Grupo Abrego, Mexico 2 Worldwide expansion 2 Mironovsky Hliboprodukt, Ukraine 4 Cargill, Honduras 4 New distributor for UK and Ireland 4 Incubadora Anhalzer, Ecuador 5 Bell AG, Switzerland 5
Pas Reform Time
Suguna Poultry Farm, India 2
Maximising uniformity through top-level hatchery practice 6 New Pas Reform stand 6 Serfonteijn Kuikens, South Africa 8 Soc. Grapolima, Morocco 8 Pas Reform expands into Russia 8 Agro Oven, Ukraine 9 Duck-To-Farm, The Netherlands 9 New Incubation Guides 10 New Pas Reform brochures 10 New distributor for Bangladesh 10 Radwa Saudi Arabia 12 Paragon Group, Bangladesh 12
Single stage incubation for turkeys 13 Seminar Bulgaria 15
Why incubator temperature differs from egg shell temperature 16 Setting eggs with small ends up 16
Distributor appointed in the Philippines 16
Optimum timing for pulling day old chicks 17 Do hairline-cracked eggs influence
hatchability and chick performance 17
How to keep the hatchery free of fungus Aspergillus 18 Pas Reform expands into France 18
The economics of a short hatch window 20 New appointment for Slovenia 20
New representative for South Africa 21
The significance of chick uniformity 22 Forklima, Argentina 22 Fortune GP Farms, Sri Lanka 23
SmartDrive™ Performance Testing Tool 23 www.pasreform.com
Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies
New: SmartCenter™ Hatchery Information System Driving performance and uniformity in the hatchery.
SmartCenter™ is a dynamic web based information system that ... > page 3
New: SmartPortal™ Online Hatchery Support Defining the future of
customer service for the modern hatchery. Smartportal™ is an interactive, web-based customer service portal that ... > page 11
Improved hatcher basket design delivers uniform airflow. Smartbasket™ has been specifically designed to ... > page 19
Setting Standards for uniformity
experience, combined with the most recent research and
I am often asked what drives Pas Reform: what does it
counts: on the bottom line.
mean to be a ‘modern hatchery technology company’.
innovation, to set new standards for uniformity where it
And I have no hesitation in responding. We are driven by
Since first launching Smart, we have renewed old
see on a daily basis, through our work with customers
world, working with companies and institutions who are
the need for improved technologies and practices that we and partners worldwide: all commercial hatcheries that
seek better results and greater success in what is and will remain a highly competitive sector globally.
partnerships and made many new friends around the
committed to innovation, quality and results - because
these are what create a sustainable future in the modern poultry sector.
Yet while we are focused on meeting the needs of the
We are privileged to work with them all – and look
lessons and experiences of the past. These are fundamental
partnerships in the years to come.
future, it’s important that we don’t lose sight of the
to understanding how we can improve in the years ahead.
forward to making many new friends and forging new
It’s called progress – and in this business, we measure
I sincerely hope you will enjoy this ‘extraordinary’ issue of
these are the factors we seek to measure up against most
compliments and best wishes for a successful future.
progress by uniformity and post-hatch performance. So carefully.
Smart is our vision of progress: a future-focused
the Pas Reform Times: it comes to you with our
With best regards,
incubation system that has opened many doors for Pas
year, to further strengthen Smart’s performance in the
Reform since it was first launched in Hanover. And this most demanding climates worldwide, we unveil
President Pas Reform
SmartCenter™, SmartBasket™ and SmartPortal™ - all the
result of almost 90 years’ practical, commercial hatchery
Suguna’s Managing Directors Mr. B. Soundararajan and Mr. G.B. Sundararajan
Pas Reform sets standards for uniformity
India’s Suguna signs up for Smart expansion Suguna Poultry Farm has signed a long-term agreement with Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform for the supply of its Smart incubation system at four hatcheries in India. The agreement was signed with Managing Director Mr. B. Soundararajan to include four hatchery sites at Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnatka and Andra Pradesh, for the exclusive supply of SmartSet™ setters, SmartHatch™ hatchers, SmartDrive™ incubator control systems and SmartCenter™ hatchery information systems. Suguna is one of India’s leading poultry companies, with a steadily increasing global presence. Having successfully established operations in the Middle East through a joint venture with Supreme Foods Co. Limited, the company is now poised for expansion into the Japanese market with the supply of specialised poultry meat products. ‘Suguna is India’s pioneer in the export of broiler products, processed at a plant jointly owned with Saudi Arabia’s Supreme Food Co. Limited in the southern town of Udumalpet’, comments Mr. Soundararajan. ‘The plant started operations two years ago, and with a capacity of 1,000 tonnes per month, we now ship over 500 tonnes of chicken meat to the Middle East every month.’ ‘Extensive trials with Pas Reform Incubation Systems over the past two years have’, says Mr. Suresh Subramanyan, Hatchery Manager, ‘resulted in significantly improved posthatch performance in terms of FCR and increased hatchability in comparable batches. The company raises Ross
birds, and has seen marked improvements in day old chick uniformity since installing the Pas Reform’s incubation system’. ‘Our intention now,’ says Mr. Soundararajan, ‘is to roll-out a programme of upgrades to existing hatcheries, as well as the development of several new green field projects, over the next couple of years.’ ‘Pas Reform’s engineering and project management team planned the layout of our original single-stage incubation system at Palamaner in Andhra Pradesh at the beginning of 2004 - and that will be replicated at multiple sites throughout India now, to ensure that we are well prepared to realise aggressive plans for growth by 2010.’ Aside from continuing to work with Suguna in the planning and installation of its new Smart incubation systems, Pas Reform’s Academy, under the direction of Martin ‘Tiny’ Barten, senior hatchery management specialist, will provide a comprehensive and ongoing training programme to optimize single-stage system hatchery management practices. ‘This new agreement is pivotal for Pas Reform,’ explains Mr. Bart Aangenendt, president of the Dutch hatchery technology company. ‘The Indian market is one of enormous growth potential, where rapid changes are taking place - and we are privileged to be entering it with such a dynamic and committed partner. ‘As a forward-thinking and aggressive player, Suguna’s firm focus on the future has created a demanding environment in which to prove Smart’s credentials’. ‘We look forward to working alongside Suguna over the next few years, to contribute to their aggressive plans for growth - and to further our own ambitions for expansion in this promising market.’
Pioneering Abrego chooses Smart for growth in Mexico Broiler meat producer Grupo Abrego in Queretaro, Mexico, has awarded the next phase of its major expansion programme to leading Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform. The company is to double its capacity to approximately one million eggs set per week, using a combination of SmartSet™ setters and SmartHatch™ hatchers. Grupo Abrego’s owner and managing director, Rafael Abrego, says, ‘We have worked with Pas Reform’s single-stage incubation system now for three years, and it is on this basis that we have decided to enter into a long-term collaboration. ‘We are extremely satisfied with the results achieved to date – and confident that Smart is the way forward for us, to reach our longer term goals as a completely integrated broiler meat producer for a growing domestic market.’
Smart Hatchery Technology fuels worldwide expansion for Pas Reform:
Since the launch of its innovative, single-stage Smart incubation system last year, Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform has secured unprecedented growth in key territories – to such an extent that the company has
undertaken its largest-ever recruitment drive to appoint new partners, representatives and agents in 18 countries simultaneously around the world. ‘Since introducing our new Smart™ incubation system last year, we have recorded sales to 88 customers in 65 countries for SmartSet™ setters and SmartHatch™ hatchers alone,’
comments Mr. Bart Aangenendt, president of the Dutch hatchery technology company. ‘This is the most unprecedented growth – and it is imperative that we are in a position to offer our customers worldwide the same close, cooperative partnerships at a local level.’ Pas Reform is expanding its network of representatives with
Bouke Hamminga, Busines Development Manager Pas Reform
Pas Reform’s initial involvement with Grupo Abrego delivered a hatchery layout and routing plan that, says Mr. Abrego, has created a blueprint for the company’s expansion plans. ‘The new hatcheries have been devised to take advantage of the latest insights into best practice, not only to make the transition to single-stage incubation – but also to mobilise and maintain the strictest standards in biosecurity.’ Grupo Abrego’s hatcheries will benefit from a highly efficient Dust-filtered Air and positive pressure, or ‘D-FAPP’, system. Pas Reform has worked collaboratively with the company’s hatchery specialists, to fully integrate its singlestage SmartSet™ and SmartHatch™ systems with the new SmartCenter™ software for fully centrally controlled management. Operations are further refined with the addition of Pas Reform’s pre-heat function and the newly developed Automated Hatching System (AHS™). Mr. Abrego explains: ‘We have monitored the so called ‘hatch window’ or spread of hatch very closely, to establish that extremely narrow windows are being delivered, which has greatly improved chick uniformity.’ Bouke Hamminga, business development manager at Pas Reform, comments: ‘ Abrego is an important, landmark installation for Pas Reform in Mexico, complemented by the very important role played by Avipecuaria in Cuernavaca, our distributors for Mexico and Middle America, who enable us to remain close to our customers throughout the installation phase and for the fast, ready supply of spare parts from stock.’ Pas Reform’s president, Mr. Bart Aangenendt, concludes: ‘Grupo Abrego is a pioneer in the use of single-stage incubation technology in this part of the world’, he says, ‘and as such, this project is pivotal to Pas Reform’s ambitious plans for growth in this market.’
New: SmartCenter™ Hatchery Information System – Driving performance and uniformity in the hatchery
the movement of hatching eggs, alerts you automatically to alarm events, provides a preventative hatchery maintenance management program and allows the full customisation of different incubation programmes. SmartCenter™ has been developed not only to maximise performance and results. It is also a safety net. When you consider that a simple, unidentified equipment failure could cost the lives of millions of chicks within hours – it makes sense to have a comprehensive, reliable, system in place - to minimise any ill effects as quickly as possible. SmartCenter™ actively contributes to achieving operational reliability, greater productivity and increased uptime. For greater efficiencies and new levels of uniformity that have a real impact on your bottom line, SmartCenter™ actively and economically enables you to meet all these demands, today and tomorrow.
SmartCenter™ is a dynamic web based information system from Pas Reform that gathers real-time data, to deliver unrivalled uniformity in management and operation at every level in the modern hatchery.
SmartCenter™ - at a glance
Consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin and safety of their food, and to meet these concerns, today’s retailers and fast food chains demand complete traceability from their suppliers, especially when choosing fresh produce, meat and poultry products.
Hatchery Operations, to continuously monitor incubators and hatchery automation and climate control systems, and fine-tune settings to ensure that optimum incubation conditions are maintained at all times.
SmartCenter™ has been created to cater for a very demanding future, where meeting these demands shapes the success of the modern hatchery; and where by maximising uniformity through every level of hatchery management – you achieve reliable performance and uniformity in your product. From batches of hatching eggs and day old chicks, to incubators, hatchery automation and climate control systems, SmartCenter’s™ powerful, central database streamlines and improves control in the hatchery. It registers
newly opened offices in Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Ecuador, France, Great Britain, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka and Venezuela. All agencies have been selected for their inherent expertise, to deploy highly skilled poultry
experts who have the resources and experience to oversee a hatchery project from conception through to instal lation. Each will work in close co-operation with the Pas Reform Academy and with the full support of the company’s senior team of sales, project management and training specialists, to ensure that
Three main program tiers provide rapid access to SmartCenter’s™ complete information system:
Hatchery Management, to support the management of key functions, ranging from track & trace, alarm management and maintenance to breed specific incubation programming. Hatchery Analysis, to query production activities and associated information, and to produce management reports for sharing in real time for analysis and decisionmaking purposes.
quality standards are met consistently around the world. All representatives have dedicated sales and support personnel, and hold their own spare parts stocks locally.
Sharing knowledge for success Because we never underestimate the importance of people to the success of any hatchery operation, we have developed a dedicated training centre to provide tailor-made training programmes for hatchery professionals.
Smart expansion for Ukraine’s Mironovsky Ukraine’s leading integrated poultry producer, Mironovsky Hliboprodukt, has contracted Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform to supply new equipment and training for a major new expansion project over the next two years. Pas Reform will supply 102 SmartSet™ setters and 144 SmartHatch™ hatchers to the Project, to target production of over 175 million day old chicks per year. The ambitious expansion will see Mironovsky Hliboproduckt’s outputs rise to 227,000 tons of chilled poultry products, including whole birds, cutups, giblets and other meat products, by 2008. ‘Poultry consumption is growing rapidly in the Ukraine,’ CEO Mr. Y.Kosyuk says, ‘and we envisage a situation in the next five years, whereby the poultry sector here will not only satisfy domestic demand, but will also begin exporting to neighbouring countries’. Kosyuk’s bold expansion plans include the development of a Greenfield poultry factory, with hatchery, broiler growing facilities and a processing plant in the Kanev area. A further Greenfield project will add a second processing plant, for the production of a variety of semi-finished products. At the same time, the company will expand and upgrade its feed mill, as well as purchasing and upgrading a second feed mill in the town of Katerinopol, approximately 250km south of Kiev. Pas Reform will be instrumental in expanding existing facilities and constructing new ones throughout Mironovsky’s poultry integration chain, with work including building design, routing and energy calculations. The company’s SmartSet™ setters and SmartHatch™ hatchers will be complemented by a complete package of bespoke hatchery automation and climate control systems, including disinfection rooms, air handling units, chillers and heat energy recovery systems, vaccination equipment, chick counting and boxing systems and washing machines. ‘We are delighted that Mironovsky Hliboprodukt has chosen Pas Reform’s Smart technologies to drive its bold, ambitious plans for expansion,’ says the Dutch company’s president, Bart Aangenendt. ‘Intelligent, single-stage incubation is only part of the equation in any operation,’ he continues, ‘and our Academy will fully support Mironovsky Hliboprodukt throughout setup and beyond, with a dedicated hatchery management training programme, to ensure that the company’s hatchery personnel are well-equipped to get the best possible performance out of their new system.’
