú chun coga do dhéanamh i gcoinnibh Shaorstáit Éireann, no (d) iarracht do dhéanamh no páirt a thógaint in iarracht no baint a bheith aige le hiarracht chun Rialtas Shaorstáit Éireann, mar atá sé bunuithe leis an mBunreacht no fé, do bhrise le neart claidhimh no le fóiréigean eile, no (e) cogar do dhéanamh le héinne (seachas a bhean no a fear) no éinne do ghríosú chun aon iarracht den tsórt san do dhéanamh no chun páirt a thógaint inti no chun baint a bheith aige léi, beidh sé ciontach i dtréasún agus ar a chiontú ann féadfar é chur chun báis.

Commentary cogadh a chur ar This phrase is translated as ‘to make war on’ in Ó Dónaill, who gives ‘engage in, challenge to’ as one of the senses of ‘cuir ar’, citing ‘chuir sé troid orm, he challenged me to fight’. Dinneen translates ‘cuirim cogadh ar’ as ‘I declare war on, am aggressive towards’, citing ‘chuirfeadh sé cogadh ar an aonach, he would attack a whole crowd’. ‘Cocad’, which is a compound of ‘com’ (Modern Irish ‘comh’) and ‘cath’, glosses Latin ‘bellum’ in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. The verb ‘cuirid’ replaced earlier ‘fo-ceird’ and ‘do-cuirethar’; DIL cites examples of ‘fo-ceird’ with ‘cath’, etc., in the sense of ‘performs, executes, wages’, from Leabhar na hUidhre (compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100) and the twelfth-century Book of Leinster onwards, including the following from the latter manuscript: ‘In cath il-Luchut rolá / … for Connnachta’ (‘The battle at Luchut he fought / … against Connacht’). De Bhaldraithe translates ‘to levy war on someone’ as ‘cogadh a chur ar dhuine’. ‘I levy’ is translated as ‘toibhím’ in Téarmaí Dlí, this being used in the sense of levying taxes, rent, etc. Note that ‘cogadh do dhéanamh i gcoinnibh Shaorstáit Éireann’ translates ‘levies war against Saorstát Éireann’ in s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, above. Note, finally, that the clause ‘chun cogadh do chur ar an Stát’ is followed by a semi-colon in the original text. saighdeadh faoi dhuine … a shaighdeadh ‘Saighdeadh’ is the verbal noun of ‘saighid’, translated as ‘incite, provoke’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘duine a shaighdeadh (le rud a dhéanamh), to incite someone (to do something)’ and ‘saighdeadh faoi dhuine, to provoke, aggravate, someone’. Dinneen translates ‘saighdim’ as ‘I egg on, abet, incite, provoke, thrust, push, shoot, rout’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘incitation’ as a secondary sense of ‘saighead’, citing ‘chuir

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sé saighead den mhadra iontu, he set the dog at them’. The principal sense of ‘saighead’ is ‘arrow’, the earlier form ‘saiget’ coming from Latin ‘sagitta’, which term it glosses in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. ‘Saigteóir’, Modern Irish ‘saighdiúir’ (‘soldier’), is based on ‘saiget’ and originally had the sense of ‘archer, bowman’, the sense ‘soldier’ in general probably influenced by English ‘soldier’, according to DIL. ‘I incite’ is translated as ‘gríosaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí with ‘incitement’ translated as ‘gríosú’. Note that ‘gríosaigh’ is the verb found in s1(1)(c) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, above. ‘Inciting to commit crime’ is translated as ‘Duine do ghríosa chun coir a dhéanamh’ in the Third Schedule to the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Inciting persons to engage in an attempt to overthrow by violence the established form of Government of Saorstát Éireann or organising or otherwise assisting or encouraging any such attempt’ is translated as ‘Daoine do ghríosú chun tabhairt fé fhuirm bhunuithe Rialtas Shaorstáit Éireann do bhrise le fóiréigean no aon iarracht den tsórt san d’ullamhú no, ar aon tslí eile, cabhair no misneach do thabhairt dá leithéid d’iarracht’ in s1 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Powers of Arrest and Detention) Temporary Act, 1924. ‘Attempting, conspiring or inciting another person to commit an offence there specified’ is translated as ‘iarracht a thabhairt ar chion a shonraítear ansin a dhéanamh, nó comhcheilg a dhéanamh nó duine eile a ghríosú le cion a shonraítear ansin a dhéanamh’ in s3(1)(b) of the Criminal Law (Jurisdiction) Act, 1976. ‘Whether by inciting or encouraging them to do so’ is translated as ‘cibé acu trína ngríosadh nó trína spreagadh chun déanamh amhlaidh’ in s3(1)(a)(i) of the Video Recordings Act, 1989. tréas This headword is translated as ‘treason’ in Téarmaí Dlí and as ‘treason; disloyalty, rebellion’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘tréas a dhéanamh, to commit treason’ and ‘dul i dtréas ar Dhia, to rebel against God’. Dinneen translates ‘tréas’ as ‘treason, treachery, wrong-doing, a treacherous deed’, citing ‘an tréas, treason’ and ‘Ábsolom d’imthigh i dtréas, Absolom who became a traitor’. Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625-1698) is the source of DIL’s two citations of ‘traos’, translated simply as ‘treason’ – see the commentary on Article 15.13. ‘Tréasún isea gníomhartha áirithe feasta’ translates ‘Certain acts to be treason’ in the Margin Title of s1 of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, which Act is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht um Chiontaí Tréasúnta, 1925’. ‘Except in case of treason’ is translated as ‘ach amháin i gcás tréasúin’ in Article 18 of the 1922 Constitution. ‘If he is convicted of treason’ is translated as ‘Má fachtar ciontach i dtréasan é’ in s69(1) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Save in the case of persons charged with … high treason, treason felony, or treasonable conspiracy’ is translated as ‘ach amháin i gcás daoine a cúiseofar … in árd-thréasún, i bhfeleontacht thréasúin, no i gcogar tréasúnta’ in s49 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1924. ‘In respect of sedition, treason or treason felony’ is translated as ‘mar gheall ar cheannairc, ar thréasan no ar fheoleontacht tréasain’ in s2(2)(b) of the Military Service Pensions Act, 1934. Following the 1937 Constitution, ‘the Treason Act, 1939’ is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht Tréasa, 1939’. Finally, ‘evidence relating to the commission or intended commission of treason’ is translated as ‘fianaise a bhaineann


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le tréas a dhéanamh nó lena bheith beartaithe é a dhéanamh’ in s5 of the Criminal Law Act, 1976. i gcomhcheilg le duine ‘Comhcheilg’ is translated as ‘conspiracy’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, ‘cóimhchealg’ being similarly translated in Dinneen. This is a compound of the prefix ‘comh-’ (‘mutual, joint, common, co-’) and ‘cealg’, translated in Ó Dónaill as ‘guile, deceit; treachery’, with Dinneen translating this headword as ‘a sting; a plot, deceit, treachery, guile’, citing ‘i gceilg, treacherously’, with ‘ceilg’ being the form of the dative singular. DIL translates ‘celg’ principally as ‘deceit, treachery, guile, stratagem’, citing ‘do denam sída célci fris dia tarrachtain’ (i.e. making ‘false peace’) from Leabhar na hUidhre, compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100, and ‘mo chealg bháis chruaidh ghuirt’ (‘o bitter piercing sting of death to me’), from the poems of Aogán Ó Rathaile (1675-1728), as an example of the later sense of ‘sting’. We see above that ‘cogar do dhéanamh le héinne’ translates ‘conspires with any person’ in s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925. ‘Knowingly aiding, abetting, assisting in, or encouraging the commission of, or conspiring to commit, any of the offences mentioned in this schedule’ is translated as ‘cabhrú le héinne, é ghríosú, cuidiú leis no é mhisniú, no cogar do dhéanamh, chun aon chionta dá luaidhtear sa sceideal so do dhéanamh’ in s13 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Powers of Arrest and Detention) Temporary Act, 1924. ‘Acting in the name of or on behalf of any combination or conspiracy for the overthrow of the late Provisional Government of Ireland’ is translated as ‘ag gníomhú in ainm no thar ceann aon chur-le-chéile no cogair chun Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann do bhí ann le déanaí … do threascairt’ in s15(9)(d)(i) of the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923. Note, finally, that ‘uisce faoi thalamh’ is a colloquial expression for ‘conspiracy’ in Irish. Turning to modern Acts, ‘proceedings are instituted against another person charging him with the offence of aiding, abetting or assisting the principal offender or of conspiring with the principal offender to commit the principal offence’ is translated as ‘imeachta a thionscnamh i gcoinne duine eile á chúiseamh i gcion faoi gur chabhraigh, gur neartaigh, gur chuidigh nó gur chomhcheilg sé leis an bpríomh-chiontóir chun an príomh-chion a dhéanamh’ in s3(3)(b) of the Customs Act, 1956, the same English text (with ‘another person’ replacing ‘the principal offender’) being translated as ‘imeachta do bhunú i gcoinne duine eile á chúiseamh sa chionta san, cabhrú, neartú, nó cuidiú nó comhcheilg do dhéanamh le duine eile chun an príomh-chionta do dhéanamh’ in s3(9)(b) of the Customs (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1945. le harm See the commentary on Article 28.3.3o, in which Article we find ‘ceannairc faoi arm’, this phrase being given in Téarmaí Dlí as ‘ceannairc faoi airm’, i.e. the plural form of ‘arm’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘le tine is le harm, with fire and sword’ and ‘faoi arm, under arms’, the latter as an example of the collective sense of Irish ‘arm’, ‘arms’. Dinneen cites ‘gléasta i n-arm is i n-éide, under arms and in armour’. DIL cites ‘bat armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aile’ (‘let armatura Dei be with you; let it not be any other arms’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. Note that ‘le neart claidhimh’ translates ‘by force of

Bunreacht na hÉireann

arms’ in s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, cited above. ‘Every person who prevents or obstructs, or attempts or is concerned in an attempt to prevent or obstruct, by force of arms or other violent means … the carrying on of the government of the State’ is translated as ‘Gach duine chuirfidh cosc no bac no bhéarfaidh fé chosc no bac do chur no go mbeidh baint aige le tabhairt fé chosc no bac do chur, tré neart airm no tré fhoiréigin eile … le riaghaltas an Stáit … do choimeád ar siúl’ in s7(1) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939. ar mhodh fhoréigneach See the commentary on Article 45 regarding the lenition of the adjective following a masculine noun in the dative singular. ‘Foréigneach’ is translated as ‘violent’ in Téarmaí Dlí, and as ‘violent, forcible’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘foréigean’ being translated as ‘violence’ in the former source and as ‘violence, force, compulsion’ in the latter. Dinneen translates ‘foiréigneach’ as ‘extremely violent, vehement, rapid’, translating ‘foiréigean’ as ‘great violence, oppression; extortion; great speed’. ‘Foréicneach’ is translated as ‘violent, forcible, oppressive’ in DIL, citing ‘bás foiréigneach’ (‘death by violence’) from Keating’s seventeenth-century History of Ireland. The noun ‘foréicen’ (‘violence, compulsion’) is composed of the prefix ‘for-’ (translated as ‘super-, over-, hyper-, great, extreme’ in Dinneen) and ‘éicen’, which word glosses Latin ‘violentia’ in the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian. Note that ‘(by) other violent means’ is translated as ‘le fóiréigean eile’ in s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, above. ‘By force of arms or other violent means’ is translated as ‘tré neart airm no tré fhoiréigin eile’ in s7(1) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939. páirt nó baint Ó Dónaill cites ‘ná bíodh baint ná páirt agat leo, have nothing to do with them’ and ‘níl baint ná páirt agam leo, I have no connection whatever with them’. Dinneen cites ‘ní’l aon bhaint agam leis, I have nothing to do with him’, ‘mo cheangal is mo pháirt leis do bhriseadh, to disrupt our mutual obligation and friendly relations’ and ‘tá páirt agam leat, I like you’. ‘Páirt’, which comes from Latin ‘pars, part-’, has the sense of ‘part’ as in ‘side, party … hence association, alliance, fellowship’, according to DIL, citing ‘aderit an pairt do bi acu aran saegul curab ecin dóib a beith acu thall’ (‘= that they must needs be united after death as in life’) from the Gaelic Maundeville. See the commentary on Article 3 regarding ‘bain le’. ‘And generally take part in the hearing of every application under the Criminal Injuries Act’ is translated as ‘agus bheith páirteach go generálta in éisteacht gach iarratais fé na hAchtanna um Dhíobháil Choiriúil’ in s5 of the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘to be concerned in, with, something’ as ‘bheith i gcúram, i mbun, ruda; bheith ag plé le rud; bheith páirteach i (ngnó)’. Note that ‘takes part or is concerned in an attempt’ is translated as ‘páirt a thógaint in iarracht no baint a bheith aige le hiarracht’ in s1(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, cited above, with ‘protects any person engaged or taking part or concerned in any such attempt as aforesaid’ being translated as ‘caomhaint do thabhairt d’éinne a bheidh ag déanamh aon iarrachta den tsórt san roimhráite no ag tógaint páirte inti no i mbaint léi’ in s3(1)(b).


A study of the Irish text

‘That he … has acted as director of, or taken part or been concerned in the management of a company’ is translated as ‘gur ghníomhaigh sé … mar stiúrthóir ar chuideachta, nó go raibh baint nó páirt aige lena bainistí’ in s183(2) of the Companies Act, 1963, with ‘(if any person) … directly or indirectly takes part in or is concerned in the promotion … of any company’ being translated as ‘má bhíonn baint nó páirt aige go díreach nó go neamhdhíreach le tionscnamh … aon chuideachta’ in s169 of the Companies Act, 1990. ‘Every collector or agent of such company who takes part or is concerned in such failure’ is translated as ‘gach bailitheoir no gníomhaire don chuideachtain sin go mbeidh baint aige leis an teip sin no bheidh páirteach ann’ in s61(3) of the Insurance Act, 1935. Finally, ‘every person who shall hold or take part in or be concerned in the holding of a public meeting’ is translated as ‘gach duine chomórfaidh cruinniú puiblí no bheidh páirteach i gcruinniú puiblí do chomóradh no ’na mbeidh baint aige le cruinniú puiblí do chomóradh’ in s24(3) of the Constitution (Amendment No. 17) Act, 1931. a threascairt The verbal noun of ‘treascair’, translated as ‘knock down; overthrow, vanquish; lay low, prostrate’ in Ó Dónaill, citing ‘tír a threascairt, to overthrow a country’. Dinneen translates ‘treascraim’ as ‘I overthrow, knock down, lay low, defeat’. This verb comes from the compound verb ‘do-scara’, translated as ‘overthrow, knocks down, lays low’ in DIL, citing ‘toscara Cú sessiur díb and’ (‘there Cú Chulainn overthrew six of them’) from the version of the Táin in Leabhar na hUidhre (compiled in Clonmacnois c. 1100). ‘For the overthrow of the … Provisional Government of Ireland’ is translated as ‘chun Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann … do threascairt’ in s15(9)(d)(i) of the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923. ‘Inciting persons to engage in an attempt to overthrow by violence the established form of Government of Saorstát Éireann’ is translated as ‘Daoine do ghríosú chun tabhairt fé fhuirm bhunuithe Rialtas Shaorstáit Éireann do bhrise le fóiréigean’ in s1 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1926.

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Note, finally, that ‘do threascairt’ is followed by a semicolon in the original text. na horgain See the commentary on Article 6.2, ‘orgán’ rather than ‘organ’ being given in Ó Dónaill, for example. Is é amháin is tréas ann Note that this clause is followed by a colon in the original text. neach See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Is é amháin is tréas ann cogadh a chur ar an Stát, nó cabhrú le stát nó le duine ar bith, nó saighdeadh faoi dhuine, nó bheith i gcomhcheilg le duine, chun cogadh a chur ar an Stát, nó iarracht a dhéanamh le harm nó ar mhodh foréigneach eile ar na horgain rialtais a bhunaítear leis an mBunreacht seo a threascairt, nó páirt nó baint a bheith ag neach lena leithéid sin d’iarracht, nó aon duine a shaighdeadh nó bheith i gcomhcheilg leis nó léi chun a déanta nó chun páirt nó baint a bheith aige nó aici léi.

Direct translation Is é1 amháin is tréas ann cogadh a chur ar an Stát, nó cuidiú le haon Stát nó le haon duine nó aon duine a ghríosú nó bheith i gcomhcheilg le haon duine chun cogadh a chur ar an Stát, nó iarracht a dhéanamh le fórsa airm nó ar mhodh foréigneach eile ar na horgáin2 rialtais a bhunaítear leis an mBunreacht seo a threascairt, nó bheith páirteach in aon iarracht dá leithéid nó bainteach léi3 nó aon duine a ghríosú nó bheith i gcomhcheilg le haon duine in aon iarracht dá leithéid nó bheith páirteach inti nó bainteach léi4.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘éard’ ‘orgain’ ‘nó páirt nó baint a bheith ag duine le haon iarracht dá leithéid’ ‘nó páirt nó baint a bheith ag duine léi’


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FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS BUNCHEARTA ARTICLE 40.1

AIRTEAGAL 40.1 In In re Walker, decd; O’B. v S ([1984] IR 316; [1985] ILRM 86) Walsh J referred to the Irish version of the proviso to Article 40.1 and said this made it clear that:

TÉACS GAEILGE

BUNCHEARTA Cearta Pearsanta

“the proviso refers to the difference of capacity, physical and moral, and of the social function of the citizens for whom, or in respect of whom, the State in its enactments has seen fit to have “due regard” to their differences under these headings.”

Áirítear gurb ionann ina bpearsain daonna na saoránaigh uile i láthair an dlí. Ach ní intuigthe as sin nach bhféachfaidh an Stát go cuí, ina chuid achtachán, don difríocht atá idir daoine ina mbuanna corpartha agus ina mbuanna morálta agus ina bhfeidhm chomhdhaonnach.

Commentary

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

ina bpearsain daonna ‘Caomhnóir ar an bpearsa’ and ‘foghail ar an bpearsa’ are translated respectively as ‘guardian of the person’ and ‘trespass to the person’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘pearsa’ as ‘person’, citing ‘pearsa den daonnacht, human being’ and ‘a pearsa is a méin, her form and disposition’. Dinneen translates ‘pearsa’ as ‘a person or individual, … a body, figure, form, features …’, citing ‘táithte id’ phearsain, near akin to thee’ (from Dáibhí Ó Bruadair’s seventeenth-century poetry) and ‘is ait an phearsa bhíonn ar na caoirigh adharcacha, horned sheep have a curious appearance’. Old Irish ‘persa’, which comes from Latin ‘persona’, is translated as ‘a person, an individual’ in DIL, where ‘a (i) persain’, followed by the genitive, is translated as ‘in the person (character, quality) of’. We have examples of this dative singular of ‘persa’ both in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, where we find ‘labraid in spiurt noib tri giun Dauid inso. i. a persainn ríg inna rigsuidiu ocacaldaim amuntairae’ (‘the Holy Spirit speaks this through the mouth of David, namely, in the character of a king upon his throne addressing his [people]’) and in the St Gall . Glosses on Priscian, where we find ‘in tan labratar ind filid a persin inna ndea’ (‘when the poets speak in the person of the gods’). Going to Modern Irish, according to the official standard (An Caighdeán Oifigiúil), the form of the dative is identical to that of the nominative (except for the Second Declension, ‘pearsa’ being of the Fifth Declension according to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil); therefore, ‘i bpearsain’ today would be replaced by ‘i bpearsa’. The old dative form is also a variant plural form – see Dinneen who gives both ‘pearsain’ and the standard plural form today, ‘pearsana’. See further the commentary on Article 45.2ii where ‘pearsana’ expresses ‘individuals’. As regards ‘ina’ in this context, Ó Dónaill cites ‘chuaigh sé ina thoscaire ann, he went there as a delegate’ as an example of the use of the preposition ‘i’ with a possessive pronoun in the sense of ‘status, function, etc.’ Dinneen cites ‘chuaidh sé ’na thoscaire go dtí an tír sin, he went as an ambassador to that country’, ‘imtheochad im’ chuaichín ar fuaid an tsaoghail, I will go through the world a disappointed girl’ and ‘i n-a n-aon-mhnáibh, as women unescorted’. See DIL s.v. ‘i’ (4):

BASIC RIGHTS Personal Rights It is reckoned that all the citizens are equal as human persons in the presence of the law. But it is not be be understood from that that the State will not duly, in its enactments, have regard to the difference there is between people in their physical attributes and in their moral attributes and in their societal function. ENGLISH TEXT

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS Personal Rights All citizens shall, as human persons, be held equal before the law. This shall not be held to mean that the State shall not in its enactments have due regard to differences of capacity, physical and moral, and of social function.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4 5

‘Differences of capacity’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘(an) difríocht atá idir daoine ina mbuanna’ (‘the difference which there is between people in their gifts/ attributes/accomplishments’). ‘Ina bpearsain daonna’, expressing ‘as human persons’, might not so readily be understood today; as well as being a variant plural of ‘pearsa’ (the standard plural being ‘pearsana’), ‘pearsain’ is also the dative singular and following ‘ina’ might be read literally as ‘in their human person(ality)’. ‘Shall … be held equal’ is expressed as ‘Áirítear gurb ionann’ (‘it is reckoned that they are equal’) in the Irish text. ‘Before the law’ is expressed as ‘i láthair an dlí’ (‘in the presence of the law’) in the Irish text. ‘Held’ of the first paragraph is echoed in the second paragraph of the English text alone.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 208, reports as follows on reference made to this Article in the courts:

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A noun in apposition may be preceded by the preposition ‘i n-’ (governing dative) + possessive pronoun. This was a development of the older use of the dative without preposition.

Examples are cited in DIL from Leabhar na hUidhre (completed before 1106) onwards, including ‘dobudh nár dhúinn ionur thríar Ulltach’ (i.e. it was a shame ‘to us three Ultonians’) and ‘ní iomdha dhúnn i n-ar ndaoinibh’ (‘not many of us men’). Turning to ‘daonna’, ‘dlí daonna’ is translated as ‘positive law’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘daonna’ generally being translated as ‘human’, as in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘an cine daonna, the human race’ and ‘neach daonna, human being’, giving ‘humane, kind’ as a secondary sense. Dinneen translates ‘daonna’ as ‘human; mortal; liberal, civil, hospitable, charitable’. Old Irish ‘doínd(a)e’ is based on ‘doén’, which is a poetic term for ‘human being’, the general term being ‘duine’, on which ‘doén’ is based – see DIL s.v.v. ‘doén’ and ‘doénda’. Áirítear ‘Áirigh’ is translated as ‘count, reckon’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘duine a áireamh mar chara, to reckon someone as a friend’ and ‘áirím gur fíor é, I reckon that it is true’. Dinneen translates ‘áirmhim’ as ‘I count, reckon, consider, record; I speak of, mention, take into account’. DIL only cites one example of the verb ‘áirmigid’ (‘counts’): ‘áirmhighthear sruth Tanais ar aibhnibh na Scitia’ (i.e. the river T. ‘is reckoned among the rivers of S.’), from Keating’s seventeenth-century History of Ireland. This verb is based on ‘áirem’, itself the verbal noun of earlier ‘ad-rími’, translated as (a) ‘counts, numbers, computes’, (b) ‘records, recounts, mentions’, 1(c) ‘takes into account’ and (d) ‘counts as, regards; considers to be’, examples of which are cited from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards – see further the commentary on Article 18.7.1oiv. In s2(c) of the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, ‘(a requesting State shall) hold the assisting party … harmless in respect of legal proceedings and claims’ is translated as ‘glacfaidh sé leis go bhfuil an páirtí cúnta … neamhurchóideach maidir le himeachtaí dlí’. In Article 63 of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, ‘undertakings shall be held responsible for infringements of their obligations by their direct agents’ is translated simply as ‘(go) mbeidh na gnóthais freagrach as sárú aon oibleagáide faoina rachfar amhlaidh ag gníomhairí díreacha na ngnóthas’. ‘Every person who holds himself out or represents himself to be a bookmaker’ is translated as ‘gach éinne a thabharfidh le tuisgint no a chuirfidh in úil gur geall-ghlacadóir … é’ in s2(1) of the Betting Act, 1926. See further the commentary on Article 47.1, where ‘ní foláir a mheas’ expresses ‘shall be held’. intuigthe This headword is translated as ‘implied’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘is intuigthe as’ is translated as ‘it implies’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘intuigthe’ as ‘understandable, intelligible; implied, implicit’, translating ‘is (é rud atá) intuigthe as sin (go)’ as ‘that implies, would lead one to understand (that)’. DIL cites two examples of ‘intuicthe’, ‘to be understood’, the first of which comes from Keating’s seventeenth-century Three Shafts of Death. Turning to the Acts, in s67 of the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘is cinneadh críochnaitheach cinneadh an cheann comhairimh, cibé acu sainráite dó nó intuigthe as a ghníomhartha’ translates ‘The decision of the returning

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officer, whether expressed or implied by his acts, … shall be final’. Regarding ‘hold to be’ in the Acts, ‘Waiver of immunity from jurisdiction in respect of civil or administrative proceedings shall not be held to imply waver of immunity in respect of the execution of the judgment’ is translated as ‘Ní ghlacfar go n-urchiallaíonn tarscaoileadh díolúine ó dhlínse i leith imeachtaí sibhialta nó imeachtaí riaracháin tarscaoileadh díolúine i leith an bhreithiúnas a fhorghníomhú’ in Article 32(4) of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. ‘Document of any kind whatsoever containing expressions which might reasonably be held to imply that he carried on banking business’ is translated as ‘scríbhinn d’aon chineál ar bith, ina mbeidh abairtí go bhféadfaí go réasúnta a rá go dtugaid le tuiscint go mbíonn gnó bancaerachta á dhéanamh aige’ in s8 of the Moneylenders Act, 1933. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú greatly favours ‘ní intuigthe as sin’ to ‘ní ghlacfar leis go gciallaíonn sé sin’, suggesting ‘níl le tuiscint as sin’ as an alternative. buanna Bua is translated as (1) ‘victory, triumph’, (2) ‘gift, talent’, (3) ‘virtue, merit’, (4) ‘special quality’ and (5) ‘lot, destiny’ in Ó Dónaill. As examples of sense (2) are cited ‘bua cainte, ceoil, gift of speech, music’ and of (3) ‘is mór an bua do dhuine an tsláinte, it is a great advantage to have one’s health’. Dinneen translates ‘buaidh’ as ‘victory; conquest; success; virtue, excellence, an attribute’ and as ‘occult mysterious property of a person or object as for heating, etc.’ DIL cites examples of ‘búaid’ in the sense of ‘special quality or attribute, gift, virtue’ from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, including the following from the Táin: ‘itáat trí búada formsa .i. búaid roisc, 7 indtliuchta 7 airdmesa’ (i.e. I have three accomplishments, the accomplishment of sight, intellect and estimating). See further the commentary on Article 43.1.1o. In the Radio and Television Act, 1988, ‘Éireannaigh a bhfuil buanna acu sa cheol’ translates ‘Irish talent in music’. On the other hand, ‘testamentary capacity’ and ‘capacity to contract’ are translated respectively as ‘inniúlacht tiomnaithe’ and ‘inniúlacht chonraithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘cáil’ translating the headword ‘capacity’ and ‘in a fiduciary capacity’ being translated as ‘i gcáil mhuiníneach’. In s55(8) of the Succession Act, 1965, ‘If … there is no trustee of a settled share, and no person of full age and capacity entitled to the income thereof’ is translated as ‘Más rud é … nach bhfuil aon iontaobhaí ar scair shocraithe ann, agus nach bhfuil aon duine lánaoise agus inniúlachta i dteideal an ioncaim aisti’. In Article 5(b) of the Second Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘the interests of minors and other persons lacking full capacity’ is translated as ‘leasanna mionaoiseach agus daoine eile ar easpa inniúlachta iomláine’. Looking at early translations of ‘capacity’, ‘cumas’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘capacity’ in translations for various Departments. ‘Patients admitted to the District Hospitals shall be obliged to pay for maintenance and attendance according to capacity’ is translated as ‘Beidh ar othair a leigfar isteach sna hOspidéil Cheanntair beidh ortha íoc do réir a n-acfuinne as a gcimeád suas agus as freastal ortha’ in s22 of the ‘Mayo County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Employed by the Local Authority in a temporary capacity’ is translated


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as ‘ar fostú i bhfeadhmannas diombuan ag an Údarás Áitiúil’ in s11(6) of the same Act. Finally, ‘and shall be collectively responsible to the Minister for Defence for all matters entrusted to it in its collective capacity’ is translated as ‘agus beid freagarthach in éineacht don Aire Cosanta i ngach ní a cuirfar ina n-iocht mar chólucht aonair’ in s8(6) of the Ministers and Secretaries Act, 1924. ionann This headword is translated as ‘same, identical; alike, equal’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘is ionann iad, they are identical’. Dinneen translates ‘ionann’ as ‘the same, identical; equal, equivalent, similar, alike’. See the commentary on Article 15.11.2o. In s1(b) of Part 1 of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘and proves that it does not exceed a sum equal to twice the specified amount’ is translated as ‘go gcruthóidh sé nach mó é ná suim is ionann agus dhá oiread an mhéid shonraithe’. We generally find ‘comhionann’ in this context in the Acts. In s8 of the Value-Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978, for example, ‘if the consideration consisted entirely of an amount of money equal to the open market price’ is translated as ‘dá mba é a bhí go huile sa chomaoin suim airgid is comhionann leis an margadh-phraghas oscailte’ and in s25 of the Wealth Tax Act, 1975, ‘be deemed to be property to which the minor children of the marriage are beneficially entitled to possession in equal shares’ is translated as ‘measfar gur maoin í a bhfuil teideal tairbhiúil seilbhe chuici i scaireanna comhionanna ag leanaí mionaoiseacha an phósta’. In s2(b) of the Sugar Manufacture (Amendment) Act, 1973, ‘The reference to principal … shall be taken as refering to the equivalent in currency of the State of the actual principal’ is translated as ‘An tagairt do phríomhshuim … measfar gur tagairt í do mhéid is comhionann in airgead reatha an Stáit leis an bpríomhshuim iarbhír’. ‘Equal pay officers’ are styled ‘Oifigigh pá chomhionainn’ in the Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 1974. In s66 of the Pensions Act, 1990, ‘the principle of equal treatment’ is termed ‘an prionsabal um dhéileáil chomhionann’. Note that in Article 18 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘The procedure to be observed in each State for the reception of heads of mission shall be uniform in respect of each class’ is translated as ‘An nós imeachta a leanfar i ngach Stát chun cinn mhisiún a ghlacadh is nós imeachta comhionann a bheidh ann maidir le gach aicme’. ‘Comh-’ itself as a prefix has the sense of ‘equal’ – see Ó Dónaill, for example, and the following from the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 34): ‘people with a disability are equal citizens of Ireland’, ‘comhshaoránaigh de chuid na hÉireann is ea na daoine a bhfuil míchumas orthu’. nach bhféachfaidh … do Ó Dónaill translates ‘féach do’ as ‘have regard to’, citing ‘ní fhéachann an t-éag do neach, death is no respecter of persons’ and ‘ní fhéachaim do na gnóthaí sin, I pay no attention to those matters’. Dinneen translates ‘féachaim do’ as ‘I look to, differentiate in regard to, sympathise with’. Finally, DIL translates ‘fégaid do’ as ‘looks to, heeds, has regard to, takes into account’, citing ‘mana fechainn d’onoir dom athair’ (‘had I not regard for the honour due to my father’), from the Irish version of Fierabras. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 927), ‘The Commission shall, before 1 April 1973

Bunreacht na hÉireann

and with due regard for the provisions in force, … determine the methods’ is translated as ‘Socróidh an Coimisiún, roimh an 1 Aibreán 1973, ag féachaint go cuí do na forálacha atá i bhfeidhm, … na modhanna’. On p. 318, we find ‘with due regard for the provisions of this Treaty’ translated as ‘agus aird chuí aici ar fhorálacha an Chonartha seo’. Similarly, in the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 45), ‘with due regard to environmental considerations’ is translated as ‘ag féachaint go cuí do chúrsaí comhshaoil’ while in the Joint Declaration of 15 December 1993, ‘such an examination would of course have due regard to the desire to preserve those inherited values’ is translated as ‘thabharfaí aird chuí, ar ndóigh, sa scrúdú sin, ar an mian atá ann comhaontú a dhéanamh ar na luachanna sin a fuarthas le hoidhreacht’ (p. 4). ‘The Board and the companies shall have due regard to the Board’s social role’ is translated as ‘Tabharfaidh an Bord agus na cuideachtaí aird chuí ar ról sóisialta an Bhoird’ in s8(10) of the Transport (Re-organisation of Córas Iompair Éireann) Act, 1986, with ‘the Land Commission shall have due regard to the reasonable requirements of the owner’ being translated as ‘tabharfidh Coimisiún na Talmhan aire chuibhe do riachtanaisí réasúnta an únaera’ in s37 of the Land Act, 1923. corpartha This adjective is translated as ‘corporal; corporeal’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘corpardha’ being translated as ‘bodily, corporal; large, bulky; material as opposed to spiritual’ in Dinneen. ‘Corporda’ is translated as ‘corporeal, bodily, physical, actual’ in DIL, being based on Latin ‘corporeus’. See further the commentary on Article 42.5. ‘Physical’ is generally translated in the Acts by the genitive singular form of ‘corp’ as an attributive adjective – see, for example, s3(2)(b) of the Judicial Separation and Family Law Reform Act, 1989, where ‘“welfare” comprises the religious and moral, intellectual, physical and social welfare of the children’ is translated as ‘folaíonn “leas” leas creidimh agus morálta na leanaí, mar aon lena leas intleachta, lena leas coirp agus lena leas sóisialta’. In s43(3)(a) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘having regard to his physical and mental condition’ is translated as ‘ag féachaint dá staid choirp agus mheabhrach’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘fisiceach’ as a headword, simply translated as ‘physical’, with the form ‘fisiciúil’ being given as a variant. i láthair an dli ‘I láthair Dé’ and ‘i láthair duine’ are translated respectively as ‘before God, as God is my witness’ and ‘in the presence of someone’ in Ó Dónaill, with ‘presence’ being a secondary sense of ‘láthair’, principally translated as ‘place, spot; site, location’. ‘Dul i láthair na cúirte’ is translated as ‘to appear before the court’ in Ó Dónaill. Dinneen cites ‘dul i láthair an bhreithimh (na cúirte), to appear before the judge (court)’. See further the commentary on Article 28.8. ‘Os comhair’ usually translates ‘before’ in the present sense in the modern Acts. In s28 of the Second Schedule to the Health Act, 1970, ‘all questions coming or arising before the board may be … decided by the majority of such members’ is translated as ‘féadfar gach ceist a thiocfaidh nó a éireoidh os comhair an bhoird a chinneadh … ag tromlach na gcomhaltaí sin den bhord’. In s24(b) of the same Act, ‘Any question arising before a committee’ is translated as ‘aon cheist a éireoidh os comhair coiste’.


A study of the Irish text

In s14(4)(a)(iii) of the Criminal Law (Jurisdiction) Act, 1976, ‘he shall be brought before a judge or justice of any court’ is translated as ‘tabharfar é os comhair breithimh aon chúirte’. ‘I láthair’ would generally translate ‘in the presence of’ – see, for example, s14(2) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1967, where ‘The deposition shall be taken in the presence of a justice of the District Court and of the accused’ is translated as ‘Tógfar an teistíocht i láthair breitheamh den Chúirt Dúiche agus an chúisí’. Finally, ‘on conviction before a District Justice’ is translated as ‘ar a chiontú i láthair Breithimh Dhúithche’ in s80 of the Dundalk Harbour and Port Act, 1925. go cuí ‘Comaoin chuí’ is translated as ‘good consideration’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘mionnscríbhinn fhorghníomhaithe chuí’ and ‘sealbhóir i gcúrsa cuí’ are translated respectively as ‘affidavit of due execution’ and ‘holder in due course’. ‘Cuí’ currently translates ‘appropriate’, ‘proper’ and ‘fit’ in the Acts. See further the commentary on the Preamble.

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6 ‘nach dtabharfaidh an Stát aird chuí ina chuid achtachán ar dhifríochtaí’ 7 ‘do dhifríochtaí inniúlachta’ 8 ‘agus feidhme’ 9 ‘sóisialaí’

ARTICLE 40.2.1O

AIRTEAGAL 40.2.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead don Stát gairm uaisleachta a bhronnadh ar aon duine. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State is not permitted to confer a title of nobility on any person. ENGLISH TEXT

Bunchearta See the commentary on Article 9.2 regarding the prefix ‘bun-’ expressing ‘fundamental’ in the Constitution. Note that ‘Bun-chirt’ is the form in the original text.

Titles of nobility shall not be conferred by the State.

chomhdhaonnach ‘Comhdhaonnach’ expresses ‘social’ in the Constitution – see the commentary on Article 15.3.1o.

2

idir daoine Note that lenition follows idir in the original text.

Divergences between the official texts 1

3

The Irish text contains the phrase ‘ar aon duine’, ‘on any person’, in addition to the English text. ‘Titles of nobility’ is expressed as ‘gairm uaisleachta’ (‘a title of nobility’) in the Irish text. Again, the term ‘Ní cead’, ‘Is not permitted’, differs in tone from ‘shall not’.

Note that Article 5 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows:

Standardised Irish text BUNCHEARTA Cearta Pearsanta Áirítear gurb ionann ina bpearsa dhaonna na saoránaigh uile i láthair an dlí. Ach ní intuigthe as sin nach bhféachfaidh an Stát go cuí, ina chuid achtachán, don difríocht atá idir dhaoine ina mbuanna corpartha agus ina mbuanna morálta agus ina bhfeidhm chomhdhaonnach.

Direct translation CEARTA BUNÚSACHA Cearta Pearsanta Áireofar gur1 comhionann na saoránaigh uile2, mar dhaoine daonna, os comhair3 an dlí.4 Ach ní ghlacfar leis go gciallaíonn sé sin5 nach bhféachfaidh an Stát go cuí ina chuid achtachán do dhifríochtaí6 ó thaobh inniúlachta7 coirp agus morálta, agus ó thaobh feidhme8 sóisialta9.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘Is’, ‘Tuigfear gur’, ‘Glacfar leis gur’ ‘go léir’ ‘i láthair’ ‘Glacfar leis go bhfuil na saoránaigh uile, mar dhaoine daonna, comhionann os comhair an dlí.’, ‘Is comhshaoránaigh / saoránaigh chomhionanna iad na saoránaigh go léir, mar dhaoine daonna, os comhair an dlí.’ 5 ‘níl le tuiscint as sin’, ‘ní intuigthe as sin’

No title of honour in respect of any services rendered in or in relation to the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) may be conferred on any citizen of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) …. Ní bronnfar ar aon tsaoránach de Shaorstát Éireann aon teideal onóra i dtaobh aon tseirbhísí do thabhairt uaidh i Saorstát Éireann no ’na thaobh.

Commentary gairm uaisleachta See the commentary on Article 13.5.2o regarding ‘gairm’, there expressing ‘commission’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘gairm uaisleachta’ as ‘title of nobility’. Dinneen translates ‘gairm ríogh’ as ‘a king’s title’, citing ‘thugas mo rath ar mhnaoi is gairm ríogh agam le fagháil, I left good fortune and a crown for a woman’s sake’. DIL gives examples of ‘gairm ríg’ (‘title of king’), along with ‘gairm ollaimh’ (i.e. title of professor), from the earlier literature. Ó Dónaill s.v. ‘teideal’, cites ‘teideal uaisleachta, title of nobility’, translating ‘uaisleacht’ as ‘nobility, gentility’. Dinneen translates ‘uaisleacht’ as ‘nobility, gentility, generosity, refinement; finery’, citing ‘ná satail orm im’ uaisleacht, don’t walk on me, I am all dressed up’! ‘Úaislecht’ is translated as ‘nobility, honour, greatness’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the twelfth-century Book of Leinster onwards; it is based on ‘úaisle’, ‘nobility, dignity’ – DIL cites ‘cu ro pinnit fo uaisli in graidh’ (‘in proportion to the dignity of the grade’), from a commentary on an early Irish law-tract. This form is in turn based on ‘úasal’, ‘high, lofty’ and, metaphorically, ‘noble, honourable’ – DIL cites ‘Germán martir úasal’ and ‘athir Iohain uasail Babtaist’ from Féilire Oengusso Céli Dé and Saltair na Rann, respectively, this form being still in use today in


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formal address. See further the commentary on the Preamble where ‘uaisleacht’ translates ‘dignity’. ‘Title’ is translated as ‘teideal’ in Téarmaí Dlí, this being in relation to Property Law in particular. We find this term in a relatively similar context to that in the present Article in s38(2) of the Medical Practitioners Act, 1978, where ‘The council may, from time to time specify, in relation to each speciality recognised by it, the titles and designations of qualifications in specialised medicine granted in the State’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Chomhairle a shonrú, ó am go ham, i ndáil le gach speisialtacht dá dtugann sí aitheantas, teidil agus ainmniúcháin na gcáilíochtaí sa sainleigheas a dheonaítear sa Stát’. ‘Gairm’, on the other hand, is sometimes used in the Acts to translate ‘profession’ – see, for example, s21 of the Finance Act, 1990, where ‘for the purposes of a trade or profession’ is translated as ‘chun críocha trádála nó gairme’. ‘Occupational Pension Schemes’ is translated as ‘scéimeanna pinsean gairme’ in the Finance Act, 1972, for example. Looking at early Acts, ‘in relation to the respective titles of the Chief Justice and of each of the other judges’ is translated as ‘bhaineann le teidil fé seach an Phrímh-Bhreithimh agus gach breithimh fé leith de sna breithiúin eile’ in s4(2) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1936, with ‘changes in the styles and titles of the Ministers and Departments of State affected by such redistribution’ being translated as ‘atharuithe do dhéanamh ar theidil na nAirí agus na Ranna Stáit le n-a mbainfidh an ath-roinnt sin’ in s4(2) of the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1928. See the following subsection regarding ‘titles of honour’. a bhronnadh Ó Dónaill translates ‘bronn’ as ‘grant, bestow’, translating ‘rud a bhronnadh ar dhuine’ as ‘to bestow something on someone’ and citing ‘bronnadh céim air, a degree was conferred on him’. The original sense of ‘bronnaid’ seems to have been ‘spends, consumes’, and the sense ‘give, bestow’ is thought to have been an extended application of the secondary sense of ‘bronnaid’, ‘injures, damages’ – see the commentary on Article 13.11. As we have seen (see the commentary on Article 12.1), ‘confer’ is usually translated as ‘tabhair do’ in the Acts. One cannot include the preposition which usually accompanies both ‘bronn’ and ‘tabhair’ – ‘ar’ and ‘do’ respectively – without adding ‘aon duine’, as the drafters of the Irish version of Article 40.2.1o did. Either verb rests uneasy at the end of the subsection without an accompanying indirect object. Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o.

Direct translation Ní dhéanfaidh an Stát teidil1 uaisleachta a thabhairt2.3

Variants 1 ‘gairmeacha’ 2 ‘a bhronnadh’ 3 ‘Ní dhéanfar teidil uaisleachta a thabhairt ag an Stát.’

ARTICLE 40.2.2O

AIRTEAGAL 40.2.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead d’aon saoránach gairm uaisleachta ná gairm onóra a ghlacadh ach le haontú roimh ré ón Rialtas.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No citizen is permitted to accept a title of nobility nor a title of honour except with the assent beforehand of the Government. ENGLISH TEXT

No title of nobility or of honour may be accepted by any citizen except with the prior approval of the Government.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

‘Approval’ is expressed as ‘aontú’, which is translated as ‘assent’ in Téarmaí Dlí, though ‘aontú’ also has the sense of ‘approval’ in current Irish usage. ‘Accept’ is expressed as ‘a ghlacadh’, translated as ‘receive’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘accept’ is translated as ‘glac le’; in general usage ‘glac’ renders both ‘receive’ and ‘accept’. ‘Ní cead’ differs in tone from ‘No … may’.

Note that Article 5 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: No title of honour in respect of any services rendered in or in relation to the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) may be conferred on any citizen of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) except with the approval or upon the advice of the Executive Council of the State. Ní bronnfar ar aon tsaoránach de Shaorstát Éireann aon teideal onóra i dtaobh aon tseirbhísí do thabhairt uaidh i Saorstát Éireann no ina thaobh ach le cead no ar mhola Ard-Chomhairle an Stáit.

Commentary a ghlacadh ‘Glacaim’ is translated as ‘I admit (as evidence)’; ‘I receive’, in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘glacaim maoin ghoidte’ is translated as ‘I receive stolen property’, with ‘glacaim le’ being translated as ‘I accept’. ‘Glac’ is translated as ‘take, accept’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘bronntanas, síntiús, breab, a ghlacadh’ is translated as ‘to accept a present, a subscription, a bribe’. ‘Glacaim’ is translated as ‘I grasp, take, receive, accept, seize, take hold of, catch (disease, etc.), conceive, undertake’ in Dinneen. The verb ‘glacaid’, which is not widely attested before late Middle and early Modern Irish, is translated as (a) ‘seizes, lays hold of, takes, hires, touches’, (b) ‘receives, accepts, adopts’ and (c) ‘forms, conceives (a feeling)’ in DIL. It is based on ‘glac(c)’, ‘the fist half-opened; a hand’ (DIL). See the commentary on Article 8.2 regarding ‘glac le’. ‘May … draw accept and endorse Bills of Exchange or other negotiable instruments’ is translated as ‘féadfid Billí Malairte nó instruimidí ionmhalartuithe eile do tarang, do ghlaca agus do chur fé chúl-scríobh’ in s17 of the Sligo Lighting and Electric Power Act, 1924. In s4(1)(f) of the National Archives Act, 1986, ‘in relation to such purchase, donation, bequest or loan as may be accepted by the Director’ is translated as ‘a bhaineann le ceannach, bronntanas, tiomnacht nó iasacht den sórt sin lena nglacfaidh an Stiúrthóir’. gairm onóra ‘Onóir’ is translated as ‘honour’ in Ó Dónaill, and as ‘honour; pride, haughtiness; reverence, respect; thrift’ in Dinneen. It is an early Middle Irish loanword from Latin ‘honorem’ and is translated as ‘honour, respect,


A study of the Irish text

dignity’ in DIL. We have an example of its use as a term of address in Ó Cianáin’s Flight of the Earls: ‘adeir bhar n-onoir-si na briathra sin’. ‘Nothing in this Act shall affect the succession to any dignity or title of honour’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh éinní san Acht so deifir don chomharbas in aon dighnit no teideal onóra’ in s10(1) of the Legitimacy Act, 1931. In s8(1) of the Broadcasting Act, 1990, ‘which constituted an attack on that person’s honour or reputation’ is translated as ‘ar ionsaí a bhí iontu ar onóir nó dea-chlú an duine sin’. le haontú ‘Aontú’ is translated as ‘assent’ in Téarmaí Dlí and as ‘assent, agreement’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Aontughadh’ is translated as ‘act of assenting; consent, agreement’ in Dinneen. ‘Oentugad’ is translated as (a) ‘uniting (with), joining, adhering to’, (b) ‘conceding, granting’, (c) ‘consenting, agreeing’ in DIL – see the commentary on Article 28.3.1o where this noun expresses ‘assent’. Regarding ‘approval’, see the commentary on Article 13.1.2o where ‘le comhaontú … roimh ré’ expresses ‘with the previous approval’. Note that in Article 70 of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, ‘the application of special internal rates … shall require the prior agreement of the High Authority’ is translated as ‘Chun rátaí … inmheánacha speisialta a fheidhmiú … ní foláir aontú a fháil roimh ré ón Ard-Údarás. ‘Formheas’ is the term given in Téarmaí Dlí for ‘approval’, with ‘I approve’ being translated as ‘formheasaim’. See the commentary on Articles 13.1.2o and 13.7.3o (where ‘a bheith sásta roimh sé’ expresses ‘have received the approval’) and note how ‘ceadú’ regularly translates ‘approval’ in the Acts cited in that commentary. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘formheas’ would not have the appropriate sense in the direct translation below. ach ‘Except’ is sometimes translated as ‘ach amháin’ in the Acts – see, for example, s4(a) of the Schedule to the Holidays (Employees) Act, 1973, where ‘the 8th day of December, except when falling on a Sunday’ is translated as ‘an 8ú lá de Nollaig, ach amháin nuair is Domhnach é’.

Direct translation Ní fhéadfaidh aon saoránach glacadh le teideal1 uaisleachta nó onóra ach amháin le ceadú2 roimh ré ón Rialtas3.

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personal rights of any citizen, and it further guarantees to defend and assert those rights with its laws in so far as it is possible. ENGLISH TEXT

The State guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate the personal rights of the citizen.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3 4 5 6

‘To respect’ is expressed as ‘gan cur isteach ar’ (‘not to interfere with’) in the Irish text. ‘The State guarantees in its laws to respect …’ is expressed as ‘Ráthaíonn an Stát gan cur isteach lena dhlíthe ar’ (‘The State guarantees not to interfere by its laws, with …’) in the Irish text, the same preposition as required by Irish usage preceding ‘dlíthe’, ‘laws’, as that found expressing ‘by its laws’ further on in the subsection. ‘As far as practicable’ is expressed as ‘sa mhéid gur féidir é’ (‘in so far as it is possible’) in the Irish text. ‘The citizen’ is expressed as ‘aon saoránach’ (‘any citizen’) in the Irish text. ‘Vindicate’ is expressed as ‘suíomh’ (‘establish’) in the Irish text. The Irish text repeats the verb ‘ráthaíonn’, ‘guarantees’, having ‘rathaíonn fós na cearta sin’ (‘it guarantees further … those rights’) in addition to the English text.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 208, reports as follows on reference made to this Article in the courts: In McGee v Attorney General ([1974] IR 284) Griffin J pointed out that the Irish version: “Ráthaíonn an Stát gan cur isteach lena dhlithibh ar cheartaibh pearsanta aon tsaoránaigh” was a guarantee not to interfere with citizens’ personal rights (thus adding depth to the guarantee to “respect” them in the English version). In the same case Walsh J used the Irish “féidir” so as to treat the English “practicable” as amounting to “possible”. In Pine Valley Developments Ltd. v Minister for Environment ([1987] IR 23) Henchy J referred to the Irish version of Article 40.3.2 (“chomh fada lena chumas” = “as best it may”) in order to stress that the State’s duty to respect and vindicate the citizens’ constitutional rights was not an unqualified one.

Commentary

Variants 1 ‘gairm’ 2 ‘formheas’ 3 ‘le ceadú an Rialtais roimh ré’, ‘le réamhcheadú an Rialtais’

ARTICLE 40.3.1O

AIRTEAGAL 40.3.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ráthaíonn an Stát gan cur isteach lena dhlíthe ar chearta pearsanta aon saoránaigh, agus ráthaíonn fós na cearta sin a chosaint is a shuíomh lena dhlíthe sa mhéid gur feidir é. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State guarantees not to interfere by its laws with the

cur isteach ‘Cuirim isteach ar’ is translated as ‘I molest’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘cur isteach ar dhuine’ being translated as ‘to interfere with, to inconvenience, someone; to interrupt someone’ in Ó Dónaill – see the commentary on Article 15.10. As regards ‘respect’, in the Joint Declaration of 15 December 1993, ‘and must respect the civil rights and religious liberties of both communities’ is translated as ‘agus go gcaithfear urraim a thabhairt ann do chearta sibhialta agus do shaoirsí creidimh an dá phobal’, with ‘to create structures which, while respecting the diversity of the people of Ireland, would enable them to work together’ being translated as ‘struchtúir a chruthú a dhéanfadh, agus urraim á tabhairt acu d’ilghnéitheacht mhuintir na hÉireann, iad a chumasú chun oibriú as lámha a chéile’. In s4.14 of the New Ireland Forum Report, ‘which fully respects both traditions’ is translated as ‘ina seastar leis an dá thraidisiún’.


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In the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 13), ‘and respects the individual preferences of employees’ is translated as ‘agus a thabharfaidh aird an rogha aonair fostaithe’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 701), ‘When taking up their duties, they shall give a solemn undertaking that … they will respect the obligations arising therefrom’ is translated as ‘Nuair a rachaidh siad i mbun a ndualgas, tabharfaidh siad gealltanas sollúnta go n-urramóidh siad … na hoibleagáidí a bheidh orthu de bharr na hoifige sin’. We also find ‘each Member State undertakes to respect this principle’ translated as ‘gabhann gach Ballstát air féin urraim a thabhairt don phrionsabal seo’ (p. 755). In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 60), ‘respecting human rights’ is translated as ‘cearta an duine a urramú’, with ‘to respect this principle’ being translated as ‘an prionsabal sin a urramú’ (p. 31). See the commentary on Articles 42.1 and 44.1 for citations from the Acts. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú questions whether the term ‘urraim’ is what is involved here. He remarks that ‘respect’ has as part of its range of meaning ‘avoid harming or interfering with’, citing ‘to respect the environment’, for example. This was the interpretation of the Irish drafters and Máirtín Ó Murchú agrees with that interpretation, noting that ‘urraim’ need not have any practical benefit. sa mhéid gur féidir é This phrase expresses ‘so far as practicable’ in Article 16.2.3o also. ‘Sa mhéid go’ is translated as ‘inasmuch, in so far, as’ in Ó Dónaill. DIL cites examples from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards of ‘méit’ as a relative adverb introducing a subordinate clause in the sense of ‘as much as, as far as, to the extent that’ – see, for example, ‘7 meit atan echtrainn’ (‘and as far as they are foreigners’), glossing Latin ‘quanto externi sunt’, in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, and ‘meit as sochmacht’ (‘as much as it well can’) from the ninth-century Carlsruhe Glosses on S. Augustine’s Soliloquia. ‘Is féidir (é)’ is translated as ‘it is possible’ in Ó Dónaill. DIL cites examples of ‘étir’/‘éter’ (‘able; possible, feasible’) from Leabhar na hUidhre (completed by 1106), but most examples are from a later period, with no citations from the Glosses, for example. ‘Séitir’, translated as ‘vigour, energy; competency (?)’ in DIL, and connected with ‘séitrech’ (‘strong, powerful’), has been taken to be the earlier form of ‘étir’ (later with prothetic f-). Turning to the Acts, in s46(a) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘unless the company proves that it has, as far as possible, … advanced to borrowers relevant principal’ is translated as ‘mura gcruthóidh an chuideachta go ndearna sí, a mhéid ab fhéidir é, … príomhshuim iomchuí a airleacan, d’iasachtaithe’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 156), ‘The ECB shall respect as far as possible existing practices’ is translated as ‘Urramóidh BCE a mhéad is féidir cleachtais atá ann cheana’. ‘Oiread agus is féidir’ translates ‘as far as possible’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities. Turning specifically to ‘practicable’, ‘Tax deduction cards shall be prepared, with a view to securing that, so far as may be practicable …’, in s127(3)(a) of the Income Tax Act, 1967, is translated as ‘Ullmhófar cártaí asbhainte cánach chun a áirithiú, an oiread agus is inoibrithe sin …’. In the Programme for a Partnership Government,

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1993-97 (p. 25) ‘as far as practicable’ is translated as ‘a mhéid is indéanta’. In s8(2) of the Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1972, ‘as soon as practicable he shall cause notice of that fact to be published’ is translated as ‘cuirfidh sé faoi deara a luaithe is féidir fógra ina thaobh sin a fhoilsiú’. See further the commentary on Article 16.2.3o. a shuíomh In Articles 12.3.1o, 12.10.7o and 14.1 ‘go suífear’ expresses ‘is established’, and in Article 12.3.3o ‘arna suíomh’ expresses ‘established’. ‘Suím cúis’ is translated as ‘I show cause’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘cúis, ceart, a shuí’ as ‘to establish a case, a right’, ‘suíomh’ being given as a variant verbal noun of ‘suigh’ by Ó Dónaill. Dinneen translates ‘suidhighim’ as ‘I set, plant, arrange, dispose; prove, certify, establish, station (as guards)’. DIL cites examples of ‘suidigidir’, in the sense of ‘establishes, founds, sets up, institutes’, as well as ‘fixes, assesses, imposes (of laws, fines, etc.)’, from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. Following this Article, in the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann of 15 December, 1994, we find, in the terms of reference of a sub- Committee of the Select Committee on Legislation and Security, ‘to the extent that the sub-Committee is of the opinion that such cross-examination is necessary to defend and vindicate the Constitutional rights of such witnesses’ is translated as ‘a mhéid a bheidh an Fochoiste den tuairim gur gá croscheistiú den sórt sin chun cearta bunreachtúla finnéithe den sórt sin a chosaint agus a shuíomh’. Chambers English Dictionary (7th. ed., 1988) has the following entry s.v. ‘vindicate’: to justify; to clear from criticism, etc.; to defend with success; to make good a claim to; to lay claim to; to maintain; to avenge (obsolete); to free (obsolete).

According to the Oxford Shorter English Dictionary this verb comes from Latin ‘vindicat-, vindicare’, ‘to claim, set free, punish’, from ‘vim’, acc. sing. of ‘vis’, ‘force’ and ‘dic-, dicere’, ‘to say’. Daniel Foley’s English Irish Dictionary (1855) translates ‘vindicate’ as ‘ceartuigh, congbhaigh, saoradh’, translating ‘vindication’ as ‘cosnamh, ceartughadh, díolgasuigh’. T. O’Neill Lane’s English-Irish Dictionary (2nd. ed.) translates ‘vindicate’ as (1) ‘to defend with success, cosnaim, -namh’ and (2) ‘to clear of a charge, glanaim ó choir’, translating ‘vindication’ (‘the act of defending with success’) as ‘cosnamh’. ‘I vindicate’ is translated as ‘cosnaim, dearbhaím, seasaim ceart do’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla, followed by the abbreviation for ‘Leabhráin Choiste na dTéarmaí’, the terms published by the Department of Education. In one such booklet of terms, the 1934 edition of Téarmaí Staire, we find ‘I vindicate’ translated as ‘cosnaim, dearbhuighim, seasaim ceart do’. L. Mc Cionnaith s.v. ‘vindicate’, refers the reader to ‘defend’, the literal translation of which is the first term given in Téarmaí Oifigiúla above. The second term, ‘dearbhaím’, is translated as ‘I declare’ in Téarmaí Dlí. As regards the third term, note that De Bhaldraithe translates ‘to vindicate one’s rights’ as ‘do chearta a sheasamh’ and also cites ‘seasaim ceart do (dhuine)’ s.v. ‘vindicate’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘an ceart a sheasamh do dhuine’ as ‘to see justice done to someone’ and ‘níor sheas tú ceart dom’ as ‘you did not stand up for me’, translating ‘do cheart a sheasamh’ as ‘to stand up for one’s rights’ s.v. ‘seas’. Dinneen translates ‘seasuighim mo cheart’ as ‘I


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maintain my right’ and ‘ní’l seasamh a chirt ann’ as ‘he cannot uphold his rights’. Note that we have ‘vindicate’ in the following subsection, here with more than ‘rights’ involved: ‘vindicate the life, person, good name, and property rights of every citizen’. Perhaps neither of the opposites ‘seas’ or ‘suí’ alone are suitable here; ‘seas do’, however, has the sense of ‘stand up for’ and this might be more appropriate – see Ó Dónaill who cites ‘sheas siad go dílis dá dtír, they stood loyally by their country’ and ‘sheas sé suas dom, he stood up for me’. Rathaíonn ‘Rathaím’ is translated as ‘I guarantee’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘ráthaíocht’ translated as ‘guarantee’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘ráthaigh’ simply as ‘guarantee’, whereas Dinneen translates ‘ráthuighim’ as ‘I guarantee, assure’. See the commentary on Article 22.1.1o. Note that in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 9), ‘the Union shall respect fundamental rights as guaranteed by the European Convention’ is translated as ‘urramóidh an tAontas … na cearta bunúsacha mar atá siad áirithithe ag an gCoinbhinsiún Eorpach’. a chosaint ‘Cosnaím’ is translated as ‘I defend’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with the noun ‘cosaint’ translated as ‘defence’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘cosain’ as ‘defend, protect (ar, ó, against)’, citing ‘duine a chosaint ar rud, to defend someone against something’, ‘an tír a chosaint, to defend the country’ and ‘do chlú a chosaint, to defend one’s reputation’. Dinneen translates ‘cosnaim’ as ‘I defend, protect from (ar); champion, seek to gain or hold, maintain’. The simple verb ‘cosnaid’ is a later form of the compound ‘con-sní’, ‘contends; contests, strives for, wins, gains’, later also ‘defends, costs’ (DIL). See the commentary on Article 24.1 (where this verb expresses ‘preserve’) and 28.3.2o (where ‘cosain’ expesses ‘protect’). fós This headword is translated as ‘yet, still’ in Ó Dónaill, with the secondary sense of ‘again, in addition, moreover, furthermore’, citing ‘deir sé fós (go), he states further (that)’. Dinneen translates ‘fós’ as ‘also, too, moreover, yet, as yet, still, further, besides’. DIL gives examples of ‘fós’ in the sense of ‘still (more, longer), further, also, in addition; likewise’. See the commentary on Article 15.3.2o and 29.2.

Direct translation Ráthaíonn an Stát ina dhlíthe urraim a thabhairt do chearta pearsanta an tsaoránaigh1 agus iad a chosaint agus seasamh dóibh lena dhlíthe a mhéid is féidir2.

Variants 1 ‘cearta pearsanta an tsaoránaigh a urramú’, ‘gan cur isteach ar chearta pearsanta an tsaoránaigh ina dhlíthe’ 2 ‘agus, a mhéid is féidir, iad a chosaint agus a sheasamh lena dhlíthe’

ARTICLE 40.3.2O

AIRTEAGAL 40.3.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Déanfaidh an Stát, go sonrach, lena dhlíthe, beatha agus pearsa agus dea-chlú agus maoinchearta an uile

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shaoránaigh a chosaint ar ionsaí éagórach chomh fada lena chumas, agus iad a shuíomh i gcás éagóra. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State will, in particular, by its laws, protect the life and person and good reputation and property rights of every citizen from unjust attack to the extent of its power, and assert them in a case of injustice. ENGLISH TEXT

The State shall, in particular, by its laws protect as best it may from unjust attack and, in the case of injustice done, vindicate the life, person, good name, and property rights of every citizen.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3 4

The text corresponding to ‘and, in the case of injustice done, vindicate’, in the middle of the English subsection, is found at the end of the Irish subsection, where this text is expressed as ‘agus iad a shuíomh i gcás éagóra’ (‘and vindicate them in [a] case of injustice’), with ‘beatha agus pearsa agus dea-chlú agus maoinchearta an uile shaoránaigh’ (‘the life and person and good name and property rights of every citizen’) preceding this clause in the Irish text and being referred to as ‘iad’ (‘them’) in ‘agus iad a shuíomh’ (‘and vindicate them’). As in the previous subsection, ‘vindicate’ is expressed as ‘a shuíomh’ (‘assert’) in the Irish text. ‘As best it may’ is expressed as ‘chomh fada lena chumas’ (‘to the extent of its power’) in the Irish text. ‘In particular’ is expressed as ‘go sonrach’ (‘specifically’) in the Irish text, ‘in particular’ generally being rendered as ‘go háirithe’ in Irish.

