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9/23/2012

Scientific & Technological Innovation Partnerships for Clean Energy Development Suresh V. Garimella Goodson Distinguished Professor Associate Vice President for Engagement Purdue University Innovation, Science and Technology for Energy Efficient Development of Central America ECPA/Organization of American States Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica 10 September, 2012

Contacto: ECPA Clearinghouse Email: ecpa_clearinghouse@oas.org

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9/23/2012

Costa Rica’s Bright Energy Picture

Per Capita  Consumption

Source:  USAID/Nexant report, Aug 27, 2010

Costa Rica’s Bright Energy Picture

Line Losses (%), 2008

Electrification Rate (% of Total Population), 2006

Source:  USAID/Nexant report, Aug 27, 2010

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9/23/2012

Costa Rica’s Energy Mix

Global Emissions

WP Conclusion: While populations of China and India dwarf  that of the U.S., the carbon emitted by an American far  outweighs the emissions generated by the average Chinese  or Indian. Washington Post 12/10/10

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9/23/2012

per capita Numbers

o WP graphic (December 2010) uses 2007 numbers o 2009 numbers for U.S. fell to 4.82 and China rose to 1.59 

– the ratio decreased from 3.84 to 3 in two years!

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9/23/2012

% of households with electricity

per capita Emissions Track  Energy Access 100 80 60 Circle size proportional to CO2 emissions

40 20 0 0

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

50,000

GDP per capita in 2005 US$ at PPP

Saturation in electrification reached early in GDP growth, but emissions  keep rising past this point

L Monari, World Bank

Energy Shortages

energyshortage.org

Africa and South Asia (13% and 33% downtime) have  the highest frequency and duration of outages

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9/23/2012

Sub‐national Water Availability: 2003 Water Availability: 2025 Water Availability: 2000 Water Availability: 1975

Coca Cola

m3/person/year

Extreme Scarcity Scarcity Stress Adequate Abundant Surplus <500 500‐1,000 1,000‐1,700 1,700‐4,000 4,000‐10,000 >10,000

No Data Ocean/ Inland Water

Climate Change a Multiplier for Instability Source:  UK Government, 2007

Water Scarcity

Demography

Crop Decline

Hunger

Coastal Risks

Recent Conflicts

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9/23/2012

History of Energy Use Renewables Nuclear

100%

Percentage of U.S. Energy Consumption

90%

Natural Gas

80% 70%

50%

Coal 40%

Wood

?

75%

Oil

60%

75%

75%

30%

Hydro

20% 10% 0% 1850

1870

1890

50 years

1910

1930

1950

1970

50 years

1990

2010

50 years

Sources:  EIA, Annual Energy Review: 2008 and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook: 2009 with Recovery Act Update 13 | U.S. Department of Energy

energy.gov

Example of Denmark: Energy System of the Future

www.klimakommissionen.dk

• Fossil‐free by 2050 – energy security from renewables • Reducing GHG emissions by 80% from 1990 levels, even  as energy demand doubles

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The Greening of Denmark o Electricity’s share in energy supply  o o o o o o

20% → 40‐70% Offshore wind 3150 → 10,000 MW  (more transnational cables) Mostly EVs using 1/3 of today’s  energy Large vehicles on biofuels Wave power; biomass; solar PV Home heating (storage) with DH 50% energy‐use reductions in  heating, appliances, transport,  industry and ag

The Greening of Denmark o Links with neighbors and smart  o o o o

grids to address intermittency Biomass‐fired CHP plants for  backup NO nuclear energy Tax policy, legislation and research Cost of conversion by 2050  negligible (as energy needs  double)

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Proposed Change in Energy Mix

Complex whole‐ of‐government  approach

Heavy reliance  on export‐ import balance

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9/23/2012

Overall Fuel Conversion Efficiency

National Academies Report, 2010

Evolution of Lighting Technologies

Luminous Efficiency (lm/W)

200 LED

High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps

150

High-Pressure Sodium

Metal Halide

100

Fluorescent Induction Lighting

Plasma

Mercury Vapor

50 Incandescent

Shaped Reflectors Tungsten-Halogen

0 1920

Conventional Incandescent

1940

1960

Year

1980

2000

2020

EPRI, 2011

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Need for Energy Efficiency in Electronics 1.0

1.6 bn internet users

0.8 0.6

635 W for 58 inch TV 100 W for old displays

CO2 emissions as percent of  world total

0.2 Data centers

Airlines

Shipyards Steel plants 340

142

146

178

80

80

A Chicago data center  for Microsoft is 17  football fields in size

Megatons of  CO2 emissions  per year

2007 McKinsey Report, 2009

2020

Data Centers

Available Options

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9/23/2012

Challenges with Renewables o Energy density (except for nuclear) o Intermittency and variability (storage) o Grid integration and distribution o Scalability o Siting and land‐use o Ecological effects o Complexity o Cost

PURDUE’S DISCOVERY PARK IS:

Purdue’s hub for interdisciplinary and translational research, conceived  as a place where scholars from all disciplines could work together to  define whole new areas of research and solve grand challenges. 