New distributor signed for UK & Ireland
Dutch Hatchery Technology Company Pas Reform announces further expansion to its world wide network, with the appointment of Mr. Danny Garvey to drive the company’s commercial activities in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Cargill gets smart in Honduras Cargill, one of the world’s largest compound feed manufacturers and an important, international broiler integrator, has chosen the Smart Incubation system from Pas Reform for a major expansion project in San Pedro Sula, Honduras. After a rigorous selection process, the Company announced its decision, to contract Pas Reform for the supply of SmartSet™ Incubators and SmartHatch™ hatchers, together with a full range of ventilation systems and automation for its new state-of-the-art facility. This new Greenfield project will target the production of 40 million day old chicks per annum in its initial phase, with two further expansion phases projected to 60 million and 80 million d.o.c. respectively. Freddy Madrigal, Cargill’s general manager operations, comments: ‘We have been meticulous in electing a supplier for this new hatchery project. It will be a state-of-the-art facility, and as such we were keen to work with a leading partner in the field of incubation technology. ‘Having evaluated various offers, we found that the combination of the most current incubation technology combined with a strong commitment to the middle American region was best met by Pas Reform’. Not only are SmartSet™ and Smarthatch™ incubators stateof-the-art, but Pas Reform has built a parts and service network throughout the region that is second to none. Mr. Madrigal concurs: ‘In a hatchery operation you want to combine just that, the best available incubation equipment with reliable, accessible back up, that guarantees operational reliability’. As an important, international broiler integrator, Cargill produces in Canada, the UK, Thailand, Nicaragua, Honduras and, since its takeover of Seara, also in Brazil - and is counted among the largest compound feed manufacturers and raw material handlers around the globe. ‘As a major player in the international arena, we are delighted to have the opportunity to work with Cargill’, says Mr. Bart Aangenendt, Pas Reform’s president. ‘We understand the scale of Cargill’s operations, and partnering on a project of this calibre creates a level of exposure internationally that represents a major advancement in Pas Reform’s strategic ambitions for growth worldwide in 2007 and beyond’.
Mr. Garvey (55), has 30 years’ experience in the UK broiler market, with Sun Valley, among others. For the past five years, he has worked for Cargill on international assignment. ‘Mr. Garvey’s extensive poultry experience is a perfect fit with Pas Reform’s ambitions in the UK and Ireland,’ explains Pas Reform’s president, Bart Aangenendt.
From left to right: Mr. Bart Aangenendt, President of Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies, Mrs. and Mr. Erb, Owners of Bell Group’s Erb hatchery, Mr. Michaël Kampschöer, Sales Manager Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies and Mr. Martin Barten, Senior Hatchery Specialist Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies.
Anhalzer plans 2nd Smart expansion in Ecuador Leading Ecuadorian poultry group Incubadora Anhalzer has contracted Pas Reform to supply a comprehensive Smart incubation system for its latest expansio n programme, which will bring the hatchery’s production capacity up to 400,000 day old broilers per week. The company has expanded rapidly since first starting to work with Pas Reform machines in 2003. That move was followed two years later by further expansion with the newest generation Smart incubation systems last year. The company will expand its current hatchery operations with an additional six SmartSet™ 77 machines, four SmartHatch™ hatchers and a complete ventilation system for the current hatchery expansion. Company President Pablo Anhalzer comments: ‘Working with Pas Reform for the last three years has been very satisfying. The company’s planning and project management expertise is detailed and thorough – and the introduction of their new Smart Incubation system coincided well with our plans for still further expansion.’
volumes for the quality of the cooperation and partnership that we have established with the people from Incubadora Anhalzer. ‘Pas Reform is targeting ambitious, strategic growth for the coming years in the Latin American region, and we trust this latest expansion programme with Incubadora Anhalzer will serve to illustrate the benefits of partnering with Pas Reform, both in terms of the quality of the hatchery systems we manufacture, and in terms of our commitment to the region in the years to come’.
Switzerland’s Bell AG gets Smart for the future Bell AG, the largest supplier of meat and meat products in Switzerland, recently opened a new, state-of-the-art hatchery in Aeschlen using future-focused Smart hatchery systems from Pas Reform. Erb Hatchery, which is the first in the country that employs Pas Reform’s innovative Smart technology, has opened in July last year, with the capacity for up to 16 million hatching eggs per annum.
‘Incubadora Anhalzer’s decision to install Smart incubation systems in its third expansion programme with us in three years is a real boost and an important show of confidence for Pas Reform,’ says Mr. Bart Aangenendt, president of Pas Reform. ‘This latest contract is not only an indicator as to the quality of our equipment, but importantly it also speaks
Investment in the new hatchery, owned by Mr. and Mrs. Erb, is a reflection of the Bell Group’s continuing expansion in poultry and poultry meat products in Switzerland, and will further consolidate the company’s leading position in the Swiss poultry market. Pas Reform has been contracted to deliver a tailored combination of SmartSet™ setters, SmartHatch™ hatchers, SmartDrive™ incubator controls and a SmartCenter™ hatchery information system, to the project. The Dutch company has also been responsible for planning the new project, including hatchery’s layout, routing plans, floors, drains, ceilings, ventilation, water and electrical systems. Mr. Michaël Kampschöer, Pas Reform’s Sales Manager in Switzerland, will manage the Erb project team. ‘We understand that every operation is unique’, he says, ‘and our team has worked hand-in-hand with Mr. and Mrs. Erb, to develop a hatchery-specific strategy that optimises the most efficient, performance-enhancing combination of incubators, hatchery automation and hatchery climate control systems,
Garvey will represent Pas Reform’s full range of products, including Smart incubators, hatchery automation systems and hatchery climate control systems – with the full backing of Pas Reform’s Sales, Project Management and Training facilities, the Pas Reform Academy, in Holland. Because of
last few years,’ says Garvey, ‘and I am delighted to be joining what is clearly a very dynamic and ambitious team. ‘The new Smart incubation system is opening up many new opportunities for the company. The system is already in place with one of Europe’s largest broiler integrators in the UK,
Incubadora Anhalzer has, says Mr. Anhalzer, conducted in depth studies on day old chick results not only in the hatchery but also in the broiler farms over the past three years, to find marked and consistent improvements in technical broiler performance results. ‘Our own experience has shown us that Pas Reform’s machines are highly durable – and by using this, the latest incubation technology, we have seen significant benefits in practice and results, which is all the more powerful when combined with operational reliability.’
his extensive broiler growing experience, Mr. Garvey will also be instrumental in registration and the management of field trials with Pas Reform customers, following the installation of their Smart incubation systems. ‘Pas Reform has really emerged as a leader and innovator in the
where it is demonstrating significant improvements in hatchability and post hatch performance. ‘I think the future for Pas reform and Smart in the UK and Ireland looks very bright indeed.’
while at the same time supporting highly optimised workflows within the operation’. ‘By taking the time to learn about the hatchery and Bell’s business objectives, we have b ecome well placed to ensure that the hatchery is ready and able to meet tomorrow’s needs’. Bell’s poultry market segment has contributed significantly to the Group’s market-leading position, to become one of the Group’s core divisions in recent years, thanks to innovative product development that is carefully aligned to evolving customer requirements. ‘This decision has not been taken lightly’, says hatchery owner Mr. Erb. ‘We have studied the options available in the marketplace against our current and future requirements in great detail, to decide which incubator system to place in this hatchery. In the final analysis, we selected the newly developed Smart Incubation System from Pas Reform for a number of reasons, and most notably, it was the short spread of hatch delivered by the new incubator that decided the project in Pas Reform’s favour’. The SmartSet™ setter is divided into small, separate units, each with its own climate control to provide uniform incubation conditions that support equal, synchronised embryonic development for each individual egg within the machine, a factor of fundamental importance to achieving a narrow spread of hatch. ‘A large spread in hatching time, and consequentyly in the duration to first feed/water intake, causes poor uniformity in day olds, which complicates farm management and undermines performance and results’, explained Mr. Schatzmann, Head of Bell’s poultry production group. ‘Minimising spread of hatch is crucial for optimum results’.
Danny Garvey can be contacted at: 14 Isleworth Drive Chorley, Lancashire PR7 2PU UK (United Kingdom) Telephone / Fax +44 1 257 263 058 Mobile +44 7 888 744 578 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Figure 1 Day old chick uniformity can be expressed as the percentage of chick weights that fall within 10% of the average chick weight
Chick weight (g)
Maximising uniformity through top-level hatchery practice The greatest challenge for modern hatchery is to achieve uniform, high vitality flocks of day old chicks. Next to incubation technology, good hatchery management can greatly influence this. Uniformity is an important issue for a hatchery, and the use of good hatchery management practices can make a valuable and lasting contribution, from the hatchery right through to farm level. Traditionally, the emphasis on uniformity of broiler chicks has been dictated by the last part of the production chain. The automated slaughtering process demands uniformity of product entering the processing plant. Often, achieving uniformity is regarded as the broiler farmer’s job and indeed, uniformity of broilers at slaughter weight can be greatly influenced by what happens on the broiler farm. As chick uniformity is unlikely to increase during the production process, a key prerequisite to a uniform end product is uniformity in the day olds. Day-old flocks showing poor uniformity are impossible to manage properly, which will result in lower growth, increased feed conversion and higher mortality during the first week. Flock uniformity Flock uniformity - particularly during the first week - is an important issue for management because at the moment of hatching, a number of physiological systems are still developing in the chick, and this process continues during the first seven to ten days of life. Amongst these systems is the thermoregulatory system. During the first days of their lives, newly hatched chicks have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature. This means that as environmental temperature decreases, the internal temperature of the chick is also reduced - and as small chicks have a higher surface to volume ratio, they lose more heat than large chicks. Consequently, small chicks may benefit from an environmental temperature that is 2 ºC higher than large chicks. Furthermore, an air temperature that is too cool will prevent chicks from getting adequate feed and water. To conserve warmth, birds respond by huddling together but are then unable to get to feeder lids and drinkers. Next to the development of thermoregulation, the complete development of the digestive tract and immune system is equally important. Maturation of the digestive and immune systems depend, in the first few days, on the chick getting all the nutrients and antibodies provided by the yolk sac. As the uptake of nutrients from the yolk is stimulated by the intake of feed, the development and growth of the newly hatched chick relies on having almost immediate access to feed and water.
Avian farm 36 h broiler
in feeding at age
in body- weight
Juul-Madsen Ross 208 et al., 2004 Gonzales et al.2003 Batal and Parsons, 2002
Hampshire & Plymouth Rock
Geyra et al. Ross 2001
*Spread of hatch is likely to have similar effects on growth up to 8 days, as does variation in time to first feed intake.
Table 1 - Time to first feed/water intake depends on the duration between hatching and placement at the farm. *
During the brooding period, the chick is highly dependent on its environment. Good management, especially during the first days of a chick’s life, is crucial to maximise performance and liveability. In order to realise optimum environmental conditions and feed/water supply for a maximum number of chicks, uniformity of day olds is a prerequisite. Next to providing optimum conditions, having chicks separated by size may reduce competition within the flock, decrease mortality, increase growth rate and improve uniformity of marketing weight when the birds enter the processing plant. Uniformity of day olds is therefore highly valued by the farmer-customer. DOC uniformity There appears to be general consensus about the importance of chick uniformity. However, some confusion arises when it comes to the question of measuring uniformity. Poultry growers generally assess the uniformity of a flock ‘by eye’ – though in general terms, information regarding practical standards for measuring the uniformity of day-olds is lacking. In broiler production, uniformity is expressed as the percentage of birds whose weight falls within 10% of the flock’s average weight - and current industry standards dictate that to achieve good uniformity, 80-85% of birds must fall within 10% of the average flock weight. In day-olds, it is possible to achieve 100% uniformity based on this standard; hence this range may reasonably be narrower than 10% for newly hatched chicks (Figure 1). For the purpose of this article, we will take chick weight as a measure for uniformity and focus on aspects of hatchery management that affect the range of weights in day old chicks.
Pas Reform’s comtemporary new stand makes a striking feature, housing a full-scale Smart incubation system.
Spread of hatch Variation in day old chick body weight at the moment of placement in the farm may be much higher than the variation of newly hatched chicks. The weight of chicks at placement is affected by their weight at hatch and the length of time they are held in the hatcher. Chicks that have to wait in the incubator for prolonged periods dehydrate and lose weight. Spread in chick weights upon placement - and thus uniformity - is consequently influenced by the spread of hatch. Regarding spread of hatch, numerous studies have investigated the effects of a delayed access to water and feed for day old chicks. Time until first feed/water intake depends on the duration between hatching and placement at the farm. Spread of hatch within a batch of chicks in one hatcher causes variation in the time at which first feeds can be made available. Thus, spread of hatch is likely to have similar effects to variations in the time taken to first feed intake, as measured in the studies shown in Table 1. The table summarizes recent results from these studies, and clearly demonstrates a negative effect on body weight at eight days of age. The delay in feed/water intake was shown to negatively influence body weight up to slaughter age. Differences in body weight were significant when the spread in the time of access to feed and water was more than 24 hours. In multi-stage incubation, the hatching process may take two days, and chicks are removed from the incubator only when a majority have hatched. From the results shown above, we may conclude that chickens hatched early will indeed show different growth rates to late hatches up to slaughter age. Spread of hatch depends on equal development of the embryos at the start of incubation, combined with uniform rates of development in the eggs within one incubator. A number of factors are summarised below, that are known to affect the spread of hatch. Maternal age Maternal age influences day old chick weight through its effect on egg weight. On average, day old chicks weigh 6776% of the initial egg weight. This is a considerable range, and although the influence of egg weight on chick weight is obvious, there are other important, influential factors that must be taken into consideration. Maternal age also directly affects the rate of embryonic development. It seems that at the moment of oviposition, the eggs of ‘mature’ flocks (>32 weeks) contain embryos in a more advanced state that develop at a higher rate than embryos in eggs from ‘pubescent’ flocks. Consequently, embryos in eggs from the latter group require longer incubation periods. Some studies even report a decrease in incubation time of up to 10 hours between 28 and 32 weeks of maternal age! (Figure 2). Egg storage Storage time prior to incubation is known to influence the rate of embryonic development. In stored eggs, the initiation of embryonic development is delayed, and the rate of development is also lower. Recently, a study from the University of Leuven (2003) confirmed the hatchery man’s
Figure 3 Frequency of hatching chicks in a hatcher. Incubating eggs of different maternal ages in one incubator will increase the spread of hatch
Figure 2 Embryos of young parent flocks require more incubation time (Shanawany, 1984)
Hatching time (h)
Figure 4 Pre-heating improves uniformity of embryonic development between eggs in one incubator
480 475 470
Parental age (wk)
Temperature Naturally, a homogenous incubation temperature during the entire incubation cycle is fundamental to equal embryonic development, as temperature directly affects the rate of development in the embryo. Normal embryonic development occurs between 37 ºC (98.6 ºF) and 38 ºC (100.4 ºF), but the rate of development differs within this range. Turkey embryos have been shown to hatch approximately four hours earlier when incubated at 37.5 ºC compared to 37 ºC (Christensen, 2001). Of particular concern for a small spread of hatch, is an even start of embryonic development. A homogenous temperature for all eggs within one incubator at the start of incubation is fundamental to uniform development for the batch. In this respect, it is important to realise that batches of eggs may require different heat-up times to reach incubation temperature: for example, because of different storage or transport temperatures, or differences in egg size. Consequently, incubating eggs of different backgrounds may cause differences in incubation times. Optimise uniformity Uniformity of day old chicks is a priority for both hatcheries and their customers, because improved chick management will not only improve growth rates, but also decrease losses from natural mortality or culling. The following is a useful summary of key aspects of hatchery management that will promote optimum chick uniformity: 1. Sort eggs. First, take flock age into account. The age of the mother flock affects egg size and furthermore, maternal age influences the development rate of the embryos (Figure3). Eggs of young mother flocks (<32 weeks of age) require longer incubation time. Secondly, consider storage time. Eggs in one incubator should be of approximately the same age (storage time), since storage also retards embryonic development. For every storage day after three days, increase incubation time by ± 1 hour.