Commentary éagórach … éagóra ‘Éagóir’ is translated as ‘wrong’, with ‘éagórach’ translated as ‘wrongful’, in Téarmaí Dlí, citing ‘wrongful dismissal, dífhostú éagórach’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘éagóir’ as ‘injustice, wrong; unfairness, inequity’, citing ‘éagóir a dhéanamh ar dhuine, to do an injustice to someone, to wrong someone’. ‘Éagórach’ is translated in Ó Dónaill as ‘unjust, inequitable; wrong’. Dinneen translates ‘éagcóir’ as ‘a crime; wrong, injustice, iniquity, unrighteousness, a foul (in athletics, etc.)’, translating ‘éagcórach’ as ‘unjust, wrong-doing, oppressive; strange, unusual, wrong, awry’. The adjective ‘éccóir’, the negative of ‘cóir’, is translated as ‘incongruous, wrong, inaccurate, improper, unjust, unfitting’ in DIL, while the noun ‘éccóir’ is translated as ‘wrong, impropriety, injustice’, examples of both adjective and noun being cited from the Old Irish Glosses onwards. Only two late examples of the adjective ‘éccórach’ are cited in DIL, one of which comes from Keating’s seventeenth-century Three Shafts of Death. Turning to the Acts, in s3(1) of the Civil Liability Act, 1941, ‘“wrong” means a tort, breach of contract or breach of trust’, is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “éagóir” tort, sárú cúnaint nó sárú iontaobhais’ and ‘“wrongdoer” means a person who commits or is otherwise responsible for a wrong’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “éagóiritheoir” duine a rinne éagóir nó atá freagrach ar shlí eile in éagóir’. In


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Article 11 of the First Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1973, ‘an act of interference, seizure, or other wrongful exercise of control of an aircraft in flight’ is translated as ‘gníomh toirmisc, urghabhála nó feidhmiú éagórach ar urlámhas aerárthaigh agus í ar eitilt’. ‘Éagóir’ is also used in translating ‘aggrieved’ – see for example, s7(2) of the Third Schedule to the Fisheries (Consolidation Act), 1959, where ‘Any person who is aggrieved by any disallowance’ is translated as ‘Aon duine arb éagóir leis aon dícheadú’. ‘Éagcóir’ translates ‘injustice’ in early Acts. ‘Unless it appears that injustice has been done to the person charged by reason of such contravention’ is translated as ‘maran rud é go ndeabhróidh sé gur dineadh éagcóir ar an duine cúisithe de dheascaibh na buniscionntachta san’ in s68 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘unless the required amendments cannot in the opinion of the court be made without injustice’ being translated as ‘maran rud é nách féidir, dar leis an gcúirt, na leasuithe riachtanacha do dhéanamh gan éagcóir do dhéanamh’ in s6(1) of the Criminal Justice (Administration) Act, 1924. We sometimes find ‘éagóir’ translating ‘injustice’ in modern Acts also – ‘provided such error or mistake may be rectified without injustice to any person’ is translated as ‘ar choinníoll go bhféadfar an earráid nó an dearmad sin a cheartú gan éagóir a dhéanamh ar aon duine’ in s18(5)(a) of the Derelict Sites Act, 1990, with ‘that the applicant is likely to suffer injustice if the direction is not given’ being translated as ‘gur dóigh go ndéanfar éagóir ar an iarratasóir mura dtabharfar an t-ordachán’ in s7(5)(b) of the Criminal Law (Rape) Act, 1981. We also find ‘éigeartas’ translating ‘injustice’. In s23(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘for the purpose of preventing inequalities or preventing injustice’ is translated as ‘chun éagothromais a chosc nó chun éigeartas a chosc’. ‘Éigeartas’ is translated as ‘injustice’ in Ó Dónaill, preceded by the abbreviation for ‘Philosophy’. The adjective ‘éigeart’ is translated as ‘wrong, incorrect, unjust’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘éigceart’ being translated simply as ‘unjust’ in Dinneen. ‘Unjust’ is translated as ‘éigeart’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla, citing Seathrún Céitinn. DIL gives two citations from the works of Keating s.v. ‘éccert’ (‘wrong, injust’), one from his History of Ireland (‘ré linn breitheamhnais éigceirt do dhéanamh’) and the other from his Three Shafts of Death: ‘don duine éigceart’ = ‘homini iniusto’. DIL gives one earlier and one later citation (the earlier from Togail na Tebe [The Thebaid of Statius]) and also cites ‘éccertach’ (‘unjust’) in the names ‘Egcertach mac Anchertaigh’ and ‘Maol Dúin Ua hEiccertaigh’. DIL translates the noun ‘éccert’ as ‘wrong, injustice’, giving a citation from an early Irish law-tract. Etymologically, ‘éigeart’ renders ‘wrong’ and ‘éagóir’ renders ‘unjust’, but as we have seen, ‘éagórach’ translates ‘wrongful’ in Téarmaí Dlí. L. Mc Cionnaith translates ‘unjust person, deed’ as ‘duine, gníomh, éagcórach’, cited in Connacht, Ulster and Munster, but also gives ‘duine, gníomh éigceart’, referring to Dinneen. ‘Unjust towards him, bringing an unjust charge against him’ is translated as ‘tá tú san éagcóir air’, again with reference to Munster (which also has ‘chuige’, as well as ‘air’, in the phrase just cited), Ulster and Connacht. L. Mc Cionnaith s.v ‘injustice’, translates ‘treated with injustice’ as ‘tá an tír fá aincheart’, cited from Munster, while ‘injustice’ is rendered as ‘aindhligheadh’ in Connacht

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and Ulster, ‘éagcóir do dhéanamh orthu’ being found in the three dialects, rendering ‘inflict injustice on’, with ‘éagcóir d’imirt ortha’ also being cited from Munster. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘unjust’ as ‘éagórach, aincheart, leatromach’ and ‘unjustly’ as ‘go héagórach’, translating ‘he was treated unjustly’ as ‘rinneadh éagóir air’. ‘Injustice’ is translated as ‘éigeart, leatrom, éagóir’ with ‘you do him an injustice’ translated as ‘tá tú san éagóir dó, ag déanamh éagóra air’. See further the commentary on Article 45.3.2o where ‘éagórach’ again expresses ‘unjust’. i gcás éagóra As regards ‘done’ not specifically being expressed in the Irish, see, for example, s1(4) of the Prohibition of Forcible Entry and Occupation Act, 1971, where ‘Nothing in this Act shall affect the law relating to acts done in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh aon ní san Acht seo difear don dlí a bhaineann le gníomhartha d’intinn nó de chabhair le díospóid trádála a chur ar aghaidh’. Note that in Téarmaí Dlí s.v. ‘done’, ‘work done and services rendered’ is translated as ‘obair agus seirbhísí a rinneadh’. In s54(17)(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘Where … a person by trespass, fishing or otherwise interferes with anything done pursuant to an aquaculture licence’ is translated as ‘I gcás … a ndéanfaidh duine trí fhoghail, iascaireacht nó eile, cur isteach ar ní a bheidh déanta de bhun ceadúnais dobharshaothraithe’. In Article 53 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘Done at Vienna, this eighteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and sixty-one’, in relation to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, is translated as ‘Arna dhéanamh i Vín an t-ochtú lá déag seo d’Aibreán míle naoi gcéad seasca is a haon’. Finally, as regards ‘i gcás’, in s15 of the Finance Act, 1990, for example, ‘In the case of the death of a person who … would … have become chargeable to income tax’ is translated as ‘I gcás duine d’fháil bháis a thiocfadh … chun bheith inmhuirir i leith cánach ioncaim’. go sonrach ‘Go sonrach’ expresses ‘in particular’ in Articles 41.2.1o and 45.2 also. This phrase expresses ‘especially’ in Article 45.2.iii and ‘cosaint sonrach’ expresses ‘special care’ in Article 45.4.1o. On the other hand, in Article 27.3, ‘the particular ground or grounds’ is expressed as ‘(ar) an ábhar nó ar na hábhair áirithe’; in Article 28.4.3o ‘a particular matter’ is expressed as ‘ní áirithe’; in Article 40.4.4o, ‘any particular case’ is expressed as ‘aon chás áirithe’ and in Article 42.3.1o ‘any particular type of school’ is expressed as ‘aon chineál áirithe scoile’. ‘Bronntanas sonrach’ and ‘leagáid shonrach’ are translated respectively as ‘specific gift’ and ‘specific legacy’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘sonrach’ as ‘particular, specific’, translating ‘go sonrach’ as ‘particularly, notably’. Dinneen translates ‘sonnrach’ as ‘special, particular, etc.’, referring the reader to ‘sonnradhach’, translated as ‘special, specific, particular’, with ‘go sonnradhach’ translated as ‘to come to details, also chiefly, very’. DIL cites examples of ‘sainredach’, in the senses of ‘peculiar or belonging to (an individual), characteristic of; particular, special, set apart’, along with ‘specific, definite’, from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, citing an example of ‘co sundradach’ from a commentary on an early Irish law-tract, and translating a citation of ‘go sunradhach’ as ‘especially’. ‘Sainredach’ is based on ‘sainred’ (‘peculiar property or


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characteristic, distinghuishing an individual from others’), which in turn is based on ‘sain’ (‘different, distinct, separate’). See further the commentary on Article 42.5. Turning to the Acts, in s5(2) of the Industrial Development Authority Act, 1950, ‘which would involve the divulging of secret manufacturing processes or recipes or of methods peculiar to the particular undertaking of such witness’ is translated as ‘a bhéarfadh go scaoilfí eolas ar aon phróiseanna nó sain-oidis rúnda déantóireachta nó ar aon mhodhanna a bhaineas go sonrach le gnóthas áirithe an fhinné sin’. In general ‘go sonrach’ translates ‘specifically’ in the Acts – see, for example, ‘save or otherwise specifically provided for’, in s1(4) of the Health Act, 1970, which is translated as ‘Ach amháin mar a bhforáiltear go sonrach dá mhalairt’. ‘In particular’, on the other hand, is generally translated as ‘go háirithe’ – see, for example, s3(1) of the Sea Pollution Act, 1991, where ‘(fauna) includes in particular wild birds’ is translated as ‘folaíonn sé go háirithe éin fhiáine’ and s8(2)(a) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, where ‘this paragraph applies in particular to’ is translated as ‘baineann an mhír seo go háirithe (le)’. See the commentary on Article 42.5 for early translations. dea-chlú Ó Dónaill translates ‘dea-chlú’ as ‘good reputation; good name, honour’, citing ‘is mór ag duine a dhea-chlú, one’s good name is to be cherished’. Dinneen translates ‘deagh-chlú’ as ‘good repute’. DIL gives citations of ‘deg-clú’ (‘a good reputation, good fame’) from an early Irish law-tract. ‘Clú’ is translated as ‘reputation’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Following the text of the Constitution, in the Long Title of the Defamation Bill, 1995 (introduced in the Dáil on 14 February 1995), ‘to provide in accordance with the common good protection for the good name of persons’ is translated as ‘do thabhairt cosanta de réir na maitheasa poiblí do dhea-chlú daoine’. In s8(1) of the Broadcasting Act, 1990, ‘which constituted an attack on that person’s honour or reputation’ is translated as ‘ar ionsaí a bhí iontu ar onóir nó dea-chlú an duine sin’. Note that Ó Dónaill includes the headword ‘dea-ainm’, translated as ‘good name’, citing ‘dea-ainm an duine, a person’s good name’. Dinneen also has ‘deagh-ainm’ as a headword, which he translates as ‘a good name’. DIL gives one citation of ‘deg-ainm’, from the Book of Ballymote, written around 1400. a chosaint ar ‘Cosnaím’ is translated as ‘I defend’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘cosaint’ translated as ‘defence’. ‘Protected transaction’ is translated therein as ‘idirbheart tearmainn’, with ‘protection from process’ translated as ‘tearmann ó phróis’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘cosain’ as ‘defend, protect (ar, ó, against)’, citing ‘duine a chosaint ar rud, to defend someone against something’ and ‘sinn a chosaint ó bhaol, ar olc, to protect us from harm, from evil’. Dinneen translates ‘cosnaim’ as ‘I defend, protect from (ar)’. See the commentary on the foregoing subsection. ‘Cosain’ translates ‘protects’ in the Acts also – in s9(5)(g) of the Consumer Information Act, 1978, for example, ‘legislation providing for the protection of consumers’ is translated as ‘(ar) fhorálacha aon reachtaíochta a dhéanann socrú le tomhaltóirí a chosaint’. See, for example of ‘cosain ó’, the following from the Dáil Order Paper of 24/3/1977: ‘Declaration on the Protection of all Persons from being Subjected to Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or

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Degrading Treatment or Punishment’, ‘Dearbhú maidir le Cosaint gach uile Dhuine óna Chéasadh agus ó Íde nó Pionós eile a fháil atá Cruálach, Mídhaonna nó Táirchéimeach’. See the commentary on Article 45.3.2o where ‘cosain ar’ expresses ‘protect against’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that there is the same difference between ‘cosain ó’ and ‘cosain ar’ as there is between English ‘defend from’ and ‘defend against’. maoinchearta ‘Maoin’ is translated as ‘property’ in Téarmaí Dlí, the compound ‘maoincheart’ (unlike, for example, the compound ‘móincheart’, which is translated as ‘right of turbary, turbary’) not being given. Neither Ó Dónaill nor Dinneen cite this headword (unlike, for example, ‘maoinchiste’, translated as ‘treasury-chest’ in Ó Dónaill and simply as ‘treasury’ in Dinneen). See the commentary on Article 10.1 regarding ‘maoin’. ‘Voting rights’, ‘human rights’, ‘conjugal rights’, ‘drawing rights’ and ‘fishing rights’ are translated respectively as ‘cearta vótála’, ‘cearta an duine’, ‘cearta an phósta’, ‘cearta tarraingthe’ and ‘cearta iascaireachta’ in the Acts. Regarding ‘property’ in the early Acts, we find ‘maoin’ translating ‘property’ in Article 8 of the 1922 Constitution, this now being the Irish legal term for ‘property’. While ‘(ar) an maoin eile is le A.G. Williamson anois’ translates ‘other property now owned by A.G. Williamson’ in s93 of the Dundalk Harbour and Port Act, 1925, in ss1, ‘and shall when erected vest in her and be her property’ (of a boundary wall) is translated as ‘agus ar bheith tógtha dho dílseoidh sé inti agus beidh sé dá cuid féin aici’. Note finally that ‘the property in such tree shall vest in the person by whom such notice was served’ is translated as ‘dílseoidh únaereacht an chrainn sin sa té a sheirbheáil an fógra san’ in s34(4)(e) of the Local Government Act, 1925. chomh fada lena chumas Ó Dónaill s.v., ‘cumas’ (‘capability; power’), translates ‘de réir a chumais’ as ‘as far as he is able; according to his means’ and s.v. ‘fada’, translates ‘chomh fada leis sin de’ and ‘chomh fada is nach ndéanfaidh sé aon dochar dó’ respectively as ‘as far as that is concerned’ and ‘provided he does not harm it’. Dinneen translates ‘chómh fada le’ as ‘as long as, as far as, to, as regards’, translating ‘cumas’ as ‘adjustment’ control, requisite capability or power; ability; effort; disposition’ and ‘do réir a chumais’ as ‘all things considered in regard to him’. As regards ‘cumas’, earlier ‘commus’ (‘power, ability, capacity’), see the commentary on Articles 14.2.2o and 31.2. DIL translates ‘do réir … chumais na háite’ as ‘according to the possibility of the place’ s.v. ‘commus’. In s69(3)(d) of the Building Societies Act, 1976, ‘in his opinion and to the best of his information’ is translated as ‘de réir a thuairime agus chomh fada agus is eol dó’. In s10(5)(a) of the First Schedule to the Corporation Tax Act of the same year, ‘to the best of his judgement’ is translated as ‘go feadh a bhreithiúnais’. In s19 of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1965, ‘to the best of his ability’ is translated as ‘go feadh a chumais’ while in s20(4)(b) of the Finance Act, 1983, ‘to the best of his knowledge, information and belief’ is translated as ‘de réir mar is fearr is eol agus is feasach dó agus mar a chreideann sé’. Turning to the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 43), ‘to the maximum possible extent consistent with


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the needs of the service they must provide’ is translated as ‘chomh fada agus is féidir gan dochar do riachtanais na seirbhíse a chaithfidh siad a chur ar fáil’, with ‘the elimination as far as possible of social disadvantage’ being translated as ‘deireadh a chur chomh fada agus is féidir le míbhuntáiste sóisialta’ (p. 2). ionsaí This headword is translated as ‘assault’ in Téarmaí Dlí and principally as ‘advance, approach, attack’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Ionnsaighe’ is translated as ‘approach, assault, attack, invasion, enterprise’ in Dinneen. ‘Indsaigid’, verbal noun of ‘ind-saig’ (‘approaches, goes to; reaches, advances [upon], attacks’), is translated principally as ‘act of approaching, attacking; an attack’ in DIL. Turning to the Acts, following Téarmaí Dlí, we find ‘aggravated sexual assault’ translated as ‘tromionsaí gnéasach’ in the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957. In s8(1) of the Broadcasting Act, 1990, ‘which constituted an attack on that person’s honour or good reputation’ is translated as ‘ar ionsaí a bhí iontu ar onóir nó dea-chlú an duine sin’. See further the commentary on Article 41.3.1o. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘attack’ as ‘ionsaí, fogha’, translating ‘to attack someone’s rights’ as ‘cur isteach ar cheart duine’. pearsa ‘Caomhnóir ar an bpearsa’ and ‘foghail ar an bpearsa’ are translated respectively as ‘guardian of the person’ and ‘trespass to the person’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Articles 40.1 and 45.2.ii. Turning to the Acts, in Article 29 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, for example, ‘The person of a diplomatic agent shall be inviolable’ is translated as ‘Beidh pearsa gníomhaire taidhleoireachta dosháraithe’.

Direct translation Déanfaidh an Stát, go háirithe, lena dhlíthe, beatha, pearsa, dea-ainm1, agus cearta maoine gach saoránaigh a chosaint chomh fada agus is féidir leis ar2 ionsaí éigeart3 agus seasfaidh sé dóibh i gcás éigeartais4.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘dea-chlú’ ‘ó’ ‘éagórach’ ‘éagóra’, ‘i gcás éigeartas/éagóir a dhéanamh orthu’

ARTICLE 40.3.3O

AIRTEAGAL 40.3.3O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Admhaíonn an Stát ceart na mbeo gan breith chun a mbeatha agus, ag féachaint go cuí do chomhcheart na máthar chun a beatha, ráthaíonn sé gan cur isteach lena dhlíthe ar an gceart sin agus ráthaíonn fós an ceart sin a chosaint is a shuíomh lena dhlíthe sa mhéid gur féidir é. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges the right of the unborn to their life and, having due regard to the equal right of the mother to her life, it guarantees not to interfere through its laws

Bunreacht na hÉireann

with that right and it guarantees further to protect and assert that right with its laws in so far as it is possible. ENGLISH TEXT

The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right.

Divergences between the official texts 1

This subsection was added to the Constitution by the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1983; being an Amendment of the Constitution, while this text would have been translated literally, it would adhere to the terminology already in the Constitution as far as possible. Much of the wording of this section is identical with that of Article 40.3.1o; therefore, as in 40.3.1o: i) ‘the State … guarantees in its laws to respect’ is rendered as ‘ráthaíonn sé gan cur isteach lena dhlíthe’ (‘it guarantees not to interfere through its laws’), ii) ‘vindicate’ is rendered as ‘a shuíomh’ (‘assert’), and iii) ‘as far as practicable’ is rendered as ‘sa mhéid gur féidir é’ (‘in so far as it is possible’). The phrase ‘féach go cuí’ (‘have due regard’) is also found in Article 40.1.

Commentary Admhaíonn ‘Admhaím’ is translated as ‘I acknowledge, I confess’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘admhaigh’ as (1) ‘acknowledge’ and (2) ‘confess’, dividing the examples of the first sense into (a) ‘admit’, citing ‘d’admhaigh sé go raibh an ceart agam, he admitted that I was right’ and ‘admhaíonn an saol (go), everybody admits, agrees (that)’, (b) ‘own to be’, citing ‘bean nach n-admhódh a fear féin, a woman who would not acknowledge her own husband’ and (c) ‘acknowledge receipt of’, citing ‘níor admhaigh tú mo litir, you did not acknowledge my letter’. Dinneen translates ‘admhuighim’ as ‘I confess, admit, acknowledge; I say, state, proclaim’. See further the commentary on the Preamble. In the Joint Declaration of December 1993, ‘the Taoiseach also acknowledges the presence in the Constitution of the Republic of elements which are deeply resented by Northern Unionists’ is translated as ‘admhaíonn an Taoiseach freisin go bhfuil gnéithe de Bhunreacht na Poblachta a nglacann Aontachtaithe an Tuaiscirt olc domhain leo’ and ‘when the genuine feelings of all traditions in the North must be recognised and acknowledged’ is translated as ‘nuair nach mór braistintí macánta na dtraidisiún go léir sa Tuaisceart a aithint agus a admháil’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 238) ‘The Conference acknowledges that the outermost regions of the Community … suffer from major structural backwardness’ is translated as ‘Aithníonn an Chomhdháil go bhfuil cúlmhaireacht mhór struchtúrach ar na réigiúin is forimeallaí den Chomhphobal’. See the commentary on Article 42.1 for citations from the Acts.


A study of the Irish text

ceart na mbeo gan breith chun a mbeatha ‘Beo’ is translated principally as ‘living being’, with the secondary sense of ‘life’, in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘an beo’ as ‘the living’, citing ‘ag guí ar son na mbeo agus na marbh, praying for the living and the dead’. Dinneen gives ‘na beodha’ as the plural form of ‘beo’, ‘a living person; the living …’, citing ‘ní nádúrtha an beo ’ná an marbh, life is not more natural than death’ and ‘guidhim ar bheodhaibh is ar mharbhaibh, I pray for the living and the dead’. We have an example of the genitive plural of ‘beo’ from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, ‘inna nóib in diththrub in beotho oc ascnam tíre tairngiri inna mbéo’ (‘[of] the saints in the desert of Life, journeying to the Land of Promise of the Living’). DIL also cites ‘ragaid do beo no do marb’ (‘you shall go dead or alive’), from the version of the Táin in the twelfth-century manuscript, the Book of Leinster. One would perhaps expect ‘gan bhreith’ here, as one finds in De Bhaldraithe s.v. ‘unborn’; Ó Dónaill cites ‘bheith gan chlann, to be without children, childless’, as well as examples with verbal nouns, such as ‘gan bhaint, unsown’ and ‘gan bhriseadh, unbroken’. ‘Gan’ does not lenite with a dependent clause or phrase – see, for example, ‘Tá mé gan phingin, I am without a penny, penniless’, but ‘gan pingin ina phóca, without a penny in his pocket’ (both cited in Ó Dónaill). Dinneen cites ‘gan breith ar a anáil aige, he not being able to draw his breath’. By leaving ‘breith’ unlenited, one anticipates a following phrase, instead of the finality of ‘gan bhreith’. We have an example of the phrase ‘buith cenchlaind’ (‘to be without children’) in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. ‘Bean … atá gan phósadh’ translates ‘a woman who is unmarried’ in s8(1) of the Social Welfare Act, 1973, for example, ‘unmarried mothers’ being translated as ‘máithreacha neamhphósta’ in the heading. ‘Beatha’ is translated as (1) ‘life’, (2) ‘living, livelihood’, and (3) ‘food, sustenance’ in Ó Dónaill and ‘life, existence; food; crops; harvest; means of livelihood; property, estate’ in Dinneen. ‘Ceilt bhreithe’ is translated as ‘concealment of birth’ in Téarmaí Dlí. comhcheart ‘Comhcheart iascaigh’ is translated as ‘common of fishery’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘ceart iascaigh’ translating ‘fishery (i.e. right of)’. This compound of ‘comh’ and ‘ceart’ does not appear to be given as a headword either in Ó Dónaill or in Dinneen, but is given in DIL, where we find a citation of the adjective ‘comchert’ from the twelfthcentury Book of Leinster, ‘in comainm comchert’, translated as ‘the appropriate name’ in Edward Gwynn’s Metrical Dindshenchas, iv, p. 339. As we have seen in the commentary on Articles 18.4.2o (where ‘líon comhionann’ expresses ‘equal number’) and 40.1 (where ‘ionann’ expresses ‘equal’), ‘comhionann’ is often used in the Acts to translate ‘equal’ – in s7(1) of the Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 1974, for example, ‘equal pay clause’ is translated as ‘clásal pá chomhionainn’, with the heading of the section, ‘Investigation by equal pay officers’, translated as ‘Imscrúdú ag oifigigh pá chomhionainn’. ‘In equal shares’ is translated as ‘i scaireanna comhionanna’ in s5(2)(c) of the Wealth Tax Act, 1975. The heading of Part VII of the Pensions Act, 1990, ‘Equal Treatment for Men and Women’ is translated as ‘Déileáil go Comhionann le Fir agus Mná’. ‘Equal validity’ is translated as ‘seasamh comhionann’ in the New Ireland

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Forum Report (1984, 1.2). Finally, the ‘Equal Pay Commission’ is styled ‘An Coimisiún um Pá Comhionann’ in Irish. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that he finds no fault with ‘comhcheart’ here. See the commentary on Article 40.3.1o regarding ‘cur isteach ar’, ‘suíomh’ and ‘sa mhéid gur féidir é’ and see the commentary on Article 40.1 regarding ‘féach do’.

Direct translation Admhaíonn an Stát ceart na mbeo gan bhreith chun a mbeatha agus, ag féachaint go cuí do1 cheart comhionann2 na máthar chun a beatha, ráthaíonn sé ina dhlíthe an ceart sin a urramú, agus, a mhéid is féidir, é a chosaint agus seasamh dó3 lena dhlíthe.

Variants 1 ‘le haird chuí ar’ 2 ‘do chomhcheart’ 3 ‘agus a shuíomh’

ARTICLE 40.3.3° (cont’d) AIRTEAGAL 40.3.3° (ar lean.) TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní theorannóidh an fo-alt seo saoirse chun taisteal idir an Stát agus stát eile. Ní theorannóidh an fo-alt seo saoirse chun faisnéis a fháil nó a chur ar fáil sa Stát maidir le seirbhísí atá ar fáil go dleathach i stát eile ach sin faoi chuimsiú cibé coinníollacha a fhéadfar a leagan síos le dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

This susbsection will not limit freedom to travel between the State and another state. This subsection will not limit freedom to get information or to make information available in the State as regards services which are lawfully available in another state but that (is) within the scope/constraint of whatever conditions that may be laid down by law. ENGLISH TEXT

This subsection shall not limit freedom to travel between the State and another state. This subsection shall not limit freedom to obtain or make available, in the State, subject to such conditions as may be laid down by law, information relating to services lawfully available in another state.

Divergences between the official texts 1

The above text was added to the Constitution by the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution, 1992, the Irish text being a very literal translation of the English text. However, ‘subject to’ is rendered as ‘ach sin faoi chuimsiú’, literally ‘but that within the constraint/scope of’, ‘subject to’ being


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expressed as ‘faoi chuimsiú’ generally in the Constitution, rather than as ‘faoi réir’, as this phrase is translated in Téarmaí Dlí.

Commentary ach sin faoi chuimsiú This phrase, having the literal sense of ‘but that within the constraint of’, renders ‘subject to’. ‘Ach sin’ here would have been based on both Articles 44.2.1o, where ‘subject to public order and morality’ is expressed as ‘ach gan san a dhul chun dochair don ord phoiblí ná don mhoráltacht phoiblí’, and 40.6.1o, where ‘The State guarantees liberty for the exercise of the following rights, subject to public order and morality’ is expressed as ‘Ráthaíonn an Stát saoirse chun na cearta seo a leanas a oibriú ach sin a bheith faoi réir oird is moráltachta poiblí’. While ‘subject to’ is expressed as ‘faoi réir’ in the latter example, this phrase is expressed as ‘faoi chuimsiú’ in Articles 11, 12.5, 12.10.2o, 13.10, 14.5.1o, 16.7, 18.7.2o, 18.10.1o, 22.2.1o, 28.2, 29.4.2o, 30.6, 33.6, 34.4.3o, 36 and 50.1 – see further the commentary on Article 12.5. We find ‘subject to such conditions’ in Article 24.4.2o also, where ‘the Government may to such extent and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be determined by law’ is expressed as ‘féadfaidh an Rialtas, sa mhéid go gcinnfear le dlí agus faoi chuimsiú cibé coinníollacha a chinnfear le dlí má chinntear’. In the Amendment contained in Article 40.4.3o, however, ‘on such bail and subject to such conditions’ is rendered as ‘faoi réir na mbannaí agus na gcoinníollacha sin’. ‘Subject to’ is translated as ‘faoi réir’ in Téarmaí Dlí and, as we saw above, in Article 40.6.1o, ‘subject to’ is so expressed. In the Amendment contained in Article 29.4.6o, ‘subject to the prior approval of both Houses of the Oireachtas’ is rendered as ‘faoi réir ceadú a fháil roimh ré ó dhá Theach an Oireachtais’. Note that in Article 10.1, ‘subject to all estates and interests therein for the time being lawfully vested in any person or body’ is expressed as ‘gan dochar do cibé eastáit agus leasanna is le haon duine nó le haon dream go dleathach in alt na huaire’. In Article 11, ‘subject to such exception as may be provided by law’ is expressed as ‘ach amháin an chuid sin de ar a ndéantar eisceacht le dlí’. Finally, ‘while subject to military law’ is expressed as ‘le linn a mbeith faoi dhlí mhíleata’ in Article 38.4.1o. Ní theorannóidh ‘Teorannaím’ is translated as ‘I limit’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘teorannaigh’ as (1) ‘delimit’ and (2) ‘limit, restrict’. While Dinneen gives ‘teora’ and nouns and adjectives based on this, he does not appear to give ‘teorannaigh’ as a headword. DIL just cites one example of ‘tórannaigid’, in the sense of ‘borders on, marches with’. ‘Tórann’, on which this verb is based, it itself the verbal noun of ‘do-foirndea’ (*to-fo-rind- [DIL cites one example of the verb ‘do-rinda’, ‘marks out’]), the usual sense of which in Old Irish is ‘expresses, signifies’, but the common meaning in Middle Irish was ‘traces, marks out, delimitates (a design, site, etc.)’ – examples of the former sense are cited in DIL from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, and we can observe the transition in sense in some of the examples from the Glosses. See the commentary on Article 2, where ‘(a) fharraigí teorann’ expresses ‘(the) territorial seas’ and the commentary on Article 34.1 where ‘teoranta’ expresses ‘limited’. Turning to the Acts, in s51 of the Redundancy Payments

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Act, 1967, ‘in so far as it purports to exclude or limit the operation of any provision of this Act’ is translated as ‘a mhéid a airbheartaíonn sí oibriú aon fhorála den Acht seo a eisiamh nó a theorainniú’. In s10 of the Liability for Defective Products Act, 1991, ‘The liability of a producer arising by virtue of this Act to an injured person shall not be limited or excluded by any term of contract’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh aon téarma conartha … dliteanas táirgeora de bua an Achta seo i leith duine dhíobháilte a theorannú ná a eisiamh’. Note that in s5(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 1963, ‘a company having the liablity of its members limited by the memorandum to the amount …’ is translated as ‘cuideachta a mbeidh dliteanas a comhaltaí curtha, leis an meabhrán, faoi theorainn an mhéid …’. Note also that in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 735), ‘Anxious to limit the number of institutions responsible for carrying out similar tasks’ is translated as ‘Ós é a miangas teorainn a chur le líon na n-institiúidí atá freagrach i gcúraimí comhchosúla a chur i gcrích’. Looking at ‘limit’ in early Acts, ‘notwithstanding any provision in any Act now in force in relation to the fixing, limiting, restricting, compounding, or commuting of any tolls’ is translated as ‘d’ainneoin aon fhorála in aon Acht atá i bhfeidhm anois i dtaobh aon chustuim … den tsórt san do cheapa, do theoranú, do shriana, do chó-réiteach no do luíodú’ in s7 of the State Harbours Act, 1924. ‘Whereas the Acts … are limited to expire as respects the Acts mentioned in the First Schedule to this Act on the 31st day of December 1922’ is translated as ‘De bhrí go bhfuil na hAchtanna … fuinte chun dul in eug an chuid aca atá luaidhte sa Chéad Sceideal a ghabhann leis an Acht so ar an 31adh lá de Mhí na Nodlag 1922’ in the Preamble to the Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1922, with ‘go bhfuilid le dul in eug an 31adh lá de Mhí na Nodlag’ translating ‘are limited to expire on the 31st day of December’ in the Preamble to the Expiring Laws Act, 1926. ‘Notwithstanding anything in any enactment limiting the granting thereof to certain classes of persons’ is translated as ‘in ainneoin éinní in aon achtachán ná leigeann fóirithin do dheonú ach d’aicmí áirithe daoine’ in s10 of the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘The admission of cases to the District Hospitals shall be strictly limited to urgent surgical and urgent medical cases’ being translated as ‘Ní leigfear isteach in aon chor sna hOspidéil Cheanntair ach deabha-chásanna chun máin-liaghais agus deabha-chásanna chun leighis’ in s21 of the ‘Mayo County Scheme’ in the First Schedule to that Act. faisnéis This headword is translated as ‘information (sworn)’ in Téarmaí Dlí and generally translates ‘information’ in the modern Acts. Ó Dónaill translates ‘faisnéis’ as ‘information; intelligence, report’, citing ‘faisnéis a thabhairt faoi rud, to give information about something’ and ‘níl fios ná faisnéis agam orthu, I know nothing about them, have neither tale nor tidings of them’. Dinneen translated ‘faisnéis’ as ‘a narrative, statement, account, rehearsal, intelligence; act of publishing, relating, commemoration, narrating, making known; a clue; a hint; act of seeking a clue or hint’. The Old Irish form was ‘aisndís’, verbal noun of ‘as-indet’, which verb is translated as ‘declares, tells, relates’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. In the early


A study of the Irish text

Irish laws, ‘aisnéis’ had the sense of ‘act of giving information, informing (against)’ – see Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 206, who cites the following example of ‘aisndís’ in the sense of ‘evidence’ from an early Irish law-tract: ‘faisneis fir omhna aidhus ég, ní fil ni na gella tar cenn anma’ (‘the evidence of a frightened man who fears death: there is nothing which he may not promise for the sake of his life’). ‘Eólas’ is translated as ‘knowledge, information, especially knowledge gained by experience or practice, acquaintance’ and especially ‘knowledge of the way (place), guidance’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. In Téarmaí Dlí ‘notice requiring further information’ is translated as ‘fógra ag iarraidh tuilleadh eolais’. See the commentary on Article 28.5.2o where ‘eolas a thabhairt’ expresses ‘keep informed’. ‘Fis’ is translated in DIL as ‘the act of finding out or ascertaining; knowledge, information’ and ‘that which is known, knowledge’, where again examples are cited from the eighth century onwards. Turning to the Acts, in s75(4)(a) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘attempts to obtain in a polling station information as to the candidate for whom any voter in the station is about to vote’ is translated as ‘go bhféachfaidh sé le faisnéis a fháil, i stáisiún vótaíochta i dtaobh an iarrthóra dá mbeidh vóta le tabhairt … ag aon vótálaí sa stáisiún’. We also find ‘eolas’, particularly in the earlier Acts – see, for example s2 of the Statistics (Amendment) Act, 1946, where ‘statistical information’ is translated as ‘eolas staidrimh’. In s22(8) of the Imposition of Duties (Dumping and Subsidies) Act, 1968, ‘… shall furnish to the Minister such information in his possession or procurement as the Minister may require for the purpose of ascertaining …the fair market price of the goods’ is translated as ‘tabharfaidh sé don Aire cibé eolas a bheidh ina sheilbh nó ar fáil aige agus a bheidh ag teastáil ón Aire d’fhonn praghas margaidh cothrom na n-earraí a fháil amach’, and in s71(1) of the Health Act, 1970, ‘The Minister may make arrangements for the dissemination of information and advice on matters relating to health and health services’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an tAire comhshocraíochtaí a dhéanamh chun eolas agus comhairle a leathadh i dtaobh ábhair a bhaineann le sláinte agus le seirbhísí sláinte’. ‘Eolas’ translates ‘knowledge’ in s244(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1967, where ‘any activities in the fields of natural or applied science for the extension of knowledge’ is translated as ‘aon ghníomhaíochtaí i réim na heolaíochta nádúrtha nó feidhmiúla d’fhonn eolas a mhéadú’. In the Preamble to the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland (Charter Amendment) Act, 1969, ‘promoting the acquisition of knowledge’ is translated as ‘foghlaim an eolais a chur chun cinn’. We also find ‘fios’ translating ‘knowledge’ in the Acts. In s5(1) of the Broadcasting (Offences) Act, 1968, ‘conditions as to knowledge or belief’ is translated as ‘coinníollacha maidir le fios agus creidiúint’, ‘knowledge’ here referring to, for example, ‘knowing, or having cause to believe, …that broadcasts are made’ in s5(3)(f), which is translated as ‘a fhios a bheith aige, nó cúis réasúnach a bheith aige chun a chreidiúint … go ndéantar craoladh aisti’. Finally, ‘guilty knowledge’ is translated as ‘fios ciontach’ in Téarmaí Dlí. See further the commentary on Article 28.5.2o regarding early official translations of ‘information’.

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a leagan síos Ó Dónaill does not seem to cite the phrase ‘leag síos’, although he gives both ‘leag anuas’, translated as ‘lay down’, citing ‘curach a leagan anuas, to carry a currach down to the sea’, and ‘leag suas’, citing ‘bheith leagtha suas, to be laid up’, as headwords. Dinneen translates ‘leagaim síos’ as ‘I prostrate’. In s8 of the Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann (1997), ‘apply the rules as laid down by this House in an impartial and fair manner’ is translated as ‘na rialacha mar atá siad leagtha síos ag an Teach seo a chur i bhfeidhm go cothrom neamhchlaonta’. ‘In accordance with the principles laid down in this Act’, in s99(3) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, is translated as ‘de réir na bprionsabal atá leagtha síos san Acht seo’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 762), ‘The regulations shall lay down detailed rules for each institution’ is translated as ‘Leagfaidh na rialacháin síos rialacha mionchruinne do gach institiúid’. Note, however, the various alternative ways ‘lay down’ is translated in those Treaties. ‘Periods of grace based on considerations of distance shall be laid down in the rules of procedure’ is translated as ‘Cinnfear leis na rialacha nós imeachta tréimhsí breise a bhunófar ar an bhfad ó láthair’ (p. 692). While ‘under conditions laid down in rules drawn up by the Court’ is translated as ‘faoi choinníollacha a bheidh sonraithe i rialacha a leag an Chúirt síos’ (p. 689), on p. 887, ‘under the conditions laid down in those Treaties and in this Act’ is translated as ‘faoi na coinníollacha dá bhforáiltear sna Conarthaí sin agus san Ionstraim seo’. On p. 21, ‘laying down general objectives’ is translated as ‘aidhmeanna ginearálta a shainiú’. While ‘Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 15(1) … laying down general rules for the grant of export refunds for sugar’ is translated as ‘De mhaolú ar na forálacha atá leagtha síos in Airteagal 15(1) … ag bunú rialacha ginearálta i dtaobh aisíocaíochtaí ar onnmhairí siúcra’ (p. 1395), on p. 928, ‘The Commission shall … lay down the provisions applicable to trade’ is translated as ‘socróidh an Coimisiún … na forálacha is infheidhme ar an trádáil’. Finally, on p. 963, ‘the provisions relating to the test laid down for animals traded within the Community’ is translated as ‘na forálacha maidir leis an tástáil atá ceaptha d’ainmhithe is ábhar trádála idir na Comhphobail’. We see, therefore, the many ways ‘lay down’ can be rendered as against being literally translated as ‘leag síos’, as is done in this Amendment. a fhéadfar a leagan síos le dlí This is a very literal translation of ‘as may be laid down by law’. Going here through the text of the Constitution, we see from the following citations that ‘féad’ is not always used to express ‘may’, the simple future of the verb it qualifies sometimes expressing ‘may’ (see also the commentary on Article 12.4.4o); we also see how ‘provide’, ‘determine’ and ‘fix’, along with ‘as’, are expressed in various ways in different Articles – note in particular that while in Articles 10.3 and 19, ‘Provision may be made by law’ is expressed as ‘Féadfar socrú a dhéanamh le dlí’, in Article 18.4.2o, this phrase is expressed as ‘féadfar foráil a dhéanamh le dlí’. In Article 16.5, ‘a shorter period may be fixed by law’ is expressed as ‘féadfar ré is giorra ná sin a shocrú le dlí’. In Article 11, ‘subject to such exception as may be provided by law’ is expressed as ‘ach amháin an chuid sin de ar a ndéantar eisceacht le dlí’. In Article 12.11.2o, ‘The President shall receive such emoluments and


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allowances as may be determined by law’ is expressed as ‘Gheobhaidh an tUachtarán sochair agus liúntais faoi mar a chinnfear le dlí’. In Article 16.1.2oii (following the Ninth Amendment of the Constitution, 1984), ‘such other persons in the State as may be determined by law’ is rendered as ‘cibé daoine eile sa Stát a chinnfear le dlí’. In Article 17.1.2o, ‘Save in so far as may be provided by specific enactment in each case’ is expressed as ‘ach amháin sa mhéid go mbeidh a mhalairt socair i dtaobh gach cás ar leith in achtachán chuige sin’. In Article 18.4.2o, ‘so many members of Seanad Éireann as may be fixed by law’ is expressed as ‘an líon sin comhaltaí de Sheanad Éireann a shocrófar le dlí’. ‘In the manner provided by law’, in Article 18.7.1o, is expressed as ‘ar an gcuma a shocrófar le dlí’, with ‘as may be fixed by such law’ being expressed as ‘a chinnfear leis an dlí sin’ in Article 19. In Article 29.4.2o ‘the Government may to such extent and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be determined by law’ is expressed as ‘féadfaidh an Rialtas, sa mhéid go gcinnfear le dlí agus faoi chuimsiú cibé coinníollacha a chinnfear le dlí, má chinntear’. In Article 29.6, ‘save as may be determined by the Oireachtas’ is expressed as ‘ach mar a chinnfidh an tOireachtas’. In Article 29.7.5o (the Amendment following the Good Friday Agreement), ‘or such longer period as may be determined by law’ is rendered as ‘nó cibé tréimhse is faide ná sin a shocrófar le dlí’. In Article 31.2.iii, ‘Such other persons, if any, as may be appointed by the President’ is expressed as ‘Aon daoine eile a cheapfar ag an Uachtarán faoin Airteagal seo, má cheaptar aon duine’. In Article 34.1, ‘save in such special and limited cases as may be prescribed by law’ is expressed as ‘ach amháin sna cásanna speisialta teoranta sin a ordófar le dlí’. In Article 34.4.3o, ‘subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by law’ and ‘such decisions of other courts as may be prescribed by law’ are expressed respectively as ‘faoi chuimsiú cibé forálacha a ordófar le dlí’ and ‘na breitheanna sin ó chúirteanna eile a ordófar le dlí’. In Article 34.5.1o, ‘as the case may be’ is expressed as ‘de réir mar a oireas’. In Article 34.5.3o, ‘such later date as may be determined by the President’ is expressed as ‘dáta is déanaí ná sin mar a chinnfidh an tUachtarán’. In Article 38.3.1o, ‘Special courts may be established by law for the trial of offences in cases where it may be determined in accordance with such law that …’ is expressed as ‘Féadfar cúirteanna faoi leith a bhunú le dlí chun cionta a thriail i gcásanna a gcinnfear ina dtaobh, de réir an dlí sin …’. In Article 45.2.ii, ‘That the ownership … may be so distributed … as best to …’ is expressed as ‘go roinnfear dílse … sa chuma is fearr a …’ and, finally, in 45.2.v ‘That there may be established’ is expressed simply as ‘go mbunófar’. Similarly in the Acts, ‘as may be’ is sometimes rendered by the future of the following verb. ‘In such manner and subject to such conditions as may be laid down by regulations’ is translated as ‘i cibé slí agus faoi réir cibé coinníollacha a leagfar síos le rialacháin’ in s170(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, for example. ‘Such other conditions, as may be laid down by the Minister for Finance’ is translated as ‘cibé coinníollacha eile a bheidh leagtha síos ag an Aire Airgeadais’ in s9(a)(iii) of the Finance Act, 1989, with ‘on such terms and conditions, if any, as may be laid down by the court’ being translated as ‘ar cibé téarmaí agus coinníollacha, más ann, a bheidh leagtha síos ag an gcúirt’ in s177(2) of the Companies Act, 1990. In s10(3) of the Sea Pollution Act, 1991, ‘subject to

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such conditions and such exemptions as may be prescribed’ is translated as ‘faoi réir cibé coinníollacha agus cibé díolúintí a bheidh forordaithe’. In s15(b) of the Value-Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978, ‘and in such form and containing such other particulars as may be specified by regulations’ is translated as ‘i cibé foirm agus cibé sonraí eile ann a shonrófar le rialacháin’. Similarly, in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 160), ‘The capital may be increased by such amounts as may be decided by the Governing Council’ is translated as ‘Féadfar an caipiteal a mhéadú pé méid a chinnfidh an Chomhairle Rialaithe’. taisteal The verbal noun of ‘taistil’, ‘travel’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘bíonn siad ag taisteal ar an oileán go fóill, they still make journeys to the island’. Dinneen translates ‘taistealaim’ as ‘I travel, journey, traverse, reach, arrive, assemble (as a crowd), frequent (with i), descend from (with ó)’. ‘Taistlid’ is translated as ‘travels, traverses’ in DIL, where ‘mé ag siobhal … / sódh ar a dtaisdil mo throigh / ba mó n-aisdir dom anmoin’ (‘the soft path my foot travelled made my soul’s journey longer’) is cited from a miscellaneous collection of religious poetry, Dán Dé, and ‘má thaistil i liubhraibh Scuit’ (‘if he be versed in Scottic books’) is cited from Dáibhí Ó Bruadair’s seventeenth-century poetry. We find ‘taisteal’ also in Article 15.15, ‘saoráid chun taisteal in aisce’ expressing ‘free travelling’. Turning to the Acts, in s12(1) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1953, for example, ‘at any time before a judge begins to travel a High Court Circuit for the purpose of holding therein any half-yearly sittings of the High Court on Circuit’ is translated as ‘aon uair sara dtosnóidh breitheamh ag taisteal Cuarda Ard-Chúirte chun aon tsuíonna leathbhliantúla den Ard-Chúirt ar Cuaird a thionól ar an gcuaird sin’. maidir le In the Amendment contained in Article 29.4.8o, ‘the Agreement relating to Community Patents’ is rendered as ‘an Comhaontú maidir le Paitinní Comhphobail’. Note that in Article 16.1.2o, ‘the law relating to the election of members’ is expressed as ‘an dlí i dtaobh toghcháin comhaltaí’ with ‘in accordance with the law for the time being in force relating to the Referendum’ being expressed as ‘de réir an dlí a bheas i bhfeidhm i dtaobh an Reifrinn in alt na huaire’ in Article 46.2. In Article 36, on the other hand, ‘Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Constitution relating to the Courts’ is expressed as ‘Faoi chuimsiú na bhforálacha sin romhainn den Bhunreacht seo a bhaineas leis na Cúirteanna’. Turning to the Acts, we find ‘i dtaobh’ translating ‘relating to’ in the following example from s9(2) of the Merchant Shipping (Load Lines) Act, 1968: ‘there shall be endorsed on the certificate such information relating to – (a) periodical inspection of the ship’, ‘formhuineofar ar an deimhniú cibé eolas i dtaobh – (a) iniúchadh tréimhsiúil ar an long’. Generally, however, ‘relating to’ is translated as ‘a bhaineann le’ or ‘a bhainfidh le’ in the Acts – see, for example, s25(1) of the Dublin Cemeteries Committee Act, 1970, where ‘all rights, powers, and privileges relating to or connected with such property’ is translated as ‘na cearta, na cumhachtaí, agus na pribhléidí go léir a bhaineann nó a ghabhann le haon mhaoin den sórt sin’ and note that in s9 of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘provision relating to relief in respect of increase in stock values’ is translated as ‘foráil a bhaineann le faoiseamh maidir le méadú ar luachanna stoic’. See the commentary


A study of the Irish text

on Article 14.5.1o regarding ‘bain le’ expressing ‘relate to’. We find ‘maidir le’ translating ‘relating to’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 302), where ‘in disputes relating to compensation for damage’ is translated as ‘i ndíospóidí maidir leis an gcúiteamh i ndamáiste’. ‘Maidir le’ is translated as ‘in the matter of’ in Téarmaí Dlí, but is used in a wide variety of contexts in the Acts, translating ‘to’ in ‘shall apply to’, for example, generally translating ‘as to’ and ‘as regards’ and sometimes translating ‘regarding’ and ‘in respect of’. See the commentary on Articles 15.15 (where this phrase expresses ‘in connection with’) and 29.4.1 o. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘maidir le’ is as exact a rendering of English ‘relating to’ as possible. go dleathach ‘Dleathach’ is translated as ‘lawful’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘teasargaim as coimeád dleathach’ is translated as ‘I rescue from lawful custody’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘dleathach’ as ‘lawful, legal’, citing ‘seachadadh dleathach, legal tender’. ‘Legal’ is translated as ‘dlithiúil’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘legal tender’ is translated as ‘dlíthairiscint’; Ó Dónaill translates ‘dlíthiúil’ as ‘legal, juridical, lawful’. Dinneen also gives ‘lawful’ and ‘legal’ as translations of ‘dleaghthach’, along with ‘permissible’. ‘Dligthech’ is used in the Old Irish Glosses in the sense of ‘accordant with reason or rule’, Latin ‘rationabilis’, according to DIL, where ‘dligthech’ is translated as (a) ‘regular, accordant with rule, right, lawful, law-abiding’ and (b) ‘rational, endowed with reason’. Fergus Kelly, op. cit, p. 309, translates ‘dligthech’ as ‘lawful, legally recognised’. Only two examples of ‘dligthemail’ (‘lawful, just’) are cited in DIL, from O’Molloy’s Lucerna Fidelium (1676) and Keating’s seventeenth-century Eochair-sgiath an Aifrinn. Both ‘dligthech’ and ‘dligthemail’ are based on ‘dliged’, Modern Irish ‘dlí’, ‘law’. See the commentary on Article 10.1. a chur ar fáil ‘Ar fáil’ is translated as ‘extant, available’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘rud a chur ar fáil’ as ‘to provide something’. Dinneen translates ‘cuirim ar fagháil’ as ‘I make available’. ‘Fagbál’, verbal noun of ‘fo-gaib’, does not occur in the Old Irish Glosses; DIL translates ‘fagbál’ as ‘finding, getting, obtaining’, citing ‘d’fhail eoluis’. ‘I obtain by false pretences’ is translated as ‘faighim le dúmas bréige’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s75(4)(a) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘obtains or attempts to obtain information’ is translated as ‘go bhfaighidh sé faisnéis, nó go bhféachfaidh sé le faisnéis a fháil’. Finally, in s3(1) of the Fourth Schedule to the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, ‘the making of anything available for inspection’ is translated as ‘aon ní a chur ar fáil lena iniúchadh’. ar fáil In Article 34.5.2o, ‘the senior available judge of the Supreme Court’ is expressed as ‘an breitheamh den Chúirt Uachtarach is sinsearaí dá mbeidh ar fáil’, and in Article 40.4.4o, ‘or, if he is not available, the senior judge of that Court who is available’ is expressed as ‘nó, mura mbeidh seisean ar fáil, an breitheamh is sinsearaí den Chúirt sin dá mbeidh ar fáil’. ‘Available act of bankruptcy’ is translated as ‘gníomh féimheachta atá ar fáil’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s42(1) of the Dangerous Substances Act, 1972, ‘if he is not readily available’ is translated as ‘mura bhfuil fáil go héasca (ar an gceadúnaí)’.

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Direct translation Ní theorannóidh an fo-alt seo saoirse chun taisteal idir an Stát agus stát eile. Ní theorannóidh an fo-alt seo saoirse chun faisnéis i dtaobh1 seirbhísí atá ar fáil go dleathach i stát eile a fháil nó a chur ar fáil, sa Stát, faoi réir cibé coinníollacha a leagfar síos le dlí.

Variants 1 ‘a bhainfidh le’, ‘maidir le’

ARTICLE 40.4.1O

AIRTEAGAL 40.4.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead a shaoirse phearsanta a bhaint d’aon saoránach ach amháin de réir dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to take his personal freedom from any citizen except in accordance with law. ENGLISH TEXT

No citizen shall be deprived of his personal liberty save in accordance with law.

Divergences between the official texts 1

As in some earlier Articles, ‘Ní cead’, literally, ‘it is not permitted’, expresses ‘no … shall’ in the Irish text.

Note that Article 6 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: The liberty of the person is inviolable, and no person shall be deprived of his liberty except in accordance with law. Is slán saoirse an duine, agus ní bainfear a shaoirse d’aon duine ach do réir na dlí.

Commentary a shaoirse ‘Saoirse’ is translated as ‘freedom’ in Ó Dónaill, who gives ‘liberty, independence’ as one set of senses, translating ‘saoirse an duine’ as ‘human freedom’. ‘Saoirse choitcheann’ is translated as ‘general immunity (as enjoyed by the estates of ollamhs)’ in Dinneen, who translates ‘saoirse a sinnsir’ as ‘their ancestral rights’ and cites ‘is do na bochtaibh ceapadh na flaithis mar shaoirse, heaven was designed to be the poor man’s inheritance’. DIL translates ‘saírse’ as (a) ‘freedom, liberty, the status of a freeman’ and (b) ‘exemption, immunity’. This word is similar in meaning to ‘saíre’, translated in DIL as I(a) ‘freedom, liberty’, (b) ‘nobility (of race, character, etc.)’, II(a) ‘legal, privileges, immunity, etc., enjoyed by members of the free classes, etc.’, (b) ‘exemption, period of exemption’, III ‘holy day, saint’s day, church festival, holiday’, examples of I(a) being cited from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, including ‘do chumtúth a sóere’ (‘to preserve (?) their freedom’), which glosses Latin ‘pro libertate’ in the ninthcentury St Gall Glosses on Priscian, and examples of senses II(a) and (b) being cited from early Irish law-tracts. Fergus


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Kelly, op. cit., p. 321, translates ‘soíre’ as ‘independent legal status, immunity from claim’. ‘Soíre’ is based on ‘saer’, in Old Irish usually glossing Latin ‘liber’, and translated as ‘free, freeman’ in DIL; in early Irish law-tracts this word has the sense of an enfranchised person possessing legal status and a corresponding honour-price – see Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 9: Three law-texts dealing with rank in early Irish society have survived …. In practice, the most important social distinctions seem to be 1) between those who are nemed “privileged”, and those who are not nemed, and 2) between those who are sóer “free” and those who are dóer “unfree”.

Turning to the Acts, in s8(2) of the Foyle Fisheries Act, 1952, ‘freed and discharged from all estates, titles, interests, incumbrances, rights, liberties and privileges whatsover by whomsoever held, used, exercised or enjoyed’ is translated as ‘saortha agus urscaoilte ó gach eastát, teideal, leas, eire, ceart, saoirse agus pribhléid d’aon tsórt, pé duine ag a bhfuil teachtadh, úsáid, feidhmiú nó sealúchas an chéanna’. ‘Civil and religious liberties’ is translated as ‘saoirsí sibhialta agus creidimh’ in the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 4.13). Finally, note that ‘liberty (to apply, etc.)’ is translated as ‘cead’ in Téarmaí Dlí. See further the commentary on Article 15.10. a bhaint de Ó Dónaill translates ‘bain de’ principally as ‘take off, remove’, with ‘take away from’ and ‘deprive of’ among the secondary senses, citing as an example of the latter sense, ‘bhain tú Dia díom, you came between me and God’. DIL cites examples of ‘benaid de’ in the sense of ‘takes from’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 74), ‘A member of the Court of Auditors may not be deprived of his office or of his right to a pension or other benefits in its stead’ is translated as ‘Ní fhéadfar a oifig ná a cheart chun pinsin nó sochar eile ina ionad sin a bhaint de chomhalta den Chúirt Iniúchóirí’. We also find ‘bain de’ translating ‘deprive’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973). Turning to the Acts, in s7 of the Old Age Pensions Act, 1932, ‘No person to whom payment was made before the commencement of this Act in respect of an old age pension shall be deprived of such pension’ is translated as ‘Aon duine le n-ar híocadh íocaíocht ar bith alos pinsin tsean-aoise roimh thosach feidhme an Achta seo ní bainfear an pinsean san de’ and ‘if he would not have been liable to suffer such deprivation’, further on in the same section, is translated as ‘más rud é ná beadh sé i mbaol an pinsean san do bhaint de’. In s4(4) of the National Health Insurance Act, 1942, however, ‘and may provide for the reduction, suspension or deprivation of the same additional benefits’ is translated as ‘agus féadfaidh a fhoráil go ndéanfar na sochair bhreise sin do laghdú no do chur ar fionnraighe no do chur ar neamh-ní’. In s6(4) of the Local Government (Roads and Motorways) Act, 1974, ‘In any case where the closing … of any means of access … results in the owner of any land being deprived of the only means of access from that land to any public road’ is translated as ‘In aon chás ina dtiocfadh d’aon bhealach rochtana a dhúnadh … úinéir aon talún a bheith fágtha gan aon bhealach rochtana ón talamh sin go dtí aon bhóthar poiblí’. In s146(1)(d) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1961, ‘all income … which he has

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directly or indirectly deprived himself in order to qualify himself for the receipt of unemployment assistance’ is translated as ‘an t-ioncam go léir … a cheil sé air féin go díreach nó go neamhdhíreach le cáiliú chun cúnamh dífhostaíochta a fháil’. ‘Wrongfully depriving the plaintiff of goods’ is translated as ‘earraí a choinneáil go héagórach ar an ngearánaí’ in Fasaigh Dlí-Théarmaí (based on forms relating to Rules of the High Court, with reference 72/1962 App B Pt. II). Looking at early Acts, note that s2 of the Griffith Settlement Act, 1923, reads as follows: The Trustees shall hold the Widow’s Share upon trust to pay the same as and when received by the Trustees to the said Mrs. Maud Griffith for her separate use and so that she shall not have power to deprive herself thereof by anticipation. Cimeádfaidh na hIontaobhuithe Cuid na Baintrí ar iontaoibh chun an céanna d’íoc fé mar a gheobhaidh agus nuair a gheobhaidh na hIontaobhuithe é le Maedhbh Uí Ghríobhtha roimh-ráite chun a húsáide féin ar leithligh agus i dtreo ná beidh de chomhacht aice í féin d’fhágaint ’na éaghmuis trí bhaint leis roimh-ré.

‘Deprivation of acting rank’ is translated as ‘A chéim ghníomhachta do chailliúint’ in s81(3) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘deprive’ as ‘bainim (rud) de (dhuine); téim i mbarr (ruda) ar (dhuine); coinním (rud) ó (dhuine)’. L. Mc Cionnaith s.v. ‘deprive’, cites ‘to deprive of his … a shaoirse 7 c. do bhaint de’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘deprive of’ as one of the senses of ‘bain ar’ from earlier literature, citing ‘baineadh a radharc air, he lost his sight’. ‘Baineadh clog air, a bell was rung against him’ has the sense of ‘he was excommunicated’. ‘Cuir as’ is translated as ‘put out of; deprive of’ by Ó Dónaill; ‘cuir ó’ is translated as ‘put from, prevent, deprive of’ and ‘fág gan’ is translated as ‘leave without, deprive of’, with ‘d’fhág siad gan mo chuid leabhar mé’ translated as ‘they deprived me of my books’. Along with the sense ‘to dispossess’, ‘deprive’ has the sense of ‘to keep out of enjoyment’, according to Chambers English Dictionary. This latter sense is perhaps better rendered in Irish by ‘ceil’ rather than ‘bain de’. de réir This phrase is translated as ‘in accordance with’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o.

Gender-proofed Irish text Ní cead a shaoirse phearsanta nó a saoirse phearsanta a bhaint d’aon saoránach ach amháin de réir dlí.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ní bhainfear a shaoirse phearsanta nó a saoirse phearsanta d’aon saoránach1 ach amháin de réir dlí.

Variants 1 ‘Ní cheilfear a shaoirse phearsanta nó a saoirse phearsanta ar aon saoránach’, ‘Ní choinneofar a shaoirse phearsanta nó a saoirse phearsanta ó aon saoránach’


A study of the Irish text

ARTICLE 40.4.2O

AIRTEAGAL 40.4.2O

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

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TÉACS GAEILGE

Nuair a dhéanann duine ar bith gearán, nó a dhéantar gearán thar ceann duine ar bith, leis an Ard-Chúirt nó le breitheamh ar bith di á rá go bhfuil an duine sin á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach, ní foláir don ArdChúirt agus d’aon bhreitheamh agus do gach breitheamh di chun a ndéanfar an gearán sin fiosrú a dhéanamh láithreach i dtaobh an ghearáin sin agus féadfaidh a ordú do neach coinnithe an duine sin ina bhrá an duine sin a thabhairt ina phearsain i láthair na hArd-Chúirte lá a ainmnítear agus a dheimhniú i scríbhinn cad is forais dá bhraighdeanas, agus ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt, nuair a bheirtear an duine sin ina phearsain i láthair na Cúirte sin agus tar éis caoi a thabhairt do neach a choinnithe ina bhrá ar a chruthú gur braighdeanas cóir an braighdeanas, a ordú an duine sin a scaoileadh as an mbraighdeanas sin mura deimhin leis an gCúirt sin gur de réir an dlí atáthar á choinneáil. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

When any person makes a complaint, or a complaint is made on behalf of any person, to the High-Court or to any judge of it stating that that person is being kept a prisoner unlawfully, the High Court and any judge and every judge of it to whom that complaint is made must inquire immediately concerning that complaint and may order the one keeping that person a prisoner to bring that person personally before the High Court (on a) day that is named and to certify in writing what the grounds for his imprisonment are, and the High Court must, when that person is brought personally before that Court and after giving an opportunity to the one keeping him a prisoner to prove that the imprisonment is a just imprisonment, order that that person be released from that imprisonment if that Court does not consider it certain that it is in accordance with the law that he is being held. ENGLISH TEXT

Upon complaint being made by or on behalf of any person to the High Court or any judge thereof alleging that such person is being unlawfully detained, the High Court and any and every judge thereof to whom such complaint is made shall forthwith enquire into the said complaint and may order the person in whose custody such person is detained to produce the body of such person before the High Court on a named day and to certify in writing the grounds of his detention, and the High Court shall, upon the body of such person being produced before that Court and after giving the person in whose custody he is detained an opportunity of justifying the detention, order the release of such person from such detention unless satisfied that he is being detained in accordance with the law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

‘Alleging’ is rendered as ‘á rá’, ‘stating’, in the Irish text. ‘Is being unlawfully detained’ is rendered as ‘á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach’ (‘is being unlawfully kept a prisoner’) in the Irish text, ‘I detain’

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being translated simply as ‘coinním’ in Téarmaí Dlí. The Irish term rendering ‘unlawful’, ‘aindleathach’, is translated [not very accurately, according to Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú] as ‘illicit’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘unlawful’ being translated as ‘neamhdhleathach’ there. ‘The person in whose custody such person is detained’ is rendered as ‘neach coinnithe an duine sin ina bhrá’ (‘the one/person keeping that person a prisoner’) in the Irish text. ‘To produce the body of such person’ and ‘upon the body of such person being produced’ are rendered in the Irish text as ‘an duine sin a thabhairt ina phearsain’ (‘to bring that person personally’) and ‘nuair a bheirtear an duine sin ina phearsain’ (‘when that person is brought personally’) respectively. ‘The grounds of his detention’ is rendered as ‘forais dá bhraighdeanas’ (‘the grounds for his imprisonment’) in the Irish text. ‘Justifying the detention’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘a chruthú gur braighdeanas cóir an braighdeanas’ (‘to prove that the imprisonment is a just imprisonment’). As in some other Articles, ‘shall’ is on two occasions rendered as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text.

Note that the original Article 40.4.2o was deleted by the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941, and four new subsections were added in its place. The original subsection 2 read as follows: Upon complaint being made by or on behalf of any person that he is being unlawfully detained, the High Court and any and every judge thereof shall forthwith enquire into the same and may make an order requiring the person in whose custody such person shall be detained to produce the body of the person so detained before such court or judge without delay and to certify in writing as to the cause of the detention, and such Court or judge shall thereupon order the release of such person unless satisfied that he is being detained in accordance with the law. Nuair dhéanann duine ar bith gearán, nó nuair déantar gearán thar ceann duine ar bith, go bhfuiltear dá choinneáil ina bhráighe go haindleaghthach, ní foláir don Árd-Chúirt agus d’aon bhreitheamh agus do gach uile bhreitheamh den chúirt sin fiosrú do dhéanamh láithreach i dtaobh an ghearáin sin, agus féadfaid ordú do dhéanamh dá cheangal ar an té ag a bhfuil an bráighe i láimh an bráighe sin do thabhairt ina phearsain i láthair na cúirte nó an bhreithimh sin gan mhoill, agus fáth a bhraighdeanais d’innsint le teastas scríobhtha: agus air sin ní foláir don Chúirt nó don bhreitheamh sin ordú a thabhairt chun an bráighe sin do scaoileadh muna deimhin leo gur do réir dlighidh atáthar dá choinneáil.

Note also that Article 6 of the 1922 Constitution contains the following: Upon complaint made by or on behalf of any person that he is being unlawfully detained, the High Court and any and every judge thereof shall forthwith enquire into the same and may make an order requiring the person in whose custody such person shall be detained to produce the body of the person so detained before such Court or judge without delay, and to certify in writing as to the cause of the detention and such Court or judge shall thereupon order the release of such person unless satisfied that he is being detained in


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accordance with the law …. Ar aon duine do dhéanamh ghearáin no ar ghearán do dhéanamh ar a shon go bhfuiltear á chimeád go nea-dhleathach, fiosróidh an Ard-Chúirt agus aon bhreitheamh agus gach breitheamh di an gearán san láithreach agus féadfaid órdú do dhéanamh á chur d’fhiachaibh ar an nduine atá ag cimeád an duine sin corp an duine atá i gcimeád do thabhairt i láthair na Cúirte no an bhreithimh gan mhoill agus deimhniú do dhéanamh i scríbhinn i dtaobh cúise a chimeádtha agus órdóidh an Chúirt no an breitheamh san an duine sin do sgaoile ansan mara mbeifar sásta go bhfuiltear á chimeád do réir na dlí.

Commentary gearán This headword is translated as ‘complaint’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘gearán a dhéanamh (le duine)’ as ‘to complain (to someone)’, citing ‘bhí sé ina shuí ansin ag déanamh a ghearáin leis féin, he sat there feeling sorry for himself’. Dinneen translates ‘gearán’ as ‘act of bewailing; a complaint; an accusation; a remonstrance; a grievance; supplication; a cry, a sob, a groan, a distemper, ailment’ and cites the proverb ‘an té nach truagh leis do chás ná déan do ghearán leis, do not make complaint to one not in sympathy with you’, i.e. don’t look for sympathy where there’s none. The earliest examples of ‘gerán’ (‘complaint, wailing, accusation’) cited in DIL seem only to go back as far as the twelfth-century Book of Leinster. Turning to the Acts, in s49 of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘an offence under any provision of the Fisheries Acts … may be heard … by a District Justice upon the complaint, verbal or otherwise, of a member of the Garda Síochána’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh Breitheamh Dúiche, ar chomhalta den Gharda Síochána … do dhéanamh gearáin de bhriathra béil nó ar shlí eile cion faoi aon fhoráil de na hAchtanna Iascaigh … a éisteacht’. In s10 of the Trade Union Act, 1975, the heading ‘Complaints to Registrar regarding resolutions’ is translated as ‘Gearáin chun an Chláraitheora maidir le rúin’ and ss1 begins as follows: ‘A member of a trade union … may complain to the Registrar on one or more than one of the following grounds’, ‘Aon chomhalta de cheardchumann … féadfaidh sé gearán a dhéanamh chun an Chláraitheora ar fhoras amháin nó níos mó díobh seo a leanas ’. ina bhrá ‘Brá’ is not given as a headword in Téarmaí Dlí. It is translated as ‘captive, hostage’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘tá sé ina bhrá acu, they have caught, arrested, him; they are holding him prisoner’. Dinneen translates ‘braighe’ as ‘a captive, prisoner, hostage, pledge’. DIL translates ‘brága’ as ‘captive, prisoner, hostage’, citing ‘ag so brágha dheit a Dhé’ (‘I surrender, God, to Thee’) from a miscellaneous collection of religious poetry, Dán Dé. As Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 174, states, the annals contain numerous references to hostages, ‘usually giall, but also aitire, and later brágae’, hostages usually being taken ‘to ensure the continued submission of a territory over which a king claimed sovereignty’. ‘Brága’ is a development of the earlier ‘brág(a)e’, ‘neck, throat, gullet’, an example of which is cited in DIL from the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian; the development in sense can be seen in the phrase ‘gaibid for (ar) brágait’, takes prisoner, or captive, literally, by the neck.