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 Bindley Bioscience Center  Birck Nanotechnology Center  Burton D. Morgan Center for Entrepreneurship

 Discovery Learning Research Center  Global Sustainability at Purdue  Center for the Environment  Energy Center  Purdue Climate Change Research Center  Center for Global Food Security  Water Community

 ACCESS: Advanced Computational

Burton D. Morgan Center for Entrepreneurship

Birck Nanotechnology Center

Bindley Bioscience Center

Center for Engineering and Sciences  Cyber Center  Rosen Center for Advanced Computing (ITaP)

 Oncological Sciences Center  Regenstrief Center for Healthcare

Gerald D. and Edna E. Mann Hall

Hall for Discovery and Learning Research

Engineering

SEEDING AND NURTURING STARTUP COMPANIES 9 8

# of Companies

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

26

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9/23/2012

Large Energy Programs Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

Network for Photovoltaic Technology

Hoosier Heavy Hybrid Center of Excellence

Center for Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels

Cutting‐Edge Energy Projects Solar thin film cells from nanocrystals ink using earth abundant materials

Cellulose + Carrier Gas (H2)

H2+O2 igniter

Nano-glass fiber thermoelectric that can be folded and to generate electricity from waste heat

Robust distributed wind power engineering to improve reliability To vent

~ 65 cm To condensers Rocket Reactor for converting efficiently biomass into useful bioproducts

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9/23/2012

George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake  Engineering Simulation

I‐10 Los Angeles, 1994 Northridge CA  

Miyako City, 2011 Iwate Prefecture 

Accelerate improvements in seismic design and performance of the  infrastructure by supporting efforts of NEES users to:  (a) improve performance‐based design procedures, evaluation methods &  strengthening techniques  (b) develop the next generation of researchers, educators, and engineers

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Oregon State University

University of Illinois- Urbana

University of Minnesota

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

University of Buffalo

University of California Davis Lehigh University

University of California Santa Barbara

University of California Berkeley University of California Los Angeles Cornell University University of Texas Austin

University of Nevada Reno

University of California San Diego

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9/23/2012

nanoHUB – a Collaboration Platform $33M NSF‐funded Center Headquartered at Purdue Network of other Universities: • UC Berkeley • Northwestern Univ • Univ Illinois Urbana‐Champaign • Norfolk State Univ • Univ Texas El Paso

Mission: Support the National Nanotechnology Initiative by creating, deploying, and operating http://nanoHUB.org, a cyber‐resource for theory, modeling and simulation. Worldwide audience of 230,000 users from 172 countries

Goals of Colombia Engagement To work with the Colombian universities, government and  industries for a partnership in focus areas at a scale that  leads to significant impact with a financially sustainable  model  o To have a significant impact on S &T capacity in Colombia • Training critical mass of pre‐doc, doc, postdocs in focus areas • Improve collaboration between Purdue and Colombian faculty in  focus areas by  pre‐doc, doc, postdoc, nanohub training

o To have significant Economic & Social impact in Colombia

• Strong focus on tech commercialization, industry partnerships • Service learning, engineering education, EPICS partnerships o To have impact in Indiana and Purdue • Connect Colombian companies to Indiana business and policy  makers

• Bolster our research enterprise http://engineering.purdue.edu/cpiasr

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9/23/2012

Colombia‐Purdue Institute for Advanced Scientific Research

Focus areas …

Nanotechnology • Forest products nanotechnology • Nanomaterials for energy applications • Bionanotechnology • Advanced materials and electronics

Paths…

Biotechnology • Biofuels/cellulosic biofuel technology • Biocatalysis and biopharmaceuticals • Sustainable, value added bioproducts • Sensors for environmental and  biodiversity monitoring

Engagement with the Colombian scientific community o NSF‐Colciencias annual scientific workshops

on focus areas o Develop collaborative projects of technical

and economic interest to Colombia o Provide nanoHUB and HUBzero technology

training to exploit cyber‐infrastructure to enhance scientific collaboration and improve visibility and impact of Colombian scientists. o Develop engagement opportunities with Colombian entrepreneurs, academia, and community organizations for Colombian students trained at Purdue University

Impact…

Sustainability  & engineering  against the threat of natural  disasters • Clean coal technology • Water resources engineering • Earthquake engineering

Educational frontiers  research o Tailored Doctoral Programs will train  • Service learning ~100 Colombian PhD students in key  • International (EPICS)  strategic focus areas in the next 4  combining University  years. faculty and students to  o Research internship for Colombian  work with community  junior investigators (Post Bachelor) organizations in less  o Entrepreneurial training to enhance  developed regions on  economic impact through  science and technology  commercialization. o Post‐doctoral training projects

Training a new generation of  researchers

o Community projects o Business seminar series

• Rapidly form Colombian entrepreneurs and researchers in focus areas • Discover high value sustainable products while maintaining biodiversity in Colombia • Enhance technology commercialization as economic growth engine 

Thanks for your attention…

sureshg@purdue.edu

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Scientific and Technological Innovation for Partnerships for Clean Energy Development  

ECPA Fellow Suresh Garimella speaks in Costa RIca, August 2012.

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