Hatching time (h) 60
Number of chicks
rule, that ‘one day storage adds one hour to incubation time’, and indeed, embryos from Cobb eggs stored for 18 days required an additional 16 hours of incubation time, compared to embryos from eggs stored for three days. Incubating fresh and stored eggs in one incubator thus increases spread of hatch unambiguously! It is important to realise that storage conditions also have an impact on the rate of embryonic development during incubation. After oviposition, the temperature inside the egg falls rapidly below the physiological zero: the minimum temperature above which embryonic development occurs. However, temperatures below this point influence other egg characteristics too, thereby affecting egg quality – depending on the duration of storage. Ruiz and Lunam (2002) found an increase in incubation time in eggs that were stored at 10 ºC for 9-11 days, compared to eggs that were stored at 16.5 ºC: chicks that hatched from the ‘cold’ stored eggs. Storage begins at the moment of laying. Especially during the summer or in hot climates, the time that eggs are held in the breeder house should be minimised. In order to maximise uniformity of embryonic development, frequent collection of hatching eggs is recommended.
20 10 0 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78
Hatching time (h) Maternal
80 75 70 -3
Incubation time (h) Spread of hatch
2. Pre-heating. Accurately sorting eggs prior to incubation enhances uniformity of embryonic development at the start of incubation. A uniform start may be further improved by pre-heating treatments prior to incubation. Eggs of various backgrounds may require different times to reach incubation temperature. Heating the eggs for several hours to 21- 25 ºC reduces the variation of temperatures inside the eggs at the start of incubation (Figure 4).This will promote better uniformity of development in eggs within one machine and further reduce spread of hatch. 3. Homogeneous incubation temperature. Incubation temperature influences the rate of embryonic development – and crucially, homogeneous incubator temperature is required to achieve the narrowest spread of hatch. This means that incubators must be designed such that they provide uniform incubation conditions to support equal, synchronised embryonic development for each individual egg within the machine. The incubator should be divided into small, separate units, each with its own climate control. Supporting the natural pattern of the embryo and eggshell temperature during each phase of embryonic development means that optimum conditions vary during the incubation process. Consequently, optimum conditions for uniform incubation can only be achieved in single stage incubation. Conclusion A large spread in hatching time, and consequently in the duration to first feed/water intake, causes poor uniformity of day olds, which complicates farm management and undermines performance and results. Minimising spread of hatch is crucial for optimum results. There are two criteria that must be met for a uniform hatch: - The hatching eggs entering the incubator must be uniform. - During both the setting and the hatching period, the rate of development of each egg in the batch must be synchronised by a homogeneous incubation temperature . The hatchery management methods summarised here can greatly improve day old chick uniformity. Application in hatchery practice requires good planning and the use of highly evolved incubation technology, to assist and maximise uniform embryonic development. (References available on request)
Uniform incubation conditions support equal, synchronised embryonic development for each individual egg in the incubator, which is fundamental to a narrow spread of hatch.
SmartDrive™ from Pas Reform delivers total control over every function and setting within each, individual incubator, from humidity and CO2 levels and the position of air inlet valves, to the individual operating parameters – temperature, heating, cooling, ventilation and turning – required per batch/egg type.
From left to right: Mr. JanKees Sligcher, Representative Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies, Mr. Jan Serfonteijn Senior, Mrs. Chantel Serfonteijn and Mr. Jan Serfonteijn Junior.
As Serfontein hatches at high altitudes - their newest hatcheries have been constructed 1675 m above sea level this places additional pressures on the Pas Reform machines, especially to accommodate the high oxygen demands of modern breeds. The modular design of Pas Reform’s Smart incubators meets all specific requirements, by enabling important incubation parameters (temperature, humidity, weight loss pattern and air flow) to be regulated separately for each incubator section of 19,200 hen eggs – thus allowing for single-stage (All-In/All-Out) incubation. Separate temperature set point control for each of these incubator sections makes it possible to control the incubator climate with marked precision. ‘Having completed our first tests now’, comments Mr. Serfonteijn, ‘we have proven that the Smart machines give superior hatch results and chick quality - even at the altitudes at which we operate.’
South Africa’s Serfonteijn Kuikens signs for new Smart Incubation System Serfonteijn Kuikens contracted Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform to supply its Smart Incubation system for a new hatchery in Potschefstroom, South Africa. The new agreement is part of a wider cooperation between the Dutch government (SENTER) and Dutch layer breeding company Hendrix Poultry Breeders (HPB), for the supply of brown layer breeding stock.
‘In addition to this,’ he concludes, ‘we have seen outstanding quality from Pas Reform’s project management team here in South Africa, for a well-executed roll out for our project, that has been carried out entirely in line with our planning.’ Mr. Aangenendt, Pas Reform’s President, comments: ‘South Africa is an important growth market for Pas Reform – and although we have had a presence here for 30 years, we have refreshed our approach to this market since the launch of our Smart technology late last year. ‘We will dedicate substantial time to this market, while supporting the activities of our new distributor Mr. JanKees Sligcher with an ongoing recruitment and training programme for a growing team of technicians. In addition to that, a programme of follow-up visits by our hatchery specialists will assist our customers in making the transition from multi- to singlestage hatching operations’.
A combined team of local technicians from Serfonteijn Kuikens and Pas Reform’s Dutch engineers installed a tailored combination of SmartSet™ and SmartHatch™ equipment to the project at Potchefstroom. The Dutch hatchery technology company also designed the entire layout of the new facility, with a keen focus on Serfonteijn Kuikens’ future needs and expansion plans. Managing director Mr. Jan Serfonteijn comments: ‘Ultimately, we chose the new Smart Incubation System from Pas Reform for its ability to deliver a short spread of hatch. Our programme is geared to producing both final layer stock as well as layer breeders. And as all our chicks must travel long distances from the hatchery to the final client, a short spread of hatch and the subsequent uniformity this delivers in our day-olds strongly improves our first week mortality rates, which is of the utmost importance to our customers’.
Dutch Hatchery Technology Company Pas Reform has further underlined its commitment to global expansion and close market co-operation, with the opening of a new subsidiary, Pas Reform Russia, to serve growing markets in Russia and Belarus.
Following the launch of Pas Reform’s new Smart Incubation System during the World Poultry Show in Hanover, Pas Reform has taken its first order for the new system from Moroccan hatchery company, Société Grapolima. The contract for the supply of Smart was signed between Société Grapolima of Morocco, represented by owner Mr. Mohamed Alaoui Mamoun, and Mr. Bart Aangenendt, President of Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies. Société Grapolima has built its new state-of-the-art hatchery in Morocco after signing an agreement with Lohmann for the production and distribution of Lohmann layers for the Moroccan market. Mr. Alaoui Mamoun comments: ‘We have undertaken extensive research into what type of machinery to place in our new hatchery. After lengthy in-company discussions, we selected the newly developed Smart Incubation System from Pas Reform primarily for the ability to work at various egg weight-loss patterns with the SmartSet Setter - which is very important with present layer genetics - and for the hatch spread of 12 hours that we can achieve in the SmartHatch Hatcher’. Besides the delivery of SmartSet™, SmartHatch™, the SmartDrive™ Incubator Control System and the SmartCenter™ Hatchery Management Information System, Pas Reform will also deliver the complete hatchery automation and hatchery ventilation system. Through the Pas Reform Academy, Société Grapolima was also greatly encouraged by Pas Reform’s project management experience. Pas Reform’s Project Management Team developed a hatchery-specific strategy that optimized the most efficient, performance-enhancing combination of incubators, hatchery climate control and automation systems. Following installation, a tailor-made training programme will ensure that Grapolima’s hatchery personnel are fully conversant with optimizing the system to optimize performance throughout the hatchery. ‘Pas Reform incubators have done very well in the Moroccan market’, says Bart Aangenendt, ‘and with our new Smart Incubation System, we are confident that we will continue to be ever more present in this part of the world’
The specific conditions required to optimise the new brown layer breeding programme prompted Serfonteijn Kuikens to re-evaluate its requirements for the new hatchery, and with the introduction of the Smart incubation system by Pas Reform, the company selected SmartSet™ setters and SmartHatch™ hatchers for the new installation.
Pas Reform expands into Russia
Soc. Grapolima signs contract for new Smart Incubation System
Pas Reform Russia is headed by Managing Director Wim Schaafsma, formerly a senior project manager at Pas Reform’s Zeddam headquarters in The Netherlands, and Commercial Director Anna Kolygina, who will be permanently based in Belgorod, at the centre of one of the country’s main poultry producing regions some 600 km south of Moscow.
‘Russia and the C.I.S. countries are still major importers of poultry meat,’ explains Mrs. Kolygina, ‘despite having the capacity and capability to meet demand with domestic production. ‘We therefore expect to see major growth here in the coming years, as producers gear up to capitalise on the opportunities – and meet the
From left to right: Mr. Houd Merhfour, Representative Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies for Morocco, Mr. Bart Aangenendt, President Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies, Mr. Jamil al Khawaja, Technical Specialist Pas Reform Hatchery
Technologies for the Middle East and Northern Africa, Mr. Mohamed Alaoui Mamoun, owner Société Grapolima, Morocco and Mr. Bouke Hamminga, Business Development Manager, Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies.
challenges – of increased demand.’ Pas Reform Russia is headed by Managing Director Wim Schaafsma (back right), formerly a Senior Project Manager with Pas Reform in The Netherlands, and Commercial Director Anna Kolygina (front left). Their highly qualified team includes Sergey Pogudkin (back left), Senior Engineer, Anna Kopnina (front),
Office Manager, Oksana Pisklova (front middle), Marketing Manager, and Galina Zaborskaya, Accountant. A comprehensive range of project management services includes full hatchery planning and design services - either to expand on existing facilities, or to develop new Greenfield sites. And customers of Pas Reform Russia will also have access to
Agro Oven plans Smart modernisation As news emerged that hatchery technology company Pas Reform opened a new subsidiary in Russia, Ukranian poultry meat producer Agro Oven has confirmed that the Dutch company’s Smart hatchery technology has been selected for the modernisation of its hatchery operations in the Dnepropetrovsk region next year. Founded in 1995, poultry meat producer Agro Oven has invested substantially in its agri-business operations for almost ten years, to develop a significant share of the growing domestic poultry meat market. The decision to modernise with Pas Reform’s Smart hatchery technology was sealed when Agro Oven’s vice-director technical development, Mr. Sergey Dmitrjuk and financial director Mrs. Irina Vladimirovna Melnejthuk met with Pas Reform sales manager Mr. Michaël Kampschöer in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Pas Reform’s new Smart™ single-stage incubation system has been well received worldwide since its launch last year, and for Agro Oven the decision was, says Sergey Dmitrjuk, primarily due to the short spread of hatch that can be achieved. ‘The ability to manage the development of the chick embryo while it is still in the egg is very compelling,’ he explained. ‘This enables us to actively manage the incubation process, to reduce the hatch window to just 12 hours, which delivers greater uniformity than has previously been possible.’ Modern poultry genetics have significantly changed the physiology of the chicken embryo, which naturally has an impact on the incubation process. Pas Reform’s Smart hatchery systems have been designed specifically to meet the three key challenges facing modern hatcheries: advancing genetics, uniformity and post-hatch performance. Pas Reform’s experienced project management team will work in partnership with Agro Oven to install SmartSet™ setters, SmartHatch™ hatchers, the SmartDrive™ incubator control system and the SmartCenter™ hatchery management information system, together with the new hatchery automation system. A dedicated programme of training for Agro Oven personnel will be provided by the Pas Reform Academy.
Duck-To-Farm invests in SmartSet™ single-stage incubation Leading duck producer Duck-To-Farm has contracted Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform to supply and install the Smart incubation system at its Ermelo Hatchery in The Netherlands, marking the first installation of Smart technology for the incubation of duck eggs. Duck-To-Farm is part of Tomassen BV Pluimveeverwerkende Industrie. For twenty years, the company has specialised in the production and delivery of the highest quality Peking ducks under the brand name Duck To. Tomassen BV controls the entire production chain, to ensure its birds are of a consistently high quality for distribution to markets both domestically and overseas. Managing Director Gert Jan Tomassen comments: ‘SingleStage incubation in the new SmartSet™ setters from Pas Reform will maximize hatchability and the quality of the ducklings, because incubation temperatures, humidity and ventilation can be adjusted for each embryonic age and batch of hatching eggs’.
catering companies (Chinese restaurants) both within the Netherlands and abroad. Duck-To-Farm’s investment in Pas Reform’s new Smart incubation system has further advanced the Dutch hatchery technology company’s plans to deliver the highest standards in single-stage incubation for duck. Pas Reform has been at the forefront of single-stage incubation for the past thirty five years – and building on the tried and trusted success of its existing All-In/All-Out incubation systems, Pas Reform’s new Smart system takes the principle a stage further, to fully maximise the benefits of homogenous temperature control. A SmartSet™ setter incorporates up to six compact, independent incubators, each individually controlled to facilitate optimal incubation programming per batch and egg type. During incubation, some sections may therefore be cooling, while others are heating - the only way to ensure even incubation temperature and to create a stable microenvironment around the eggs. ‘Homogenous temperature distribution is the most important parameter for successfully incubating today’s breeds,’ says Pas Reform’s embryologist Dr. Marleen Boerjan. ‘Even minor fluctuations can have a major impact on uniformity and post hatch performance – and Smart has been designed to reduce this risk almost entirely’.
Birds are kept in their own, dedicated facilities and the hatching eggs are transferred to Pas Reform’s incubators, where because the hatchery manager is able to define separate temperature set points for each section of 13,104 duck eggs, Pas Reform’s SmartSet™ setting system delivers an average difference in eggshell temperature of just 0.5 ºF. Post-hatch, the ducklings are subsequently moved to affiliated duck farmers, who work strictly in accordance with Duck-To-Farm’s high quality standards. At 47 days, the ducks are transported to Tomassen’s own HACCP-certified slaughterhouse, where they are processed and subjected to stringent inspections. Tomassen also runs and manages the transportation of produce to its customers, delivering the Duck To duck both directly and via wholesalers to large
the Pas Reform Academy, a
dedicated training facility that shares the combined knowledge of a team of recognised authorities on embryology, incubation, genetics, hatchery management and technical training. Academy training can be provided either onsite or at Pas Reform’s Dutch headquarters. The ‘Academy’ has become an
important contributor to the
success of Pas Reform’s commercial partnerships worldwide in recent years, and Wim Schaafsma believes that in Russia too, these highly practical and relevant training programmes will bring substantial benefits to customers. ‘The Academy delivers the most up-to-date intelligence in such a way that it
can be easily incorporated into
daily practice, to deliver tangible results in the hatchery,’ he says. Pas Reform Russia already has a string of successful projects to its credit, with leading hatcheries in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other C.I.S. countries.