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Regarding ‘detain’ in early Acts, ‘Every person who is now detained in military custody or held as a military prisoner or captive … may be detained in custody’ is translated as ‘Gach duine atá i gcimeád mileata anois no atá á choinneáil mar phríosúnach no cime mileata … féadfar … é do choinneáil i gcoimeád’ in s3(1) of the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923. braighdeanas This term is not given as a headword in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘braighdeanas’ as ‘captivity, bondage’, translating ‘bheith i mbraighdeanas’ as ‘to be in captivity, in custody’ and ‘tír a thabhairt i mbraighdeanas’ as ‘to reduce a country to slavery’. Dinneen translates ‘braighdeanas’ as ‘captivity, imprisonment, slavery’. DIL cites five examples of ‘bráigdenas’ (‘hostageship, captivity’) from Irish literature, this word being based on ‘brága’, i.e. ‘brá’ in this Article. ‘Custody’ is translated as ‘coimeád’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘I rescue from lawful custody’ is translated as ‘teasargaim as coimeád dleathach’ and ‘I take into custody’ is translated as ‘glacaim i gcoimeád’. ‘I detain’ is translated simply as ‘coinním’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s247 of the Companies Act, 1963, ‘the court … may cause the contributory to be arrested, and his books … seized and him and them to be detained until such time as the court may order’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an chúirt … a chur faoi deara an ranníocóir a ghabháil, agus a leabhair … a urghabháil agus é féin agus iadsan a choinneáil go ceann cibé tréimhse a ordóidh an chúirt’. In s231(1)(e) of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, ‘to take, remove, and detain in his custody any sea-fish’ is translated as ‘aon iasc mara … a thógáil, a aistriú, agus a choinneáil faoina choimeád.’ fiosrú ‘Fiosraím’ is translated as ‘I inquire’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘rud a fhiosrú’ as ‘to inquire about, into, something’. Dinneen translates ‘fiosruighim’ as ‘I ask, I inquire, I visit’. DIL translates ‘fisraigid’ as (a) ‘inquires’ and (b) ‘visits’, this last sense being rare, except in translations. The verbal noun ‘fisrugud’ is translated as (a) ‘inquiring; investigating’ and (b) ‘visiting’, with only three examples of ‘fisrugud’ in sense (a) being cited, the first being translated as ‘to test’, the second ‘to seek them’ and the third, ‘lucht fisraigthi’, ‘scouts’, none of them being of any great antiquity. ‘Fisraigid’ is based on ‘fis’, ‘the act of finding out or ascertaining; knowledge, information’ (DIL). ‘Fiosrúchán’ is translated as ‘inquiry’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘fiosrúcháin i dtaobh eirí’ is translated as ‘inquiries as to incumbrances’. ‘Fiosrú’, the verbal noun of ‘fiosraigh’, is translated as ‘inquiry’ in Ó Dónaill, citing ‘coiste fiosraithe, committee of inquiry’, and as ‘visitation’. ‘Fiosrúchán’ is translated as ‘act of inquiring, inquisition’, with ‘fiosrúchán a chur, a dhéanamh, ar rud’ being translated as ‘to investigate, hold, an inquiry into something’, ‘cúirt fhiosrúcháin’ being translated as ‘court of inquiry’. Dinneen, who does not seem to cite ‘fiosrúchán’, translates ‘fiosrughadh’ as ‘act of inquiring, visiting; summons, visitation’. Turning to the Acts, the form of an oath to be administered to jurors is given as follows in s19(2) of the Juries Act, 1976: ‘“I will well and diligently inquire whether …., the prisoner at the bar, be insane or not’, ‘“go bhfiosróidh mé go maith agus go dícheallach cibé acu is gealt nó nach gealt …, an príosúnach ag an mbarra’. In the Dáil Order Paper of 1/3/79, ‘that it is expedient that a tribunal be


A study of the Irish text

established for inquiry into the following definite matters of urgent public importance’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil sé oiriúnach binse a bhunú chun na nithe áirithe seo a leanas a mbaineann deabhadh agus tábhacht phoiblí leo a fhiosrú’. We find the very same Irish text in the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann of 17/12/69. Note how it was felt that ‘fiosraigh’ was not strong enough and ‘scrúdaigh’ was used in the following (from the Dáil Order Paper of 11/12/75): ‘… the Report of the Tribunal appointed on the 4th July, 1975, to inquire into allegations made by two Members against the Minister for Local Government in the Dáil’, ‘an Tuarascáil ón mBinse a ceapadh an 4 Iúil, 1975, chun líomhaintí a rinne dhá Chomhalta in aghaidh an Aire Rialtais Áitiúil sa Dáil a scrúdú’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 559), ‘The Commission shall inquire into any request made by a Member State’ is translated as ‘Beidh ar an gCoimisiún fiosrú a dhéanamh faoi aon iarratas a dhéanfaidh Ballstát’. go haindleathach ‘Driogadh aindleathach’ is translated as ‘illicit distillation’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘aindleathach’ as ‘illegal’ – which is translated as ‘neamhdhleathach’ in Téarmaí Dlí, this word in turn being translated as ‘unlawful, illegal’ in Ó Dónaill. Dinneen translates ‘aindleaghthach’ as ‘unlawful, illegal, unfair, irregular, base (as a coin)’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘aindlítheach’ as a variant of ‘aindleathach’, Dinneen giving ‘aindlightheach’ as a separate headword, which he translates as ‘unlawful, illegal, exlex’. DIL translates ‘aindligthech’ as ‘unlawful, unjust’, giving three examples of the adverbial usage, ‘go haindligtheach’, from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ‘Unlawful assembly’ is translated as ‘tionól neamhdhleathach’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘unlawful carnal knowledge’ is translated as ‘fios collaí neamhdhleathach’. In s3(1) of the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1975, for example, ‘a person shall be guilty of an offence if anywhere he unlawfully and intentionally … commits on board an aircraft in flight any act of violence’ is translated as ‘beidh duine ciontach i gcion má dhéanann sé in áit ar bith go neamhdhleathach agus d’aonghnó … aon gníomh foréigin ar bord aerárthaigh agus í ar eitilt’. Finally, ‘fish unlawfully captured’ is translated as ‘iasc a gabhadh go neamhdhleathach’ in s53(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980. neach This headword is translated as ‘being’ in Ó Dónaill, who gives ‘person, one’ as one subset of senses, citing ‘ní fhaca aon neach é, no one saw him’ and ‘má tá aon neach ann, if there is any one there’. Dinneen translates ‘neach’ as ‘a being, a person, one, oneself, anyone, whoever; a thing, whatever’. DIL cites examples of the indefinite pronoun ‘nech’ from the ninth-century Milan Glosses onwards; in Middle Irish it comes to be used as a noun in the sense of ‘a person’, ‘often equivalent to “duine”’, according to DIL. See the commentary on Article 40.3.2o regarding ‘pearsa’ expressing ‘person’. a scaoileadh as an mbraighdeanas In Téarmaí Dlí ‘I release’ is translated as ‘scaoilim’. As regards the Acts, see s483(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1967, where ‘the Special Commissioners shall issue their warrant to the governor of the prison in which any defaulter is detained under their warrant, directing the liberation of the defaulter, and, on receipt thereof, the governor shall forthwith release

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and discharge him out of custody, if he is under detention for no other cause than as set forth in the warrant of commitment’ is translated as ‘eiseoidh na Coimisinéirí Speisialta a mbarántas chun rialtóir an phríosúin ina mbeidh aon mhainnitheoir á choinneáil faoina mbarántas, á ordú an mainnitheoir a scaoileadh saor, agus, ar sin a fháil dó, déanfaidh an rialtóir láithreach é a scaoileadh saor ó choimeád, mura mbeidh sé faoi choinneáil ar aon chúis eile seachas í sin a bheidh sonraithe sa bharántas cimithe’. In s5(3) of the Criminal Justice Act, 1990, ‘to release temporarily a person serving a sentence of imprisonment’ is translated as ‘duine a mbeidh pianbhreith príosúnachta á cur isteach aige a scaoileadh saor go sealadach’. Note finally that the official Irish title of ‘The Release of Prisoners Commission’, established in 1998, is ‘An Coimisiún um Scaoileadh Saor Príosúnach’. deimhin This headword is translated as ‘sure, certain’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘is deimhin liom go bhfuil an ceart agat, I am quite sure you are right’. Dinneen translates ‘deimhin’ as ‘certain, sure, true’. DIL translates ‘is demin lim’ as ‘I am sure (of, that)’, citing the following from the ninth-century Milan Glosses: ‘is demniu liunn a n-adchiam … oldaas an rochluinemmar’ (‘we regard what we see with the eyes as more certain than what we hear with the ears’). See further the commentary on Article 40.4.2o where ‘i slí gur deimhin go’ expresses ‘as to ensure’. Turning to the Acts, in s65(1) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘in any case in which he is not satisfied as to the accuracy of any count’ is translated as ‘in aon chás nach deimhin leis cruinneas aon chomhairimh’. In s103(1) of the same Schedule, ‘and in giving leave the court shall be satisfied that the notice … was reasonable’ is translated as ‘agus nuair a bheidh an cead sin á thabhairt ag an gcúirt déanfaidh sé deimhin de go raibh réasún leis an bhfógra’. In s28 of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘where they are satisfied that such permission should be given’ is translated as ‘i gcás ar deimhin leo gur chóir an cead sin a thabhairt’. In s1 of Article 6 of the Second Schedule to the Air Nagivation and Transport Act, 1973, ‘Upon being satisfied that the circumstances so warrant, any Contracting State … shall take him into custody’ is translated as ‘Ar a bheith deimhin d’aon Stát Conarthach, … tógfaidh sé an duine sin i gcoimeád’. We also find phrases with ‘sásta’ or forms of ‘sásta’ translating ‘satisfied’. ‘Unless the Court is satisfied’ is translated as ‘mura gcruthaítear chun sástachta na Cúirte’ in s43 of the Health Act, 1947, while ‘until the court is satisfied to the contrary’ is translated as ‘go dtí gur deimhin leis an gcúirt a mhalairt’ in s19(2) of the Misuse of Drugs Act, 1977. In s16(4) of the Finance Act, 1976, ‘subject to the Revenue Commissioners being satisfied that tax … has been paid’ is translated as ‘faoi réir na Coimisinéirí Ioncaim a bheith sásta gur íocadh cáin’. See further the commentary on Article 46.5 where ‘upon his being satisfied that’ is expressed as ‘ar mbeith sásta dó gur’. forais ‘Foras’ is translated as ‘ground (of application, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí, this being given as a secondary sense of ‘foras’ (in Jurisprudence) in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘ar an bhforas go, on the ground that’. The original meaning of ‘forus’, examples of which are cited in DIL from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, is thought to have been


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‘basis, foundation, bottom’, which senses are included with ‘that which is stable, stability’, along with ‘established or fundamental principles of knowledge or science, axioms’, ‘the principle or enactments of a law’ and ‘a station, resting-place, dwelling’ in DIL. Turning to the Acts, see, for example, s5 of the Local Elections (Petitions and Disqualifications) Act, 1974, headed ‘Grounds for petition’, ‘Forais achainí’, where ‘a local election may be questioned on the grounds of want of qualification’ is translated as ‘féadfar toghchán áitiúil a thabhairt faoi cheist ar fhoras díth cáilíochta’. See the commentary on Article 27.3, where ‘ábhar’ expresses ‘ground’. Note that ‘foras’ also expresses ‘institution’ – see the commentary on Article 18.4.2o. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú questions the need for the unfamiliar (“deoranta”) use of ‘forais’ in the present Article and recommends expressing ‘the ground for his detention’ in the direct translation below as ‘na cúiseanna lena choinneáil’. caoi Ó Dónaill translates ‘caoi a thabhairt do dhuine (ar rud a dhéanamh)’ as ‘to give someone the means, an opportunity (to do something)’. Dinneen translates ‘ní’l aon chaoi agam air’ as ‘I have no means of doing it, of obtaining it’, including ‘opportunity, means’ among the senses of ‘caoi’. ‘Way, path’ may have been the original meaning of the earlier ‘cáe’, which was also the name of ‘a social institution according to which a member of the noble grades had the right to bring a party with him on a night’s coshering visit to each of his servile clients’ – see DIL s.v. ‘cáe’, and Fergus Kelly, op. cit., s.v. ‘cóe’, ‘winter hospitality to lord’. DIL also cites examples of ‘cáe’ in the sense of ‘way, manner, course, means’. This is the same word ‘caoi’ found in the Connacht greeting, ‘Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? (How are you?)’. Turning to the Acts, see, for example, s111(2) of the Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, where ‘the court may, after giving the person or persons an opportunity of being heard to show cause …’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an chúirt, tar éis caoi éisteachta a thabhairt don duine nó do na daoine sin chun cúis a shuíomh…’. In s10(4) of the Trade Union Act, 1975, referred to above s.v. ‘gearán’, ‘after giving the complainant and the trade union concerned an opportunity of being heard’ is translated as ‘tar éis deis éisteachta a thabhairt don ghearánach agus don cheardchumann lena mbainfidh’. In s20(2)(g) of the Judicial Separation and Family Law Reform Act, 1989, ‘by reason of having relinquished or foregone the opportunity of remunerative activity’ is translated as ‘de bhíthin an deis ar ghníomhaíocht le haghaidh luach saothair a thabhairt suas nó a ligean uaidh’. In s3(d) of the Higher Education Authority Act, 1971, ‘promoting the attainment of equality of opportunity in higher education’ is translated as ‘dlús a chur le comhdheiseanna a bheith ann ar ard-oideachas’. Both ‘caoi’ and ‘deis’ are found translating ‘opportunity’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities and in the Treaty on European Union also. ‘Deis’ sometimes translates ‘device’/‘contrivance’ in the Acts with ‘caoi’ translating ‘means’ in ‘means of escape from rooms’, ‘caoi éalaithe ó sheomraí’, in s97 of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1965, for example. á rá See the commentary on Article 38.4.1o where ‘cionta

Bunreacht na hÉireann

a deirtear a rinneadar’ expresses ‘offences alleged to have been committed (by persons)’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘state, allege’ as one of the senses of ‘abair’, citing ‘deir sé go bhfuil ocras air, he says he is hungry’ and ‘tú féin a dúirt é, it was you who said it’. In s3(3) of the Local Authorities (Traffic Wardens) Act, 1975, ‘he may affix to the vehicle a notice in the prescribed form stating … that the offence is alleged to have been committed’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh sé fógra san fhoirm fhorordaithe a ghreamú den fheithicil á rá … go líomhnaítear go ndearnadh an cion’. In s2(a) of Article XX in the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957, ‘Each government … shall deposit with the Government of the United States of America an instrument setting forth that it has accepted this Agreement’ is translated as ‘Gach rialtas … taiscfidh sé le Rialtas Stát Aontaithe Mheiriceá ionstraim á rá go bhfuil glactha aige leis an gComhaontú seo…’. Finally, in s18(2)(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘without giving the occupier thereof one month’s previous notice in writing of its intention so to do’ is translated as ‘gan fógra i scríbhinn a thabhairt don áititheoir mí roimh ré á rá go bhfuil ar intinn aige sin a dhéanamh’. ‘I allege’ is translated as ‘líomhnaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘líomhain’ translating ‘allegation’. In s231(1)(e) of the Companies Act, 1963, for example, ‘to make any compromise or arrangement with creditors or persons claiming to be creditors, or having or alleging themselves to have any claim present or future’ is translated as ‘aon chomhréiteach nó comhshocraíocht a dhéanamh le creidiúnaithe nó le daoine a bheidh á éileamh gur creidiúnaithe iad, nó a bhfuil, nó a líomhnóidh go bhfuil, aon éileamh acu, láithreach nó todhchaí…’. In s166(5) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘in a case where he alleges that he is entitled to receive a pension at a higher rate’ is translated as ‘i gcás ina líomhnóidh sé go bhfuil sé i dteideal pinsean de réir ráta is airde a fháil’. a thabhairt … i láthair Literally ‘to bring into place’. ‘That there are reasonable grounds for believing that a person specified in the information can produce the child named in the application’ is translated as ‘go mbeidh cúiseanna réasúnacha ann lena chreidiúint gur féidir le duine a bheidh sonraithe san fhaisnéis an leanbh a ainmnítear san iarratas a thabhairt i láthair’ in s46(3) of the Child Care Act, 1991, with ‘an leanbh do thabhairt i láthair na cúirte am áirithe agus in áit áirithe’ translating ‘to produce such child before the court at a specified time and place’ in s18(1) of the School Attendance Act, 1926. ‘Produce the body of the person’ is translated as ‘corp an duine a thabhairt i láthair’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla (with no reference given). ‘I produce (documents, etc.)’ is translated as ‘tugaim ar aird’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s39(17)(c) of the Redundancy Payments Act, 1967, ‘The Tribunal may … require such person … to produce any documents in his possession’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Binse … a cheangal ar an duine sin … aon doiciméid a thabhairt ar aird a bheidh ina sheilbh …’. Note that ‘Whenever the registrar shall be required to produce for inspection in his office … any document’ is translated as ‘Aon uair a héileofar ar an gclárathóir aon scríbhinn … a thaisbeáint chun go n-iniúchfar í ina oifig’ in s11(1) of the Companies (Re-constitution of Records) Act, 1924. In s92 of the Schedule to the European Assembly Elec-


A study of the Irish text

tions Act, 1977, ‘and … such personation agent … fails to appear before the court’ is translated as ‘agus … go mainneoidh an gníomhaire pearsanaíochta sin … láithriú os comhair na cúirte’. Section 12 of the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, is headed ‘General immunities of advocates appearing before Court’, ‘Díolúintí ginearálta d’aighní a láithreoidh os comhair na Cúirte’ and reads as follows: ‘Persons … engaged in appearing before the Court as representatives of a government’, ‘Na daoine … a bheidh fruilithe ag láithriú os comhair na Cúirte mar ionadaithe do Rialtas’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 61), ‘to bring an action before the Court’ is translated as ‘caingean a thabhairt os comhair na Cúirte.’ a chruthú gur braighdeanas cóir an braighdeanas Regarding ‘justify’, see s5(3) of the Criminal Justice Act, 1990, where ‘such limited duration as is justified by those reasons’ is translated as ‘cibé fad teoranta a bheidh cóir ag féachaint do na cúiseanna sin’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 252), ‘the Council, may … decide that aid which that State is granting … shall be considered to be compatible with the common market, … if such a decision is justified by exceptional circumstances’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Chomhairle … a chinneadh go measfar cabhair atá á tabhairt … ag an Stát sin a bheith ag luí leis an gcómhargadh, … má fhágann imthosca eisceachtúla gur cinneadh cóir é sin’. In s10(5) of the Trade Union Act, 1975, ‘Where the Registrar finds a complaint under this section to be justified’ is translated as ‘I gcás ina gcinnfidh an Cláraitheoir ceart a bheith le gearán faoin alt seo’. We find forms based on ‘fí(o)r’ (‘true’) translating ‘justify’ in some sources. In s5(3)(b) of the Wealth Tax Act, 1975, ‘or for any other analogous reason which, in the opinion of the Commissioners, is sufficient to justify the benefits conferred by this subsection’ is translated as ‘nó ar aon chúis eile den tsamhail chéanna is leor, i dtuairim na gCoimisinéirí, chun na sochair a thugtar leis an bhfo-alt seo a fhíréanú’. The verb ‘fíréanaigh’ is based on ‘fíréan’, translated as ‘just, righteous, true, genuine’ in Ó Dónaill, who does not give that verb as a headword. Dinneen, however, has ‘fíréanuighim’, ‘I justify’, and ‘justifiable’ is translated as ‘infhíréanuithe’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘make righteous in the sight of God’ is one of the senses of ‘justify’ and that that is what is rendered by ‘fíréanaigh’. ‘Justification (i.e. of defamatory statement)’ is translated as ‘fírinniú’ in Téarmaí Dlí, while ‘justifiable homicide’ is translated as ‘dúnbhású dlíthiúil’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 19), ‘to take measures which are justified on grounds of public policy or public security’ is translated as ‘bearta a ghlacadh a dhlitear ar fhorais an bheartais phoiblí nó na slándála poiblí’. We also find ‘call’ translating ‘justify’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 554), ‘it may be extended if the situation which justified its granting continues’ is translated as ‘féadfar é a fhadú má mhaireann na cúrsaí ba chall lena dheonú’. On p. 20, ‘with no protection against competing industries that is not justified by improper action on their part’ is translated as ‘faoi choinníollacha a choisceann aon chosaint in aghaidh tionscal iomaíoch mura bhfuil call lena leithéid mar gheall ar ghníomh mídhleathach ag na tionscail’. In s166(1)(b)

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of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘when a person has been at any time … in receipt of old age pension at a certain rate when his means exceeded the amount which justified the payment of a pension at that rate’ is translated as ‘an raibh duine, tráth ar bith …, ag fáil pinsin seanaoise de réir ráta áirithe nuair ba mhó a acmhainn ná an méid ar chall pinsean a íoc de réir an ráta sin’. Following that, one might translate ‘justifying the detention’ as ‘a léiriú go raibh call leis an gcoinneáil’. L. Mc Cionnaith s.v. ‘justify’, in the sense of ‘justify position, attitude, policy’, refers the reader to ‘defend’, and ‘cosain’ has been used in some documents to translate ‘justify’. ‘He said, in justification of his attitude’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘dubhairt sé, á chosaint féin’ in a 1928 Report of the Public Accounts Committee, with ‘níor cheart airgead do chaitheamh air’ being cited as translating ‘the expenditure was not justified’ in a Report from the previous year, and ‘such as to justify expectation’ being translated as ‘de shaghas go mbeidh súil réasúnta le’ in Iris on Phuist, 29/2/28. Regarding ‘justify’ in the sense of ‘justified in doing’, L. Mc Cionnaith refers the reader to ‘right, proper’, and we have seen above how ‘ceart’ and ‘cóir’ has been used to render ‘justify’. Finally, note that De Bhaldraithe translates ‘justify’ as ‘tugaim údar maith le (gníomh)’. ina phearsain See the commentary on Article 40.1. Commenting on the direct translation below, and noting the examples of the use of ‘corp’ above, including in the 1922 Constitution, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘a dead body’ is what an Irish speaker would understand by ‘corp’ and this is probably why the drafters of the 1937 Constitution departed from ‘corp’, Professor Ó Murchú regarding ‘i bpearsain’ as being completely satisfactory and cites ‘do bhí breágha a bpearsoin, gur thaitnigh mar mhnaoi ris’ from Beatha Chríost, l. 124. i dtaobh This phrase is translated as ‘about, concerning’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘regarding, in reference to, about’ in Dinneen. Note that a comma follows the phrase ‘i dtaobh an ghearáin sin’ in the original Amendment. a bheirtear According to the official standard, this would be rendered as ‘a thugtar’ – see the commentary on Article 12.1. a dheimhniú ‘Deimhním’ is translated as ‘I certify’ – see the commentary on Article 1. de réir an dlí Note ‘de réir dlí’ in the previous subsection. i láthair See the commentary on Article 40.1.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Nuair a dhéanann duine ar bith gearán, nó nuair a dhéantar gearán thar ceann duine ar bith, leis an Ard-Chúirt nó le breitheamh ar bith di á rá go bhfuil an duine sin á choinneáil ina bhrá nó á coinneáil ina brá go haindleathach, ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt agus d’aon bhreitheamh agus do gach breitheamh di chun a ndéanfar an gearán sin fiosrú a dhéanamh láithreach i dtaobh an ghearáin sin agus féadfaidh a ordú do neach coinnithe an duine sin ina bhrá nó ina brá an duine sin a thabhairt ina


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phearsa nó ina pearsa i láthair na hArd-Chúirte lá a ainmnítear agus a dheimhniú i scríbhinn cad is forais dá bhraighdeanas nó dá braighdeanas, agus ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt, nuair a thugtar an duine sin ina phearsa nó ina pearsa i láthair na Cúirte sin agus tar éis caoi a thabhairt do neach a choinnithe ina bhrá nó a coinnithe ina brá ar a chruthú gur braighdeanas cóir an braighdeanas, a ordú an duine sin a scaoileadh as an mbraighdeanas sin mura deimhin leis an gCúirt sin gur de réir an dlí atáthar á choinneáil nó á coinneáil.

Direct gender-proofed translation Ar aon duine a dhéanamh gearáin nó ar ghearán a dhéanamh thar ceann aon duine chun na hArd-Chúirte nó chun aon bhreithimh den Ard-Chúirt á líomhain go bhfuil an duine sin á choinneáil nó á coinneáil go neamhdhleathach, déanfaidh an Ard-Chúirt agus aon bhreitheamh agus gach breitheamh den Ard-Chúirt a ndéanfar an gearán sin chuige nó chuici an gearán sin a fhiosrú1 agus féadfaidh sé nó sí a ordú don duine a bhfuil an duine sin á choinneáil nó á coinneáil faoina choimeád nó faoina coimeád corp an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair2 na hArd-Chúirte lá a ainmneofar agus forais a choinneála nó a coinneála3 a dheimhniú i scríbhinn, agus déanfaidh an Ard-Chúirt, ar chorp an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair4 na Cúirte agus tar éis caoi5 a thabhairt don duine a bhfuil sé nó sí á choinneáil nó á coinneáil faoina choimeád nó faoina coimeád an choinneáil a chosaint, a ordú an duine sin a scaoileadh saor ón gcoinneáil sin mura deimhin léi6 go bhfuiltear á choinneáil nó á coinneáil de réir an dlí.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In a case of a person who is said to be being unlawfully kept a prisoner’s being brought in person before the High Court in pursuance of an order to that effect being made under this section and that the Court is certain that that person is being kept a prisoner in accordance with a particular law but that that law is invalid having regard to the provisions of this Constitution, the High Court must submit that question of whether that law is or is not valid to the Supreme Court for judgement in the form of a stated case and (it) can, while that question is being so submitted for judgement or at any time after that, allow that person to have his freedom, subject to those bonds and conditions that the High Court will appoint until the Supreme Court will give a judgement on the question which will be thus submitted for its judgement. ENGLISH TEXT

Where the body of a person alleged to be unlawfully detained is produced before the High Court in pursuance of an order in that behalf made under this section and that Court is satisfied that such person is being detained in accordance with a law but that such law is invalid having regard to the provisions of this Constitution, the High Court shall refer the question of the validity of such law to the Supreme Court by way of case stated and may, at the time of such reference or at any time thereafter, allow the said person to be at liberty on such bail and subject to such conditions as the High Court shall fix until the Supreme Court has determined the question so referred to it.

Divergences between the official texts

Variants 1 ‘fiosrú faoin ngearán sin’ 2 ‘i láthair os comhair’, ‘… faoina coimeád an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair i bpearsain’ 3 ‘na cúiseanna lena choinneáil nó lena coinneáil’, ‘forais na coinneála sin’ 4 ‘i láthair os comhair’, ‘ar an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair i bpearsain’ 5 ‘deis’ 6 ‘mura deimhin leis an gCúirt’

1

2

3

ARTICLE 40.4.3

O

AIRTEAGAL 40.4.3

O

TÉACS GAEILGE

I gcás duine a deirtear a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach a thabhairt ina phearsain i láthair na hArdChúirte de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo agus gur deimhin leis an gCúirt sin an duine sin a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá de réir dlí áirithe ach an dlí sin a bheith neamhbhailí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo, ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt an cheist sin bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar an dlí sin a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí i bhfoirm cháis ríofa agus féadfaidh, le linn an cheist sin a chur faoi bhreith amhlaidh nó tráth ar bith ina dhiaidh sin, ligean don duine sin a shaoirse a bheith aige, faoi réir na mbannaí agus na gcoinníollacha sin a cheapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt go dtí go dtabharfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach breith ar an gceist a chuirfear faoina breith amhlaidh.

4

5

6

7

As in the preceding section, ‘body of a person is … produced’ is rendered as ‘duine … a thabhairt ina phearsain’ (‘a person is brought in person’) in the Irish text, ‘alleged’ is rendered as ‘a deirtear’ (‘stated’) and ‘unlawfully detained’ is rendered as ‘á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach’ (‘unlawfully kept a prisoner’). ‘Refer to the Supreme Court’ is rendered as ‘a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí’ (‘submit to the Supreme Court for determination’) in the Irish text. ‘Case stated’ is rendered as ‘cás ríofa’ in the Irish text, ‘cás sonraithe’ translating ‘case stated’ in Téarmaí Dlí; ‘by way of (case stated)’ is rendered as ‘i bhfoirm (cháis ríofa)’, ‘in the form of (case stated)’, in the Irish text. ‘Until the Supreme Court has determined the question’ is rendered as ‘go dtí go dtabharfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach breith ar an gceist’ (‘until the Supreme Court will give a judgement on the question’) in the Irish text. ‘In accordance with a law’ is rendered as ‘de réir dlí áirithe’ (‘in accordance with a certain law’) in the Irish text. ‘On such bail and subject to such conditions’ is rendered as ‘faoi réir na mbannaí agus na gcoinníollacha sin’ (‘subject to such bail and conditions’) in the Irish text. ‘The question of the validity of such law’ is rendered as ‘an cheist sin bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar an dlí sin’ (‘that question whether that law is valid or is not valid’) in the Irish text.


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8

Again ‘shall’ (in ‘shall refer’) is rendered as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text.

Note that this subsection was inserted by the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941 – see the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Commentary i bhfoirm cháis ríofa On two counts, according to the official standard, ‘cháis’ would remain unlenited here; firstly, after the prepositional phrase, an indefinite noun remains unlenited (see An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, p. 83, s5), and secondly, ‘ríofa’ functions adjectivally here and therefore ‘cás’ in the genitive following the noun ‘foirm’ would be treated like ‘gaoth’ and ‘cos’ in the examples ‘oíche gaoithe móire’ and ‘scian coise duibhe’ cited in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (p. 84, s6(I)(c)). ‘Cuntas ríofa’ is translated as ‘account stated’ in Téarmaí Dlí, the verb ‘ríomhaim’ being translated as ‘I compute’. ‘Ríofa’ is the genitive singular of the verbal noun of the verb ‘ríomh’, which verb is translated as (1) ‘count, enumerate; reckon, calculate, compute’ and (2) ‘recount, narrate’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Ríomhtha’ is translated as ‘reckoned, accounted, narrated’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘réime ríomhtha ríoghradh is réacsa, the developed lists of kings and monarchs’. DIL translates ‘rímid’ as (a) ‘counts, reckons, estimates’ and (b) ‘recounts, relates’, giving examples from the twelfth-century Book of Leinster and from later sources. In s10 of the Finance Act, 1944, ‘case stated’ is translated as ‘cás ríofa’. ‘Case stated’ is translated as ‘cás sonraithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí, however, following the Fourth Irish Legal Terms Order of 1949. In s9(v) of the Finance Act, 1983, ‘and any case stated by a judge pursuant to the said s428 shall set forth the facts, the determination of the Appeal Commissioners and the determination of the judge’ is translated as ‘agus in aon chás a shonróidh breitheamh de bhun an ailt sin 428 leagfar amach na fíorais, cinneadh na gCoimisinéirí Achomhairc agus cinneadh an bhreithimh’. ‘The case stated’ and ‘notice requiring a case stated’ are translated respectively as ‘an cás sonraithe’ and ‘fógra á iarraidh cás a shonrú’ in Fasaigh Dlí-Théarmaí (the references given being 431/47 F.A 10 and F.A 6 respectively). ‘Foras ríofa’ translates ‘basis of calculation’ in s10(1)(c) of the Decimal Currency Act, 1970. As regards ‘i bhfoirm’, ‘comhaontú i bhfoirm chomhréitigh’ is translated as ‘agreement by way of compromise’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Literally this phrase translates ‘in (the) form of’ – ‘probate in common form’, for example, is translated as ‘probháid i bhfoirm choiteann’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Ar mhodh’ regularly translates ‘by way of’ in the Acts – see, for example, s109(a)(vii) of the Finance Act, 1983, where ‘where action by way of court proceedings has been taken’ is translated as ‘i gcás caingean ar mhodh imeachtaí cúirte a bheith tionscanta’. ‘By way of distraint’ is translated as ‘ar mhodh tochsail’ in s151(8)(c) of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976, and in s18 of the Criminal Law (Jurisdiction Act) of the same year ‘by way of sworn deposition’ is translated as ‘ar mhodh teistíochta faoi mhionn’. We also find ‘i modh’, ‘mar’ and ‘trí’. a chur faoi bhreith Ó Dónaill translates ‘cuir faoi’ literally as ‘put under’, giving ‘submit to’ as a secondary sense,

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citing ‘cuir faoi do choimirce iad, place them under your protection’ and ‘cuireadh faoi ghuí an phobail é, the prayers of the congregation were asked for him’. Ó Dónaill also cites ‘cuireadh an taibhse faoi chónaí, the ghost was laid’. Ó Dónaill s.v. ‘breith’, translates ‘cás a chur faoi bhreith duine’ as ‘to submit a case to someone for determination’. Dinneen translates ‘cuirim’ with ‘fá’ and noun as ‘I bind, restrain, etc.’ and cites ‘cuirim fá bhreitheamhnas aithrighe, I enjoin as a penance upon’. In Statutory Instrument 48/111, ‘submission by deed’ is translated as ‘cur faoi bhreith trí ghníomhas’. See the commentary on Articles 26 and 46.2. Turning to ‘refer’, see the commentary on Article 22.2.2o where ‘refer’ is expressed as ‘cuir faoi bhráid’. ‘I refer (a case to the County Registrar, etc.)’ is translated as ‘tarchuirim (cás chun an Chláraitheora Chontae, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s15 of the Electricity (Supply) (Amendment) Act, 1949, ‘which section relates to the reference of disputes to the Tribunal established pursuant to that Act’ is translated as ‘alt a bhaineas le díospóidí a tharchur chun an Bhinse a bunaíodh de bhun an Achta sin’. In s9(11)(B)(f) of the Finance Act, 1983, to refer his application to the Appeal Commissioners’ is translated as ‘a iarratas a tharchur chun na gCoimisinéirí Ioncaim’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 68), ‘The Court of First Instance shall not be competent to hear and determine questions referred for a preliminary ruling under Article 177’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh an Chúirt Chéadchéime inniúil ceisteanna a tharchuirtear chun réamhrialú de bhun Airteagal 177 a éisteacht agus a chinneadh’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 726), ‘the decision of the court or tribunal of a Member State which suspends its proceedings and refers a case to the Court’ is translated as ‘nuair a chinnfidh cúirt nó binse de chuid Ballstáit ar a himeachtaí a fhionraí agus cás a tharchur chun na Cúirte’. As regards ‘reference’ towards the end of the section, see, for example ‘reference order’ in Téarmaí Dlí, translated as ‘ordú tarchurtha’, ‘barántas tarchuir’ translating ‘transmit warrant’. an cheist sin See, for example, s12 of the Liability for Defective Products Act, 1991, where ‘Section 1 of the Courts Act, 1988, shall apply to … a question of fact or an issue arising in such an action’ is translated as ‘Beidh feidhm ag alt 1 d’Acht na gCúirteanna, 1988, maidir le … ceist fíorais nó saincheist a éireoidh i gcaingean den sórt sin’. In s10(c) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘Provided that … the question of whether a trade is being carried on shall be determined without regard to this subsection’ is translated as ‘Ar choinníoll go ndéanfar … an cheist i dtaobh trádáil a bheith á seoladh a chinneadh gan féachaint don alt seo’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 1476), ‘The question of exports of sugar from India to the Community … must be settled by the Community’ is translated as ‘Déanfaidh an Comhphobal an cheist i dtaobh onnmhairí siúcra ón India chun an Chomhphobail … a rialú …’. See further the commentary on Article 22.2.2o. a cheapfaidh ‘Ceapaim’ is translated as ‘I appoint’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Among the senses given in Ó Dónaill are ‘fashion, shape, invent’ and ‘appoint, assign’, with ‘cheap sé aimsir chuige’ translated as ‘he fixed a time for it’, while Dinneen includes ‘resolve, determine on’ s.v. ‘ceapaim’, citing ‘do cheapas lá don chruinniughadh, I fixed upon a


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day for the assembly’. See the commentary on Articles 6.1, 13.1.1o, 15.10 and 34.4.5o, where this verb expresses respectively ‘designate’, ‘appoint’, ‘attach’ and ‘direct’, and see the commentary on Article 16.2.2o where ‘fix’ is expressed as ‘socraigh’. In s23(2) of the Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann (1997), ‘Such motion shall fix the period of suspension’ is translated as ‘Ceapfar tréimhse na fionraíochta leis an tairiscint sin’. In s78, however, ‘such motion shall … fix the number of members to serve on it’ is translated as ‘sa tairiscint sin … socrófar an líon comhaltaí atá le fónamh air’ and the heading above s125, ‘Orders fixing date for next Stage of Bills’, is translated as ‘Orduithe ag socrú dáta don chéad chéim eile de Bhillí’. The standard phrase in the Acts, ‘This Act shall come into operation on such day or days as may be fixed therefore by any order or orders of the Minister’, in s2 of the Road Traffic Act, 1961, for example, is translated as ‘Tiocfaidh an tAcht seo i ngníomh cibé lá nó laethanta a shocrófar chuige sin le hordú nó le horduithe ón Aire’. Note that in Article 40.4.5o, ‘(in ionad) an lae a socraíodh i dtosach’ expresses ‘the day originally fixed’ and ‘ceapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt lá’ expresses ‘the High Court shall appoint a day’. Note, finally, that a comma follows the phrase ‘a cheapfaidh an Árd-Chúirt’ in the original Amendment. le linn (an) This phrase usually translates ‘in’ in the sense of ‘in the course of, while’ in the Acts – see, for example, s26(5) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, where ‘in the course of dissolving or winding up the company’ is translated as ‘le linn an chuideachta a bheith á díoscaoileadh nó á foirceannadh’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 37), ‘during the second stage’ is translated as ‘le linn an dara céim’ – on p. 210, however, ‘at the time of signature of these texts’ is translated as ‘tráth sínithe na dtéacsanna sin’. In s316 of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, ‘it shall not be necessary for the said Justice … to pronounce the fact of such forfeiture at the time of adjudication’ is translated as ‘ní gá don Bhreitheamh sin … an forghéilleadh sin a fhógairt tráth an bhreithnithe’. See the commentary on Articles 12.9 (where this phrase expresses ‘during’) and 15.5 (where ‘le linn’ expresses ‘at the date of’). ligean don duine sin a shaoirse a bheith aige Literally ‘to allow that person to have his liberty/freedom’. See the commentary on Article 45.2.iii regarding ‘lig do’. In s1(c) of the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923, ‘that he is satisfied that the public safety is endangered by such person being allowed to remain at liberty’ is translated as ‘gur deimhin leis an tsábháltacht phuiblí do bheith i gcontúirt de bharr leigint don duine sin a shaoirse do bheith aige’. ‘That the public safety would be endangered by such person being set at liberty’ is translated as ‘gur chontúirt don tsábháltacht phuiblí an duine sin do leigint chun siúil’ in s3(1)(b) of the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923. ‘To allow him to be at liberty on such bail’ is translated as ‘leigint dó bheith saor fé sna bannaí sin’ in s45(3) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939. See De Bhaldraithe who translates ‘at liberty’ as ‘saor’ and ‘to set someone at liberty’ as ‘duine a scaoileadh saor; cead a chinn a thabhairt do dhuine’. See further the commentary on Article 40.6.1o.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

faoi réir na mbannaí ‘I admit to bail’ and ‘I go bail for’ are translated respectively as ‘ligim faoi bhannaí’ and ‘téim faoi bhannaí’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘on bail’ translated as ‘faoi bhannaí’. In the Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1978, ‘the release on bail’ is translated as ‘a scaoileadh amach ar bannaí’. go dtí go dtabharfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach breith Literally, ‘until the High Court will give a judgement’. See the commentary on Article 15.11.1o where ‘determine’ is expressed as ‘breith a thabhairt’. ‘I determine (issue, etc.)’ is translated as ‘cinnim’ in Téarmaí Dlí. See, for example, s9(d) of the Fourth Schedule to the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, where ‘enabling any such person to have the matter determined by the tribunal having jurisdiction to determine that matter if arising on an appeal against an assessment’ is translated as ‘a chumasóidh d’aon duine den sórt sin an t-ábhar a chur á chinneadh ag an mbinse ag a mbeidh dlínse an t-ábhar sin a chinneadh má bhíonn an t-ábhar sin ann de bharr achomharc in aghaidh measúnachta’. See the commentary on Article 1 where ‘determine’ is expressed by ‘cinn’. bail ‘Maidir leis an gceist sin bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar aon dlí áirithe’ expresses ‘the question of the validity of any law’ in Article 34.3.2o. ‘Validity’ is given as the final sense of ‘bail’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘ionas go mbeadh bail ar a fhaoistin, so that his confession might be valid’ – see the commentary on Articles 15.4.2o and 37.2. DIL gives the principal sense of ‘bal’ as ‘state (of affairs), condition, situation’, with the secondary sense of ‘prosperity, good luck, good effect’. ‘Validity’ is translated as ‘bailíocht’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s10(1) of the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘The returning officer shall rule on the validity of each nomination paper within one hour after its delivery to him and may rule that it is invalid …’ is translated as ‘Tabharfaidh an ceann comhairimh rialú ar bhailíocht gach páipéar ainmniúcháin laistigh d’uair a chloig tar éis a sheachadta dó, agus féadfaidh sé a rialú go bhfuil sé neamhbhailí…’. ‘Bailíocht’ is cited as translating ‘validity’ in s14(2) of the National Health Insurance Act, 1942. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 40), ‘The Court shall have sole jurisdiction to give preliminary rulings on the validity of acts of the High Authority and of the Council where such validity is in issue in proceedings brought before a national court or tribunal’ is translated as ‘Is ag an gCúirt amháin a bheidh dlínse chun réamhrialú a thabhairt ar bhailíocht ghníomhartha an Ard-Údaráis agus na Comhairle i gcás an bhailíocht sin a bheith i saincheist in imeachtaí a thabharfar os comhair cúirte nó binse náisiúnta’. neamhbhailí This compound is translated as ‘invalid’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill. See the commentary on Articles 15.4.2o and 37.2 where ‘invalid’ is expressed respectively as ‘gan bhail’ and ‘ó bhail’. a deirtear See the commentary on the previous subsection and note that in s8(2) of the Larceny Act, 1990, ‘handling property alleged to have been stolen’ is translated as ‘láimhseáil maoine a líomhnaítear a bheith goidte’. go haindleathach See the commentary on the previous subsection.


A study of the Irish text

a thabhairt ina phearsain i láthair See the commentary on the previous subsection. á choinneáil ina bhrá previous subsection.

See the commentary on the

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nó, mura mbeidh seisean ar fáil, an breitheamh is sinsearaí den Chúirt sin dá mbeidh ar fáil a ordú, i dtaobh an cháis sin, an líon sin a bheith inti agus is breitheamh amháin is Ard-Chúirt i ngach cás eile den sórt sin. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text I gcás duine a deirtear a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá nó á coinneáil ina brá go haindleathach a thabhairt ina phearsa nó ina pearsa i láthair na hArd-Chúirte de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo agus gur deimhin leis an gCúirt sin an duine sin a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá nó á coinneáil ina brá de réir dlí áirithe ach an dlí sin a bheith neamhbhailí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo, ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt an cheist sin bail a bheith nó gan a bheith ar an dlí sin a chur faoi bhreith na Cúirte Uachtaraí i bhfoirm cáis ríofa agus féadfaidh, le linn an cheist sin a chur faoi bhreith amhlaidh nó tráth ar bith ina dhiaidh sin, ligean don duine sin a shaoirse a bheith aige nó a saoirse a bheith aici, faoi réir na mbannaí agus na gcoinníollacha sin a cheapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt go dtí go dtabharfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach breith ar an gceist a chuirfear faoina breith amhlaidh.

Three judges constitute a High Court in any particular case, in which a person who is said to be being kept a prisoner unlawfully is brought in person before the High Court in pursuance of an order to that effect made under this section, if the President of the High Court or, if he is not available, the most senior judge of that Court who is / will be available orders, as regards that case, that it have that complement and one judge constitutes a High Court in every other case of that kind. ENGLISH TEXT

The High Court before which the body of a person alleged to be unlawfully detained is to be produced in pursuance of an order in that behalf made under this section shall, if the President of the High Court or, if he is not available, the senior judge of that Court who is available so directs in respect of any particular case, consist of three judges and shall, in every other case, consist of one judge only.

Divergences between the official texts

Direct gender-proofed translation I gcás corp duine a líomhnaítear a bheith á choinneáil nó á coinneáil go neamhdhleathach a thabhairt i láthair1 na hArd-Chúirte de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo agus gur deimhin leis an gCúirt go bhfuil an duine sin á choinneáil nó á coinneáil de réir dlí ach go bhfuil an dlí sin neamhbhailí ag féachaint d’fhorálacha an Bhunreachta seo, déanfaidh an Ard-Chúirt an cheist i dtaobh bhailíocht an dlí sin a tharchur chun na Cúirte Uachtaraí ar mhodh cáis shonraithe agus féadfaidh an Ard-Chúirt, tráth an tarchurtha sin nó tráth ar bith ina dhiaidh sin, saoirse a thabhairt don duine sin2, ar cibé bannaí agus faoi réir cibé coinníollacha a shocróidh3 an Ard-Chúirt go dtí go ndéanfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach cinneadh faoin gceist4 a tharchuirfear chuici amhlaidh5.

1

Variants

2

1 ‘i láthair os comhair’, ‘I gcás duine a líomhnaítear a bheith á choinneáil nó á coinneáil go neamhdhleathach a thabhairt i láthair i bpearsain’ 2 ‘ligean don duine sin a shaoirse a bheith aige, nó a saoirse a bheith aici’, ‘an duine sin a scaoileadh saor’, ‘ligean don duine sin a bheith saor’ 3 ‘a cheapfaidh’ 4 ‘go dtí go dtabharfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach breith ar an gceist’, ‘go dtí go gcinnfidh an Chúirt Uachtarach an cheist’ 5 ‘go dtí go ndéanfaidh an Chúirt Uachtarach an cheist a tharchuirfear chuici amhlaidh a chinneadh’

ARTICLE 40.4.4O AIRTEAGAL 40.4.4O TÉACS GAEILGE

Is triúr breitheamh is Ard-Chúirt in aon chás áirithe, ina ndéantar duine a deirtear a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach a thabhairt ina phearsain i láthair na hArd-Chúirte de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo, má dhéanann Uachtarán na hArd-Chúirte

3

‘The High Court … shall, if the President of the High Court … so directs in respect of any particular case, consist of three judges and shall, in every other case, consist of one judge only’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘Is triúr breitheamh is Ard-Chúirt in aon chás áirithe … má dhéanann Uachtarán na hArd-Chúirte … a ordú, i dtaobh an cháis sin, an líon sin a bheith inti agus is breitheamh amháin is Ard-Chúirt i ngach cás eile den sórt sin’ (‘The High Court consists of three judges / Three judges constitute a High Court in any particular case if the President of the High Court directs/orders, as regards that case, that it have that complement and the High Court consists of one judge / one judge constitutes a High Court in every other case of that kind’). ‘The senior judge’ is rendered as ‘an breitheamh is sinsearaí’ (‘the most senior judge’) in the Irish text and ‘in every other case’ is rendered as ‘i ngach cás eile den sórt sin’, ‘in every other case of that kind’. As in the two previous subsections, ‘a deirtear’ (‘stated’) renders ‘alleged’ in the Irish text, ‘a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá go haindleathach’ (‘unlawfully kept a prisoner’) renders ‘unlawfully detained’ and ‘a thabhairt ina phearsain’ (‘being brought in person’) renders ‘the body is to be produced’.

Note that this subsection was added to the text by the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941 – see the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Commentary a ordú ‘Ordaím’ is translated as ‘I order’ in Téarmaí Dlí and ‘órduighim’ is translated as ‘I order, ordain, appoint, decree, plan, dispose, direct, prescribe, arrange, wish, command …’ in Dinneen. ‘Ordaigh’ is translated as ‘order’


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in Ó Dónaill. The Old Irish deponent verb ‘ord(d)aigidir’ is based on the noun ‘ord’, a learned loanword from Latin ‘ordo’, and is translated as ‘orders, ordains, institutes’, ‘appoints (to an office)’ and ‘assigns, allots’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. See the commentary on Article 25.4.2o. Moving on to today, in Fasaigh Dlí-Théarmaí, ‘It is hereby ordered and directed’ is translated as ‘ordaítear leis seo’ and ‘the payments directed to be made’ is translated as ‘na híocaíochtaí a ordaíodh’. See the commentary on Article 34.4.5o where ‘direct’ is rendered by ‘ceap’. In s328(2) of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, ‘All things which by this Act are directed to be done by … any person’ is translated as ‘Gach ní a ordaítear leis an Acht seo a dhéanamh ag aon duine’. ‘I direct (jury)’ is translated as ‘treoraím’ in Téarmaí Dlí with ‘direction (by judge)’ translated as ‘treorú’. In s79(1)(b) of the Pensions Act, 1990, ‘the Court may by order direct the person’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an Chúirt le hordú a threorú don duine…’. In Form 4 in the Schedule of Forms to Statutory Instrument No. 96 of 1976 (District Court [Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976] Rules, 1976), ‘The Court Directs that the payments aforesaid be made to the District Court Clerk’ is translated as ‘Treoraíonn an Chúirt go n-íocfar na híocaíochtaí réamhráite leis an gCléireach Cúirte Dúiche’. Preceding this we find ‘The Court Hereby Orders …’ translated as ‘Ordaíonn an Chúirt leis seo’. an breitheamh is sinsearaí Literally, ‘the most senior judge’. ‘Senior counsel’ is translated as ‘abhcóide sinsir’ in Téarmaí Dlí – in s15(2) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1953, for example, ‘of whom one shall be of the Senior Bar’ is translated as ‘agus duine díobh sin ina Abhcóide Sinsir’. In Titles (in Irish and English) of Civil Service Posts (1938), however, ‘senior’ is consistently rendered as ‘sinsearach’, from ‘Senior Architectural Draughtsman’ (‘Línightheoir Sinnsearach Ailtireachta’) to ‘Senior Court Clerk’ (‘Cléireach Cúirte Sinnsearach’) to ‘Senior Legal Clerk’ (‘Cléireach Dlighidh Sinnsearach’) to ‘Senior Translator’ (‘Aistrightheoir Sinnsearach’). In the Third Schedule to the Defence Act, 1954, ‘Senior Chief Petty Officer’ is styled in Irish ‘Ard-Mhion-Oifigeach Sinsearach’. See the commentary on Article 34.5.2o where ‘i láthair … an bhreithimh den Chúirt Uachtarach is sinsearaí dá mbeidh ar fáil’ expresses ‘in the presence of … the senior available judge of the Supreme Court’. Is … is See the commentary on Article 2 regarding ‘consist’ in the Acts. Note for example that ‘Aon teagmhas ar diúscairt sócmhainne a bheadh ann ar leith ó mhír 2 …, is diúscairt den sórt sin í d’fhonn a chinneadh …’ translates ‘An event which, apart from paragraph 2 …, would constitute a disposal of an asset shall constitute such a disposal for the purpose of determining …’ in s64(5) of the Finance Act, 1990. Note also that a comma follows the phrase ‘is breitheamh amháin’ in the original text. Ard-Chúirt Unlike the previous subsection, there is no ‘síneadh fada’ on the ‘A’ in ‘Ard-Chúirt’, either in this or in the following subsection, in the text as published in the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941. a deirtear See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

á choinneáil ina bhrá See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o. go haindleathach See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o. a thabhairt ina phearsain See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text Is triúr breitheamh is Ard-Chúirt in aon chás áirithe, ina ndéantar duine a deirtear a bheith á choinneáil ina bhrá nó á coinneáil ina brá go haindleathach a thabhairt ina phearsa nó ina pearsa i láthair na hArd-Chúirte de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo, má dhéanann Uachtarán na hArd-Chúirte nó, mura mbeidh seisean nó sise ar fáil, an breitheamh is sinsearaí den Chúirt sin dá mbeidh ar fáil a ordú, i dtaobh an cháis sin, an líon sin a bheith inti agus is breitheamh amháin is Ard-Chúirt i ngach cás eile den sórt sin.

Direct gender-proofed translation Triúr Breitheamh a bheidh san Ard-Chúirt a ndéanfar corp duine a líomhnaítear a bheith á choinneáil nó á coinneáil go neamhdhleathach a thabhairt ina láthair1 de bhun ordaithe chuige sin arna dhéanamh faoin alt seo, más rud é go dtreoróidh2 Uachtarán na hArd-Chúirte nó, mura mbeidh seisean nó sise ar fáil, an breitheamh is sinsearaí3 den Chúirt a bheidh ar fáil, amhlaidh i leith aon cháis ar leith agus ní bheidh ach breitheamh amháin inti i ngach cás eile.

Variants 1 ‘i láthair os a comhair’, ‘a ndéanfar duine a líomhnaítear a bheith á choinneáil nó á coinneáil go neamhdhleathach a thabhairt ina láthair i bpearsain / a thabhairt i bpearsain ina láthair’ 2 ‘go n-ordóidh’ 3 ‘cibé breitheamh sinsearach’

ARTICLE 40.4.5O

AIRTEAGAL 40.4.5O

TÉACS GAEILGE

I gcás an Ard-Chúirt nó breitheamh di do dhéanamh ordaithe faoin alt seo á ordú duine faoi bhreith bháis a thabhairt i láthair ina phearsain, ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt nó don bhreitheamh sin di a ordú freisin feidhmiú na breithe báis sin a mhoilliú go dtí go dtabharfar an duine sin ina phearsain i láthair na hArd-Chúirte agus go gcinnfear an dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil ina bhrá nó nach dleathach agus má chinntear, tar éis an fheidhmithe sin a mhoilliú, gur dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil ina bhrá, ceapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt lá chun an bhreith bháis sin a fheidhmiú agus beidh éifeacht ag an mbreith bháis sin faoi réir an lá a cheapfar amhlaidh a chur in ionad an lae a socraíodh i dtosach chun an bhreith bháis sin a fheidhmiú. LITERAL ENGISH TRANSLATION

In the case of the High Court or a judge of it making an order under this section ordering a person under sentence of death to be brought before (it) in person, the High Court or that judge of it must also order that the exercise


A study of the Irish text

of that death sentence be delayed until that person is brought in person before the High Court and it is determined whether it is lawful to keep that person a prisoner or it is not lawful and if it is determined, after delaying that implementation, that it is lawful to keep that person a prisoner, the High Court will appoint a day to implement that death sentence and that death sentence will have effect subject to the day so appointed being put in place of the day which was first arranged to implement that death sentence.

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11 ‘With the substitution’ is rendered as ‘faoi réir … a chur in ionad’ (‘subject to the substitution’) in the Irish text. 12 ‘Shall’ is rendered as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in other Articles also. Note that this subsection was added to the text by the Second Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1941 – see the commentary on Article 40.4.2o.

Commentary ENGLISH TEXT

Where an order is made under this section by the High Court or a judge thereof for the production of the body of a person who is under sentence of death, the High Court or such judge thereof shall further order that the execution of the said sentence of death shall be deferred until after the body of such person has been produced before the High Court and the lawfulness of his detention has been determined and if, after such deferment, the detention of such person is determined to be lawful, the High Court shall appoint a day for the execution of the said sentence of death and that sentence shall have effect with the substitution of the day so appointed for the day originally fixed for the execution thereof.

Divergences between the official texts ‘Until after the body of such person has been produced’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘go dtí go dtabharfar an duine sin ina phearsain i láthair’, ‘until the (body of) such person is produced’. 2 ‘Be deferred’ is rendered as ‘a mhoilliú’ (‘be delayed’) in the Irish text, and ‘after such deferment’ as ‘tar éis an fheidhmithe sin a mhoilliú’, ‘after that implementation has been delayed’. 3 ‘Execution of the … sentence’ is rendered as ‘an bhreith … a fheidhmiú’ (‘implementation of … the sentence’), the term translating ‘execution’ in Téarmaí Dlí being ‘forghníomhú’. 4 ‘That sentence’ is twice rendered as ‘an bhreith bháis sin’ (‘that death sentence’) in the Irish text. 5 ‘The lawfulness of his detention’ is rendered as ‘an dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil ina bhrá nó nach dleathach’ (‘whether it is lawful to keep that person a prisoner or not [lit. or it is not lawful]’) in the Irish text. 6 ‘Sentence of death’ is rendered in the Irish text more literally as ‘breith bháis’ (‘judgement of death’), ‘sentence’ being translated by the compound ‘pianbhreith’ rather than the component ‘breith’ in Téarmaí Dlí, although Ó Dónaill also cites ‘breith bháis’ (along with ‘breithiúnas báis’) as ‘death sentence’ and we find this phrase ‘breith bháis’ in some earlier Acts. 7 ‘The production of the body of a person’ is rendered as ‘duine a thabhairt i láthair ina phearsain’ (‘the production of a body in person’) in the Irish text, based on the previous subsection. 8 ‘Originally’ is rendered as ‘i dtosach’ (‘at first’) in the Irish text. 9 ‘Where an order is made … for …’ is rendered in the Irish text as ‘I gcás … do dhéanamh ordaithe … á ordú’ (‘Where an order is made … ordering’). 10 ‘Freisin’ (‘Also’) renders ‘further’ in the Irish text. 1

faoi bhreith bháis ‘Cion báis’ and ‘pionós báis’ are translated respectively as ‘capital offence’ and ‘capital punishment’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘dearbhú i mbéal báis’ being translated as ‘dying declaration’ and ‘dleachtanna báis’ being translated as ‘death duties’. ‘Breith’ is translated simply as ‘decision’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘breith’ as ‘judgement, decision’ and translates both ‘breith bháis’ and ‘breithiúnas báis’ as ‘sentence of death’. Dinneen translates ‘breith’ as ‘judgment, decision, sentence; doom, fate’. DIL gives ‘act of judging, deciding; judgment, legal ruling, interpretation’ as one of the senses of ‘breth’ – another of which is ‘birth’, this being the verbal noun of ‘beirid’ – citing examples of this sense from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. ‘Cur faoi bhreith trí ghníomhas’ translates ‘submission by deed’ in Statutory Instrument 48/111. In Téarmaí Dlí ‘I sentence’ is translated as ‘cuirim pianbhreith ar’, with ‘sentence’ translated as ‘pianbhreith’ and ‘the sentences to run concurrently (consecutively)’ as ‘na pianbhreitheanna le rith i gcomhthráth (as a chéile)’. In s3(1)(c) of the Criminal Law (Jurisdiction) Act, 1976, for example, ‘while serving a sentence imposed on his conviction for that offence’ is translated as ‘le linn dó a bheith ag cur isteach pianbhreithe a tugadh air ar é a chiontú sa chion sin’. In s14 of the Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1978, ‘Where a person is sent forward for trial or for sentence by a District Justice to a court other than the District Court’ is translated as ‘I gcás Breitheamh Dúiche do chur duine ar aghaidh chun a thrialach nó le go dtabharfaí pianbhreith air chuig cúirt seachas an Chúirt Dúiche’. In s4(6) of the Second Schedule to the Restrictive Practices Act, 1972, ‘or is sentenced by a court of competent jurisdiction to suffer imprisonment or penal servitude’ is translated as ‘nó má chuireann cúirt dlínse inniúla pianbhreith príosúnachta nó pianseirbhíse air’. ‘Death sentence’ is translated as ‘breith bháis’ in the Margin Title of s103 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, which section reads as follows: Sentence of death shall not be awarded save with the concurrence of three-fourths, or more, of the members of the Court. Ní gearrfar breith bháis ach le toil trí cheathrú cuid, no breis, de bhaill na Cúirte.

In s53 of the Court Officers Act, 1926, the title ‘Execution of death sentences’ is translated as ‘Feidhmiú breitheanna báis’ and ‘It shall not henceforth be the duty of any under-sheriff to carry into effect sentences of death imposed by courts of justice’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh sé de dhualgas feasta ar aon fho-shirriam breitheanna báis do thug cúirteanna breithiúnais do chur in éifeacht’. In s6(1) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1928, ‘In the case of a sentence of death or corporal punishment’ is translated


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as ‘I gcás breithe báis nó breithe pionóis chuirp’ and in s6(2) ‘in the case of a conviction involving sentence of death’ is translated as ‘i gcás ciontú as a leanfadh breith bháis.’ ‘Sentence of death’ in the heading for s227 of the Defence Act, 1954, is translated as ‘Pianbhreith bháis’ and subsection (1), ‘A sentence of death passed by a courtmartial and confirmed shall not be carried out unless and until the execution of the sentence has been approved by the Government’ is translated as ‘Ní cuirfear pianbhreith bháis a bhéarfas armchúirt, agus a daingneofar, i bhfeidhm mura gceadaí ná go dtí go gceadóidh an Rialtas an phianbhreith a chur i bhfeidhm’. Finally, ‘Postponement of execution of sentence of death’ is translated as ‘Forghníomhú pianbhreithe báis a iarchur’ in the Margin Title of s21 of the Courts-Martial Appeals Act, 1983, the section commencing as follows: In the case of a sentence of death passed by a court-martial …. I gcás pianbhreith bháis arna gearradh ag armchúirt.

i dtosach ‘Tosach’ is translated as ‘commencement’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s54(5)(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘he may make such an order in the form originally proposed’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh sé ordú den sórt sin a dhéanamh san fhoirm a beartaíodh i dtosach’ and in s41(1) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘where such equipment or subassemblies were originally manufactured by that company’ is translated as ‘i gcás go mba í an chuideachta sin … a mhonaraigh an trealamh nó na fo-dhíolamaí sin i dtosach’. In s3(9)(c) of the Companies Act, 1963, however, ‘either as originally contained in that Section or as altered in pursuance of section 71 of that Act’ is translated as ‘mar a bhí i gcéaduair sa Sceideal sin nó mar a athraíodh é de bhun alt 71 den Acht sin’ and in s8(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1967, ‘as if it were a debt due from the person as against whom the deduction could originally have been made if the Act imposing tax for the year had been in force’ is translated as ‘ionann agus dá mba fhiach í a bhí dlite den duine ar ina choinne a fhéadfaí an asbhaint a dhéanamh i gcéaduair dá mbeadh an tAcht a d’fhorchuir an cháin don bhliain i bhfeidhm’. ‘I gcéaduair’ also translates ‘first’ in the Acts. Note, finally, that in s11 of the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1923, ‘under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of the said section 17 as originally enacted’ is translated as ‘fé chlás (a) d’fho-alt (1) den alt san 17 mar a achtuíodh ar dtúis é’. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that, while ‘i gcéaduair’ is fine as a translation of ‘originally’, it often has the sense of ‘immediately’ (“láithreach”) – see Dinneen s.v. ‘céadóir’, Ó Dónaill, id. Neither gives evidence of the sense of ‘originally’. Professor Ó Murchú recommends ‘ar dtús’ as an alternative. a ordú freisin Literally ‘to order also’. Note how ‘further order’ is translated as ‘ordú eile’ in s18(4) of the Finance Act, 1983. While ‘thairis sin’ translates ‘otherwise’ in the Acts, it is translated as ‘moreover’ in Ó Dónaill and we find ‘but not further manufactured’, ‘but not further prepared’ and ‘but not further worked’ translated respectively as ‘gan monarú thairis sin air’, ‘ach gan ullmhú thairis sin air’ and ‘ach gan oibriú thairis sin orthu’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, pp. 1348, 1247 and 658), ‘thairis sin’ translating ‘furthermore’ on

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p. 955. See also De Bhaldraithe s.v. ‘further’ 1(d), where he translates this adverb as ‘fós, thairis sin’, translating ‘and further, I think it right that …’ as ‘agus thairis sin, is dóigh liom go mba cheart go …’. feidhmiú … an fheidhmithe According to the official standard, ‘feidhmiú’ would not become ‘an fheidhmithe sin’ when followed by the verbal noun, but would read as ‘tar éis an feidhmiú sin a mhoilliú’ – see s2.2 of the chapter headed ‘Form of the Nominative instead of the Genitive’ in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (p. 94 [translated by the author]): ‘When a noun or a nominal phrase is joined by the preposition a (<do) to a following verbal noun the noun is left in the nominative following a word or form which takes the genitive’. ‘Cuirim i bhfeidhm’ is translated as ‘I enforce’ in Téarmaí Dlí and ‘i bhfeidhm’ as ‘in force’. ‘Feidhmiú’, verbal noun of ‘feidhmigh’, is translated as ‘act of functioning, execution, enforcement, operation, application’, with ‘feidhmiú dlí’ translated as ‘law enforcement’ and ‘feidhmiú cumhachta’ as ‘exercise of authority’, in Ó Dónaill. ‘Feidhmiughadh’ is translated as ‘act of accomplishing, putting into force, carry out’ in Dinneen. The verb ‘feidhmigh’ is based on ‘feidm’, the primary sense of which, according to DIL, seems to be ‘load, stress, strain’, passing into the senses of ‘utmost effort, effort, extension; burden, service, function’ – see the commentary on Article 45. In s6(2) of the Courts of Justice Act, 1928, ‘the Court shall fix a day for the execution of the sentence’ is translated as ‘ceapfidh an Chúirt lá chun an bhreith do chur i bhfeidhm’ and ‘the sentence pronounced at the trial shall have effect as if, for the day therein mentioned, the day fixed in pursuance of this sub-section were substituted’ is translated as ‘agus beidh éifeacht ag an mbreith a tugadh ag an triail fé is dá ndintí an lá a ceapfar do réir an fho-ailt seo do chur in ionad an lae do luadhadh sa bhreith sin’. In s53 of the Court Officers Act, 1926, ‘It shall not henceforth be the duty of any under-sherriff to carry into effect sentences of death imposed by courts of justice’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh sé de dhualgas feasta ar aon fho-shirriam breitheanna báis do thug cúirteanna breithiúnas do chur in éifeacht’. Chapter VIII of the Defence Act, 1954, is entitled ‘Execution of Sentences’, translated as ‘Pianbhreitheanna a chur i bhfeidhm’ and s227(2) reads as follows: the confirming authority – (a) shall be responsible for the execution of the sentence, and (b) shall direct the manner in which it is to be carried out …. is é an t-údarás daingniúcháin – (a) a bheas freagrach sa phianbhreith a chur i bhfeidhm, agus (b) a threorós an modh ar a gcuirfear i bhfeidhm í.

‘A chur i bhfeidhm’ expresses ‘to secure’ in Article 38.3.1o and ‘enforcement’ in Article 38.4.2o. ‘A fheidhmiú’ renders ‘to exercise’ in the Amendment contained in Articles 29.4.6o and 29.7.2o along with the new Article 3 contained in Article 29.7, but expresses ‘the application of’ in Article 45. Looking at ‘execution’ in general in early Acts, ‘provided such act, matter or thing was done or in good faith purported to be done in execution of the duty of the person doing the same’ is translated as ‘má dineadh no gur tuigeadh go macánta gur dineadh an gníomh no an rud no an ní sin i bhfeidhmiú dualgais an té a dhin é’ in s1 of the Indemnity (British Military) Act, 1923, with ‘requiring that the wages to be paid … shall be such as are


A study of the Irish text

required in the execution of contracts with a State Department’ being translated as ‘éileamh gur fé mar is gá i bhfeidhmiú connracha le Roinn Stáit a bheidh an págh a íocfidh …’ in s12(1)(g) of the Local Authorities (Combined Purchasing) Act, 1925. ‘I execute (i.e. an order, deed, etc.)’ is translated as ‘forghníomhaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘execution order’ is translated as ‘ordú forghníomhaithe’, with ‘affidavit of due execution’ being translated as ‘mionnscríbhinn fhorghníomhaithe chuí’. In ss(iii) of the Second Schedule to the Finance Act, 1976, ‘the carriage of goods in the State by or on behalf of a person in execution of a contract to transfer the goods to or from a place outside the State’ is translated as ‘iompar earraí sa Stát ag duine nó thar ceann duine i bhforghníomhú conartha chun na hearraí a aistriú go dtí áit nó ó áit lasmuigh den Stát’. In s81 of the Succession Act, 1965, ‘a person who attests the execution of a will’ is translated as ‘duine a fhianóidh forghníomhú uachta’. a mhoilliú Ó Dónaill translates ‘moilligh’ as ‘delay’ and Dinneen translates ‘moillighim’ as ‘I delay, procrastinate, retard’. DIL translates ‘mallaigid’ as ‘makes slow, retards’, this verb being based on ‘mall’, which translates Latin ‘tardus’ in the Glosses. Note incidentally that while ‘malla’ is a plural noun referring to animals used as beasts of burden (DIL), ‘mall’ itself can also be used of women or young persons, in complimentary sense, implying dignity, gentleness or modesty of demeanour – see DIL s.v. ‘mall’ (e). Turning to the Acts, in s3(d) of the Second Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1936, ‘deferred rights’ is translated as ‘cearta moillithe’. ‘Deferred telegraph’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘telegraf moillithe’ in translations for Oifig an Phuist, with ‘telegram moille’ translating ‘deferred telegram’ in Iris an Phuist, 22/6/1927. Usually, however, ‘moill’ translates ‘delay’ in the Acts – see, for example, s2 of Article 10 of the Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1975, where ‘When … a flight has been delayed or interrupted’ is translated as ‘Nuair a tharlóidh moill nó briseadh d’eitilt’. ‘Deferred share’ is translated as ‘scair iarchurtha’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s6(2) of the Grass Meal (Production) Act, 1953, ‘any preferential, deferred, qualified or special rights, privileges or conditions’ is translated as ‘aon chearta, pribhléidí nó coinnníollacha, tosaíochta nó iarchurtha nó cáilithe nó speisialta’. ‘Blianachtaí iarchurtha’ translates ‘deferred annuities’ in s20 of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975. In s2(5) of the Local Government (Financial Provisions) Act, 1978, ‘and which enables a temporary reduction or deferment of a revision of or an increase in a valuation to be made’ is translated as ‘agus faoinar féidir luacháil a laghdú go sealadach nó athscrúdú luachála a chur siar nó luacháil a mhéadú’. In s3 of the Turf Development Act, 1968, ‘Deferment of repayment of advances to Board’ is translated as ‘Aisíoc airleacan chun an Bhoird a chur siar’. ‘Do chur siar’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘defer’ in early Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann. ‘A chur siar’ consistently translates ‘to defer’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973) – see, for example, p. 982, where ‘for a period of five years after accession, defer the liberalization …’ is translated as

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‘léirscaoileadh a chur siar, ar feadh tréimhse chúig bliana tar éis an aontachais’. On p. 973, ‘The Council may … decide to defer the date laid down in paragraph 1’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Chomhairle … cinneadh ar an dáta dá bhforáiltear i mír 1 a chur siar’. an dleathach … nó nach dleathach ‘Dleathach’ is translated as ‘lawful’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Dleathacht’ is given in Téarmaí Oifigiúla as the translation of ‘lawfulness’ (without reference), this being given as a variant of ‘dleathaíocht’ in Ó Dónaill, that headword being translated as ‘legality; justice, propriety’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘dlíthiúlacht’ as ‘legality, lawfulness’, this merely translating ‘legality’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Note that ‘dleathacht’ translates ‘validity’ in s36(3) of the Local Government Act, 1925, this being translated as ‘bailíocht’ in Téarmaí Dlí. a thabhairt i láthair … go dtí go dtabharfar … See the commentary on Article 40.4.2o and note incidentally that Dinneen cites ‘tig i láthair, come up, approach’. Regarding ‘until after the body … has been produced’, see s21(7) of the Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann, where ‘the interruption shall not take place until after the decision has been declared from the Chair’ is translated as ‘ní dhéanfar an stopadh go dtí go mbeidh an cinneadh fógartha ón gCathaoir’, as against s85 where ‘such division … shall be postponed until after the conclusion of the division in the Dáil’ is translated as ‘go ndéanfar an vótáil sin … a chur siar go dtí tar éis chríochnú na vótála sa Dáil’. breitheamh di We see both ‘de’ alone and ‘de’ with repetition of the noun translating ‘thereof’ in the following from s56(1) of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976: “pigmeat product” means bacon and cuts thereof including ham, pork carcases and pork sides and cuts thereof …. ciallaíonn “táirge muiceola” bagún agus slisní bagúin lena n-áirítear liamhás, conablaigh mhuiceola agus taobhanna muiceola agus slisní díobh….

‘Den chéanna’ sometimes translates ‘thereof’ in the Acts – see, for example, s3(1) of the Sea Pollution Act, 1991, where ‘“garbage” means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste (excluding fresh fish and parts thereof)’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “truflais” dramhaíl bhia, dramhaíl tís agus dramhaíl oibríochta de gach cineál (gan iasc úr agus codanna den chéanna a áireamh)’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on drafts of direct translations in this study, advises against the use of ‘den chéanna’. See further the commentary on Article 8.3. faoi réir This phrase is translated as ‘subject to’ in the Acts. ‘Ach’ is sometimes used to express ‘with’ in the present context in the Acts – see, for example, s50(11)(b) of the Finance Act, 1983, where ‘with the omission of the proviso’ is translated as ‘ach an coinníoll a fhágáil ar lár’. ‘Ach dhá thrian … do thoiliú leis’ expresses ‘with the assent of two-thirds’ in Article 15.8.2o. ‘Agus’ is also used to express ‘with’ – see, for example, s54 of the Finance Act, 1990, where ‘a return of … the profits of the company … specifying the income taken into account in computing those profits, with the amount from each source’ is translated as ‘tuairisceán … ar bhrabúis na cuideachta … ina sonrófar an t-ioncam a cuireadh i gcuntas le linn na


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mbrabús sin a bheith á ríomh agus an méid ó gach bunadh’. beidh éifeacht ag In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 192) ‘Articles 44 to 48 of the Statute shall have effect … subject to the following amendments’ is translated as ‘Beidh éifeacht ag … Airteagail 44 go 48 … faoi réir na leasuithe seo a leanas’. On p. 191, however, ‘Paragraphs 3 to 9 shall have effect if …’ is translated as ‘Beidh éifeacht le míreanna 3 go 9 má …’. ‘Éifeacht le’ is the phrase generally used in the Acts also – see, for example, s36 of the Finance Act, 1990, where ‘The First Schedule shall have effect for the purpose of supplementing subsection (1)’ is translated as ‘Beidh éifeacht leis an gCéad Sceideal chun fo-alt (1) a fhorlíonadh’. See the commentary on Article 3 regarding ‘éifeacht’. do dhéanamh ordaithe … á ordú In s3(1)(i) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976, ‘an order for payment of alimony pending suit’ is translated as ‘ordú ag ordú ailiúntas a íoc go dtí go ndéanfar agra’. See also, however, s16(f) of the Judicial Separation and Family Law Reform Act, 1989, where ‘an order for partition of property’ is translated as ‘ordú chun maoin a pháirtiú’. See the commentary on Article 25.4.2o regarding ‘ordú’ (there expressing ‘direction’) and the commentary on Articles 27.2 and 40.4.4o regarding ‘ordaigh’, expressing respectively ‘prescribe’ and ‘direct’. I gcás … See, for example from the Acts, s7 of the Regulation of Banks (Remuneration and Conditions of Employment) (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1973, where ‘Where an offence under this Act is committed by a body corporate…’ is translated as ‘I gcás cion a dhéanamh faoin Acht seo ag comhlacht corpraithe’. See the commentary on Articles 12.4.5o and 24.2 respectively where ‘where’ is expressed as ‘nuair’ and ‘má tharlaíonn’. go gcinnfear … má chinntear ‘Cinnim’ is translated as ‘I determine (issue, etc.)’ and ‘I find (as a fact)’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Articles 1 and 12.11.2o.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

cheapfar amhlaidh a chur in ionad an lae a socraíodh i dtosach chun an bhreith bháis sin a fheidhmiú.

Direct gender-proofed translation I gcás ordú a dhéanamh faoin alt seo ag an Ard-Chúirt nó ag breitheamh di1 chun corp duine atá faoi phianbhreith bháis a thabhairt i láthair2, déanfaidh an Ard-Chúirt nó an breitheamh sin di a ordú thairis sin forghníomhú3 na pianbhreithe báis sin a chur siar go dtí tar éis corp an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair4 na hArd-Chúirte agus dleathacht a choinneála nó a coinneála a chinneadh agus más rud é, tar éis an iarchuir sin, go gcinnfear gur dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil, ceapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt lá chun an phianbhreith bháis sin a fhorghníomhú5 agus beidh éifeacht leis an bpianbhreith sin ach an lá a chinnfear amhlaidh a chur6 in ionad an lae a socraíodh i gcéaduair7 d’fhorghníomhú an chéanna8.

Variants 1 ‘den Ard-Chúirt’ 2 ‘chun duine atá faoi phianbhreith bháis a thabhairt i láthair i bpearsain’ 3 ‘cur i bhfeidhm’ 4 ‘i láthair os comhair’, ‘tar éis an duine sin a thabhairt i láthair i bpearsain’ 5 ‘a chur i bhfeidhm’ 6 ‘a bheith’ 7 ‘i dtosach’, ‘ar dtús’ 8 ‘don chéanna a chur i bhfeidhm’, ‘d’fhorghníomhú na pianbhreithe sin’

ARTICLE 40.4.6O

AIRTEAGAL 40.4.6O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ach aon ghníomh de ghníomhartha na bhFórsaí Cosanta le linn eisíthe nó ceannairce faoi arm, ní cead aon ní dá bhfuil san alt seo a agairt chun an gníomh sin a thoirmeasc nó a rialú nó a bhac. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Ard-Chúirt Unlike Article 40.4.2o, there is no ‘síneadh fada’ on the initial capital ‘A’ in the original text of this Amendment in the first two citations of ‘Ard-Chúirt’ in this subsection.

But any one of the acts of the Defence Forces during unrest or armed rebellion, it is not permitted to plead anything that is in this section to prohibit or regulate or hinder that act.

ceapfaidh See the commentary on Article 40.3o.

ENGLISH TEXT

Standardised gender-proofed Irish text I gcás an Ard-Chúirt nó breitheamh di a dhéanamh ordaithe faoin alt seo á ordú duine faoi bhreith bháis a thabhairt i láthair ina phearsa nó ina pearsa, ní foláir don Ard-Chúirt nó don bhreitheamh sin di a ordú freisin feidhmiú na breithe báis sin a mhoilliú go dtí go dtabharfar an duine sin ina phearsa nó ina pearsa i láthair na hArd-Chúirte agus go gcinnfear an dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil ina bhrá nó ina brá nó nach dleathach agus má chinntear, tar éis an feidhmiú sin a mhoilliú, gur dleathach an duine sin a choinneáil ina bhrá nó ina brá, ceapfaidh an Ard-Chúirt lá chun an bhreith bháis sin a fheidhmiú agus beidh éifeacht ag an mbreith bháis sin faoi réir an lá a

Nothing in this section, however, shall be invoked to prohibit, control, or interfere with any act of the Defence Forces during the existence of a state of war or armed rebellion.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

‘During the existence of a state of war’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘le linn eisíthe’, ‘during unrest/nonpeace’ (note, however, that Dinneen translates ‘eisíoth’ as ‘state of war’). ‘Interfere with’ is expressed by ‘bac’, the Irish legal term for ‘stay’, a term generally understood as ‘hinder’/ ‘prevent’. ‘Óglaigh na hÉireann’ as against ‘na Fórsaí Cosanta’ is the official Irish title of ‘the Defence Forces’, in the


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4

5

6

7

Acts and in the Army’s own Téarmaí Míleata. ‘Any act’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘aon ghníomh de ghníomhartha’ (‘any act of the acts’), a regular construction meaning ‘any one of the acts’, with ‘an gníomh sin’ (‘that act’) added further on. ‘Agair’, the term expressing ‘invoke’ in the Irish text, is the Irish legal term for ‘sue’, the sense ‘plead, entreat’ being found in the Acts also. As we have seen in other Articles, ‘ní cead’ (‘it is not permitted’) expresses ‘nothing … shall’ of the English text, and ‘Ach’ (‘But’) expresses ‘however’. ‘To prohibit, control, or interfere with’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘a thoirmeasc nó a rialú nó a bhac’ (‘to prohibit or to control or to interfere with’).

Note that Article 6 of the 1922 Constitution concludes as follows: Provided, however, that nothing in this Article contained shall be invoked to prohibit, control or interfere with any act of the military forces of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) during the existence of a state of war or armed rebellion. Ar choiníoll, ámh le linn chogaidh no rebiliúntachta armtha ná gairmfear éinní dá bhfuil san Airtiogal so chun aon ghníomh dá ndéanfaidh fórsaí airm Shaorstáit Éireann do chosg, do smachtú ná do thoirmeasg.

Commentary a bhac ‘Bacaim’ is translated as ‘I stay (e.g. proceedings)’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘bac ar fhorghníomhú’ translates ‘stay of execution’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘bac’ as ‘balk, hinder’, while Dinneen translates ‘bacaim’ as ‘I hack, I lame; I hinder, prevent, meddle with’. This verb is based on the noun ‘bac’, originally ‘angle, bend, corner’, frequently in the commentaries on the early Irish law-tracts in the phrase ‘bac n-achaid’, apparently ‘(an enclosed) corner or angle of a field (used as a shelter for horses or cattle)’ and hence later ‘hindrance, act of hindering’. We find an example of ‘bac’ in the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian where it refers to a sickle, ‘bac’ being applied to various hooked or angled tools or other articles, and translated as ‘mattock, grub-hoe, bill-hook’ in DIL. ‘Baccach’, ‘lame’, ‘lame person’, is also based on ‘bacc’. DIL translates the verb ‘baccaid’ as ‘hinders, prevents, impairs’, given one example of the sense ‘lames’. Turning to the Acts, in s1(7) of the Air Nagivation (Eurocontrol) Act, 1971, ‘A person who obstructs or interferes with an officer of the Organisation’ is translated as ‘aon duine a choiscfidh nó bhacfaidh oifigeach don Eagraíocht’. In s15(1) of the Consumer Information Act, 1978, ‘A person shall not … prevent another person from, or interfere with or obstruct another person’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh duine … cosc, bac ná araoid a chur ar dhuine eile’. See further the commentary on Article 15.10 where ‘cur isteach a dhéanamh ar’ expresses ‘interfere with’. ‘Bac’ generally translates ‘impede’ and ‘hinder’ along with ‘stay’ in the Acts. See, for example, s3(1)(b) of the Criminal Law (Jurisdiction) Act, 1976, where ‘with intent to impede the apprehension or prosecution of a person’ is translated as ‘le hintinn gabháil nó ionchúiseamh duine a bhac’. In s46(1) of the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘A person who wilfully hinders, restricts or

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prevents the enjoyment or exercise of inviolability or an exemption, facility, immunity, privilege or right conferred by this Act’ is translated as ‘Aon duine a bhacfaidh, a shrianfaidh nó a choiscfidh go toiliúil dosháraitheacht, saoirseacht, saoráid, díolúine, pribhléid nó ceart a thugtar leis an Acht seo a theachtadh nó a fheidhmiú’. In s7(2) of the Maintenance Orders Act, 1974, ‘The Court may … stay the proceedings’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Chúirt … na himeachtaí a bhac’. See the commentary on Article 15.10 regarding other translations of ‘interfere’ in the Acts. Looking at early Acts, ‘opens, or otherwise interferes with any ballot box’ is translated as ‘aon bhosca ballóide d’oscailt no baint leis in aon tslí eile’ in s46(2)(f) of the Prevention of Electoral Abuses Act, 1923. ‘Interfering with or preventing … the lawful occupation, use or enjoyment of any land or premises’ is translated as ‘Cuir-isteach no cosc a dhéanamh … ar aon talamh no áitreabh do shealbhú no d’úsáid go dleathach no ar tairfe do bhaint as go dleathach’ in s9 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘a bhac’ is a perfect expression of ‘interfere with’ in the sense of ‘prevent (a process or activity) continuing or being carried out properly’; ‘a chur isteach air’ would not be as precise as ‘a bhac’ and ‘chun baint leis’ would be rather weak. Professor Ó Murchú also remarks that ‘ná’ is more appropriate than ‘nó’ here, as different types of ‘act’ are involved rather than different explanatory words for the one single act. le linn eisíthe ‘Eisíth’ expresses ‘state of war’ in Article 38.4.1o also – see the commentary on that Article. Ó Dónaill translates ‘eisíth’ as ‘lack of peace; dissension, strife, quarrel’, translating ‘bheith in eisíth le duine’ as ‘to be in conflict with someone’. Dinneen translates ‘eisíoth’ as ‘state of war’, translating ‘i n-eisíth le’ as ‘at war with’. DIL gives examples of ‘essíd’ from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, translating that headword as ‘unpeace, strife, dissension; hostility; destruction’, also in concrete sense ‘a hostile act, outrage’, ‘essíd’ being composed of ‘síd’ (‘peace’) with a negative prefix. ‘State of war’ is translated as ‘staid chogaidh’ in Foclóir Oifigiúil, followed by the abbreviation for the ‘Department of Defence’. ‘State of rebellion’ is translated as ‘staid rebeliúntachta’ in the Preamble to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923, with ‘arising out of the existence of a state of war or armed rebellion, whether local or general’, in s1(b), being translated as ‘de bharr staid cogaidh no rebeliúntachta armtha, áitiúil no generálta, a bheith ann’. This same English phrase is translated as ‘a tháinig as staid cogaidh no rebeliúntachta armtha, áitiúil nó generálta, do bheith ann’ in s3(1)(a) of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) (No. 2) Act, 1923. ‘State of emergency/war’ is translated as ‘staid éigeandála/ chogaidh’ in Téarmaí Míleata. Finally, regarding lenition after ‘staid’, note that ‘physical and mental condition’ is translated as ‘staid choirp agus mheabhrach’ in s9(3)(c) of the Social Welfare (Occupational Injuries) Act, 1966. ceannairc faoi arm See the commentary on Article 28.3.3o. In s2 of Article 39 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘even in


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case of armed conflict’ is translated as ‘fiú amháin i gcás coinbhleacht faoi airm’. ‘Armed conflict’ is translated as ‘coimhlint armtha’ in Téarmaí Míleata, however. ‘Foghna armtha’ and ‘éirí amach armtha’ translates ‘armed attacks’ and ‘armed revolt’ respectively in the Preamble and in s1 of Part 1 of the Schedule to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923; in s1(b) of that Act, as we have seen, ‘arising out of the existence of a state of war or armed rebellion’ is translated as ‘de bharr staid cogaidh no rebeliúntachta armtha … a bheith ann’. Note, finally, that in Article 70 of the 1922 Constitution ‘save in time of war, or armed rebellion’ is translated as ‘ach in aimsir chogaidh no rebiliúntachta armtha’.

d’fhonn neamhfheidhmeacht an rialacháin sin a agairt os comhair na Cúirte Breithiúnais’. On p. 572, however, ‘The provisions of this Treaty shall not be invoked so as to prevent the implementation of agreements’ is translated as ‘Ní bhainfear leas as forálacha an Chonartha seo chun cosc a chur le comhaontuithe’. ‘Leas a bhaint as’ translates ‘avail’ in the Acts and in Treaties establishing the European Communities, where it also translates ‘(to have) recourse (to)’ and ‘employ’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992), ‘This Title shall not provide a basis for the introduction by the Community of any measure’ is translated as ‘Ní féidir leis an gComhphobal leas a bhaint as an Teideal seo chun aon bheart a thabhairt isteach’.

a agairt ‘Agraím’ is translated as ‘I sue’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘agair’ principally as ‘plead, entreat’, translating ‘cás a agairt le duine’ as ‘to plead a case with someone’. Dinneen translates ‘agraim’ as ‘I retribute, revenge, dispute, challenge, … I pray, beg, beseech’ and ‘I claim; I sue’ – see the commentary on Article 18.4.3o. DIL translates the earlier compound ‘ad-gair’ as ‘sues, prosecutes, impleads, accuses’, citing the following example in the sense of ‘forbids, prevents’ from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles: ‘rafetarsa as peccad comaccobor hore adrograd’ (‘I know that concupiscence is sin because it has been forbidden’) – this glosses ‘nam concupiscentiam nesciebam nisi lex diceret: non concupisces’ (Rom., vii. 7). We see ‘agair’ in the sense of ‘sue’ in the Acts in s36 of the Companies Act, 1963, where ‘every person who is a member of the company … and may be severally sued therefor’ is translated as ‘beidh gach duine is comhalta den chuideachta … agus féadfar é a agairt go leithleach ina leith’. In s5 of Article VII of the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957, ‘Members agree not to invoke the obligations of any engagements entered into with other members prior to this Agreement in such a manner as will prevent the operation of the provisions of this Article’ is translated as ‘comhaontaíonn na comhaltaí nach ndéanfaid oblagáidí aon tsocruithe a rinneadh le comhaltaí eile roimh an gComhaontú seo d’agairt ar shlí a choiscfear oibriú forál an Airteagail seo’. In s3 of Article 45 of the Second Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘shall preclude him from invoking immunity from jurisdiction in respect of any counter claim directly connected with the principal claim’ is translated as ‘dúnfaidh sin amach é ó dhíolúine a agairt ó dhlínse i leith aon fhrithéileamh a bhaineann go díreach leis an bpríomh-éileamh’. Note, however, that ‘agair’ was not invoked in translating Article V of the Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1965, where ‘unless it is proved that he acted in a manner which, under the Warsaw Convention, prevents the limits of liability from being invoked’ is translated as ‘mura gcruthófar gur ghníomhaigh sé ar dhóigh a fhágann, faoi Choinbhinsiún Warsaw, nach féidir feidhm a bhaint as na teorainneacha dliteanais’. We find both ‘a agairt’ and ‘leas a bhaint as’ translating ‘invoke’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973) – see, p. 304, for example, where, ‘any party may, in proceedings … plead the ground specified … in order to invoke before the Court of Justice the inapplicability of that regulation’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh páirtí ar bith, i gcás imeachtaí … na forais a phléadáil a shonraítear …

gníomh This headword is translated as ‘act’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘gníomh Stáit’, for example, is translated as ‘act of State’, while ‘cúlpháirtí i ndiaidh an ghnímh’ is translated as ‘accessory after the fact’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘action’ and ‘act, deed’ as senses of ‘gníomh’. Dinneen includes ‘an act, action or deed’, along with ‘an act of prayer’ and ‘an act of unlawful indulgence’ among the senses of ‘gníomh’. ‘Gním’ is the verbal noun of ‘gníid’ and has the senses of ‘doing, performing, executing’, along with ‘acting, action, activity, work’, glossing Latin ‘actio’, for example, in the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. See further the commentary on Article 15.5. Turning to the Acts, in s11(1)(b) of the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1973, for example, ‘attempts to perform any such act or aids or abets a person who performs or attempts to perform any such act or counsels or procures the performance of any such act’ is translated as ‘a thabharfaidh faoi ghníomh den sórt sin a dhéanamh nó a chabhróidh nó a neartóidh le duine a bheidh ag déanamh aon ghnímh den sórt sin nó ag tabhairt faoina dhéanamh, nó a chomhairleoidh nó a thabharfaidh chun críche go ndéanfar aon ghníomh den sórt sin’. Note, however, s118(3) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, where ‘No returning officer … shall be required … to do any act (whether of commission or omission) which is contrary to this Act’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh de cheangal ar aon cheann comhairimh … aon ní a dhéanamh (trí ghníomh ná trí neamhghníomh) atá contrártha don Acht seo’. a thoirmeasc ‘Toirmiscim’ is translated as ‘I prohibit’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘toirmeasc’ is translated as ‘inhibition’. The verb ‘toirmisc’ is translated as ‘prohibit; prevent, hinder’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘toradh toirmiscthe, forbidden fruit’ is cited. Dinneen translates ‘toirmeascaim’ as ‘I hinder, prevent, prohibit, interrupt’. The compound verb ‘doairmesca’ is translated as ‘hinders, obstructs, restrains, checks, forbids’ in DIL, citing ‘cur toirmiscc Medb in gním siu do dénum’ (i.e. so that Meadhbh prohibited that deed’s being done). Turning to the Acts, in s11(1) of the Merchandise Marks Act, 1970, ‘in the case of any goods the importation of which is prohibited by or under this Act’ is translated as ‘i gcás earraí a bhfuil a n-allmhairiú toirmiscthe leis an Acht seo nó faoi’. See the commentary on Article 18.4.3o where ‘toirmeasc a chur’ expresses ‘to prohibit’. aon ní dá bhfuil san alt seo Literally ‘nothing of what is in this section’. See the commentary on Article 13.3.2o regarding ‘dá’. See, for an example of non-use of ‘dá’,


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s35(4) of the Extradition Act, 1965, where ‘Nothing in this section shall prejudice …’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh aon ní san alt seo dochar (do) …’, a phrase found in many of the Acts.

slán do gach saoránach a árus comhnuithe agus ní raghfar isteach ann le fóirneart ach do réir dlí.

a rialú ‘Rialaím’ is translated as ‘I control; I rule’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 10.3. See, for example from the Acts, the heading of Part II of the Disease and Animals Act, 1966, where ‘Control and Eradication of Disease’ is translated as ‘Galar a Rialú agus a Scriosadh’.

slán do Ó Dónaill translates ‘slán’ as ‘sound, healthy, safe’, citing ‘faoina bheith slán dom, if I am spared’ as an example of this principal sense, with ‘whole, complete; intact, perfect’ being a secondary sense. Dinneen cites ‘tá bliadhain is slán dóibh ann, they have spent a full year there’ and ‘go mbadh codladh slán dúinn, may our sleep be wholesome’. DIL translates ‘slán’ as (a) ‘whole, sound, unimpaired, healthy, safe’, giving examples from the eighth-century . Glosses onwards, including ‘ná rab slán . d’feasóig an fir’ (‘bad health to the fellow’s beard’) from the sixteenth-century poet Tadhg Dall Ó Huiginn. In early Irish law-tracts, ‘slán’ had the sense of ‘exempt, non-liable, safe’; DIL cites ‘is iat daine is slan don eclais do leagan as’ (‘the persons whom it is safe for the church to let escape’) and ‘is slan doib uile’ (‘they are all exempt’) from two early Irish law-tracts, and Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 156, n. 244, cites ‘slán cách mairnes mígním’ (‘anyone who betrays an evil deed is free from liability’). In his ‘Index of Irish Terms’ Professor Kelly translates ‘slán’ as ‘whole, safe, free from liability’. Turning to the Acts, in s8 of the Consular Conventions Act, 1954, ‘The archives kept at a consulate … shall be inviolable’ is translated as ‘Beidh slánadh ag na cairteacha a bheas ar coimeád i gconsalacht’. ‘Dosháraithe’, however, seems to have been the preferred term in the Acts. In s5 of Article IX of the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957, ‘The archives of the Fund shall be inviolable’ is translated as ‘Beidh cartlanna an Chiste dosháraithe’. In Article 24 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967, ‘The archives and documents of the mission shall be inviolable at any time and wherever they may be’ is translated as ‘Beidh cartlann agus doiciméid an mhisiúin dosháraithe aon tráth agus cibé áit ina mbeidh siad’. In Article 29 of the same Schedule, ‘The person of a diplomatic agent shall be inviolable’ is translated as ‘Beidh pearsa gníomhaire taidhleoireachta dosháraithe’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 777) ‘The premises and buildings of the Communities shall be inviolable’ is translated as ‘Beidh áitribh agus foirgnimh na gComhphobal dosháraithe’. De Bhaldraithe also translates ‘inviolable’ as ‘dosháraithe’, the adverb being translated as ‘go dosháraithe’ and ‘gan sárú’.

na Fórsaí Cosanta See the commentary on Article 13.4.

Direct translation Ní dhéanfar aon ní san alt seo a agairt,1 áfach, chun aon ghníomh a dhéanfaidh Óglaigh na hÉireann le linn staid chogaidh nó ceannairce faoi airm a thoirmeasc, a rialú, ná a bhac2.

Variants 1 ‘Ní bhainfear leas as aon ní san alt seo,’ 2 ‘ná cur isteach air’

ARTICLE 40.5

AIRTEAGAL 40.5

TÉACS GAEILGE

Is slán do gach saoránach a ionad cónaithe, agus ní cead dul isteach ann go foréigneach ach de réir dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

His place of residence is secure for every citizen, and it is not permitted to go into it forcibly except in accordance with law. ENGLISH TEXT

The dwelling of every citizen is inviolable and shall not be forcibly entered save in accordance with law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3

‘Dwelling’ is expressed as ‘ionad cónaithe’, ‘dwellingplace / place of residence’, in the Irish text. ‘Inviolable’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘slán do’, ‘safe to (him)’, with ‘The dwelling of every citizen is inviolable’ being expressed as ‘is slán do gach saoránach a ionad cónaithe’ (‘his dwelling is secure for every citizen’); this term ‘slán’ in early Irish law meant ‘free from liability’ as well as ‘whole, safe’ – in Modern Irish its range of meanings includes ‘sound, secure, intact, inviolate’. ‘Forcibly’ is expressed as ‘go foréigneach’ (‘violently’) in the Irish text, ‘foréigneach’ being the Irish legal term for ‘violent’, while ‘go forneartach’ is the Irish legal term for ‘forcibly’.

Note that Article 7 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: The dwelling of each citizen is inviolable and shall not be forcibly entered except in accordance with law. Is

Commentary

go foréigneach ‘Foréigneach’ is translated as ‘violent’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘foréigean’ translated as ‘violence’ and ‘le foréigean’ as ‘violently’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘foréigneach’ as ‘violent, forcible’, translating ‘le foréigean’ as ‘by force; violently’. Dinneen translates ‘foiréigneach’ as ‘extremely violent, vehement, rapid’, translating ‘ar foiréigean’ as ‘at full speed’. DIL translates ‘foréicnech’ as ‘violent, forcible, oppressive’, based on ‘foréicen’, which itself is based on ‘éicen’, which glosses Latin ‘violentia’ in the ninth-century St Gall Glosses on Priscian. Turning to the Acts, in s241(2) of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, ‘If any person resists or forcibly obstructs any other person exercising any right conferred by subsection (1)’ is translated as ‘Má chuireann duine ar bith in aghaidh aon duine eile nó má choisceann go


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foréigneach é agus é ag feidhmiú aon chirt dá dtugtar le fo-alt (1)’. ‘Forcibly’ is translated as ‘go forneartach’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘forcible’ translated as ‘forneartach’. ‘The Prohibition of Forcible Entry and Occupation Act, 1971’ is cited in Irish as ‘an tAcht chun Iontráil agus Áitiú le Forneart a Thoirmeasc, 1971’. In s2, ‘A person who forcibly enters land or a vehicle shall be guilty of an offence’ is translated as ‘Aon duine a iontrálfaidh nó a áiteoidh talamh nó feithicil le forneart beidh sé ciontach i gcion’. ionad cónaithe ‘Teach cónaithe’ is translated as ‘dwellinghouse’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘duine gan áit chónaithe sheasta’ is translated as ‘person of no fixed abode’. ‘Ionad’ is translated as ‘place’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘cónaí’ as ‘dwelling, residence’, translating ‘áit chónaithe’ as ‘place of residence’. Dinneen translates ‘áit chómhnaidhthe’ as ‘place of abode, domicile’, followed by ‘ionad cómhnaidhthe, id.’ DIL translates ‘comnaide’ (which according to Thurneysen’s Grammar of Old Irish, s846, comes from the prefix ‘com-’, with the preposition ‘ni’ [‘down’] and ‘suide’ [Modern Irish ‘suí’, ‘sit’]), as ‘act of abiding, remaining, staying; living in, inhabiting; dwelling, habitation’, citing ‘as a corpionadh … comnaidhe’ – ‘ionad’ (in a compound with ‘corp’) followed by the genitive singular ‘comnaidhe’ – from a version of the Táin, as well as ‘a áit chomhnuidhe’ (‘his habitation’) from a later source. ‘Teach cónaithe’ translates ‘dwelling’ in s1(6) of the Local Government (Financial Provisions) Act, 1978, where ‘In case any building … belonging to and usually enjoyed with a dwelling is a hereditament’ is translated as ‘I gcás ar oidhreachtán aon fhoirgneamh … a bhaineann le teach cónaithe agus a theachtar de ghnáth in éineacht leis an teach cónaithe’. In the ‘Definitions’ contained in s3 of the Landlord and Tenant (Ground Rents) (No. 2) Act of the same year, we find separate entries for ‘dwelling’ and ‘dwelling house’ (‘teach cónaithe’), with ‘“dwelling” does not include a separate and self-contained flat in premises divided into two or more flats’ translated as ‘ní fholaíonn “teaghais” árasán leithleach lánscartha in áitreabh atá roinnte in dhá árasán nó níos mó den sórt sin’. In s21 of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘on the construction of farm buildings (excluding a building or part of a building used as a dwelling)’ is translated as ‘ag déanamh foirgneamh feirme (seachas foirgneamh nó cuid d’fhoirgneamh a úsáidtear mar theaghais)’. In s13(2) of the Housing Act, 1970, ‘If, in a case in which there is no tenancy in a dwelling provided by a housing authority under this Act, a person makes an entry into the dwelling’ is translated as ‘Má tharlaíonn, i gcás nach mbeidh tionóntacht i dteaghais a sholáthraigh údarás áitiúil faoin Acht seo, go ndéanfaidh duine iontráil isteach sa teaghais’, with ‘a person who … was ordinarily resident in the dwelling’ being translated as ‘duine a raibh … gnáthchónaí air sa teaghais’. In s11(1) of the Housing (Amendment) Act, 1948, ‘a person shall not permit premises to be used as a multiple dwelling’ is translated as ‘ní cheadóidh duine ar bith áitreabh d’úsáid mar ilteaghas’. In the Long Title of that Act, however, ‘the Small Dwellings Acquisition Acts, 1899 to 1931’ is translated as ‘(do leasú) … na nAcht um Thithe Beaga Cónaithe d’Fháil, 1899 go 1931’, with ‘the Small Dwellings Acquisition Act, 1957’ cited in Irish accordingly as ‘an tAcht um Thithe Beaga Cónaithe d’Fháil, 1957’. dul isteach ann In s4(3)(a) of the Merchandise Marks Act, 1970, ‘at all reasonable times enter premises’ is

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translated as ‘dul isteach gach tráth réasúnach in áitreabh’. In s18(7)(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘Nothing in this section shall be construed as conferring on any person a power to enter a dwellinghouse’ is translated as ‘Ní fhorléireofar aon ní san alt seo mar ní a thugann cumhacht d’aon duine dul isteach i dteach cónaithe’. Note, finally, that ‘No action to lie against Under-Sheriff for entering or breaking premises’ is translated as ‘Ní féadfar aon aicsean do thabhairt i gcoinnibh an Fho-Shirriaimh i dtaobh dul isteach in áitreabh ná i dtaobh é do bhriseadh’ in the Margin Title of s10 of the Enforcement of Law (Occasional Powers) Act, 1923. In Téarmaí Dlí, ‘I break and enter’ is translated as ‘brisim agus iontrálaim’. As we have seen above s.v. ‘go foréigneach’, in s2 of the Prohibition of Forcible Entry and Occupation Act, 1971 (‘An tAcht chun Iontráil agus Áitiú le Forneart a Thoirmeasc, 1971’), ‘A person who forcibly enters land or a vehicle’ is translated as ‘Aon duine a iontrálfaidh nó a áiteoidh talamh nó feithicil le forneart’. In s13(2) of the Housing Act, 1970, ‘If … a person makes an entry into the dwelling’ is translated as ‘Má tharlaíonn … go ndéanfaidh duine iontráil isteach sa teaghais’. In s27(1) of the Landlord and Tenant (Ground Rents) (No. 2) Act, 1978, ‘a covenant giving the lessor a right to re-enter and take possession of the premises’ is translated as ‘cúnant a thugann ceart don léasóir athiontráil isteach san áitreabh agus seilbh a ghlacadh air’. ach ‘Save’ is generally translated as ‘ach amháin’ in the Acts, as we find in Article 12.10.4o. See, for example, s2(1) of the Smelting Act, 1968, where ‘The smelting of ore … is hereby prohibited save under and in accordance with a smelting licence’ is translated as ‘Toirmeasctar leis seo amh-mhianraí … a bhruithniú … ach amháin faoi réim agus de réir ceadúnais bhruithniúcháin’.

Gender-proofed Irish text Is slán do gach saoránach a ionad nó a hionad cónaithe, agus ní cead dul isteach ann go foréigneach ach de réir dlí.

Direct translation Tá teaghais gach saoránaigh dosháraithe agus ní iontrálfar é1 le forneart2 ach amháin de réir dlí.

Variants 1 ‘ní rachfar isteach ann’ 2 ‘go forneartach’

ARTICLE 40.6.1O

AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1o

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ráthaíonn an Stát saoirse chun na cearta seo a leanas a oibriú ach sin a bheith faoi réir oird is moráltachta poiblí:LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State guarantees freedom to operate the following rights but that being subject to public morality and order:-


A study of the Irish text

ENGLISH TEXT

The State guarantees liberty for the exercise of the following rights, subject to public order and morality:-

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

Technically ‘poiblí’ (‘public’) only refers to ‘moráltacht’ (‘morality’); to be linked directly with ‘oird’ (‘order’) ‘poiblí’ would have to be repeated, the lenited form being used with ‘oird’. ‘Subject to’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘ach sin a bheith faoi réir’ (‘but that being subject to’), having no comma preceding it corresponding to that of the English text. ‘Exercise’ is expressed as ‘oibriú’ (‘operate’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in some earlier Articles.

Commentary faoi réir oird ‘Scor as oifig de réir oird’ is translated as ‘retirement by rotation’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘ord’ as ‘order’, including ‘ordered manner, rule’ among the senses of this word in the earlier literature, citing ‘ord ár mbeatha, the ordering of our lives’ and ‘ba hord san am sin (go), it was the rule at that time that’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘ordú’ as the standard form of ‘ord’ in some usages – as in the sense of ‘normal state, proper condition’, citing ‘rudaí a chur in ordú, to put things in order, in a proper state’. Among the senses of ‘órd’ given by Dinneen are ‘order, arrangement, series; custom, law, practice, procedure’, citing ‘órd ar mbeathadh, the ordering of our lives’, ‘do réir úird, according to order or rank, in sequence’ and ‘iar n-órd dlightheach, in proper or legal order’. DIL gives examples of the senses (a) ‘order, sequence’, (b) ‘order, arrangement, state, way, course, procedure’ and (c) ‘order, degree, rank’ from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 330), ‘in the event of serious internal disturbances affecting the maintenance of law and order’ is translated as ‘i gcás suaitheadh tromchúiseach inmheánach a dhul i gcion ar an ord poiblí’. Similarly, in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 23), ‘with regard to the maintenance of law and order’ is translated as ‘maidir leis an ord poiblí a chaomhnú’. ‘Law and order’ is translated as ‘dlí agus riail’ in the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 44), ‘law and order functions’, however, being translated as ‘feidhmeanna dlí agus ordúlachta’ (in 7.4), with ‘subject only to public order’ being translated as ‘faoi réir riar agus reacht phoiblí’ (in 4.13). In the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97, ‘where particular law and order problems are being experienced’ is translated as ‘mar a bhfuil fadhbanna sonracha dlí agus oird ann faoi láthair’ (p. 39). ‘An invention the publication or exploitation of which would be contrary to public order or morality’ is translated as ‘(i leith) aireagáin a mbeadh a fhoilsiú nó a shaothrú contrártha don ord poiblí nó don mhoráltacht phoiblí’ in s10(a) of the Patents Act, 1992, following on s15(1)(b) of the Patents Act, 1964. In s9(1)(a) of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, ‘the regulation of the fisheries of the State and the preservation of good order amongst the

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persons engaged therein’ is translated as ‘iascaigh an Stáit a rialú agus dea-ordúlacht a choimeád i measc na ndaoine a bhíonn ag gabháil dóibh’. In s1(b) of Article 6 of the First Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1973, ‘to maintain good order and discipline on board’ is translated as ‘chun dea-ord agus araíonacht a choimeád ar bord’. See further the commentary on Article 38.3.1o. Note that T. O’Neill Lane translates ‘order’ in the sense of ‘conformity with the law of decorum’ as ‘órdughadh’, citing ‘déantar na huile neithe go deaghmhaiseach agus do réir órduighthe’ (‘let all things be done decently and in order’) from 1 Cor. xiv, 40. ‘Public order’ is translated as ‘an t-ord poiblí’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla. poiblí ‘An mhaitheas phoiblí’ is translated as ‘the common good’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘dualgas poiblí’ and ‘núis phoiblí’, for example, are translated respectively as ‘public duty’ and ‘public nuisance’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘poiblí’ simply as ‘public’ and Dinneen translates ‘poiblidhe’ as ‘public, common, well-known’, citing ‘droch-theist phoiblidhe, public disrepute’. Ó Cianáin’s Flight of the Earls provides the first example of the word ‘puiplidhe’ cited in DIL, this headword being translated as ‘pertaining to the people, public’. Note, as we saw above, that ‘subject to public order and morality’ is translated as ‘ach gan dochar don rialtacht ná don mhoráltacht phuiblí’ in Article 8 of the 1922 Constitution. See further the commentary on Article 40.6.1o. saoirse See the commentary on Article 40.4.3o. Note also that ‘liberty (to apply, etc.)’ is translated as ‘cead’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s32(2)(b) of the Industrial Training Act, 1967, ‘require the employer to afford to the person time and liberty to attend … the whole of the course’ is translated as ‘a cheangal ar an bhfostóir am agus saorchead a thabhairt don duine freastal ar an gcúrsa go léir’. moráltachta See the commentary on Article 29.1. Ó Dónaill translates ‘moráltacht’ as ‘morality; morals’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 204), ‘justified on grounds of public morality’ is translated as ‘más gá a leithéid ar mhaithe leis an moráltacht phoiblí’. ach sin a bheith faoi réir Literally ‘but that being subject to’. See the commentary on Article 40.3.3o. ‘Faoi réir’ is translated as ‘subject to’ in Téarmaí Dlí. a oibriú Literally ‘to operate’, but generally expresses ‘exercise’ in the Constitution – see the commentary on Articles 3, 13.5.1o, 13.9 and 14.5.1o.

Direct translation Ráthaíonn an Stát saoirse chun na cearta seo a leanas a fheidhmiú,1 faoi réir an oird phoiblí agus na moráltachta poiblí:-

Variant 1 ‘saoirse maidir le feidhmiú na gceart seo a leanas,’


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ARTICLE 40.6.1Oi

AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1Oi

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ceart na saoránach chun a ndeimhní is a dtuairimí a nochtadh gan bac. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to reveal their certitudes and their opinions without hindrance. ENGLISH TEXT

The right of the citizens to express freely their convictions and opinions.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

‘To express freely’ is expressed as ‘a nochtadh gan bac’ (‘to reveal without hindrance’) in the Irish text. ‘Convictions’ is expressed as ‘deimhní’, a plural form not cited in standard dictionaries, the singular form of which would generally be read as ‘certainty’.

Note that Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: The right of free expression of opinion … is guaranteed …. Is slán ceart oipineon do chur in úil gan chosg.

Commentary a ndeimhní ‘Deimhin’ is translated as ‘certainty, assurance, proof’ in Ó Dónaill and ‘deimhne’ as ‘sureness, certainty’, with no plural form given for either of the nouns, ‘deimhne’ being the plural of the adjective ‘deimhin’, ‘sure, certain’. Dinneen translates ‘deimhne’ as Ó Dónaill translates ‘deimhin’ above, ‘a reality’ being found in place of Ó Dónaill’s ‘proof’ in his translation of ‘deimhin’. DIL gives examples of the Old Irish adjective ‘demin’ from the Glosses onwards. ‘Their religious convictions and practices’ is translated as ‘(dá) ndeimhní agus dá gcleachtais reiligiúin’ in Article 27 of the Fourth Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. ‘Religious convictions’ is translated as ‘creideamh’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla, where ‘deimhin-tuairimí’ is also given, without reference, as a translation of ‘convictions’. ‘Conviction’ in the sense of ‘verdict of guilty’ is translated as ‘ciontú’ in Téarmaí Dlí. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘conviction’ in the sense of ‘belief’ as ‘creideamh, áitiús’, translating ‘it is my conviction that …’ as ‘is é mo thuairim láidir go …, is é mo chreideamh go …’. ‘Conviction’ is translated as ‘áitiús’ in Foclóir Fealsaimh also – Ó Dónaill translates ‘áitiús’ (pl. ‘áitiúis’) as ‘conviction’, preceded by the abbreviation for ‘Philosophy’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 203), ‘(The High Contracting Parties) … reaffirm their conviction that the structural funds should continue to play an important part in …’ is translated as ‘athdhaingníonn siad a n-áitiús gur chóir go leanfadh na cistí struchtúracha de pháirt thábhachtach a imirt i …’. Commenting on ‘áitiús’ in the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú queries whether one should be so careful regarding the exact sense of ‘convictions’ in this context and suggests ‘barúil’ as an alternative.

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gan bac The preposition ‘gan’, in general reference, lenites ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘g’, ‘m’ and ‘p’, according to Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘gan bhaint’, ‘gan chlann’, ‘gan gharda’, ‘gan mhaith’ and ‘gan phingin’ as examples. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘unhindered’ as ‘gan bhac’ and in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 612) ‘The Commission may freely make use of any amounts …’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Coimisiún aon suimeanna … a úsáid gan bhac’. See the commentary on Article 40.4.6o regarding ‘bac’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘freely’ as (1) ‘go saor, etc., gan bhac’ and (2) ‘(labhraím) go hoscailte, go neamhbhalbh, gan eagla’. In the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 5.2(3)), ‘freely negotiated’ is translated as ‘a chaibidil go hoscailte’ and ‘all cultural, political and religious belief can be freely expressed and practised’ is translated as ‘a mbarrshamhla saíochta, polaitíochta agus creidimh a chur os ard agus a chleachtadh’. Along with ‘gan bhac’ we also find ‘go héasca’ and ‘faoi shaoirse’ translating ‘freely’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities, with ‘the right … to move freely within the territory of Member States’ being translated as ‘an ceart … chun gluaiseacht faoi shaoirse laistigh de chríoch na mBallstát’ (p. 221). In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 15), ‘Every citizen of the Union shall have the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States’ is translated as ‘Beidh an ceart ag gach saoránach den Aontas gluaiseacht agus cónaí faoi shaoirse ar chríoch na mBallstát’. ‘Any other freely available and effectively usable currency’ is translated as ‘aon airgeadra eile atá ar fáil go héasca agus inúsáidte go héifeachtach’ in Article 3(e) of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Act, 1988. ‘Only be kept in a cage which is of sufficient dimensions to enable it to move and exercise freely’ is translated as ‘ní choimeádfar é ach i gcaighean a bheidh fairsing go leor chun go bhféadfaidh sé gluaiseacht agus aclaíocht a dhéanamh go héasca’ in s35(5)(b) of the Wildlife Act, 1976. ‘To exercise freely their ministry among prisoners of war of the same religion’ is translated as ‘a ministreacht a chleachtadh gan bhac i measc príosúnach cogaidh dá gcomhchreideamh’ in Article 35 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. Finally, ‘discourage such witnesses from giving their evidence freely’ is translated as ‘mí-mhisneach do chur ar na fínnithe sin a bhfianaise do thabhairt uatha gan chosc’ in s7(5) of the Juries (Protection) Act, 1929. Looking at earlier translations of ‘freely’, in the oath to be taken by soldiers contained in s9 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923 (Continuance and Amendment) Act, 1924, ‘that I have this day freely and voluntarily enlisted as a soldier in Óglaigh na hÉireann’ is translated as ‘gur liostálas iniu, dem’ dheoin agus dem’ shaor-thoil féin, mar shaighdiúir in Óglaigh na hÉireann’. ‘Go saoráideach’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘freely’ in translations for the Department of Lands and Agriculture. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that perhaps ‘gan bhac’ better expresses what is involved here than the direct translation below, ‘go saor’. a dtuairimí ‘Tuairim’ is translated as ‘opinion’ in Téarmaí Dlí, that being the primary sense of this headword in both Ó Dónaill and Dinneen, the latter citing ‘bíonn na daoine ag imtheacht do réir amhrais agus tuairime acht


A study of the Irish text

tagann an scéal bun ós cionn i gcómhnaidhe, people are ever suspecting and guessing, but the true facts always assert themselves’. ‘Opinion’ does not feature in the senses of ‘túaraim’ in DIL, where this headword is translated as (a) ‘likelihood, promise, appearance, resemblance’, (b) ‘(with numerals) about, approximately’, (c) in phrase ‘fá thúairim, towards, in the direction of’. No examples of ‘túaraim’ are cited from the earlier sources, the first citation being from the collection of Classical poetry, Dioghluim Dána. DIL refers to ‘réim’ (‘course’) as a possible basis of ‘túaraim’. In s11(2) of the Extradition Act, 1965, ‘on account of his race, religion, nationality or political opinion’ is translated as ‘mar gheall ar a chine, a chreideamh, a náisiúntacht nó a thuairimí polaitíochta’. Looking at earlier translations, ‘rún opineoin’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘expression of opinion (in Dáil, etc.)’ in early Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann, ‘tuairim’ being also cited for ‘opinion (of the Dáil) etc.’ from the 1926 Standing Orders. See further the commentary on Articles 22.2.1o, 24.1 and 30.1. Note that ‘aigne an phobail’ expresses ‘public opinion’ further on in this paragraph – see the next commentary. nochtadh ‘Nochtaim’ is translated as ‘I disclose’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘nochtadh mígheanasach’ is translated as ‘indecent exposure’ – note that ‘nocht’ expresses ‘disclose’ in Article 26.2.2o. ‘Make known, reveal, disclose’ is given as one of the senses of ‘nocht’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘rún a nochtadh, to reveal a secret’ and ‘níor nocht sé a intinn ar an scéal, he didn’t disclose his mind on the matter’ – followed, incidentally, by ‘rón a nochtadh, to skin a seal’, cited as an example of ‘nochtadh’ in the sense of ‘skin’. Dinneen translates ‘nochtaim’ as ‘I make bare, strip, uncover, unsheath, declare, tell, make manifest, explain, disclose, show, reveal …’. DIL cites ‘do nochtais t’aigne’ (‘you revealed your mind’) from the seventeenthcentury ‘Contention of the Bards’ as an example of this figurative use of ‘nochtaid’ found in late literature generally. ‘Nochta(e)’, ‘nakedness (want of clothing)’, is found in the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. Turning to the Acts, based upon the present Article, in s18(3)(b) of the Radio and Television Act, 1988, ‘uphold the democratic values enshrined in the Constitution, especially those relating to rightful liberty of expression’ is translated as ‘tacóidh siad leis an bhfiúchas daonlathach atá cumhdaithe sa Bhunreacht, go háirithe mar a bhaineann leis an tsaoirse chun tuairimí a nochtadh’. The adjective ‘express’ is translated as ‘sainráite’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘express condition’, for example, is translated as ‘coinníoll sainráite’ and ‘expressly’ is translated as ‘go sainráite’. In s67 of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, ‘The decision of the returning officer, whether expressed or implied by his acts, on any question … shall be final’ is translated as ‘Is cinneadh críochnaitheach cinneadh an cheann comhairimh, cibé acu sainráite dó nó intuighe as a ghníomhartha, ar aon cheist’. In the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 4.13), as we saw above, ‘all cultural, political and religious belief can be freely expressed and practised’ is translated as ‘saorchead a bheith acu a mbarrshamhla saíochta, polaitíochta agus creidimh a chur os ard agus a chleachtadh’. In 4.10, ‘demand for political expression of their nationalist identity’

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is translated as ‘an t-éileamh atá ag náisiúnaithe ar ghníomhaíocht pholaitíochta lena bhféiniúlacht náisiúnaíoch a chur in iúl’ and in 4.3 ‘expressing its aspirations’ is translated as ‘a dtoilmhianta a chur in iúl’. In s34(3) of the Finance Act, 1978, ‘unless the Revenue Commissioners have been required to express their opinion thereon’ is translated as ‘mura mbeidh iarrtha ar na Coimisinéirí Ioncaim a dtuairim ina leith a chur in iúl’. Note that the phrase ‘cuir in iúl’ sometimes also translates ‘notify’, ‘indicate’ and ‘denote’ in the Acts, though these English terms are not exclusively translated by ‘cuir in iúl’. Looking at early translations, ‘express or manifest political opinions’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘tuairimí polaitíochta do luadhadh no do nochta’ in translations for the Department of Justice, and ‘have already expressed dissatisfaction at …’ is cited as being translated as ‘tá … tar éis a chur in úil cheana ná fuilid sásta le …’ in a Report by the Public Accounts Committee, 1929. Finally, note that ‘the word “statistics” includes information not expressible numerically’ is translated as ‘foluíonn an focal “staitistíocht” eolas nách féidir a shloinne in uimhreacha’ in s1 of the Statistics Act, 1926. See further the commentary on Article 24.1 where ‘luaigh’ expresses ‘express’, along with the next commentary. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú suggests, in particular in the context of translating ‘convictions’ as ‘barúlacha’ in the direct translation below, translating ‘express’ as ‘a thabhairt’ or ‘friotal a chur ar’.

Standardised Irish text Ceart na saoránach chun a ndeimhní is a dtuairimí a nochtadh gan bhac.

Direct translation Ceart na saoránach chun a n-áitiúis1 agus a dtuairimí a chur in iúl2 go saor3.

Variants 1 ‘a mbarúlacha’ 2 ‘a nochtadh’, ‘a chur os ard’, ‘a thabhairt’ 3 ‘faoi shaoirse’, ‘gan bhac’, ‘chun friotal a chur go saor ar a n-áitiúis agus a dtuairimí’

ARTICLE 40.6.1oi (cont’d) AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1oi (ar lean.) TÉACS GAEILGE

Ach toisc oiliúint aigne an phobail a bheith chomh tábhachtach sin do leas an phobail, féachfaidh an Stát lena chur in áirithe nach ndéanfar orgain aigne an phobail, mar shampla, an raidió is an preas is an cineama, a úsáid chun an t-ord nó an mhoráltacht phoiblí nó údarás an Stáit a bhonn-bhriseadh. San am chéanna coimeádfaidh na horgain sin an tsaoirse is dleacht dóibh chun tuairimí a nochtadh agus orthu sin tuairimí léirmheasa ar bheartas an Rialtais.


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LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But because the training of the mind of the people is of such importance to the welfare of the people, the State will endeavour to ensure that the organs of the public mind, for example, the radio and the press and the cinema, will not be used to break the basis of the public morality or order or the authority of the State. At the same time those organs will keep the freedom which is their right to declare opinions and including opinions evaluative of Government policy. ENGLISH TEXT

The education of public opinion being, however, a matter of such grave import to the common good, the State shall endeavour to ensure that organs of public opinion, such as the radio, the press, the cinema, while preserving their rightful liberty of expression, including criticism of Government policy, shall not be used to undermine public order or morality or the authority of the State.

Divergences between the official texts 1

The Irish text has two separate sentences here corresponding to but one in the English text, adding ‘San am chéanna … na horgain sin’ (‘At the same time … those organs’) to the contents of the English text, which has this sentence as a sub-clause introduced by ‘while’, preceded by a comma. 2 ‘Rightful liberty of expression’ is expressed as ‘an tsaoirse is dleacht dóibh chun tuairimí a nochtadh’ (‘the freedom which is their right to reveal/express opinions’) in the Irish text, with ‘criticism of’ expressed as ‘tuairimí léirmheasa’ (‘evaluative opinions of’), the term ‘léirmheas’ being more familiar today in the context of book-reviews than of ‘criticism’ in general. 3 ‘Undermine’ is expressed by an unfamiliar compound of ‘bonn’ (‘basis’) and ‘bris’ (‘break’). 4 ‘Education’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘oiliúint’, a term more associated with ‘training’, and ‘public opinion’ is expressed as ‘aigne an phobail’ (‘the mind of the people’). 5 ‘To ensure’ is expressed by the phrase usually used to render ‘to reserve’, ‘cuir in áirithe’, as in some other Articles. 6 ‘The common good’ is translated as ‘an mhaitheas phoiblí’ rather than ‘leas an phobail’, as in Téarmaí Dlí. 7 ‘Of such grave import’ is expressed as ‘chomh tábhachtach sin’ (‘of such importance’) in the Irish text. 8 ‘However’ is again expressed by ‘Ach’ (‘But’) in the Irish text. 9 ‘Such as’ is expressed as ‘mar shampla’ (‘for example’) in the Irish text. 10 ‘The radio, the press, the cinema’ is expressed as ‘an raidió is an preas is an cineama’ (‘the radio and the press and the cinema’) in the Irish text.

Commentary oiliúint Ó Dónaill gives ‘training, coaching’ as one of the senses of ‘oiliúint’, citing ‘oiliúint choirp agus intinne, physical and mental training’. Dinneen includes ‘education, especially home-education, upbringing, fosterage, culture’

Bunreacht na hÉireann

among the senses of ‘oileamhain(t)’, and cites ‘is fearr an oileamhain(t) ’ná an t-oideachas, upbringing counts for more than education’ and ‘is treise dúthchas ’ná oileamhain(t), instinct overcomes upbringing’. ‘Ailemain’ is translated as ‘act of rearing, fostering; fosterage, education’ in DIL, citing examples from the twelfth century or so onwards of this late verbal noun of ‘ailid’, the earlier verbal noun being ‘altram’. ‘Oiliúint’ generally translates ‘training’ in the Acts – see, for example, s8(1)(e)(i) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, where ‘facilities for training or otherwise instructing persons in any matter’ is translated as ‘saoráidí chun daoine a oiliúint nó a theagasc ar shlí eile … in aon ábhar’. While ‘oideachas’ translates ‘education’ generally, ‘oiliúint’ is perhaps called on in this context as it is a verbal noun (of the verb ‘oil’, translated as ‘nourish, rear, foster, train, educate’ in Ó Dónaill). In s2(3) of the Army Pensions Act, 1923, for example, ‘may … be … applied for the maintenance, education or benefit of his child’ is translated as ‘féadfar é … do chur chun cimeád suas no oiliúint no tairfe a dhuine cloinne’. ‘Being educated’ is translated as ‘ag fáil oideachais’ in Article 14 of the 1922 Constitution and ‘the expenses of the Department of National Education’ is translated ‘costaisí na Roinne um Oideachas Náisiúnta’ in the Schedule to the Appropriation Act, 1922. T. O’Neill Lane translates ‘educate’ as (1) ‘múinim’, (2) ‘oilim’, giving ‘foghlaim’, ‘múineadh’, ‘oileamhain’, ‘tabhairt suas’ and ‘oideas’, before ‘oideachas’, in his entry s.v. ‘education’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘educate’ as 1(a) ‘oilim, tugaim oideachas do (dhuine)’, (b)(i) ‘múinim (páiste)’, (ii) ‘cuirim (páiste) ar scoil’, 2. ‘múnlaím (aigne duine)’ – the verbal noun of the latter verb being used in the Constitution to express ‘formation’, ‘aigne’ being used in the present paragraph of the Constitution to express ‘opinion’. On the Dáil Order Paper of 8/3/82, ‘The Advisory Committee on the Education of Physically Handicapped Children’ is translated as ‘An Coiste Comhairleach um Oideachas Leanaí Corpéislinneacha’ and on the 22/10/75 ‘European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of Nurses’ is cited as ‘Comhaontú Eorpach ar Theagasc agus Oideachas Altraí’. ‘Oideachasú’ is cited s.v. ‘educate’, in Téarmaí Oifigiúla (without reference), this allowing ‘oideachas’ to function as a verbal noun. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú doubted whether the word ‘oideachasú’ could be used with ‘tuairimí’ and recommended retaining ‘oiliúint aigne an phobail’. a bhonn-bhriseadh ‘An bonn a bhaint ó rud’ is translated as ‘to undermine something’ in Ó Dónaill who does not give this compound of ‘bonn’ (translated as (1) ‘sole’, (2) ‘footing, foothold’ and (3) ‘base, foundation’) and ‘bris’ (‘break’) as a headword. Ó Dónaill cites ‘thug mé ó bhonn dó é, I beat, scolded, him thoroughly’ and ‘bhris sé bonn, he broke ground, fled’. Dinneen does not have ‘bonnbhris(eadh)’ as a headword either, but cites ‘cuirim (bainim) dá bhonnaibh é, I upset or undermine him’ s.v. ‘bonn’. ‘Brisim agus iontrálaim’ is translated as ‘I break and enter’ in Téarmaí Dlí. The verb ‘bris(s)id’ may be based on ‘bres’ (‘fight, blow, effort’), according to DIL, ‘bonn’ being translated as ‘sole of the foot, foot’. L. Mc Cionnaith gives the following entry s.v. ‘undermine’:


A study of the Irish text

tá an bonn bainte ón tigh ag an uisce (Munster); he undermined me, deprived me of influence, with the landlord, bhain sé an bonn uaim leis an tighearna talmhan (An t-Ath. Seóirse Mac Clúin, Réiltíní Óir [1922]).

De Bhaldraithe translates ‘to undermine someone’s faith’ as ‘bonn a bhaint ó chreideamh duine’. In the New Ireland Forum Report (1984), ‘for fear of undermining the Unionist system’ and ‘undermining constitutional politics’ are translated respectively as ‘ar eagla go mbainfí bonn ó chóras na n-aontachtaithe’ and ‘tá bonn á bhaint ó pholaitíocht bhunreachtúil’ (3.10 and 4.3 respectively). We also find ‘lagaigh’ translating ‘undermine’ in the same document (see 4.11: ‘undermine all efforts’, ‘lagú ar na hiarrachtaí go léir’), as it does in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 223: ‘that changes in Community legislation cannot undermine the derogations granted to Spain’, ‘nach féidir le hathruithe i reachtaíocht an Chomhphobail na méaduithe a lagú arna ndeonú don Spáinn’) and in the Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1975 (‘undermine the confidence of the peoples of the world in the safety of civil aviation’, ‘muinín phobail an domhain i sábháilteacht na heitlíochta sibhialta a lagú’). In s9(1)(d) of the Radio and Television Act, 1988, however, ‘that anything which may reasonably be regarded as … tending to undermine the authority of the State, is not broadcast by him’ is translated as ‘nach gcraolfaidh sé aon ní a bhféadfaí a mheas le réasún gur … de ghné é a dhéanfaidh dochar d’údarás an Stáit’. féachfaidh an Stát le ‘Féach le’ is translated as ‘try to; try, attempt’ in Ó Dónaill, with Dinneen translating ‘féachaim le’ as ‘I strive to, look after’. According to DIL s.v. ‘fégaid’, there may have been an Old Irish verb ‘fégaid’, ‘scrutinizes’, which became confused with ‘do-écci’ (‘looks at’); most of DIL’s examples of ‘fégaid’ come from the post twelfth-century period. Turning to the Acts, in s1(a) of Article XXIV of the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements (Amendment) Act, 1969, ‘the Fund shall seek to meet the long-term global need’ is translated as ‘féachfaidh an Ciste le freastal don riachtanas domhanda a bheidh ann’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 937), ‘The United Kingdom shall … endeavour to abolish these subsidies’ is translated as ‘Féachfaidh an Ríocht Aontaithe … leis na fóirdheontais a dhíothú’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 37), ‘Member States shall endeavour to avoid excessive government deficits’ is translated as ‘féachfaidh Ballstáit le heasnaimh rialtais iomarcacha a sheachaint’. See further the commentary on Article 42.4 where ‘endeavour’ is expressed as ‘iarracht a dhéanamh’. coimeádfaidh ‘Coimeád’ is the literal translation of ‘keep’ – ‘coimeádaim deisithe’, for example, is translated as ‘I keep in repair’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill gives ‘retain’ as one of the senses of ‘coimeád’, citing ‘do ghreim a choimeád, to keep one’s grip’. Dinneen translates ‘coimhéadaim’/‘coimeádaim’ as ‘I hold, keep, guard, watch, detain, delay, I keep (the Law, the Sabbath, etc.)’. The verb ‘coimétaid’ is based on ‘coimét’, which is the verbal noun of ‘con-eim’, which is translated as ‘protects, preserves, guards, keeps’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the Old Irish Glosses onwards. Turning to the Acts, we see, for example, how in s7(3)

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of the Credit Union Act, 1966, ‘Every record required to be kept under this section shall be preserved by the credit union for a period of six years’ is translated as ‘Gach taifead is gá a choimeád faoin alt seo déanfaidh an comhar creidmheasa é a shlánchoimeád go ceann tréimhse sé bliana’. In s122(2) of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1965, ‘Every entry made in any such book … shall be preserved for three years, … shall be kept at the office at the mine’ is translated as ‘Déanfar gach taifead a chuirfear in aon leabhar den sórt sin … a choimeád slán go ceann trí bliana … agus déanfar … é a choimeád san oifig ag an mianach’. ‘The preservation of continuing contracts’ is translated as ‘conarthaí leanúnacha a bhuanchoimeád’ in s5(2)(b) of the Local Government Services (Corporate Bodies) Act, 1971, and as ‘conarthaí leanúnacha … a choimeád ar marthain’ in s42(2)(b) of the Health Act, 1970. ‘Caomhnaigh’, however, is becoming more general as a direct translation of ‘preserve’ – see, for example, s26(8)(h) of the Agricultural Credit Act, 1978, where ‘the general preservation of the secrecy of the registers’ is translated as ‘rúndacht na gclár a chaomhnú i gcoitinne’ as against s24(8)(h) of the Agricultural Credit Act, 1947, where ‘the general preservation of the secrecy of such registers’ is translated as ‘lánas na gclár sin go ginearálta a choimeád ina rún’. In s3(1)(b) of the First Schedule to the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, ‘in establishing, preserving or defending his title to … the asset’ is translated as ‘ag bunú, ag caomhnú nó ag cosaint a theidil chun na sócmhainne’. ‘To preserve peace’, for example, is translated as ‘an tsíocháin a chaomhnú’ in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 123). See further the commentary on Articles 24.1 and 28.3.3o, where ‘cosain’ and ‘caomhnaigh’ respectively express ‘preserve’. an cineama Ó Dónaill gives ‘cineama’ as a headword, simply translating it as ‘cinema’, also giving ‘cineamascóp’, ‘cineamatagraf’ and ‘cinecheamara’ as headwords, translated respectively as ‘cinema-scope’, ‘cinematograph’ and ‘cine-camera’. Dinneen does not appear to give ‘cineama’ as a headword. De Bhaldraithe gives ‘cineama; scannánaíocht’ as Irish terms for ‘cinema’ (familiar), with ‘cinema’ in the sense of the building being translated as ‘pictiúrlann, cineama, teach pictiúr’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘pictiúrlann’ as ‘picture-house, cinema’, also citing ‘teach pictiúr, picture-house, cinema’ and translates ‘scannánaíocht’ as (1) ‘(the) cinema’, (2) ‘(act of) filming’. ‘Pictiúrlann’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘cinema’ in Iris an Phuist, 28/7/’26. ‘Taispeántas cineama’ is cited as translating ‘cinema exhibition’ in the Health Act, 1947 (p. 147, ref. in Téarmaí Oifigiúla, where ‘cinema projector’ is translated as ‘teilgeoir scannán’). L. Mc Cionnaith gives ‘Terms from Staff of Dáil, Foclóir Oifigeamhail’, as the source of his translation of ‘cinema’ as ‘cineama’. In s41(1) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘a film which is produced … wholly or principally for exhibition to the public in cinema’ is translated as ‘scannán a thairgtear … go hiomlán nó go príomha lena thaispeáint don phobal i bpictiúrlanna’. ‘Cineama’ is cited as translating ‘cinema’ in Statutory Instrument No. 249 of 1985 and in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 1106), while the ‘International Catholic Cinema Office’ is cited in Irish as ‘Oifig Chaitliceach Idirnáisiúnta an Chineama’. is dleacht dóibh ‘Dleacht’ is translated as ‘duty’ in Téarmaí


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Dlí, ‘dleachtanna báis’ translating ‘death duties’, for example. Ó Dónaill translates ‘dleacht’ as (1) ‘due’, (a) ‘lawful right’, citing ‘is é mo dhleacht é, it is my lawful right, it is due to me’ and (3) ‘(Used as adjective with copula) Is dom is dleacht é, it is my due, it is my lawful duty; it is proper for me, An onóir is dleacht dó, the honour to which he is lawfully entitled’. Dinneen translates ‘dleacht’ as ‘law or right, customs, due, toll, property; as adjective, lawful, due’. DIL translates ‘dlecht’ as ‘lawful, due, rightful, permitted’, translating ‘dlecht do’ as ‘due to, right for’, citing examples of this phrase from about 1400 onwards. ‘Dlecht’, in origin, is related to ‘dliged’, ‘law’. Note that, in s18(3)(b) of the Radio and Television Act, 1988 (as in s13 of the Broadcasting (Amendment) Act, 1976), ‘is dleacht dóibh’ was emended following ‘their rightful’ of the text of the Constitution being replaced in those Acts by ‘rightful’, reading as follows: uphold the democratic values enshrined in the Constitution, especially those relating to rightful liberty of expression …. tacóidh sí leis an bhfiúchas daonlathach atá cumhdaithe sa Bhunreacht, go háirithe mar a bhaineann leis an tsaoirse cheart tuairimí a nochtadh.

In s262(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidated) Act, 1981, ‘that he is the rightful holder of a particular supplementary unemployment book’ is translated as ‘gurb é is sealbhóir dlisteanach ar leabhar dífhostaíochta forlíontach áirithe’, this same text being translated as ‘gurb é sealbhóir dleathach leabhair áirithe díomhaointis fhoirlíontaigh’ in s43(2) of the Insurance (Intermittent Unemployment) Act, 1942. ‘Dleathach’, however, is translated as ‘lawful’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘The District Justice may order such goods or money to be delivered to the rightful owner thereof’ is translated as ‘féadfidh an Giúistís Dúithche a ordú go dtíolacfar na hearraí no an t-airgead san don té gur leis iad le ceart’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘rightful heir’ as ‘oighre dlisteanach’ and gives ‘dlisteanach, cóir’ as translations of ‘rightful’ in the sense of ‘rightful claim’ – ‘dlisteanach’, however, is translated as ‘legitimate’ and ‘cóir’ (in ‘cóir-chíos’) as ‘fair’ in Téarmaí Dlí. De Bhaldraithe gives ‘ceart’ as a translation of ‘rightful’ in the sense of ‘rightful conduct’. L. Mc Cionnaith refers the reader to ‘lawful’, ‘legitimate’ s.v. ‘rightful’, while T. O’Neill Lane translates ‘rightful’, in the sense of ‘upright, just’, as (1) ‘dlisteanach’, (2) ‘dlightheach’ and (3) ‘dleaghthach’. tuairimí léirmheasa ‘Tuairim’ is translated as ‘opinion’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the foregoing commentary. Ó Dónaill translates ‘léirmheas’ as (1) ‘critical consideration, complete assessment’ and (2) ‘criticism, critique, review’, this latter sense being the sense most commonly encountered today. Dinneen translates ‘léir-mheas’ as ‘high esteem; a balancing consideration, estimate, judgment, decision; critical estimate, criticism’, the latter word followed by the abbreviation for ‘recent’. DIL gives two examples of the compound ‘léirmes’, s.v. ‘léir’ (translated as (a) ‘assiduous, earnest, careful, zealous’, (c) ‘visible, perceptible’, with ‘mes(s)’ being translated as ‘the act of judging’), both of which come from Keating’s seventeenth-century Three Shafts of Death, in the glossary to which ‘léir-mes’ is translated as ‘act of closely considering, estimating’, with DIL translating the compound as ‘criticizing, calculating’. Turning to current Parliamentary usage, the fourth report of the National Economic and Social Council,

Bunreacht na hÉireann

‘Regional Policy in Ireland: A Review’, is styled ‘Beartas Réigiúnach in Éirinn: Léirmheas’ in Irish, while on the Dáil Order Paper, 5/7/77, ‘Economic Review and Outlook’ is cited as ‘Léirmheas agus Ionchas an Gheilleagair’. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 260), ‘to keep under review the monetary and financial situations of the Member States’ is translated as ‘staid airgeadaíochta agus staid airgeadais na mBallstát … a choimeád faoi léirmheas’ while, in the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 70), ‘The Court of Justice shall review the legality of facts adopted jointly by the European Parliament and the Council’ is translated as ‘Déanfaidh an Chúirt Bhreithiúnais léirmheas ar dhlíthiúlacht ghníomhartha Pharlaimint na hEorpa agus na Comhairle arna nglacadh go comhpháirteach’, with ‘Judicial Control’ being translated as ‘Léirmheas breithiúnach’ (p. 181). Regarding ‘criticism’, ‘it has been the subject of much expert criticism’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘do scrúduigh lucht eolais go maith é’ in a Report of a Committee of the Houses of the Oireachtas. ‘Criticism’, in the sense of ‘review’, is cited as being translated as ‘léirmheas’ in the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927 (p. 181). ‘Criticise’ is translated both as ‘inchreachadh’ in Téarmaí Oifigiúla (MIS xii being given as source) and as ‘léirmheasaim’ (no source being cited), while ‘destructive criticism’ is translated both as ‘inchreachadh’ and ‘liobairt’, with the booklets of terms issued by the Department of Education cited as source – Ó Dónaill translates ‘inchreach’ as ‘reprove, rebuke, object to, criticize’, followed by the abbreviation indicating that this word is cited only in earlier Irish literature. L. Mc Cionnaith translates ‘criticise’, in the sense of ‘find fault’, as ‘bhí sé ag fagháil locht orm, ar an leabhar 7c, bhí sé gham lochtú’, indicating these phrases being current in Munster Irish. In the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann, 9/12/69, ‘Privilege (Criticism of Ceann Comhairle)’ is translated as ‘Pribhléid (Lochtú ar an gCeann Comhairle)’, while in the Proceedings of 12/3/70, ‘Report of the Committee of Procedure and Privileges on a Magazine Item containing criticism of the Ceann Comhairle’ is translated as ‘tuarascáil ón gCoiste um Nós Imeachta agus Pribhléidí ar Mhír in Irisleabhar inar Cáineadh an Ceann Comhairle’. Commenting on ‘cáineadh’ (literally ‘censure’) translating ‘criticism’ in a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘criticism’ has a fairly broad range of senses, including ‘censure’, but as we do not know exactly what ‘criticism’ in the context of the English text of the Constitution means and, as the drafters of the Irish text understood it to mean ‘review’ rather than ‘censure’, Professor Ó Murchú recommends translating ‘criticism of’ as ‘a léirmheas’. chomh tábhachtach sin Literally ‘so important’. ‘Matter of great import’ is translated as ‘cúrsa an-tábhachtach’ in De Bhaldraithe. ‘Matter’ in this context is regularly translated as ‘ábhar’ in the Acts – see, for example, the Schedule to the Air Navigation and Transport Act, 1975, where ‘Considering that the occurrence of such acts is a matter of grave concern’ is translated as ‘Á Bhreithniú Dóibh gurb ábhar mór inmí é gníomhartha den sórt sin tarlú’. In the Treaty on European Union (1992, p. 44), ‘each Member State shall treat its exchange-rate policy as a matter of common interest’ is translated as ‘déanfaidh gach Ballstát … a bheartas rátaí malairte a bhreithniú mar


A study of the Irish text

ábhar leasa choitinn’ and, on p. 248, ‘the Member States agree to examine as a matter of priority the drafts submitted to them’ is translated as ‘comhaontaíonn na Ballstáit na dréachtaí a chuirfear faoina mbráid a scrúdú mar ábhar tosaíochta’. ‘Grave’ is also translated as ‘tromaí’ and ‘tromchúiseach’ in the Acts. In s13(1) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1967, for example, ‘piracy or a grave breach such as is referred to in section 3(1)(i) of the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962’ is translated as ‘píoráideacht nó sárú tromchúiseach den sórt dá dtagraítear in alt 3(1)(i) den Acht um Choinbhinsiúin na Ginéive, 1962’. In s5(3) of the Criminal Justice Act, 1990, ‘for grave reasons of a humanitarian nature’ is translated as ‘ar chúiseanna tromaí de chineál daonchairdiúil’. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘a matter of such’ has no substantial sense and need not be followed closely in the translation. Professor Ó Murchú recommends translating the initial clause as ‘Toisc a thábhachtaí thromchúisí don mhaitheas phoiblí atá …’. a nochtadh See the foregoing commentary. T. O’Neill Lane translates ‘expression’ in the sense of ‘the act of declaring, signifying or uttering’, as (a) ‘labhairt’, (b) ‘rádh’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘expression’ as ‘cur (smaoineamh) i bhfocal’, translating ‘to give expression to his gratitude’ as ‘a bhuíochas a chur in iúl’. Note that ‘expression’ in the present context in the Constitution may refer not just to ‘opinion’ in ‘organs of public opinion’ but to ‘convictions’ in the opening sentence: ‘The right of the citizens to express freely their convictions and opinions’. Colmán Ó Huallacháin, in his Dictionary of Philosophy (Foclóir Fealsaimh, 1958) translates ‘expression’ as ‘léiriú’, his entry s.v. ‘léiriú’, being as follows: Fáltas a thabhairt i láthair a chuirfeadh eolas in iúl i dtaobh réaltachta ceilte (m. sh. cuma ar an aghaidh a thaispeánfadh staid chomhfheasa).