The new company can be contacted at:
Pas Reform Russia Korolevastreet 2a Office 510 Belgorod 308033 Telephone: +7 4722 52 84 26 Fax: +7 4722 52 81 79 E-mail: Russia@pasreform.com
SmartSet™ SmartHatch™ SmartCenter™ SmartPortal™ Martin Barten, Senior Hatchery Specialist Pas Reform
SmartCenter™ Information System
SmartCenterTM is a dynamic web based information system from Pas Reform, which gathers real-time data, to deliver unrivalled uniformity in management and operation at every level in the modern hatchery.
Online Hatchery support
Driving performance & uniformity in the hatchery
Get technical support, place orders, look up references and read the latest news and research – whenever and wherever you need to.
performance and uniformity in the hatchery
Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies
New Pas Reform brochures available SmartCenter™ and SmartPortal™ are new brochures from Pas Reform, containing detailed descriptions and illustrations of the SmartCenter™ Hatchery Information System and SmartPortal™ Online Hatchery Support. For your own free copies of the brochures, please email email@example.com or download in pdf format from Pas Reform online at www.pasreform.com.
Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies
Smart thinking for best practice in the hatchery: Pas Reform launches new Incubation Guides The Pas Reform Academy has combined more than 30 years of practical hatchery experience with extensive scientific knowledge, to write a series of new practical Incubation Guides for getting the most out of hatchery operations. Pas Reform’s Incubation Guides extend widely beyond simply providing instructions for the incubation of hatching eggs. They are based on ISO/HACCP requirements and include guidance on the deployment of practical hatchery procedures, from the arrival and quality control of the eggs to the placement of uniform day-old chicks. The Incubation Guides are available in four editions, specifically dealing with best practice in broiler, layer, duck and turkey hatcheries. The guides are based on the latest available knowledge in the field of genetics and provide the tools to better match the needs of modern breeds. A series of new Hatchery Recording Forms has also been launched to support the use of procedures highlighted in
New Representative to boost growth in Bangladesh Leading Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform has appointed Zahidul Islam, to represent its interests in the dynamic and rapidly-growing poultry sector of Bangladesh.
Mr. Zahidul Islam brings substantial experience to his new role. Having studied in the USA, he has spent the last seven years working exclusively in the poultry sector, initially as a Director of one of the country’s largest integrations, and more recently establishing his own company to supply a compre hensive range of equipments
specifically created to serve the needs of the entire sector – from hatcheries to integrations throughout the country. ‘With a population of 150 million, Bangladesh is a dynamic, fast-growing market,’ says Islam, ‘well served now by GPS suppliers, breeding and parentstock companies and commercial broiler producers’.
‘Both the domestic and export markets are expanding rapidly for broilers, meat products and hatching eggs - so much so, that the Government has recognised this as one of, if not the fastest growing industries in the country and has pledged its support to the development of foreign markets.’ In this buoyant climate, Islam believes there is a burgeoning
Pas Reform’s Incubation Guides. These forms are especially useful for effective record-keeping in the hatchery and as such provide a valuable tool for monitoring and optimising hatchery results. ‘The new Incubation Guides and Hatchery Recording Forms summarise some crucial key aspects to keep in mind in daily hatchery practice’, says Martin Barten, Pas Reform’s Senior Hatchery Specialist. ‘They provide the hatchery manager and other responsible personnel with a complete manual for use in daily hatchery practice’. Copies of the new Incubation Guides and Hatchery recording forms are available by visiting the Library section of www.pasreform.com.
market for Pas Reform’s new Smart™ hatchery technology. ‘Since Smart hatchery systems first appeared in Bangladesh earlier this year,’ he says, ‘a combination of highly visible marketing and a clear commitment to the poultry sector here have made a very positive impression – and I believe there are genuine
opportunities for this highly efficient and innovative singlestage incubation system to develop significant market share. There is quite simply nothing to compare on the market today. Smart suits this market and its high demands very well.’
New: SmartPortal™ Online Hatchery Support - Defining the future of customer service for the modern hatchery With a passion for precision and a dedication to the future of hatchery technology, Pas Reform understands how important it is that hatchery managers have access to the help, advice and support they need, when they need it wherever they are. This is why we’ve developed SmartPortal™: a new, interactive, web-based Customer Service Portal that delivers a comprehensive range of practical services for the hatchery manager, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year – regardless of location. SmartPortal™ defines the future of customer service for the modern hatchery, providing access to a uniform hatchery management framework online, that has been devised specifically to help improve daily practice, performance and results.
Pas Reform Academy Community Join Pas Reform’s interactive worldwide hatchery community to share ideas and discuss challenges, opinions and suggestions online. Consultant Your fastest route to problem-solving in the hatchery. Our online analyser helps you track down solutions and analyse results. Library Your online reference for the latest research and updates on embryo-, hatchery-management and project-management– related information
Pas Reform Products
Pas Reform Company
Order Dedicated 24-hour online ordering for genuine factory certified parts, specifications and detailed technical information.
News All the latest company news, information, forthcoming events and items of topical interest for the hatchery sector.
Projects Your gateway to 24-hour assistance from technical specialists or your Project Team, wherever you are!
Resources More about Pas Reform – our company and products. Here you’ll find company information, presentations, movies, images… and more!
Created exclusively for the use of Pas Reform customers, SmartPortal™ offers rapid, secure access to information, help and advice across the complete range of Pas Reform products and services, including: - documents and procedures to guide a successful incubation programme, from the arrival and quality control of hatching eggs, to the placement of day old chicks - downloadable Academy publications, including incubation programmes, user manuals and installation guides, - access to real-time online collaboration and support, regardless of time or location. SmartPortal™complements Pas Reform’s phone and e-mail based customer support services - structuring information under three distinct headings for ease of use: Pas Reform Academy, Pas Reform Products and Pas Reform Company.
Zahidul Islam can be contacted at: Axon Limited H-54, R-15, Block-D Banani, Dhaka-1213 Bangladesh Tel. +880 2 881 9781, 8859710 Mobile: +880-171-546840 Fax +880 2 8859 711 E-mail bangladesh@pasreform. com
Mr. Moshiur Rahman, Managing Director of Paragon Group
Mr. Adel Sultan, Managing Director of Radwa Food Production, and Mr. Michaël Kampschöer, Sales Manager of Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies
Radwa Saudi Arabia doubles capacity with Smart incubation Radwa Food Production Company, a dominant player in the premium quality poultry segment in Saudi Arabia, and part of the innovative and diverse Aal Taher Group, has announced that it will extend hatchery operations to further strengthen and consolidate its share of the domestic market using Smart technology from Dutch supplier Pas Reform. Radwa is to double capacity up to 26 million birds per year, and work has begun on a new purpose-built complex that is being constructed alongside the company’s existing hatchery operations at Jeddah. The new Smart systems will come fully online by June 2006. Chicken meat consumption in Saudi Arabia stands at around 900,000 tonnes per annum, and with per capita consumption averaging 40 kilograms a year, Saudi consumption of chicken is among the highest in the world. Some 60 per cent of Saudi consumption is supplied by the domestic poultry sector, in which Radwa occupies a dominant position. Since 1982, the company’s success and reputation have been earned by providing premium quality foods to match the world’s highest standards. Trade customers consistently acknowledge Radwa as being responsible for setting standards in the Kingdom, in each of the three sectors in which it currently operates through its fresh, frozen and added value product ranges. ‘We have selected Pas Reform’s Smart incubation system, with the aim of improving day old chick uniformity, which is a prerequisite to optimum farm management and achieving the lowest possible feed conversion rates’, says Mr. Adel Sultan, Managing Director of Radwa Food Production. Pas Reform’s Smart incubation system has been designed specifically to meet this requirement, along with genetic advancement in modern breeds and the optimisation of post-hatch performance, as the three key challenges facing modern poultry producers. Key features of Smart technology include reduced heat-up time, increased cooling capacity, integrated heating and cooling, pre-heating, PID control combined with set points per incubator section, and Pas Reform’s Automated Hatching System (AHS™).
Besides delivering SmartSet™ setters, SmartHatch™ hatchers, SmartDrive™ incubator control systems and the SmartCenter™ hatchery information system, Pas Reform will also supply a complete line of Hatchery Automation Systems, to optimise chick quality and hatchery results. The systems are flexible, manageable and easy to clean. They only require a minimum of maintenance and will deliver the added benefits of lower costs and dramatic improvements in the working environment for Radwa’s hatchery personnel. Pas Reform sales manager, Mr. Michaël Kampschöer, is delighted with Radwa’s decision. ‘After working together for 25 years, Radwa’s selection of Smart hatchery technology heralds a whole new era in our very long-standing relationship, and we look forward to supporting the continuing growth and success of this committed and innovative company, as it strengthens its position in what is clearly a very dynamic and forward-looking market.’
Paragon Group Bangladesh signs for new Smart Incubation System Paragon Group has signed an agreement for the supply of Smart Incubators for its new state-of-the art hatchery in Bangladesh. The contract was signed by Mr. Moshiur Rahman, Managing Director of Paragon Group and Mr. Zahidul Islam from Axon Ltd, Pas Reform’s Representative in Bangladesh. Paragon Poultry Limited (PPL) in Gazipur, near the capital city of Dhaka, is a private limited company - and as a pioneer of modern commercial poultry production, one of the largest integrated poultry farms in the country. The new Smart incubators have been installed at Paragon Group’s new Grand Parent stock hatchery. Mr. Rahman comments: ‘We produce Hubbard breeders at the new hatchery -; and having studied the different options that were available to us in terms of equipment and support, we found that the new Smart machines from Pas Reform, combined with the company’s commitment to the Bangladeshi market, were front-runners in both these respects’.
Pas Reform delivered a tailored combination of SmartSet™ setters and SmartHatch™ hatchers to the project -; and the Dutch hatchery technology company has also designed the entire layout of the new facility, with a keen focus on Paragon Group’s future needs and expansion plans. ‘The new hatchery is the pinnacle of modern incubation in Bangladesh’, continues Mr. Rahman. ‘To provide optimum support for the embryonic development of modern breeds in the Bangladesh climate -; and indeed in any country which presents such challenging climatic conditions - an incubator must have sufficient water cooling capacity’. Modern breeds generate more metabolic heat now than in the past -; and detailed work to forecast future developments has enabled Pas Reform to calculate cooling capacities not only for today’s breeds, but also for their offspring twenty years from now. In SmartSet™, cooling capacity has been increased by 40 per cent - which, says Mr. Rahman, optimises results even in extreme Bangladeshi temperatures. ‘Choosing Smart helps us to overcome these challenges,’ he says, ‘and we significantly improved spread of hatch, which will certainly be appreciated by our customers, as it ensures the supply of even more uniform flocks’. Mr. Zahidul Islam, Pas Reform’s representative in Bangladesh, is delighted to have won his first new Smart contract. He says, ‘We have great optimism for development in the Bangladeshi market, and we are confident that the package we deliver -; a combination of the most innovative Incubators, Hatchery automation Systems and Hatchery Climate Control Systems, together with the support of dedicated Project Management and Hatchery Management Training Programmes from the Pas Reform Academy - will bring us more projects during the course of this year. ‘Our focus is on building successful partnerships for the future: understanding the challenges that face the Bangladeshi poultry industry - and using our ability to translate those challenges into market-specific solutions, for the long-term’.
Pas Reform sets standards for uniformity
Single stage incubation has big advantages for turkeys The demand for the single stage incubation of turkey eggs is being stimulated by a greater awareness of the growing variability between batches of eggs, which is determined by flock age and genetic background. Single-stage incubation has been shown to improve hatchability and chick-quality whatever the egg type, with the added advantage that after each incubation cycle, the incubators can be cleaned and thereby minimise the risks of spreading microbial contamination. In the multi-stage incubator, the climate is controlled to an ‘average’ to cope with the age of the different batches of embryos in the incubator, and fluctuates from day to day – which makes it difficult to support optimal, uniform embryonic development for all the embryos. Conversely, single stage incubation allows incubation conditions to be adjusted precisely to the requirements of the eggs and the embryos growing in them. However, to take full advantage of the benefits of single stage incubation, two conditions must be met. Firstly, we require knowledge of the specific conditions needed to best support and optimise turkey development, and secondly, incubators must be designed to provide a homogeneous climate among all the eggs in each section of the incubator. In the following paragraphs, we briefly review the scientific knowledge currently available regarding the embryonic development of turkey and the climatic conditions needed to produce day old poults of optimum vitality and the highest uniformity. The different phases of embryonic development The rate of development and the vitality of the poult depend on maternal age, while genetic selection influences important physiological systems. The development of a turkey embryo is a complex process that can roughly be divided into three phases: a phase of cell differentiation, growth and maturation. These phases are recognised through specific physiological details – and from empirical data, we know that different egg types need specific incubation protocols. Differentiation Embryonic differentiation is characterised by the initial formation of different tissues that will develop into the final organs during the growth and maturation phase. Cell differentiation starts in the female, when the single-cell oocyte divides many times, such that before incubation the embryo consists of about 10,000 cells. The freshly laid
turkey egg embryo consists of a plate of cells with a cluster of large cells in the centre. This cluster forms the area alba unique to the turkey embryo. The area alba disappears during the first hours of incubation. At this stage, the turkey embryo is at an earlier stage of development than the chicken embryo. The differentiation phase is further characterised by a ‘folding’ of the early embryo, the gastrula, to form a three dimensional structure in which premature structures of the head and heart can be recognized within 36 hours. Movement of cells mediates this folding process, whereby the cells in the early gastrula ‘travel’ from one side to the other. This process is highly temperature dependent. In the differentiation phase, not only do the embryonic structures develop, but also the extra-embryonic tissues such as the amnion and chorio-allantois, both essential structures for the optimum exchange of oxygen/carbon dioxide and the transport of nutrients from the yolk to the embryo.