‘Nationalist self-expression’ is translated as ‘féinléiriú náisiúnaíoch’ in the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 4.8). In the Programme for a Partnership Government (1993-97, p. 20), ‘that both must have equally satisfactory, secure and durable, political, administrative and symbolic expression and protection’ is translated as ‘nach foláir go mbeadh siad araon in ann iad féin a léiriú agus cosaint a fháil i gcúrsaí polaitíochta agus riaracháin agus ar mhodh siombalach, ar bhealach chomh sásúil, chomh seasta agus chomh buan céanna’. In the Joint Declaration, December 1993, ‘the right of freedom and expression of religion’ is translated as ‘an ceart ar shaoirse agus ar léiriú creidimh’. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘léiriú’ is now generally understood as presenting something (“ábhar a chur i láthair”), that is, the manner it is made available rather than the substance. Professor Ó Murchú recommends translating this clause as ‘a gcaomhnófaí dóibh i gcónaí an tsaoirse faisnéise is dleacht dóibh’. aigne an phobail L. Mc Cionnaith’s entry s.v. ‘opinion’, commences as follows: ‘of opinion, view, bhíos ar an aigne sin, bhíos-sa ar an aigne chéadna, táim ar aon aigne leat san méid sin; tá sé ar lánaigne leat’ – all of which phrases are cited from Munster and Connacht Irish. Further on he returns to ‘opinion’ in the sense of ‘view’

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and cites the following: ‘is é mo thuairim go …’, ‘is é tuairim na ndaoine go …’, the latter expression being cited from the three main dialects, with ‘is é tuairimidheacht na ndaoine go …’ being cited from the Rev. Seóirse Mac Clúin’s Réilthíní Óir (1922). We find (on p. 244 of the second part of that work), s.v. ‘tuairimíocht’: ‘Sé tuairimíocht na ndaoine anso go leanfaidh an tsíocháin = tuairimí a bhíonn ag imeacht is á ndéanamh is á gcaitheamh’. Dinneen translates ‘tuairimidheacht’ as ‘opinion, act of guessing, expressing an opinion about’ while Ó Dónaill translates ‘tuairimíocht’ simply as ‘(act of) guessing, guess-work, speculation’. De Bhaldraithe, perhaps following the Constitution, translates ‘public opinion’ as ‘aigne an phobail’. ‘Opinion’ is translated as ‘tuairim’ in Téarmaí Dlí. T. O’Neill Lane (2nd ed.) translates ‘it is the general opinion’ as ‘do réir gach tuairime’, translating ‘I am of the same opinion as yourself’ as (i) ‘táim ar an aigne chéadna leat féin’ and (ii) ‘táim ar aon intinn leat-sa’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘aigne an duine’ as ‘man’s mind, way of thinking’. Dinneen translates ‘aigne’ as ‘the heart, the mind; intention, desire, spirit, courage, resolution’. ‘Aicned’, in the sense of ‘inherent quality, essence, nature’, is cited in DIL from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses onwards, the secondary senses of ‘mind, spirit, feeling’ and ‘mind, attention, thought’ are later in date. ‘Aigne’ translates ‘mind’ in the Acts – ‘infirmity of mind or body’, in s5(3)(a) of the Electricity (Supply) (Amendment) Act, 1970, for example, being translated as ‘éiglíocht aigne nó choirp’. In s112 of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1965, ‘physically or mentally unfit for such employment’ is translated as ‘mí-oiriúnach ó thaobh coirp nó aigne don fhostaíocht sin’. Turning to ‘opinion’ in the Acts, in s11(2) of the Extradition Act, 1965, ‘an account of his race, religion, nationality or political opinion’ is translated as ‘mar gheall ar a chine, a chreideamh, a náisiúntacht nó a thuairimí polaitíochta’. In the New Ireland Forum Report (1984, 1.7), ‘a wide range of opinion’ is translated as ‘éagsúlacht mhór ag baint lena dtuairimí’. See the foregoing commentary regarding early citations of ‘tuairim’, ‘oipineon’ and ‘barúil’. toisc This headword is translated as ‘because, on account of’ in Ó Dónaill – see the commentary on Article 42.3.2o. In the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann, 2/12/70, ‘A quorum not being present after an interval of not less than three minutes, the Dáil resumed’ is translated as ‘Ós rud é go rabhthas fós gan chóram i gceann seal nár lú ná trí nóiméad d’athchrom an Dáil ar a gnó’. lena chur in áirithe See the commentary on Article 15.10; ‘in áirithe’ usually translates ‘engaged, reserved’, ‘áirithím’ being translated as ‘I retain (council)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú recommends ‘deimhniú’ rather than ‘áirithiú’ in the direct translation below. San am chéanna According to the official standard, the ‘c’ would not be lenited here, being an adjective qualifying a masculine noun in the dative singular – see the commentary on Article 45. orgain See the commentary on Article 6.2. Note that ‘human organs’ is translated as ‘baill bheatha dhaonna’ in s24(x) of the Value Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978.


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an t-ord See the commentary on Article 40.6.1o. leas an phobail See the commentary on Article 12.8.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ENGLISH TEXT

The publication or utterance of blasphemous, seditious, or indecent matter is an offence which shall be punishable in accordance with law.

Standardised Irish text Ach toisc oiliúint aigne an phobail a bheith chomh tábhachtach sin do leas an phobail, féachfaidh an Stát lena chur in áirithe nach ndéanfar orgain aigne an phobail, mar shampla, an raidió is an preas is an cineama, a úsáid chun an t-ord nó an mhoráltacht phoiblí nó údarás an Stáit a bhonnbhriseadh. San am céanna coimeádfaidh na horgain sin an tsaoirse is dleacht dóibh chun tuairimí a nochtadh agus orthu sin tuairimí léirmheasa ar bheartas an Rialtais.

Direct translation Toisc gurb ábhar lena mbaineann an oiread sin tábhachta tromaí1 don mhaitheas phoiblí é2 múnlú3 thuairimí4 an phobail,5 áfach, féachfaidh an Stát lena áirithiú6 nach n-úsáidfear orgáin thuairimí an phobail, ar nós an raidió, an phreasa, an chineama, le linn dóibh a gceartsaoirse7 léirithe8 a chaomhnú, lena n-áirítear beartas an Rialtais a léirmheas9, chun an bonn a bhaint ón ord poiblí ná ón moráltacht phoiblí ná ó údarás an Stáit10.11

Variants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11

‘an oiread sin mórthábhachta’ ‘Toisc a thábhachtaí thromchúisí don mhaitheas phoiblí atá’ ‘oiliúint’, ‘oideachasú’ ‘aigne’, ‘thuairimíocht’ ‘Toisc múnlú thuairimí an phobail a bheith ina ábhar atá chomh tábhachtach sin don mhaitheas phoiblí,’ ‘lena dheimhniú’ ‘a saoirse cheart’ ‘a gceartsaoirse chun tuairimí a chur in iúl’ ‘a cháineadh’ ‘chun an t-ord poiblí nó an mhoráltacht phoiblí nó údarás an Stáit a lagú’, ‘chun dochar a dhéanamh don ord poiblí nó don mhoráltacht phoiblí nó d’údarás an Stáit’ The following is the complete translation recommended by Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú: ‘Toisc a thábhachtaí thromchúisí don mhaitheas phoiblí atá oiliúint aigne an phobail, féachfaidh an Stát lena dheimhniú nach mbainfear leas/úsáid as orgáin na tuairimíochta poiblí, mar atá an raidió, an preas agus an cineama, a gcaomhnófar dóibh i gcónaí an tsaoirse faisnéise is dleacht dóibh, ar a n-áireofar beartas an Rialtais a léirmheas, chun an bonn a bhaint ón ord poiblí, ná ón moráltacht phoiblí, ná ó údarás an Stáit.’

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oi (contd.) AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1Oi (ar lean.) TÉACS GAEILGE

Aon ní diamhaslach nó ceannairceach nó graosta a fhoilsiú nó a aithris is cion inphionóis é de réir dlí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The publication or recitation of anything blasphemous or rebellious or obscene is a punishable crime in accordance with law.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4 5

‘Utterance’ is expressed in the Irish text by ‘aithris’, which verb generally has the sense of ‘recite (publicly declaim)’; qualified by the preposition ‘ar’ it means ‘imitate’. ‘Indecent’ is expressed in the Irish text by the Irish legal term for ‘obscene’ (‘graosta’), ‘indecent’ being translated as ‘mígheanasach’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Seditious’ is expressed as ‘ceannairceach’, the adjectival form of the term expressing ‘rebellion’ in Article 40.4.6o, this however being in accord with Téarmaí Dlí in both cases. ‘Matter’ is expressed as ‘aon ní’ (‘anything’) in the Irish text. ‘Blasphemous, seditious, or indecent’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘diamhaslach nó ceannairceach nó graosta’, ‘blasphemous or seditious or indecent’.

Commentary a aithris In Article 15.12, ‘and utterances made in either House’ is expressed as ‘maille le caint ar bith dá ndéantar in aon Teach díobh’, while in the following section, ‘and shall not, in respect of any utterance in either House, be amenable to any court’ is expressed as ‘agus cibé caint a dhéanfaidh comhalta in aon Teach díobh ní inchúisithe é mar gheall uirthi in aon chúirt’. The verb ‘aithris’ is translated as (1) ‘narrate, recite’, (2) ‘imitate’ and (3) ‘mimic’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Aithrisim’ is translated as ‘I tell, narrate, report, repeat, recite, imitate, copy, mimic, ridicule’ in Dinneen. DIL translates ‘aithrisid’ as (a) ‘repeats, tells’ and (b) ‘imitates’, this verb being based on ‘aithris’, translated as (a) ‘act of telling, relating, relation, account’ and (b) ‘act of imitating, copying; imitation; example’. No examples of ‘aithris’ are cited from the early sources, this word being perhaps, according to DIL, a compound of ‘aith-’ (‘re-’) and ‘airis’ (‘[fore-] knowledge’) or ‘oires’ (‘history, knowledge or record of events’). Turning to the Acts, ‘úsáid a bhaint as aon uirlis nó fearas …, leictreach nó eile, chun glaonna éan nó glaonna mamach fiáin, a ligean nó a aithris’ translates ‘use an electrical or other instrument or appliance … emitting or imitating bird-calls or the calls of wild mammals’ in s35(1)(d) of the Wildlife Act, 1976, while ‘Déanfar in ordú a bhaineann le comhaontú um eiseachadadh … téarmaí an chomhaontaithe … a aithris nó a chorprú’ translates ‘An order relating to an extradition agreement … shall recite or embody the terms of the agreement’ in s8(3) of the Extradition Act, 1965. ‘Aithris … ar fhógrán sonraithe’ translates ‘repetitions of a specified advertisement’ in s42(2)(c) of the Building Societies Act, 1989, while ‘aithris dhealraitheach’ translates ‘colourable imitation’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘I utter (a forgery)’ is translated as ‘rithim (brionnú)’ in Tearmaí Dlí – see, for example, s39 of the Office Premises Act, 1958, where ‘If any person … knowingly utters or makes use of any such certificate so forged … as aforesaid’ is translated as ‘Duine ar bith … a rithfeas nó a úsáidfeas


A study of the Irish text

go feasach aon deimhniú den tsaghas sin a bheas brionnaithe … mar adúradh’, with ‘if any person … willingly connives at any such forging, … uttering … as aforesaid’ being translated as ‘Duine ar bith a chúlcheadós go toiliúil aon bhrionnú, … rith … mar adúradh’. In Article 18 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘in respect of any utterance in either House’ is translated as ‘i dtaobh éinní dá ndéarfa sé in aon Tigh den dá Thigh’. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú questions whether ‘a rá’ can be used with ‘ábhar’ (i.e. literally ‘to say material’) – note above how we have ‘éinní dá ndéarfa sé’ in the 1922 Constitution, however. Professor Ó Murchú finds no fault with ‘aithris’, remarking that it is only with the preposition ‘ar’ that it has the sense of ‘imitate’. Máirtín Ó Murchú also suggests using ‘a aitheasc’. inphionóis This term is translated as ‘punishable’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s3(1) of the Genocide Act, 1973, ‘No offence which, if committed in the State, would be punishable as genocide … shall be regarded as a political offence’ is translated as ‘Ní mheasfar gur cion polaitiúil … aon chion ab inphionóis, dá mba sa Stát a rinneadh é, mar chinedhíothú’. In s120(4) of the Succession Act, 1965, ‘A person who has been found guilty of an offence against the deceased … punishable by imprisonment for a maximum period of at least two years’ is translated as ‘Duine a fuarthas ciontach i gcion in aghaidh an éagaigh … is inphionóis le príosúnacht ar feadh uastréimhse dhá bhliain ar a laghad’. In s10(1) of the Extradition Act, 1965, ‘extradition shall be granted only in respect of an offence which is punishable under the laws of the requesting country … by imprisonment’ is translated as ‘ní dheonófar eiseachadadh ach amháin i leith ciona atá inphionóis faoi dhlíthe na tíre iarrthaí … le príosúnacht’, while in s20(1) of the Misuse of Drugs Act, 1977, ‘Any person who aids, abets, counsels or induces the commission in a place outside the State of an offence punishable under a corresponding law in force in that place’ is translated as ‘Aon duine a chabhróidh nó a neartóidh le duine, nó a chomhairleoidh dó nó a thabharfaidh air, cion a dhéanamh, in áit lasmuigh den Stát, atá inphionósaithe faoi dhlí comhréire a bheidh i bhfeidhim san áit sin’. diamhaslach This headword is translated as ‘blasphemous’ in Téarmaí Dlí and in Ó Dónaill, ‘diamhasla’, literally ‘god-insulting’, being translated as ‘blasphemy’ in both sources. Dinneen translates ‘dia-mhaslach’ as ‘blasphemous, impious’. ‘Maslach’ is translated as ‘abusive, insolent’ in DIL, with only one example being cited, ‘masla’/‘maslad’ (‘insult, opprobrium, disgrace’), on which it is based, not being cited in any of the early sources. In s3(2) of the Censorship of Films (Amendment) Act, 1925, ‘by reason of its being indecent, obscene, or blasphemous, or because the display thereof in public would convey suggestions contrary to public morality or would be otherwise subversive of public morality’ is translated as ‘toisc é bheith nea-náireach, draosta, no naomhaithiseach no toisc go gcuirfí smaointe in úil a bheadh contrárdha don mhoráltacht phuiblí no go millfí an mhoráltacht phuiblí ar aon chuma eile dá nochtfí go puiblí é’. ‘Naomh-aithiseach’ is translated as ‘blasphemous, profane’ in Dinneen, ‘naomhaithiseach’ being similarly translated in Ó Dónaill.

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ceannairceach This headword is translated as ‘seditious’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘ceannairc’ translating ‘sedition’ and ‘ceannairc faoi airm’ translating ‘armed rebellion’. See the commentary on Article 40.4.6o regarding ‘ceannairc’, on which this adjective is based. Ó Dónaill translates ‘ceannairceach’ as ‘mutinous, rebellious’. While Dinneen gives ‘ceannairc’ as a headword, translated as ‘strife, division; a meeting; rebellion, conspiracy’, he does not appear to give ‘ceannairceach’ as a headword. DIL translates ‘cennaircech’ as ‘contentious, quarrelsome’, giving examples from the fifteenth century (this headword being translated as ‘cantankerous’ by the editor of Caithréim Thoirdhealbhaigh) onwards. Turning to the Acts, in s15(9)(d)(ii) of the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923, ‘(persons) belonging to … any unlawful or seditious association’ is translated as ‘(daoine) do bhain le haon chumann nea-dhleathach no ceannairceach’ and ‘treasonable or seditious documents’ is translated as ‘scríbhinní tréasúnta no ceannairceacha’ in s2(1) of the Public Safety Act, 1927. graosta This adjective is translated as ‘obscene’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘graosta’ as ‘lewd, obscene, filthy’, translating ‘caint ghraosta’, ‘scéal graosta’ and ‘amhrán graosta’ respectively as ‘bawdy talk’, ‘smutty story’ and ‘ribald song’. Dinneen gives Ó Dónaill’s translation of ‘graosta’ in reverse order. DIL translates ‘graosda’ as ‘obsence, lewd, licentious’, giving but one example, from Ó Heoghusa’s An Teagasg Criosdaidhe (1611) (with ‘comhrádh’, ‘conversation’), referring to two citations in Donlevy’s An Teagasg Críosduidhe (1742). DIL also gives two examples of the headword ‘gróesda’ (translated as ‘gross, obscene’), both with the plural of ‘briathar’ (‘word’), from Aodh Mac Aingil’s Scáthán Shacramuinte na hAithridhe (1618) and Flaithrí Ó Maolchonaire’s Desiderius, nó Scáthán an Chrábhaidh (1616). Note that ‘draosta’ is the form of this headword in the original text. Ó Dónaill refers to ‘graosta’ as the standard form under that headword, Dinneen giving a separate entry, translating ‘draosta’ as ‘obscene, smutty’. ‘Indecent’ is translated as ‘mígheanasach’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘indecent assault’ and ‘indecent exposure’ are translated respectively as ‘ionsaí mígheanasach’ and ‘nochtadh mígheanasach’. ‘Indecent’ is translated as ‘mígheanasach; míchuibheasach’ in De Bhaldraithe. Note that in s9(1)(d) of the Radio and Television Act, 1988, ‘(that) anything which may reasonably be regarded as offending against good taste or decency’ is translated as (‘nach gcraolfaidh sé) aon ní a bhféadfaí a mheas le réasún gur ní é a ghoileann ar chaoinbhéasa nó ar chuibheas’. In s2 of the Censorship of Publications Act, 1929, we find the following ‘Definition’: The word ‘indecent’ shall be construed as including suggestive of, or inciting to sexual immorality or unnatural vice or likely in any similar way to corrupt or deprave. Léireofar an focal ‘nea-náireach’ mar fhocal a fholuíonn rud a mheabhródh mí-mhóráltacht inscine no dubháilceas mí-nádúrtha do dhuine no a ghríosfadh chuige é no is dócha a dhéanfadh in aon tslí eile den tsórt san duine do thruailliú no do chorba.

The same English text (commencing with ‘the word “indecent” includes’ and ‘other’ inserted before ‘similar’) is translated as follows in s1 of the Censorship of Publications Act, 1946:


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folaíonn rud a bheith ‘mígheanasach’ é bheith ina rud a mheabhródh mí-mhoráltacht chollaí nó duáilceas mí-nádúrtha do dhuine nó a chorródh chuige sin é nó is dócha a dhéanfadh in aon tslí eile den tsórt sin duine a thruailliú nó a chorbadh.

‘That a book is indecent or obscene’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil leabhar mígheanasach nó draosta’ in s2(1) of the Censorship of Publications Act, 1967. Returning to the early Acts, ‘Indecent Assault on Males or Females’ is translated as ‘Ionnsuidhe Mí-mhorálta ar Fhireannaigh no ar Bhaineannacha’ in the Third Schedule to the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923 (where, incidentally, ‘Blasphemy’ is translated as ‘Diamhasla’), while in the Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1926, ‘any message or communication of an indecent, obscene, or offensive character’ is translated as ‘aon teachtaireacht no conbharsáid de shaghas náireach no draosta no maslathach’.

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Provision may be made in accordance with law to prevent or regulate assemblies from which it is determined in accordance with law that there is a danger that breach of peace will come or that they are a danger or an annoyance to the people in general, and moreover assemblies near either of the Houses of the Oireachtas. ENGLISH TEXT

The right of the citizens to assemble peaceably and without arms. Provision may be made by law to prevent or control meetings which are determined in accordance with law to be calculated to cause a breach of the peace or to be a danger or nuisance to the general public and to prevent or control meetings in the vicinity of either House of the Oireachtas.

Divergences between the official texts aon ní Literally ‘any thing’. In s11(2) of the Minimum Notice and Terms of Employment Act, 1973, ‘The decision of the Tribunal on any matter referred to it under this section shall be final and conclusive’ is translated as ‘Is cinneadh críochnaitheach dochloíte a bheidh i gcinneadh an Bhinse ar aon ní a tharchuirfear chuige faoin alt seo’. Usually, however, ‘aon ní’ translates ‘anything’ and, in the negative, ‘nothing’, in the Acts – see s3(1) of the Fourth Schedule to the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, for example, where ‘the making of anything available for inspection’ is translated as ‘aon ní a chur ar fáil lena iniúchadh’. See also the commentary on Article 13.7.1o. ‘Matter’ is translated as ‘ábhar’ in Téarmaí Dlí and is generally translated accordingly in the Acts – see s48(h) of the above-mentioned Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, for example, where ‘licences to use any copyright material’ is translated as ‘ceadúnais aon ábhar cóipchirt … a úsáid’.

1

Direct translation

6

2 3

4

5

Is cion inphionóis 1 de réir dlí ábhar diamhaslach, ceannairceach, nó mígheanasach a fhoilsiú nó a rá2. 7

Variants 1 ‘Is cion inphionóis é’, ‘a bheidh inphionósaithe’, ‘a bheidh inphionóis’ 2 ‘a aithris’, ‘a aitheasc’

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oii

AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1Oii

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ceart na saoránach chun teacht ar tionól go sítheoilte gan arm. Féadfar socrú a dhéanamh de réir dlí chun cosc a chur nó rialú a dhéanamh ar thionóil a gcinnfear de réir dlí gur baol briseadh síochána a theacht díobh nó gur contúirt nó cránas don phobal i gcoitinne iad, agus fós ar thionóil i gcóngar do cheachtar de Thithe an Oireachtais. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to come on assembly peacefully unarmed.

‘Meetings which are determined … to be calculated to cause a breach of the peace’ is expressed as ‘tionóil a gcinnfear … gur baol briseadh síochána a theacht díobh’ (‘meetings which are determined that there is a danger that a breach of peace will come from them’) in the Irish text. ‘To assemble’ is expressed as ‘teacht ar tionól’ (‘to come on assembly’) in the Irish text. ‘Peaceably and without arms’ is expressed as ‘go sítheoilte gan arm’ (‘peacefully unarmed’) in the Irish text. The Irish term used to express ‘assemble’ (‘tionól’) is also used to express ‘meeting’, the latter term being translated as ‘cruinniú’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘By law’ and ‘in accordance with law’ are both expressed as ‘de réir dlí’ in the Irish text, ‘de réir’ being translated as ‘in accordance with’ in Téarmaí Dlí – where, however, ‘scor as oifig de réir oird’ is translated as ‘retirement by rotation’. ‘Nuisance’ is expressed as ‘cránas’ (‘annoyance’) in the Irish text, ‘núis’ translating ‘nuisance’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘To prevent or control’ is repeated in the English text, the latter citation being expressed simply by ‘fós’ (‘moreover’) in the Irish text.

Note that Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution reads as follows: The right of free expression of opinion as well as the right to assemble peaceably and without arms, and to form associations or unions is guaranteed for purposes not opposed to public morality. Laws regulating the manner in which the right of forming associations and the right of free assembly may be exercised shall contain no political, religious or class distinction. Is slán ceart oipineon do chur in úil gan chosg agus ceart teacht le chéile go síochánta gan airm, agus ceart cumainn no aontaisí do bhunú ar aon toisg ná fuil i gcoinne mhoráltacht phuiblí. Na dlithe a rialóidh an tslí ’na bhféadfar ceart cumainn do bhunú agus ceart saor-theacht le chéile do chur i bhfeidhm, ní dhéanfaid aon leithreachas i dtaobh polaitíochta ná creidimh ná aicme.

This Article was amended as follows in s24(1) of the Constitution (Amendment No. 17) Act, 1931:


A study of the Irish text

Whenever it appears to the Executive Council that the holding of public meetings in or in the vicinity of any particular building or any particular road or street is likely to lead to a breach of the peace or to be prejudicial to the maintenance of law and order.…Pé uair do chífear don Ard-Chomhairle gur deallrathach gurb é thiocfadh as cruinnithe puiblí do chomóradh in aon fhoirgint áirithe no ar aon bhóthar no shráid áirithe no in aice leo ná go mbrisfí an tsíocháin no go ndéanfaí dochar do dhlí agus d’ordú do choimeád.

Commentary teacht ar tionól … ar thionóil ‘After the re-assembly of Dáil Éireann’ is expressed as ‘ar Dháil Éireann d’ationól’ in Article 18.3, with ‘after a dissolution and re-assembly of Dáil Éireann’ being expressed as ‘I ndiaidh lánscor agus ationól do Dáil Éireann’ in Article 27.5.ii and ‘on the reassembly of Dáil Éireann’ being expressed as ‘ar ationól do Dháil Éireann’ in Article 28.10. ‘The right of free assembly’ is expressed as ‘(modh oibrithe) … an chirt chun teacht le chéile ar saorthionól’ in Article 40.6.2o. ‘Tionól neamhdhleathach’ is translated as ‘unlawful assembly’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Tionól’ is translated as ‘gathering, assembly’ in Ó Dónaill – see the commentary on Articles 15.11.3o and 18.8. DIL translates ‘tinól’ as (a) ‘act of collecting, gathering’ and (b) ‘an (armed) assembly; band, company’, citing examples of sense (a) from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. In the early Irish law-tracts, ‘tinól’ also had the sense of ‘that part of the marriage contribution which consisted of cattle’ – see DIL s.v. ‘tinól’ (c). ‘Tionól na Dála tar éis Olltoghcháin’ translates ‘meeting of Dáil subsequent to General Election’ in the very first heading in the Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann, with s19 reading as follows: Fiche comhalta an córam is gá chun tionól den Dáil a bheith ann. The quorum necessary to constitute a meeting of the Dáil shall be twenty members.

‘The Assembly of the European Communities’ is styled ‘Tionól na gComhphobal Eorpach’ in s1 of the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977 (‘An tAcht um Thoghcháin do Thionól na hEorpa, 1977’). Turning to ‘assemble’, in the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann, 2/7/69, ‘The Dáil assembled at 3 p.m.’ is translated as ‘Tháinig an Dáil le chéile ar 3 p.m.’ In the text of the Final Act in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 1461), ‘The Plenipotentiaries of … assembled at Brussels on the twenty-second day of January one thousand nine hundred and seventy-two’ is translated as ‘Tá na Lánchumhachtaigh … Ar theacht le chéile dóibh sa Bhruiséil, an dóú lá is fiche d’Eanáir míle naoi gcéad seachtó a dó’. ‘Teacht le chéile’ translates ‘assemble’ in Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution and in s7(3) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, ‘If any person is present at … an assembly of persons who … have assembled or met together’ is translated as ‘Má bhíonn éinne láithreach … i dtionól daoine … a dhin … teacht no cruinniú le chéile’. ‘Meeting’ is translated as ‘cruinniú’ in Téarmaí Dlí where ‘annual general meeting’ is translated as ‘cruinniú ginearálta bliantúil’. go sítheoilte ‘Picéadú sítheoilte’ is translated as ‘peaceful picketing’ in Téarmaí Dlí. According to Ó Dónaill,

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‘síothóilte’ is the standard form of this adjective, translated as ‘settled, peaceful’. Dinneen translates ‘sítheoilte’ as ‘peaceful, polite, affable, refined’ and s.v. ‘sítheoilteacht’, quotes the following from Pádraig Feirritéir of New York, formerly of the Ballyferriter district of Kerry: ‘ar chumha ná ar chleas ní ghlacfaid sítheoilteacht’ (‘on no consideration will they be satisfied with mild measures’). DIL cites examples of the adverbial usage s.v. ‘síthóilte’ (‘sítháilte’), mainly from the seventeenth century, the first example being ‘an mbíthear sunn go síotháilte’ (‘are men at peace [with me] here?’), from a miscellaneous collection of religious poetry, Dán Dé. ‘Síthóilte’/‘sítháilte’ has been translated as ‘peaceful joy’, that is, as a compound of ‘síd’ and ‘fáilte’, but according to DIL it is a participle of the verb ‘síthlaid’ (‘strains, filters, sifts’), meaning ‘purified, clear’ and hence ‘settled, tranquil (?)’. ‘Síthlaid’ is based on ‘síthal’, ‘a vessel for drawing water, a bucket’, which comes from the Latin ‘situla’. Turning to ‘peaceable’ in the Acts, in s2(b) of the Prohibition of Forcible Entry and Occupation Act, 1971, ‘(unless) he does so with all reasonable speed and in a peaceable manner’ is translated as ‘mura ndéanfaidh sé sin a luaithe ariamh is réasúnach agus go síochánta’. In s10 of the Enforcement of Law (Occasional Powers) Act, 1923, ‘Provided always that before breaking into any dwelling house … the Under-Sheriff shall have made reasonable efforts to enter peaceably and without violence’ is translated as ‘Más rud é gur dhin an Fo-Shirriamh sarar bhris sé isteach in aon tigh comhnuithe … iarrachtaí réasúnta ar dhul isteach go síochánta agus gan foiréigean’. baol This headword is translated as ‘danger’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘is baol liom, I fear’ and ‘ní baol duit titim, you are in no danger of falling, you need not fear that you will fall’. Dinneen translates ‘baoghal’ as ‘danger; a point open to attack; apprehension’, citing ‘baol báis, danger of death’, for example. DIL translates ‘báegul’ as ‘unguarded condition, danger, hazard, vulnerability; chance, opportunity (of taking by surprise, inflicting an injury)’, giving examples from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. In early Irish law-tracts, ‘báegul’ had the sense of ‘making a mistake (in judgement), etc.’ (DIL). Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 304, translates ‘báegul’ as ‘legal error, procedural mistake’, citing the often repeated maxim in the law-tracts, ‘cach brithemoin a báegul’ (‘to every judge his error’, i.e. ‘every judge must bear the responsibility for any mistakes he makes’, ibid, p. 54). Turning to the Acts, ‘go mba dhóigh baol báis do bhaint le haon mhoill ag fáil an bharántais’ translates ‘that the delay in obtaining a warrant would be likely to endanger life’ in s40(1)(c) of the Dangerous Substances Act, 1972, with ‘gur léir an long a bheith neamhoiriúnach le dul chun farraige gan bheith ina baol báis do dhaoine’ translating ‘that the ship is manifestly unfit to proceed to sea without danger to human life’ in s18(4) of the Merchant Shipping (Load Lines) Act, 1968, and ‘chun go n-íoslaghdófaí an baol’ translating ‘to minimise the risk’ in s3(2)7(c) of the Local Government (Multi-Storey Buildings) Act, 1988. Turning to ‘to be calculated to’ in the Acts, in s11(3) of the Building Societies Act, 1976, ‘that the name of the proposed society … so resembles the name of another society … as to be calculated to deceive’ is translated as ‘gur ainm é atá chomh cosúil sin le hainm cumainn eile


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… gur dóigh dó meabhlú’ and in s140(1) of the Mines and Quarries Act, 1965, ‘a document so closely resembling any such certificate as to be calculated to deceive’ is translated as ‘doiciméad a bheidh chomh cosúil le haon deimhniú den sórt sin gur dóigh dó daoine a mheabhlú’. In s6(1)(a) of the Firearms (Proofing) Act, 1968, ‘a mark so nearly resembling such a mark as to be calculated to deceive’ is translated as ‘marc chomh gar i gcosúlacht le marc den sórt sin gur chúis mheabhlaithe é’, while in s14(2) of the Road Traffic Act, 1968, ‘or a mark so nearly resembling it as to be calculated to deceive’ is translated as ‘Nó marc chomh garchosúil leis go rachadh sé chun meabhlaireacht a dhéanamh ar dhuine’. In s55(1) of the Central Bank Act, 1942, ‘or so nearly resembling as to be calculated to deceive’ is translated as ‘no bheidh chó cosúil sin le ceachtar aca san gur deallrathach go meallfaí duine léi’. In s15(1) of the Capital Acquisitions Tax Act, 1976, ‘subject to such conditions as might reasonably be calculated to obtain for him the best price for the property’ is translated as ‘faoi réir cibé coinníollacha ba dhóigh, le réasún, a tharraingeodh an praghas ab fhearr ar an maoin don díoltóir’. We find ‘dóigh’ again in s5(2)(c) of the Tourist Traffic Act, 1952, where ‘which appear to the Board to be calculated to improve tourist traffic’ is translated as ‘is dóigh leis an mBord d’fheabhsódh an trácht cuartaíochta’. In s31(2)(a) of the Electricity (Supply) (Amendment) Act, 1945, on the other hand, ‘and in such other manner as shall appear to the Minister to be calculated to bring his said attention to the knowledge of persons concerned’ is translated as ‘agus i pé slí eile chífear don Aire a bhéarfas le fios do dhaoine lena mbainfidh an scéal go bhfuil sé ar an intinn sin’. Finally, in s2 of the Agricultural Products (Regulation of Export) (Amendment) Act, 1935, ‘as appears to him to be calculated to secure …’ is translated as ‘chífear do is deallrathach a chuirfidh in áirithe’. ‘He calculated she would come’ is cited in Foclóir Oifigiúil as being translated as ‘bhí sé ag leagan amach go dtiocfadh sí’ in L. Mc Cionnaith. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘news calculated to astonish him’ as ‘scéal a chuirfeadh iontas air’ and ‘words calculated to reassure us’ as ‘caint ar dhóigh di misneach a thabhairt dúinn’. cránas Ó Dónaill translates ‘cránas’ as ‘affliction; vexation, annoyance’, citing ‘cránas a thabhairt do dhuine, to cause affliction to someone, to annoy someone’ and ‘cránas a thabhairt do do cholainn, to mortify one’s body’. Dinneen translates ‘crádhnas’ as ‘annoyance, mortification, torture’. DIL cites only one example of ‘craidenus’ – ‘(frie) huatbas 7 craidenus’ (‘horror and affliction’) – this word being based on ‘crád’, ‘torment, anguish, misery; act of tormenting, persecuting, etc.’ ‘Nuisance’ is translated as ‘núis’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘private nuisance’ and ‘public nuisance’ are translated respectively as ‘núis phríobháideach’ and ‘núis phoiblí’. In s125 of the Road Traffic Act, 1961, ‘Nothing in this Act shall authorise any person to use in a public place a vehicle so constructed or used as to cause a public or private nuisance’ is translated as ‘Ní údaróidh aon ní san Acht seo d’aon duine feithicil a úsáid in áit phoiblí a bheidh deartha nó a úsáidfear i slí a dhéanfaidh núis phoiblí nó phríobháideach’. In s24(2) of the Air Pollution Act, 1987, ‘The occupier of any premises shall not cause or permit an emission from such premises in such a quantity, or in

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such a manner, as to be a nuisance’ is translated as ‘Ní chuirfidh áititheoir aon áitribh faoi deara ná ní cheadóidh sé astaíocht a theacht as an áitreabh sin i gcainníocht a d’fhágfadh nó ar shlí a d’fhágfadh gur núis í’ and in s32(1) of the Local Government (Sanitary Services) Act, 1948, ‘If a temporary dwelling is in such a state as to be a nuisance’ is translated as ‘Má bhíonn teaghas sealadach sa riocht sin gur núis é’. In s39(4)(b) of the Housing (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1931, however, we find ‘or is likely to become in such a state as to be a nuisance’ translated as ‘no is dócha thiocfaidh chun bheith sa riocht san go bhfuil no go mbeidh sé ina chráiteas’. Similarly, in s20(1) of the Local Government Act, 1925, ‘which is in such a state as to be a nuisance’ is translated as ‘agus é ar a leithéid sin de staid gur cráiteas é’. Finally, ‘guilty of conduct which is an nuisance or annoyance to adjoining occupiers’ is translated as ‘ciontach in iompar is cráiteas no is ciapa ar shealbhóirí teoranta’ in s4(1)(b) of the Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest (Restrictions) Act, 1923. Note that L. Mc Cionnaith cites ‘ba mhór an crádh é’ from Connacht and Munster s.v. ‘nuisance’, in the sense of ‘worrying thing, person’, with ‘is mór an núis na páistí do bheith ag déanamh torainn’ (‘it is a nuisance that the children are so noisy’) from Connacht. cosc a chun …. ar ‘Cosc’ is translated as ‘obstruction’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘I obstruct’ is translated as ‘coiscim’. ‘Cosc’ is translated as ‘check, restraint, prevention, prohibition’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘cosc a chur ar dhuine’ is translated as ‘to check, restrain, someone’ and ‘cosc a chur le rud’ is translated as ‘to put a stop to something’. Dinneen translates ‘cosc’ as ‘act of restraining, restraint; preventing, hindering, intercepting; reprimanding; correcting; a cessation; a brake; a giving up; impediment, hindrance, restriction, prohibition, stop’, with ‘cuirim cosc le (or ar)’ translated as ‘I prevent, hinder, stop’. DIL gives examples of the phrase ‘do-beir (cuirid) cosc for’ from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms – ‘nírbuchosc coir dorratsat forru són’ (‘it was not a proper correction that they had inflicted upon them’) glossing Latin ‘correptionis’ – and from later sources. ‘Cosc’, verbal noun of ‘con-secha’, is translated as (a) ‘act of reproving, admonishing; correcting, reproof, correction’ and (b) ‘act of hindering, preventing; staunching (of wounds)’ in DIL. In the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 28), ‘chun cosc a chur ar iarratas ó chéile an céile eile a chur isteach dá (h)ainneoin’ translates ‘to prohibit applications for involuntary admissions made by a spouse’. ‘Prevents, or attempts to prevent, any person from appearing before or being questioned by an inspector’ is translated as ‘chuirfidh cosc, nó a fhéachfaidh le cosc a chur, le haon duine ó láithriú os comhair nó óna cheistiú ag cigire’ in s11(4)(d) of the Holidays (Employment) Act, 1973. In s26 of the Sea Pollution Act, 1991, ‘Powers of Minister to prevent, mitigate or eliminate pollution’ is translated as ‘Cumhachtaí an Aire chun truailliú a chosc, a mhaolú nó a chealú’. ‘Cosc a chur ar’ translates ‘obstruct’ in s147 of the Electoral Act, 1922. rialú a dhéanamh ar ‘Rialú’ is translated as ‘ruling’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where the verb ‘rialaím’ is translated as ‘I control, I rule’. ‘Rialú’ is translated as ‘rule, regulation; control, government’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Riaghlughadh’ is


A study of the Irish text

translated as ‘the act of ruling, government, discipline, management’ in Dinneen, where the following proverb is cited: ‘is dual riaghlughadh do réir oideachais’ (‘the ruler is according to the upbringing he has received’). Old Irish ‘ríagol’, on which ‘ríaglaid’ is based, comes from Latin ‘regula’. DIL gives examples of both ‘ríaglad’ (‘regulating, ruling, controlling’), verbal noun of ‘ríaglaid’ (‘regulates, orders, arranges’) and ‘ríaghlughadh’ (verbal noun of the later verb ‘ríaglaigid’, ‘= ríaglaid’). In s3 of the Article VI of the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957, entitled ‘Control of capital transfers’ (‘Aistrithe caipitil a rialú’), ‘Members may exercise such controls as are necessary to regulate international capital movements’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh na comhaltaí pé rialú a dhéanamh is gá chun gluaiseachtaí idirnáisiúnta caipitil a rialáil’ and in the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97, ‘we will continue to press for the development of a Community industrial policy that can control State aids’ is translated as ‘leanfaimid de bheith ag iarraidh beartas tionscail Comhphobail a fhorbairt faoinar féidir rialú a dhéanamh ar chúnamh Stát’. See the commentary on Articles 10.3 and 45.2.ii, where ‘rialaigh’ and ‘urlámhas’ respectively express ‘control’. Note the we find ‘smachtaigh’ translating ‘control’ in the following contexts: in s12(1) of the Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1977, ‘where it appears to a local authority that it is necessary to do so in order to prevent or control pollution of waters’ is translated as ‘I gcás ar dealraitheach d’údarás áitiúil gur gá beart a dhéanamh chun truailliú uiscí a chosc nó a shrianadh’ and in s13 of the Fifth Schedule to the Local Government (Planning and Development) Act, 1963, ‘and the provision of such arrangements for heating and cooking as are calculated to prevent or control so far as practicable the emission of smoke or nauseous gases’ is translated as ‘agus cibé socruithe a chur ar fáil chun téimh agus cócaireachta a mheasfar a choiscfidh nó a shrianfaidh an oiread agus is féidir, deatach nó gásanna díobhálacha ó a bheith ag sceitheadh amach’. gan arm ‘Le harm’ expresses ‘by force of arms’ in Article 39 and ‘ceannairc faoi arm’ expresses ‘armed rebellion’ in Article 28.3.3o, for example, with ‘coinbhleacht faoi arm’ expressing ‘armed conflict’. ‘Armed rebellion’ is translated as ‘ceannairc faoi airm’ in Téarmaí Dlí, however. Ó Dónaill gives ‘arms (collective)’ as a secondary sense of the Irish ‘arm’, citing ‘faoi arm, under arms’, the principal sense being (a) ‘weapon’ and (b) ‘implement, tool’. Dinneen translates ‘arm teineadh’ as ‘fire-arms’. ‘Arm’ comes from Latin ‘arma’ – see DIL s.v. ‘arm’, where the plural is cited (in the sense of ‘weapon’) after ‘cen’ (Modern Irish ‘gan’) in ‘cen armu, cen fáebru’ (i.e. without weapons, without sharp-edged weapons – see DIL s.v. ‘fáebar’) from the tale Mesca Ulad, in the twelfth-century Book of Leinster. Note that we find ‘gan airm’ expressing ‘without arms’ in Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution and finally that ‘by an unarmed person’ is translated as ‘ag duine neamharmtha’ in s2(1) of the Wildlife Act, 1976. Regarding not having ‘agus’ expressing ‘and’ before ‘arms’, note that Irish regularly drops the conjunction between two adjectives. a theacht díobh Literally ‘to come from them’. ‘Cause’ is translated as ‘cúis’ in Téarmaí Dlí where ‘cause of action’ and ‘reasonable cause’ are translated respectively as ‘cúis

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chaingne’ and ‘cúis réasúnach’. In s18 of the Imposition of Duties (Dumping and Subsidies) Act, 1968, ‘the importation is such as to cause or threaten to cause material injury to an industry’ is translated as ‘gurb allmhairiú é de shórt ba chúis nó ba bhaol a bheith ina chúis le díobháil ábhartha a dhéanamh do thionscal’. In s3(1) of the Criminal Law (Rape) (Amendment) Act, 1990, ‘such as to cause injury, humiliation or degradation’ is translated as ‘atá ina chúis le gortú, le huirísliú nó le táireadh’. See the commentary on Articles 12.10.5o and 25.5.1o where ‘cuir á’ and ‘tabhair’ respectively express ‘cause’. Regarding ‘a chur faoi deara’ translating ‘cause’ in a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that this Connacht phrase is not generally used without an indirect object – e.g. ‘é a chur faoi deara duit’. Professor Ó Murchú recommends either ‘a tharraingt’ or ‘gur dóigh go mba thrúig leis an tsíocháin a bhriseadh iad’, or retaining the phrase of the original text. contúirt ‘Contúirt’ is translated as ‘danger’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘contúirt neamhfhollas’ translating ‘hidden danger’. In s13(2) of the Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act, 1980, for example, ‘free from any defect which would render it a danger to the public’ is translated as ‘saor ó aon locht a thabharfadh gur chontúirt í don phobal’ and in s20(10)(b) of the Road Traffic Act, 1961, ‘there was not a defect affecting the vehicle which was such that the vehicle was, when in use, a danger to the public’ is translated as ‘nach raibh … locht ar an bhfeithicil a d’fhág gur chontúirt don phobal an fheithicil nuair a bheadh sí á húsáid’. ‘To the extent to which such substance … is … a danger to the life or health of a person coming into contact therewith’ is translated as ‘don mhéid … is contúirt an tsubstaint … sin do bheo nó do shláinte duine a theagmhaíonn leis’ in s6 of the Nuclear Energy (An Bord Fuinnimh Núicléigh) Act, 1971. i gcóngar do See the commentary on Article 12.11.1o where ‘ar a cóngar’ expresses ‘near (it)’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘bheith i gcóngar áite, to the near, close to, a place’ along with ‘bhí an bás i gcóngar dó, death was drawing near him’. Dinneen translates ‘i gcómhgar’ as ‘near at hand’, citing ‘ní’l sé i n-aon chómhgar dó, it is not all near it, there is no comparison’. ‘Comgar’, based on ‘gar’ (‘short [of time or space]’, ‘near’), is translated as ‘(equally) near, ready’ in DIL, citing ‘i gcomhghar dhuibh’, from a miscellaneous collection of Classical Irish poetry, as an example of ‘comgar’ in prepositional phrases with the preposition ‘do’, or genitive, in the sense of ‘near (to)’. Turning to the Acts, ‘which may be the area in the vicinity of the court’ is translated as ‘a bhféadfaidh gurb é an limistéar i gcomharsanacht na cúirte é’ in s14(2) of the Juries Act, 1976. In s14(1)(c)(ii) of the Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1960, ‘that they are located, either, partly on that site or in the immediate vicinity’ is translated as ‘gur ar an láithreán sin atá cuid de nó gur ina gharchomharsanacht atá sé’. Note that in s24(1) of the Constitution (Amendment No. 17) Act, 1931, we find ‘the holding of public meetings in or in vicinity of any particular building …’ translated as ‘cruinnithe puiblí do chomóradh in aon fhoirgint áirithe … no in aice leo’. Commenting on ‘i gcomharsanacht’ in a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú


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remarks that the sense of this word might be too broad for this context, i.e. outside of the gates. He therefore recommends retaining the phrase of the original text. briseadh síochána This phrase is translated as ‘breach of the peace’ in Téarmaí Dlí. In s17(1)(a) of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939, ‘to commit or to plan, contrive, promote, assist or conceal the commission of any crime or any breach of the peace’ is translated as ‘aon choir no aon bhriseadh síochána dhéanamh no san do bheartú, do thabhairt chun críche, no do chur ar aghaidh no cabhrú leis nó é cheilt’. See the commentary on Article 15.13.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3 4 5

Standardised Irish text Ceart na saoránach chun teacht ar tionól go síothóilte gan arm. Féadfar socrú a dhéanamh de réir dlí chun cosc a chur nó rialú a dhéanamh ar thionóil a gcinnfear de réir dlí gur baol briseadh síochána a theacht díobh nó gur contúirt nó cránas don phobal i gcoitinne iad, agus fós ar thionóil i gcóngar do cheachtar de Thithe an Oireachtais.

6 7

‘Unions’ is expressed as ‘cumainn’ in the Irish text, which is the plural form of the term translated as ‘society’ in Téarmaí Dlí, although ‘trade union’ is translated there as ‘ceardchumann’, the general Irish term for ‘trade union’. ‘To form’ is expressed as ‘a bhunú’ (‘to establish’) in the Irish text. ‘Exercise’ is again expressed by ‘oibriú’, which is the Irish legal term for ‘operate’. ‘Regulation’ is expressed as ‘rialú’, the verbal noun of the verb translated as ‘control’/‘rule’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘The foregoing’ is expressed as ‘réamhráite’ (‘aforesaid’/ ‘aforementioned’) in the Irish text. ‘However’ is again expressed as ‘Ach’ (‘But’) in the Irish text. ‘Is cead’ (‘it is permitted’) again expresses ‘may’ in the Irish text.

Note that ‘The right … to form associations and unions’ is translated as ‘ceart cumainn nó aontaisí do bhunú’ in Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution.

Commentary Direct translation Ceart na saoránach chun tionól go síochánta agus gan airm. Féadfar socrú a dhéanamh le dlí chun cruinnithe a chosc nó a rialú a gcinnfear de réir dlí gur dóigh dóibh briseadh síochána a tharraingt1 nó bheith ina gcontúirt nó ina núis don phobal i gcoitinne agus chun cruinnithe i gcóngar2 ceachtar Tí den Oireachtas a chosc nó a rialú.

Variants 1 ‘a chur faoi deara’ 2 ‘i gcomharsanacht’

ARTICLE 40.6.1Oiii

AIRTEAGAL 40.6.1oiii

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ceart na saoránach chun comhlachais agus cumainn a bhunú. Ach is cead dlíthe a achtú chun oibriú an chirt réamhráite a rialú agus a stiúradh ar mhaithe leis an bpobal. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The right of the citizens to establish associations and societies. But it is permitted to enact laws to regulate and direct the operation of the aforesaid right for the good of the people. ENGLISH TEXT

The right of the citizens to form associations and unions. Laws, however, may be enacted for the regulation and control in the public interest of the exercise of the foregoing right.

cumainn ‘Cumann’ is translated as ‘society’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘cara-chumann’ is translated as ‘friendly society’ and ‘comharchumann’ as ‘co-operative society’, with ‘trade union’ being translated as ‘ceardchumann’. ‘Association; club, society’ is one of the senses of ‘cumann’ (‘of organised body’) given in Ó Dónaill, who refers to ‘Cumann Lúthchleas Gael’ (‘the Gaelic Athletic Association’), as well as ‘cumann liteartha’ (‘literary society’), ‘cumann polaitíochta’ (‘political club’) and ‘cumann lucht tráchtála’ (‘chamber of commerce’). ‘Society, club’ are among the senses of ‘cumann’ given by Dinneen, who cites ‘cumann na naomh’ (the ‘Communion of Saints’) from Donlevy’s Irish Catechism, 1742. ‘Cumann’ comes from Latin ‘commentum’, and examples of this word from the Old Irish Glosses of the eighth century onwards are given in DIL, including the following from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on a Latin commentary on the Psalms: ‘robói commant n-etarru du denam uilc frimmaccu Israhel’ (‘there was a covenant between them to do evil to the Children of Israel’), which glosses Latin ‘ex professo’. DIL translates ‘commann’ as ‘alliance, pact, union, friendship; company, band; later love, affection’. As an example of the sense of ‘union’ above, the following is cited in DIL from a poem edited under the title ‘Address to David O’Keeffe’: ‘aigneadh dúnta ’gun rígh ruind / ó da s(h)ín cúpla ar ccomuind’ (‘seeing that the king’s heart has been barred against me since he strained the couplings of our union’). Turning to the modern Acts, in s30(4)(a) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘following consultation with any recognised staff associations or trade unions concerned’ is translated as ‘tar éis comhairle a ghlacadh le haon chomhlachais foirne nó ceardchumainn aitheanta lena mbaineann’ and in s33(3) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, ‘members of an association of persons for whose benefit the gift was made’ is translated as ‘comhaltaí de chomhlachas daoine ar chun tairbhe dóibh a tugadh an bronntanas’. We see above that ‘cumann’ translates ‘association’ in the 1922 Constitution. We sometimes find ‘cumann’ instead of the usual ‘comhlachas’ in titles of organisations –


A study of the Irish text

‘Cumann Dochtúirí na hÉireann’ (‘Irish Medical Association’), as against ‘Comhlachas Ban Tí na hÉireann’ (‘Irish Housewives Association’), for example. ‘Cumann’ generally translates ‘society’ in the Acts – ‘ciallaíonn “baincéir” duine a sheolann gnó baincéireachta sa Stát agus folaíonn sé cara-chumann, cumann tionscail agus soláthair, cumann foirgníochta …’ translates ‘“banker” means a person who carries on banking business in the State and includes a friendly society, an industrial and provident society, a building society’ in s61(1) of the Finance Act, 1973, for example. ‘Cumann’ also translates ‘union’, particularly in relation to a trade union – in s1(1) of the Trade Union Act, 1975 (‘An tAcht Ceardchumann, 1975’), for example, ‘ciallaíonn “na cumainn chónascacháin” agus “an cumann cónasctha”, faoi seach, maidir le cónascadh atá beartaithe, na ceardchumainn a bheartaíonn cónascadh agus an ceardchumann a leanfaidh as an gcónascadh atá beartaithe’ translates ‘“the amalgamating union” and “the amalgamated union”, in relation to a proposed amalgamation, mean respectively the trade unions proposing to amalgamate and the trade union which is to result from the proposed amalgamation’. In s2(1) of the Postal and Telecommunications Services Act, 1983, ‘“recognised unions and associations” means unions and associations recognised by the postal company’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “cumainn agus comhlachais aitheanta” cumainn agus comhlachais atá aitheanta ag an gcuideachta poist’, this being defined separately from ‘recognised trade unions and staff associations’ (‘ceardchumainn agus comhlachais foirne aitheanta’). ‘Aontas’ also translates ‘union’, ‘Treaty on European Union’, for example, being styled ‘Conradh ar an Aontas Eorpach’ in Irish, with ‘The Teachers Union of Ireland’ being styled ‘Aontas Múinteoirí na hÉireann’, and ‘Allied Irish Bank’ being styled ‘Banc-Aontas Éireann’. ‘Aontas’ translates ‘union’ in early Acts. In s84 of the ‘Tirconaill County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘Where a Union formerly comprised portions of two or more Counties’ is translated as ‘i gcás cuideanna de dhá Chontae no breis do bheith in aontas go dtí so’ and in s2(1) of the Local Government (Rates on Agricultural Land) Act, 1924, ‘for county-at-large, union, or district charges’ is translated as ‘i gcóir muirearacha contae iomláine, aontais no ceanntair’. ‘The Board of Guardians of the Dublin Union’ is translated as ‘Bord Caomhnóirí Aontais Bhaile Átha Cliath’ in s2(1) of the Local Government (Dublin) (Amendment) Act, 1931. réamhráite This headword is translated as ‘aforesaid, aforementioned’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Réamh-ráidhte’ is translated as ‘aforesaid, forecited, foretold’ in Dinneen. DIL translates ‘remráite’ as ‘aforesaid, above-mentioned’, giving among other citations one from the twelfth-century Book of Leinster. Note incidentally that ‘réamhráiteas’ is translated as ‘premises (i.e. part of deed preceding habendum)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘foregoing’ as ‘deireanach, réamhráite, thuasluaite, roimhe seo’, and ‘the foregoing’ as ‘a bhfuil roimhe seo’. We find ‘parts of the foregoing vehicles’ translated as ‘páirteanna de na feithiclí réamhráite’ in Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 1215). Generally, however, in that source, this term translates ‘aforementioned’, with ‘aforementioned benefits’ being translated as ‘liúntais réamhráite’ (p. 1259), for

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example. ‘Déanta chun na críche réamhráite’ translates ‘constructed for the purpose aforesaid’ in s10(3) of the Value-Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978. ‘Sin roimhe seo’ generally translates ‘foregoing’ in the Acts – see, for example, s49(d) of the Finance Act, 1990, where ‘in the foregoing provisions of this section’ is translated as ‘sna forálacha sin roimhe seo den alt seo’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, remarks that ‘roimhe seo’ would not be understood in this context and recommends retaining ‘réamhráite’. See further the commentary on Article 14.4 where ‘the foregoing provisions’ is expressed as ‘na forálacha sin romhainn’. comhlachais ‘Airteagail chomhlachais’ and ‘meabhrán comhlachais’ are translated respectively as ‘articles of association’ and ‘memorandum of association’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Comhlachas’ is translated as ‘association’ in Ó Dónaill. Dinneen does not appear to give this headword. Following the Constitution, s18 of the Offences Against the State Act, 1939, reads as follows: In order to regulate and control in the public interest the exercise of the constitutional right of citizens to form associations …. Chun stiúradh agus rialú do dhéanamh ar mhaithe leis an bpuiblíocht ar fheidhmiú an chirt atá ag saoránaigh fén mbunreacht chun comhlachaisí do bhunú.

In s65(1)(b) of the Railways Act, 1924, ‘any chamber of commerce or association representative of shipping’ is translated as ‘aon chomhlachas tráchtála no comhlachas atá ionadathach do loingseoireacht’ and in s2(1) of the Public Safety Act, 1927, ‘the word “association” includes any combination of persons’ is translated as ‘foluíonn an focal “comhlachas” aon chomhluadar daoine’. See the commentary on ‘cumainn’ above regarding ‘aontas’ translating ‘union’ in the Acts. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks, however, that ‘aontas’ is associated in Irish with large organisations, such as ‘Aontas na hEorpa’ (‘the European Union’) and ‘Aontas na Sóibhéide’ (‘the Soviet Union’). Professor Ó Murchú therefore recommends ‘cumann’ in the direct translation below. a bhunú ‘Bunaigh’ is translated as ‘found, establish’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘teaghlach, comhlacht, a bhunú, to found a family, a company’ – note that ‘bunaigh’ expresses ‘establish’ in Article 3, for example. ‘Bunuighim’ is translated as ‘I fix, rest, dwell; I found, begin, establish …’ in Dinneen. This verb does not appear to be given as a headword in DIL, where examples are given of ‘bunad’, ‘origin, base, source’, from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, and ‘bun’, on which this is based, is translated as ‘the thick end of anything, base, butt, foot’. Turning to the Acts, ‘Every person who shall … form, organise, promote, or maintain any secret society’ is translated as ‘Gach éinne … a bhunóidh, a chó-ghléasfidh, a chuirfidh ar aghaidh, no a choinneoidh suas aon chumann sicréideach’ in s8(1) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925. In s2(1)(b)(i) of the Credit Union Act, 1966, ‘other than for the purpose of forming or conducting a credit union’ is translated as ‘seachas chun comhar creidmheasa a bhunú nó a stiúradh’. On the other hand, in s12(2) of the Finance (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1968, ‘a company or body of persons … formed or estab-


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lished in the State’ is translated as ‘cuideachta nó comhlacht daoine … a foirmíodh nó a bunaíodh sa Stát’ and in s29(6) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘as if … references to a partnership agreement were references to the contract forming or providing for the formation of a grouping’ is translated as ‘ionann is dá mba thagairtí don chonradh ag foirmiú grúpála, nó ag foráil dá foirmiú, tagairtí do chomhaontú comhpháirtíochta’. ‘To form a body corporate’ is translated as ‘comhlacht corpraithe a fhoirmiú’ in s8(6)(a) of the Údarás na Gaeltachta Act, 1979. Note that in s36(7)(c) of the Safety in Industry Act, 1980, ‘the number of members of the safety committee attending such a meeting shall be at least such as is required to form a quorum’ is translated as ‘is é an líon de chomhaltaí an choiste sábháilteachta a fhreastalóidh ar chruinniú den sórt sin a oiread ar a laghad is gá chun córam a dhéanamh’. In s2(1)(c) of the Second Schedule to the Health Act, 1970, ‘the number of councillors necessary to form a group for the purposes of this rule’ is translated as ‘an líon comhairleoirí is gá chun bheith ina ngrúpa chun críocha na rialach seo’, this being translated as ‘an líon comhairleoirí is gá chun grúpa a dhéanamh chun críocha na rialach seo’ in s2(1)(d) of the First Schedule to the Health Authorities Act, 1960. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that he much prefers ‘a bhunú’ to ‘a fhoirmiú’ there. See further the commentary on Articles 11 and 18.7.1o where ‘form’ is expressed respectively by ‘cuir i’ and ‘cóirigh’. a stiúradh ‘For the control of’ is expressed as ‘chun … a rialú’ in Articles 10.3 and 10.4, with ‘to control’ being expressed as ‘a rialú’ in Articles 33.1 and 40.4.6o, and ‘rialú a dhéanamh ar’ expressing ‘to control’ in Article 40.6.1oii. ‘Stiúradh’ is the verbal noun of ‘stiúir’. ‘Stiúraim’ is translated as ‘I conduct (case, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘foirceannadh faoi stiúradh’ is translated as ‘winding up under supervision’, with ‘stiúrthóir’ being translated as ‘director’. The verb ‘stiúir’ is translated as (1) ‘steer’ and (2) ‘guide, direct, control’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘fir oibre a stiúradh, to direct workmen’ and ‘gnó a stiúradh, to conduct a business’. Dinneen translates ‘stiúruighim’ as ‘I direct, guide, steer, chastise; introduce, initiate, cause’. DIL translates ‘stiúraid’ as ‘steers, guides, directs’, this verb being based on ‘stiúir’, translated as (a) ‘rudder, helm’; (b) ‘guidance, control, government’ and (c) ‘guide, controller’ in DIL, ‘stiúir’ coming from Old Norse, ‘styri’ – one of many Irish nautical terms which come from Old Norse. ‘Stiúir’ generally translates ‘conduct’ and ‘direct’ in the Acts, ‘seol’ also translating ‘conduct’. In s4(1) of the Criminal Justice (Legal Aid) Act, 1962, for example, ‘beidh an duine sin i dteideal cúnamh dlíthiúil in aisce a fháil chun achomharc a ullmhú agus a stiúradh’ translates ‘the person shall be entitled to free legal aid in the preparation and conduct of an appeal’. ‘Agus a stiúrann bainistíocht na cuideachta sin’ translates ‘and directs … the management of (any public utility) company’ in s79(3)(c) of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976, for example. We find ‘stiúir’, however, translating the verb ‘control’ in the earlier Acts. In s9 of the Civil Service Regulation Act, 1923, for example, ‘The Minister for Finance may from time to time make regulations for controlling the Civil Service of the Government of Saorstát Éireann’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an tAire Airgid rialacháin do dhéanamh o am go ham

Bunreacht na hÉireann

chun Seirbhís Shíbhialta Rialtais Shaorstáit Éireann do stiúra’ and ‘Control of Forces’ is translated as ‘Stiúra na bhFórsaí’ in the Margin Title of s5 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. In Article 6 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘to prohibit control or interfere with any act of the military forces of the Irish Free State’ is translated as ‘aon ghníomh dá ndéanfaidh fórsaí airm Shaorstáit Éireann do chosg, do smachtú ná do thoirmeasg’. ‘Control of staff’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘rialú’ in a Report of the Public Accounts Committee, 1928. ‘I control’ is translated as ‘rialaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí and is generally so translated in the modern Acts. In s10 of the Road Traffic (Amendment) Act, 1978, for example, ‘while he is under the influence of an intoxicant to such an extent as to be incapable of having proper control of the vehicle’ is translated as ‘agus é an oiread sin faoi bhrí meiscigh nach féidir leis an fheithicil a rialú i gceart’. See further the commentary on Articles 10.3 and 45.2.ii, where ‘rialaigh’ and ‘urlámhas’ respectively express ‘control’. In the present Article, however, ‘rialaigh’ expresses ‘regulate’, as it does in general in the Constitution. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below, recommends substituting ‘a stiúradh’ for ‘a rialáil’ to avoid ‘a rialáil agus a rialú’, particularly for stylistic reasons. ar mhaithe leis an bpobal ‘Gur chuí scrúduithe den sórt sin a dhéanamh ar mhaithe leis an bpobal’ translates ‘that, in the public interest, such examinations are proper’ in s9(6)(b) of the Consumer Information Act, 1978. ‘Ar mhaithe le’ generally translates ‘in the interests of’ in the Acts – in s14(1) of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1967, for example, ‘ar mhaithe leis an gceartas’ translates ‘in the interests of justice’. Note that in s37(5) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, ‘that … it is in the public interest that the fishery should be so acquired’ is translated as ‘gur le leas an phobail é an t-iascach a fháil amhlaidh’. a rialú ‘Rialaím’ is translated as ‘I control’ and ‘I rule’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 10.3. oibriú ‘Oibrím’ is translated as ‘I operate’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Articles 3 and 13.5.1o.

Direct translation Ceart na saoránach chun comhlachais agus aontais1 a fhoirmiú2. Féadfar, áfach, dlíthe a achtú chun feidhmiú an chirt réamhráite3 a rialáil agus a rialú4 ar mhaithe leis an bpobal.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘cumainn’ ‘a bhunú’, ‘chun bheith ina gcomhlachais agus ina n-aontais’ ‘sin romhainn’, ‘sin roimhe seo’ ‘a stiúradh’

ARTICLE 40.6.2O

AIRTEAGAL 40.6.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead aon idirdhealú, maidir le polaitíocht nó creideamh nó aicmí, a bheith i ndlíthe a rialaíos modh oibrithe an


A study of the Irish text

chirt chun comhlachais agus cumainn a bhunú agus an chirt chun teacht le chéile ar saorthionól. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

No distinction, with regard to politics or religion or class, is permitted in laws which will regulate the method of operating the right to establish associations and societies and the right to come together in free-assembly. ENGLISH TEXT

Laws regulating the manner in which the right of forming associations and unions and the right of free assembly may be exercised shall contain no political, religious or class discrimination.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4 5

The emphasis in the English text is on the laws not containing discrimination, the Irish text focusing on discrimination, with no discrimination being allowed in such laws; again we find the phrase ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) in the Irish text expressing ‘no … shall’, with ‘Laws … shall contain … no discrimination’ being expressed as ‘Ní cead aon idirdhealú … a bheith i ndlíthe’ (‘It is not permitted to have any discrimination … in laws’). ‘Political, religious or class discrimination’ is expressed as ‘idirdhealú, maidir le polaitíocht nó creideamh nó aicmí’ (‘discrimination, as regards politics or religion or classes’) in the Irish text. As in many earlier Articles, ‘regulating’ is expressed in the Irish text by ‘rialú’, which term is translated as ‘ruling’/‘controlling’ in Téarmaí Dlí, and ‘exercise’ is expressed by ‘oibriú’, which term is translated as ‘operate’ in Téarmaí Dlí – ‘laws regulating the manner in which the right … may be exercised’ is expressed as ‘dlíthe a rialaíos modh oibrithe an chirt’ (‘laws regulating the manner of operating the right’) in the Irish text. ‘Class’ is expressed as ‘aicmí’ (lit. ‘classes’), a plural in Irish sometimes rendering a singular in English. As earlier, ‘union’ is expressed by ‘cumann’, which term is translated as ‘society’ in Téarmaí Dlí, and ‘free assembly’ is expressed as ‘teacht le chéile ar saorthionól’ (‘come together in free assembly’), in the Irish text.

Note that Article 9 of the 1922 Constitution concludes as follows: Laws regulating the manner in which the right of forming associations and the right of free assembly may be exercised shall contain no political, religious or class distinction. Na dlithe a rialóidh an tslí ’na bhféadfar ceart cumainn do bhunú agus ceart saor-theacht le chéile do chur i bhfeidhm, ní dhéanfaid aon leithreachas i dtaobh polaitíochta ná creidimh ná aicme.

Commentary idirdhealú This headword is translated as ‘differentiation, discrimination, distinction’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘idirdhealú a dhéanamh (ar)’ is translated as ‘to differentiate, make a

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distinction (between)’. Dinneen translates ‘idirdhealughadh’ as ‘act of separating or breaking apart, discriminating; distinction, separation, difference, analysis, divorce’. DIL includes ‘ga itirdeliugud no itirdethbireagad do nach du gradaib feni … acht du na gradaib flatha’ (‘making the distinction that is not for the Féne grades …’), from a commentary on an early Irish law-tract, among the examples cited of ‘eterdeligud’ in the sense of ‘distinction, distinguishing, differentiating, dividing between’, this being the verbal noun of ‘eterdeligid’, a compound of ‘eter’ (‘between’) and ‘deligid’ (‘separates’). ‘Idirdhealú’ translates ‘discrimination’ in particular in the Acts, with ‘nach ndéanfar aon idirdhealú ar bhonn gnéis’ translating ‘there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex’ in s67(1) of the Pensions Act, 1990, for example. We also find ‘idirdhealú’ translating ‘distinction’ – in s12(2) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975, for example, ‘na forálacha go léir den Acht seo a dhéanann idirdhealú idir gnóchain inmhuirearaithe agus gnóchain nach inmhuirearaithe’ translates ‘all the provisions of this Act which distinguish gains which are chargeable gains from those which are not’. In Article 8 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘make any discrimination as respects State aid’ is translated as ‘aon deifríocht do dhéanamh i dtaobh cabhrach Stáit’. ‘Eadardhealuíocht’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘discrimination’ in the Proceedings of Dáil Éireann, 27/6/39. L. Mc Cionnaith refers the reader to ‘distinguish, difference’, s.v. ‘discriminate’, and cites the following s.v. ‘distinction (between)’: ‘an bhfuil idirdheal[bh]ú eatortha (Munster [M], Connacht [C]), ní féidir leat idirdheal[bh]ú do dhéanamh eatortha (M,C), no distinction between them, treated as equals, ní raibh idirdheal[bh]ú eatortha (C,M), distinction, déanfad idirdheal[bh]ú idir mo dhaoine agus do dhaoine-sa (C,M)’. Note, finally, that a comma follows ‘idirdhealú’ in the original text and in a recent popular edition, no such comma being found in the 1997 popular edition. aicmí The plural form of ‘aicme’, which headword is translated as (1) ‘genus; class’, (2) ‘family, tribe’, (3) ‘set, clique’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘a sort or kind, a class, a family, race, a tribe’ in Dinneen. DIL translates ‘aicme’ as ‘race, family, tribe; genus, class’, citing ‘aicme insin di filistinib’ (‘that [is] a tribe of the Philistines’) from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Psalms. Turning to the Acts, ‘a thoghadh ag aicmí nó ag cibé aicmí toghthóirí a shonrófar amhlaidh’ translates ‘(shall) be elected by a class or by such classes of electorate as may be so specified’ in s10(4)(a)(i) of the Fisheries Act, 1980, for example, and in s5(3)(b) of Part II of the Second Schedule to that Act, ‘ag vótaíocht toghlachta d’aicme áirithe’ translates ‘at a poll of an electorate of a particular class’. In s19 of the ‘Clare County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, we find the following regarding ‘Admission to Public Health Institutions’: The persons whose signatures to the declaration will be ‘recognised’ are Clergymen, Medical Practitioners, Brehons, County Councillors, and Rural and Urban Councillors, the three signatures being of different classes. Siad daoine ’na dtabharfar ‘aithint’ dá sighnithe ar an bhfaisnéis ná an Chléir, Dochtúirí, Breithimh, Comhairleoirí Contae, Comhairleoirí


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Bunreacht na hÉireann

Tuath-cheanntair agus Comhairleoirí Bailecheanntair, agus ní foláir na sighnitheoirí do bheith ina dtriúr de thrí haicmí fé leith.

ARTICLE 41.1.1O

See further the commentary on Articles 44.2.4o and 45.4.1o.

THE FAMILY

modh oibrithe ‘Oibriú’ is translated as ‘operation’ in Téarmaí Dlí, being the verbal noun of ‘oibrigh’, the first person singular of which, ‘oibrím’, is translated as ‘I operate’. ‘Modh oibrithe’ is directly descended from Latin ‘modus operandi’ in that the earlier form of ‘obair’ (‘work’), on which the verb ‘oibrigh’ is based, i.e. ‘opar’ (‘opair’), comes from Latin ‘opera’ and ‘modh’, earlier ‘mod’, comes from Latin ‘modus’ and translates ‘modus’ in the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. Regarding ‘modh’ in the Acts, in s11(2) of the Health Act, 1970, for example, ‘Féadfaidh ordú faoin alt seo socrú a bheith ann i dtaobh an mhodha a n-íocfar na caiteachais’ translates ‘An order under this section may provide for the manner in which expenses … are to be met’. ‘Modh’ expresses ‘manner’ in Articles 18.6 and 34.1. See the commentary on Article 12.2.3o where ‘ar mhodh’ expresses ‘by means of’ and see further the commentary on Articles 13.5.1o, 18.6 and 34.1 regarding ‘modh’. saorthionól This compound does not appear to be cited as a headword in Ó Dónaill nor in Dinneen. See the commentary on Article 40.6.1oiii, where ‘The right of the citizens to assemble peaceably’ is expressed as ‘Ceart na saoránach chun teacht ar tionól go sítheoilte’. ‘Tionól’ is the standard form of the verbal noun of ‘tionóil’. a bheith Regarding ‘contain’ in the Acts, see s99(3) of the First Schedule to European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, where ‘by reason of a non-compliance with any provision contained in this Act’ is translated simply as ‘mar gheall ar neamhchomhíonadh aon fhorála san Acht seo’. In s24 of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘tax contained in an assessment for any year of assessment’ is translated as ‘aon cháin a bheidh ar áireamh i measúnacht d’aon bhliain mheasúnachta’. See further the commentary on Article 46.4. a rialaíos For the special form of the relative, see the commentary on Article 6.1. ‘Rialaím’ is translated as ‘I control, I rule’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 12.5.

Standardised Irish text Ní cead aon idirdhealú, maidir le polaitíocht nó creideamh nó aicmí, a bheith i ndlíthe a rialaíonn modh oibrithe an chirt chun comhlachais agus cumainn a bhunú agus an chirt chun teacht le chéile ar saorthionól.

Direct translation Ní bheidh aon idirdhealú polaitiúil, creidimh ná aicme i ndlíthe a rialálfaidh an modh a bhfeidhmeofar an ceart chun comhlachais agus aontais1 a fhoirmiú2 agus an ceart chun saorthionóil3.

Variants 1 ‘cumainn’ 2 ‘a bhunú’ 3 ‘saorthionól’

AIRTEAGAL 41.1.1O AN TEAGHLACH

TÉACS GAEILGE

Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach is buíon-aonad príomha bunaidh don chomhdhaonnacht de réir nádúir, agus gur foras morálta é ag a bhfuil cearta doshannta dochloíte is ársa agus is airde ná aon reacht daonna. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges that the Family is the basic primary group-unit of/for society according to nature, and that it is a moral institution which has inalienable invincible rights which are more ancient and higher than any human statute. ENGLISH TEXT

The State recognises the Family as the natural primary and fundamental unit group of Society, and as a moral institution possessing inalienable and imprescriptible rights, antecedent and superior to all positive law.

Divergences between the official texts 1 ‘The State recognises the Family as …’ is expressed as ‘Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach is’ (‘The State recognises that it is the Family which is …’) in the Irish text. 2 ‘Society’ is expressed by a term now infrequently used, ‘comhdhaonnacht’, only the adjectival form of which is cited in the main Modern Irish dictionary, this term being found in other Articles of the Constitution; ‘sochaí’ is the term in current usage rendering ‘society’. Note that ‘society’ in the English text has an initial capital as against the lower case ‘c’ of ‘comhdhaonnacht’. 3 ‘Unit group’ is expressed by an ad hoc compound, ‘buíon-aonad’, literally ‘group unit’; following the usual order of Irish compounds ‘unit group’ would be ‘aonadbhuíon’. 4 ‘Fundamental’ is expressed by the genitive singular of ‘bunadh’ as attributive, this term translating ‘original’ in Téarmaí Dlí, the sense ‘fundamental’ also being recorded in dictionaries. 5 ‘All positive law’ is expressed as ‘aon reacht daonna’ (‘any human statute/law’) in the Irish text – note, however, that ‘daonna’ is used in Téarmaí Dlí to express ‘positive’, ‘dlí’ replacing ‘reacht’ in the translation of ‘positive law’ in Téarmaí Dlí (i.e. ‘dlí daonna’). 6 ‘Dochloíte’ expresses ‘indefeasible’ in Article 1, this term being translated as ‘conclusive’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘imprescriptible rights’ is translated as ‘cearta dochealaithe’. 7 ‘Inalienable’ is expressed as ‘doshannta’ in the Irish text, a term which is based on ‘sann’, ‘assign’ (‘sannaim’, ‘I assign’, in Téarmaí Dlí) rather than ‘alienate’ (‘coimhthím’, ‘I alienate’, in Téarmaí Dlí); Ó Dónaill lists ‘inalienable’ among the meanings of ‘doshannta’, however. 8 ‘Natural’ is expressed as ‘de réir nádúir’ (‘according to nature’) in the Irish text.


A study of the Irish text

9 ‘Antecedent’ is expressed as ‘is ársa’ (‘more ancient’) in the Irish text. 10 ‘Superior’ is expressed as ‘is airde’ (‘higher’) in the Irish text. Writing on ‘Conflicts which have not yet surfaced’ between the texts of the Constitution, J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 210f., remarks: There may be another instance [i.e. of conflict] in Article 41.1, in which the rights of the family are called in English “imprescriptible”, defined by Kenny J in Ryan v Attorney General ([1965] IR 294) as “that which cannot be lost by the passage of time or abandoned by non-exercise”. The corresponding Irish expression, “dochloíte”, does not have this meaning, and conveys only something like “irrepressible”, “indomitable” (in Article 1 it is used as the equivalent of “indefeasible”, and in Articles 25.4.5, 25.5.3 and 63 as the equivalent of “conclusive” in the context of evidence).

Commentary Teaghlach ‘Comhshocraíocht teaghlaigh’ is translated as ‘family arrangement’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Teaghlach’ is translated as ‘household, family’ in Ó Dónaill, and as ‘a family or household, familia or monastic family, an ethnic family or group, followers, escort; a house’ in Dinneen, who cites the following from a traditional song: ‘is deimhin go dtógfainn teaghlach nódh duit is chuirfinn cóir air ’dir shlinn is chloich’ (‘sure I would build you a new house and build it right of stone and slate’). ‘Teglach’ is translated as ‘inmates of a house, household, family, following’ in DIL, where ‘óis teglig’ (‘folk of [His] family’) is cited from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Teglach’ also had the sense of ‘household troops, following, supporters, army’ – see the version of the Táin in Leabhar na hUidhre (completed before 1106), for example – ‘teglach’ being an ancient compound of ‘teg’ (‘house’) and ‘slóg’ (‘troop’) according to Rudolf Thurneysen (A Grammar of Old Irish, s130.1(a)). Looking at early translations of ‘family’, ‘When the proprietor sub-divides his holding for a limited period by way of family arrangement’ is translated as ‘Sa chás ina ndéanfidh an t-únaer a gabháltas d’fho-roinnt ar feadh tréimhse teoranta mar oiriúnaíocht dá theaghlach’ in s65(3) of the Land Act, 1923. ‘To inquire into the circumstances of the persons and families in receipt of outdoor relief’ is translated as ‘Féachaint cad is cás do sna daoine agus do sna muiríneacha atá ag fáil fóirithinte allamuich’ in s4 of the ‘Kerry County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘The necessary wearing apparel and bedding of a person against whom an execution shall be levied, and the necessary wearing apparel and bedding of his family … shall be exempt from liability to seizure’ is translated as ‘maidir le cuid éadaigh agus cóir leapan riachtanach an té go ndéanfar feidhmiúchán ina choinnibh agus cuid éadaigh agus cóir leapan riachtanach a chúraim… ní féadfar gabháil do dhéanamh ortha’ in s5 of the Enforcement of Law (Occasional Powers) Act, 1924. ‘Without employing others except members of their own family’ is translated as ‘gan daoine eile ar fostú acu ach daoine dá líntighe féin’ in s110(11) of the Dundalk Harbour and Port Act, 1925. Finally, ‘family vault’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘boghtaine clainne’

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in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health. buíon-aonad ‘Buíon’ is translated as ‘band, company’ in Ó Dónaill. Dinneen translates ‘buidhean-tsluagh’ as ‘a company’ and ‘d’aon bhuidhin’ as ‘of one accord, of the same opinion’. DIL translates ‘buiden’ as ‘band, group, collection of persons …’ – see the commentary on Article 29.4.2o, where ‘buíon’ expresses ‘group’. ‘Aonad’ is translated as ‘unit’ in Ó Dónaill. It does not appear to be given as a headword in Dinneen. ‘The company or unit trust scheme was a non-qualifying offshore fund’ is translated as ‘go mba chiste eischósta neamhcháilitheach an chuideachta nó an scéim iontaobhais aonad’ in s63(1)(b) of the Finance Act, 1990, with ‘iontaobhas aonad’ translating ‘unit trusts’ in the Margin Title of s37 of the Finance Act, 1979. ‘To accommodate women internees who are not members of a family unit in the same place of internment as men’ is translated as ‘ban-imtheorannaithe nach mbaineann le teaghlach áirithe a lonnú san áit imtheorannaithe chéanna le fir’ in Article 85 of the Fourth Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. ‘Any military unit (being a staff, unit or other element organised under section 22)’ is translated as ‘aon chomhlucht míleata (is foireann, aonad nó feadhan eile a bheas eagraithe faoi alt 22)’ in s23 of the Defence Act, 1954. ‘For a registration unit in a constituency’ is translated as ‘le haghaidh aonaid chláraitheachta i ndáilcheantar’ in s6(1) of the Electoral (Amendment) Act, 1947. ‘Aontán’ translates ‘unit’ in the very early Acts, with ‘each ward shall be treated as a separate registration unit’ being translated as ‘glacfar gach bárd díobh in’ aontán clárathachta fé leith’ in s1(a) of the First Schedule to the Electoral Act, 1923, for example. ‘The expression “unit” shall mean the energy contained in a current of one thousand amperes flowing under an electro motive force of one volt during one hour’ is translated as ‘ciallóidh an focal “aontán” an neart atá i sruth míle ampéir ag rith fé fhórsa leictre-thiomána volta in uair a’ chluig’ in the Fourth Schedule to the Sligo Lighting and Electric Power Act, 1924. Finally, ‘unit of horse power’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘aontán an each-nirt’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health. príomha ‘Fianaise phríomha’ and ‘ordú príomha’ are translated respectively as ‘primary evidence’ and ‘primary order’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘príomha’ as ‘prime, primary’. Dinneen translates ‘príomhdha’ as ‘primitive, chief, primary’. ‘Prímda(e)’ is translated as ‘foremost, principal, pre-eminent’ in DIL. The Irish adjective ‘prím-’, later ‘príomh-’, is a borrowing of the Latin ‘primus’; like ‘dea-’, ‘droch-’, ‘sean-’, as Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks, its normal use is in prefixed position; used predicatively, it had the form ‘prímdae’, later ‘príomhdha’, and is now ‘príomha’. ‘The “primary fund”’ is translated as ‘an “ciste príomha”’ in s6(1)(a) of the Fifth Schedule to the Finance Act, 1990. ‘By the substitution of “primary” for “sole”’ is translated as ‘trí “príomh” a chur in ionad “aon”’ in s3 of the Insurance Act, 1981, with ‘being the primary obligation of the person under the contract’ being translated as ‘arb é … príomhoibleagáid an duine faoin gconradh’. ‘Or the primary liability of the County Council’ is translated as ‘ná do


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The Constitution of Ireland

phríomh-fhiachas na Comhairle Contae’ in s9(c) of the Pier and Harbour Provisional Order Confirmation Act, 1929. See further the commentary on Article 42.1. reacht This headword is translated as ‘statute’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘Reacht na dTréimhsí’ translates ‘Statute of Limitations’. ‘Reacht’ is principally translated as ‘law’ in Ó Dónaill, citing ‘reacht Dé, the law of God’ and ‘riail agus reacht, law and order’, secondly as ‘statute’ and thirdly as ‘accepted rule’, citing ‘tá sé ag éirí ina reacht, it is becoming the recognised rule’. ‘Reacht’ is translated as ‘a law, decree, statute or ordinance; power, authority; régime or dispensation; a right, a principle’ in Dinneen, citing ‘an reacht ársata, the Old Law, the ancient order of things’, ‘bunreacht, constitution’. DIL cites examples of ‘recht’ from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, including the following from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles: ‘rom-soír-sa rect spirto di rect pectho’ (‘the law of the spirit has delivered me from the law of sin’), glossing Latin ‘lex spiritus … a lege peccati’. ‘Recht’ is translated as ‘law, in wide sense of a collective system of prescripts, whether traditional or codified or inherent’; in the Glosses it renders Latin ‘lex’, later superseded by ‘dliged’, according to DIL. Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 319, translates ‘recht’ as ‘law, rule; law-abiding person, person of legal status’. Latin ‘rectum’ (‘right’), ‘rego’ (‘rule’) and English ‘right’ come from the same root (‘reg’) as ‘recht’ – see Alexander Macbain, op. cit., s.v. ‘reachd’. See the commentary on Article 43.1.1o regarding ‘is ársa … ná aon reacht daonna’. ‘Ársa’ is translated as (1) ‘ancient, antique’ and (2) ‘aged, veteran’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘old, aged, ancient, antique, venerable, stable’ in Dinneen. DIL cites examples of ‘arsaid’, ‘old, ancient, aged’, from the Glosses onwards, including the following from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses Latin on the Pauline Epistles: ‘ni sin chomairbirt arsid’ (‘not in the old way of life’). bunaidh ‘Fundamental political duties’ is expressed as ‘bundualgas polaitiúil’ in Article 9.2, ‘Bunchearta’ expressing ‘Fundamental Rights’ is the heading for Articles 40-44. ‘Bunaidh’ is the genitive singular of ‘bunadh’ as attributive. ‘Dlínse bhunaidh’ and ‘(doiciméad, etc.) bunaidh’ are translated respectively as ‘original jurisdiction’ and ‘original (document, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Bunaidh’ is translated as ‘original, fundamental; basic, basal’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘original, primitive, own’ in Dinneen, who translates ‘béarla bunaidh’ and ‘bíodhbha bunaidh’ respectively as ‘native speech’ and ‘an inveterate enemy’. DIL quotes ‘amal ind claínn bunid’ (‘like the original clan’), from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, as an example of the genitive singular of ‘bunad’ as attributive adjective, which has the senses of ‘original, fundamental; native, hereditary; inherent, own, proper; basic, established, certain, veritable, real’, according to DIL. ‘Bunad’ is based on ‘bun’. L. Mc Cionnaith translates ‘fundamental mistake, matters, &c.’ as ‘dearmhad, &c. neithe 7c., bunaidh (Connacht, Munster)’, translating ‘fundamental tenets of F.’ as ‘bunailt an chreidimh (Connacht)’ and ‘fundamental custom &c.’ as ‘nós, 7c. bunadhasach (Connacht)’ – the standard form of the latter being ‘bunúsach’. ‘Fundamental discord’ is translated as ‘dí-chuibhdheas bunaidh’ in Téarmaí Ceoil (1933).

Bunreacht na hÉireann

Turning to the Acts, ‘bunaidh’, following Téarmaí Dlí, usually translates ‘original’, with ‘aon athrú nó athfhoirgniú ar na foirgnimh a bhainfeadh a sainghnéithe bunaidh díobh’ translating ‘any alteration or reconstruction of the buildings so that they lose their original identity’ in s9(2) of the Landlord and Tenant (Ground Rents) (No. 2) Act, 1978, for example. ‘The Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers’ is, however, cited in Rannóg an Aistrúcháin as being translated as ‘Cairt Chomhphobail um Chearta Sóisialta Bunaidh le haghaidh Oibrithe’ (1992). Turning to ‘fundamental’ in the Acts, this is usually translated as ‘bunúsach’. ‘There has been a serious departure from a fundamental rule of procedure’ is translated as ‘gur tréigeadh, ar mhodh tromchúiseach, riail bhunúsach nós imeachta’ in Article 52(1)(d) of the Second Schedule to the Arbitration Act, 1980, for example. In s20(a) of the Finance Act, 1973, ‘the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms’ is translated as ‘an Coinbhinsiún Eorpach chun Cearta an Duine agus Saoirsí Bunúsacha a Chosaint’. ‘For everyone’s rights and fundamental freedom’ is translated as ‘le haghaidh ceart agus saoirsí bunúsacha do chách’ in the Preamble to the Schedule to the Data Protection Act, 1988, with ‘the fundamental values of the respect for privacy’ being translated as ‘na luachanna bunúsacha a bhaineann le hurraim don phríobháideacht’. ‘Involving changes in the fundamental structure of the economic organization of members’ is translated as ‘a bhaineas le hathruithe bunúsacha ar eagraíocht gheilleagar chomhlachtaí’ in s8 of Article XII of the Schedule to the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 1957. Note, finally, that ‘accepted as fundamental’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘glactar mar bhun-riail’ in a 1927 Report from the Public Accounts Committee. is airde ná As regards ‘superior to’ in the Acts, ‘any person entitled to an interest in the land held by the lessee or tenant superior to the interest of the person from whom the lessee or tenant hold the land’ is translated as ‘aon duine ag a bhfuil teideal chun leasa sa talamh a theachtann an léasaí nó an tionónta níos uasta ná léas an duine óna dteachtann an léasaí nó an tionónta an talamh’ in s2 of the Landlord and Tenant (Gound Rates) Act, 1967. ‘Any estate or interest therein superior to the leasehold interest therein’ is translated as ‘aon eastát no leas ann is uachtaraighe ná an leas léas-seilbhe ann’ in s10 of the Creameries (Acquisition) Act, 1943. In s39 of the Land Act, 1923, ‘and all interests superior to them’ is translated as ‘ar gach leas is aoirde ná iad’, with ‘whenever such bullion is of a fineness superior or inferior to the standard fineness’ being translated as ‘pé uair a bheidh fíneáltacht an bhuilleoin sin níos aoirde nó níos ísle ná an riail-fhíneáltacht’ in s5(2) of the Currency Act, 1927. Finally, note that ‘uachtarach’ generally translates ‘superior’ in the earlier Acts, with ‘the owner or any superior landlord of the land’ being translated as ‘únaer an tailimh no aon tiarna uachtarach ar an talamh’ in s34(4)(a) of the Local Government Act, 1925, for example. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on ‘níos uasta’ in a draft of the direct translation below, remarks that as ‘highest, maximum’ is the sense of the relatively unfamiliar adjective ‘uasta’ it does not agree very well with qualifying ‘níos’. He finds no fault with ‘airde’.


A study of the Irish text

de réir nádúir Regarding ‘natural’ in the Acts, ‘the natural or legal person’ is translated as ‘an duine nádúrtha nó dlítheanach’ in Article 2(d) of the First Schedule to the Data Protection Act, 1988. ‘“Fallen wool” means wool which has been removed from sheep who have died from natural causes’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “olann tite” olann a baineadh de chaora a fuair bás nádúrtha’ in s1(1) of the Wool Marketing Act, 1968. ‘The applicant … is the mother, natural father or a relative of the child’ is translated as ‘gurb í máthair nó gurb é athair nádúrtha an linbh, nó gur gaol don leanbh an t-iarratasóir’ in s3(1)(b) of the Adoption Act, 1964. In s27(2) of the Intoxicating Liquor (General) Act, 1924, ‘any cave or underground place, whether natural or artificial’ is translated as ‘aon uaimh no áit eile fé thalamh, nádúrtha no déanta’. Finally, ‘any substance natural or artificial’ is translated as ‘aon tsubstaint, saordha no aiceanta’ in s3 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927 – see the commentary on Article 10.1 regarding ‘aiceanta’. foras This headword is translated as ‘ground (of application, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill gives this sense as the fourth set of senses under that headword and Dinneen translates ‘foras’ as ‘basis, foundation, substance, depth; a principle; an institution …’. DIL translates ‘forus’ as I(a) ‘that which is stable; stability; basis, foundation, bottom’, this being the original sense according to one scholar; (b) ‘established or fundamental principles of knowledge or science …’ and II ‘a station, resting-place, dwelling’. See the commentary on Articles 18.4.2o and 40.4.2o. don chomhdhaonnacht Ó Dónaill translates ‘comhdhaonnach’ as ‘social, companionable’, which adjective is found earlier in the Constitution, expressing ‘social’ – see the commentary on Article 15.3.1o. Ó Dónaill does not, however, give ‘comhdhaonnacht’ as a headword. L. Mc Cionnaith translates ‘social history’ as ‘stair chomhdhaonnachta’ giving Téarmaí Staire as source. Note, incidentally, that ‘society’, in the sense of ‘building society’, ‘co-operative society’, is translated as ‘cumann’ with ‘cumann foirgníochta’ and ‘comharchumann’ respectively translating ‘building society’ and ‘co-operative society’, in Téarmaí Dlí. ag a bhfuil ‘Or any other person possessing appropriate qualifications or experience’ is translated as ‘nó aon duine eile ag a bhfuil na cáilíochtaí cuí nó an taithí chuí’ in s41(1) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. In s4(3) of the Civil Service Regulation Act, 1923, ‘only persons possessing such special qualifications shall be admitted thereto’ is translated as ‘ní leigfar d’éinne dul fé ach daoine ’na bhfuil na cáilíochta san fé leith acu’.

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

Standardised Irish text Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach is buíonaonad príomha bunaidh don chomhdhaonnacht de réir nádúir, agus gur foras morálta é ag a bhfuil cearta doshannta dochloíte is ársa agus is airde ná aon reacht daonna.

Direct translation Aithníonn an Stát an Teaghlach mar aonadghrúpa nádúrtha príomha bunúsach na Sochaí, agus mar fhoras morálta a bhfuil cearta dochoimhthithe dochealaithe aige1, is túisce agus is uasta2 ná gach reacht daonna3.

Variants 1 ‘ag a bhfuil cearta dochoimhthithe dochealaithe’ 2 ‘airde’, ‘uachtaraí’ 3 ‘a ghabhann roimh gach dlí daonna agus atá níos uasta ná gach dlí daonna’

ARTICLE 41.1.2O

is ársa ná See the commentary on Article 43.1.1o. doshannta See the commentary on Articles 1 and 42.1.

AIRTEAGAL 41.1.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ós é an Teaghlach is fotha riachtanach don ord chomhdhaonnach agus ós éigeantach é do leas an Náisiúin agus an Stáit, ráthaíonn an Stát comhshuíomh agus údarás an Teaghlaigh a chaomhnú. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Since it is the Family which is the necessary foundation for the societal order and since it is imperative for the welfare of the Nation and of the State, the State guarantees to preserve the composition and authority of the Family. ENGLISH TEXT

The State, therefore, guarantees to protect the Family in its constitution and authority, as the necessary basis of social order and as indispensable to the welfare of the Nation and the State.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

Admhaíonn See the commentary on Article 40.3.3o, ‘acknowledges’ rather than ‘recognises’, as here, being expressed in that Article by ‘admhaíonn’. dochloíte See the commentary on Article 42.5. Note that ‘imprescriptible rights’ is translated as ‘cearta dochealaithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí.

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3 4

Subsection 2 of the English text follows directly from ss1, with ss2 commencing with ‘The State, therefore, guarantees …’; in the Irish text, however, there is no syntactic link with the previous section, and the Irish text commences with ‘Ós é an Teaghlach’ (‘Since it is the Family …’). ‘… the Family … as the necessary basis of social order and as indispensable to the welfare …’ is expressed as ‘Ós é an Teaghlach is fotha riachtanach don ord chomhdhaonnach agus ós éigeantach é do leas’, ‘Since it is the Family that is the necessary basis for social order and since it is indispensable for the welfare …’, in the Irish text. ‘Indispensable’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘éigeantach’, usually translated as ‘compulsory’. ‘To protect the Family in its constitution and authority’ is expressed as ‘comhshuíomh agus údarás an Teaghlaigh a chaomhnú’ (‘to protect the constitution and authority of the Family’) in the Irish text.


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The Constitution of Ireland

‘To protect’ is expressed as ‘a chaomhnú’, ‘to cherish’ / ‘to preserve’, in the Irish text. ‘Constitution’ is expressed as ‘comhshuíomh’ (‘composition’) in the Irish text.

Commentary fotha This headword is translated as ‘base, foundation; origins, source; cause, reason’ in Ó Dónaill, being followed by the abbreviation indicating that these senses are cited from the earlier literature only. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that this is not entirely correct, ‘foth’ /fu/ being found in Kerry in the sense of ‘base’, ‘basic structure’, and cites ‘níl ann ach an foth’ (i.e. nothing remains except the base). ‘Fotha’ is translated as ‘foundation, vestige, basis, cause’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘fotha sealbh, basis of possession’ from the Ancient Laws of Ireland, ‘fothaí na haibhéise, the foundations of the abyss’ and ‘dar fotha (foth) Dia, zounds! by heavens!’ According to Rudolf Thurneysen, this word comes from *fo-suide (‘subsidium’) and hence has the sense of ‘foundation, basis, bottom’, examples of which are cited in DIL from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, along with examples generally from later sources of the figurative senses of (1) ‘foundation, origin, source’ and (2) ‘cause, ground, reason’. As an example of this first figurative sense, followed by the preposition ‘di’, we get the following from the Leabhar Breac, compiled in 1411 or earlier: ‘is iat sin [viz. firta Crist] is fotha 7 is bunad di cech soscela’ (i.e. Christ’s miracles are the foundation and basis of every Gospel). ‘Bása’ translates ‘basis’ in the very early Acts, with ‘and should pass a resolution granting to such officials a superannuation … on the basis laid down by this Article’ being translated as ‘agus ba chóir dóibh rún do rith chun aois-liúntas … do dheona do gach oifigeach den tsórt san ar an mbása atá leagtha amach leis an Airtiogal so’ in s9 of the ‘Cavan County Scheme’ in the First Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, for example. ‘Déanamh seasmhach’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘to place on a permanent basis’ in Iris an Phuist, 14/3/28. Turning to modern Acts, ‘where the price paid or payable by the purchaser is taken as the basis for valuation’ is translated as ‘i gcás gurb é an praghas a d’íoc an ceannaitheoir nó is iníoctha aige, an praghas lena nglactar mar bhonn luachála’ in s10(4)(i) of the Free Ports Act, 1986. ‘If that rent had been adopted as the basis of the assessment’ is translated as ‘dá nglacfaí leis an gcíos sin mar fhoras na measúnachta’ in s13(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1967. éigeantach ‘Ceannach éigeantach’ is translated as ‘compulsory purchase’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘éigeantach’ as (1) ‘enforced, compulsory’ and (2) ‘needy, distressed’, Dinneen translating this headword as ‘necessary; hard; distressful; mournful; compulsory’. This term is generally known in this century in association with ‘Gaeilge’ (i.e. ‘compulsory Irish’ in school). DIL translates ‘éicentach’ as ‘compulsory, necessary, involuntary’, citing examples mainly from the works of the seventeenthcentury author Geoffrey Keating (Seathrún Céitinn). ‘Éicentach’ is based on ‘éicen’ (‘necessity, compulsion’). ‘Impose on the undertakings concerned terms which are not indispensable to the attainment of those objectives’ is translated as ‘(nach) bhforchuireann ar na gnóthais atá

Bunreacht na hÉireann

i gceist téarmaí nach bhfuil fíor-riachtanach chun na haidhmeanna sin a ghnóthú’ in s4(2)(i) of the Competition Act, 1991. In s1(d) of Article 3 of the First Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, ‘all the judicial guarantees which are recognised as indispensable by civilised peoples’ is translated as ‘gach ráthaíocht bhreithiúnach a n-aithníonn pobail shibhialta gur den riachtanas í’, with ‘Personnel whose retention is not indispensable’ being translated as ‘An pearsanra nach mbeidh fíor-riachtanas lena gcoimeád’ in Article 30. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on ‘fíorriachtanach’ and ‘riachtanach’ together in the direct translation below, recommends translating the final clause as ‘agus nach beite do leas an Náisiúin agus an Stáit bheith dá uireasa’. comhshuíomh This compound is translated as ‘composition’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘dlí an chomhshuímh’ is translated as ‘law of constant composition’ and ‘i gcomhshuíomh’ is translated as (i) ‘properly arranged’ and (ii) (typography) ‘in register’. Dinneen simply translates . ‘cómhshuidhiughadh’ as ‘composition’. ‘Comsuidigud’, verbal noun of ‘con-suidigther’ (‘con-suidi’ literally meaning ‘places together’), is translated as ‘act of compounding, mixing, placing (together); composition’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the Old Irish Glosses in particular, some of the later examples having less precise usages. See the commentary on Article 15.1.1o for ‘constitution’ in the Acts, generally translated as ‘comhdhéanamh’, as in that Article. ‘Subsection (1) shall not apply to any company having provisions in its constitution that would entitle it to rank as a private company if it had been registered in the State’ is translated as ‘Ní bhainfidh fo-alt (1) le haon chuideachta a mbeidh forálacha ina comhdhéanamh a thabharfadh teideal di í a áireamh mar chuideachta phríobháideach dá mba sa Stát a cláraíodh í’ in s354(4) of the Companies Act, 1963. In s56(4) of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1983, however, the same text (with ‘which has’ replacing ‘having’ and ‘public limited’ replacing ‘private’) is translated as ‘Ní bheidh feidhm ag fo-alt (1) maidir le haon chuideachta a bhfuil forálacha ina bunreacht a thabharfadh teideal di bheith ina cuideachta phoiblí theoranta dá mba sa Stát a cláraíodh í’. a chaomhnú See the commentary on Article 28.3.3o. ‘Cairde a chaomhnú’ is translated as ‘to cherish friends’ and ‘nós, teanga, a chaomhnú’ is translated as ‘to preserve a custom, a language’ in Ó Dónaill. Among the earlier examples in DIL of the verb ‘cáemaid’ (‘treats kindly, is gracious towards, cherishes’) is the following from an Old Irish verse in the St Gall Priscian, the infixed pronoun and alliteration contributing to its beautiful brevity: ‘nomchoimmdiu cóima’ (‘may the Lord be kind to me’). ‘Cáem’, on which this verb is based, is translated principally as ‘dear, precious, beloved; belonging to the family’ in DIL. See the commentary on Article 28.3.2o regarding ‘protects’ (expressed as ‘cosain’ in that Article) and note how ‘caomhaint do thabhairt d’éinne’ translates ‘protects any person’ in s3(1)(b) of the Treasonable Offences Act, 1925, with the usual term today, ‘cosain’, cited in Article 20 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘to protect … the private papers of its members’ being translated as ‘páipéirí príobháideacha a bhall do chosaint’.


A study of the Irish text

riachtanach ‘Riachtanach’ is translated as ‘necessary’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘tá sé riachtanach don tsláinte’ as ‘it is essential to health’. Dinneen translates ‘riachtanach’ as ‘necessary, needful; needy, necessitous; compulsory, incumbent (on, ag)’, citing ‘Gaedhealg riachtanach, compulsory Irish’. ‘Slí riachtanais’ and ‘riachtanais’ are translated respectively as ‘way of necessity’ and ‘necessaries’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Seventeenth-century translations of Psalms lxxxii. 4 and Proverbs xxxi. 9 provide the only two examples of ‘ríachtanach’ cited in DIL, which headword is translated as ‘necessitous, needy’ and followed by ‘late’ in brackets. This adjective seems to have been based on ‘ríachtanas’, which according to DIL is an abstract from ‘ríachtain’, used in the expression ‘ríachtain a les(s)’, a petrified abstract from the phrase ‘ro-icc les(s)’, ‘needs (it)’, meaning ‘need, necessity’ (‘less’ = Modern Irish ‘leas’, ‘welfare’). ‘Ríachtain’ itself is a Middle Irish variant form of ‘ríchtu’, verbal noun of ‘ro-icc’ (‘comes’). See further the commentary on Articles 45.2.i (where ‘riachtanais’ expresses ‘needs’) and 12.4.5o (where ‘gá’ expresses ‘necessary’). Ós é … As regards ‘therefore’ in the Acts, ‘Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas of Saorstát Éireann as follows’ is translated as ‘Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaortsáit Éireann ar an ábhar san mar leanas’ in the Preamble to the Adaptation of Enactments Act, 1922, with ‘Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas as follows’ being translated as ‘Achtaítear ar an ábhar sin ag an Oireachtas mar a leanas’ in the Preamble to the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (Charter and Letters Patent Amendment) Act, 1979. ‘And shall therefore not be bound to apply the minimum penalty prescribed’ is translated as ‘agus mar sin ní bheidh de cheangal orthu an bun-phionós a ordaítear a chur i bhfeidhm’ in Article 87 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below of ‘as’ as ‘mar’, remarks that the drafters of the Irish text understood ‘as’ to mean ‘since it is’ (‘ós é …’) and recommends translating that phrase as ‘ós é is bonn riachtanach don ord sóisialach’. don ord chomhdhaonnach See the commentary on Articles 38.3.1o and 40.6.1o regarding ‘ord’, on Article 15.3.1o regarding ‘comhdhaonnach’ and on Article 45 regarding lenition of the adjective in the dative singular qualifying a masculine noun.

Standardised Irish text Ós é an Teaghlach is fotha riachtanach don ord comhdhaonnach agus ós éigeantach é do leas an Náisiúin agus an Stáit, ráthaíonn an Stát comhshuíomh agus údarás an Teaghlaigh a chaomhnú.

Direct translation Ráthaíonn an Stát, ar an ábhar sin, an Teaghlach a chosaint ina chomhdhéanamh agus ina údarás, mar bhonn riachtanach an oird shóisialaigh1 agus mar fhíor-riachtanas do leas an Náisiúin agus an Stáit2.

Variants 1 ‘mar bhonn riachtanach don ord sóisialach’, ‘ós é is bonn riachtanach don ord sóisialach’ 2 ‘agus nach beite do leas an Náisiúin agus an Stáit bheith dá uireasa’

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

ARTICLE 41.2.1O

595

AIRTEAGAL 41.2.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Go sonrach, admhaíonn an Stát go dtugann an bhean don Stát, trína saol sa teaghlach, cúnamh nach bhféadfaí leas an phobail a ghnóthú dá éagmais.

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Specifically, the State acknowledges that the woman gives the State, through her life in the family household, assistance/support without which the welfare of the people could not be achieved. ENGLISH TEXT

In particular, the State recognises that by her life within the home, woman gives to the State a support without which the common good cannot be achieved.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

5 6

‘Teaghlach’ expresses ‘home’ (‘family household’) in this subsection, expressing ‘family’ in the previous section and in the heading for this Article. ‘A support’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘cúnamh’, normally translated as ‘assistance’, but with the nuance of ‘contributive action’ according to Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú; ‘support’ is translated as ‘tacaíocht’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Recognises’ is expressed as ‘admhaíonn’ in the Irish text, this being the same term as expresses ‘acknowledges’ in Article 40.3.3o, for example. As in other Articles, ‘the common good’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘leas an phobail’, this phrase being also found in the Acts; ‘an mhaitheas phoiblí’ is the translation given in Téarmaí Dlí, however. ‘In particular’ is expressed as ‘go sonrach’ (‘specifically’) in the Irish text. ‘Cannot be achieved’ is expressed as ‘nach bhféadfaí a ghnóthú’ (‘could not be achieved’) in the Irish text.

Commentary saol ‘Árachas saoil’ and ‘léas saoil (saolta)’ are translated respectively as ‘life assurance’ and ‘lease for life (lives)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘saol’ as ‘life, time, world’, giving ‘way or sphere of life’ as one of its senses, citing ‘saol na cathrach, na tuaithe, city, country, life’ and ‘saol mná tí, housewife’s life’, along with ‘tá saol an mhadra bháin aige, he has a cosy life’. Dinneen translates ‘saoghal’ as ‘an age, life, length or circumstances of life …; a world, the world, circumstances, “things”; living, subsistence, material wealth; everything, everybody’. Old Irish ‘saegul’, which comes from Latin ‘saeculum’, is translated as (a) ‘period of life, a human lifetime’, (b) ‘end of life’, (c) ‘an age, period of time, duration’, (d) ‘the world’ and (e) ‘worldly goods, pelf’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, including ‘is garait ar saigul’ (‘our life is short’) from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Psalms. See the commentary on Article 16.2.4o (where ‘ré’ expresses ‘life’) for early terms for ‘life’ in the Acts.


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cúnamh This headword is translated as ‘help’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘cúnamh dífhostaíochta, teaghlaigh’ is translated as ‘unemployment, home, assistance’, citing ‘tá a chúnamh imithe uaidh, his family have left him’. ‘Congnamh’ is translated as ‘help, succour; act of helping, co-operating with (le)’ in Dinneen. ‘Congnam’ is the verbal noun of ‘con-gní’ (*com-gní-, literally ‘do together’), and is translated as ‘act of helping, aiding, assisting; help, aid’ in DIL. ‘Support’ today is generally translated as ‘tacaíocht’, ‘right of support’ being translated as ‘ceart tacaíochta’ in Téarmaí Dlí. See the commentary on Articles 12.10.4o and 28.10 regarding ‘support’ (expressed as ‘tacaíocht’ in both those Articles) and note that ‘tacaíocht’ is found in Article 53 of the 1922 Constitution. ‘Cabhrú’ translates ‘support’ in early Standing Orders of Dáil Éireann, according to the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms. a ghnóthú ‘Gnóthaím’ is translated as ‘I recover (damages)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill translates ‘gnóthaigh’ as (1) ‘work, labour’, (2) ‘win, gain; earn, achieve’, citing ‘duais, geall a ghnóthú, to win a prize, a wager’ and ‘is beag a ghnóthaigh mé air, I gained little by it; it availed me little’. Dinneen translates ‘gnóthuighim’ as ‘I get, win, obtain, attain, profit; I win (a game); I make prosperous; I appoint, ordain’, citing the following curse: ‘nár ghnídh tú do leas; agus nár ghnóthaidh sibhse! evil attend you; and may ye not succeed!’ ‘That the purposes for which an order may be made … could not be achieved’ is translated as ‘nach bhféadfaí na críocha chun ar féidir ordú a dhéanamh … a ghnóthú’ in s43(1)(b) of the Patents Act, 1964. ‘Where another transaction would not have been undertaken or arranged to achieve the results … achieved’ is translated as ‘i gcás nach ndéanfaí idirbheart eile a ghabháil de láimh nó a shocrú chun na torthaí … a bhaint amach a baineadh amach’ in s86(1) of the Finance Act, 1989. an bhean Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘woman’ without indefinite article in English has the sense of ‘type’ (“cinéal”) and therefore is appropriately expressed in the Irish text as ‘an bhean’ (lit. ‘the woman’). sa teaghlach See the commentary on the preceding section regarding ‘teaghlach’ and the commentary on Article 42.2 regarding ‘home’. admhaíonn See the commentary on Article 40.3.3o and 41.1.1o.

Direct translation Admhaíonn an Stát go háirithe go dtugann an bhean1, trína saol sa bhaile, tacaíocht nach féidir an mhaitheas phoiblí a ghnóthú2 dá héagmais.

Variants 1 ‘mná’ 2 ‘a bhaint amach’

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ARTICLE 41.2.2O

AIRTEAGAL 41.2.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Uime sin, féachfaidh an Stát lena chur in áirithe nach mbeidh ar mháithreacha clainne, de dheasca uireasa, dul le saothar agus faillí a thabhairt dá chionn sin ina ndualgais sa teaghlach. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

For that reason, the State will endeavour to ensure that mothers of a family, because of want, will not have to engage in work and neglect their duties in the household because of that. ENGLISH TEXT

The State shall, therefore, endeavour to ensure that mothers shall not be obliged by economic necessity to engage in labour to the neglect of their duties in the home.

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‘By economic necessity’ is expressed as ‘de dheasca uireasa’, ‘because of want’, which phrase is preceded and followed by a comma, in the Irish text. ‘Mothers’ is expressed as ‘máithreacha clainne’ (‘mothers of a family’) in the Irish text. As in the previous subsection, ‘home’ is expressed as ‘teaghlach’ in the Irish text, the same term which expresses ‘family’ in this Article in general. ‘To the neglect of’ is expressed as ‘agus faillí a thabhairt dá chionn sin’ (‘and for that reason to neglect’) in the Irish text. Again, as in some earlier Articles, ‘to ensure’ is expressed as ‘a chur in áirithe’ in the Irish text, this phrase being generally used today in relation to ‘reserve’.

Commentary dul le Ó Dónaill gives ‘take to, engage in’ as one of the senses of ‘téigh le’, citing ‘dul le polaitíocht, to engage in politics’ and ‘ní rachadh an mac le feirmeoireacht dó, the son wouldn’t take up farming for him’. Dinneen translates ‘téighim le’ as ‘I go with, bring, side with, consort with, cultivate or follow (as an art) …’. DIL translates ‘téit le’ as ‘devotes oneself to, adopts, takes a certain course’, citing ‘docotar iterum fri tola in betho’ (‘they have given themselves over again to worldly desires’) from the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. Regarding ‘engage in’ in early Acts, ‘such of the officers engaged in the administration of those services’ is translated as ‘an méid sin de sna hoifigigh ag obair i riara na seirbhísí sin’ in Article 79 of the 1922 Constitution. ‘Any person engaged in the business of carrying goods for reward’ is translated as ‘éinne i mbun gnó earraí d’iompar ar luach saothair’ in s4(1)(c) of the Agricultural Produce (Eggs) Act, 1924. ‘A county medical officer of health shall not engage in private practice’ is translated as ‘Ní bheidh aon chleachta príobháideach ar siúl ag dochtúir oifigiúil sláinte’ in s21(7) of the Local Government Act, 1925. ‘By reason of his having been engaged in light agricultural work for his parent on his parent’s land’ is translated as ‘de dheascaibh é bheith ag gabháil d’obair éadtrom


A study of the Irish text

thalmhaíochta dá thuismitheoir ar thalamh a thuismitheora’ in s4(3) of the School Attendance Act, 1926. Finally, from the modern Acts, ‘to engage in research in such fields as the Governing Body may deem appropriate’ is translated as ‘gabháil do thaighde i cibé réimsí a mheasfaidh an Comhlacht Ceannais a bheith cuí’ in s4(1)(b) of the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick, Act, 1980. ar mháithreacha clainne ‘Máthair clainne, teaghlaigh’ is translated as ‘the mother of a family’ in Ó Dónaill. Dinneen translates ‘máthair’ as ‘a mother, a dam, a producer; matter, beginning, origin, source, cause’. DIL gives examples of ‘máthair’ from the eighth-century Glosses onwards. ‘Services for Mothers and Children’ is translated as ‘Seirbhísí do Mháithreacha agus Leanaí’ in the heading for Chapter IV of the Health Act, 1970, for example. ‘Affords asylum to expectant mothers or to mothers of children under the age of five years’ is translated as ‘tearmann do thabhairt do mhná ag iompar cloinne no do mháithreacha leanbhaí atá fé bhun cúig mblian d’aois’ in s1(a)(iv) of the Hospitals Act, 1939. saothar ‘Luach saothair’ is translated as ‘remuneration’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘saothar’ being translated as ‘work, labour; toil, exertion; stress, effort’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘Saothar’ is translated as ‘labour, toil, work, effort, exertion, trouble taken in doing a thing, stress, agony, panting or heavy breathing (from hard work or illness); care; an office or task’ in Dinneen. DIL cites ‘saithar ho lámaib’ (‘labour with hands’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, where it glosses Latin ‘operantes manibus nostrís’, translating ‘saethar’ principally as ‘work, labour, toil’, ‘saeth’ being translated as ‘trouble, hardship, distress, tribulation, disease, illness’, this word also being cited from the Würzburg Glosses. See the commentary on Article 18.7.1oiii regarding ‘labour’ (expressed there as ‘oibreachas’). faillí This headword is translated as ‘negligence’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘mórfhaillí’ is translated as ‘gross negligence’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘faillí a dhéanamh, a thabhairt, i rud’ as ‘to neglect something’, with Dinneen also translating ‘faillighe do thabhairt (nó do dhéanamh) i or ar’ as ‘to neglect’. DIL’s earliest example of ‘faillige’ (‘negligence, remissness’), ‘ó obair 7 ó faillighe’ (‘commission and omission’, in relation to sin), is from Keating’s seventeenth-century Eochair-sgiath an Aifrinn. Only one example of ‘faillíth’ (‘neglect’) is cited in DIL, from another work by Keating, but the headword ‘faill’ (‘neglect, negligence’) is cited from earlier literature. See the commentary on Article 34.5.4o regarding the verb ‘neglect’, expressed by ‘failligh’. ‘And such decrease was occasioned by the neglect of the participant’ is translated as ‘agus gur de bharr faillí an rannpháirtí a tharla an laghdú sin’ in s4(2)(a) of the Pyramid Selling Act, 1980, for example. uireasa This headword is translated as ‘lack, want, absence, deficiency’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘níl easpa ná uireasa orainn’ is translated as ‘we want for nothing’. ‘Uireasbhaidh’ (‘uireasbha’ being the form in the original text) is translated as ‘deficiency, need, want, poverty’ in Dinneen, where ‘uireasbhaidh do-ghní cumha’ is translated as ‘indigence begets melancholy’. DIL translates ‘airesbaid’ as ‘lack,

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deficiency’, citing examples mainly from the period after the twelfth century. The prepositional prefix ‘air-’, with intensive force, is combined in this word with ‘esbaid’, ‘lack, loss, deficiency, defect’; ‘esbaid’ itself is made up of ‘ess’ + ‘both, buith’, the verbal noun of the substantive verb, according to DIL. See further the commentary on Article 45.4.2o, where we again find the phrase ‘de dheasca uireasa’. See the commentary on Article 1 regarding ‘economic’. ‘For the purpose of meeting a public requirement of a temporary nature or an immediate necessity’ is translated as ‘i gcóir riachtanais phuiblí shealadaigh no i gcóir riachtanais láithrigh’ in s3(a) of the Dublin United Tramways (Omnibus Services) Act, 1925. ‘Attention of … is directed to the necessity for compliance with the rules’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘cuirtear in úil do … a ghátaraí [atá] sé na rialacha do chó-líona’ in Iris an Phuist, 11/8/26. ‘Where, however, such change of residence is made suddenly by necessity arising from an unforeseen emergency’ is translated as ‘Má tharlaíonn, áfach, go n-athrófar áit chónaithe mar sin go hobann de riachtanas mar gheall ar éigeandáil gan choinne’ in s2(5)(b) of the Children (Amendment) Act, 1957. ‘Not justified by military necessity’ is translated as ‘nuair nach bhfuil riachtanas míleata leis’ in Article 50 of the First Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. uime sin Ó Dónaill gives ‘about, concerning, in regard to, on account of’ as one of the senses of ‘um’, this sense being cited from earlier Irish literature, with ‘is uime thug Dia chugainn é’ translated as ‘that is why God brought him to us’. Dinneen translates ‘uime sin’ as ‘for that reason’. DIL gives examples of ‘imm’ in the abstract sense, translated as ‘concerning, as regards, in the matter of, on account of, for the sake of’, from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. Note how the English text simply repeats ‘therefore’, as in ss2 of Article 41.1, here. See the commentary on that subsection regarding ‘therefore’. See further the commentary on Article 43.1.2o where ‘uime sin’ expresses ‘accordingly’. de dheasca This prepositional phrase is translated as ‘in consequence of’ in Ó Dónaill. See Dinneen s.v. ‘deascadh’ for the contrast between this phrase and ‘de bharr’: de dheascadh, as a result, but generally in plural, de dheascaibh, especially of a bad result, cf. de bharr, of a good result.

DIL translates ‘descad’ as (a) ‘dregs, lees, sediment’, referring to Modern Irish ‘de dheasgaibh, on account of’, and (b) ‘ferment, leaven, barm, yeast’, examples of which senses being given from the Old Irish Glosses onwards. dá chionn sin ‘De chionn go’ is translated as ‘because’ in Ó Dónaill, while Dinneen translates ‘do chionn’ as ‘by reason of’, translating ‘de chionn’ as ‘with a view to, for the purpose of’. DIL translates ‘de chiunn’ / ‘do chiunn’ as ‘in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú refers to ‘mar gheall air sin’ and ‘dá thoradh sin’ as possible alternatives in the direct translation below. féachfaidh … le See the commentary on Article 40.6.1oi. in áirithe See the commentary on Articles 15.10 and 28.3.3o.


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Direct translation Féachfaidh an Stát, ar an ábhar sin, lena áirithiú nach gceanglófar ar mháithreacha, de dheasca riachtanais eacnamaíochta, dul i mbun saothair agus mar gheall air sin1 faillí a dhéanamh ina ndualgais sa bhaile.

Variants 1 ‘dá chionn sin’, ‘dá thoradh sin’

ARTICLE 41.3.1O

AIRTEAGAL 41.3.1O

Ós ar an bPósadh atá an Teaghlach bunaithe gabhann an Stát air féin coimirce faoi leith a dhéanamh ar ord an phósta agus é a chosaint ar ionsaí. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Since it is on Marriage that the Family is founded the State takes it upon itself to give special protection to the order of marriage and to defend it from attack. ENGLISH TEXT

The State pledges itself to guard with special care the institution of Marriage, on which the Family is founded, and to protect it against attack.

Divergences between the official texts

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‘wardship’. Dinneen translates ‘coimirce’ as ‘protection, patronage, safeguard’, translating ‘coimirce Dé orm’ as ‘may God protect me!’ and ‘coimirce Dé chughainn!’ as ‘God be merciful to us!’ DIL translates ‘commairge’ as ‘protection, security, refuge; sanctuary; act of protecting, etc.’ See Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p.140f., regarding ‘protection’ in early Irish law: An important principle of Irish law is the right of a freeman to provide legal protection (snádud, also turtugud) for a certain period of time to another person of equal or lower rank …. The idea of protection is also prominent in the sagas, where it is usually called commairce or fóesam.

Professor Kelly gives the following note on the term ‘commairce’ (ibid, p. 141):

TÉACS GAEILGE

1

Bunreacht na hÉireann

‘The institution of Marriage’ is expressed as ‘ord an phósta’ (‘the order of marriage’) in the Irish text – technically this could be read as the marriage service, although we have an early example of the sense of ‘the institution of marriage’. ‘The State pledges’ is expressed as ‘gabhann an Stát air féin’ (‘the State takes upon itself / undertakes’) in the Irish text. As one sometimes finds in translations, the Irish text opens with the qualifying clause, ‘Ós ar an bPósadh atá an Teaghlach bunaithe’ (‘Since it is on Marriage that the Family is founded’), whereas the English text states directly ‘The State pledges itself …’, with ‘on which the Family is founded’ simply qualifying ‘the institution of Marriage’. ‘To guard with special care’ is expressed as ‘coimirce faoi leith a dhéanamh ar’ (‘to give special protection to’) in the Irish text. ‘Pósadh’ in the first clause has a capital ‘P’ corresponding to the capital ‘M’ in ‘Marriage’ in the English text, but has no capital in ‘ord an phósta’ (‘the order of marriage’); the English text has only one reference to ‘marriage’ in this section.

Commentary coimirce ‘Coimirce’ is translated as ‘protection, guardianship; patronage’ in Ó Dónaill, where ‘coimirce a thabhairt do dhuine’ is translated as ‘to grant protection to someone’ and ‘faoi choimirce an stáit’ is translated as ‘under the aegis, auspices, of the state’. ‘Coimircí’ is translated as ‘ward’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘coimircíocht’ translated as

This term (angl. comrick) is used with the meaning ‘legal protection’ in official English documents. The provision of protection was clearly regarded as one of the central features of the Irish way of life, and many attempts were made to suppress it. For example, in an agreement of 28 August 1583 with the Lord Deputy, Sir John O’Reilly of Breifne undertook ‘not to use any iraghtes (= Ir. airecht) or parleys upon hills to the intent to do any unlawful act to any of her majesty’s subjects, not to make any distresses upon amenable persons other than for rent or duties without the special permission of the state, not to keep Irish brehons or suffer Brehon Law, not to take ericks (= Ir. éraic) but proceed by indictment for murder, and not to give comrick (= Ir. commairce) to any lords or their children or brethren that shall be offenders, but bring them to punishment’. Another group of terms … are slánad, slánachus, sláinte (angl. slantie), slánaigecht (angl. slanyacht), sláint(ig)echt (angl. slantyeght), which are commonly used in the Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. period for ‘legal protection, guarantee, security’. The last term is used in a treaty in the English language made on 18 August 1560 between O’Rourke and O’Reilly which places both under the protection of the Earl of Kildare. They agree that if either of them break the Earl’s slantyeght by killing, robbing or burning in the other’s territory, he will pay 1,000 cattle to the Earl.

‘To take all reasonable measures to guard against the outbreak of fire on such premises’ is translated as ‘gach beart réasúnach a dhéanamh le bheith san airdeall ar dhóiteán tarlú san áitreabh sin’ in s18(2) of the Fire Services Act, 1981. ‘Who negligently or wilfully allows to escape any person … whom it is his duty to guard or keep in custody’ is translated as ‘a ligfear go faillitheach nó go toiliúil d’aon duine éaló … nuair a bheidh sé de dhualgas air é a ghardáil nó é a bheith faoi choimeád aige’ in s145(b) of the Defence Act, 1954, with ‘any person whom it is his duty to keep or guard’ being translated as ‘Éinne ’na bhfuil sé de dhualgas air é do chimeád no do ghárdáil’ in s50 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Providing for the efficient management, sanitation, control and guarding of such places other than prisons’ is translated as ‘chun na háiteanna san nách príosúin do bhainistí, do chimeád sláintiúil, do stiúra agus do ghárdáil go héifeachtúil’ in s8(b) of the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1926. pósadh ‘Scaoilim pósadh’ is translated as ‘I dissolve a marriage’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘dlínse maidir le pósadh’ and ‘aiseag chearta an phósta’ are translated respectively


A study of the Irish text

as ‘matrimonial jurisdiction’ and ‘restitution of conjugal rights’. ‘Pósadh’ is translated as ‘(state, ceremony, of) marriage’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘act of marrying, joining in marriage; marriage, married life or state; a wedding feast’ in Dinneen. ‘Pósad’ is translated as ‘the act of marrying or espousing, marriage’ in DIL; it is the verbal noun of ‘pósaid’, a Romance loanword which comes from Latin ‘spons-are’; examples cited in DIL date from the later Middle Irish period onwards, ‘ord an phósta’ being cited from the Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar Breac, a manuscript compiled in 1411 or earlier. The sense of ‘marriage’ is cited in the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses and in later sources for the term ‘lánamnas’, translated as ‘partnership, social and/or legal relationship between two parties’. See Fergus Kelly op. cit., p. 70, regarding marriage in early Irish law: Most legal references to women relate to marriage, and this is the subject of a special text Cáin Lánamna. Nine forms of sexual union (lánamnas) are distinguished. At the top of the list the author places the ‘union of joint property’ (lánamnas comthinchuir) into which both partners contribute movable goods (tinchor). The woman in such a union is called a ‘wife of joint authority’ (bé cuitchernsa). Next come the ‘union of a woman on man-property’ (lánamnas mná for ferthinchur) into which the woman contributes little or nothing, and the ‘union of a man on womanproperty’ (lánamnas fir for bantinchur) into which the man contributes little or nothing. The fourth category is the ‘union of a man visiting’ (lánamnas fir thathigtheo) – a less formal union in which the man visits the woman at her home with her kin’s consent. In the fifth union, the woman goes away openly with the man, but is not given by her kin. In the sixth union she allows herself to be abducted (lánamnas foxail) and in the seventh she is secretly visited (lánamnas táidi) – in both cases without her kin’s consent. The eighth and ninth unions can in no sense be described as marriage, as they are union by rape and the union of two insane persons.

The word ‘bainis’ (‘wedding; wedding-feast’, Ó Dónaill), earlier form ‘banais’, comes from ‘ben’ + ‘feis’ and glosses Latin ‘nuptias’ in the Glosses in the ninth- or tenth-century manuscript Parker 279 in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. ‘Because of her marriage’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘mar gheall ar gur pósadh í’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health, ‘liúntas pósa’ translating ‘marriage allowance’ in Iris an Phoist and ‘réiteach cleamhnais’ translating ‘marriage settlement’ in a Report from the Department of Industry and Commerce. ‘There is a child of the marriage’ is translated as ‘(go) mbeidh leanbh ann de bharr an phósta’ in s28(a) of the Widows and Orphans’ Pensions Act, 1935. ‘A marriage portion’ is translated as ‘coibhche’ in s63(b) of the Succession Act, 1965, where ‘advancement by way of portion or settlement’ is translated as ‘réamhshocrú i modh clannchoda nó socraíochta’. ‘The Marriages Act, 1972’ is cited in Irish as ‘Acht na bPóstaí, 1972’. ord ‘Ord an phósta’ is translated as ‘the order of marriage’ in Ó Dónaill, this being cited as an example of ‘ord’ in the ecclesiastical sense of ‘prescribed form of service’. Dinneen translates ‘órd an phósta’ as ‘the order of marriage, marriage

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ceremony’. DIL, however, cites ‘is e ord in phósta ord Dé’ from the Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar Breac, compiled in 1411 or earlier, as an example of ‘ord’ in the sense ‘rule, regulation, ordinance, institution’. See the commentary on Articles 38.3.1o and 40.6.1o regarding ‘ord poiblí’ (‘public order’). ‘The British and Irish Governments will seek to create institutions and structures which would enable them to work together’ is translated as ‘féachfaidh Rialtais na Breataine agus na hÉireann le hinstitiúidí agus struchtúir a chruthú a dhéanfaidh iad a chumasú chun oibriú as lámha a chéile’ in the December 1993 Joint Declaration (p. 6), with ‘needs of our National Cultural Institutions’ being translated as ‘riachtanas ár bhForas Cúlturtha Náisiúnta’ in the Programme for a Partnership Government, 1993-97 (p. 56). See further the commentary on Article 18.4.2o where ‘institution’ is expressed as ‘foras’. gabhann an Stát air féin ‘Assume, undertake’ are given as secondary senses of the phrase ‘gabh ar’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘ghabh sé air féin an obair a dhéanamh, he undertook to do the work’. Dinneen translates ‘gabhaim orm’ as ‘I take on myself, take up a challenge’. DIL cites examples of ‘gaibid for’, with reflexive pronoun, in the sense of ‘takes (a burden, responsibility, on one’s self, undertakes)’, from the Táin and from later sources, including ‘gabhuid sin ortha féin’ (‘they undertook to do that’) from a collection of the Lives of the Irish Saints. ‘Pledge’ is translated as ‘gealltán’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘I pledge credit’ is translated as ‘cuirim creidmheas i ngeall’. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘pledge’ as (i) ‘cuirim (rud) i ngeall’ and (2) ‘tugaim (m’fhocal, gealltanas)’, translating ‘to be pledged to do something’ as ‘bheith faoi ghealltanas rud a dhéanamh’. See the commentary on Article 45.4.1o regarding ‘pledge’ in the Acts. a chosaint ar ‘Cosnaím’ is translated as ‘I defend’ in Téarmaí Dlí; Dinneen translates ‘cosnaim’ as ‘I defend, protect from (ar); champion, seek to gain or hold, maintain’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘cosain’ as ‘defend, protect (ar, ó against)’, citing ‘duine a chosaint ar rud, to defend someone against something’, ‘sinn a chosaint ó bhaol, ar olc, to protect us from harm, from evil’. DIL translates ‘con-sní ‘as ‘contends; contests, strives for, wins, gains; later also defends; costs’, citing ‘cumhacht … lé ccoisenadh é féin ar bhás’ (power that he ‘might protect himself from death’) from Ó Heoghusa’s An Teagasg Criosdaidhe, 1611. See the commentary on Article 28.3.2o. ‘And the order shall operate to protect against execution save as provided by this section’ is translated as ‘agus oibreoidh an t-ordú chun cosaint a thabhairt ar fhorghníomhú ach amháin mar a fhoráiltear leis an alt seo’ in s89(1) of the Bankruptcy Act, 1988. ‘By reason of the applicant’s failure to take reasonable care to protect against the disease in question the animals … which are the subject of the application’ is translated as ‘i ngeall ar gur mhainnigh an t-iarratasóir cúram réasúnach a ghlacadh chun na hainmhithe … is ábhar don iarratas a chosaint ar an ngalar a bheidh i gceist’ in s58(6) of the Diseases of Animals Act, 1966. See further the commentary on Articles 15.10 and 41.1.2o where ‘protect’ is expressed respectively by ‘dídean’ and ‘caomhnaigh’. faoi leith See the commentary on Article 38.3.1o. As


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regards ‘special care’ in the Acts, ‘where an establishment or institution is confined … to persons of one sex requiring special care, supervision or treatment’ is translated as ‘i gcás ar daoine de ghnéas amháin … atá i mbunachas nó in institiúid is daoine ar gá aire, maoirseacht nó cóireáil an leith lena n-aghaidh’ in s17(2)(c) of the Employment Equality Act, 1977, with ‘not to require special care and treatment in a fully equipped mental hospital’ being translated as ‘nach gá dóibh aireachas agus cóireáil speisialta in óspidéal meabhair-ghalar lánfheistithe’ in s22(1) of the Mental Treatment Act, 1945. ‘D’aireachasú’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating the verb ‘care’ in Iris an Phuist, 5/9/28, ‘care (in perfomance of duties)’ being translated as ‘aireachas’ in Iris an Phuist, 28/9/27. See the commentary on Article 38.3.1o as regard ‘special’ in the Acts. ionsaí This headword is translated as ‘assault’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘mionionsaí’ and ‘tromionsaí’ are translated respectively as ‘common assault’ and ‘aggravated assault’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘ionsaí’ as ‘advance, approach, attack’, citing ‘ionsaí a dhéanamh ar áit, to advance upon, attack, a place’ – see the commentary on Article 40.3.2o. Looking at early translations, ‘With the object of protecting pictures in the National Gallery of Ireland from injury by attack from the air’ is translated as ‘D’fhonn pictiúirí i nGaileirí Náisiúnta na hÉireann do chosaint ar dhíobháil tré ionnsaighe ón aer’ in s65 of the Air-Raid Precautions Act, 1939. ‘Have created a state of rebellion which has been carried on by means of armed attack on the Military Forces of Saorstát Éireann’ is translated as ‘gur chruthuíodar staid rebeliúntachta a cimeádadh ar siúl tré fhoghna armtha do thabhairt fé Fhórsaí Mileata Shaorstáit Éireann’ in the Preamble to the Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923, with ‘fogha’ being cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘attack’ in a 1927 Report of the Public Accounts Committee. bunaithe ‘Such intention is founded on the existence of sufficient evidence’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil an rún sin bunaithe ar fhianaise leordhóthanach a bheidh ann’ in s2(1)(a) of the Extradition (Amendment) Act, 1987. ‘The claim is founded on any fraud or fraudulent breach of trust’ is translated as ‘(ina) mbeidh an t-éileamh bunaithe ar aon chalaois nó sárú calaoiseach iontaobhais’ in s44(a) of the Statute of Limitations, 1957, with ‘under the judgement, order, or decree on which his claim is founded’ being translated as ‘fén mbreith, fén ordú no fén aithne ar a mbeidh a éileamh bunuithe’ in s6(2) of the Indemnity Act, 1924.

Direct translation Tugann an Stát gealltanas institiúid an Phósta, ar a bhfuil an Teaghlach bunaithe, a ghardáil le haireachas1 ar leith, agus é a chosaint ar ionsaí.

Variant 1 ‘le haire’

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ARTICLE 41.3.2O (before amendment) AIRTEAGAL 41.3.2O (roimh leasú) TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní cead dlí ar bith a achtú a bhéarfadh cumhacht chun pósadh a scaoileadh. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

It is not permitted to enact any law which would give power to dissolve a marriage. ENGLISH TEXT

No law shall be enacted providing for the grant of a dissolution of marriage. A new subsection was substituted for this subsection by the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution, 1995, which text is given and commented on following this below.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

‘Providing for the grant of a dissolution of marriage’ is expressed as ‘a bhéarfadh cumhacht chun pósadh a scaoileadh’ (‘which would give power to dissolve a marriage’) in the Irish text. Again, as in some earlier Articles, ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) expresses ‘No … shall’ of the English text.