Growth During differentiation the premature organs are formed and the basic body pattern is laid down. Relatively minor changes in the size of the embryo are seen in this phase of development. Embryonic growth is characterised by an increase in mass while the development of the organs continues. The shape of the organs and, finally, the embryo is determined by the rate of growth at a specific time in the different parts of the embryonic body. Temperatures below the optimum incubation temperature of 37.5-37.8 ºC (99.5-100 ºF) can result in disproportional growth: some embryonic cells and structures may grow while others do not, which can result in a malformed embryo. The increase in mass during the growth phase is the result of high metabolic activity and cell proliferation. The fuel for this activity is delivered by the nutrients from the egg and oxygen via the eggshell, with carbon dioxide and metabolic heat produced as by-products of embryonic metabolism. Growth rates decline when the porosity of the eggshell becomes a limiting factor in the supply of sufficient oxygen. This occurs earlier in eggs from older hens than from younger turkey flocks, because the growth rate of embryos from older flocks is higher. The growth rate - and thereby the length of the incubation period - depends mainly on temperature and is influenced by flock age and the length of the storage period. Turkey eggs generally hatch at 660-672 hours (27.5-28 days), depending on the breed. Maturation During the final phase of development, the embryo undergoes a series of events that enable it to survive outside the protective environment of the shell. The rate of metabolism stabilises and reaches the so-called ‘plateau
21 days A turkey embryo at 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation
phase’ at about the 25th day of incubation. At the plateau phase, the growth rate declines because the embryo needs more oxygen than the porosity of eggshell can deliver - and to be able to use yolk fat as an energy source, the availability of oxygen is essential. So at this phase, the embryo suffers from anaerobic conditions, and must depend on carbohydrates (sugars), for energy during the hatching period. The healthy turkey embryo accumulates glycogen in vital tissues like the heart and liver, to ensure survival during the energy demanding process of maturation and hatching. It has been suggested by Christensen and colleagues (1999) that lines selected for growth or egg production differ in glycogen metabolism and the accumulation of glycogen stores during the maturation phase. These line specific differences may explain the different responses of the genetic lines on varying incubator climates.
As a result of continuing growth worldwide, Pas Reform is delighted to introduce our new representatives in Venezuala, Central & Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, Spain, Pakistan, Portugal and Mexico.
Mr. Rafael Ignacio Orozco, Aviagro, C.A., Venezuela
Dr. Marek W. Pospiech,
Central and Eastern Europe
Mr. Iliya Marinov,
Ecomat Ltd., Bulgaria
Mr. Jaume Santaulària,
Maker Farms, S.L., Spain
Mr. Arif Malik, Pakistan
Mr. Manuel Silva,
Avisilva AS, Portugal
Mr. Ranulfo Ortiz,
Agroequip, S.A. de C.V., Mexico
Future focused incubation The modern hatchery faces three key challenges to future growth and profitability: genetic progress, uniformity and post hatch performance. Pas Reform has met these challenges in the development and design of SmartSet™ and SmartHatch™ incubation systems.
Different egg types The variability between egg types is determined by flock age and genetic background. In turkey, maternal age has a significant influence on egg composition . For example, eggs laid early in the production cycle have a lower yolk/albumen ratio compared to eggs laid by older flocks (reviewed by Applegate TJ. (2002), and embryos from older hens reach the plateau phase earlier than those from younger hens. Eggshell conductance increases with flock age, but does not change after the mid-lay period, which may explain the declined hatchability we see at mid- to late production. Embryonic growth in eggs from older hens is greater and results in higher hatching poult weights, as a proportion of egg weight compared to the poults from the younger flocks. Christensen et al. (2001) showed that both the length of the incubation period and hatchability are affected by the genetic background and maternal age of the breeder flocks. The hatchability of eggs from a line selected for body weight is significantly lower when compared to the hatchability of a line selected for egg production (Table 1). Selection for growth results in bigger eggs, while selection for increased egg production has no effect on egg size, as this is a selection trait. Genetic selection has also been shown to have an effect on the porosity of the egg shell. The water vapour conductance of the egg shell varies greatly between genetically different lines, and was shown to be greatest in egg producing strains. From this limited overview, we can conclude that batches of turkey eggs delivered at the hatchery vary with flock age and strain. The production of vital poults depends on whether the hatchery manager has the tools to optimise the climate conditions for each type. Incubation conditions Since the single stage incubator is filled at one time, it is important that the size of the incubator matches the number of eggs in the different batches – where a batch consists of a number of eggs from one flock and similar storage conditions. Incubators which enable climate conditions for each incubator section to be controlled separately are best adapted to the single stage incubation of small batches of different egg types. Fluctuations in market –demand for poults has direct consequences on the duration of storage for the eggs. Sometimes a longer storage period is unavoidable, and the negative effects of prolonged storage on hatchability and poult vitiality are well documented. Pre-storage incubation of 12 hr at 37.5 ºC (99.5 ºF) has been shown to improve the hatchability of turkey eggs, possibly because this treatment matures the turkey embryo to a point where it is more resistant to egg handling.
Temperature Setting the correct temperature programme at the incubator is the most important factor for successful singlestage incubation. It is also essential that all eggs set in the single-stage incubator are preheated to a homogeneous temperature, to encourage embryonic development to start simultaneously in each egg. Generally the set point of the incubator temperature is lowered as incubation progresses, since metabolic heat production, and thus the risk of overheating the embryo, increases as the embryo grows. To support optimum embryonic development, the temperature programme should follow a temperature pattern that is as close to ‘natural’ as possible, from 37.8 ºC (100 ºF) during the first two-thirds of incubation and increasing to about 38.1 ºC (100.6 ºF) during the final phase. Embryo temperature is represented by eggshell temperature, which can be used as the leading parameter for creating optimum temperature patterns. The storage of eggs affects hatchability and poult quality, and dictates that the incubation period must be increased by almost one hour for each day of storage over 6-7 days. Hatchability in turkey eggs stored for 15 days prior to setting improves if the incubator temperature during the first 7-14 days of incubation is increased ( Christensen and colleagues in 2003). French (1994) indicates an air temperature of 37.5 ºC (99.5 ºF) among the eggs as a reference for finding the optimum set point temperatures for the highest hatchability and poult vitality. However air temperature among the eggs should not exceed 38.1 ºC (100.6 ºF) at any point throughout the incubation period. Turkey embryos appear to be most sensitive to high temperatures (38.5 ºC=101.3 ºF) between the 7th and 12th day of incubation. It is also clear that some egg types need lower temperatures. Large eggs, for example, benefit from lower temperature set points. Temperature levels during the maturation and hatching phase of turkey embryos have a high impact on poult vitality. Higher incubator temperatures reduce the maturation of the digestive tract and thereby undermine
the newly hatched poult’s ability to digest the feed provided during the first days post-hatch. However it must be noted that reducing incubator temperature by 0.5 ºC, from 37.5 ºC (99.5 ºF; control) to 37.0 ºC (98.6 ºF) will increase the incubation period by 6-8 hours. Eggs produced by 33 week old hens hatch better when incubated at a temperature 37.5 ºC (99.5 ºF) and thus have a shorter incubation period, while eggs from 54 week old hens hatch better when incubated at the lower temperature of 37.0 ºC (98.6 ºF). For optimum hatchability and chick quality we have found - and therefore advise - that the average eggshell temperature follows a pattern within a range of 37.5/99.537.8/100.0 ºC/ ºF during the first two-thirds of incubation, and should never exceed 38.1/100.6 ºC/ ºF during the last days in the setter. It’s also important to remember that larger eggs are less tolerant to higher incubation temperatures. For optimum poult quality, fine-tuning to find the exact upper and lower temperature limits is recommended for each specific batch of eggs, which can be achieved by a systematic analysis of egg shell temperature. Humidity The humidity in the incubator controls the rate of water loss from the eggs. Water loss during incubation is reflected by the weight loss from initial egg weight. For normal hatchability and poult quality, water loss on the 25th day of incubation should be 10-12 per cent, but this can vary between strains and maternal ages. As with temperature, the humidity set point must be optimised for each breed and maternal age. For example, eggs from BUT hens early in lay can tolerate a lower than normal optimum water loss (910 per cent), whereas older flocks will tolerate higher levels of water loss Optimum weight loss is reflected in a good poult quality with a smooth belly and a high Pasgar©score . When too many poults have a large yolk sac and present a thick belly, it is advisable to lower the humidity set point.
Pas Reform is actively engaged in the poultry sector worldwide - and as such, we are regularly involved in exhibitions, symposia and events in many different countries.
Ventilation The growth phase of the turkey embryo begins at about day 12 and continues until day 24-25. The availability of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide is a prerequisite for normal growth and development in the embryo. As the embryo grows, more fresh air is needed to keep the level of carbon dioxide in the setter at about 0.3 per cent. Scientists from the University of California found that CO2 levels of 0.7 per cent depressed average seven day poult weight. Conclusion – From many available references, we can conclude that in turkey incubation the maternal age and genetic background have a significant impact on egg quality and therefore on the physiology of turkey embryos. – Single stage incubation enables the hatchery manager to match incubation conditions with specific egg types. – To achieve optimum uniformity and viability of poults, the hatchery manager must be provided with: – the tools to create egg type specific incubation programmes - an incubation system with sectional control capability. - Incubators that provide a pre-heating facility. - information on the origin and variability between the different egg types. – For optimum hatchability and turkey poult quality we have found – and therefore advise – that the eggshell temperature follows a pattern within a range of 37.5 - 37.8 ºC (99.5 - 100 ºF) during the first two-thirds of incubation and 37.8 - 38.1 ºC (100 - 100.6 ºF) during the last days in the setter. References available on request.
Practical Guidelines Setting turkey eggs – In general turkey eggs are placed 5-6 days after being produced; if stored longer the incubation period should be increased by 1hr per each additional day of storage. – In determining the time point of placing the eggs in the setter, the hatchery manager must take into account the breed, flock age and number of days in storage . – Preheating the eggs at 22 ºC for 10-12 hr to achieve a homogenous temperature before starting the incubation process is a prerequisite for a uniform and predictable hatch. – When the number of eggs within one batch of eggs is too small to fill the incubator, the hatchery manager has to incubate different batches in one incubator. In this respect, sectional control of temperature becomes an important tool to enable optimum incubation conditions to be created for each different batch. Each section operates at the optimum homogeneous incubation temperature for the egg types contained. Hatching turkey eggs – Automatic control of ventilation to a maximum level of 0.5% carbon dioxide results in optimum humidity levels in the hatcher. – In a turkey hatcher, a low air speed during hatching improves hatchability and poult quality. – When embryonic mortality is greatest during pipping and hatching, the climate conditions in the hatcher did not match the specific needs of the egg type incubated. – Poults must be pulled when the birds are visually ready for take off and not ‘on the clock’. The optimum time to pull poults out of the hatcher is when 90-95 per cent of the chicks are dry. The last 5-10 per cent of poults may be wet around the neck. When poults are collected earlier, too many poults will be classified as second class chicks, because they are not completely dry. – The optimum moment of chick pulling can be predicted if the time point of the start of incubation is carefully planned – which necessitates that batches of eggs should not be mixed.
Pas Reform Academy hosts Seminar in Bulgaria The Pas Reform Academy hosted a two-day training seminar for hatchery managers in Pleven, Bulgaria. The training was well attended by the whole of the Bulgarian hatchery industry, with delegates including representatives from Slaviana, Santal, Bovans Bulgaria, Bulagro, Popovo, Nikolov, Aves, Embryo and Gradus - all of whom welcomed the opportunity to share information and discuss the very latest hatchery management techniques. A comprehensive programme included lectures on health, hygiene, egg analysis, incubation programmes and chick quality on the first day, followed by practical sessions on day two to take a closer look at hatching egg analysis and chick quality. Mr. Iliya Marinov, Pas Reform’s representative in Bulgaria, says: ‘We welcome Pas Reform’s interest and input to the development of the Bulgarian hatchery industry. Feedback from delegates was extremely positive, as they lacked up-todate knowledge in this field - and it is a real asset for all of us to be able to evaluate these principles for our developing industry’. Speakers at the Bulgarian Academy included Martin Barten, Senior Hatchery Specialist, Dr. Marleen Boerjan, embryologist and Ir. Lotte van de Ven, Trainer. Hatchery Management Training is an integral part of Pas Reform’s approach to working in partnership - and ensures that hatchery personnel and management teams have access to the most current information, to boost efficiencies and productivity, and to make a lasting contribution to achieving commercial success.
Frequently asked questions
Dr. Marleen Boerjan, Embryologist, Pas Reform 101.0
Embryonic development is a continuous process that can roughly be divided into three different phases: (1) differentiation; (2) growth and (3) the maturation. Typically, differentiation of organs occurs in the first days of incubation. The growth and the maturation of the organs occur in the later phases of development. Each of these phases requires specific incubator conditions. As the embryo grows, its metabolic rate increases and this is accompanied by increased heat production. Consequently, the natural pattern of the embryo and eggshell temperature shows an increase towards the end of incubation. In the incubator we must differentiate between the temperature set point at which the incubator operates and the temperature of the air at the level of the eggs, which determines the temperature of the egg and embryo. At the start of incubation the embryo produces little heat and eggs must be warmed. This means that the air temperature must be higher than the egg temperature. As the embryo grows, metabolic heat production increases and to prevent overheating the air surrounding the eggs must be cooled such that heat is removed from the eggs. In figure 1, a typical incubation program for a broiler embryo is summarized. Figure 1. Summary of the relationship between average egg shell temperature (dotted lines: n=30 eggs) and the incubator set point (lines) in a commercial incubator. The red line represents an incubator temperature program resulting in an average egg shell temperature between days 5 and 10, which was lower than the desired egg shell temperature of 100 ºF. The average eggs shell temperature increased to the desired level when set point was adjusted by 0.2 ºF (green line). Advice For optimum development in the incubator, the eggshell temperature should be within a range of 37.6-37.9 ºC (99.7100.2 ºF) during the first two-thirds of incubation and 38.138.8 ºC (100.6-101.8 ºF) during the last days in the setter.
Distributor appointed in the Philippines Pas Reform announces further expansion to its worldwide network, with the appointment of Mr. Leo Eusebio of 7-L Agri Food Systems Enterprises to drive the company’s commercial activities in the Philippines.
Large end up
Small end up
A B C
97.6 0.0 97.6 96.9 3.0 93.9 100.0 2.0 98.0
79.5 3.6 75.9
Hatchability (%) Cull (%) Grade-A chicks (%) Hatchability (%) Cull (%) Grade-A chicks (%) Hatchability (%) Cull (%) Grade-A chicks (%)
71.8 4.3 67.5 84.0 4.0 80.0
The most critical factor in commercial incubation is the temperature that the developing embryo experiences.
Why incubator temperature differs from egg shell temperature
Incubation time (days)
Figure 1. Relationship between average egg shell temperature (dotted lines: n=30 eggs) and the incubator set point (lines) in a commercial incubator.
What are the effects of setting eggs with small ends up on hatchability and chick performance Background Eggs are incubated in setter trays for most of the incubation period. Three days before hatch, the eggs are transferred to hatcher baskets. In the setter trays the eggs are placed vertically with the air cell (large end) up, while the eggs lie horizontally during hatching. In normal development, the embryo begins to turn to its position along the long axis of the egg at day 14. At day 18, the beak is turned to the air cell and covered by the right wing. In this position the embryo can penetrate the inner cell membrane to gain access to the air in the air cell - after which breathing starts. This normal sequence of events is disturbed when the eggs are placed with the air cell down and the small end up. In this scenario, the embryo still turns along the long axis of the egg with the head up - but now, the head is positioned in the small end of the egg - away from the air cell. The embryo may die because the initiation of normal lung breathing is hampered or even blocked. Hatchability of eggs placed with small end up decreases from 12-30 per cent when compared to hatchability in eggs set large end up. However, once hatched from an egg set small end up, the performance of chicks is no different to that of chicks hatched from eggs placed large end up. In the table below, a summary of data collected from commercial hatcheries. Over 3,600 eggs were candled from each flock. The percentage of eggs placed small end up varied between 0.29-3.4 per cent, irrespective of the shape of the eggs.
7-L Agri Food Systems Enterprises was established in 2001, after its founder and proprietor Leonido (Leo) G. Eusebio resigned from Manila Machinery and Supply Co. Inc., a Sarmiento-owned company affiliated with the Vitarich corporation.
7-L Agri Food Systems Enterprises represents a long list of major, international equipment companies, which gives Mr. Eusebio the right infrastructure to support Pas Reform’s ambitions for growth in this part of the world. The company’s installation engineers and technicians will support Pas Reform’s aim to be
Reference: Bauer F., Tullet SG and Wilson HR (1990). Effects of setting eggs small end up on hatchability and posthatching performance of broilers.
Conclusions The incidence of eggs set upside-down is largely dictated by human error and not by the shape of the eggs. Great variation between trays in the number of eggs placed upside down was observed: some trays had none, while others had 10-12 eggs placed small end up. Hatchability of eggs set small end up decreased by 16 - 27.3 per cent. The frequency of non-viable chicks from eggs set small end up increases, but varies between different batches of eggs. A hatchery loses 0.2 per cent of sellable chicks for each 1 per cent of fertile eggs placed with the small end up in a setter tray (Bauer et al, 1990). Advice Check each batch of eggs for the incidence of eggs placed small end up (upside down). Register the number of eggs palced upside down on Pas Reform’s Hatchery Recording Form no. 2C (to receive your free copy of Pas Reform’s Hatchery Recording Forms, please complete and return the order form in the Library document Incubation Guide on www.pasreform.com). If the frequency of eggs placed upside down is unsatisfactory - investigate and remedy the reasons for misplacement of the eggs. If the eggs are routinely set in setter trays at the breeding farm, it is advisable to communicate the benefits (profit) of good placement and place responsibility for ensuring that eggs are place correctly with farm personnel. Breeder farm personnel should all be aware of the fact that the hatchery loses 0.2 per cent of sellable chicks for every 1 per cent of fertile eggs placed small end up in a setter tray.
close to its customers, and Mr. Eusebio and his company have strong working relationships with all the major poultry integrators in the Philippines.
How to gauge optimum Do hairline-cracked eggs influence hatchability timing for pulling day and chick performance? old chicks General principles The length of the incubation period is influenced by several factors: In general terms, the time needed to complete development from a day one embryo to a day old hatchling depends on the species. The chick embryo hatches after 21 days of incubation, while turkey and duck poults hatch after 28 days. However, within each species, the duration of incubation and thus the pulling time varies between different batches of eggs. Flock age is also an inherent factor in determining hatching time. Embryos from flocks younger than 30 weeks may need an additional 5-7 hours to complete development compared to older flocks. Incubation time increases again when flocks are older than 60 weeks. Storage of the eggs also has a major impact on the length of the incubation period, probably because the albumen and yolk undergo physical changes during storage -; and prolonged periods of storage are known to be damaging to the early embryo. When eggs have been stored for periods exceeding three days, one hour extra incubation time should be applied for every additional day of storage over three days. Incubation temperature is proven to be the most important external factor for determining the rate of embryonic development and growth. In turkeys, the hatching time increases by 6-8 hours, depending on breed and flock age, when the incubator temperature is decreased by 0.5 ºC. For chickens, the incubation period increases by 4 hours per 0.5 ºC decrease in temperature set point. However it is also important to note that when the incubator temperature is too high, in excess of 39 ºC (102.2 ºF) after day 16, the incubation period also increases. Advice Given the above information, it is clear that day old chicks should not be pulled ‘on the clock’, but rather when the chicks are visually ready for take off. To achieve the highest chick quality and most optimum spread of hatch, the time to pull chicks out of the hatcher is when 90-95 per cent of chicks are dry. The last 7-14 chicks per tray (5-10 per cent of the batch) may be wet around the neck. In addition, the optimum time can also be recognized by crushing the empty shells. When the shells are brittle and feel dry the chicks were pulled at the right time. When chicks are collected earlier, too many chicks will be classified as second class because they are not completely dry. When chicks are left too long in the hatcher, the risk of dehydration increases -; and with it, the risk of mortality in the first week. Furthermore, dehydration of chicks should be avoided at all times because this has clearly been shown to affect chickperformance at farm level.
Background In general, good quality eggs are selected and placed for incubation. This means that only clean eggs with shell intact should be placed on the setter trays. Dirty or floor eggs and eggs with visible cracks are removed and not placed. Eggs with hairline cracks might often not be recognised and will, consequently, be placed in the setter trays and incubated. In cracked eggs, the shell is broken and the underlying membrane is ruptured - leading to dehydration and the death of the embryo. However eggs with undamaged membranes but broken shells are defined as having hairline cracks - and these are often placed because unless candled, they look like good quality eggs. A research group from the University of Alberta has recently analysed the weight loss, embryonic mortality and hatchability of eggs with hairline cracks, with the following findings: Eggs from five commercial flocks of various strains were candled and an equal number of hairline-cracked and normal eggs were incubated for 21 days. Eggs were identified as having a hairline crack if the crack was visible by candling, but not apparent when examined normally. The results are summarised in the table. Conclusions 1. Setting eggs with hairline-cracks significantly reduces hatchability. 2. Chicks hatched from hairline-cracked eggs show a higher incidence of mortality during a 14 day growing period. 3. Egg weight loss during the setting period increases significantly in hairline-cracked eggs; consequently chicks hatched from hairline-cracked eggs are smaller. This, however, had no effect on day 14 weight. 4. Compared to good quality eggs, a significantly higher incidence of contaminated and broken eggs was found after incubation of hairline-cracked eggs. Advice
Good quality eggs
Hatchability (%) Eggs set 74.4 50.5 Fertile eggs 80.9 56.4
Significant (P < 0.05) Significant (P < 0.05)
Chick weight Weight (g) 45.0 43.5 Relative weight 69.9 67.5 (% of eggs set)
Significant (P<0.05) Significant (P < 0.05)
Growth performance D14 body weight 293.5 298.9 Mortality 2 7.5 Egg weight loss
Not significant Significant (P < 0.05)
In the setter (%) 13.4 17.02 Embryonic mortality (%)
Significant (P < 0.05)
Early (1-7d) 7.9 13.9 Mid (8-14d) 0.0 2.9 Late (15-21d) 4.6 15.5 Cull 5.3 6.2
Not significant Significant (P < 0.05) Significant (P < 0.05) Not significant
Contaminated or broken (%) 1.2 5.2
Significant (P < 0.05)
1. Hairline-cracked eggs should not be incubated. 2. candle egg samples from batches transported to the hatchery on a regular basis. 3. Register the number of eggs with hairline-cracks on Pas Reform’s Hatchery Recording Form no. 2C (to receive your free copy of Pas Reform’s Hatchery Recording Forms, please complete and return the order form in the Library document Incubation Guide on www.pasreform.com). 4. If the frequency of hairline-cracked eggs is unsatisfactory, investigate and eliminate possible causes. 5. Try to avoid the use of plastic trays with sharp edges for the transportation of eggs, as these are likely to be a major cause of hairline-cracks.
Reference: Barnet et al. (2004). Hatchability and Early Chick Growth potential of broiler breeder eggs with hairline cracks. J. Appl. Poult Res. 13:65-70.
7-L Agri Food Systems Enterprises will represent Pas Reform’s full range of products, including Smart incubators, hatchery automation systems and hatchery climate control systems – with the full backing of Pas Reform’s Sales, Project Management and Training facilities, the Pas Reform Academy, in the Netherlands.
Mr. Leo Eusebio can be contacted at:
‘Pas Reform has really emerged as a leader and innovator,’ says Mr. Eusebio. ‘and through my affiliation with KPI of Thailand, I have had lots of positive feedback about the Pas Reform equipment in the CP operations in Indonesia, where they have been using Smart equipment for some time now to deliver substantial improvements in hatchability, chick uniformity and post-hatch performance.’
7L Agri Food Systems Enterprises Mr. Leo Eusebio B19, L1-A, San Dionisio D88-1, Dasmariñas, Cavite The Philippines Telephone 00-63 46 853 0532 Fax 00-63 46 853 6106 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Frequently asked questions
Setting standards for uniformity
Day-old chicks with signs of Aspergillosis are infected by the spores of Aspergillus species, among which Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common. The spores of the fungus Aspergillus are like small, dry seeds that can easily be spread by draught or the wind. The spores are found in low numbers throughout the whole environment. Aspergillus spores survive and grow in a wide range of conditions, but especially on organic matter, like egg yolk, cardboard boxes and wood. Growth in the spores is initiated by conditions of high humidity and temperature (37-45 ºC). Cycles of high and low humidity optimise the growth of the fungus (mycelium) and the spread of its spores. The hatchery therefore offers the optimum environmental conditions for Aspergillus to thrive. Figure 1. Aspergillus infected eggs
What measures can be taken to keep the hatchery free of the fungus Aspergillus Background 1. What is Aspergillosis 2. In what ways does Aspergillosis enter the hatchery 3. How can I recognise Aspergillosis in the hatchery 1. What is Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a fungal infection of the respiratory tract in young birds, also commonly known as ‘brooder pneumonia’. In infected birds, the air sacs and lungs show white to yellow spots or lesions. Infected birds gasp for air and have accelerated breathing. Aspergillosis can also result in severe eye (and even brain) infection, which can appear as a yellow cheesy pellet beneath the eyelid. Increased mortality rates of 5 to 50% may occur within 21 days after the placement of diseased birds.
2. At what ways does Aspergillus enter the hatchery Aspergillus spores can enter the hatchery either directly via the eggs, or via incoming air. When the hatchery environment is contaminated by a high level of Aspergillus, the spores can easily enter the air handling unit and ventilation system. The climate, temperature and humidity in ventilation ducts is ideal for the propagation of Aspergillus, especially when organic matter (debris) has accumulated. The main route into the hatchery for Aspergillus spores however, is usually via contaminated eggs. Aspergillus spores attached to the shell find their way into the albumen and yolk via hairlines or cracks in the shell. The yolk of the egg is an ideal substrate for the growth of Aspergillus and once the spores have entered the eggs, the way to the hatchery is open. The nests also contain several sources of Aspergillus, including bedding, manure and feed. The nest eggs therefore become contaminated by contact with Aspergillus spores from these sources. Floor eggs also, of course, have a high risk of being heavily contaminated, when the spores enter the egg via hairline and other cracks. 3. How can I recognize Aspergillus in the hatchery Initially, infection by Aspergillus will be found during the routine analysis of unhatched eggs. Infected eggs show a visible mould on the air cell (figure 1). The risk of a serious bloom of Aspergillus is high when 0.5% of the hatching eggs show clear infection with a visible growth of the fungus. Also, the frequency of embryos dying at about day 16 is higher then expected.
Pas Reform expands into France
As part of a continuing international expansion programme Pas Reform has appointed Mr. Pierre Joris to develop its presence in the French, Belgian and selected francophone African markets for its innovative single-stage Smart incubation system. Mr. Joris is well-known in the
poultry sector, with a career that spans more than 30 years working at a senior level in sales and marketing roles in the America’s, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. ‘Pas Reform is a unique company, having held a preeminent position in incubation technology for more than 85 years’, says Joris, speaking about his new role for Pas Reform. ‘It is
Advice A. Prevention is of course the first line of action. To prevent Aspergillus infection in the hatchery, we recommend the following measures: • use Hatchery Recording Forms to ensure that the origin of eggs is traceable (to receive your free copy of Pas Reform’s Hatchery Recording Forms, please complete and return the order form in the Library document Incubation Guide on www.pasreform.com). • do not incubate floor eggs. • do not incubate cracked eggs or eggs with hairlines. • since Aspergillus thrives well on wooden surfaces, avoid wooden walls, ceilings or surfaces in the hatchery. • analyse unhatched eggs on a regular basis - and if infected eggs are found, take measures to trace the sources of Aspergillus (see B). • ensure your hatchery sanitation programme is fully maintained on a regular - ideally weekly - basis. If moulds are found, take immediate measures to clean the hatchery (see B). • ensure that your hatchery sanitation programme includes the cleaning and disinfection of ventilation ducts. • remember that hatchery equipment must be free of all organic matter before disinfection. It makes no sense to disinfect equipment, trays or boxes when debris remains stuck to the surfaces. B. Cleaning measures to ensure the hatchery is free of Aspergillus When Aspergillus contaminated eggs are found, the hatchery - including ventilation ducts - should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with an effective fungicide. If necessary, ask your supplier for advice on the most effective solution. In addition, it is important to trace and eliminate the source of the Aspergillus spores, the main source of which is usually found to be at the breeder farm in the (wooden) nestboxes, litter, cardboard boxes and wooden walls or ceilings. Remember that the spores of Aspergillus species are highly resistant to disinfection, so it is advisable to clean and disinfect the hatchery at the end of each day. Since the temperature and humidity of the hatchery environment stimulate the growth of the fungus Aspergillus, any spores that survive the first round of disinfection will continue to grow and can only be eliminated by repeating your programme of cleaning and disinfection regularly. References: Williams C., Aspergillus in the hatchery (Embrex publication).
a pioneering challenge to establish Pas Reform’s first formal presence in France, and I believe that the Smart incubation technology, combined with the comprehensive support of dedicated project management and technical guidance from the Pas Reform Academy creates an excellent platform for significant growth here.’