Commentary a scaoileadh ‘Scaoilim pósadh’ is translated as ‘I dissolve a marriage’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘dissolution (i.e. of marriage)’ is translated as ‘scaoileadh’. ‘Scaoil’ is translated as ‘loose(n), release, discharge’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘páirtíocht, pósadh, a scaoileadh, to dissolve a partnership, a marriage’. Dinneen also gives ‘I dissolve’ as one of the senses of ‘scaoilim’. ‘Bursts, scatters, spreads’ is the principal sense of ‘scaílid’ given in DIL. Note that in the amended ss2, ‘A Court … may grant a dissolution of marriage’ is rendered as ‘Féadfaidh cúirt … scaoileadh ar phósadh a thabhairt’ – see the commentary on the amended subsection below. In s2(2) of the Army Pensions Act, 1923, ‘on the death of his wife or the lawful annulment or dissolution of his marriage’ is translated as ‘ar fháil bháis dá mhnaoi no ar a phósa do chur ar neamh-ní no do bhrise go dleathach’. ‘An pósa do scur go dleathach’ translates ‘the lawful dissolution of the marriage’ in s22(1) of the Army Pensions Act, 1927. ‘In consideration or in consequence of the dissolution or annulment of a marriage’ is translated as ‘i gcomaoin nó de dhroim scaoileadh nó neamhniú pósta’ in s3(1)(a)(i) of the Finance Act, 1983. cumhacht Literally ‘power’. ‘I grant’ is translated as ‘deonaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Such justice may, as he thinks proper, grant or refuse to grant such annulment’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an Breitheamh san an t-ordú diúltuithe sin do chur ar nea-mbrí no diúltú d’é chur ar nea-mbrí, fé mar a mheasfaidh is ceart’ in s35(3) of the Trade Union Act, 1941. ‘An Act to grant and appropriate certain sums’ is translated as ‘Acht chun suimeanna áirithe


A study of the Irish text

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

do dheonú agus do chur i leithreas’ in the Long Title of the Appropriation Act, 1922, with ‘a permit granted under this section’ being translated as ‘cead a deonfar fén alt so’ in s37(6) of the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1927. Commenting on the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú suggests ‘a lamháil’, ‘a cheadú’ or ‘a aontú’ as possible alternatives to ‘a dheonú’. See the commentary on Article 8.3 regarding ‘provide’ in the Acts. Note, for example, that ‘to be a law providing for the control or regulation in that country of the manufacture … of dangerous or otherwise harmful drugs’ is translated as ‘gur dlí é a fhorálann rialú sa tír sin ar mhonarú … drugaí atá contúirteach nó atá díobhálach ar dhóigh eile’ in s20(2) of Misuse of Drugs Act, 1977, with ‘to be a law providing for the control and regulation in that country of the manufacture … of drugs’ being translated as ‘is dlí dheineann socrú chun déanamh … druganna do stiúradh agus do rialáil sa tír sin’ in s3(1) of the Dangerous Drugs Act, 1934.

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

a bhéarfadh This would be replaced by ‘a thabharfadh’ in the official standard – see the commentary on Article 12.1.

ENGLISH TEXT

Ní cead See the commentary on Article 9.1.3o.

i

A Court which will be specified by law may give a dissolution of marriage in the case, but only in the case, that it has ascertained – i

ii iii

iv

that, on the date of the initiation of the proceedings, the spouses had spent a period of at least four years, or periods of at least four years in total, living apart from each other during the previous five years, that no reasonable expectation exists that there will be a compromise between the spouses, that such an arrangement exists, or that such an arrangement will be made, that the Court thinks proper having regard to the circumstances, for the spouses, for any children of either of them or of both of them and for any other person prescribed by law, and that any further conditions prescribed by law are fulfilled.

A Court designated by law may grant a dissolution of marriage where, but only where, it is satisfied that –

Standardised Irish text Ní cead dlí ar bith a achtú a thabharfadh cumhacht chun pósadh a scaoileadh.

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ii iii

Direct translation

at the date of the institution of the proceedings, the spouses have lived apart from one another for a period of, or periods amounting to, at least four years during the previous five years, there is no reasonable prospect of a reconciliation between the spouses, such provision as the Court considers proper having regard to the circumstances exists or will be made for the spouses, any children of either or both of them and any other person prescribed by law, and any further conditions prescribed by law are complied with.

Ní achtófar aon dlí lena ndéanfar socrú chun scaoileadh ar phósadh a dheonú1.

iv

Variants

This text was substituted for the original subsection following the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution, 1995.

1 ‘a thabhairt’, ‘a lamháil’

ARTICLE 41.3.2O (as amended) AIRTEAGAL 41.3.2O (arna leasú) TÉACS GAEILGE

Féadfaidh Cúirt a bheidh ainmnithe le dlí scaoileadh ar phósadh a thabhairt sa chás, ach sa chás amháin, gur deimhin léi – i go raibh, ar dháta thionscnamh na n-imeachtaí, tréimhse ceithre bliana ar a laghad, nó tréimhsí ceithre bliana ar a laghad san iomlán, caite ag na céilí ina gcónaí ar leithligh óna chéile le linn na gcúig bliana roimhe sin, ii nach bhfuil ionchas réasúnach ar bith ann go mbeidh comhréiteach idir na céilí, iii go bhfuil cibé socrú ann, nó go ndéanfar cibé socrú, is dóigh leis an gCúirt a bheith cuí ag féachaint do na himthosca, le haghaidh na gcéilí, le haghaidh aon leanaí le ceachtar acu nó leis an mbeirt acu agus le haghaidh aon duine eile a bheidh forordaithe le dlí, agus iv go gcomhlíontar aon choinníollacha breise a bheidh forordaithe le dlí.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

4

‘Reconciliation’ is rendered as ‘comhréiteach’ in the Irish text, which term is translated as ‘compromise’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Designated’ is rendered as ‘ainmnithe’ (‘named’/ ‘specified’) in the Irish text. In the original subsection 2, ‘providing for the grant of a dissolution of marriage’ is expressed as ‘a bhéarfadh cumhacht chun pósadh a scaoileadh’ while in this subsection ‘A Court … may grant a dissolution of marriage’ is rendered as ‘Féadfaidh Cúirt … scaoileadh ar phósadh a thabhairt’. ‘For a period of, or periods amounting to, at least four years’ is rendered as ‘tréimhse ceithre bliana ar a laghad, nó tréimhsí ceithre bliana ar a laghad san iomlán’ (‘a period of at least four years, or periods of at least four years in all’), with ‘the spouses having lived apart … for a period …’ rendered as ‘go raibh … tréimhse … caite ag na céilí ina gcónaí ar leithligh’ (‘that the spouses had spent a period … living apart’), in the Irish text.


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Commentary comhréiteach This compound is translated as ‘compromise’ in Téarmaí Dlí, following four of the ten Irish Legal Terms Orders, with ‘comhréitím’ translated as ‘I compromise (i.e. an action or claim)’. ‘Comhréiteach’, verbal noun of ‘comhréitigh’ (‘compromise, settle; agree’ in Ó Dónaill), is translated as ‘compromise, settlement; agreement, harmonization’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘comhréiteach aighnis, settlement of dispute’. This compound of ‘comh’ (‘mutual, joint, common’) with ‘réiteach’ does not appear to be given as a headword in Dinneen nor in DIL. ‘Réiteach’ has the sense of ‘solution, settlement; adjustment, agreement’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘réiteach a dhéanamh idir dhaoine, to settle matters between people’, ‘teacht chun réitigh le duine, to come to an agreement with someone’ and ‘chuaigh an chúis ó réiteach orainn, we failed to decide the issue, to come to terms’, along with ‘bord réitigh, conciliation board’ and ‘ráiteas réitigh, reconciliation statement’. Dinneen gives ‘a reconciliation, peace, concord, settlement’ as one of the senses of ‘réidhteach’, translating ‘dúdóg réidhtigh’ as ‘a friendly pipe, a pipe of peace’. DIL gives ‘settling, adjusting (a dispute, transaction); making terms (with)’ as a secondary sense of ‘réidtech’, citing ‘[nir] fed in t-imper reiteach eturra’ (i.e. the emperor was unable to ‘make peace between them’). ‘Réidtech’ is the verbal noun of ‘réidid’, translated as ‘levels, smooths, makes easy, clears (land etc.)’ in DIL. The verb ‘réidigid’ is also given as a headword in DIL, this being a deponent verb in Old Irish – DIL cites ‘ní redigedar’ (‘it does not make plain’) from the early ninth-century Milan Glosses on a Latin Commentary on the Psalms, and gives ‘settles, adjusts (a quarrel, transaction)’ as a later sense of this verb, citing ‘má dho réidhigheadh eadruinn 7 Día’ (‘if we have been reconciled to God’) from the seventeenth-century translation of Romans v. 10. Both these verbs are based on ‘réidh’, primarily ‘level, smooth’, but with sense (e) in DIL of ‘at peace, reconciled’, ‘nach beinn-si reidh 7 Fionn’, from Duanaire Finn, being translated as ‘reconciled to Fionn’. In s8(2) of the Judicial Separation and Family Law Reform Act, 1989, ‘and such order of rescission shall be made by the court upon it being satisfied that a reconciliation has taken place between the applicant and the respondent’ is translated as ‘agus déanfaidh an chúirt an t-ordú cealaithe sin ar í a bheith deimhin de go bhfuil an t-iarratasóir agus an freagróir tar éis teacht ar chomhréiteach’, with ‘to facilitate reconciliation between estranged spouses’ being translated as ‘d’éascú comhréitigh idir céilí coimhthithe’ in the Long Title of that Act. In Article 43.2.2o, ‘with a view to reconciling their exercise with the exigencies of the common good’ is expressed as ‘d’fhonn an t-oibriú sin agus leas an phobail a thabhairt le chéile’. ‘To reconcile difference of calculation’ and ‘reconciliation of balances’ are cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated respectively as ‘deifríocht do thabhairt dá chéile’ and ‘réiteach iarmhéideanna’ in early official translations. De Bhaldraithe gives ‘réiteach’ and ‘athmhuintearas’ as translations of ‘reconciliation’, the latter term being given as a headword in Ó Dónaill and simply translated as ‘reconciliation’. ainmnithe ‘Nominate’ and ‘specify’ are two of the secondary senses of ‘ainmnigh’ (principally ‘name’) given

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by Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘duine a ainmniú do phost, ina iarrthóir, to nominate someone to a post, as a candidate’ and ‘lá, ionad, coinníollacha, a ainmniú, to specify a day, a place, conditions’. Dinneen includes ‘I name, assign; I nominate, mention, specify’ among the senses of ‘ainmnighim’. DIL gives examples of ‘ainmnigidir’ from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, this verb being based on ‘ainmm’. Incidentally, it is thought that ‘anm’, found in Ogam inscriptions, which date from the fourth century onwards, may mean ‘inscription’ or ‘mortal remains’ – see DIL s.v. ‘ainmm’. See the commentary on Articles 6.1 and 13.8.2o regarding ‘designate’, expressed respectively by ‘ceap’ and ‘ainmnigh’. ar dháta thionscnamh na n-imeachtaí ‘Tionscnamh imeachtaí’ is translated as ‘institution of proceedings’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘toghairm thionscnaimh’ is translated as ‘originating summons’ and ‘tionscnaím imeachtaí’ is translated as ‘I bring proceedings’. Unlike some other verbal nouns, ‘tionscnaimh’ alone is given as the genitive singular of ‘tionscnamh’ in Ó Dónaill (translating ‘tionscnamh’ as ‘beginning, origin; introduction, initiation; institution, establishment’); one might perhaps have expected the form ‘tionscanta’ as genitive singular of the verbal noun with ‘tionscnaimh’ as the genitive singular of the noun – see, ‘filleadh’, for example, in Ó Dónaill, with ‘fillidh’ and ‘fillte’ being cited as the two forms of the genitive singular – and subsequently one would have ‘ar dháta tionscanta na n-imeachtaí’, like the form ‘Bord Soláthair an Leictreachais’, for example. DIL cites examples of the genitive form ‘tindscanta’ from the Yellow Book of Lecan (‘cuis tindscanta na raed n-anaithnich’) onwards. ‘Tinnscna(m)’ is the Middle Irish verbal noun of ‘doinscanna’, ‘begins’ (‘tinnscetal’ being the earlier verbal noun), examples of this verb being cited in DIL from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards, the following final example being cited from Keating’s seventeenth-century Three Shafts of Death: ‘tionnsgnaidh an chríoch’ (= ‘finis incipit’). See further the commentary on Article 45.3.1o where ‘tionscnamh’ expresses ‘initiative’. Commenting on the direct translation below, with ‘tionscanta’ given as a variant, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that a Munsterman would say ‘ar dháta na n-imeachtaí a thionscnamh’ in that sense, which is not the same as ‘dáta tionscanta na n-imeachtaí’, but that one would prefer ‘an dáta ar tionscnaíodh na himeachtaí’ in that second sense. céilí ‘Céile’ is translated as ‘companion, spouse’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘a fellow, companion, mate’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘céile na Beithínighe, the spouse of Beithineach river, i.e. he who owned the land on the river’. ‘Husband’ is given as one of the meanings of ‘céile’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the Old Irish Glosses, with the sense ‘wife’ being rarely cited, and apparently not attested in the Glosses. The main senses of ‘céile’ as a noun, according to DIL, are ‘servant’ and ‘fellow’, the term always implying a relationship. Examples of the sense ‘fellow, companion, “opposite number”, other one, neighbour (in New Testament sense)’ are cited in DIL from the Glosses of the eighth century onwards. Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 306, translates ‘céile’ as ‘client’, this word being cognate with Welsh ‘cilydd’ (‘fellow, companion’). In early Irish law the rights and duties of a lord (‘flaith’) related mainly


A study of the Irish text

to his clients, according to Professor Kelly (op. cit, pp. 26-7), as it was the possession of clients which made him a lord, the lowest grade of lord having five free clients and five base clients according the the early Irish law-tract Críth Gablach. In another such tract, the relationship between a lord and his base client is classified as being similar to that between a husband and his wife, a teacher and his pupil, or the Church and its monks, while in a certain Old Irish poem, God is compared to a lord whose clients are the Jewish people (ibid, p. 27). In Modern Irish, the regular terms for ‘husband’ and ‘wife’ are ‘fear céile’ and ‘bean chéile’. ionchas This headword is translated as ‘expectation, prospect’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘ionchas saoil’ as ‘life expectancy’ and ‘ionchais na bliana’ as ‘the prospects for the year’. Dinneen translates ‘ionchas’ as ‘likelihood, expectation, prospect’, translating ‘le hionchas go’ as ‘in the hope that’. imthosca ‘Imthoisc’ is translated as ‘circumstance’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘imthosca ionchoiritheacha’ and ‘imthosca maolaitheacha’ are translated respectively as ‘incriminating circumstances’ and ‘extenuating circumstances’. Ó Dónaill gives the form ‘imthosca’ (translated as ‘circumstances’) as the headword, followed by the abbreviations for ‘substantive plural’ and ‘Jurisprudence’. See the commentary on Article 45.2.v as regards ‘circumstances’ in the Acts. forordaithe ‘Forordaigh’ is translated as ‘pre-ordain, predestine’ in Ó Dónaill, with ‘forordú’ translated as ‘fore-ordering, predestination’. Dinneen translates ‘forórduighim’ as ‘I predestine, order beforehand’, translating ‘forórdughadh’ as ‘predestination, act of predestining; a previous order’. ‘Prescription’ is translated as ‘rúradh’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘rúrach’ translation ‘prescriptive’. The glossators of the early Irish laws took ‘rudrad’ to be from ‘ro’ (‘great, excessive’) plus ‘dúrad’ (‘duration’), this being the correct derivation of the word according to Fergus Kelly, op. cit., p. 109. See the commentary on Articles 15.9.1o and 27.2 where ‘prescribe’ is expressed respectively by ‘leag amach’ and ‘ordaigh’. san iomlán This phrase is translated as ‘in all, all told’ in Ó Dónaill. Looking at ‘amount’ in early Acts, ‘and so much thereof as consisted of rent exceeds the sum to which compounded arrears of rent would have otherwise amounted’ is translated as ‘agus gur mó an méid ba chíos de ná an tsuim a dhéanfadh riaráiste cíosa socruithe mara mbeadh san’ in s19(5)(a) of the Land Act, 1923. ‘All sums granted out of the Central Fund towards making good the supply granted, amounting … in the aggregate to the sum of thirty-two million, two hundred and twelve thousand, eight hundred and ninety-three pounds’ is translated as ‘Na suimeanna uile a deontar as an bPrímh-Chiste sin … chun an soláthar a deonadh do dhéanamh iomlán agus ’na ndineann a n-iomlán … suim dhá mhilleon déag ar fhichid, dhá chéad is dhá mhíle dhéag, ocht gcéad nócha a trí de phúint’ in s3 of the Appropriation Act, 1924.

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

603

‘scaoilim pósadh’. We have seen in the original subsection 2 how ‘providing for the dissolution of a marriage’ was expressed as ‘a bhéarfadh cumhacht chun pósadh a scaoileadh’ and in subsection 3 ‘(No) person whose marriage has been dissolved’ is expressed as ‘I gcás pósadh duine ar bith a scaoileadh’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘scaoileadh ó choinníoll, ó oibleagáid, release from condition, from obligation’. ar leithligh This phrase as translated as ‘apart, aside, by oneself, in particular’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘separate, by oneself, by itself’ in Dinneen. ‘Oc leithlig’ and ‘do leithlig’ were earlier forms of this phrase, translated as ‘apart, aside’ in DIL.

Standardised Irish text ‘Tionscnamh’, as a verbal noun, rather than be lenited, might perhaps be put in the genitive singular, ‘tionscnaimh’.

Direct translation Féadfaidh Cúirt a bheidh ainmnithe le dlí scaoileadh ar phósadh a dheonú1 sa chás, agus sa chás sin amháin, gur deimhin léi – i

ii iii

iv

go raibh, ar dháta tionscnaimh2 na n-imeachtaí, tréimhse ceithre bliana ar a laghad, nó tréimhsí ceithre bliana ar a laghad san iomlán, caite ag na céilí ina gcónaí ar leithligh óna chéile le linn na gcúig bliana roimhe sin, nach bhfuil aon ionchas réasúnach ann go mbeidh athmhuintearas idir na céilí, go bhfuil cibé socrú ann is cuí leis an gCúirt ag féachaint do na himthosca nó go ndéanfar socrú den sórt sin le haghaidh na gcéilí, le haghaidh aon leanaí le ceachtar acu nó leis an mbeirt acu agus le haghaidh aon duine eile a bheidh forordaithe le dlí, agus go gcomhlíonfar aon choinníollacha breise a bheidh forordaithe le dlí.

Variants 1 ‘a thabhairt’ 2 ‘tionscanta’, ‘thionscnamh’

ARTICLE 41.3.3O

AIRTEAGAL 41.3.3O

TÉACS GAEILGE

I gcás pósadh duine ar bith a scaoileadh faoi dhlí shibhialta aon Stáit eile agus an pósadh sin, agus bail dlí air, a bheith ann fós faoin dlí a bheas i bhfeidhm in alt na huaire taobh istigh de dhlínse an Rialtais agus na Parlaiminte a bhunaítear leis an mBunreacht seo, ní fhéadfaidh an duine sin pósadh ar a mbeadh bail dlí a dhéanamh taobh istigh den dlínse sin an fad is beo don duine eile a bhí sa chuing phósta a scaoileadh amhlaidh. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

scaoileadh ar phósadh Note that Téarmaí Dlí simply has ‘scaoileadh, dissolution (i.e. of marriage); release’, without preposition, and translates ‘I dissolve a marriage’ as

In the case of the marriage of anybody dissolved under the civil law of any other State and that marriage, being legally valid, (and) still existing under the law which will


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be in force at the time within the jurisdiction of the Government and the Parliament which is established under this Constitution, that person cannot enter a marriage which would have legal validity within that jurisdiction while the other person who was in the bond of marriage that was thus dissolved is alive. ENGLISH TEXT

No person whose marriage has been dissolved under the civil law of any other State but is a subsisting valid marriage under the law for the time being in force within the jurisdiction of the Government and Parliament established by this Constitution shall be capable of contracting a valid marriage within that jurisdiction during the lifetime of the other party to the marriage so dissolved.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

4

‘But is a subsisting valid marriage’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘agus an pósadh sin, agus bail dlí air, a bheith ann fós’, ‘and that marriage, and it legally valid, and still existing’. ‘Shall not be capabable of’ is expressed as ‘ní fhéadfaidh’ (‘will not be able’) in the Irish text. ‘Contracting a valid marriage’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘pósadh ar a mbeadh bail dlí a dhéanamh’, ‘entering (making) a marriage which would have legal validity’. ‘During the lifetime of the other party to the marriage’ is expressed as ‘an fad is beo don duine eile a bhí sa chuing phósta’ (‘while the other person who was in the marriage bond is alive’) in the Irish text.

Commentary a bheith ann fós Literally ‘still existing’. Looking at early Acts, ‘The Minister may … alter the boundaries of any fishery district or electoral division subsisting at the date of the order’ is translated as ‘Féadfidh an tAire … teoranta aon cheanntair no togh-roinne iascaigh a bheidh ann ar dháta an ordaithe d’atharú’ in s27(1) of the Finance Act, 1925. ‘Comprised in a subsisting licence granted under this Act’ is translated as ‘(ná) fuil i gceadúnas atá i bhfeidhm agus a deonadh fén Acht so’ in s43(2) of the Dairy Produce Act, 1924. ‘Subsisting’ is translated as ‘ar marthain’ in Téarmaí Dlí, which phrase is cited in the Acts from 1927: ‘And had no reasonable ground for suspecting that copyright subsisted in the work’ is translated as ‘agus gan aon chúis réasúnta aige chun bheith amhrusach go raibh cóipcheart ar marthain san obair’ in s161 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927. ‘“Subsisting marriage” shall be construed as including a voidable marriage’ is translated as ‘déanfar “pósadh atá ar marthain” a fhorléiriú mar abairt a fholaíonn pósadh in-neamhnithe’ in s46(4) of the Status of Children Act, 1987, with ‘a person whose parents are or have been married to each other but between whom there has been no subsisting marriage at any time during the period of ten months before the person’s birth’ being translated as ‘(do) dhuine a bhfuil nó a raibh a thuismitheoirí pósta ar a chéile ach nach raibh aon phósadh ar marthain eatarthu tráth ar bith le linn na tréimhse deich mí sular rugadh an duine’ in s4(a).

Bunreacht na hÉireann

In s75(1) of the Landlord and Tenant (Amendment) Act, 1980, ‘and there is a subsisting undertaking … that the house would not be sold’ is translated as ‘agus a bhfuil geallúint ar marthain … nach ndíolfaí an teach’. Finally note that ‘An alteration of the memorandum or rules shall not affect any subsisting right or obligation of a society’ is translated as ‘Ní dhéanfaidh athrú ar mheabhrán ná ar rialacha difear d’aon cheart marthanach nó oibleagáid mharthanach de chuid cumainn’ in s14(6) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. bail dlí air ‘Validity’ is given as one of the senses of ‘bail’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘ionas go mbeadh bail ar a fhaoistin, so that his confession might be valid’ and ‘gan bhail, invalid, void’. Dinneen translates ‘bail’ as ‘success, prosperity; form, effect, issue, condition’. DIL s.v. ‘bal’, in the sense of the efficacy of a sacrament or judgement, cites ‘bídh buil ar an bpósadh gan fhios, gan fhiadhain’ (‘a clandestine marriage is valid’) from Parrthas an Anma (Gearnon, 1645) and also cites ‘bídh a bpósadh ar bhail’ (‘valid’), from Ó Heoghusa’s An Teagasg Criosdaidhe, 1611 – see the commentary on Articles 15.4.2o and 28.3.3o. Looking at ‘valid’ in the early Acts, ‘or any valid private interest therein’ is translated as ‘no d’aon cheart dlisteanach príobháideach ’na leith’ in Article 11 of the 1922 Constitution. ‘Íocaíochta éifeachtacha íocaíochta an Cheathrú Sceidil’ translates ‘Payments in Fourth Schedule declared valid’ in the Margin Title of s19 of the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘Any County Court Judge may deem any document to which this section applies to have been validly served’ being translated as ‘féadfidh aon Bhreitheamh Cúirte Contae a thógaint gur seirbheáladh go dleathach aon scríbhinn le n-a mbaineann an t-alt so’ in s2(1) of the County Courts (Amendment) Act, 1923. Turning to modern Acts, with ‘valid’ being translated as ‘bailí’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘Where a marriage would not be regarded as valid in law’ is translated as ‘I gcás nach measfaí pósadh a bheith ina phósadh bailí faoin dlí’ in s1(7) of the Marriages Act, 1972. ‘That the father reasonably believed that the ceremony of marriage … resulted in a valid marriage’ is translated as ‘gur chreid an t-athair le réasún go raibh pósadh bailí de thoradh an tsearmanais phósta’ in s9 of the Status of Children Act, 1987. pósadh a dhéanamh This phrase is translated as ‘to marry; to officiate at a marriage ceremony’ in Ó Dónaill. DIL cites ‘co rinne [Dia] pósad er tús iter Adam 7 Eua’ (i.e. God made marriage first between Adam and Eve) from the Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar Breac, a manuscript compiled in or before 1411. ‘Such children are the children of a marriage contracted before his discharge from the forces’ is translated as ‘gur clann iad do rugadh do lanmhain a pósadh roimh an duine sin do scur as na fórsaí’ in s25(2) of the Army Pensions Act, 1932, with ‘being the child of a marriage contracted before his discharge from the forces’ being translated as ‘leanbh de phósadh a rinneadh sular urscaoileadh é as na fórsaí’ in s4(1)(e)(ii) of the Army Pensions Act, 1959. Note that ‘I contract’ is translated as ‘conraím’ in Téarmaí Dlí; ‘until the purchase monies hereinbefore contracted to be paid … shall have been paid to the Vendors’ is translated as ‘go dtí go mbeidh an t-airgead ceannuigh do connruíodh anso roimhe seo d’íoc … leis na Díoltóirí’ in s7 of the Second Schedule to the Creamery Act, 1928.


A study of the Irish text

faoi dhlí shibhialta According to the official standard there would be no lenition of the adjective here following a masculine noun in the dative singular – see the commentary on Article 45. The Margin Title of s195 of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘Adjustment of military and civil law’, is translated as ‘Ceartú idir dhlí airm agus dlí shíbhiata’. ‘That the plaintiff is in breach of the civil or criminal law’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil sárú ar an dlí sibhialta nó ar an dlí coiriúil déanta ag an ngearánaí’ in s57(1) of the Civil Liability Act, 1961. See the commentary on Article 43.2.1o regarding ‘sibhialta’. sa chuing phósta Ó Dónaill translates ‘cuing an phósta’ as ‘the marrriage yoke, wedlock’, translating ‘faoi chuing rúin’ as ‘under a bond of secrecy’ and ‘tá sé faoi chuing na cleithe acu’ as ‘he is completely in their power’, ‘cuing’ being translated as ‘yoke’. Dinneen translates ‘cuing phósta’ as ‘marriage bond’, translating ‘cuing’ as ‘a yoke; a bond, duty or obligation; entreaty; a condition …’. DIL cites ‘cuing phósda’ from the late seventeenth-century Párlaiment na mBan, citing ‘fa chuing creidimh’ from a miscellaneous collection of poetry as an example of the phrase ‘cuing chrábaid (chreitim, etc.)’, ‘religious life, observance’. Ní fhéadfaidh Regarding ‘capable of’ in the Acts, ‘no person shall be capable of being appointed as auditor of the Company without the approval of such appointment by the Minister’ is translated as ‘nach mbeidh aon duine incheaptha mar iniúchóir ar an gCuideachta gan ceadú an Aire leis an gceapachán sin’ in s10(e) of the Industrial Alcohol (Amendment) Act, 1980, with ‘every chattel mortgage shall be capable of being registered within one month …’ being translated as ‘beidh gach airnéismhorgáiste inchláraithe laistigh de mhí’ in s26(2) of the Agricultural Credit Act, 1978. ‘Provided, however, that a register kept in non-legible form shall be capable of being reproduced in legible form’ is translated as ‘ar choinníoll, áfach, gur féidir clár a choimeádfar i bhfoirm neamhinléite a atáirgeadh i bhfoirm inléite’ in s4(2) of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1977. ‘No person appointed to be an officer … shall be capable of holding that office … until he shall have made and subscribed … a declaration’ is translated as ‘Éinne a ceapfar … chun bheith ina oifigeach … ní fhéadfa sé bheith i seilbh na hoifige sin … go dtí go ndéanfidh agus go sighneoidh sé … dearbhú’ in s11(2) of the Police Forces Amalgamation Act, 1925. ‘Capable of being applied’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘is féidir do chur i mbaint’ in Iris Oifigiúil, 1925, p. 573. a scaoileadh See the commentary on the foregoing subsection. ‘If the pensioner’s wife dies or the marriage is lawfully annulled or dissolved’ is translated as ‘má gheibheann bean chéile an phinsinéara bás nó má déantar an pósadh a chur ar neamhbhrí nó a scaoileadh go dleathach’ in the First Schedule to the Army Pensions Act, 1946. ‘Being a marriage which has not been dissolved or annulled’ is translated as ‘is pósadh nach mbeidh scaoilte ná neamhnithe’ in s4(1) of the Finance Act, 1983. fad is beo ‘And may specify the period during the lifetime of the person applying for the order’ is translated as ‘agus féadfar an tréimhse, le linn beo don duine a d’iarr an

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t-ordú, a shonrú ann’ in the Table to s17(b) of the Status of Children Act, 1987. ‘For such period during the lifetime of the applicant spouse’ is translated as ‘go ceann cibé tréimhse le linn don chéile iarrthach a bheith beo’ in s5(1)(a) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976. ‘If the valuation date occurs during the lifetime of the surviving party to the marriage’ is translated as ‘más dáta i rith saol an pháirtí mharthanaigh sa phósadh an dáta luachála’ in s5(2)(b) of the Wealth Tax Act, 1975. Finally, ‘shall be granted by way of weekly pension during the lifetime of the employee’ is translated as ‘is i bhfuirm pinsin sheachtainiúil le saol an fhostaí a deonfar é’ in s5 of the Limerick Corporation Gas Undertaking (Pensions) Act, 1929. in alt na huaire See the commentary on Articles 10.1, 12.4.2o and 46.2. ‘Under the law for the time being in force in Northern Ireland’ is translated as ‘faoin dlí a bheidh i bhfeidhm de thuras na huaire i dTuaisceart Éireann’ in s2(1) of the Foyle Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1976. ‘By or under the law for the time being in force in relation to elections of members of councils of county boroughs’ is translated as ‘do réir no fé réim an dlí bheidh i bhfeidhm de thuras na huaire maidir le toghacháin bhall comhairlí contae-bhuirgí’ in s5(5) of the Waterford City Management Act, 1939, with ‘do réir na dlí nó fén dlí bheidh i bhfeidhm de thuras na huaire maidir le toghacháin bhall de chomhairlí contae-bhuirgí’ being found in s7(5) of the Limerick City Management Act, 1934, and ‘maidir le toghcháin do bhaill de chomhairle contae-bhuirgí’ replacing the final clause in s32(5) of the Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1930. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú again recommends ‘in am’, ‘in alt’ or ‘le linn’ rather than ‘de thuras’ (found generally in the Acts) in the direct translation below.

Standardised Irish text I gcás pósadh duine ar bith a scaoileadh faoi dhlí sibhialta aon Stáit eile agus an pósadh sin, agus bail dlí air, a bheith ann fós faoin dlí a bheidh i bhfeidhm in alt na huaire taobh istigh de dhlínse an Rialtais agus na Parlaiminte a bhunaítear leis an mBunreacht seo, ní fhéadfaidh an duine sin pósadh ar a mbeadh bail dlí a dhéanamh taobh istigh den dlínse sin an fad is beo don duine eile a bhí sa chuing phósta a scaoileadh amhlaidh.

Direct gender-proofed translation Aon duine ar scaoileadh a phósadh nó a pósadh faoi dhlí sibhialta aon Stáit eile ach ar pósadh bailí ar marthain é faoin dlí atá i bhfeidhm de thuras1 na huaire laistigh de dhlínse an Rialtais agus na Parlaiminte a bhunaítear2 leis an mBunreacht seo ní fhéadfaidh sé nó sí pósadh bailí a dhéanamh3 laistigh den dlínse sin le linn don pháirtí eile sa phósadh a scaoileadh amhlaidh a bheith beo4.

Variants 1 2 3 4

‘in am’, ‘in alt’, ‘le linn’ ‘atá á bhunú’ ‘a chonrú’ ‘le linn beo don pháirtí eile sa phósadh a scaoileadh amhlaidh’


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ARTICLE 42.1 EDUCATION

AIRTEAGAL 42.1 OIDEACHAS

TÉACS GAEILGE

Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach is múinteoir príomha dúchasach don leanbh, agus ráthaíonn gan cur isteach ar cheart doshannta ná ar dhualgas doshannta tuistí chun oideachas de réir a n-acmhainne a chur ar fáil dá gclainn i gcúrsaí creidimh, moráltachta, intleachta, coirp agus comhdhaonnachta. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State acknowledges that the Family is the primary connate teacher for the child, and (it) guarantees not to interfere with the inalienable right nor with the inalienable obligation of parents to provide education according to their means for their family in matters of religion, morality, intellect, body and sociality. ENGLISH TEXT

The State acknowledges that the primary and natural educator of the child is the Family and guarantees to respect the inalienable right and duty of parents to provide, according to their means, for the religious and moral, intellectual, physical and social education of their children.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4 5 6

7

‘To provide … for the religious … education of their children’ is expressed as ‘chun oideachas … a chur ar fáil dá gclainn i gcúrsaí creidimh’ (‘to provide education for their children in religious affairs’) in the Irish text. While ‘leanbh’ expresses ‘child’ in the Irish text, which term translates ‘child’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘children’ is expressed not by the plural ‘leanaí’ but as ‘clann’, i.e. ‘children’ seen as a collective family unit. ‘To respect’ is expressed as ‘gan cur isteach ar’ (‘not to interfere with’) in the Irish text, as in Article 40.3.1o, ‘cur isteach ar’ being translated as ‘to molest’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Natural’ is expressed as ‘dúchasach’ (‘connate’/‘native’/ ‘hereditary’) in the Irish text. ‘Educator’ is expressed as ‘múinteoir’ (‘teacher’) in the Irish text. ‘Social’ is expressed by the genitive singular of the now infrequently used term ‘comhdhaonnacht’ in the Irish text, ‘sóisialach’ being the general legal term and ‘sóisialta’ being the general modern term in ordinary usage rendering ‘social’. There is a comma in the Irish text before the clause beginning ‘agus ráthaíonn’ (‘and guarantees’), no corresponding comma being found in the English text, and a comma in the English text alone before and after the phrase ‘according to their means’.

Commentary oideachas Dinneen’s entry under this headword is as follows: ‘advice, instruction, teaching, education (recent in this sense)’. Ó Dónaill cites ‘oideachas bunscoile,

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ollscoile, primary school, university education’ and ‘córas oideachais, educational system’. DIL translates ‘oidecht’ and ‘oides’ respectively as ‘teaching, training’ and ‘teaching, instruction’, both being based on ‘oide’, the later form of ‘aite’, translated as (a) ‘foster-father’ and (b) ‘tutor, teacher’, in DIL, this secondary sense being cited from the ninthcentury Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms, where we find ‘ar danimmart á aite’ (‘for the authority of his tutors restrained him’). ‘For the payment of a periodical sum exceeding £30 per week for the maintenance and education of a child’ is translated as ‘chun suim thréimhsiúil is mó ná £30 sa tseachtain a íoc le cothabháil agus oideachas linbh’ in s14(b) of the Courts Act, 1981, with ‘for the payment of a weekly sum exceeding £15 for the maintenance and education of a child’ being translated as ‘chun suim sheachtainiúil is mó ná £15 a íoc le haghaidh cothabháil agus oideachas linbh’ in s28(3) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976. ‘Payments made for the education of a child to a standard higher than that provided by the deceased for any other or others of his children’ is translated as ‘íocaíochtaí a rinneadh chun oideachas a thabhairt do leanbh de chaighdeán is airde ná mar a sholáthraigh an t-éagach d’aon leanbh nó leanaí eile leis’ in s63(6) of the Succession Act, 1965. ‘Whether or not the premises are also used to provide education at any level other than secondary school level’ is translated as ‘cibé acu a úsáidtear nó nach n-úsáidtear an t-áitreabh freisin chun oideachas a chur ar fáil ar aon leibhéal seachas ar leibhéal meánscoile’ in s1 of the Local Government (Financial Provisions) Act, 1978. ‘The principles on which such committee is required by or under this Act to provide continuation education and technical education’ is translated as ‘na prinsiobail gur dá réir is gá don choiste sin, do réir an Achta so no fé, oideachas leanúna agus ceárd-oideachas do sholáthar’ in s29(3) of the Vocational Education Act, 1930. Note finally that ‘the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children’ is translated as ‘ceart-oibriú gach institiúide atá ag gabháil d’aireachasú agus teagasc leanaí’ in Article 50 of the Fourth Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. admhaíonn See the commentary on Article 40.3.3o and on the Preamble. ‘I acknowledge’ is translated as ‘admhaím’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘The Taoiseach … and the Prime Minister … acknowledge that the most urgent and important issue facing the people of Ireland’ is translated as ‘Admhaíonn an Taoiseach … agus an Príomh-Aire gurb í an tsaincheist is práinní agus is tábhachtaí atá os comhair mhuintir na hÉireann’ in the December 1993 Joint Declaration (p. 1). ‘In the event of its failing to acknowledge receipt of remittance’ is translated as ‘más rud é ná faghfar admháil ón gcoiste ar airgead an ticéid’ in s7(4) of the Public Charitable Hospitals (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1930. ‘When a person receives a report under this section he shall as soon as may be acknowledge the receipt thereof’ is translated as ‘I gcás ina bhfaighidh duine tuarascáil faoin alt seo tabharfaidh sé admháil, a luaithe is féidir, go bhfuair sé í’ in s254(3) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981. ‘Where … the person in possession of the land acknowledges the title of the person to whom the right of action has accrued’ is translated as ‘I gcás … go n-admhóidh an duine i seilbh na talún teideal an duine chun a mbeidh


A study of the Irish text

an ceart caingin tar éis faibhriú’ in s51(1) of the Statute of Limitations, 1957. Looking at early Acts, in the Preamble to the Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) Act, 1922, ‘Dáil Éireann sitting as a Constituent Assembly in this Provisional Parliament, acknowledging that all lawful authority comes from God to the people’ is translated as ‘Dáil Éireann ’na suidhe mar Dháil Bhunaidh sa Pháirlimint Shealadach so, á admháil gur ó Dhia a thagann gach údarás dleathach chun na ndaoine’, with ‘and acknowledging it to be the duty of Saorstát Éireann to make suitable provision for his widow Mrs Maud Griffith’ being translated as ‘agus fós á admháil dóibh go bhfuil sé de dhualgas ar Shaorstát Éireann soláthar oiriúnach do dhéanamh dá bhaintrigh Meadhbh Uí Ghríobhtha’ in the Preamble to the Griffith Settlement Act, 1923. príomha See the commentary on Article 41.1.1o. ‘The primary fund’s share of that interest shall be treated as an additional asset of the primary fund’ is translated as ‘déanfar sciar an chiste phríomha den leas sin a áireamh mar shócmhainn bhreise de chuid an chiste phríomha’ in s7 of the Finance Act, 1990. ‘The primary allowance’ is translated as ‘an lamháltas príomha’ in s4(1) of the Rates on Agricultural Land (Relief) Act, 1967, and as ‘(den) liúntas phríomhdha’ in s14(1) of the Rates on Agricultural Land (Relief) (No. 2) Act, 1935. ‘For the Expenses of Primary Education’ is translated as ‘Chun Costaisí Bun-Oideachais’ in the Schedule to the Appropriation Act, 1925, with ‘a secondary, vocational or other post-primary school’ being translated as ‘meánscoil, gairmscoil nó scoil eile iarbhunoideachais’ in s29(5) of the First Schedule to the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977. a chur ar fáil This phrase expresses ‘to provide’, rather than ‘to provide for’, in the next section. ‘Regulations under this section shall provide for payment … of such amount as may be determined by the Minister’ is translated as ‘Forálfar le rialacháin faoin alt seo go dtabharfar íocaíocht … a mbeidh cibé méid inti a chinnfidh an tAire’ in s61(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, with ‘Beidh foráil i rialacháin faoin alt seo chun íocaíocht a thabhairt … a mbeidh cibé méid inti a chinnfidh an tAire’ being found in s31(2) of the Social Welfare (Occupational Injuries) Act, 1966. ‘In so far as they provide for payment of an amount’ is translated as ‘a mhéid a fhorálann siad go n-íocfaí méid’ in the Table to s52 of the Finance Act, 1980. Finally, ‘to provide for payment to the Vendors of the instalment falling due in that year’ is translated as ‘chun soláthar do dhéanamh chun an tráthchuid a bheidh dlite an bhliain sin d’íoc leis na Díoltóirí’ in s7 of the First Schedule to the Creamery Act, 1928. See the commentary on Article 42.4 regarding ‘The State shall provide for free primary education’ being expressed as ‘Ní foláir don Stát socrú a dhéanamh chun bunoideachas a bheith ar fáil in aisce’ and the reference to this in the courts. dúchasach This adjective is translated as ‘hereditary, ancestral; inherited, inherent; innate, instinctive; native, indigenous’ in Ó Dónaill, with ‘inheritable’ also given, following the abbreviation for ‘Jurisprudence’. Dinneen translates ‘dúthchasach’ as ‘of or belonging to one’s country; inherent, inherited’. DIL only gives one example of ‘dúthchasach’ as an adjective, from O’Donovan’s Tribes

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and Customs of Hy-Many, translating the noun ‘dúthchasach’ principally as ‘hereditary proprietor’. ‘Dúthchas’ is translated principally as ‘hereditary right, claim by descent, birthright’, being based on ‘dúthaig’, as an adjective translated as ‘belonging to by virtue of descent or hereditary’ and, as a noun, ‘hereditary land, patrimony’, in DIL – see the commentary on Article 1. Note how ‘natural rights of the child’, in Article 42.5, is expressed as ‘(do) chearta nádúrtha … an linbh’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú wonders if a difference of meaning was understood and accepted here, commenting on ‘nádúrtha’ in the direct translation below, and favours maintaining ‘dúchasach’ on that ground. ‘Natural child’ and ‘natural father’ are translated respectively as ‘leanbh nádúrtha’ and ‘athair nádúrtha’ in Téarmaí Dlí, while ‘natural justice’ and ‘natural law’ are respectively translated as ‘ceartas aiceanta’ and ‘dlí aiceanta’ and ‘natural watercourse’ as ‘sruthchúrsa aiceanta’, with ‘natural love and affection’ translated as ‘grá agus gean nádúrtha’. ‘Nádúrtha’ has the secondary sense of ‘good-natured, kindly’ according to Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘duine nádúrtha’ as ‘good-natured, kindly, person; easy-mannered person’. DIL cites the following example of ‘nádúrda’ in the sense of ‘native, indigenous’: ‘Míchel O Cleirigh … do bhraithribh nadúrtha Conuente Dhúin na nGall’. ‘Nádúir’ is a Romance loanword, according to DIL – see the commentary on Article 10.1, however. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that this word was available too early to be a Romance loanword and that it would probably have the form ‘natúr’ if it was from Anglo-Norman. Both Irish ‘nádúr’ and Welsh ‘natur’ come from Latin ‘natura’, according to Alexander Macbain’s Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. ‘“National of another Contracting State” means … any natural person who had the nationality of a Contracting State’ is translated as ‘Ciallaíonn “náisiúnach de chuid Stáit Chonarthaigh eile” … aon duine nádúrtha ag a raibh náisiúnacht de chuid Stáit Chonarthaigh’ in s2 of Article 25 of the Second Schedule to the Arbitration Act, 1980. ‘Its outstanding natural beauty’ is translated as ‘a sháráilleacht nádúrtha’ in s40(a) of the Local Government (Planning and Development) Act, 1976. Note, finally, that ‘whether he is or is not a natural-born British subject’ is translated as ‘pe’ca géilliúnach Briotáineach do réir dhúthchais é … no nách eadh’ in s2(1) of the Legitimacy Act, 1931. cur isteach ar ‘Cuirim isteach air’ is translated as ‘I molest’ in Téarmaí Dlí – see the commentary on Article 15.10. Turning to the verb ‘respect’ in the Acts, ‘all beneficiaries enjoying such privileges and immunities under this Article have a duty to respect the laws and regulations of the requesting State’ is translated as ‘beidh de dhualgas ar gach tairbhí a theachtfaidh na pribhléidí agus na díolúintí sin faoin Airteagal seo dlíthe agus rialacháin an Stáit iarrthaigh a urramú’ in s7 of Article 8 of the Second Schedule to the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. ‘It is the duty of all persons enjoying such privileges and immunities to respect the laws and regulations of the receiving State’ is translated as ‘is é dualgas na ndaoine go léir a theachtann pribhléidí agus díolúintí den sórt sin dlithe agus rialacháin an Stáit ghlacaidh a urramú’ in s1 of Article 41 of the First Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. Note finally that ‘while respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner’ is


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translated as ‘ach tabharfar aird ar rogha phearsanta gach aon phríosúnaigh’ in Article 38 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. See further the commentary on Articles 40.3.1o and 44.1. Again Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on the direct translation below, remarks that the English text has the sense of ‘not to interfere with’ and prefers ‘gan cur isteach ar’ to ‘a urramú’. He also remarks that ‘a urramú’ is too far away from the object, ‘ceart … dualgas’, and that there is a danger of reading the text as ‘le haghaidh oideachas … a urramú’.

Dinneen, who states that ‘clann’ comes from Latin ‘planta’, which word in a later borrowing produced ‘plannda’, ‘plant, scion, offspring’. DIL translates ‘clann’ as (a) ‘plant, planting; off-shoot, produce’, (b) ‘Figuratively of the growth of the hair; springing locks, tresses’ and (c) ‘children, family, offspring; a single child; descendants, race, clan’, citing examples from the Old Irish Glosses onwards of the latter sense, including ‘tuistiu claindde’ (‘the bearing of children’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. Note, finally, that ‘clannchuid’ is translated as ‘portion (in equity)’ in Téarmaí Dlí.

tuistí ‘Tuismitheoir’, ‘parent’, is given as a headword in the Glossary appended to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. Ó Dónaill gives ‘tuiste’ as a variant of ‘tuismitheoir’ (‘parent’). Dinneen gives both ‘tuismightheoir’ and ‘tuistidhe’ as headwords and translates them respectively as ‘a generator, a parent’ and ‘a parent, a parent case’. DIL gives examples of ‘tuistid’ (‘parent’) from the Old Irish Glosses onwards, including ‘fo chumachte a tuistide’ (‘under their parents’ power’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles. ‘Tuistid’ is based on ‘tuiste’, the participle of ‘do-fuissim’, translated as (a) ‘begets, generates’, (b) ‘conceives’ and (c) ‘bears, brings forth (offspring)’ in DIL, as well as ‘creates, fashions’, ‘founds, establishes’ and ‘produces, engenders (fig.), causes’. Examples of these senses are cited in DIL from the Glosses of the eighth century as well as examples of the verbal noun ‘tuistiu’, with ‘tuismed’ being the Middle and Modern Irish form of the verbal noun. The verb ‘tuismigid’ is based on ‘do-fuissim’ and on ‘tuismed’, and it is on this later form of the verb that ‘tuismightheóir’ is based, with the examples cited in DIL generally coming from seventeenth-century sources.

múinteoir This headword is translated as ‘teacher’ in Ó Dónaill and in Dinneen. The form ‘múintid’ is found in the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, glossing Latin ‘eruditorem’ – this is the only example of this headword cited in DIL, where it is translated as ‘a teacher, instructor’. DIL also cites examples of the verb ‘múinid’, ‘teaches, gives instruction (in)’, from the same collection of Glosses. ‘Oideachasóir’ is translated as ‘educationalist’ in Ó Dónaill. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on that term translating ‘educator’ in a draft of the direct translation below, recommends the term ‘oide’, which one finds in De Bhaldraithe translating ‘educator’.

de réir a n-acmhainne ‘Ráiteas acmhainne’ is translated as ‘statement of means’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill gives ‘means, resources’ as the secondary sense of ‘acmhainn’ (the primary sense being ‘capacity, endurance’), and translates ‘de réir a acmhainne’ as ‘according to his means’, Dinneen similarly translating ‘do réir a acfuinne’. DIL cites ‘do réir acmuinne in othuir’ (‘= secundum divitias patientis’), from Rosa Anglica, as an example of ‘accmaing’ in the sense of ‘abundance, wealth’, ‘accmaing’ being the verbal noun of ‘ad-cumaing’ (*ad-com-icc), ‘reaches, extends to, attains to’. In s11 of the ‘Details’ in the ‘Leitrim County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘All patients must contribute towards their maintenance according to their means’ is translated as ‘Caithfidh gach othar cabhrú do réir a acfuinne chun a chimeádta suas’, with ‘or according to his means’ being translated as ‘no do reir a acfuinne’ in s21(b) of the ‘Clare County Scheme’. See the commentary on Articles 42.5 and 45.2.i where ‘means’ is expressed by ‘beart’ and ‘caoi’ respectively. dá gclainn The special dative singular form of ‘clann’, this form being cited in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (p. 10, 8th ed., 1995) as optional, the form identical to that of the nominative singular being allowed also in the dative singular and now being in general usage rather than the special dative form. ‘Clann’ is translated principally as ‘children, offspring’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘race, children’ in

i gcúrsaí coirp ‘To … school-related physical education activities’ is translated as ‘chuig gníomhaíochtaí corpoideachais a bhaineann leis an scoil’ in s33(2)(g) of the Finance Act, 1985. ‘Facilities for taking part in sporting and physical education activities’ is translated as ‘saoráidí le páirt a ghlacadh i ngníomhaíochtaí spóirt agus corp-oiliúna’ in s24 of the Value-Added Tax (Amendment) Act, 1978, with ‘tréineáil chuirp’ translating ‘physical training’ in s4(1) of the Vocational Education Act, 1930. ‘Éiglíocht mheabhrach nó choirp’ translates ‘mental or physical infirmity’ in s5(1)(a) of the Finance Act, 1990. ‘Physical protection of nuclear material’ is translated as ‘cosaint fhisiceach ábhair núicléach’ in s8(a) of the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, with ‘the act of erecting a physical obstacle to an entry to or means of exit from land or a vehicle’ being translated as ‘constaic nithiúil a thógáil i mbealach isteach chun talún nó isteach i bhfeithicil nó i mbealach amach ó thalamh nó as feithicil’ in s3(2)(b) of the Prohibition of Forcible Entry and Occupation Act, 1971. i gcúrsaí intleachta ‘The Detaining Power shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educational, and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst prisoners’ is translated as ‘Spreagfaidh an Chumhacht Choinneála na príosúnaigh chun cúrsaí intleachtúla agus oideachasúla, caitheamh aimsire, spóirt agus cluichí, a ghabháil chucu’ in Article 38 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. ‘Or other industrial or intellectual property rights’ is translated as ‘nó cearta maoine intleachta nó tionscail eile’ in s10(3)(g) of the National Development Corporation Act, 1986. i gcúsaí moráltachta See the commentary on Articles 29.1 and 40.6.1o. ‘The religious and moral, intellectual, physical and social welfare of the infant’ is translated as ‘leas creidimh, leas morálta, leas intleachta, leas coirp agus leas sóisialta an naín’ in s9 of the Status of Children Act,


A study of the Irish text

1987, as in s2 of the Guardianship of Infants Act, 1964 (apart from ‘sóisialta’ replacing ‘sóisialach’ of the earlier Act). i gcúrsaí creidimh ‘Power of court as to infant’s religious education’ is translated as ‘Cumhacht na cúirte maidir le hoideachas creidimh naín’ in the Margin Title of s17 of the Guardianship of Infants Act, 1964, for example. See the commentary on Article 44.2.3o. an Teaghlach See the commentary on Article 41.1.1o. Commenting on ‘Teaghlach’ in the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú feels it is too ‘unfriendly’ as a word (“ró-neamh-mhuinteartha d’fhocal”) and recommends the term ‘muintir’. ráthaíonn The pronoun ‘sé’, referring to ‘Stát’, in accord with common literary usage, is not expressed. We see this feature in other Articles also. leanbh ‘Leanbh nádúrtha’ is translated as ‘natural child’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘the Children’s Court’ translated as ‘an Chúirt Leanaí’. doshannta See the commentary on Article 1. comhdhaonnachta See the commentary on Article 41.1.1o.

Standardised Irish text Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach is múinteoir príomha dúchasach don leanbh, agus ráthaíonn gan cur isteach ar cheart doshannta ná ar dhualgas doshannta tuismitheoirí chun oideachas de réir a n-acmhainne a chur ar fáil dá gclann i gcúrsaí creidimh, moráltachta, intleachta, coirp agus comhdhaonnachta.

Direct translation Admhaíonn an Stát gurb é an Teaghlach1 oide príomha nádúrtha an linbh2 agus ráthaíonn sé ceart dochoimhthithe agus dualgas dochoimhthithe3 na dtuismitheoirí chun socrú4 a dhéanamh, de réir a n-acmhainne, le haghaidh oideachas creidimh agus moráltachta, intleachta, coirp agus sóisialach a leanaí, a urramú.5

Variants 1 2 3 4 5

‘gurb iad an Mhuintir’ ‘is oide príomha dúchasach don leanbh’ ‘ceart agus dualgas dochoimhthithe’ ‘soláthar’ The following is Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú’s recommended translation: ‘Admhaíonn an Stát gur iad an Mhuintir / gurb é an Teaghlach is oide príomha dúchasach don leanbh agus ráthaíonn gan cur isteach ar cheart dochoimhthithe agus dualgas dochoimhthithe na dtuismitheoirí chun, de réir a n-acmhainne, oideachas creidimh agus moráltachta, intleachta, coirp agus sóisialach a chur ar fáil dá gclann.’

ARTICLE 42.2

AIRTEAGAL 42.2

TÉACS GAEILGE

Tig le tuistí an t-oideachas sin a chur ar fáil dá gclainn ag baile nó i scoileanna príobháideacha nó i scoileanna a admhaítear nó a bhunaítear ag an Stát.

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

609

LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Parents can provide that education for their family at home or in private schools or in schools which are acknowledged or which are established by the State. ENGLISH TEXT

Parents shall be free to provide this education in their homes or in private schools or in schools recognised or established by the State.

Divergences between the official texts 1 2

3 4

‘Parents shall be free to’ is expressed as ‘tig le tuistí’ (‘parents can/may’) in the Irish text. ‘To provide this education’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘an t-oideachas sin a chur ar fáil dá gclainn’ (‘to provide this education for their family’). ‘In their homes’ is expressed as ‘ag baile’ (‘at home’) in the Irish text. ‘Recognised’ is expressed in the Irish text by the same term as expresses ‘acknowledges’ in the previous section, ‘admhaigh’.

Commentary ag baile Ó Dónaill translates ‘sa bhaile, ag baile’ as ‘at home’, also citing ‘faoi bhaile, at home, around’ and translating ‘tá sé sa bhaile’ (of deceased) as ‘he is gone to his last abode’. Dinneen translates ‘ag baile, ’san mbaile’ as ‘at home’. ‘Baile’ is translated principally as ‘place; piece of land (belonging to one family, group or individual), homestead, farmstead’ in DIL. Ó Dónaill gives ‘home’ as the principal meaning of ‘baile’, citing ‘a bhaile féin a bheith ag duine, to have one’s own home’, and gives ‘place, township’ as the secondary meaning, translating ‘an baile seo againne’ as ‘our town(land)’. Looking at ‘home’ in early Acts, ‘imported rum may … be delivered for home consumption if it has been warehoused for a period of at least three years’ is translated as ‘féadfar rum iomportálta do sheachada chun é chaitheamh sa bhaile má bhí sé i stóras ar feadh tréimhse trí mblian ar a laighead’ in s2(1) of the Immature Spirits (Restriction) Act, 1926, with ‘upon delivery for home consumption’ being translated as ‘ar a sheachada chun a ólta i Saorstát Éireann’ in s10(3) of the Finance Act, 1926. ‘They should … be given an idea of the advantages of home life as compared with life in an institution’ is translated as ‘ba cheart tuisgint do thabhairt dóibh … sna búntáistí a bhaineann le saol an teinteáin teolaí seachas mar a bhaineann le saol na fúndúireachta’ in s8 of the ‘Details’ in the ‘Leitrim County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Home Assistance’ is translated as ‘Cabhair Theinteáin’ in s2(e) of the ‘Clare County Scheme’, with ‘the County Cavan Home’ being translated as ‘Teaghlach Chontae an Chabháin’ in s1 of the ‘Cavan County Scheme’, and ‘such Home to provide accommodation for the aged and infirm homeless poor’ being translated as ‘slí do thabhairt sa Teaghlach san do sheandaoine bochta laga gan tigh gan áitreabh’ in s2 of the ‘Kerry County Scheme’. ‘The requiring of adult persons to remain in their homes or the parents of children to keep the children in their homes’ is translated as ‘Ceangal a chur ar dhaoine éatacha


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fanúint sa bhaile nó ar thuistí leanaí na leanaí a choimeád sa bhaile’ in s4 of the Second Schedule to the Health Act, 1947. In s11 of the ‘Laoighis County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provision) Act, 1923, ‘Help to be given to the needy or medical attention to the sick in their homes in all possible cases’ is translated as ‘Tabharfar cúnamh do dhaoine gátaracha no aire leighis do bhreoiteacháin ina dtithe féin i ngach cás in ar féidir é’, with ‘In all possible cases help to be given to people in their homes’ being translated as ‘I ngach cás in ar féidir é, is ina n-áruis féin a thabharfar cabhair do dhaoine’ in s7 of the ‘Offaly County Scheme’.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

ina mbaile2 féin nó i scoileanna príobháideacha nó i scoileanna atá aitheanta nó bunaithe ag an Stát.

Variants 1 ‘a chur ar fáil’ 2 ‘ina mbailte’

ARTICLE 42.3.1O

AIRTEAGAL 42.3.1O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Tig le One of the phrases which expresses ‘may’ in the Constitution – see the commentary on Article 12.4.4o. As regards ‘free to’ in the Acts, ‘Carriers shall be free to agree among themselves on provisions’ is translated as ‘Beidh cead ag iompróirí aontú eatarthu féin maidir le forálacha’ in Article 40 of the Schedule to the International Carriage of Goods by Road Act, 1990. ‘The Fund shall be free to dispose of commodity stocks forfeited to it’ is translated as ‘Beidh saorchead ag an gCiste diúscairt a dhéanamh ar stoic tráchtearraí atá arna bhforghéilleadh chuige’ in s15 of Article 17 of the Schedule to the International Common Fund for Commodities Act, 1982. ‘Consular officers shall be free to communicate with nationals of the sending State’ is translated as ‘beidh saoirse ag oifigigh chonsalachta chun cumarsáid a dhéanamh le náisiúnaigh an Stáit shallchuir’ in s1(a) of Article 36 of the Second Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. Finally, ‘They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties’ is translated as ‘Beidh cead acu comhfhreagras a dhéanamh, faoi réir cinsireachta, ar chúrsaí a bhaineann lena ndualgais reiligiúin’ in Article 35 of the Third Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. a admhaítear Note that ‘admhaítear’ expresses ‘acknowledges’ in the previous section – see the commentary on Article 8.2 regarding ‘glac le’ expressing ‘recognize’. ‘Persons employed as teachers in secondary schools recognised by the Minister for Education’ is translated as ‘daoine ar fostú mar mhúinteoirí i meánscoileanna atá aitheanta ag an Aire Oideachais’ in s7(1)(f) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, as in s3(1) of the Social Welfare (No. 3) Act, 1974, and s12(1)(d) of the Social Welfare Act, 1952 (with ‘meán-scoileanna’ rather than ‘meánscoileanna’). tuistí See the commentary on the previous subsection. dá gclainn See the commentary on the previous subsection. a chur ar fáil Note how this phrase expresses ‘provide for’ in the previous subsection.

Standardised Irish text Tig le tuismitheoirí an t-oideachas sin a chur ar fáil dá gclann ag baile nó i scoileanna príobháideacha nó i scoileanna a admhaítear nó a bhunaítear ag an Stát.

Direct translation Beidh cead ag tuismitheoirí an t-oideachas sin a sholáthar1

Ní cead don Stát a chur d’fhiacha ar thuistí, in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa nó a rogha dleathaí, a gclann a chur ar scoileanna a bhunaítear ag an Stát nó ar aon chineál áirithe scoile a ainmnítear ag an Stát. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State is not permitted to compel parents, against their conscience or their lawful choice, to send their family to schools (which are) established by the State or to any particular type of school (which is) named by the State. ENGLISH TEXT

The State shall not oblige parents in violation of their conscience and lawful preference to send their children to schools established by the State, or to any particular type of school designated by the State.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

4

‘In violation of their conscience and lawful preference’ is expressed as ‘in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa nó a rogha dleathaí’ (‘against their conscience or their lawful choice’) in the Irish text. ‘Designate’ is again expressed by ‘ainmnigh’ (‘name’) in the Irish text, as it sometimes is in the Acts. ‘Shall not’ is expressed as ‘Ní cead’ (‘It is not permitted’) in the Irish text, as we have seen in many earlier Articles. A comma follows ‘established by the State’ in the English text, with no corresponding comma in the Irish text, which however puts the clause ‘in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa nó a rogha dleathaí’ (‘in violation of their conscience and lawful preference’) between commas.

Commentary a chur d’fhiacha ar ‘Fiach’ is translated as ‘debt’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Ó Dónaill gives ‘debt’ as the primary meaning of ‘fiach’, but gives ‘obligation’ as one of its secondary meanings, translating ‘chuir sé d’fhiacha orm é a dhéanamh’ as ‘he forced me to do it’. Dinneen translates ‘cuirim d’fhiachaibh ar’ as ‘I oblige, compel, insist on’. DIL cites ‘dlegtir féich dúib’ (‘debts are owed by you’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, s.v. ‘fíach’, translated as (a) ‘an obligation, a payment due, debt, also legal due, fine, penalty’ and (b) ‘a duty, obligation (especially in plural)’. DIL translates . the expression ‘cuirim d’fiachaib ar …’, which preserves the older meaning of ‘fiach’ as ‘obligation’, as ‘I compel … to’, citing examples of this phrase from the poetry of


A study of the Irish text

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (1550-1591) onwards. Looking at ‘oblige’ in the Acts, ‘and oblige the transport undertaker to make … charges for the carriage of merchandise of the applicant’ is translated as ‘agus ceanglóidh air éilithe … d’éileamh … ar iompar marsantais de chuid an iarratasóra’ in s102(4) of the Transport Act, 1944. In s58(7) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘The offence of using or offering any menace to or compulsion or any person tending to oblige him to receive, without his consent, any person or horse not duly billeted upon him’ is translated as ‘Aon bhagairt no fórsáil do dhéanamh ar aon duine a raghadh chun a chur fhiachaint ar an duine sin aon duine no capall do ghlaca dá ainneoin agus gur duine no capall é nár cuireadh ar billéad air go cuibhe’. in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa As regards ‘violation’ in the Acts, ‘concerning any alleged violation of the Convention’ is translated as ‘faoi aon sárú a líomhnófar a rinneadh ar an gCoinbhinsiún’ in Article 52 of the First Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. ‘Or otherwise in violation of the common law’ is translated as ‘nó ar shlí eile ina shárú ar an dlí coiteann’ in s98 of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959. ‘Contrártha d’fhorála an orduithe sin’ translates ‘in violation of the provisions of such order’ in s44(3) of the Local Government (Sanitary Services) Act, 1948, with ‘má dintar aon chrann den tsórt san do ghearra anuas no do statha contrárdha don choiníoll so’ translating ‘if any such tree is cut down or uprooted in violation of this condition’ in s3(3) of the Land Act, 1927. In s6(8) of the Dublin Reconstruction (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1924, ‘with respect to any of the easements or rights, or any actual or anticipated infringement or violation of the same’ is translated as ‘i dtaobh aon cheann de sna faoisimh no na cirt, no aon bhrise isteach no sárú a dineadh no a meastar a déanfar ar an gcéanna’. Finally, in Treaties establishing the Europen Communities (1973, p. 555), ‘Pricing practices designed to secure a privileged position for certain users in violation of the principle of equal access’ is translated as ‘cleachtais phraghsála a bhfuil d’aidhm acu pribhléid a ghnóthú d’úsáidirí áirithe de shárú ar an bprionsabal comhrochtana’. a rogha dleathaí ‘Dleathach’ is translated as ‘lawful’ in Téarmaí Dlí and as ‘lawful, legal’ in Ó Dónaill – see the commentary on Articles 10.1 and 40.3.3o. ‘Rogha’ is translated as ‘option’ in Téarmaí Dlí, with ‘rogha bhreithiúnach’, ‘déanaim rogha’ and ‘faoi rogha’ translated respectively as ‘judicial discretion’, ‘I exercise discretion’ and ‘at the discretion of’. ‘Preference’, on the other hand, is translated as ‘tosaíocht’ in Téarmaí Dlí, in accordance with the eighth Irish Legal Terms Order (S.I. No. 290 of 1950, ‘Terms relating to the Law of Bankruptcy’), with ‘fraudulent preference’ translated as ‘tosaíocht chalaoiseach’ and ‘preference share’ translated as ‘scair thosaíochta’. ‘Shall not give any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage to any person’ is translated as ‘ní thabharfaidh sé aon tosaíocht ná buntáiste neamhchuí nó neamhréasúnach do dhuine ar bith’ in s100(3) of the Harbours Act, 1946. In s73 of the ‘Tirconaill County Scheme’ in the First Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, ‘When boarding out children the Central Home Committee shall give preference to foster parents residing in country districts’ is translated as ‘Ag cur leanbhaí

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

611

ar altranas dóibh, déanfidh Coiste an Teaghlaigh Mheánsuidhte rogha de lucht altroma a chomhnuíonn i gceanntair thuatha’. ‘According to the next available preferences recorded thereon’ is translated as ‘do réir na gcéad roghna infheadhma eile a breacadh orra’ in s6(1) of the Third Schedule to the Electoral Act, 1923, with ‘the constituency in which he received the greatest number of first preferences’ being translated as ‘an dáilcheanntar ina bhfuair sé an uimhir is mó de chéad-roghanna’ in s55(1) of that Act. ‘Give any preference’ is translated as ‘aon bhontáiste do thabhairt’ in Article 8 of the 1922 Constitution. We find ‘tosaíocht’ in s38(5) of the Railways Act, 1924, where ‘For the purposes of determining any question of an alleged undue or unreasonable preference or advantage’ is translated as ‘Chun aon cheist do shocrú i dtaobh tosaíochta no buntáiste nea-chuibhe no mí-réasúnta adubhradh a tugadh’. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, where ‘in violation of their … lawful preference’ was translated as ‘in aghaidh a dtosaíochta dleathaí’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that ‘preference’ has two principal senses, i.e. ‘greater liking for one alternative over another’ and ‘a prior right or precedence, especially in connection with the payment of debts’. ‘Tosaíocht’ translates the second sense but it is the first sense that is involved here. Professor Ó Murchú regards ‘rogha’ as the best Irish translation of ‘preference’ in that sense. a ainmnítear ‘“Designated securities” means securities which have been designated by the Minister’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “urrúis ainmnithe” urrúis a bheidh ainmnithe ag an Aire’ in s139(2)(a) of the Central Bank Act, 1989. ‘All such stock shall be designated by the Board as “Dublin Bridge Stock”’ is translated as ‘“Droichead-Stoc Bhaile Átha Cliath” a bheidh mar ainm ag an mBord ar gach stoc den tsórt san’ in s18(5) of the Dublin Port and Docks (Bridges) Act, 1928. See also the commentary on Articles 6.1 and 13.8.2o where ‘designate’ is expressed respectively by ‘ceap’ and ‘ainmnigh’.

Standardised Irish text Ní cead don Stát a chur d’fhiacha ar thuismitheoirí, in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa nó a rogha dleathaí, a gclann a chur ar scoileanna a bhunaítear ag an Stát nó ar aon chineál áirithe scoile a ainmnítear ag an Stát.

Direct translation Ní cheanglóidh an Stát ar thuismitheoirí, in aghaidh a gcoinsiasa agus a rogha dleathaí, a leanaí a chur ar scoileanna a bhunaítear ag an Stát, nó ar aon chineál áirithe scoile a ainmnítear ag an Stát.

ARTICLE 42.3.2O

AIRTEAGAL 42.3.2O

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ach ós é an Stát caomhnóir leasa an phobail ní foláir dó, toisc cor an lae, é a dhéanamh éigeantach minimum áirithe oideachais a thabhairt do na leanaí i gcúrsaí moráltachta, intleachta agus comhdhaonnachta.


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LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

But since the State is the guardian of the welfare of the people it must, because of the circumstances of the day, make it compulsory to give a certain minimum education to the children in moral, intellectual and societal affairs. ENGLISH TEXT

The State shall, however, as guardian of the common good, require in view of actual conditions that the children receive a certain minimum education, moral, intellectual and social.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

5

6

The Irish text commences with a qualifying clause, expressing ‘however’ as ‘Ach’, ‘But’, as we have seen in other Articles, and ‘as guardian of the common good’ as ‘ós é an Stát caomhnóir leasa an phobail’, ‘since the State is guardian of the common good’. ‘The State shall … require’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘ní foláir dó … é a dhéanamh éigeantach’, ‘it (the State) must make it compulsory’. ‘That the children receive a certain minimum education’ is expressed as ‘minimum áirithe oideachais a thabhairt do na leanaí’ (‘that a certain minimum education be given to the children’) in the Irish text. ‘A certain minimum education, moral, intellectual and social’ is expressed as ‘minimum áirithe oideachais … i gcúrsaí moráltachta, intleachta agus comhdhaonnachta’ (‘a certain minimum education in moral, intellectual and social matters’) in the Irish text. ‘In view of actual circumstances’ is expressed as ‘toisc cor an lae’ (‘because of the circumstances of the day’) in the Irish text. As we have seen in other Articles, ‘the common good’ is expressed as ‘leas an phobail’ in the Irish text, ‘the common good’ being translated as ‘an mhaitheas phoiblí’ in Téarmaí Dlí; ‘social’ is expressed by the now infrequent term ‘comhdhaonnach’, ‘sóisialach’ and ‘sóisialta’ being much more familiar today, and ‘shall’ is expressed as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’).

Commentary caomhnóir This headword is translated as ‘guardian’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘caomhnóir ar an bpearsa’ and ‘caomhnóir ar an eastát’ are translated respectively as ‘guardian of the person’ and ‘guardian of the estate’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘caomhnóir’ as ‘guardian, protector; patron’ and Dinneen translates ‘caomhnuightheoir’ as ‘a protector, a patron, a cherisher’. This form does not appear to be given as a headword in DIL, but goes back to the verb ‘cáemnaid’, which itself is based on ‘cáemna’, translated principally as ‘act of protecting, keeping’ in DIL – see the commentary on Article 28.3.3 o regarding the verb ‘caomhnaigh’, ‘preserve’. Note that ‘caomhnaidhe’ is the form in the original text, ‘caomhnóir’ being given as the standard form of the secondary sense of ‘caomhnaí’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘companion’ being given as the primary sense. Dinneen translates ‘caomhnaidhe’ as ‘a companion, an attendant, a friend, a protector’. In the original Article 44.1.2 o, prior to the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1972, ‘The State

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recognises the special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church as the guardian of the Faith possessed by the great majority of the citizens’ is expressed as ‘Admhuigheann an Stát an chéim fá leith atá ag an Naomh-Eaglais Chatoiliceach Aspalda Rómhánach ós í is caomhnaidhe don Chreideamh atá ag árd-urmhór na saoránach’. ‘The State, as guardian of the common good, should supply the place of the parents’ is translated as ‘gur cóir don Stát, ós é caomhnóir leas an phobail é, ionad na dtuismitheoirí a líonadh’ in s3(1)(D) of the Adoption Act, 1988, which section relates to Article 42.5 of the Constitution. ‘A parent or guardian of that person’ is translated as ‘tuismitheoir nó caomhnóir an duine sin’ in s15(2)(a) of the Health (Mental Services) Act, 1981. Looking at early Acts, in s4(1) of the Griffith Settlement Act, 1923, ‘the guardian of the said Ita Griffith’ is translated as ‘caomhnóir Ide Ní Ghríobhtha roimh-ráite’. ‘A County Scheme may provide for the abolition of any Board of Guardians’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh Scéim Chontae a fhoráil go gcuirfear deire le haon Bhórd um Chaomhna na mBocht’ in s7(1) of the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘When the Board of Guardians of any Union is abolished by any County Scheme’ being translated as ‘Nuair a dhéanfidh aon Scéim Chontae deire do chur le Bórd Caomhnóirí aon Aontais’ in s9. caomhnóir leasa an phobail According to the official standard, ‘leas’ would remain in the nominative case here, followed as it is by a noun preceded by the article, i.e. ‘caomhnóir leas an phobail’ – see the commentary on Article 1. As regards ‘leas an phobail’ expressing ‘the common good’, see the commentary on Article 6.1. ‘Where the Bank considers it necessary for the common good’ is translated as ‘i gcás inar dóigh leis an mBanc gur gá é ar mhaithe le leas an phobail’ in s44(2)(d) of the Building Societies Act, 1989. ‘That … the common good requires that the working of any particular deposit of minerals should be controlled by the State’ is translated as ‘gur gá, mar mhaithe leis an bpobal, oibriú an fhoslaigh áirithe mianraí do bheith fé urláimh an Stáit’ in s18(a) of the Minerals Exploration and Development Company Act, 1941. See further the commentary on Article 45.2.ii. Commenting on a draft of the direct translation below, where ‘as guardian of the common good’ was translated as ‘mar chaomhnóir na maitheasa poiblí’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that he felt this contravened some specific rule where the construction 1Noun + Article + 2 Noun (in the genetive) cannot be joined to ‘mar’, as an indefinite noun or categorical noun should follow ‘mar’ in that sense and 1Noun is a specific noun above. As regards the emended direct translation below, see the citations from Téarmaí Dlí above where ‘ar’ follows ‘caomhnóir’. toisc cor an lae The genitive case follows ‘toisc’, it being a noun; however, according to the official standard, while ‘cor’, being followed by a noun preceeded by the article, would remain in the nominative case, it would be lenited – see the commentary on Article 1. The form here can be read as the genitive plural (see ‘leasa’ above in ‘caomhnóir leasa an phobail’, as genitive singular, and ‘conditions’ in the English text) rather than nominative singular. ‘Toisc, de thoisc’ is translated as ‘because, on account of’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘toisc na cainte go léir, because


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of all the talk’. In earlier Irish literature ‘toisc’ had the sense of ‘expedition, journey; quest, errand; business, purpose’, according to Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘d’imigh gach neach díobh lena thoisc féin, each of them went about his own business’ and ‘toisc lae go n-oíche, a journey of a day and a night’. Ó Dónaill also gives the secondary sense of ‘state, circumstance’, citing ‘tosca an cháis, the circumstances of the case’, this also being one of the secondary senses of ‘cor’ – Ó Dónaill s.v. ‘cor’, cites ‘is ionann cor dúinn, our circumstances are alike’ and ‘cora (crua) an tsaoil, the vicissitudes of life’, for example. The principal sense of ‘cor��� in Ó Dónaill is ‘turn’ – we see the link between this sense and the secondary sense above very graphically in phrases such as ‘is iomaí cor a chuir an saol de ó shin, time have changed very much since then’ and ‘tháinig sé de chor sa saol go …, it came to pass that …’. Dinneen translates ‘cor’ as ‘a throw, a cast; … a plait, a twist or coil (as of a rope); … a turn, a move, a stir, a start, a leap; … a tune, bar of a tune; vicissitude, circumstance, plight’. ‘Toisc’ is translated by Dinneen as ‘report or tidings, intention, object or purpose, will or desire; amount done at a time, what can be carried at a time; a proceeding, circumstance or affair, work, business; a journey or expedition’, translating ‘de thoisc’ / ‘toisc’ as ‘on account or on the score of’, and citing ‘is ait é toisc an tsaoghail, the world’s way is strange’. Three of the examples of ‘do thoisc’ (‘on account of’) cited in DIL come from works of the seventeenth-century writer, Geoffrey Keating (Seathrún Céitinn). DIL translates ‘toisc’ as follows: (a) ‘need, necessity’ (citing the following from the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles: ‘co nderna cech ball anas toisc dialoiliu’ [‘so that every member may do what the other desires’]), (b) ‘wish, desire’, (c) ‘(in phrase) óin-toisc, d’óen-toisc ‘purposely’, (d) ‘quest, errand, business’, (e) ‘military expedition’, (f) ‘journey’, (g) ‘occurrence, occasion’, (h) ‘condition, state’. ‘Cor’ is the verbal noun of ‘fo-ceird’, this verb being translated principally as ‘sets, puts, places’ in DIL, citing ‘fuchertat a laim íarna cúl’ (‘who put their hand behind their back’) from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. ‘Cur’ is also a later form of ‘cor’, which is translated principally as ‘act of putting, placing; setting up’ in DIL, with ‘act of throwing, casting’, ‘twist’, ‘tune, melody’ and ‘contract’ included among its many senses, as well as ‘state, condition, plight’, citing ‘dia do chor’ (‘awful calamity’) from the fifteenth-century poet, Pilib Bocht Ó hUiginn, as the first of only a few late examples of this sense. Note incidentally that, according to DIL, the adverbial phrase ‘car(a) in cháemlaí(-laithi)’, ‘all day long, the livelong day’, was very frequent in the later language, the form ‘cor’ itself seldom being used in this phrase. Turning to ‘in view of’ in the Acts, ‘in view of current economic conditions’ is translated as ‘ag féachaint do na dálaí eacnamaíochta faoi láthair’ in the Preamble to the Schedule to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Financial Support Fund) (Agreement) Act, 1976. ‘In view of the wants and circumstances of the persons’ is translated as ‘mar gheall ar ghátar agus ar staid na ndaoine’ in s42(1) of the Land Act, 1927. Note that ‘toisc go bhfuiltear chun atharuithe do dhéanamh’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘in view of the forthcoming changes’ in Iris an Phuist, 25/1/28. Regarding ‘condition’ in early Acts, ‘a report as to the

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state of repair and general condition of the drainage works’ is translated as ‘tuarasgabháil ar staid deisiúcháin agus ar chor ghenerálta na n-oibreacha dréineála’ in s26 of the Arterial Drainage Act, 1925, with ‘any matter affecting the general economic and other activities and conditions in Saorstát Éireann’ being translated as ‘éinní a bhaineann le gníomhaíochtaí agus cor an tsaoil go generálta i gcúrsaí economaíochta agus eile i Saorstát Éireann’ in s2 of the Statistics Act, 1926. ‘The cost, efficiency, conditions of labour, and rates of wages in Saorstát Éireann in the industry’ is translated as ‘An costas, an éifeachtúlacht, staid an lucht oibre agus na rátaí páigh i Saorstát Éireann sa cheárdas’ in s2 of the Schedule to the Tariff Commission Act, 1926. ‘The price of the premises in the condition in which they were immediately before the injury or destruction’ is translated as ‘(ar) an bpraghas do bheadh ar an árus agus é sa riocht ina raibh sé díreach sarar dineadh an díobháil no an mille’ in s10(4) of the Damage to Property (Compensation) Act, 1923, with ‘In every case in which a full re-instatement condition is attached to the decree’ being translated as ‘I ngach cás ina gcuirfar coiníoll lán-ath-shuidhimh leis an aithne’ in the opening clause of that subsection. ‘Condition’ is translated as ‘coinníoll’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘bond with special conditions’ and ‘express condition’ are translated respectively as ‘banna faoi choinníollacha speisialta’ and ‘coinníoll sainráite’; ‘affidavit of plight and condition’, however, is translated as ‘mionnscríbhinn staide agus riochta’. Regarding ‘actual’, ‘actual delivery’ is translated as ‘seachadadh iarbhír’ in Téarmaí Dli, with ‘actual bodily harm’ translated simply as ‘díobháil choirp’. Ó Dónaill gives ‘iarbhír’, ‘genitive singular as attributative adjective’, as a headword, translated as ‘actual’, followed by the abbreviation for Jurisprudence, and citing ‘mailís, caillteanas, iarbhír, actual malice, loss’. See the commentary on Articles 16.6 and 28.3.2o. minimum ‘Íosta’ is translated as ‘minimum’ in the Glossary accompanying An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, that adjective being translated as ‘minimum, minimal’ in Ó Dónaill. This word does not appear to be given as a headword either in Dinneen or in DIL. Looking at ‘minimum’ in the early Acts, ‘the amount or the maximum or minimum limit of such grant’ is translated as ‘méid no teora méide no luighid an deontais’ in s9 of the Adaptation of Enactments Act, 1922. ‘Rátaí is lú’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘minimum rates’ in Iris Oifigiúil, 1922/23, with ‘táille le beith fé’ translating ‘minimum fee of’. ‘If after the commencement of the trial the President dies … and the Court is not reduced below the legal minimum’ is translated as ‘Más rud é, tar éis tosach na trialach go bhfaighidh an tUachtarán bás … agus ná beidh líon na Cúirte fé bhun an mhinimum dhleathaigh’ in s105(2) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘Prohibition of export of carcasses within certain minimum limits of weight’ is translated as ‘Toirmeasc ar chonablaigh d’easportáil laistigh de theoranta áirithe minimum meáchainte’ in the Margin Title of s41 of the Agricultural Produce (Fresh Meat) Act, 1930. ‘If a court-martial after the commencement of the trial is, by death or otherwise, reduced below the legal minimum, it shall be dissolved’ is translated as ‘Má tharlaíonn, tar éis tosnú na triala, go dtitfidh líon comhaltaí armchúirte, de dheasca báis nó eile, faoi bhun an íoslín


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dlíthiúil, díscaoilfear an armchúirt’ in s193(1) of the Defence Act, 1954. ‘The Council shall ensure that the requirement relating to education and training in specialised medicine in the State shall satisfy the minimum standards specified in the Directive’ is translated as ‘Cinnteoidh an Chomhairle go mbeidh na ceanglais i ndáil le hoideachas agus oiliúint sa sainleigheas sa Stát de réir na gcaighdeán íosta a bheidh sonraithe in aon Treoir’ in s36(2) of the Medical Practitioners Act, 1978.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

to private and corporate educational initiative, and, when the public good requires it, provide other educational facilities or institutions with due regard, however, for the rights of parents, especially in the matter of religious and moral formation.

Divergences between the official texts 1

o

éigeantach See the commentary on Article 41.1.2 where this adjective expresses ‘indispensable’. See the commentary on Articles 13.3.1o and 13.5.2o regarding ‘require’.

2

comhdhaonnachta See the commentary on Article 41.1.1o.

Standardised Irish text Ach ós é an Stát caomhnóir leas an phobail ní foláir dó, toisc chor1 an lae, é a dhéanamh éigeantach minimum áirithe oideachais a thabhairt do na leanaí i gcúrsaí moráltachta, intleachta agus comhdhaonnachta.

3 4

5

Variant

6

1 ‘chora’

Direct translation Déanfaidh an Stát, áfach, mar chaomhnóir ar an maitheas phoiblí1, ag féachaint do choinníollacha iarbhír, a cheangal go bhfaighidh na leanaí oideachas íosta áirithe morálta, intleachtach agus sóisialach2. 7

Variants 1 ‘ós é caomhnóir na maitheasa poiblí é’ 2 ‘sóisialta’, ‘oideachas morálta, intleachtach agus sóisialach íosta áirithe’

8

ARTICLE 42.4

AIRTEAGAL 42.4

TÉACS GAEILGE

Ní foláir don Stát socrú a dhéanamh chun bunoideachas a bheith ar fáil in aisce, agus iarracht a dhéanamh chun cabhrú go réasúnta agus chun cur le tionscnamh oideachais idir phríobháideach agus chumannta agus, nuair is riachtanas chun leasa an phobail é, áiseanna nó fundúireachtaí eile oideachais a chur ar fáil, ag féachaint go cuí, áfach, do chearta tuistí, go mór mór maidir le múnlú na haigne i gcúrsaí creidimh is moráltachta. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

The State must make provision for primary education to be available free, and make an effort to help reasonably and to augment (any) educational initiative both private and communal and, when it is a requirement for the welfare of the people, to provide other educational facilities or foundations, having due regard, however, for the rights of parents, especially as regards the formation of the mind in religious and moral affairs. ENGLISH TEXT

The State shall provide for free primary education and shall endeavour to supplement and give reasonable aid

‘Corporate’ is expressed in the Irish text by ‘cumannta’, ‘communal’. ‘In the matter of religious and moral formation’ is expressed as ‘maidir le múnlú na haigne i gcúrsaí creidimh is moráltachta’ (‘as regards the formation of the mind in religious and moral affairs’) in the Irish text. ‘Endeavour’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘iarracht a dhéanamh’, ‘make an effort’. ‘To supplement and give reasonable aid to’ is expressed as ‘cabhrú go réasúnta agus … cur le’ (‘to help reasonably and to add to / augment’) in the Irish text. ‘Institutions’ is expressed as ‘fundúireachtaí’, ‘foundations’, in the Irish text. ‘Provide for free primary education’ is expressed as ‘socrú a dhéanamh chun bunoideachas a bheith ar fáil in aisce’ (‘to make provision for primary education to be available free’) in the Irish text, followed by a comma which has no corresponding comma in the English text; the English text has a comma after ‘initiative’, further on, with no corresponding comma in the Irish text. ‘When the public good requires it’ is expressed as ‘nuair is riachtanas chun leasa an phobail é’ (‘when it is a necessity for the welfare of the people’), ‘the public good’ being translated as ‘an mhaitheas phoiblí’ in Téarmaí Dlí. Again ‘Ní foláir’ (‘must’) expresses ‘shall’ in the English text.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 208f., reports as follows on reference made to this Article in the courts: In Crowley v Ireland ([1980] IR 102) Kenny J, speaking for the Supreme Court majority, pointed out that the Irish version “ní foláir don Stát socrú do dhéanamh chun bunoideachas do bheith ar fáil in aisce” brought out more clearly than the English the distinction between the duty to “provide for” free primary education, and a duty (alleged by the plaintiffs) actually to “provide” it.

Note that Article 10 of the 1922 Constitution commences as follows: All citizens of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) have the right to free elementary education. Tá de cheart ag gach saoránach de Shaorstát Éireann bun-oideachas d’fháil in aisce.

Commentary chumannta ‘Cumann’ is translated as ‘society’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Cumannta’ is not given as a headword in Ó Dónaill, where ‘cumannaí’ is translated as ‘communist’ (with the variant form ‘cumannach’ also cited) and ‘cumannaíoch’ is translated as ‘communistic’. ‘Cumannta’ is translated as


A study of the Irish text

‘common’ in Dinneen, followed by the abbreviation for Rathlin Island, off the coast of Antrim. ‘Cumann’ comes from Latin ‘commentum’ and is translated as ‘alliance, pact, union, friendship; company, band; later love, affection’ in DIL. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that the wordformation here was probably devised ad hoc by the Irish drafters to express a meaning ‘syndical’, ‘corporate’. Professor Ó Murchú recommends ‘corpráideach’ rather than ‘corpraithe’ in the direct translation below, in that what seems to have been in mind here at the time was a group, the orders, etc. ‘Corporate body’ is translated as ‘comhlacht corpraithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘cuideachta chorpraithe’, however, being translated as ‘incorporated company’. ‘Cuntasóir corpraithe’ is translated as ‘incorporated accountant’, as it is in Ó Dónaill, who gives ‘corparáideach’, translated as (‘corparate’), as a headword. ‘Relief for Investment in Corporate Trades’ is translated as ‘Faoiseamh i leith Infheistíocht i dTrádálacha Corpraithe’ in the Margin Title of s10 of the Finance Act, 1990, with ‘in respect of certain transactions between bodies corporate’ being translated as ‘i gcás idirbhearta áirithe idir chomhlachtaí corpraithe’ in the Margin Title of s116. In s1(2) of the Interpretation Act, 1923, ‘the word “person” shall, unless the contrary intention appears, include a body corporate’ is translated as ‘folóidh an focal “duine”, cólucht corpruithe mara mbeidh a mhalairt i dtuisgint’. cur le Ó Dónaill gives ‘add to’ and ‘support’ as secondary senses of ‘cuir le’, citing respectively ‘cur le ciste, le scéal, le clú duine, to add to a fund, to a story, to someone’s reputation’ and ‘cur le chéile, to give mutual support’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú adds ‘augment’ to Ó Dónaill ’s translations. Dinneen includes ‘I add to, … prop up, cooperate with’ among the senses of ‘cuirim le’. DIL cites ‘ós liom chuirfeas’ (‘since he will take my part’), from the works of the seventeenth-century poet, Dáibhí Ó Bruadair, as an example of ‘cuirid’ with the proposition ‘la’. ‘Cur le’ translated ‘supplement’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health, 1925, with ‘fóirlíona’ being cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘supplement’ in ‘Dáil Div. 24/215’ – see the commentary on Article 45.3.1o. ‘Supplemental’ is translated as ‘forlíontach’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘supplemental deed’ is translated as ‘gníomhas forlíontach’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú recommends ‘neartú ar’ rather than ‘a fhorlíonadh’ in the direct translation below. tionscnamh ‘Tionscnamh imeachtaí’ and ‘toghairm thionscnaimh’ are translated respectively as ‘institution of proceedings’ and ‘originating summons’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘ar thionscnamh’ is translated as ‘at the instance of’. ‘Tionscnamh’ is translated as ‘beginning, origin; introduction, initiation; institution, establishment’ in Ó Dónaill and ‘tionnscnamh’ is translated as ‘act of beginning, initiation, planning; inception, a design or project, an arrangement or device, a preface’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘thug i dtionnscnamh mná é, who left it to a woman’s devices’. ‘Tinnscna(m)’ is the Middle Irish verbal noun of ‘do-innscanna’, and is translated as (a) ‘act of beginning’ and (b) ‘act of devising; design, project’ in DIL, where the earlier verbal noun, ‘tinnscetal’, is translated as (a) ‘act of beginning’ and (b) ‘undertaking, task, attempt’. See the

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commentary on Article 45.3.1o for citations from the Acts. Note that ‘tionscnamh’ expresses ‘institution’ in Article 41.3.2o. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that as ‘initiative’ in ‘to supplement educational initiative’ is not qualified by any kind of article, the syntax of the English clearly shows that ‘initiative’ here has an abstract meaning, i.e. ‘the power or opportunity to act or take charge before others do’. Irish ‘tionscnamh’ does not translate this. Commenting on a draft translation of ‘to supplement … private and corporate educational initiative’ as ‘tionscnamh oideachais príobháideach agus corpraithe a fhorlíonadh’, Professor Ó Murchú remarks that in this context, according to the Irish syntax, ‘tionscnamh’ would mean ‘some single initiative’ (“tionscnamh amháin éigin”). Máirtín Ó Murchú comments that it is unlikely that the State wanted to promise support in the case of every initiative, and promising support to some single initiative would make no sense. Professor Ó Murchú therefore recommends an abstract noun such as ‘tionscantacht’ (which is unattested in dictionaries). áiseanna ‘Áis sealadach’ is translated as ‘temporary convenience’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘ligean mar áis sealadach’ is translated as ‘letting for temporary convenience’. ‘Áis’ is translated as (1) ‘convenience’ and (2)(a) ‘device’ in Ó Dónaill, with ‘áiseanna amhairc’ (‘visual aids’) and ‘áiseanna cócaireachta’ (‘cooking facilities’) being cited as examples of the third sense. Dinneen gives two headwords ‘áis’, the first being translated as ‘will, consent; ease’, citing ‘ar t-áis, at your ease’, and the second being translated as ‘dependence, reliance’, citing ‘is air atá m’áis, it is on him I rely’. ‘Áis’ is translated as ‘free-will, consent’ in DIL – this giving Modern Irish ‘ais’ – with ‘ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin’ (‘unless ye go thus willingly, ye shall come perforce’) being cited from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms. See further the commentary on Article 44.2.6o, where ‘áis’ expresses ‘utility’. See the commentary on Article 15.15 regarding ‘facility’, expressed as ‘saoráid’ in that Article. ‘The Society may … provide educational facilities’ is translated as ‘Féadfaidh an Cumann … saoráidí oideachais a sholáthar’ in s40(1) of the Solicitors Act, 1954, with ‘the provision or improvement of cultural or educational facilities’ being translated as ‘saoráidí saíochta nó oideachais a chur ar fáil nó d’fheabhsú’ in s8(3)(a)(ii) of the Seanad Electoral (Panel Members) Act, 1947. ‘“Relevant facilities”, in relation to an undertaking, means … the marketing in the State of the units of the undertaking’ is translated as ‘ciallaíonn “saoráidí iomchuí”, i ndáil le gnóthas … aonaid an ghnóthais a mhargú sa Stát’ in s109(1) of the Finance Act, 1990. Looking at early translations, in Article 23 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘provide them with free travelling facilities’ is translated as ‘saor-thaisteal do sholáthar dóibh’, with the Margin Title of s46 of the Land Act, 1923, ‘Facilities for exchange of holdings’, being translated as ‘Saoráidí chun gabháltaisí do mhalairtiú’. ‘Shall be given facilities by the Home Committee to apply for National Benefit’ is translated as ‘tabharfidh Coiste an Teaghlaigh caoi dhóibh ar Thairbhe Náisiúnta d’iarraidh’ in s31 of the ‘Tirconaill County Scheme’ in the Schedule to the Local Government (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923, with ‘in such a manner


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as to give to all electors in the county … such reasonable facilities for voting as are practicable in the circumstances’ being translated as ‘ar chuma a thabharfaidh do gach toghthóir sa chontae … pé cothrom réasúnta chun vótála is féidir a thabhairt sa chás’ in s42(1) of the Electoral Act, 1923. ‘Socúlacht’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘facility’ in Iris an Phuist, 1923, p. 246. Note, finally, that ‘The making by Radio Telefís Éireann by means of its own facilities of a cinematograph film’ is translated as ‘Radio Telefís Éireann do dhéanamh scannáin chineamatagrafaigh lena áiseanna féin’ in s3(3) of the Performers’ Protection Act, 1968. fundúireachtaí Note that ‘fondúireachta’ is the form in the original text. ‘Fondúireacht’ is translated as ‘(of institution) foundation’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘fondúir’ being given as a headword which is translated as ‘founder (of community, of insitution)’, the variant ‘fondaire’ being cited. Dinneen translates ‘fonduire’ as ‘a freeholder’, giving Coney’s Irish-English Dictionary (1849) as the source, but follows this by ‘cf. perhaps founder’. ‘Fundúir’ comes from Old-French ‘fondeor’, according to DIL, where examples are cited from the later Annals in particular. ‘Fondúire’ is given as a separate headword in DIL, where it is translated as ‘an orignal owner, a freeholder’. See further the commentary on Article 44.2.5o and see the commentary on Article 18.4.2o regarding ‘institution’, expressed as ‘foras’ there, with ‘ord’ expressing ‘institution’ (of marriage) in Article 41.3.1o. go mór mór This phrase is translated as ‘especially’ in Ó Dónaill and as ‘especially, much more’ in Dinneen. DIL cites the following example of the comparative form of this adverb from the Passions and Homilies from the Leabhar Breac (a manuscript compiled in 1411 or earlier): ‘cid mor dliges cech sollamain a herdach … is in mormo dliges in sollamain-si’ (‘though all feasts fully deserve their celebration, much more does this festival’). múnlú na haigne Ó Dónaill translates ‘múnlú aigne’ as ‘formation of mind’, translating ‘múnlú’ in general as ‘moulding, casting, shaping’. Dinneen translates ‘múnláil’ as ‘act of moulding, as a candle, etc.’, citing ‘as an múnla, well-formed (of a person or thing)’ s.v. ‘múnla’ (‘a mould’). ‘Formation, registration and incorporation’ is translated as ‘Foirmiú, clárú agus corprú’ in the Margin Title of s10 of the Building Societies Act, 1989. ‘Have regard to the need for the formation of public awareness and understanding of the values and traditions of countries other than the State’ is translated as ‘beidh aird aige ar a riachtanaí atá sé an pobal a dhéanamh eolach tuisceanach ar fhiúchais agus ar thraidisiún tíortha seachas an Stát’ in s13 of the Broadcasting Authority (Amendment) Act, 1976. iarracht a dhéanamh ‘Iarracht ar ghinmhilleadh a thabhairt chun críche’ is translated as ‘attempt to procure an abortion’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Iarracht a dhéanamh’ is translated as ‘to make an effort’ in Ó Dónaill. ‘An attempt or effort’ is given as one of the senses of ‘iarracht’ in Dinneen. The earliest examples of ‘íarracht’ (translated as ‘an attempt, an attempt to reach’) cited in DIL come from Keating’s seventeenth-century poetry. We have seen earlier how ‘iarracht do thabhairt’ translates ‘endeavour’ in early

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translations for the Department of Justice. Note, incidentally, that ‘the offence of not using his utmost endeavours to prevent any mutiny’ is translated as ‘gan a chruadhícheall do dhéanamh chun aon chúlmhutaireacht … do chosc’ in s36(b) of the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1923. ‘The Controller shall endeavour to secure that the relevant plant variety is maintained in quality’ is translated as ‘féachfaidh an Rialaitheoir lena áirithiú go ndéanfar an cineál planda iomchuí a chothabháil ó thaobh cáilíochta’ in s8(4) of the Plant Varieties (Proprietary Rights) Act, 1980, with ‘agus féachfaidh sí le cabhrú leis na haidhmeanna sin a chur i gcrích’ translating ‘and shall endeavour to promote the attainment of those aims’ in s3(4) of the National Council for Educational Awards Act, 1979. In s27(1) of the Apprenticeship Act, 1931, ‘and shall endeavour to effect a settlement of any dispute so investigated’ is translated as ‘agus féachfaidh le haon aighneas go ndéanfar fiosrúchán ina thaobh amhlaidh do shocrú’, with ‘féachfaidh an Chúirt leis an díospóid a shocrú trí oifigeach caidrimh thionscail’ translating ‘it [the Court] shall endeavour to settle the dispute through an industrial relations officer of the Court’ in s19(2) of the Employment Equality Act, 1977. See further the commentary on Article 40.6.1oi where ‘endeavour’ is expressed by ‘féach le’. bunoideachas This headword is translated simply as ‘primary education’ in Ó Dónaill. This compound is not found as a headword in Dinneen, ‘oideachas’ in the sense of ‘education’ itself being cited as ‘recent’ there. ‘Primary education’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘bun-oideachas’ on the Dáil Order Paper, 1926, p. 104, with ‘bunscoil’ translating ‘primary school’ in translations for the Department of Education. socrú a dhéanamh See the commentary on Articles 8.3 and 15.2.2o. ‘The rules of a building society shall provide for the following’ is translated as ‘Déanfar foráil i rialacha cumainn foirgníochta maidir leis na nithe seo a leanas’ in s5 of the Second Schedule to the Building Societies Act, 1989. In s61(2) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981, ‘Regulations under this section shall provide for payment to any person attending for medical examination … of such amount as may be determined by the Minister’ is translated as ‘Forálfar le rialacháin faoin alt seo go dtabharfar íocaíocht d’aon duine a thiocfaidh i láthair le haghaidh scrúdú dochtúra … a mbeidh cibé méid inti a chinnfidh an tAire’, with ‘Beidh foráil i rialacháin faoin alt seo chun íocaíocht a thabhairt d’aon duine a thiocfaidh i láthair le haghaidh scrúdú …’ being found in s31(2) of the Social Welfare (Occupational Injuries) Act, 1966. Finally, in s1(3) of the Land Act, 1923, ‘such regulations shall provide for the immediate redemption of Bonds’ is translated as ‘socrófar leis na rialacháin sin i dtaobh fuascailt do dhéanamh láithreach ar Bhannaí’. maidir le See the commentary on Articles 15.15, 29.4.1o and 40.3.3o regarding ‘maidir le’, expressing ‘in connection with’ and ‘relating to’ in the initial and final Article respectively. As regards ‘in the matter of’ in the Acts, ‘Representatives and their substitutes shall, in the matter of customs and exchange control, be accorded …’ is translated as ‘Tabharfar d’ionadaithe agus dá n-ionadaigh,


A study of the Irish text

maidir le rialú custam agus iomlaoide’ in Article 13 of the Fifth Schedule to the Diplomatic Relations and Immunities Act, 1967. ‘And for prescribing the liability of the owner or consignor or consignee of any such animals … in the matter of the expenses connected with the seizure, detention or disposal thereof’ is translated as ‘agus chun dliteanas úinéir, coinsíneoir nó coinsíní aon ainmhithe … den sórt sin a fhorordú i ndáil leis na caiteachais a bhainfidh lena gceapadh, lena gcoinneáil nó lena ndiúscairt’ in s7 of the Second Schedule to the Diseases of Animals Act, 1966. ‘I dtaobh’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘in the matter of’ in translations for the Department of Justice. ag féachaint go cuí In Article 26 of the 1922 Constitution, ‘with due regard to changes in distribution of the population’ is translated as ‘gan sóinseáil in áireamh áitiúil an lín tíre do dhearmad’. ‘With due regard to the provisions of this Chapter’ is translated as ‘ag féachaint go cuí d’fhorálacha na Caibidle seo’ in s154(1) of the Social Welfare (Consolidation) Act, 1981.

Staidéar ar an téacs Gaeilge

ARTICLE 42.5

617

AIRTEAGAL 42.5

TÉACS GAEILGE

I gcásanna neamhchoiteanna nuair a tharlaíonn, ar chúiseanna corpartha nó ar chúiseanna morálta, nach ndéanaid na tuistí a ndualgais dá gclainn, ní foláir don Stát, ós é an Stát caomhnóir leasa an phobail, iarracht a dhéanamh le beart oiriúnach chun ionad na dtuistí a ghlacadh, ag féachaint go cuí i gcónaí, áfach, do chearta nádúrtha dochloíte an linbh. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

In uncommon cases when it happens, for corporal reasons or for moral reasons, that the parents do not do their duties to their children, the State must, since the State is the guardian of the welfare of the people, make an effort through appropriate action to take the place of the parents, always having due regard, however, for the natural invincible rights of the child. ENGLISH TEXT

moráltachta See the commentary on Articles 29.1 and 40.6.1o. Commenting on ‘morálta’ in a draft of the direct translation below, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarked that ‘moráltachta’ suited better as regards having the syntax on equal footing (i.e. ‘creidimh agus moráltachta’).

In exceptional cases, where the parents for physical or moral reasons fail in their duty towards their children, the State as guardian of the common good, by appropriate means shall endeavour to supply the place of the parents, but always with due regard for the natural and imprescriptible rights of the child.

chun leasa an phobail See the commentary on the foregoing subsection regarding ‘the common good requires’.

Divergences between the official texts 1

Standardised Irish text

2

Ní foláir don Stát socrú a dhéanamh chun bunoideachas a bheith ar fáil in aisce, agus iarracht a dhéanamh chun cabhrú go réasúnta agus chun cur le tionscnamh oideachais idir phríobháideach agus chumannta agus, nuair is riachtanas chun leas an phobail é, áiseanna nó fondúireachtaí eile oideachais a chur ar fáil, ag féachaint go cuí, áfach, do chearta tuismitheoirí, go mór mór maidir le múnlú na haigne i gcúrsaí creidimh is moráltachta.

3

4 5

Direct translation Déanfaidh an Stát socrú le haghaidh saor-bhunoideachais agus féachfaidh sé le1 tionscantacht phríobháideach agus chorpráideach2 san oideachas a fhorlíonadh3 agus le4 cúnamh réasúnta a thabhairt di, agus, nuair is gá ar mhaithe leis an maitheas phoiblí, áiseanna nó forais eile oideachais a sholáthar, ag féachaint go cuí, áfach, do chearta tuismitheoirí, go speisialta maidir le foirmiú creidimh agus morálachta5.

6

7

Variants 1 ‘féachfaidh le’ 2 ‘chorpraithe’ 3 ‘féachfaidh sé le neartú ar thionscantacht phríobháideach agus chorpráideach san oideachas’ 4 ‘maille le’ 5 ‘morálta’

‘To supply the place of the parents’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘chun ionad na dtuistí a ghlacadh’, ‘to take the place of the parents’. ‘In exceptional cases’ is expressed as ‘I gcásanna neamhchoiteanna’ (‘in uncommon cases’) in the Irish text. ‘Where the parents … fail in their duty’ is expressed as ‘nuair a tharlaíonn … nach ndéanaid na tuistí a ndualgais’ (‘where it happens that the parents do not do their duties’) in the Irish text. ‘By appropriate means’ is expressed as ‘le beart oiriúnach’ (‘by suitable action’) in the Irish text. ‘Imprescriptible rights’ is expressed as ‘cearta dochloíte’ (‘invincible/indefatigable rights’) in the Irish text, ‘imprescriptible rights’ being translated as ‘cearta dochealaithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí. As in s1 of this Article, ‘the State as guardian of the common good’ is expressed as ‘ós é an Stát caomhnóir leasa an phobail’ (‘since the State is the guardian of the welfare of the people’) in the Irish text and, as in s4, ‘endeavour’ is expressed as ‘iarracht a dhéanamh’ (‘make an effort’), with ‘shall’ again being expressed as ‘ní foláir’ (‘must’), as we have seen in many other Articles. We note here the direct opposite of what we have seen in some earlier Articles, i.e. ‘but’ being expressed as ‘áfach’, ‘however’, in the Irish text.

Note that the Long Title of the Adoption Act, 1988, reads as follows: An Act to provide, in exceptional cases, where the parents for physical or moral reasons have failed in their duty towards their children, for the supplying, by the adoption of the children, of the place of the parents


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…. Acht do dhéanamh socrú, i ndálaí eisceachtúla, i gcás na tuismitheoirí a bheith, ar chúiseanna fisiciúla nó morálta, tar éis mainneachtain ina ndualgas i leith a leanaí, chun ionad na dtuismitheoirí a líonadh trí na leanaí a uchtáil.

‘The parents of the child …, for physical or moral reasons, have failed in their duty towards the child’ is translated as ‘go bhfuil … tuismitheoirí an linbh … tar éis mainneachtain ina ndualgas i leith an linbh ar chúiseanna fisiciúla nó morálta’ in s3(1)(I)(A) of that Act, with ‘the State, as guardian of the common good, should supply the place of the parents’ being translated as ‘gur cóir don Stát, ós é caomhnóir leas an phobail é, ionad na dtuismitheoirí a ghlacadh’ in s3(1)(I)(D).

Commentary neamhchoiteanna ‘Neamhchoiteann’ is given as a variant form of ‘neamhchoitianta’ in Ó Dónaill, this headword being translated as ‘uncommon, unusual’. ‘Neamhchoitianta’ is translated simply as ‘uncommon’ in the Glossary appended to An Caighdeán Oifigiúil. ‘Neamhchoitcheann’ is translated as ‘uncommon, distinguished’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘fear breágh neamh-choitcheann, a fine distingué man’, with reference made to ‘neamhchoitcheanta’ as being similar in meaning to ‘neamhchoitcheann’. DIL cites examples of ‘coitchenn’, in the sense of ‘common, general; usual, ordinary’, from the Glosses of the ninth century onwards, including ‘de phurt choitchent’ (‘from a common part’) from the Glosses on Psalm cxviii in S. Caimín’s Psalter, Franciscan Monastery, Dublin, formerly in the Irish College at Rome. ‘In exceptional cases’ is translated as ‘i ndálaí eisceachtúla’ in the Long Title of the Adoption Act, 1988, above. We find ‘i gcásanna eisceachtúla’ in the Preamble in the Schedule to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Financial Support Fund) (Agreement) Act, 1976, ‘i gcásanna neamhghnáthacha’ in s24 of the Schedule to the Great Southern Railways Company (Superannuation Scheme) Act, 1947, and ‘i gcásanna nea-ghnáthacha’ in s34(5) of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927. ‘Gátar neachoitianta’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘exceptional distress’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health, with ‘costas nea-choitianta’ translating ‘exceptional expense’ in translations for the Department of Justice. ‘Cásanna ar leithligh’ translates ‘exceptional cases’ in Iris an Phuist, 1923, p. 273, with ‘i gcásanna fé leith’ translating ‘exceptionally’ in Iris an Phuist, 23/6/26. Note regarding the direct translation below that the opening phrase is followed by ‘i gcás na tuismitheoirí …’, ‘i ndálaí’ being chosen therefore for stylistic reasons. corpartha This headword is translated as ‘corporal; corporeal’ in Ó Dónaill, who cites ‘pionós corpartha, corporal punishment’ and ‘pian chorpartha, bodily pain’. ‘Corporda’ is equal in meaning to ‘corpthae’, translated as ‘corporeal, bodily, physical, actual’ in DIL, where examples are cited from the ninth-century Milan Glosses on the Commentary on the Psalms onwards. See further the commentary on Article 40.1. ‘For physical or moral reasons’ is translated as ‘ar chúiseanna fisiciúla nó morálta’ in s3(b)(I)(A) of the

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Adoption Act, 1988, as in the Long Title of that Act above. As regards ‘physical’ in early translations, ‘any article … intended to be worn because of … any physical ailment or defect’ is translated as ‘aon earra … atá ceaptha chun é chaitheamh mar gheall ar aon bhreoiteacht no easba chorpardha’ in s16(2)(d) of the Finance Act, 1925, with ‘the treatment of physical and mental defects’ being translated as ‘cóir leighis d’ainmhe cuirp agus aigne’ in s18(b) of the Local Government Act, 1925. Finally, ‘eoluíocht fhisiceach’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘physical science’ in translations for the Department of Education. Note that ‘fisiceach’ rather than ‘fisiciúil’ is given as the standard form of this headword. See the commentary on Article 42.1 where ‘physical’ is expressed by ‘corp’. nach ndéanaid The synthetic form of the third person plural, present indicative, of ‘déan’ – see the commentary on Article 14.5.1o regarding synthetic and analytic forms of the verb. As regards ‘fail’ with ‘duty’ in the Acts, ‘that the person to whom it was granted has, by any overt act, shown himself to have failed in his duty of fidelity to the nation’ is translated as ‘go ndearna an duine dar deonadh é aon ghníomh follas a chruthaigh gur loic sé ina dhualgas bheith dílis don náisiún’ in s19(1)(b) of the Irish Nationality and Citzenship Act, 1956. ‘That the testator has failed in his moral duty to make proper provision for the child in accordance with his means’ is translated as ‘gur loic an tiomnóir ina dhualgas morálta soláthar cuí a dhéanamh don leanbh de réir a acmhainne’ in s117(1) of the Succession Act, 1965. See the commentary on Article 14.1 (‘teip’ expressing ‘fail’ therein) for other citations of ‘fail’ in modern Acts, plus the Long Title of the Adoption Act, 1988, above. As regards the verb in the negative rendering ‘fail’, see s25(1) of the Finance Act, 1926, for example, where ‘Every person who contravenes or fails to comply with a regulation made under this section’ is translated as ‘Gach éinne a sháróidh no ná comhlíonfidh rialachán a bheidh déanta fén alt so’. a ndualgais ‘Dualgas’ is translated as ‘duty’ (of office, etc.)’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Duty’ is given as the secondary sense of ‘dualgas’ in Ó Dónaill, the primary sense being ‘natural right; due; customary fee or reward’, Ó Dónaill citing ‘do dhualgas a dhéanamh, a chomhlíonadh, to do, fulfil, one’s duty’ and ‘do dhualgas do Dhia, one’s duty to God’. ‘Dúalgas’ is translated principally as ‘traditional right’, with secondary sense of ‘custom, tribute’, in DIL, where ‘dualgas do thuamadh óm aithribh’ (‘it is my ancestral duty to celebrate thy tomb’) is cited from the works of the seventeenth-century poet, Dáibhí Ó Bruadair, this being one of the examples of the various meanings of ‘dúalgas’ in Modern Irish cited in DIL. ‘Dúal’, from which this word originates, is translated principally as ‘native, hereditary’ in DIL. See the commentary on Articles 12.8 and 15.3.2o. le beart oiriúnach ‘Oiriúnach’ is translated as ‘suitable, fitting’ in Ó Dónaill, ‘oireamhnach’ being translated as ‘fitting, suitable, neat, proper, expedient, harmonious, proportionate, accommodated’ in Dinneen, who cites ‘beartughadh oireamhnach, an appropriate movement’. DIL translates ‘oiremnach’ as ‘agreeing (with), adapted (to), suitable, convenient’, with most examples cited coming from seventeenth-century sources.


A study of the Irish text

‘Beart’ is translated as (1) ‘cast, move (in a game)’, (2) ‘shift, plan’ (‘beart cliste’ being translated as ‘clever manoeuvre’) and (3) ‘proceeding, action, transaction’ in Ó Dónaill, who translates ‘beart a dhéanamh de réir do bhriathair’ as ‘to fit your actions to your words’. Dinneen translates ‘beart’ as ‘an act, a deed; behaviour; a game or trick (at cards), a move in a game; a task, an appointment, a situation; a prank; plan; a matter; a fact’. ‘Burden, load; bundle’ seems to have been the earlier of the three major senses of ‘bert’ cited in DIL, this word being related to ‘beirid’ (‘carries’); ‘clothing, covering, clothes, attire, apparel; accoutrement’ is also given as one of the senses of ‘bert’ as is ‘deed, exploit; feat, trick; effort, task; action, behaviour’, with the examples of this sense coming from later sources. Note that ‘bearta’ expresses ‘measures’ in Article 29.4.3o. ‘The Contracting States … shall, by appropriate means, designate for each aircraft the State among them which shall exercise the jurisdiction’ is translated as ‘Na Stáit Chonarthacha … ainmneoidh siad, ar mhodh cuí, i ndáil le gach aerárthach, an Stát díobh a fheidhmeoidh dlínse’ in Article 9 of the Schedule to the Air Nagivation and Transport Act, 1975, with ‘ar mhodh cuí’ again translating ‘by appropriate means’ in Article 5 of the Second Schedule to the Air Nagivation and Transport Act, 1973. See the commentary on Article 45.2.i where ‘caoi’ expresses ‘means’. Looking at early translations of ‘appropriate’, ‘the receipt of the appropriate officer of the Post Office’ is translated as ‘admháil ón oifigeach ceart in Oifig an Phuist’ in s6(1)(b) of the Local Government (Collection of Rates) Act, 1924. ‘From the beginning of the appropriate triennial anniversary of that day’ is translated as ‘o thosach lá cóir cinn trí mblian an lae sin’ in s1 of the Constitution (Amendment No. 1) Act, 1925, with ‘by means of appropriate maps’ being tanslated as ‘le mapaí … oiriúnacha’ in s6(2) of the Arterial Drainage Act, 1925. ‘Táille chuibhe’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as translating ‘appropriate fee’ in translations for the Department of Finance and ‘suim chothromach’ translates ‘appropriate amount’ in Iris an Phuist, 14/9/27. ag féachaint go cuí ‘The Court may, if it so thinks fit and is satisfied, having had due regard for the rights … of the persons concerned (including the natural and imprescriptible rights of the child)’ is translated as ‘féadfaidh an Chúirt, más cuí léi agus más deimhin léi, ag féachaint go cuí do chearta na ndaoine lena mbaineann … (lena n-áirítear cearta nádúrtha dochloíte an linbh)’ in s3(1) of the Adoption Act, 1988. See the commentary on the foregoing section. ionad na dtuistí a ghlacadh ‘Áit duine a ghlacadh’ is translated as ‘to take someone’s place’ in Ó Dónaill who, however, cites ‘ionad duine, ruda, a dhéanamh, to take the place of someone, something’, this agreeing with ‘do-ní éanmhac ionad cloinne’ (‘takes the place of’), cited in DIL from the miscellaneous collection of Classical Irish poetry, Aithdioghlaim Dána. nádúrtha Note how ‘the primary and natural educator of the child’ is expressed as ‘múinteoir príomha dúchasach don leanbh’ in Article 42.1.

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do chearta … dochloíte Note that ‘imprescriptible rights’ is translated as ‘cearta dochealaithe’ in Téarmaí Dlí. dá gclainn See the commentary on Article 42.1 regarding this special form of the dative singular. caomhnóir leasa an phobail See the commentary on Article 42.3.2o.

Standardised Irish text I gcásanna neamhchoiteanna nuair a tharlaíonn, ar chúiseanna corpartha nó ar chúiseanna morálta, nach ndéanann na tuismitheoirí a ndualgais dá gclann, ní foláir don Stát, ós é an Stát caomhnóir leas an phobail, iarracht a dhéanamh le beart oiriúnach chun ionad na dtuismitheoirí a ghlacadh, ag féachaint go cuí i gcónaí, áfach, do chearta nádúrtha dochloíte an linbh.

Direct translation I ndálaí1 eisceachtúla, i gcás na tuismitheoirí2 a bheith, ar chúiseanna fisiceacha nó morálta, tar éis mainneachtain ina ndualgas i leith a leanaí, féachfaidh an Stát, mar chaomhnóir ar an maitheas phoiblí3, ar mhodh4 cuí, le hionad na dtuismitheoirí a líonadh, ach i gcónaí le haird chuí ar chearta nádúrtha dochealaithe an linbh.

Variants 1 ‘I gcásanna’ 2 ‘na dtuismitheoirí’ – Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that the initial mutation would not be denied here in the case of a verbal noun phrase such as this in Munster. 3 ‘ós é caomhnóir na maitheasa poiblí é’ 4 ‘le modhanna’

ARTICLE 43.1.1O

AIRTEAGAL 43.1.1O

PRIVATE PROPERTY MAOIN PHRÍOBHÁIDEACH TÉACS GAEILGE

Maoin Phríobháideach Admhaíonn an Stát, toisc bua an réasúin a bheith ag an duine, go bhfuil sé de cheart nádúrtha aige maoin shaolta a bheith aige dá chuid féin go príobháideach, ceart is ársa ná reacht daonna. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Private Property/Assets The State acknowledges, because man has the gift of reason, that he has a natural right to have worldly assets of his own privately, a right which is more ancient than human statute. ENGLISH TEXT

Private Property The State acknowledges that man, in virtue of his rational being, has the natural right, antecedent to positive law, to the private ownership of external goods.


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Divergences between the official texts 1

2

3

4

‘The private ownership of external goods’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘maoin shaolta a bheith aige dá chuid féin go príobháideach’, ‘to have worldly goods of his own privately’, with the term expressing ‘goods’ being the term which expresses ‘property’ in the heading of this Article, i.e. ‘maoin’, ‘goods’ being translated as ‘earraí’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Man, in virtue of his rational being’ is expressed as ‘toisc bua an réasúin a bheith ag an duine’ (‘because man has the gift of reason’) in the Irish text. ‘Positive law’ is expressed as ‘reacht daonna’ (‘human statute’) in the Irish text – note, however, that ‘daonna’ is also found in the translation of ‘positive law’ in Téarmaí Dlí, ‘dlí daonna’. ‘Antecedent to’ is expressed in the Irish text as ‘ceart is ársa ná’, ‘a right which is more ancient than’.

J.M. Kelly, op. cit., p. 209, reports as follows on reference made to this Article in the courts: In Central Dublin Development Association Ltd. v Attorney General ([1975] 109 ILTR 69) Kenny J said, in regard to both Article 43.1.1 and Article 43.2.2, that “while there may not be a conflict” between the Irish and English versions, the English version seemed to him “to be a most unhappy attempt to reproduce the meaning of that in Irish”: ‘The phrase “de cheart nádúrtha aige maoin shaolta a bheith aige dá chuid féin go príobháideach” … means, I think, “a natural right to his own private share of worldly wealth” and not “the natural right to the private ownership of external goods”… Another source of confusion in the English text is the use in Article 43.2.2 of the word “delimit”. The Irish phrase is “teorainn a chur” which would, I think, be more accurately translated as “restrict”. In Professor de Bhaldraithe’s standard English-Irish dictionary, the Irish equivalent of “restrict” is given as “cuirim teorainn le”.’

J.M. Kelly remarks on the reference above to the English version being an attempt to reproduce the Irish that ‘in view of the history of the Irish version, this phrase of Kenny J seems to be a mere judicial politeness’.

Commentary is ársa ná Literally ‘more ancient than’. We find this phrase earlier in Article 41.1.1o. Regarding ‘antecedent’ in the Acts, in s67(2)(b)(iv) of the Fisheries Act, 1939, ‘any circumstances antecedent to the transition period which may have affected the earning power of the fishery’ is translated as ‘aon chúrsaí bhí ann roimh an idir-thréimhse agus dob fhéidir do rinne deifir do chumas tuillimh an iascaigh’. The heading above s293 of the Companies Act, 1963, ‘Offences antecedent to or in the course of Winding Up’, is translated simply as ‘Cionta roimh an bhFoirceannadh nó i gcúrsa an Fhoirceanta’. ‘Antecedent order’ is translated as ‘réamh-ordú’ in s3(1) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976. ‘Liability of persons conducting negotiations antecedent to hirepurchase agreements’ is translated as ‘Dliteanas daoine a sheolann caibidlí roimh chomhaontuithe fruilcheannaigh’ in the Margin Title of s32 of the Sale of Goods and Supply

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of Services Act, 1980. ‘That the provisions of this Act relating to matters antecedent to such application have been complied with’ is translated as ‘go bhfuiltear … tar éis déanamh do réir na bhforálacha den Acht so bhaineann le cúrsaí ba thúisce ná an t-iarratas san’ in s7 of the Public Assistance (Acquisition of Land) Act, 1934. ‘Any circumstances antecedent to the transition period’ is translated as ‘(maidir le) haon toscaí roimh an idirthréimhse’ in s194(2)(b)(iv) of the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act, 1959, and as ‘aon chúrsaí bhí ann roimh an idir-thréimhse’ in s67(2)(b)(iv) of the Fisheries Act, 1939. De Bhaldraithe translates ‘matters antecedent to …’ as ‘nithe ba thúisce ná …’. bua Ó Dónaill gives ‘gift, talent’ and ‘virtue, merit’ as two of the secondary senses of ‘bua’ (the primary sense being ‘victory, triumph’), citing respectively ‘bua cainte, ceoil, gift of speech, music’ and ‘is mór an bua do dhuine an tsláinte, it is a great advantage to have one’s health’. Dinneen includes ‘virtue, excellence, an attribute’ among the senses of ‘buaidh’. DIL cites ‘búaid precepte’ (‘the gift of preaching’) from the eighth-century Würzburg Glosses as an example of this secondary sense of ‘búaid’ (‘special quality or attribute, gift, virtue, pre-eminence, excellence; prerogative’), the primary sense of ‘victory, triumph’ also being cited from the same Glosses (in the archaic form ‘boid’). See further the commentary on Article 40.1. The Shorter Oxford Dictionary has the following entry s.v. ‘virtue’: II As a quality of things. 1. In the prepositional phrases in or by (also through or with) virute of, by the power or efficacy of; hence, in later use, by the authority of, in reliance upon, in consequence of, because of.

The phrase ‘by virtue of’ is translated as ‘de bhua’ in Téarmaí Dlí and is so translated in the Acts, the phrase ‘by virtue of this Act’, ‘de bhua an Achta seo’, being of regular occurrence in the Acts. ‘All … functions for the time being vested in him in virtue of his office’ is translated as ‘na feidhmeanna uile a bheidh dílsithe don PhríomhBhreitheamh de thuras na huaire de bhua a oifige’ in s10(2) of the Courts (Supplemental Provisions) Act, 1961, with ‘de bhua a oifige’ translating ‘in virtue of his office’ in s2 of the Courts of Justice Act, 1928. Note, incidentally, that ‘in full force and virtue’ is cited in the Oireachtas Dictionary of Official Terms as being translated as ‘i lán-fheidhm agus i lán-bhrí’ in translations for the Department of Local Government and Public Health. bua an réasúin The principal meaning of ‘réasún’ in Ó Dónaill is ‘reason, reasoning faculty; reasonableness, sense’, citing ‘bíodh réasún ionat, be reasonable’, ‘duine gan réasún, unreasoning, unreasonable person’ and ‘ní féidir réasún a chur ann, he won’t listen to reason’. Note incidentally that Ó Dónaill gives a second headword ‘réasún’, translated as ‘winkers’, Dinneen including ‘the winkers of a horse’, along with ‘a reason or argument, meaning, reasonableness, moderation in conduct, sobriety; a reasonable price’ among the senses of ‘réasún’. ‘Résún’ (‘reason’) is a Romance loanword, according to DIL, citing ‘da mbeth resun agat’ (said to a lifeless object) as an example of the sense of ‘the reasoning faculty’. ‘Reasonable cause’ is translated as ‘cúis réasúnach’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Conservation of fish stocks and rational


A study of the Irish text

exploitation of fisheries’ is translated as ‘Stoic éisc a chaomhnú agus leas réasúnach a bhaint as iascaigh’ in the Margin Title of the Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1962, for example. ‘Réasúnach’ is translated as ‘rational’ in Colmán Ó Huallacháin, Foclóir Fealsaimh (1958), ‘reasonable’ being translated as ‘réasúnta’ in the same Dictionary of Philosophy. ‘Beith’, the verbal noun of the substantive verb, translates ‘being’ in that work. ‘Beith’ is translated as ‘being, entity’, followed by the abbreviation for Philosophy, in Ó Dónaill, who also cites the headword ‘eiseach’, ‘existing thing, being’. Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú, commenting on ‘de bhua bheith réasúnach an duine’ in a draft of the direct translation below, remarks that this would not be understood, particularly as ‘beith’ is lenited. Professor Ó Murchú recommends translating this phrase as ‘de bhua an duine a bheith réasúnach’. maoin shaolta ‘Maoin’ is translated as ‘property’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘maoin phearsanta’ is translated as ‘personal property’. Ó Dónaill translates ‘maoin’ as ‘property, wealth’, translating ‘maoin shaolta’ as ‘worldly goods’. Dinneen also translates ‘maoin an tsaoghail’ / ‘maoin tsaoghalta’ as ‘worldly goods’, translating ‘maoin’ itself as ‘wealth, riches, property, means, substance; benefit, gift; love, a term of endearment’. The primary sense of Old Irish ‘maín’ is ‘a benefit’, according to DIL, citing the following example (with the prefix ‘dag’) from the eighthcentury Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles: ‘is eícrichnichthe don-indnig-som a dagmoíni’ (‘without limit he bestows his benefits’), the sense of ‘gift’ being frequently implied in Middle Irish. The secondary sense of ‘maín’, according to DIL, was ‘a valuable article or possession, a treasure; in plural treasures, possessions, wealth’ and in the early Irish law-tracts ‘maín’ is sometimes used of cattle, stock – cattle being the most common form of currency in the period of those tracts – see Fergus Kelly, p. 113 ff. DIL cites ‘do shomhaoine saoghalta’ (‘somaín’ = ‘so’ + ‘maín’, ‘profit, benefit’), from the Annals of the Four Masters, s.v. ‘saegulta’ (‘belonging to this world, mundane, secular’). ‘Maoin’ translates ‘property’ in the Acts – see, for example, s2 of the Malicious Injuries Act, 1981, where ‘“property” includes wild animals in captivity and incorporeal hereditaments’ is translated as ‘folaíonn “maoin” ainmhithe fiaine i mbraighdeanas agus oidhreachtáin neamhchorpracha’ and s2 of the Capital Acquisitions Tax Act, 1976, where ‘“personal property” means any property other than real property’, ‘“property” includes rights and interests of any description’ and ‘“real property” means real and chattel real property’ are translated respectively as ‘ciallaíonn “maoin phearsanta” aon mhaoin seachas maoin réadach’, ‘folaíonn “maoin” cearta agus leasanna d’aon chineál’ and ‘ciallaíonn “maoin réadach” maoin réadach agus maoin airnéise réadaí’. ‘The real and personal property … shall be regarded as private property’ is translated as ‘Áireofar mar mhaoin phríobháideach an mhaoin’ in Article 34 of the First Schedule to the Geneva Conventions Act, 1962. In s7 of the Private Bill Costs Act, 1924, ‘or which interferes with the private property of any person’ is translated as ‘no le n-a gcuirtear isteach ar mhaoin phríobháideach éinne’. ‘Maitheasa saolta’ is cited in Foclóir Oifigiúil s.v. ‘goods’ (with reference to Tobar Fíorghlan Gaeilge, 97). T. O’Neill

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Lane gives ‘maoin’ as his secondary translation of ‘goods’, citing ‘that he did not put his hand to his neighbour’s goods, nár chuir seisean a láimh i maoin chomharsan’ (Ex. xxii. 11). His principal translation, however, ‘earradh, -aidh’, is that found in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘goods’ is translated as ‘earraí’, with ‘I pass off goods as those of another’ translated as ‘tairgim earraí i leith is gur earraí duine eile iad’ and ‘property in the goods’, ‘slander of goods’ and ‘trespass to goods’ are translated respectively as ‘dílseánacht sna hearraí’, ‘clúmhilleadh earraí’ and ‘foghail ar earraí’. Note, however, that ‘in the goods of’ is translated in Téarmaí Dlí as ‘maidir le maoin’. ‘Earraí’ generally translates ‘goods’ in the Acts – see, for example s39 of the Finance Act, 1980, where ‘In this Chapter “goods” means goods manufactured within the State’ is translated as ‘Sa Chaibidil seo ciallaíonn “earraí” earraí a mhonaraigh an chuideachta sa Stát’. ‘Gustail shaolta’ expresses ‘material resources’ in Article 45.2.ii – see the commentary thereon regarding ‘saolta’. ‘Saolta’ translates ‘temporal’ in the European Assembly Elections Act, 1977, for example, in s74 of which ‘any temporal or spiritual injury or loss’ is translated as ‘aon díobháil nó dochar, saolta nó spioradálta’. ‘External’ is translated as ‘eachtrach’ and ‘seachtrach’ in the Acts – ‘external tax’ is translated as ‘cáin eachtrach’ in s35(1) of the Finance Act, 1968, for example, but as ‘cáin sheachtrach’ in s163(c) of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976. ‘External income tax’ is translated as ‘cáin ioncaim eachtrach’ in s365(1)(b) of the Income Tax Act, 1967. ‘Seachtrach’ is cited as translating ‘outer’, ‘outside’ and ‘exterior’ in the Acts, also. ‘Eachtrach’ also translates ‘foreign’, the most conspicuous example, perhaps, being ‘An Roinn Gnóthaí Eachtracha’, ‘The Department of Foreign Affairs’. In s1(xi) of the Ministers and Secretaries Act, 1924, ‘the Department of External Affairs’ is cited as ‘An Roinn Gnóthaí Coigríche’. This was changed to ‘An Roinn Gnóthaí Eachtracha’ by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, s6(1) of which reads as follows: It shall be lawful for the Government … to alter in such way as they think proper the name (whether in the Irish language or the English language or in both those languages) of any Department of State.

Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú questions the meaning of ‘external’ in this Article and remarks that it seems to be the philosophical sense of ‘derived from a source outside the subject affected, outside the conscious subject’. If that is the sense here, then Professor Ó Murchú recommends ‘seachtrach’ rather than ‘eachtrach’. a bheith aige Literally ‘to have’. ‘A bheith dá gcuid féin acu’ expresses ‘to own’ in Article 44.2.5o. ‘Ownership’ is translated as ‘úinéireacht’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘Or have before importation been in private ownership for a substantial period’ is translated as ‘no bhí ar únaeracht phríobháideach ar feadh tamaill mhaith sarar hiomportáladh iad’ in s15(b) of the First Schedule to the Finance Act, 1932. In Treaties establishing the European Communities (1973, p. 518), for example, ‘exercise the right of ownership conferred upon it with respect to special fissile materials’ is translated as ‘an ceart úinéireachta a fheidhmiú a thugtar dó i ndáil le hábhair inscoilte speisialta’. In s33(1) of the Finance Act, 1990, ‘the risks and benefits associated with ownership


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of the qualifying premises’ is translated as ‘na fiontair agus na tairbhí a bhaineann le húinéireacht an áitribh cháilithigh’. In s27 of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976, the heading ‘Change in ownership of company’ is translated as ‘athrú ar úinéireacht cuideachta’, which also translates ‘a change in the ownership of a company’ within the section. ‘The owner of the group’ is translated as ‘úinéir an chnuasaigh’ in s16(1) of the Capital Acquisitions Tax Act of the same year, while in s3(2) of the Local Government (Financial Provisions) Act, 1978, ‘the authority are the owner of a dwelling’ is translated as ‘(gurb) é an t-údarás is úinéir ar theach cónaithe’. See further the commentary on Article 44.2.5o, particularly for citations from early Acts. Note that ‘dílse’ expresses ‘ownership’ in Article 45.2.ii – see the commentary thereon for further translations of ‘own’/‘ownership’. Regarding the direct translation below, we have noted already (see the commentary on Article 12.2.2o) how ‘an ceart ar’ is sometimes used instead of ‘an ceart chun’ – in the Joint Declaration of December, 1993, for example, ‘the right of free political thought, the right of freedom and expression of religion’ is translated as ‘an ceart ar shaorsmaoineamh polaitiúil, an ceart ar shaoirse agus ar léiriú creidimh’ – this allows one avoid the genitive case which follows ‘chun’. Commenting on the direct translation below of ‘to the private ownership of external goods’ as ‘ar úinéireacht phríobháideach earraí seachtracha’, Professor Máirtín Ó Murchú remarks that ‘úinéireacht’ cannot have a qualifying genitive of this type – note the examples from the Acts above, however. Professor Ó Murchú recommends translating this phrase as ‘ar sheilbh phríobháideach in earraí seachtracha’. reacht daonna See the commentary on Article 41.1.1o. ‘Reacht’ is translated as ‘statute’ in Téarmaí Dlí, where ‘positive law’ is translated as ‘dlí daonna’. Note how the definite article precedes ‘dlí idirnáisiúnta’ (translated as ‘international law’ in Téarmaí Dlí) in ‘chun críche a cheadaíonn an dlí idirnáisiúnta’, translating ‘(for) a purpose recognised by international law’ in s5 of the Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1978. As regards ‘positive’, note that in s7(1) of the Companies (Re-Constitution of Records) Act, 1924, ‘but of whose dissolution he is unable to adduce positive evidence’ is translated as ‘ach nách féidir do fianaise dheimhnitheach do thabhairt ar a scur’.

Bunreacht na hÉireann

2 ‘ag an duine’ 3 ‘a bhí ann roimh’ 4 ‘chun úinéireachta príobháidí earraí seachtracha/eachtracha’, ‘ar sheilbh phríobháideach in earraí seachtracha’, ‘bheith ina úinéir príobháideach nó ina húinéir príobháideach ar earraí seachtracha/ eachtracha’

ARTICLE 43.1.2O TÉACS GAEILGE

Uime sin, ráthaíonn an Stát gan aon dlí a achtú d’iarraidh an ceart sin, ná gnáthcheart an duine chun maoin a shannadh agus a thiomnú agus a ghlacadh ina hoidhreacht, a chur ar ceal. LITERAL ENGLISH TRANSLATION

For that reason, the State guarantees not to enact any law attempting to set aside that right, nor the ordinary right of man to assign and to bequeath and to receive assets/ property as an inheritance. ENGLISH TEXT

The State accordingly guarantees to pass no law attempting to abolish the right of private ownership or the general right to transfer, bequeath, and inherit property.

Divergences between the official texts 1

2 3

4

5 6

Gender-proofed Irish text Maoin Phríobháideach Admhaíonn an Stát, toisc bua an réasúin a bheith ag an duine, go bhfuil sé de cheart nádúrtha aige nó aici maoin shaolta a bheith aige dá chuid féin, nó aici dá cuid féin, go príobháideach, ceart is ársa ná reacht daonna.

Direct gender-proofed translation Maoin Phríobháideach Aithníonn an Stát, de bhua an réasún a bheith sa duine1, go bhfuil aige nó aici2 an ceart nádúrtha, is túisce ná3 an dlí daonna, ar úinéireacht phríobháideach earraí seachtracha4.

Variants 1 ‘de bhua an duine a bheith réasúnach’, ‘de bhua bheith réasúnach an duine’, ‘de bhua an duine a bheith ina bheith nó ina beith réasúnach’

AIRTEAGAL 43.1.2O

7

‘The right of private ownership’ is expressed as ‘an ceart sin’, ‘that right’, in the Irish text, referring back to the previous subsection. The Irish term ‘cur ar ceal’, expressing ‘abolish’, is translated as ‘set aside’ in Téarmaí Dlí. ‘The general right’ is expressed