Pas Reform has enjoyed significant sales growth since the launch of its Smart singlestage incubation system last year, and is currently developing its international network to fully support rapid expansion in markets worldwide. The company’s president, Mr. Bart Aangenendt, welcomes Mr. Joris to a fast-growing team. ‘Pierre brings with him a wealth
New: SmartBasket™ Improved hatcher basket design delivers uniform air flow Genetic selection for high postnatal growth has produced modern broilers that demonstrate much higher metabolic heat production than embryos from traditional breeds. Controlling air temperature to prevent heat stress during incubation is therefore a critically important feature of modern hatchery practice. SmartBasket™ from Pas Reform has been designed specifically to optimise hatchability and uniformity, by delivering a constant air flow over the eggs in the hatcher, which improves the transfer of heat from the hatching eggs to the air. - New design! Unobstructed ventilation holes in corner and side wall structure assure uniform air flow in the hatcher, enhancing control of the hatching process for optimum chick viability. - With breed selection redefined to further improve egg production and growth rate, the basket’s side walls are higher and volume has been increased to accommodate bigger eggs and larger day old chicks. - New bottom design concentrates eggs in the centre of the basket – like a natural bird nest. The resulting contact between eggs enhances communication between hatching embryos, to effectively synchronise hatching and narrow the hatch window. - HACCP compliant: Lightweight, easy-clean, ‘food safe’ polyethylene minimises the risk of contamination by pathogens like Aspergillus fungi, Salmonella and
of experience in international sales and marketing in the poultry sector,’ he says, ‘and demonstrates a highly focused and service-oriented mentality which fits well with Pas Reform’s approach. ‘France is an important market, and one for which we believe our product portfolio is very well suited. With Pierre’s experience and knowledge, we look forward
Campylobacter. UV stabilized to prevent deterioration in sunlight, resistant to strong disinfectants and light grey for at-a-glance assurance of proper cleaning. - Suitable for conveyor transfers, automated stacking, highpressure washing and broad temperature changes thanks to material stiffness, dimensional stability and high impactresistance. Blind find bottom design means SmartBasket™ easily finds its secure locking position for fast, stable stacking. - Ergonomically designed lateral hand holds provide maximum grip, comfort and confidence during handling. - Designed with a smooth interior to enhance the welfare and protection of day old chicks. Small ribbons in basket floor prevent splayed-leg chickens. Extra side bars and specially adapted bottom design prevent any part of a dayold-chick from protruding through the crate, for extra security during handling. Technical specifications • Injection moulded from strong, resilient, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) • Dimensions (lxwxh) 790 x 560 x 140 mm • Weight 2495 grams • Resistant to strong disinfectants
to taking our place as a strong, strategic partner for the poultry sector here.’ Joris will represent Pas Reform’s full line of products, including Smart incubators, hatchery automation systems and hatchery climate control systems, and will have the full support of Pas Reform’s Sales, Project Management and Training facilities in Holland.
Pierre Joris can be contacted at: Pierre Joris Elstraat 1 3440 Zoutleeuw Belgium Telephone + 32 11 78 10 98 Mobile +32 477 307 636 E-mail email@example.com
Hatching time (h)
Parental age (wk)
The economics of a short hatch window In hatcheries all over the world, hatchery managers and owners place great importance on the uniformity and liveability of the chicks they produce. This is not without good reason – day-old flocks showing poor uniformity are impossible to manage properly, which will result in lower growth, increased feed conversion (FCR) and higher mortality rates. Flock uniformity is acknowledged as being highly dependent on the duration of the hatch window. As the spread of hatch increases, so too does the number of chicks that are feed deprived for a longer period before gaining free access to feed and water. Consequently, a large hatch window leads to more chicks being ‘left behind’, thus increasing variety in the size of the chicks. As poor uniformity in young birds is compounded during growth, this will lead to further problems during processing. Meat product uniformity is an important goal in the processing industry, because it allows for a more accurate food supply and cost prediction. Customers of processing plants precisely define the product specification of chicken portions and whole birds. These specifications can only be met by broilers of a particular bodyweight range. Consequently, birds which fall outside this so-called ‘prime size’ range are processed less efficiently and are, therefore, less desirable to processors. In this article, we discuss how uniform batches of chicks can be achieved by good hatchery management when combined with the right incubation technology – and we will see how hatch window sizes can greatly affect the economic success of hatcheries, farmers and processors.
decreases, so too does the internal temperature of the chick. Since small chicks have a higher surface:volume ratio, they lose more heat than large chicks. Consequently, small chicks may benefit from an environmental temperature that is 2 ºC higher than large chicks. Furthermore, air that is too cool will prevent chicks from getting adequate feed and water, because their response to getting cold is to huddle together to conserve warmth, which prevents them from getting to feeder lids and drinkers. Next to the development of the thermoregulatory system, the complete development of the digestive tract and immune system are equally essential. Maturation of the digestive and immune systems depends on the chick getting all the nutrients and antibodies provided in the yolk sac in its first few days of life, and after that, absorbing sufficient nutrient from feed. If chicks are unable to get enough feed and water, mortalities will occur. Thus, during the brooding period, the chick is highly dependent on its environment. Good management, especially during the first 48-72 hours of a chick’s life, is crucial to maximise performance and liveability. In order to realise optimum conditions for a maximum number of chicks, uniformity of day-olds is a prerequisite. Minimizing variation in chick size may furthermore reduce competition within the flock and thus decrease mortality, increase growth rate and improve uniformity by marketing weight when the birds enter the processing plant. Uniformity of day olds is, therefore, highly valued by the hatcheries’ customers, the farmers. Variation in the bodyweight of day olds at the moment of placement may be much higher than the variation of newly hatched chicks. The weight of chicks at placement is affected by their weight at hatch and the amount of time they are held in the hatcher, as chicks that have to wait in the incubator for prolonged periods suffer dehydration and weight loss. Recently, Careghi et al. (2005) calculated this loss to amount to more than 8% of initial weight in 24 hours.
Flock uniformity During the first week of life, when broilers are expected to grow three to five-fold, time without access to feed has a major impact on growth and feed conversion. In this period, several of the chick’s physiological systems are not yet matured. Among these is the thermoregulatory system, meaning that during the first days of their lives, newly hatched chicks have little or no ability to regulate their own body temperature. As environmental temperature
As part of its continuing expansion programme, Pas Reform has appointed its Italian Representative, Mr. Sergio Morelli from Avimpianti, to focus on market development for its innovative Smart incubation technology in Slovenia.
Consequently, a large hatch window leads to more chicks waiting in the incubator for chick collection, thus increasing variety in the size of the chicks. Over the past decade, numerous studies have shown that the effects on growth are visible up to slaughter age, by measuring differences in body weight at 42 days of age – when spread in terms of gaining access to feed and water was more than 24 hours. Managing the hatch window The duration of the hatch window depends on two key factors – firstly, that all the embryos in a batch are at an equal stage of their development at the start of incubation, and secondly, that all the eggs in one incubator at a time are developed at a uniform rate. The following is a summary of factors and recommendations known to affect the management of the hatch window. - Maternal age. Maternal age directly affects the rate of embryonic development. Embryos from ‘pubescent’ flocks (< 32 weeks) require longer incubation periods than embryo’s from ‘mature’ flocks (>32 weeks). It has been suggested that at the moment of oviposition, the eggs of the latter group contain embryos in a more advanced state that develop at a higher rate than those from younger flocks. Some studies even report a decrease in incubation time up to 10 hours between 28 and 32 weeks of parental age! (see Fig. 2. Data from Shanawany, 1984; Mather and Laughlin, 1979). It is, therefore, recommended that hatching eggs should be sorted according to parental age prior to incubation, as incubating eggs from parent flocks of different ages will inevitably lead to differences in hatching time and thus extend the hatch window. - Egg storage. Storage time prior to incubation is also known to influence the rate of embryonic development. In stored eggs, it is not only that the initiation of embryonic development is delayed, but also that the rate of development is slower. Recently, in a study from the University of Leuven (2003) it was found that embryos from Cobb eggs stored for 18 days required an additional 16 hours of incubation time compared to embryos from eggs stored for just three days – so confirming the old hatcheryman’s
on iati Var
Pas Reform expansion continues with new appointment for Slovenia
Figure 2: Embryos of young parent flocks require more incubation time.
‘The innovation and capabilities of Smart represent an excellent fit for the Slovenian market’, explains Mr. Morelli, ‘and we are delighted to have this opportunity to bring such a pioneering solution to this emerging market, while at the same time further expanding our long relationship with Pas Reform’.
Sergio Morelli can be contacted at: Avimpianti di Goffi N. Via E. Alessandrini, 71 S. Lorenzo in Noceto 47100 Forli (FC) Italy T +39 0543 488 427 F +39 0543 488 427 M +39 3484207645/+39 33655532 E firstname.lastname@example.org www.avimpia.it
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Embryonic mass (g)
Figure 4: Growth curve and the incubation pattern of the eggshell temperature for chicken in setter for optimum hatchability and uniform hatch.
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Incubation time (d)
- Homogeneous incubation temperature. To achieve a short spread of hatch requires an even start to the embryonic development of each egg inside the incubator, and homogenous temperature at the start of incubation for every egg is fundamental to uniform development. In this respect, it is important to realise that batches of eggs may require different times for heating up to incubation temperature, for example because of different storage or transport temperatures, or due to differences in egg size. Pre-heating the eggs for several hours to achieve a uniform start temperature (preferably between 21-25 ºC) reduces variations in temperature inside the eggs at the start of incubation, and will produce a more uniform start to the development of eggs in one machine, so reducing the spread of hatch. Next to a uniform start to embryonic development, it is of paramount importance that the embryos develop at an equal rate. For this to occur, a homogenous incubation temperature during the entire incubation cycle is fundamental, since temperature directly affects the rate of embryonic development. Between 37 ºC (98.6 ºF) and 38 ºC (100.4 ºF), normal embryonic development occurs – but the rate of development differs within this range. If temperature is not evenly distributed in the incubator, it is impossible for each egg placed to achieve a uniform temperature, and the embryos will grow at different rates – leading to differences in hatch time. As eggs incubated in multi-stage machines vary in embryonic age, the younger eggs in the incubator need to be heated up, while the eggs in later phases are at the same time producing heat that must be removed. The average eggshell temperature may vary from 37.5ºC for the youngest embryos to 39.5 ºC for the later embryonic stages (see Fig. 4).
Pas Reform appoints new representative for South Africa Pas Reform has appointed Mr. JanKees Sligcher as its distributor and representative in South Africa. Mr. Sligcher, who has a degree in Intensive Animal Husbandry, worked in the Middle East before settling in South Africa over 20 years ago, where he has built substantial
significant economic consequences in broiler production:
Hatched chicks (%)
rule of thumb, that ‘one day storage adds one hour to incubation time’ (see Fig. 3, Tona et al., 2003). Although storage does not directly affect the hatch window, incubating fresh and stored eggs in one incubator does increase the spread of hatch unambiguously! It is, therefore, not advisable to set eggs whose ages range as a result of varied storage times. Realise that storage begins at the moment of oviposition. The temperature inside the egg falls rapidly below the physiological zero – the minimum temperature above which embryonic development occurs. However, during the summer season or in hot climates temperatures in the breeder house may rise above this point. To prevent any form of development and to maximise uniformity in terms of the stage of embryonic development frequent collection of hatching eggs is recommended.
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Incubation duration (h) Storage 3 days Storage 18 days Figure 3: Distribution of hatch related to egg storage time.
Because the temperature in multi-stage incubators is operated at a fixed set point, temperature gradients are created at egg shell level in these machines and the spread of hatch will increase. Indeed, hatching chicks are sometimes spotted at the moment of transfer in multistage practice, indicating that hatch windows of 2-3 days are occurring. To achieve a uniform hatch, incubation temperature must be accurately controlled and homogenously distributed - so that each single embryo experiences the same incubation temperature. Homogenous temperature is, therefore, best achieved in a single-stage incubator, divided into separate units, each with its own climate control. During the first week of the single-stage incubation process, a temperature difference between trays of 0.2 ºF is acceptable, and this may tolerably increase to a difference of 0.5 ºF during the final week. Economics of a short hatch As we have seen, dehydrated chicks that are held in the hatcher for extended periods produce sub-optimal broiler performance in flocks, seen as higher (and thus worse) feed conversion ratios. It is probable that these dehydrated chicks account for differences in FCR that have shown up in comparative field studies around the world, to measure the efficiencies of multi- versus single-stage incubation. We have also seen that the effects of delayed feed uptake (> 24 hours) persist up to slaughter age, leading to higher proportion of birds that fall outside the desired weight, or ‘prime size’, range. We will see that these effects have
experience of climate control and poultry feeding systems in this marketplace. He is optimistic about Pas Reform’s future in South Africa. ‘I believe Pas Reform’s Smart technology, combined with the support of dedicated Project Management and Hatchery Management Training Programmes from the Pas Reform Academy, offers an excellent platform for significant growth here’.
JanKees Sligcher can be contacted at: Pas Reform Southern Africa 9, Sutherland Avenue Craighall Park, J’burg 2196 South Africa T +27 117 69 1318/9 F +27 117 88 22 89 E email@example.com
- Improved feed conversion. Every hour that a chick’s environment is less than optimal, its energy is used inefficiently and growth is reduced, resulting in increased feed conversion ratios. In optimised conditions, however, improvements of between 4-7 points FCR have been reported. Assuming the lower figure of four points improvement produces the following calculation: One incubator with a capacity of 115,200 eggs in single stage operation is used 17 times per year. Assuming a hatch of 85%, with 5% broiler mortality in the subsequent broiler growth phase, this single machine will produce 115,200 x 17 x 85% x 95% = 1.58 million broilers at slaughter weight ready for processing. If we assume slaughter weight of 2.2 kg, then four points of feed conversion improvement translates into 88g of feed saved per broiler. For an entire year, therefore, the feed saved by this incubator is 1.58 million x 88 g = 139,040 kg of feed per year. - Increase of chicks inside prime size range. As we have said, meat product uniformity is an important goal in the processing industry, because it allows for more efficient processing. Birds which fall outside the desired weight range, the so-called ‘prime size’ range, are, therefore, less valued by processors. As narrow hatch windows will lead to a more uniform end product, one can expect an increase in income as a direct result of an increased share of prime sized birds. In studies in Asia and Europe, differences between prime size category prices and outside category dressed birds are in the range of € 0.04/kg live weight. Assume that from 60% of the flock being in the prime size weight range, this percentage could be improved to 80%, then 20% of the birds could be sold at a premium of € 0.04 per kg. If we go back to the example of a large incubator of 115,200 eggs, and incubate at 85% hatchability and 95% liveability, the machine will produce 1.58 million day old chicks for the processing plant each year. 20% of 1.58 million therefore represents an increase in prime bird sizes with 0.2 x 1.58 million = 316,000 birds x 1.7 kg = 537,200 kg of prime size birds per year. Improvements produced by single stage incubation in terms of better feed conversion rates and higher percentages of prime size birds can, therefore, amount to a total difference on investment per machine per year of up to 139,040 kg of feed and 537,200 kg of prime size birds. In Europe this would translate to a feed saving of approximately € 30,000 per machine per year, and assuming the premium of € 0.04, an extra income for prime size birds of € 20,000 which mounts to a total amount of € 50,000 per year.
New representative for Thailand Mr. Somnuk Hophaisarn, Managing Director Goodspeed International Co. Ltd., Thailand
Concluding remarks In conclusion, a delay of more than 24 hours before first feed intake has been shown to depress weight gain up to slaughter age, and poor uniformity in day olds complicates farm management. The prediction of hatching time and minimising the spread of hatch are, therefore, crucial to the achievement of optimum results. It is accepted that temperature gradients in incubators lead to differences in embryonic developmental rate and, therefore, to their time of hatching. Hence, multi-stage incubation naturally produces larger hatch windows than single-stage incubation. And we have shown that by employing the single-stage incubation process, we can narrow the hatch window to produce significant economic benefits, expressed as improved feed conversion and higher percentages of prime sized birds at slaughter weight. These benefits are entirely significant to the economics of broiler production for meat processing. Next to optimising the uniformity of hatching eggs by sorting them on weight, factors such as parental age and storage time should also be taken into account, to homogenise embryonic development. In this respect, it is clear that single-stage incubation delivers measurable benefits in terms of productivity and profitability. By enabling greatly improved accuracy in terms of hatchery planning and forecasting, we can be assured of an even more uniform hatch. References available on request. - Flock uniformity: the percentage of birds whose weight falls within 10% of the flock’s average weight. - Hatch time: often referred to as the moment of chick collection. - Hatch Window: the time span during which a determined majority of chicks have hatched. - Prime size birds: the percentage of birds in the desired weight range.
Seminar attendees included representatives from Elshuis, Morsink, Munsterhuis, Pronk, Verbeek, Moonen & Wagemans, Hendrix Poultry Breeders, Hermans, Janssen Hatchery Service, Spoormans, TerHeerdt, Van de Broek, Cobroed, Van Hulst, Schotman and Lagerweij.
Pas Reform hosts seminars on the significance of chick uniformity Pas Reform recently hosted two lively discussions for the Dutch broiler and layer industry on the significance of chick uniformity. The seminars were held at Pas Reform’s Dutch headquarters in Zeddam, where the Hatchery technology company shared insights into meeting the key challenge of chick uniformity. High uniformity in day old chicks is one of the greatest challenges facing commercial hatcheries - and most highly prized, because it dramatically improves technical results at farm level, to achieve the lowest feed conversion and mortality rates, the fastest growth rates and excellent processing yield and egg production. The seminars were specifically created to help hatchery managers gain a fuller understanding of what impacts uniformity in day old chicks in a modern hatchery environment, with practical sessions covering the entire
Forklima to partner Pas Reform in Argentina
player in the Latin American hatchery sector.
facilities, the Pas Reform Academy, in the Netherlands.
Pas Reform has further expanded operations in Argentina, with the appointment of Mr. Carlos Pereira and Mr. Jose Solano of Forklima S.A., in an Agreement that further strengthens the Dutch hatchery technology company’s position as a key
Forklima will represent Pas Reform’s full range of products, including Smart incubators, hatchery automation systems and hatchery climate control systems – with the full backing of Pas Reform’s Project Management and Training
As a major supplier of poultry equipment in Argentina, Forklima’s blend of technical engineers and experienced poultry specialists represents an excellent fit with Pas Reform’s ethos and ambitions in the region. ‘We are very proud to
hatchery process, from the gathering of hatching eggs to the delivery of chicks to the farm. Often, achieving uniformity of broilers entering the processing plant is regarded as the broiler farmer’s job - and indeed, uniformity of broilers at slaughter weight can be greatly influenced by what happens on the farm. However, achieving uniformity of day old chicks is a key prerequisite to a uniform end product. Speakers included Bart Aangenendt, President of Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies, Martin Barten, Senior Hatchery Specialist, Lotte van de Ven, Trainer and Marleen Boerjan, Embryologist - who delivered sessions on Future Focused Incubation, Hatchery Practice, Hatchery Management and Uniformity. Bart Aangenendt stressed the need for a continuous commitment to meeting the challenges of high uniformity: ‘Maximizing chick uniformity is one of the most challenging requirements in today’s commercial poultry sector. The hatchery has a special obligation, as the impact of incubation conditions on the growing embryo and chick are fundamental to the growth performance and feed conversion ratios of modern broilers’. Hatchery Management Training is an integral part of Pas Reform’s approach to working in partnership - and ensures that hatchery personnel and management teams have access to the most current information, to boost efficiencies and productivity, and to make a lasting contribution to achieving commercial success.
include Forklima in our network of representatives,’ says Bart Aangenendt, president of the Dutch company. ‘Pas Reform has developed a string of new partnerships in Latin America in recent months - and with the addition of the Forklima team to our network in Argentina, we now have representation in every Latin American country’.
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Fortune chooses Smart for new GPS venture in Sri Lanka Fortune GP Farms, the new LKR 100 million venture recently launched by leading Sri Lankan integrators Bairaha Farms Ltd (BFL) and Midland Breeders in partnership with Hybro B.V. of the Netherlands, has selected Smart hatchery technology from Pas Reform, to establish the country’s most advanced Grand Parent Broiler Breeder Farm and hatchery operations to date. ‘We selected Pas Reform’s Smart incubation system primarily to improve day old chick uniformity, which is an important prerequisite to optimising the condition of the day old chicks’, says Mr. Yakooth Naleem, managing director of Fortune GP Farms. Pas Reform’s widely acclaimed Smart incubation system has been designed specifically to meet this requirement, along with meeting the challenges presented by genetic advancement in modern breeds and the optimisation of post-hatch performance. Fortune GP Farms has been set up in a remote 100-acre site off Dambulla, with its state-of-the-art hatchery located in a separate, 10-acre plot. The new venture is capable of producing 70 percent of the local poultry sector’s parent stock requirements, which until the launch of Fortune GP Farms have had to be imported.
Rapid, real-time evaluation of incubator performance with SmartDrive’s™
Performance testing tool When a simple, unidentified equipment failure could cost the lives of millions of chicks within hours – it makes sense to have a comprehensive, reliable system in place, to minimise any ill effects as quickly as possible. SmartDrive’s Performance testing tool contributes to achieving operational reliability, greater productivity and increased uptime. It allows hatchery personnel to quickly assess incubator performance - and may be used to run a performance check on your setters and hatchers before starting a new incubation cycle. Information shown by this module allows you to quickly find and eliminate performance bottlenecks, to ensure that hatchery operations run smoothly and without interruption. All major incubator systems can be checked simultaneously or per incubator section – enabling the operator to view in real time whether heating, cooling, ventilation and humidification of the incubator (sections) are performing as they should be.
‘The availability of locally hatched broiler breeder parents will produce significant savings for local poultry farmers,’ explained Mr. Naleem, ‘as this negates the need to pay import duty, L/C charges or customs levies - and at the same time, avoids the hassles attached to clearing live cargo from customs.
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Pas Reform’s experienced project management team has worked in partnership with Fortune to install SmartSet™ setters, SmartHatch™ hatchers, the SmartDrive™ incubator control system and the SmartCenter™ hatchery management information system. The Dutch hatchery technology company also delivered the complete hatchery ventilation system.
‘Working with Pas Reform has been a pleasure’, concluded Mr. Naleem. ‘From start to finish, their project team listened carefully to our requirements to deliver the planning and installation on time and in budget.’
‘Our chicks will also quite naturally be in much better condition when supplied,’ he continued, ‘because they will travel much shorter, domestic distances and spend less time in transit than imported livestock.’
Activate the Status screen of SmartDrive™
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Once the Status screen of SmartDrive™ has been activated the ‘wrench’ button is used to switch on SmartDrive’s™ Performance testing module. Press the ‘wrench’ button. The module is now activated.
Successively press the cooling (see example screen), heating, pulsator and humidifier buttons to evaluate cooling, heating, ventilation and humidification performance of the incubator.
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This, explains Aangenendt, is of paramount importance to Pas Reform’s mid-to-long term strategies, as poultry production in Argentina is poised for rapid growth, due to highly competitive production costs. Forklima’s Mr. Jose Solano says: ‘Over the past few years, Pas Reform has emerged as the
leading innovator in incubation systems, with an approach focused on chick uniformity. ‘We are delighted to be joining what is clearly an experienced, dynamic and ambitious team, with a complete understanding of the needs of the poultry industry at every level.’
Mr. Carlos Pereira concludes: ‘This new Agreement is a natural fit with Forklima’s experience and activities in poultry equipment – and one that places world-class hatchery technologies in our portfolio. ‘The success of Smart in delivering improved hatchability, uniformity and
post-hatch performance is already opening up many new opportunities for Forklima. We don’t expect it to be long before we repeat the successes being achieved with the largest broiler integrators in Europe, Asia and Latin America, right here in Argentina’.
97.0 Mr. Carlos98.0 Pereira and Mr. Jose 4 be Solano of Forklima3can contacted at: 93.2
1 2 Av. Gral. Paz 13.713 –(1752) Villa Insuperable Pcia. De Buenos Aires Republica Argentina firstname.lastname@example.org Tel/fax +54 (0) 11 4655 1960 or +54 (011) 4652 6931
Pas Reform: setting standards for uniformity worldwide
Tunesia / Algeria / Libya Poultry World Mailing address: B.P. 70 M.B.A. SFAX 3031 Tunesia Contact details: T +216 74 237999 F +216 74 215205 E email@example.com
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Nigeria Terudee Farms Nigeria Ltd.
Mailing address: Cimen Sok. No. 64 ELMADAG - ISTANBUL 80230 Turkey
Visiting address: Idi Omo Village Km. 15 New Ife Road AGODI - IBADAN
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Spain Maker Farms, S.L.
United States of America Davian Inc.
Visiting/mailing address: Av. Alba Rosa, 55-57 OLOT 17800 Spain
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Contact details: T +63 46 853 0532 F +63 46 853 6106 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact details: T +-34 972 261260 F +-34 972 270661 E email@example.com
Contact details: T +1 860 841 7628 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Poland Schrader Sp.zo.o
Sri Lanka Weightronics Levli (Pvt) Ltd
Visiting/mailing address: Chylice ul. Piaskowa 12E KONSTANCIN - JEZ. 05-510 Poland
Visiting/mailing address: No. 14, Balahenamulla Lane COLOMBO 6 Sri Lanka
Contact details: T +48 22 750 0028 F +48 22 754 1804 E email@example.com
Contact details: T +94 115 525 020 F +94 115 525 669 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Portugal Avisilva AS
Sudan Coral Co.
Visiting/mailing address: Estrada Velha da Avessada, 5 Apartado 101 MALVEIRA 2669-909 Portugal
Visiting address: New Extension Aiamarat Street No. 17 KHARTOUM
Philippines 7L Agri Food Systems Ent. Visiting/mailing address: B19, L1-A, San Dionisio, DBB-1 Dasmariñas CAVITE Philippines
Contact details: T +351 219 663 700 F +351 219 663 709 E email@example.com Rumania Sembodja Romania s.r.l. Visiting/mailing address: Iancu de Hunedoara Nr. 2 B1, H6, Sc. 1, Et 1, Ap. 1 SECTOR 1 BUCHAREST Rumania Contact details: T +40 21 3174565 F +40 21 3113294 E firstname.lastname@example.org Russia Pas Reform Russia Visiting/mailing address: Korolevastreet 2A Office 510 BELGOROD 308033 Russia
Mailing address: P.O. Box 1899 KHARTOUM Sudan Contact details: T +249 183 469249 F +249 183 469248 E email@example.com Syria ACMAVED
Switzerland Globogal AG Visiting address: Tannlihag 5 LENZBURG CH-5600
Thailand Goodspeed International Co., Ltd. Visiting/mailing address: 825/253 Moo.1 Pracha-u-thid Rd Thungkru BANGKOK 10140 Thailand
Contact details: T +31 26 354 1270 F +31 26 442 7345 E firstname.lastname@example.org Peja Vietnam
Contact details: T +84 88293503 F +84 88251021 E email@example.com Yemen Republic Hadwan Agri. & Poultry Est. Visiting address: 60W Str.Front of Azal Hospital Behind AlShark Resturant SANA’A Mailing address: P.O. Box 25125 SANA’A Yemen Republic Contact details: T +967 1 215 127 F +967 1 211 609 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Im- Ex Window Co., Ltd. Visiting address: 1960 Mu 2, Soi Santikam 15 Sukumvit 107 Road, Ampor Mueng SAMUTPRAKAN 10270
Mailing address: 1960 MU 2, Soi Santikam 15 Sukumvit 107 Road, Samrong Nua SAMUTPRAKAN 10270 Thailand
Contact details: T +381 21 461 170 F +381 21 464 113 E email@example.com
Mailing address: Postbus 117 6800 AC ARNHEM the Netherlands
Contact details: T +66 2 873 6800 F +66 2 873 4901 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact details: T +7 095 7413403 F +7 095 6763681 E email@example.com
Visiting/mailing address: Gavrila Principa 53 SREMSKA KAMENICA 21208 Serbia
Visiting address: Van Oldenbarneveldstraat 85 6828 ZN ARNHEM
Mailing address: Me Linh Point Tower 8th floor - Unit 806 HO CHI MINH CITY Vietnam
Contact details: T +41 627 69 69 69 F +41 627 69 69 70 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Visiting/mailing address: Rogozhsky Val Str. 7/1, Block 1 Moscow 109544 Russia
Vietnam Peja (S.E.A.) B.V.
Contact details: T +963 11 5420228 F +963 11 5428336 E email@example.com
Peja International B.V.
Contact details: T +58 241 617 0216 F +58 241 835 6879 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Visiting address: 02 Ngo Duc Ke St. - Dist. 1 MeLinhPointTower8floor-Unit 806 HO CHI MINH CITY
Mailing address: Postfach 5847 LENZBURG CH 5600 Schweiz
Contact details: T +7 095 980 09 74 F +7 095 980 09 75 E email@example.com
Visiting/mailing address: Sector el Prado, Entre el distrib. Aranzazu y los Caobos VALENCIA, ESTADO DE CARABOBO Venezuela
Mailing address: P.O. Box 5441 DAMASCUS Syria
Contact details: T +7 4722 52 84 26 F +7 4722 52 81 79 E firstname.lastname@example.org
Visiting/mailing address: Mytnaya Street Office 34, House 3 MOSCOW 119049 Russia
Venezuela Aviagro, C.A. Autopista de Valencia-Tocuyito
Contact details: T +66 2 3989306-8 F +66 2 3989310 E email@example.com
Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies