Concept to Delivery
DESIGN, BUILD, AND MAINTAIN
in the Landscape
Designing for a Resilient Landscape
Boogertman + Partners & African Environmental Design
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DESIGN, BUILD, AND MAINTAIN
Welcome to our March edition of Pro Landscaper Africa. use and sustainability, Marijke Honig speaks to us about Designing with Water in Mind (2-part series) and Tamsin Faragher explores through various projects, ‘Designing with Water.”
elcome to the March edition of Pro Landscaper Africa. We have approached this month with the rather pertinent theme of Water with the exploration of a rather pertinent theme, Water in the Landscape.. It is a thoughtful topic and one which we will be seeing quite a bit of this year through various associations congresses and association awards, highlighting our precious resource. Our March issue is jam packed, with some fantastic feature writers, projects, products and interviews that capture the idea of water in the landscape. Rand Water’s Leslie Hoy addresses Amenity landscapes in South Africa, with focus on water Pro Landscapes January 2019 Quater Ad.pdf
The interview this month is with the Johannesburg based Regen 50. Pro Landscaper catches up with Calayde Davey and PG Smit to find out more about their multidisciplinary practice, which can be described as a thinktank for responsible urban development! We look at the following developments in our portfolio section; The MARC, Alexandra Park, The award-winning Hilton Quarry and the rather water conscious Paterson Park. If you are interested in reading up on water management products, then our product section is filled with new and exciting products, aimed at bettering our water use. Our nurture section highlights planting palettes for indigenous and Water Wise gardens, it looks at Water Smart gardening with Trees and Large Shrubs and visit’s a Cape Town home designed by ENRICH Garden 1
Design Studio- where we are taken through an essential indigenous, Water Wise garden. We conclude this awesome issue with a book review by Wallace Honiball of GREENinc, who reviews a new release by DR. Julian Raxworthy, aptly titled: OVERGROWN: Practices Between Landscape Architecture & Gardening. We are so looking forward to the months ahead and to taking on exciting topics and projects. This is a platform for the industry, so If you have any exciting projects, products or want to get involved, please do not hesitate to contact us. Enjoy the read.
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News Update & Association News Industry news from around South Africa
The Oasis of Sanctuary - by SALI Trophy of Excellence winner, JPJ Landscapes
Landscape Architects Journal Habitat Landscape Architects: The Kwelera National Botanical Garden
Paterson Park- by Newtown Landscape Architects, KH Landscape Architects & Chris Brooker
Products Inspiring products dedicated to water management
Amenity landscapes in South Africa - water use and NURTURE sustainability By Leslie Hoy
Designing with Water in Mind: What Is Your Project Water Budget? by Marijke Honig
Plant Palettes for Water Wise/ Indigenous Gardens
Designing with Water By Tamsin Faragher
Water Smart Gardening with Trees and Large Shrubs Written by Trees SA’ s Suzanne-Francoise Rossouw-Moss
The Interview 30 Minutes with: Regen 50
Designer Plants Adrian Geary of ENRICH Garden Design Studio’s, creates an essential indigenous, Water Wise garden in Cape Town
Book Club GREENinc’s Wallace Honiball reviews OVERGROWN: Practices Between Landscape Architecture & Gardening, a book by Dr. Julian Raxworthy
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PORTFOLIOS 30-33 The MARC by Boogertman + Partners, African Environmental Design and Life Landscapes 34-38 Alexandra Park by Iyer
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NEWS Corobrik’s Landscape Architecture Award winner re-imagines traditional village setting
The traditional village settlements in South Africa’s North West province are battling to adapt to the current realities of land ownership, resulting in permanent settlements rather than the traditional migratory settlement patterns. This is further exacerbated by population increase and global warming, proving to be a problem for subsistence farmers. In an attempt to address this, University of Cape Town (UCT) landscape architecture student, Lesego Bantsheng, focused her award-winning thesis on finding a strategy to re-envision these traditional settlements by looking at how the communities in these areas relate to shared communal space. Entitled ‘PULA! A ENE: ‘RAIN! LET IT RAIN - Occupying Land in Restituted Barolong Homelands’, the thesis earned her Corobrik’s Most Innovative Final Year Landscape Architecture Award for 2018. For this particular project Lesego took the decision to present a strategy rather than the traditional architectural landscape design. She looked at the story of the Barolong Boo Rra Tshidi clan of the Tswana tribe who have settled in Makgobistad - a large village in the northern part of the North West province. “I realised that a lot of people don’t know what to do about the existing rural areas,” explained Lesego. “Most of these areas have reached maximum capacity and the idea of rural to urban migration is not completely correct. There is a migration but it’s between the two
areas, people are returning to rural areas.” With this in mind, Lesego considered the rural village pattern, traditional farming, community structure, and interaction with public spaces. This informed a strategy that embraces both traditional constructs and contemporary environmental land management practices. The first element to address was water, particularly as this is becoming such a scarce resource. She proposed designing water retention systems and ways to replenish aquifers. She then looked at the current lekgotla system where village leaders discuss matters and suggested communities nominate individuals for leadership roles to ensure that open communication between different settlements continues. She finally looked at the use of space. Where people residing in towns and cities might require a park for relaxation, the need in these traditional areas is more pastoral: “The suggested model is rather larger yards for individuals where farming can take place and water can be harvested.”
The site analysed is located on a golf course adjacent to the confluence of the Black and Liesbeek river in Observatory, Cape Town. “My dissertation topic and site choice were influenced by navigational routes used by these societies to interact with the land. Today, this site is under threat of development which I believe is inappropriate considering its ecological and historical value.” Corobrik’s Director of Sales, Allin Dangers, said: “This award serves to highlight the innovative solutions, emanating from South African students, for modern society. We are also impressed with the creative incorporation of Corobrik’s clay pavers into these landscaping designs as they show, quite clearly, the dynamic aspect of our paver range varying in colour and size.” Dangers said that, as a natural resource, the colour ranges of the clay reflected the region from which they are sourced: “This reinforces the particular character of both the urban and rural settlements through the selection of the appropriate clay bricks and pavers.”
Commenting on her thesis, Lesego said: “It was an innovative process and I believe the result was innovative. I didn’t expect to win but am very grateful for the guidance of my supervisor, Tarna Klitzner as well as my lecturer, Julian Raxworthy.” All graduating students in the UCT Master of Landscape Architecture programme are eligible for the annual award. Lesego was awarded the R6 000 top prize with Mapula Maponya taking home the R4 000 second-place prize for her thesis, entitled ‘The Revelatory Landscape: Archiving Memory Through Indigenous Narrative and Cosmology’. Maponya also looked at traditional land use and impact of colonialization that has resulted in current economic and social in equality. “My project studied the role of Cape Town’s topographic landscape in defining cultural identity,” explained Mapula. “It looks at the Khoi-Khoi and colonial relationships with the stars and this landscape.”
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
City roads project to bridge the gap between two Khayelitsha communities
The City of Cape Town will be commencing with its Welcome Zenzile Street extension project in April this year. The project will link two communities in Kuyasa and Khayelitsha which are currently separated by a stormwater channel. The extension of Welcome Zenzile Street will improve and integrate access between the two areas. Read more below: The City’s Welcome Zenzile Street extension project addresses the open space between areas in the east and west of Kuyasa which poses health and safety risks to the communities using
IFLA World Congress 2019 – Common Ground Oslo, Norway 18-20 September. Learning to live with change is a common experience that all life on earth share. Making sustainable choices for us and our communities calls for prevailing motivators, inspired researchers and practitioners, intelligent communicators and brave politicians. The global challenge for a sustainable life has many aspects. Sustainability is often critical where there is no democracy.
Phase One of the R4.5bn O.R. Tambo mixed-use precinct development unveiled
O.R. Tambo International Airport has unveiled the first phase of a multi-billion-rand development plan for its Western Precinct which will feature new offices, retail space, hotel and 8
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
this open space as a short cut. This project will link wards 97 and 99 by extending the Welcome Zenzile street to cross a stormwater channel. Work is expected to be completed by April 2020.The road extension will be 280 m long and will be elevated by 5 m. It will be a dual pedestrian and road bridge with a total width of 9 m. This includes 1,8 m of paved pedestrian walkway on both sides of the road. The budget for this project is R 8,6 million. ‘Our main aim with the Welcome Zenzile Street project is to promote a safe and socially connected community in Kuyasa by providing better access for motorists and pedestrians between these two areas. By extending this road, we will be upgrading pedestrian access as a whole and removing the health and safety hazard for this open space.
Mayoral Committee Member for Transport, Alderman Felicity Purchase.
‘The City will continue investing in projects such as these by upgrading the various wards across the city. We will consult with the residents and will, in collaboration with those who live in these wards, identify solutions to create healthy, safe and socially connected communities in Cape Town,’ said the City of Cape Town’s
This project will also provide much-needed jobs and skills development to members of the local community. The City has ensured that a minimum of 5% of the contract value will be spent on local labour within these wards. The value of these temporary job opportunities equals about R430 000. The City will be hosting an open day in both of these wards on 4 April 2019 (Thursday) from 2pm until 6pm to inform the community about the details of the project. Residents are advised to attend these sessions for further information and to raise any queries. Venues for the open day sessions are as follows:
Ward 97: Solomon Mahlangu Sport and Recreation Centre, Walter Sisulu Road, Makhaza Ward 99: Endless Life Ministries, Oscar Mpetha Road and Ntenetya Street, Kuyasa (opposite Esangweni Secondary School)
The blue planet is our common ground. Who should have a say on how its landscapes and resources are distributed, developed and designed? IFLA 2019 is Partner in Oslo European Green Capital 2019. IFLA World Congress 2019 will take a closer look at urban transformation, green mobility, healthy and beautiful landscapes and community participation. During three days in Oslo, we aim to inspire, challenge and intrigue you. We want you to share and reflect on the knowledge that is developed, presented and discussed. Join us in moving one step further to understand and protect our COMMON GROUND.
conference facilities and additional transitrelated services. At a sod-turning ceremony for its Western Precinct development, an 8.5-hectare site, general manager of the airport Bongiwe Pityi-Vokwana detailed the airport’s plans to unlock the development potential of 180,000m2 of bulk for a mixed-use development to be located on the northern precinct of the airport. Construction begins this month with an anticipated completion date for the first phase of the end of 2020. Pityi-Vokwana was joined at the ceremony by members of the Western Precinct Consortium,
which won the bid for the first phase. This phase will see construction of three six-storey office buildings, above podium with a floor area of 33,000m2. Said Pityi-Vokwana: “As the busiest airport in Africa and the international gateway to South Africa, it is imperative that OR Tambo International Airport remains an international landmark with worldclass infrastructure and a large variety of services for all users and markets. The Western Precinct development forms part of a strategy to expand our offering and to drive new sources of growth for the entire region.” www.prolandscaper.co.za
Climates of Change and Opportunity in Irrigation at SABI’s 2019 Congress
Date: 13 – 15 August 2019 Venue: Tsogo Sun Elangeni & Maharani - Durban Theme: Climates of Change and Opportunity SABI Congress 2019 technical sessions will include: •
The irrigation industry’s most established and widely anticipated event, SABI Congress is to be held this year in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. The theme for this landmark event on the irrigation calendar is “Climates of Change and Opportunity”. This congress is widely regarded as a premier and technical event for leading edge thinking in irrigation technologies and trends as well as the best place to network and meet colleagues in the irrigation and water conservation fields. Book your place early to attend, present or exhibit. Early booking is essential as places are limited.
• • • • • •
Soil and water – our valuable, precious resources Crops under irrigation – new practices Optimised solutions for energy requirements Designing systems for changing climates Advances in under cover farming Landscape and turf irrigation design (including grey water systems) Water measurement and management technologies and applications
For more information on presenting, sponsoring, attending or exhibiting please email email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org or call 021 850 8220.
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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS JOURNAL
The Kwelera National Botanical Garden:
gardens. Each theme garden must be designed in detail including the key features using hard and soft landscaping.
The Objective of the Project To create an outstanding Botanical Garden that displays the extraordinary biological and associated cultural diversity of the Eastern Cape Province in a way that encourages our communities to amble, explore, learn, appreciate, and become a custodian for the natural environment. Kwelera National Botanical Garden will provide an engaging and ever-changing mix of activities for the widest possible audience. Being grounded in the community, the garden will be part of growing up in the region, a social and community space catering for every step of life’s journey, returning time and time again. The Client's Brief •
Design the “landscape” of the garden in the style of a national botanical garden, similar to the other nine national botanical gardens with different sections and theme
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Develop a planting plan for all sections, using only indigenous plants from the Eastern Cape.
Design the main circulatory route and arterial pathways of the garden.
Develop a maintenance plan for each section of the garden.
The landscape design must include the following theme gardens: Cycad Garden • • • • • • •
Natural Wetland Grassland and Wildflower Garden isiXhosa Useful Plants Garden Educational and interactive Kids Garden Wedding Garden Succulent Garden Demonstration Garden of the Floristic
Regions of Endemism/biomes of Eastern Cape Concert lawn A living wall
Key Focuses of the Project The Eastern Cape is globally recognised for its high biodiversity value and scenic beauty. It has the highest biome diversity of any province, with no less than seven biomes: Forest, Fynbos, Nama Karoo, Savanna, Succulent Karoo and Thicket. The Province is also unique among provinces in that it overlaps with three centers of biological endemism: the Albany Centre, the Drakensberg Centre and the Pondoland Centre. From the onset of the project it was clear that the chosen region for the new national botanical garden is special and represents an area with a rich cultural and natural history. Habitat Landscape Architects decided that it is imperative to weave this into the fabric of the
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS JOURNAL
landscape to capture the essence and exhibit it to the visitors of the botanical garden.
botanical garden. Every aspect of the new facility will be informed by the three core aspects of sustainability; Social Equitability, Economic Feasibility and Environmental Soundness. Fostering a healthy relationship between the ecosystems and communities through shared experience, learning and empowerment, is critical.
Some key focuses that were considered and incorporated into the design of the Botanical Garden: •
Education: currently, the environmental education of the general public through programmes and activities is recognised as one of the most important functions of botanic gardens.
Conservation: botanic gardens have a duty and obligation to conserve biodiversity. Demonstrating sustainable practices in conservation is one of the most important functions of botanic gardens.
Research: conduct and support scientific research and focus on the results and application of the research rather than collecting as many plants as possible. Sustainability: this is key to the new
Community: involvement underscores and fundamentally impacts the sustainability of the project. Encouraging, building, reaching out, facilitating stewardship and custodianship is the only way to make the project a reality. Community is both local, (geographically) regional, general (enthusiasts), specialised (societies), and global (international).
Stefan Du Toit
The Kwelera National Botanical Garden strives to set a new precedent through embracing these guiding concepts, and ultimately creating an integrated landscape masterplan that forms the new National Botanical Garden.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
When you use water Remember the source!
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Amenity landscapes in South Africa - water use and sustainability Leslie Hoy, Manager of Environmental Management Services @ Rand Water It is estimated that 95% of South Africaâ€™s freshwater supply is already allocated and a water deficit of around 17% to 25% is anticipated by 2030. Added to this, when considering the future predictions we face in SA, our water situation (quality, quantity and reliability of supply) is set to continue on its challenging course. As members of the Green Industry in SA, we cannot escape the association with water and together with that its pitfalls and opportunities. The many different voices and forces within our society demand vastly different requirements from us, let alone our own needs. On one hand there are clear and specific campaigns to use less water wisely which includes many forward thinking industry members. This is juxtaposed against the notion that lush, green, colourful, aesthetically pleasing landscapes that aim to meet and exceed our expectations, can only be achieved through www.prolandscaper.co.za
using excessive water. We are not alone in this situation as there are many similar situations in USA, Australia and Europe.
Water Supply area) and in late 2018 I submitted my PhD for evaluation (Title: Modelling amenity landscape plant water use in South Africa).
For many years our industry has had challenges with regards to water. The first such engagement for me started in the drought of 1996/7 in Gauteng when the Vaal dam eventually had a total of less than 90 days of water left. Leading up to this, water restrictions were set in motion which had huge repercussions on the Green Industry in Gauteng. It was at that time that my journey as a horticulturist with Water Wise began. Since then I have advocated water conservation and have promoted Water Wise throughout South Africa. I have also continued to study in this field with an MSc in 2009 (A proactive water supply shortage response plan focussing on the Green Industry in the Rand
Resistance to change just delays the inevitable: as much as what our industry changes it also seemingly stays the same. Do we ever really learn from the past and change sufficiently? This may be controversial as it has aspects that hold true for our industry as well as the clients we serve, even in todayâ€™s world where we hear about water shortages on a daily basis. The challenge seems to be that the urge to change is not always as fast (and committed) as it needs to be and at times there is even resistance to change. As an example, in the late 1990â€™s the Water Wise brand first promoted the concept of grouping plants according to their water requirements. At that time this was not received Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
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etc. In themselves none of these concepts are new and have been around for many years. However, what is new for South Africa ,is the urgency to include as many of these concepts into each design and the unique implementation in each landscape. Understandably (but not acceptable) some of the pushback from clients could be due to a lack of funds, lack of knowledge, disregard for water resource, “money counts” and lack of understanding the long term implications of non-implementation of these concepts. The road ahead: There is a need for the Green Industry to pull together, more so now, than ever before. The South African Green Industries Council (SAGIC) is the ideally placed mechanism at our disposal. We need to consolidate on what we know and build on/develop new methods of making landscapes a lot more sustainable without losing the essence and function of each landscape as well as the aesthetic appeal.
well at all. Thankfully this thinking has changed substantially. The same can be said for so many of the landscaping practices for which there has been past “resistance” to change. Design of Amenity landscapes: The range of designs we see are as diverse as the number of landscapes and designers alike. This is to be applauded. However, the the need to focus on being more sustainable in both the application and long term maintenance of these designs is where the focus needs to be. There is a move afoot for more resilient and sustainable landscapes. This most certainly needs to be the way we do business in the future. What does need to be considered is the extent to which we push the envelope on this matter as not all landscape styles, settings or requirements should be totally natural and selfsustaining in the extreme. Each requires careful consideration in line with sustainable/resilient practices. There are numerous sustainable aspects to design that are taught and promoted but not always implemented. Some of these being water harvesting mechanisms directly into beds or from large carparks, the effective use of swayles, hydrozoning of plants, living walls, living roofs, the harvesting of rainwater, reuse of grey water, specialised irrigation equipment 14
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Two developments linked specifically to my recent study, being a list of plants linked to hydrozones and their water use, and an amenity landscape water use model for South Africa (ALWUMSA) that should be used; •
Landscapes must have a more rationalised. balanced approach to water use. This can be addressed by implementing hydrozoning with the landscape. I believe that this is something that should even be legislated. It is a highly underrated aspect of the landscape water use. Hydrozoning of the landscape mimics the natural landscape and ensures that water use is focused and applied in correct amounts only as and when required. Hydrozoning points to a landscape that is designed by grouping of plants according to specific water use categories and to water those same plants only according to their water needs. This means that every portion of the landscape is grouped into one of four categories (high, medium, low and no water zones). These hydrozones must each be watered individually and have their own irrigation mechanism types and have their own valve (whether manual or automatic). This concept should be applied no matter what the water source or how much water is available for use in the landscape. Linked to hydrozoning is the need for plant lists for South Africa that group plants according to these same hydrozone water use categories. Without using such an agreed
list for South Africa, linked to pre-set water amounts, the matter of hydrozoning application will vary from designer to designer and will jeopardise the concept. •
An amenity landscape water use model is one important technology that can be used to assist in determining the amount of water that is used in each hydrozone in the landscape. There are several such models available internationally and one in SA. The study that I recently developed and tested is a new for South Africa (ALWUMSA) with positive water conservation results. It was developed after extensive industry consultations and input. The improvement this model offers when compared to other existing models is that it incorporates a range of design, site, edaphic, climatic, hydrozone, irrigation and maintenance factors, that all contribute to determining the amount of water that should be used in the landscape. This will allow for landscape designers and maintenance managers to reduce water required for the site by altering aspects of the designs up front as well as in field, thereby reducing water use and associated long term costs by implementing a range of site changes.
These two tools can help Green Industry members in their planning, day to day operations and in saving costs for both themselves and clients. They will guide our industry in leading the way with regards to water conservation and ensuring that our amenity landscapes are more sustainable. Considering the needs and pressures of the future we need to urgently as the Green Industry, engage with one another (this includes the entire value chain and sub-sectors, inclusive of educational institutions) and determine possible viable solutions focussing on water conservation matters. We need to revisit and build on some aspects of training offered, expected standards and procedures, awards, water conservation technologies and policies. There also needs to be a greater consultation with policy makers in all spheres of government, whilst urging for a mindset change where required. Only then can our industry be more certain of its long term sustainability within the constraints that will be ever increasing.
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• Corporate • Corporate landscape landscape design design and maintenance and maintenance • Landscape • Landscape upgrades upgrades and installation and installation • Irrigation • Irrigation maintenance maintenance and installation and installation • Tree • Tree felling felling • Site• cleaning Site cleaning • Design • Design and installation and installation of gardens of gardens and water and water features features • Industrial • Industrial landscape landscape maintenance maintenance • Horticultural • Horticultural training training • Alien • Alien weedweed control control
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DESIGNING WITH WATER IN MIND: What Is Your Project Water Budget?
Part 1 of a 2- Part series by Marijke Honig on landscape design with water at the forefront.
Until recently landscapers have had free reign with water. Most projects have access to inexpensive municipal water, so the design is driven by the client brief and budget. However the situation is rapidly changing: in many regions the demand for water is exceeding supply and water tariffs are increasing. As a limited resource, WATER is becoming a key design determinant. Landscape designers and architects can work together to maximise the available water for planting (by infiltration and rainwater harvesting), and ensure that the water budget informs the choice and extent of planting.
In recent years various parts of the country have experienced drought and water shortages. The situation raises some thorny questions: why are we using drinking water that has been treated at considerable cost to very high standards, to flush toilets and irrigate landscapes? Clearly this is illogical and wasteful! With an increasing population in South Africa, growing urbanization and climate change, water will become scarcer and it is very likely that the use of potable water for watering landscapes will be restricted or prohibited. As a limited resource, water is set to become a key design determinant: it needs to become integral to the design process, involving the whole project team, including the Client/ Developer, Engineer,
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
QS, Architect and Landscape architect. There is a lot of talk about water-sensitive design, SUDS and the principles of waterwise landscaping have been around for 20 years. Yet every day millions of kiloliters of potable water are sprayed onto gardens and landscapes â€“ it seems that old habits die hard and not much has changed yet. In my own experience I find it tricky to put theory into practise, as optimising available water on site requires a multidisciplinary approach, and conventional watering methods are inappropriate when using precious harvested rain water. To take a concrete example: an appartment block in Cape Town has installed six large tanks to store rainwater from the roof, so the available
water budget is 60 000 liters for 4-5 month dry summer. Conventional spray irrigation (25mm / week) would empty the tanks in 6 weeks. Drip irrigation will be chewed by rats, and besides power failures are now a reality, which makes any pumped or automated system vulnerable to failure. What now? It is a fantastic opportunity to rethink current landscape practises and apply principles of resilient design. Clearly every project will require its own sitespecific solutions, but can we identify some guiding principles for waterwise landscape design? Furthermore could a simple checklist help during the design process to make sure we have considered the many aspects of waterwise design? Below I set out some principles
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that guide my design process. Guiding Principle: Conserve water on site In built-up areas most surface water (from rain) is exported from site through the stormwater system. Reduced infiltration of rain means there is less replenishment of groundwater and soil water, with less available to plants. Good waterwise practise is to retain as much water as possible on site. This can be done by maximising infiltration with permeable surfaces , and by harvesting rainwater – in storage tanks and by ‘planting the rain’. Creating swales, detention ponds and rain gardens is an overlooked and undervalued method of maximising infiltration. This passive method of watering has many advantages: it is low tech, requires no electrical power and minimal maintenance. The design of overflows during high rainfall events is essential.
greywater), it becomes critical to match the total water demand of the planting with the supply. Guiding Principle: Meter, monitor and manage water-use in the landscape A lot of water is wasted in landscapes by burst or leaking pipes, valves which do not close properly, or missing irrigation nozzles. This can be solved using ‘smart meter’ technology. Every garden or landscape should have a dedicated water meter, which is checked daily or weekly to record wateruse, with the data made available to the person(s) responsible for maintaining the landscape. Good waterwise practise is to install a smart water meter and automatic cut-off valves when the daily
water usage target has been exceeded. Guiding Principle: Create hydrozones The idea of grouping plants with similar water requirements has been around for at least 20 years, yet very few landscapes are designed with clear hydrozones and irrigated accordingly. Why is this? The once popular combination of iceberg roes and lavendar is a shining example of bad practise: mixing plants with high and low wateruse and wasting water on water-wise plants that don’t need it. To increase the overall resilience of a landscape, designers can ensure that part of it can survive on rainfall only – the so-called ‘no watering’ zone.
Guiding Principle: Use non-potable water The principle of ‘fit for purpose’ applies: use potable water for drinking and non-potable water for flushing toilets and irrigating landscapes. Rain water, basement water and treated black and grey water are potential sources of water for landscaping. Where borehole water is of a high quality (i.e. potable with limited treatment), it would be a waste to use this in the landscape and it is preferable to use water of lesser quality. Guiding Principle: Create a water budget for the landscape Waterwise designers calculate and specify the water requirement of a landscape during and after establishment so that the resource can be properly managed. Where available water is limited (e.g. stored rainwater or treated
This road verge planting outside Babylonstoren was planted from plugs and irrigated with drip line. Notice the thick layer of mulch hiding the pipes and reducing evaporative loss of moisture from the soil.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
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Guiding Principle: Water plants efficiently Efficient watering is selective (only on plants that need it), and dispersed into the root zone with minimal loss through evaporation.
sportsfields. Spray irrigation has moved into the ornamental landscape industry with few modifications.
The recent 3 year drought and water restrictions in the Cape have led to a number of observations which can inform the way we look at irrigation: • Many established trees and plants survived on rainfall only - they do not require any irrigation. If watering is only required during the establishment phase, is hand watering an option, or a temporary irrigation system which is removed after two years?
Water is sprayed onto the soil and leaves of plants, resulting in an irrigation efficiency of 75%. One has to ask: does it makes sense to spray water, knowing that 25% is lost to the atmosphere during watering? In a typical Cape summer another 5mm may be lost by direct evaporation from the soil within 24 hours, so how effective is a 10mm watering, if only 2.5mm (25%) remains in the soil after this period?
Some plants require water only during the hottest period of the dry season – occasional, selective watering is enough to keep them going. Can these plants be grouped together - spatially, or on the same irrigation station, with targeted watering?
Plants from high rainfall and temperate regions did not survive without regular watering – clearly these are not suited to local conditions.
In some landscapes hardy water-wise species died which was surprising. Upon examination these plants had shallow root systems because they had been incorrectly watered during the establishment period. Current watering practises - too frequently and not deep enough - make plants water dependent.
While watering with buckets or watering cans is inconvenient, it is targeted and effective when plants have watering basins. Selective watering is efficient.
The irrigation efficiency of drip is published to be 81%, and the addition of a thick layer of mulch would help to further reduce water loss by direct evaporation from the soil. However subsurface irrigation (e.g. Novap) is more efficient, as drippers are covered with 25cm soil which cuts out any direct evaporation. Another advantage is that wetting the soil to a depth of 30-60cm encourages deep rooting.
Guiding Principle: Plant appropriately It is important to select plants that match the available water budget for the site. When there is very limited or no water available for irrigating, it is advisable to select indigenous or exotic water-wise plants that can survive on local rainfall only. Rainer and West (Planting in a Post Wild World, 2015) make the point that stress is an asset, something to embrace and use as a major determinant in plant selection. There is a general tendency in landscaping to ameliorate the conditions on site to be able to grow a wide range of plants. We improve the soil by digging it over, adding compost and fertilizer, and irrigation is installed to provide constant moisture. However by removing the constraints that limit plant growth, one is removing the very qualities that will create a strong sense of place. It is also the start of an intensive maintenance programme of ongoing feeding, watering and pruning. Careful plant selection and embracing slower more sustainable growth are key factors when creating low maintenance water-wise landscapes. Group plants with similar water requirements into hydrozones. This low water-use zone is planted with Cotyledon orbiculata, Hesperaloe, Anizoganthos, Pennisetum and Rhagoda histata and only requires once a month rainfall / watering.
The current method of spray irrigation originates from the northern hemisphere, from the turf industry, where sprinklers are used to water
Soil probes are an excellent way to see how far the moisture has soaked into the soil after a rainfall or watering event. How many mms will it take to give a deep watering, where the whole soil profile is moist? A thick layer of mulch will minimise direct evaporation from the soil surface.
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F E AT U R E TK Landscape Architects - Mitchells Plain Hospital Photo by David van der Want.
Designing with Water Tamsin Faragher is the ILASA Western Cape Chairperson. She reflects on Tarna Klitzner's "Water as Design Informant" and further conversations that included Katherin Krause, Mark Saint Pol and Julia McClachlan around projects they have designed that apply water sensitive design in Cape Town. The recent drought in Cape Town brought the City to the brink of disaster. As the impacts of climate change increase, so does the probability of more frequent drought events in the Western Cape. These realities should encourage built environment professionals to re-evaluate their relationship with water and to look around for good examples of Water Sensitive Design to emulate and draw inspiration from.
Water Sensitive Design Water Sensitive Design is an approach to urban water management that informs urban planning and design frameworks. It is based on social values that govern design decisions and integrates social and physical sciences. Current definitions no longer limit it to stormwater quality management and reflect a much broader and holistic approach that includes water resource planning for catchments, potable water supply, wastewater and stormwater planning and management at city, neighbourhood, precinct and erven scales. Water Sensitive Design is therefore the integration of sustainable water management across scales and urban typologies through planning, engineering, architecture and landscape architecture. Whilst the City of Cape Town adopted this approach in their Management of Urban Stormwater Impacts Policy (2009) and Water Services Development Plan (2017/2018) there has been limited application other than through sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). During the drought there was increased public interest in alternative water storage and usage, water efficient plumbing fittings and importantly for the landscape industry, different landscape design, implementation and maintenance methodologies. Whilst the drought focused interest in water sensitive design, some developments such as the Manenberg Contact Centre (completed in 2010) had innovated and 20
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applied the principles well in advance of the drought. It is a City of Cape Town development designed by architect Ashley Hemraj, that exemplifies the principles of Water Sensitive Design at an erf scale by adopting a number of interventions. Firstly, by using water efficient plumbing fittings and leak detection devices the water demand is reduced. Secondly, alternative water sources such as grey and black water are used to replace the demand for municipal water. This water is recycled and blended with the rain and stormwater harvested onsite and is used for irrigation and toilet flushing, two largest contributors to water demand. By reducing the water demand and using alternative water, the need for municipal water has been largely eliminated apart from what is needed for drinking and hand washing. Other interventions include those that are complimentary to the water cycle such as groundwater recharge. This is enabled by swales and lowered kerbs that drain stormwater into planting beds for bioremediation and infiltration into the groundwater. The indigenous, waterwise plant material forms part of a water sensitive approach and builds the biodiversity of the adjacent Edith Stevens Nature Reserve by providing connectivity and habitats for fauna and flora. Similarly, the Western Cape Government Department of Transport and Public Worksâ€™
Mitchells Plain Hospital is also located adjacent to a nature reserve on the Cape Flats, a low-lying landscape. The site is highly exposed to the prevailing winter and summer winds and is perched above a high water table with the Cape Flats Aquifer below. Remnants of the endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld covered the site and connected it to an adjacent biodiversity corridor that together, created a continuous system linking to the False Bay coast. The designer, Tarna Klitzner of TK Landscape Architects was strongly influenced by the landscape, but it is stormwater management that is the primary design informant. Consistent with water sensitive design, it is designed to recharge the aquifer via a system of swales, detention ponds and planting beds, with every opportunity taken to create permeable surfaces, including those that by function necessitate hardness such as pathways that are designed as loose calcrete pathways. This approach is consistent with water sensitive design, but represents a radical departure from the engineerâ€™s design which followed the traditional method of channelling stormwater into hard infrastructure pipes for disposal offsite. Materials such as calcrete that was excavated during the construction of the hospital were incorporated in the hard landscaping and in the preparation of the soft landscape. It was crushed and used to line the drainage channels www.prolandscaper.co.za
F E AT U R E
and swales to provide a porous, spongy drainage layer to filter and store stormwater. The stored water is ideally located for plants that draw on it over time eliminating the need for irrigation once established. The volume of the swales and ponds, though calculated by engineers are integrated into the natural landscape forms. These basins assist to manage stormwater by holding it temporarily in detention ponds or in swales for infiltration to the storage layer or aquifer. They serve to prevent flooding and reduce runoff into the stormwater system thereby fulfilling an important role traditionally filled by hard infrastructure. The swales are located in the large parking areas and in the building’s interstitial spaces created by the “wings”. In both areas they serve an infrastructure and spatial function. Whilst they provide visually interesting spaces for those using the parking area or in the hospital, they also break the larger area into smaller “rooms” that add as sense of scale to an otherwise large landscape. Those swales closer to the building are used to collect and store the rainwater discharged from the roofs via downpipes to the ground surface below, whilst those located in parking areas rely on stormwater drained from the hard landscaping. The rainwater from the roofs is channelled across the ground surface in calcrete-shaped “fins” into calcrete-lined stomwater channels towards planting beds and trees where it can be used immediately and also stored for future use, utilising a similar methodology to the swales. Because the design team had not implemented the system before, getting it right required experimentation and collaboration between the TKLA team and the engineer, the success of
which is apparent across the site. Larger calcrete boulders were added to the landscape to add texture and scale to the swales and ponds and as bollards along the roadway edges. Whilst providing a protective edge, they also create cooler micro habitats where moisture can be trapped thereby enabling plant growth. The plant material used in the landscape is grown from seeds and cuttings taken from the adjacent nature reserve as required by the Environmental Impact Assessment Record of Decision. Small plants were used throughout the project planted at a high density to offset the possible attrition rate. Fortunately most plants survived and the dense mat created acts as a kind of “growing mulch”. Over and above this benefit are those associated with the proliferation of endemic plant material that is waterwise and that builds the biodiversity of the area. It furthermore increases the footprint of the endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld and creates a habitat for endemic insects, reptiles, birds and mammals. The soft landscape was established within the first year using borehole water via an automoated irrigation system that by year three would be eliminated. This methodology has proven successful and there has been no irrigation for the past three years, despite the drought. The success of the Mitchell’s Plain Hospital is manifold. Not only does it create an attractive, diverse landscape but it also integrates the landscape with the water cycle. Over and above the positive outcomes already discussed, the water sensitive design approach reprented a significant cost saving to the construction budget of R4.5 million and further savings were accumulated through the elimination of stormwater infrastructure upgrades downstream of the development. In addition, there are cost
savings from reduced municipal water usage that have not been quantified, but will no doubt be substantial for the size of the facility. This project is an exemplar of how designing with the natural water cycle as a system creates a sustainable landscape. It is not only an important, functional part of the hospital’s infrastructure, but it also a “healing landscape” that compliments and enhances the hospital’s work. It is noteworthy that the Manenberg Contact Centre and the Mitchell’s Plain Hospital were both designed and built before the drought. By contrast, projects designed for implementation that fell within the drought were subject to challenges not previously experienced. The Freedom Park in Chicago, Paarl (Western Cape) a collaboration between the Chicago community, Drakenstein Municipality, the VPUU and TK Landscape Architects illustrates how changing an established methodology enabled the park implementation to proceed notwithstanding water restrictions. The community of Chicago, Paarl was identified as needing positive public open space and it was decided by the Drakenstein Municipality to upgrade Freedom Park, the community’s existing park. Freedom Park is located within a residentially mixed community comprised of formal and informal housing typologies. It is the connecting space between two schools within a community besieged by social issues. These include gangsterism that has historically impacted the site, across which turf wars were fought, making the centrally located ‘Lampie Cricket Field’ became a dangerous play space for children and pedestrians. TK Landscape Architects
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F E AT U R E TK Landscape Architects - Mitchells Plain Hospital
TK Landscape Architects - Mitchells Plain Hospital
TK Landscape Architects - Mitchells Plain Hospital
TK Landscape Architects - Freedom Park
Square One Landscape Architects
Through community participation and workshops that included play activities with the community’s children, the following needs were highlighted; a cricket pitch, netball courts, a children’s play area, picnic and braai areas and well-lit pedestrian routes. These needs informed the site’s overall spatial programme. The stormwater, landscape’s water needs and existing trees thereafter informed where additional elements such as new trees should be planted. Through layering these informants, the swale was elevated to become a strong organising element winding through the landscape. Whilst it started as a landscape element, the swale concept was adopted by the engineer and it informed the whole site’s stormwater management approach. As such, the Mitchell’s Plain Hospital, the stormwater management is a significant informant to the landscape concept whilst providing important stormwater infrastructure and a water source for passive irrigation. By the time that planting was implemented in mid- 2018, the City of Cape Town had increased the water restrictions to their highest level during the drought, level 6B. These restrictions prohibited automated irrigation, amongst others. To enable the planting to proceed, the
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Drakenstein Municipality supplied treated effluent by water-tanker. This water was stored on site in a water tank and plants were watered by hand. Another landscape that uses alternative water is Merriman Square. Located on the City’s Foreshore, it is hard to imagine that the incumbent, lush landscape was once hard and unwelcoming. The new Square is the outcome of a negotiation between the “Towers” property owner and the City around the refurbishment of the existing building and the addition of parking. Mark St Pôl of Square One Landscape Architects, drew inspiration from the broader site that is reclaimed seafront, known as the Foreshore. A “hard”, urban part of the City, it is very exposed to the prevailing winds making it a less inviting. The park represents the juxtaposition of multiple informants, including amenity, infrastructure and ecology. The re-articulated building forms act as wind buffers that create protected, high amenity spaces. The hard landscape elements interact with the building to provide a human scale and together with the biofiltration basins, define places and spaces, organise movement routes, passive recreation and manage levels of public access. Because of the high exposure of most of the Foreshore’s public realm, those areas that are protected, such as Merriman Square, are very popular. The careful programming of the ground floor that includes the Food Lovers and Seattle
Coffee shop ensures a continuous supply of customers throughout the day and activation of the Square. As much as the biofiltration basins are spatial elements, they also form part of the stormwater management system. Rainwater and basement water are collected into tanks located above at the new parking’s roof level. These reserves are used for irrigation and toilet flushing. Overflow from these tanks is channelled into relaxation chambers at the ground level. These chambers manage the water’s velocity, before it is released into the biofiltration basins. These basins are designed to allow for infiltration, but include drains that connect to the stormwater system in the event that storage capacity is reached. The basin planting includes wetland and marginal plants that can be inundated. During rainfall events, these plants slow stormwater movement down, create ecological habitats and improve the water quality via bioremediation. Capetonians are continuing to change their relationship with water through the City’s experience of the drought. It is clear that there are already a number of good examples of water sensitive design that can inform how the built environment responds and adapts to a world that is changing in fundamental ways. As built environment professionals, we can all learn from the precedent available, whilst also innovating and establishing new norms to transform the way that we make cities, places and spaces. www.prolandscaper.co.za
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30 Minutes with: Pro Landscaper Catches up with Calayde Davey and PG Smit, from the Johannesburg based Regen50, a thinktank for responsible urban development, to find out more about their multidisciplinary practise and their journey within the industry.
When was your company established, and why did you decide to collaborate your expertise? Calayde and PG met in 2009 while they were both doing their Masters theses at the University of Pretoria, working on design and development solutions for the Pretoria West Power Plant. Finishing, they worked in local and international firms, and both spent a number of years in the USA studying and working on projects. After working on high-rise projects in Kuala Lumpur, Calayde completed her PhD in Environmental Design, Economics & Planning at Kansas State University. She continued to work for a developer on the world'sâ€™ largest Passive Hause - 500,000 sq ft 90% energy efficient residential complex - as the owner's representation and Lean Design & Construction Facilitator. In addition to Masters in Landscape Architecture, PG completed his second Masters in Urban Design from the Harvard Graduate School of Design. PG then worked in San Francisco where he was engaged on large projects in New Zealand, Mexico and other international locations.
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Calayde: We both returned with a healthy
discontentment with how development was taking place. Together we covered a lot of ground in terms of professional skills and we decided to seek out projects together. Which soon lead to us starting a company together. After years practicing in architecture, landscape architecture, development and real estate internationally, Calayde and PG became very dissatisfied with the compromises our design and construction industry has to make on value and the increasing dissatisfaction on projects why are the important and meaningful projects not hitting the ground? Our industry projects are seldom in service of large communities, and seldom deliver the value that they could be generating to developers, our citizens or our peers and professionals alike. Calayde and PG returned to South Africa in 2016/2017, and decided to team up.
PG: Regen50 is an urban design and strategic
development practice. We founded Regen50 in 2017 with the purpose of identifying and unlocking work that may greatly benefit large urban communities, respond to current development trends, and align strategic roleplayers into shared agendas. Regen50 is a think tank for responsible urban development. We believe there is a new way of engagement within our cities — one that is focused on strategic interventions with a big picture view of urban development. We call this Urban Strategy. What is an urban strategist then?
Calayde: Urban Strategy is a practice that
calls for a new generation of urban thinkers - thinkers at the convergence of knowledge in sustainability, architecture, urban design, landscape, public engagement, policy, and economic development. Urban Strategy seeks to dissolve the silos of traditional thinking and practices into a shared vision between public, private, and community stakeholders. Through aligning and amplifying these efforts and concerns, Urban Strategists work to unlock projects that effectively address the everincreasing complexity of our cities. At Regen50 we believe in regenerative urbanism. Our work seeks out catalytic interventions that can bring lasting sustainability in pursuit of building better cities and healthier urban communities.
Why the name Regen 50? And what are your core values as a company?
Calayde: We challenge ourselves with this
question: what do we need to do to develop selfsufficient cities? We believe we need to focus on regenerative urbanism. Our name Regen 50 is derived from this core value - regeneration - and our desire to seek out projects that positively impact 50,000 people (entire communities) at a time. What is regenerative urbanism? And what part do landscape professionals have to play in this concept? PG: Regenerative Urbanism refers to the ability of cities to replenish and regenerate themselves — producing more than they consume. Selfsufficiency moves beyond sustainability. As landscaping professionals, our view on sustainability is often purely ecological however the truth is that true sustainability goes much wider to include social, economic and even political spheres. As professionals, we need an entrepreneurial approach to help identify and enable projects that address the full complexity of sustainable urbanism. What are some exciting projects/ initiatives you are working on at the moment?
PG: We are currently on the strategic steering
committee for a self-sufficient precinct redevelopment in Johannesburg, Unfortunately, we can’t say much about it but we are working with developers, local community groups and local government to unlock various infill development opportunities. In April we will be hosting an Urban Strategy Studio with the University of Pretoria’s postgraduate Landscape, Architecture and Interior Architecture students. To bring these new practices to our local industry in a useful and large way (our industry being another 50,000 people community), we founded two non-profit organizations. The first is Lean Build Environment - Afrika — an organisation dedicated to bringing Lean design and construction practices to continental Africa. You can check that out at www.lbeafrika.org The second initiative we are working on is launching a community development fund aimed at building better cities and healthier urban communities on these same principles.
We are also working on some very interesting field research projects on the impact and future of backyard housing in informal settlements. As far as BIM is concerned, would you say that SA is still a little behind in this respect? How do you feel BIM it is going to benefit the development process moving forward, for Landscape Architects and indeed Contractors?
Calayde: The difficulty with BIM as it is
practiced locally in South Africa today is that it is often misunderstood as a tool for 3d design only — our industry uses BIM in a very limited capacity. This is not the power of BIM at all. The crucial piece everyone is missing out is that no one is paying attention to the “I” in BIM - Information. BIM is an incredibly powerful tool when you understand the ecosystem it operates in, especially if you are forming part of integrated project delivery teams. When you work with Lean Design & Construction, BIM is a critical and exponential differentiator to deliver better projects. LBE-Afrika is working actively to support the full adoption of BIM in our African practices industry-wide. In Which type of environment (commercial/ public) are you most at home?
PG: We both started out our career in the
commercial sector however we often find ourselves working as an intermediary between the public and private sector. Regen50’s ability to tune into and understand the concerns front-end financing through professional design practices to end-user value generation makes us able to engage much more effectively as strategic or design professionals. Which company/ individual/ developer would you most like to work with (worldwide) and why? Calayde: Both of us have worked with some of the leading companies and in our field internationally. For us it is quite simple: it comes down to an alignment of core values. We are working towards better cities and healthier communities - so, we seek out people who share this mission and are willing to work towards it.
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in local government and the private sector. Subsequently we have partnered with a local non-profit organization “Friends of the Spruit,” that is concerned with proactive solutions to restoration and development of the creek system. Next up the Project requires a rigorous community engagement process. Collectively, we are identifying pilot sites within the creek system to kickstart the Project in order to attract developers in favor of testing new ideas for regeneration. This strategy is designed to form project outcomes through the alignment of critical role players, culminating in a shared vision from the start.
Which projects are you most proud of, as a team? Regen50 set out to identify large infill development opportunities through publicprivate partnerships and we studied welllocated local areas that utilize and optimise existing city infrastructure. This approach led to conceptualization of several initiatives and engagements, the largest of which is the Moot Spruit Community Development Framework. The Mood Spruit Community Development Framework. “The Moot.” It consists of a collection of older first-ring suburbs in Pretoria and is currently home to about 120,000 people. The Moot features a large linear landscape system called the “Moot Spruit.” Consisting of over 10km of creek landscape that is largely underutilized, poorly maintained or unimproved, functioning almost exclusively as a stormwater conveyance system. The adjacent and nearby housing consists of low density housing units on large plots that typically do not front onto this landscape system. Considering the development trends in the City of Tshwane, the Moot Spruit system was identified as an opportunity for regenerative development initiatives in which landscape can be used as a unifying tactic to bring about spatial, economic, social, ecological transformation.
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The system can be developed into a linear park and urban redevelopment corridor, connecting various neighbourhoods to recreation amenities, natural resources, and neighborhood centers. The system would provide over 10km of jogging and cycling routes along wetlands, parks, or streams. The Project can become the backbone for turning the area into a walkable community. Developing the creek into an active park system will help to support increasing density in the surrounding areas. It is unusual for South African cities to consider a linear park development model. Due to a long history of spatial segregation and exclusionary development and the current safety and crime concerns, development trends lean toward popular preferences for the suburban single-family homes in highly secured gated communities. These usually have private green spaces, typically with no public interface. There is however, multiple economic and social advantages to develop on a linear park or productive urban landscape system compared to exclusionary open green spaces. The Moot Spruit Project opens up the opportunity to addresses the concerns for equitable spatial reconfiguration, provide access to much needed public open space , and experiment with urban redevelopment models which are safe, economically viable walkable. The Project started through conversation with a progressive local community ward councillor. Together we formulated and lobbied the plan to gain the support of key role players — both
The first step to unlock this project is to increase zoning rights for properties adjacent to the system, providing sufficient incentive to redevelop the land. The second step is to draft a community development framework that provides a compelling vision of the future, including spatial development guidelines that regulate and guide development. These are developed through participation with the community, local council, and private developers. In this new framework, development is encouraged to front onto the park system with direct access, creating active frontage and opportunities for passive surveillance, permeability, and lighting — addressing negative perceptions and issues of safety. Managing this interface between the park and new development is vital to the long term success and quality of the system. Through responsible development of the creek system as urban amenity it can become an economic generator, boosting property value and spurring neighborhood revitalization. This provides the much necessary tax revenue for the City to support the area. Developer contributions help fund park infrastructure, which in return attract new residents and benefit the existing community. The infill development capitalizes on existing infrastructure and reduces municipal expenditure. Instead of rolling out new infrastructure, the municipality can focus on upgrading and improving what exists. Improved walkability and critical mass will boost neighborhood retail centers and stimulate the local economy. The framework proposes a greater variety in housing options, attracting new residents and workforces whilst improving overall quality of life. It proposes guidelines that mitigate overt gentrification to protect the existing local community, who is at risk when uncontrolled redevelopment occurs.
The current stormwater management system is liable to frequent flash floods during rainy seasons. Since its inception the system has seen a large increase in stormwater runoff, expanding the flood zones. For decades, infrastructure maintenance and upgrading has been insufficient. This poses a real flood risk for nearby households, and damage to roads and bridges. Historically, the area was home to wetlands, although large parts have been channelized and damaged by erosion. Despite supporting significant bird-life and reed beds, the area is considered to have low ecological value. The framework includes a stormwater resilience plan for the entire catchment area that helps gear new development towards
flooding, capturing rainwater and mitigating stormwater runoff. Furthermore developer contributions help fund the upgrade of stormwater infrastructure. Partnering with environmental, parks and stormwater departments will lead to rehabilitation of wetlands, new detention facilities and stormwater mitigation measures that will improve overall water quality. These interventions can be designed in conjunction with the new park system, turning it into an urban ecological amenities. To date, The Moot Spruit Project has been a joint voluntary effort with the objective of attracting the kind of developers and investors who are aligned with both the core aspirations of the community and current local government, summarized as:
providing sustainable urban infill opportunities for social, economic, and ecological development with compelling financial incentives;
increasing local public-private partnership development, which result in an increase in work opportunities and support healthy local communities;
capitalizing on existing urban systems to improve placemaking and quality of life for residents;
providing a greater variety in housing options to attract new residents and workforces.
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To succeed, the project needs cooperation from the private and public sectors and have community support (This includes the ward councillors, city managers, community members, and local developers). There seems to be a perception that the community is averse to development and change; the municipality is unable or unwilling to engage; and that the private sector is risk averse and profit driven. However, through our engagements we’ve learned that despite limited resources, there is a great willingness to engage on all fronts. Perhaps the most important lesson here is learning that we are secretly all on the same side — and the key to unlocking these projects may be as simple as starting the right conversations. Where do you see Landscape Architecture as a profession in SA in 5 years’ time?
PG: As South African Cities continue to
grow and densify landscape architecture has an increasingly vital role to play in weaving together complex social, ecological and infrastructural systems. Landscape Architecture is a powerful tool to make sense of these systems in a cohesive way that makes cities more conducive to healthy, happy living. But in order to do that we need to move far beyond planting trees and get actively involved in the strategic development of cities. We do this by taking up the challenge of leadership, becoming more assertive, more vocal, more involved. When you aren’t working, what might we find you getting up to?
PG: When I'm not working I enjoy spending
time with family and friends, drinking coffee, gardening and reading and painting, my latest obsession with creative mastery is pottery. In my spare time, I also volunteer at various local community organizations.
Calayde: When I’m not working on Regen50 and its initiatives, I’ll be in the garden. I have a love-affair with classical music and I play the violin - so you could sometimes see me in a production or two with my friends. On weekends I flirt with rock-climbing.
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"We challenge ourselves with this question: what do we need to do to develop self-sufficient cities? We believe we need to focus on regenerative urbanism. Our name Regen 50 is derived from this core value - regeneration - and our desire to seek out projects that positively impact entire communities at a time." www.prolandscaper.co.za
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SUCCESS HAS A NEW ADDRESS The MARC is an acronym for this new 3-billion-rand precinct's location, which is positioned on Maude And Rivonia Corner. This is a prominent corner in the heart of the commercial node of Sandton. The iconic mixed-use development is grounded by two retail levels, both of which are connected by pedestrian connections to the urban context. This is completed with two office towers rising from the retail podiums. The MARC is a 5-Star Green Star Rated building and was proudly developed by Eris Property Group.
from Maude Street, which was important to the team for the open accessibility of the site. It was also necessary to introduce a series of stairs, planters and ramps that could seamlessly draw people onto the dining terraces and into the retail facility, and these, in turn, became the backbone of the variety of external spaces that Boogertman + Partners and AED were trying to create. One of the most impressive connections is the grand staircase which rises a total of 8m from the artwork corner. This was articulated with multiple elements starting with a seated and planted amphitheatre, and rising to a series of stairs with seated and planted rest-points on each landing, all serviced by the adjacent coffee shop. The lighting of the externals was conceptualised with Paul Pamboukian Light Design. The emphasis was on the highlighting of people for an intimate, safe space. Other lighting was introduced to the planters, along the walls of the grand stair, and in all the balustrades for a cohesive and integrated approach. The team was pleased to implement two waterfeatures with Waterscapes, both of which can be experienced from above and below and create an atmospheric sound that counteracts the car noise. Benches were also introduced along vast portions of the externals to encourage people to linger and enjoy the environment. Here touches of timber were added for warmth and ergonomic comfort.
Boogertman + Partners was commissioned by Eris Property Group (Pty) ltd to create an offering of new shopping, dining, business and leisure activities in the heart of Sandton. The building was to be a landmark and create a modern and luxurious gathering place. The developerâ€™s intent for the precinct, and particularly the retail facility, was for it to be well-connected to its urban context and allow multiple pedestrian access points as well as large dining terraces on the street. For this, the design of the external works and landscaped terraces was key. Boogertman + Partners worked together with African Environmental Design (AED) on the external works to create a precinct with hard and soft landscaping that is interwoven with the building design. For the various components of
the mixed-use precinct, there were multiple briefs for the external works which AED connected through a common, indigenous, landscaping language. One element of this brief was for the office towers which needed to have meaningful break-away spaces, where users could enjoy the views over Sandton and immerse themselves in a natural oasis. The other element was for the more public aspect of the precinct being the retail external terraces and entrances. With the links to Maude Street and Rivonia Road the retail terraces presented a design opportunity. The team had to look at how they could connect both levels of retail to the natural slope of the site. For this, they had the site on their side. Both lower and upper retail levels could be accessed on grade
For the material palette, the team decided to keep the externals quite simple, using a variety of textures in the use of exposed aggregate seamless floor finishes in order to highlight certain architectural features as well as an African Tapestry granite for all the stairs and copings. The reflective ceiling above the retail dining terraces on Maude Street, has captured and mirrored the greenery and bustle of the restaurants below. African Environmental Designâ€™s Sonja Swanepoel explains that It was an extremely complex landscape project to coordinate but the soft landscaping team from Life Landscapes (specifically Bongani Mutunda) were absolutely incredible to work with. Overall, the team was pleased with the quantity of landscaping that Eris Property Group was willing to introduce into the development. Boogertman + Partners and African Environmental Design worked hard with the developer to create a precinct that did not appear to have a tack-on approach but one in which the landscaping and building work harmoniously as one.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
PORTFOLIO SUPPLIERS External Contractor: Aveng Grinaker-LTA and Trencon (joint venture). Paving: Bosun Concrete Paving Bricks 011 310 1176 Tree Grids: Bosun Grass Blocks - 011 310 1176 Signage: Africa Neon - 011 315 9362 Timber benches: Truestyle Hard Landscaping Solutions 011 768 1305 Granite copings & stairs: Marble Classics - 011 392 6700 Exposed Aggregate Seamless Flooring: Lafarge Artevia - 011 657 0000 Concrete Benches: Coreslab - 087 232 2462 Waterfeatures: Waterscapes - 011 440 7943 Lighting: Regent Lighting Solutions - 011 474 0171 Pro Visual Technologies - 0861 788 324 Irrigation Design: Controlled Irrigation - 011 608 0767 Product: Rain Bird Balustrades: Custom made by Steel Studios with integrated light by Pro Visual Technologies Steel Studios - 010 040 3720 Planter wall finishes: Versus Paint Specialists - 011 885 3136 Softscaping Contractor: Life Landscapes - 011 959 1000 Nurseries: Klugro Nursery - 082 849 1323 Cycads Unlimited - 012 544 9001 Cycads4U - 011 462 8343 Random Harvest Nursery - 011 957 5354 Siyakula Nursery - 076 639 7949 Just Trees Cussonia paniculatas - 021 871 1595 Ferox - 082 324 8779 CJM Growers - 082 775 1224 Spectacular Open ground Erythrina lysistemon by Green Art was sourced by Tshala Plant Brokers as well as all the Cussonias used. Tshala - 071 683 1177 Planting Medium: Culterra mix number 4 - 011 300 9913 Images: Adam Letch
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
A B O U T B O O G E RT M A N + PA RT N E R S
Established in 1982, with offices in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban and Kenya, Boogertman + Partners engages in projects throughout Africa. And beyond, continually embracing social, economic and functional challenges through Human Centred Design. They are driven by a dynamic team of directors who share a vision for contextually responsible and innovative design- with a dedicated approach to the building process from project inception to execution. The compliment includes: urban designers, architects and technicians, graphic design and marketing and landscape architecture.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Client: msunduzi municipality Project size: 16 095 m2 Project value: r4.6 Million Duration: 7 months Location: msunduzi municipality, kwazulu-natal
P R O J E C T
T W O
ALEXANDRA PARK Iyer designs a promenade, connecting Pietermaritzburgâ€™s renowned Harry Gwala Stadium to its new, neighbouring athletics stadium, providing a unique pedestrian access to both sites.
The Harry Gwala Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Home to the Premier League soccer club, Maritzburg United, the stadium has been known and used mainly for football matches. Having been upgraded in preparation for the 2010 World cup, where it was used as the base of the Paraguay team during the tournament, the stadium can be considered to be a significant asset to the city of Pietermaritzburg. To ensure the sustainability and longevity of the Stadium and identifying the significance of the stadium and the emerging sports precinct, the Msunduzi Municipality proposed more upgrades in order to diversify its use. To date the stadium is also used and able to host concerts and various other functions and events. With a new, state-of-the-art athletics stadium having been built next to the Harry Gwala stadium, the space in-between the two stadiums became a key component to ensure the efficient functioning of the overall sports precinct from both an access and aesthetics point of view. The development of a promenade that would connect the two stadiums and provide easy, safe and appealing pedestrian access to the stadiums was therefore proposed. The promenade would allow for a pedestrian connection between Princess Margaret Drive and Princess Elizabeth Drive, as well as a means if integrating the two stadiums to work as one sports precinct, whilst also creating an additional supporting amenity. The clients brief for this project can therefore be summed up as being the development of a safe and appealing promenade that links Princess Margaret Drive and Princess Elizabeth Drive whilst also being a link between the two stadiums and amenity for the overall sports precinct. The Brief also specified that the promenade needed to be accessible to all and an iconic space was to be created to enhance the character of the precinct. A key consideration was that the site needed to maintain pedestrian access to both stadiums. The landscape within the space needed to be as low maintenance as possible and improved safety through design interventions was essential. Alexandra Park Promenade can therefore be considered a significant public space for the city of Pietermaritzburg as its upgrade has afforded the overall sports precinct, the ability to host a variety of sporting and recreational activities. â€œIYER believe in designing spaces by considering how they should be experienced as much as how they should lookâ€?. This assertion and perspective is evidenced in the design thinking and overall approach applied in this project.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
SUPPLIERS Iyer Nathan Iyer, Lead Designer & Clive Tsimba, Landscape Architect Main Contractor: Mfiso Contractors cc - 033 398 5460 Comrades - 033 897 8650 Landscape Contractor: Gordon Stewart Landscaping 033 394 3218 Outdoor Gym Equipment: Green Outdoor Gyms - 010 593 7687 Paving Contractor: Kimar Polished Concrete - 031 564 3143 Product: Larfage Artevia - 011 657 0000 Electrical Engineers: EG Africa Consulting Engineers 033 342 1096 Product: Regent Lighting Solutions - 011 474 0171 Organic Supplier: Our compost supplier Farmyard Organics (Gromor) - 031 782 0002
Planting List: Agapanthus praecox Aloe chabaudii Aristida junciformis Bulbine frutescens Burchellia bulbalina Cotyledon orbiculata Cussonia spicata Dietes grandiflora Diospyros whyteana Ekerbergia capensis Euclea crispa Gardenia cornuta Grewia occidentalis Plumbago auriculata Watsonia pillansii
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
In creating this promenade, the firm saw this as an opportunity introduce organic and sculptural forms, incorporating seating, an outdoor gym, feature lighting and soft landscaping into this important space within the sports precinct. The use of coloured artevia was incorporated to create various diagonal forms that shape and define the multiple green spaces along the promenade. One of the key spaces along the promenade is a large organic shape that accommodates an outdoor gym, allowing the promenade to serve as more than just a movement channel but a public recreational space and amenity in its own right. A low red linear seat which defines the space and follows the diagonal forms, frames the southern edge of the promenade, undulating to meet the surface level as a dynamic form to be used as an informal skating edge. Purpose made column lights were designed for the site and centrally positioned along the promenade. The entrance to the stadium, is an enlarged hardened surface to serve as a place of gathering and forecourt to the stadium. A rich pattern is used to introduce it and better link it, to the broader context.
Gordon Stuart Landscaping Company was awarded the contract for the planting of the Alexandra Park Promenade in 2015. An initial landscape design was presented by Iyer, along with a detailed brief which needed to be slightly adjusted to accommodate plant availability, plants suited to local conditions and the conditions of the site. Planting commenced in December of 2015 and was finished in January 2016. The installation period was thus quite sensitive on time. The design allowed for massed sweeps of indigenous groundcovers and grasses, hedges and large banks of indigenous shrubs for screening and indigenous trees for shade and height. Plant species were selected for the project that were hardy and gave year-round colour and textural interest to ensure the garden remained attractive to the promenade’s users at all times. Attention was given to combining species in the garden to ensure textural and tactile interest to be visually stimulating.
dry summers. With limited access to water on site and the short installation period that was allowed, this proved to be a massive hurdle to keeping the garden alive and looking good for handover to the client. With massive amounts of compost and Gordon Stuart Landscaping’s high standard of soil preparation prior to planting, the garden not only looked good, but thrived in the excessively hot and humid conditions at the time. The contract allowed for a three-month maintenance period to be completed – which meant that Gordon’s team could ensure that for the critical first few months, the landscpaing would be able to mature in the capable teams good hands!
Over the time of the installation of the garden, Maritzburg experienced one of its hallmark hot
Iyer is an innovative design studio specialising in urban planning, urban design, architecture and landscape architecture. They have a proud history of planning sustainable city regions, delivering inspired public spaces and designing buildings with a pulse that remains timeless and true to both people and place. The practice has its roots in the major metropolitan areas of Durban and Johannesburg. The practice, operating from two major centres in South Africa, is involved with a wide range of urban development projects at a range of scales – locally, nationally and internationally. A core aspect of the practice is the interdisciplinary design approach that underpins the conceptualisation and execution of every project. Central to the approach of the practice is a belief in design as an agent of positive change, and as a key influence in enhancing liveability of cities and regions.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
PATERSON PARK PHASE 1, Johannesburg
Rehabilitated Stormwater Channel 3
Newtown Landscape Architects
Landscape Architecture Environmental Planning Urban Design Tel: 011 462 6967 www.newla.coza
Landscape Architects | Civil Contracting Landscape Contracting Irrigation Specialists | Wholesale Nursery www.endemic.co.za | 012 819 1186 | firstname.lastname@example.org BB-BEE Level 2
BRINGING NATURE BACK
Advance Seed offers a faster effective seed solution for seed-based rehabilitation to ensure the actual rehabilitation of the disturbed environment. AgriCOTE Enhanced Seed is used both for agriculture production and rehabilitative purposes. When it comes to a reliable rehabilitation process that is guaranteed to work, call us. Johannesburg: 8 Jacobs Street, Chamdor, Krugersdorp, South Africa, 1740 Tel: +27 11 762 5261 â€˘ Fax: +27 11 762 4111 Cape Town: Tel: +27 21 552 0456 Kwa-Zulu Natal: Tel: +27 33 346 0639
Location: Hilton Quarry, Hilton, Kwa-Zulu Natal Size: +-8.9ha Timeline: 2011- present Cost: Ongoing Initiative
P R O J E C T
T H R E E
THE OASIS OF SANCTUARY
HILTON QUARRY REHABILITATION PROJECT The Hilton Quarry in Kwa-Zulu Natal is home to a wonderful rehabilitation project, spearheaded from 2011 by Jo-anne Hilliar and Judy Panton-Jones, and, subsequently managed by Judyâ€™s team at JPJ Landscapes who took over this initiative. This project illustrates the rehabilitation of a once disused mining quarry, and, aptly showcases what can be achieved through many years of commitment and obvious involvement from the client. Through the dedication and hard work of JPJ Landscapes, Hilton Quarry now boasts a unique array of vegetation within a vast range of micro-climates and is a small oasis of sanctuary, for all the local wildlife to enjoy. This project rightfully won JPJ Landscapes a SALI Trophy of Excellence for The Best Environmental Landscape Work at the 2018 awards.
PORTFOLIO The Hilton Quarry rehabilitation project is one that was initiated with aims and objectives to restore the natural environment in this previously derelict space. During the1960s, this fourteen hectare piece of land was mined whereby the extracted igneous rock was utilised for the construction of the N3 National freeway.
passion. Parties involved The initial environmental report was compiled by Mark Graham of GroundTruth Water, Wetland and Environmental Engineering and covered the biophysical elements of the quarry at the beginning of the project. It provided guidelines and suggestions for rehabilitation procedures to be followed in the project’s early stages. Site visits enabled the assessment of opportunities for the rehabilitation and enhancement of the quarry, with the following aspects in mind: * Broader biodiversity throughout the sterile quarry environment * Birding and recreation * Education and research * Aesthetic value
After mining operations were over, the Quarry stood for many years and became totally derelict and was invaded by numerous Alien Invasive Species which had self-propagated across the quarry floor, cliff faces and along the water’s edge. The Quarry was totally devoid of any wildlife or native plant species. JPJ Landscapes have over the past 6 years been involved in rehabilitating the entire area, returning it to indigenous natural vegetation comprising grassland, wetland and woodland areas. The client’s private residence surrounds the quarry and together with their commercial and farming development around it. They possessed strong desires for this quarry to be both environmentally beneficial to the Hilton community and aesthetically pleasing for all residents and visitors of Hilton. The commercial properties overlook the rehabilitated Quarry and has hugely enhanced the corporate working environment.
JPJ Landscapes were involved in a phased execution of the project as follows:
Thereafter the natural indigenous plant species would be re-instated, whilst simultaneously introducing indigenous wetland, grassland species in a horticulturally and environmentally acceptable manner.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
For the planting phase of the project, JPJ Landscapes followed a naturalistic design that would mimic an indigenous landscape according to the various elements on the site.
The three main biomes were wetland, grassland and a woodland/forest theme and plants were introduced according to the given ecological areas of the site.
Phase 3: Maintenance • After the rehabilitation phase, a maintenance phase began whereby JPJ Landscapes introduced plant species over a period of time and environmentally sensitive AIS control spraying schedule to mitigate re-emergence of the AIS whilst allowing self-sustaining indigenous plant species, to recover and dominate the landscape. This also included the spraying of re-emerging species on the cliffs.
Phase1: Eradication • The project was envisioned as a long term one, with an initial eradication phase whereby the AIS would be removed. •
The initial eradication phase involved AIS on cliffs which required the use of specialised abseiling services to remove large Eucalyptus grandis, Solanum mauritianum, Persicaria capita and other alien invasive species.
Phase 2: Rehabilitation • The rehabilitation phase also included over-seeding with an indigenous grass seed mix and the planting of indigenous pioneer species.
The client was intricately involved during all phases of the project due to their strong environmental awareness and landscaping
As an Ecosystem the Quarry is preparing itself for spring where plant life will start blossoming after recovering from Winter.
An enchanting walk through the Hilton Quarry – Quarry floor with excellent coverage of Wild grass biome.
The Quarry Cliffs now free of AIS invasions
Stunning display of the Hilton Quarry where JPJ has been involved in the land rehabilitation of the site where it was completely covered in Alien invasive plant species - now looking beautiful with the natural vegetation being restored
Improved rains last year has increased water levels
indigenous plant material. The overall the appearance of the site has hugely improved.
Indigenous seed mix: AGT Foods Africa/ Advance Seed 033 346 0639 Indigenous Plants: Shalwyn Nursery - 031 781 1945 Herbicides: Spraychem - 033 387 2292 Spraying equipment: Rovic leers - 033 346 2727 Tools & Supplies: Build-it Hilton - 033 343 3284 •
It is a known fact around the Quarry Office Park that the Quarry project has increased the fauna population with an amazing increase in bird life!
There is great importance in rehabilitating a quarry where all natural resources were once removed. The Quarry story has become iconic in and around the Hilton community. Challenges and constraints A challenge that JPJ Landscapes faced, was the issue of the Dassie’s that foraged on indigenous vegetative species, especially during the winter and drought months. JPJ Landscapes were involved in the process of trying to relocate the Dassies under Ryan van Deventer, a professional veterinarian who transfers wildlife animals. Unfortunately this attempt was unsuccessful & they therefore had to choose plant species carefully to ensure they were nonedible for the Dassies. An ongoing eco-friendly herbicide control programme continues to ensure that eradication and mitigation of unfavourable flora is achieved and that the landscape flourishes with BEFORE
Ecological Restoration Over the years, ongoing composting, mulching & topsoil application changed the biophysical composition of the soil through the organic material adding nutrient value to the soil profile. As JPJ Landscapes built up the soil structure, wild grass species, bulbous plants and other indigenous species endemic to the area emerged. With this in mind, JPJ Landscapes follows a firm rule that emerging plants are not to be removed until they are identified. Weed species are eradicated, but other plants are allowed to propagate. This has resulted in a biodiversity of plant species at the Hilton Quarry, attracting many more butterflies, insect species, birds and other fauna. Key points of the rehabilitation philosophy were: • Appropriate and careful plant selection which would allow for floral adaptation to the local soil conditions •
Healthy plants to support and enhance natural ecological processes and overall biodiversity potential.
With the above in mind, re-vegetation species were chosen for their spreading root systems as the lack of soil depth meant that tree planting holes would be difficult to dig. Graham recommended Aloe barberiae, Ficus ingens and F. thonningi. The re-vegetation of wetland areas involved the planting of characteristic wetland species such as Typha angustifolia, Cyperus papyrus and Juncus effusus. These were recommended as they would provide the wetland with the ability to improve water quality and appearance. JPJ Landscapes has provided the horticultural,
landscaping and environmental direction, with contractual work and labour being provided by Dereck Ramsey Services, who completed the work under JPJ’s instruction. Thereafter, JPJ Landscapes continued with the maintenance of the quarry and control of alien invasive species, with assistance from Mike Farley, who offered environmental advice and expertise. Mike assisted with the abseiling down the cliffs to reach the alien plants and also cleared logs in the water using a chain saw and small boat. The logs were towed to the peninsula and burnt. Despite the quarry’s numerous challenges, JPJ Landscapes team of environmentalists Chris Barriga, Siya Gumede, as well as our professional weed controllers, Francis Dlamuka & Pilani Ngidi under good direction of Judy Panton-Jones, this project has been very successful. The process of restoration has taken six years to complete & is now transformed into an oasis of sanctuary for all wildlife to enjoy, as well as the client and the community of Hilton. THE QUARRY NOW RESCUED, RESTORED, REHABILTATED! SALI Award JPJ Landscapes received a Gold Award and the Tshala Plant Brokers Trophy for Best Environmental Landscape Work in the 2018 SALI Awards of Excellence. Information supplied by JPJ Landscapes and GroundTruth. Photos courtesy of JPJ Landscapes
A B O U T J PJ L A N D S C A P E S Landscape designer, consultant and trainer Judy Panton-Jones, offers a professional service to corporate and residential clients throughout South Africa & abroad. Judy is a qualified Horticulturist and her expertise has grown & has flourished since 1985. JPJ Landscapes offers a service portfolio that covers 6 distinct areas: 1.
Corporate Project Management / Consultation & Retainer Work / Alien Invasive Control Consultation Residential Consultation / Retainer Work / Gardener Mentorship Landscape Design & Installations Landscape Design & Horticulture School / Corporate / Public / In-house/ Government Recruitment for the Green Industry (Globally) Environmental Consulting & Rehabilitation.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
P R O J E C T
F O U R
UPGRADING PATERSON PHASE 1
The construction of Norwood’s four-hectare park has reached completion and the City of Johannesburg’s custodian of green spaces, City Parks, are happy with the outcome. The park boasts a natural look with newly constructed water streams flowing through it, fully landscaped and planted with pathways, play areas and two pedestrian bridges across the stream. It has been a unique project for the teams involved and has been selected for its use of water in the landscape. Pro Landscaper catches up with Newtown Landscape Architects, KH Landscape Architects’ and Chris Brooker to gain insight into this project.
Location: Norwood, Johannesburg Client: Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo Cost: 8 million (Phase 1 & 2) with 10% earmarked for Environmental Improvement. Timeline: September 2016- June 2018 Size: Paterson Park Total area of Paterson Park: 8.1 ha Short Road Park: 0.93 ha
ewtown Landscape Architects (NLA) was appointed as part of the civil engineering consortium of Chris Brooker & Associates (CBA) and Arup, to design the post construction rehabilitation of and new storm water culvert through the historic Paterson Park. The client for the development is the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA). The current underground culvert has become too small and poses flooding risks to the neighbouring residential area if un-attended. JDA had commissioned a Precinct Development Framework, compiled by Iyer Urban Designers. This identified the re-development of the old Recreational Centre, Bowling greens and surrounding area as a highdensity mixed-use precinct. CBA investigated a more sustainable storm water solution to the problem and came up with an open culvert designed as a naturalised stream. This then needed to be fitted in between the existing park elements which included historic elements and many old trees. NLA first compiled a master plan for Paterson Park which was workshopped with various City Departments and presented twice to the local community during the public participation process. NLA then focussed on the protection of the existing trees and the design of the planting to meet the rehabilitation requirements of Department of Water and Sanitation.
Incorporate linkages with the future Victoria Extension high density township
Ensure connection with the upgrading for the recreational center and the furture widens Patterson Road
Allow pedestrian circulation through the park along the stream and link to proposed new developments
KH Landscape Architects was appointed by Johannesburg City Parks and Zoo with the task of designing and supervising of implementation of the landscape upgrading of Short Road Park and Paterson Park phase 1 and 2. These parks are located between Orange Grove and Norwood in Region E, Johannesburg.
Allow bicycle pathway through the park in designated area
Allow nodes of activity for children’s play areas and outdoor gym areas
Allow for a public ablution facility
Implement public lighting in the park
This appointment follows on a master plan for Paterson Park that was developed by Newtown Landscape Architects and KH Landscape Architects for the JDA, completed in 2016. KH Landscape Architects and Newtown Landscape Architects collaborated on the preparation of the master plan to ensure walkways and recreation areas compliment rehabilitation areas to provide a cohesive park on completion.
Challenges with the introduction of naturalised storm water swale The new open culvert, much wider than the underground culvert, had to cut through the middle of the park. This luckily missed a most of the historic trees which were on the periphery of the park. But some had to be removed due to proximity to the new alignment. This wider excavation had to incorporate a flood protection berm on the eastern side of the park. The construction activity with large machinery almost obliterated the green space, by the time rehabilitation could start.
The Master Plan & Vision The vision was developed by Newtown Landscape Architects and KH Landscape Architects in collaboration with the project team for the Greater Paterson Park precinct: •
Unify the precinct through landscape design
Indigenous tree planting programme
Celebrate re-naturalisation of the stream
Draw Short Street Park into the Paterson Park public open space
NLA developed a diverse plant list for planting in the new flood plane, which had to be approved by the Department of Water and Sanitation. The Civil contractor was warned that these plants are not all commercially available and had to be procured in advance. The JDA required at least 30% of the project had to be implemented by SMME’s. Because of this, the landscaping became one of these subcontracts. Due to
limited experience and resources the plants were not procured in advance and thus the list had to be modified with DWS’s approval for what could be sourced at the time. Random Harvest nursery played a huge roll in assisting, sourcing and supplying the plants on the revised list of 21,000 plants. Plants and lawn had to be delivered in small batches to ensure it could be planted adequately. Due to delays in the civil contract, the planting had to be arranged to not take place during the rainy season, but rather to be planted in the middle of winter. In addition to the rehabilitation, three pedestrian bridges were planned to safely cross the naturalised channel. Crossing was initially made difficult because the area was lined with boulders and rocks of varying sizes with filter layers below them and topsoil spread over the top of them. These bridges also had to be procured via SMME’s and include as many labour elements as possible. The collaborative design called for a structure which floats in the landscape with reed like balustrades. The reeds were designed to be sourced from re-bar scrap via other building sites, as part of the sustainable initiatives set in place in Paterson Park. Challenges and special design considerations during the upgrade Paterson Park phase 1 has been a very rewarding but also challenging project to implement, from having to redesign a large component of the original scope of work due to access issues, to coordinating programmes and design conflict between three project teams in one precinct.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
SUPPLIERS Civil Contractor: Murray & Dickson Construction 011 463 1962 Plants: Random Harvest Nursey - 011 957 5356 Lawn: Evergreen Turf - 011 948 7913 Tree survey: Ulwando Bushclearing - 011 957 5956 Landscape Contractor: Endemic Developments cc - 012 819 1186 Play equipment: Microzone Trading 980 cc - 011 953 4540 Paving: Technicrete - 011 674 6900 Custom concrete furniture: Style DĂŠcor - 012 376 2454 Rubber surfaces: Seenarmoorvar - 082 324 5764 Signage: Deo Gloria Signs and Numberplates 011 760 6189 Solar lights: Leadsun - 021 276 1931 Submersible pump and irrigation equipment: SA Plastikor - 012 546 5900 Growing Medium: SA Organic Farming - 013 665 3932
The working areas included in phase 1 for Paterson Park, could not be accessed by the JCPZ contractor, due to ongoing delays on other contracts in the park. This meant that the Landscape Architect had to redesign other areas in the park, to ensure the budget was spent within the contract time frames. The city officials, project teams, community members, CLO, and contractors have all worked incredibly hard to accommodate one another and to work together for the greater benefit of the Paterson Park precinct. Additional space cleared for toddler play area in Short Road Park After clearing of very dense vegetation in the eastern portion of Short Road Park, a large area was uncovered for additional recreation facilities that were not included in the original designs. This gave rise to the additional toddler play area which was designed and added to the park. Storm water harvesting for irrigation Storm water and ground water flowing onto Sixth Road in Orchards, flows into Short Road Park. This water is then drained into the stormwater culvert system in Paterson Park. JCPZ and KH Landscape Architects undertook to harvest this stormwater for irrigation purposes. Endemic Developments assisted with a design to provide 5 6000l underground storage tanks with a submersible pump that provides irrigation for Short Road Park and Paterson Park. Overflow returns to the storm water channel system. The storm water project had to be accelerated as to not hold up the Recreation Centre construction. The design and implementation appointment was very optimistic however, with delays pushing the completion date to August 2017. What was planted? 21,000 plants were planted in the naturalised storm water swale or approximately 11,000m2, with 24,000m2 of Cynodon Gulf Green sods planted on the flood control berm. 30,000m2 hydroseeding was added to the shoulder of the stream and to protect denuded areas from erosion. 95 trees were planted and nearly 60 trees received tree surgery and crown pruning.
(Phase 2 will see the completion of walkways in Paterson Park, renovations of a historic ablution building and repairs to the Sons of England Memorial in the park, together with additional picnic and seating areas and planting of additional lawn. Construction has not yet started and currently awaits budget approval.) 46
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
PATERSON PARK STREAM RENATURALISATION Chris Brooker Director of Chris Brooker & Associates
The headwaters of many of Johannesburg’s streams have been confined to concrete canals or, even worse, covered over completely and sequestered in underground culverts, leaving the water courses devoid of ecological, aesthetic, and societal quality. This makes people regard the streams as drains to become receptacles for garbage and waste, with no public outcry even when the headwaters of our precious water supply become the outfalls for an overloaded and collapsing sewerage system.
of the existing culverts and channels did not meet modern standards, and cost estimates showed that the construction of a naturalised stream would be the same as the cost of rebuilding the concrete culverts to achieve the necessary capacity. Renaturalised streams require space that was not available in the planning for the Park south of Paterson Road, but north of Paterson Road more than 400 metres of natural river could be created to be the central feature of the revitalised Paterson Park.
to provide erosion resistance and the base for the ecological functionality. The underlying engineering philosophy – to use as little diesel as possible and let the flowing water do the work – drove the design. The engineering intention was to let the river decide for itself where it would establish its sand banks and pockets of vegetation. Flood water, that would escape from the lined channel from time to time, is contained in a wide, grassed floodway with gently sloping banks.
The Orange Grove Stream is one of the systems that has suffered this fate. Confined to underground pipes and box culverts from its source high on the Witwatersrand Ridge under the playing fields of King Edward VII School in Houghton, the stream briefly sees daylight at the Orange Grove waterfall before disappearing back into its box and staying there for a kilometre and a half, until allowed out into an ugly concrete channel at the Johannesburg Roads Agency’s depot at the north end of Paterson Park. Even under the Park itself the stream was covered over after much of its valley had been filled with coal ash, rubble and garbage.
Renaturalised rivers are an engineering, ecological and aesthetic challenge. They must be sized to contain the design flood flow and structurally robust to withstand the forces of the floodwater. They must provide an environment that will support a natural ecosystem with falls and pools, rapids and sand banks, and, most importantly, they must be beautiful and accessible, recreating the sense of place and tranquillity that the natural stream would have given.
The final product, facilitated by the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA), is a triumph for the three-way collaboration between ecology, engineering and landscape architecture, topped off by a contractor versatile enough to use heavy engineering plant to dig big holes and move boulders weighing several tons while still nurturing small plants and protecting trees.
Revival of the Paterson Park Recreation Centre, as part of the City’s Louis Botha Corridor of Freedom, gave City Transformation the opportunity to restore a little dignity to the Orange Grove Stream. The floodwater capacity www.prolandscaper.co.za
The reach of the Orange Grove Stream from Paterson Road to Louis Road is hydraulically steep and would rapidly have degraded into a donga if not protected. To meet this challenge the stream channel was formed into a series of small waterfalls with plunge pools using large boulders and lined with two carefully designed and engineered layers; at the bottom a gravel filter to protect the underlying soil and, above this, a layer of loose rocks later mixed with soil
Over the years we have implemented several similar schemes, Fourways Gardens, Killarney Golf Course, Weltevreden Stream, and the Jukskei River upstream of Bruma Lake are like Paterson Park, but too often, the City reverts to 1930s engineering and canalisation of water courses. Our rivers and streams are too important to be destroyed by ignorance and poor design, let’s honour them and ensure that we take every opportunity to undo the damage of the past and mitigate the impacts of development.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Focus On: Water Management
This month we look at the role of water in the landscape. Here you will find some inspiring products dedicated to water management.
BERA® Urbanscape, a natural waterbuffer BERA® Urbanscape is an innovative and easy to use water-wise system, comprised of three products BERA® Urbanscape Green Roll, Green Cubes and Green Flocks, depending on applications. All three are products retaining water and nutrients without any chemical additives. BERA® Urbanscape can be used in residential gardens, indoor plantscaping, sports fields, commercial spaces, green roofs, public parks and various complex green architectural solutions. The ideal product for landscape professionals, BERA® Urbanscape, is made from an absorbent growing medium spun of virgin rock mineral wool without any additives. The benefit of using BERA® Urbanscape is it reduces watering rates by up to 50% while increasing water retention. Other added benefits include, less use of nutrients, no chemicals required, improved soil quality, increased root growth and overall happier and healthier plants. www.bera-bv.co.za Installation: Roll On Product Camps Bay Home Roof Lawn: BERA® based in South Africa has been supplying smart, ecofriendly solutions for the last three years with great success to the landscape and construction industries.
Tilt Screens: Water Tank Screening Solutions Tilt Screens offers screening solutions to water tanks, allowing for an aesthetic solution to concealing the tank. They have recently been involved in a range of interesting projects where their screens provide the perfect solution to this problem; decorative cladding with access panels. To help conceal a water tank (Pictured), Tilt Stone pattern created the perfect cladding solution to complement the surrounds. Constructed with a frame, hinged opening and then cladded with our panels. Our solution means that these bulky water wise essentials are concealed, yet accessible. Their wide range of patterns with different opening sizes can create the perfect hiding place for so many building services. From contemporary organic designs to repeat mesh-like perforations, the options are so diverse and with the added design expression can bring more style to any build. There’s no end to the innovative uses of their panels. Tilt Screens have got it covered. www.tiltscreens.co.za
Green Roll, Green Cubes and Green Flocks, is derived from rock, zero binders, making it usable in eco sensitive environments, lasting the entire life-span of the green roof and saving up to 50% water. The example shown here is of a roof lawn application done in Cape Town, in September 2017, at the height of the drought challenges, using a BERA 12mm dimple drainage system which allows 30T/m2 and a geo-textile for extra filtration. Typically the saturated weight of the entire system incl. 100mm of soil is approx. 70kg/m2. The drainage system is laid with an overlap to the next one and Green Roll in 2cm thickness laid on top. Soil is then spread across ensuring sufficient coverage and growth for the grass. Instant lawn then rolled out a minimum 100mm above Green Roll. This application called for 150mm soil between the Green roll and the lawn. Applications with BERA® Urbanscape Green Roll have shown by retaining moisture on the roof. With Green Roll, a light-weight, thinner design is possible when using succulents of up to 50mm of soil. www.bera-bv.co.za
Lafarge: Hydromedia™ Hydromedia™ provides rapid stormwater removal from horizontal surfaces, reducing the risk of flash flooding or merely doing away with the annoyance of everyday puddles. Although the rapid drainage characteristic is achieved with a high voidage in the concrete, the unique formulation of Hydromedia™ makes it remarkably strong and durable: the cured concrete has a robust wearing surface that outperforms standard permeable paving. Available in a range of colours, the product is ideal for creating safer parking surfaces, walkways, driveways, tennis courts and swimming pool surrounds. The trend in outdoor paving is to choose a customised concrete solution that can provide an attractive long-life, low maintenance feature that adds value to a property. Lafarge’s innovative Hydromedia™ permeable concrete offers the combination of aesthetic appeal and durability in a cost-effective package. With the trend to designing ‘green’ buildings, lightweight Hydromedia™ (typically 70% of the weight of a standard concrete) is ideal for roof water harvesting. www.lafarge.co.za
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
JoJo Slimline Water Storage Tanks Itâ€™s always a good idea to encourage clients to invest in water storage tanks. JoJoâ€™s Slimline range, is a great option for those of us who live in cities, where limited space requires a snug fit into corners and down narrow walkways. Available in 750, 1000 or 2500 liter options, in the following formats: 1. Standard Tank Ideal to use as a buffer tank during water shedding, or with a Rainwater or Pump- Ready Slimline Tank in order to increase storage capacity. 2. Rainwater Harvesting Tank Supplied with an additional fitting for a tap, as well as a tap for easy access to your hose. It also includes a stainless-steel mesh that is fitted beneath the lid to keep out debris. 3. Pump-Ready Tank Ideal for municipal backup, as it comes pre-fitted with an accessory adapter and float valve at the inlet to control the fill height. It also has three outlets to ensure sufficient connections for a pump and linking in series. Rainwater Harvesting as a Water Storage Solution A rainwater harvesting solution consists of a tank that accumulates water whenever it rains. It requires the installation of a pre-filtration solution, as well as suitable guttering and piping to transport the rainwater to the tank. Simple to install, its advantages include self-sufficiency and the convenience of not being dependent on regulated water resources. For a basic installation, you will require: 1. JoJo Water Tank Size will differ based on space, application and personal preference. 2. Base/Plinth Tanks must be installed on a sound, level and smooth surface. Level paving will suffice, or alternatively a plinth needs to be built, ideally with a concrete surface bed of at least 85mm thick. The base should be at least 100mm wider than the tank. 3. Pre-filtration This improves the quality of the water entering into the tank. 4. 110mm PVC Pipes & Elbows These pipes will be used to transport the water from the gutter into the tank. Lengths and quantity will vary depending on the installation. 5. 20mm Tap Note, if not using a Slimline rainwater tank, an additional 40/20 reducer is required to fit a 20mm tap onto a JoJo water tank. www.jojotanks.co.za
I-CAT's EXLGel Specifications EXLGel is a super absorbent polymer: A hydrogel providing advanced water and nutrient management for plants. It Swells rapidly when it comes into contact with water and by applying EXLGel you can significantly reduce the irrigation frequency of your plants. EXLGel benefits the soil by Increasing infiltration rates and decreasing water runoff. It also Promotes the rewetting of soils and substrates; reduces soil erosion, reduces leaching of fertilizers and Improves the plants survival. It promotes rapid plant development and uniform plant growth and extends the shelf life of plants. It also activates sustainable root growth. Fields of Application Commercial horticulture; Landscaping ; Sod and seeding of grass; Plant transportation and storage; Nurseries, production plants; Inner-city ornamentals e.g. planting beds, roof top gardens, vertical planting, hanging baskets, noise barriers; Plantation of trees and shrubs ; Reforestation; Rehabilitation of soils and bare root dipping. www.planting.i-cat.co.za EXLGel instructions Step 1: Add contents of the EXLGel to 1 liter of water. Step 2: Stir the mixture. Step 3: Wait for 10 -15 minutes until the mixture swells to a gel-like substance. Step 4: Dig a required size planting hole. Step 5: Place plant in the hole then add mixture of the gel to the planting hole. Step 6: Close hole with soil, then water the plant.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
SUDPAVE SUDPAVE is a proudly South African product that was developed as a result of efforts to replace a product which was originally being imported. SUDPAVE is used primarily to control and limit the amount of storm water run-off from developed areas which are generally created by hard surface parking, roof, and drive areas. This product allows the rain water to permeate into the ground at its source, and as part of the “Sustainable Urban Drainage” system, replenishes ground water naturally. It can also form part of the collection medium where water recycling is a requirement. It offers the choice of either a naturally grassed parking area which, when not in use, could be a general recreational area; or the paver can be gravel filled for more regular use areas. A typical specification for SUDPAVE: A plastic permeable paver manufactured using recycled UV resistant polypropylene. Dimensions 500mm x500mm with open cell structure of 75% on the base, and 95% on the top, with a cell depth of 38mm with integral 27mm stabilizing spike and an interlocking ‘T’ push locking clip jointed system. The paver must have an un-filled crush resistance of up to 220 tonnes per square meter. Installation: Excavate ground to shape and level to achieve sufﬁcient gradient and load bearing. Depending on the sub-soil conditions and projected trafﬁc loadings, a geotextile and/or geogrid may be laid on the excavated surface. Cohesive soils may require subsoil drainage. Place and compact a suitable base course material to sufﬁcient depth to take projected loadings, (refer to guide in Table 1), ensuring that the area is shaped to sufﬁcient gradients to prevent ponding. A geotextile can be laid on top of the base course as a separation layer between this and the gravel bedding layer to prevent migration of the particles. This is essential when using a permeable, reduced ﬁnes base course but optional when using a road type base course. Install edging restraints. These can be concrete road kerbs or timber or metal strips depending on requirements or speciﬁcations. Place 50 mm bedding layer, of clean, angular sand over the base course layer, compact and screed to level. Lay Sudpave panels on the bedding layer working from left to right with the connecting lugs on the panel leading. Avoid standing directly on the prepared surface - stand on the SudpaveTM panels and ensure they interlock together correctly. Panels can be offset by cell increments or cut to shape using simple hand tools to ﬁt around obstructions and curves. The use of cut-pieces which do not have the correct unique, interlocking system should be avoided wherever possible. SudpaveTM also has integral stabilising spikes for steep slopes or heavy turning areas. Fill the panels with angular gravel to ﬁnished levels. 3 - 6 mm aggregate size is recommended as initial inﬁll & plate compacted. Larger gravel up to 19 mm can be used to complete the ﬁll for desired ﬁnish. Use a plate compactor to consolidate the ﬁlling material into the pavers. Fill any voids that show due to this process with more of the speciﬁed aggregate until satisﬁed with the ﬁnal compaction ﬁnish and leave ﬁlled material just covering the SudpaveTM panels. The surface may be trafﬁcked immediately. www.sudpave.co.za
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
NOVAP Deep Root Irrigation: The NOVAP Deep Root Irrigation System is a small, water-saving product that is buried next to plants, shrubs or trees, developed locally and perfected during the last 3 years. Backed by scientific reports and major rose nurseries and with approximately 20 000 units installed in South African gardens and mega farms, NOVAP is shaping up to be the next big thing in irrigation. By administering water to plants’ deep root systems, 100% of all evaporation is immediately eliminated, reducing the amount of water required by 50%. This in turn lessens weed growth, eliminates plant stress and improves plant growth and health in a way which needs to be seen to be believed. NOVAP is available in nursery- or bulk packs, each containing the following the NOVAP irrigation units, 12mm tubing, 5mm tubing, reducers and drippers. Installation Installation of NOVAP irrigation is a simple process. Prepare a hole (+- 250mm deep) next to your plants, trees or shrubs. Drop the NOVAP unit inside the hole and connect to your existing dripper or micros system using the included connectors and tubing. Fill the hole with the removed soil and compress slightly. Effectively, irrigation water is now being transported to the critical part of your plants’ deep root systems and not the top soil. Within weeks plants will start forming deeper, wider root systems and besides requiring 50% less water, will show dramatic improvement. No maintenance is required. Typical water saving example for a small garden installation: Connect 12x NOVAPS administering 2l/h to a 950l water tank for an irrigation solution. This solution will last 20 weeks, compared to 3 weeks using normal irrigation methods! A comprehensive FAQ list is available on our website, as well as installation instructions and videos. www.novap.co.za
Netafim’s Techline Netafim’s Techline range of drip irrigation offers the industry advanced, water conservation technology. The Netafim sub surface drip irrigation systems offer a comprehensive range of efficient solutions for commercial turf and garden bed areas. These systems apply the water at lower application rates directly to the grass roots or sub mulch for garden beds, ensuring every drop of water goes where it was intended. Netafim drip irrigation will maintain healthy, lush and rapid growth for all applications, including: Playing fields; Public open spaces; Schools; Resorts/hotels; Median strips; Roundabouts; Commercial buildings; General garden beds Futher Advantages Vandalism is eliminated as the system is out of sight. It allows a larger irrigation window and has the ability to apply fertilisers in a soluble form, delivered right to the plant root zone. The water saving aspect is certianly an advantage, as is the reduction in the amount of fertiliser required to maintain the plants.This presents a reduced labour requirement and reduced operational and maintenance costs. Installation at the V&A Waterfront’s The Grain Silo By Afrilandscapes The rooftop garden at the Grain Silo at the V&A Waterfront, which was completed in December 2017, uses a drip watering (or controlled irrigation) system as an alterative to conventional irrigation.
The Rain Bird® R-VAN line Get ready for the next generation in nozzle design! Our Rain Bird® R-VAN line is engineered to deliver the most efficient coverage while making installation and maintenance faster and easier. Rotary nozzles have evolved. It’s time to move irrigation forward. It’s time to advance with R-VAN. Rain Bird® R-VAN Adjustable Rotary Nozzles save more water and are easier to use. R-VANs thick streams and large water droplets cut through the wind to deliver water where you want it. R-VANs are easier to use thanks to its hand-adjustable arc and radius and now available in a complete range of adjustable and full circle nozzles from 2.4m – 7.3m with true matched precipitation across the range.
According to Julian Bartels, Afrilandscapes’s manager, the Netafim Drip Irrigation allows water to drip directly onto plants/the root zone, spraying water is not drifted away from plants, and no coverage of foliage prevents funghus in the longer-term. “Furthermore, the watering system has a negligible impact on the aesthetic appeal of the garden since piping is mulched and will eventually be overgrown by plants. “Leaks are easy to detect, since water pools at compromised spots”, he said. Afrilandscapes has built water-wise practices into all landscaping projects which they manage, from drip irrigation systems, to grey water use, to trapping rain water in tanks for future use. “No place is immune to drought”, says Julian, “so it’s also smart to prepare for the unknown by making your landscaped garden resilient to dry conditions, and importantly, to integrate watersaving into how you do business.” www.netafim.co.za
We also have our Rain Bird High Efficiency-VAN nozzle range offering even coverage throughout the spray pattern, delivering a healthy, beautiful landscape. Gentle close in watering, eliminates dry spots around the spray head. HEVAN nozzle allows you to shorten your sprinkler run times by up to 35%, saving you water and money. Even coverage makes them the perfect choice for homeowners looking to conserve water while maintaining a healthy beautiful landscape. Both our RVAN and HEVAN range of nozzles are certified at >70% distribution uniformity which is a measure of how evenly water is applied across an area during irrigation. www.rainbird.com The RainBIrd R-VAN Nozzle – A product loved by Irrigation Contractors. There are real performance advantages. Larger droplets and thick, wind-resistant streams result in more uniform coverage – even at long distances. You can improve your sprinkler efficiency by up to 30%. Gentle, rotating streams create uniform coverage at lower precipitation rates. The Advanced Multi-stream technology optimizes water absorption leading to healthier lawns and landscapes. The Rain Bird R-VAN has matched precipitation across the entire range resulting in even watering and easier design. From 2.4metre to 7.3metre radius or strip pattern applications, the Rain Bird R-VAN covers a wide range of applications. The Rain Bird R-VAN product is a nod to the future of irrigation!
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Hunter Industries: Hydrawise Software Hydrawise was originally developed in Australia during unprecedented drought conditions. With the input of landscape and irrigation contractors, Hydrawise has evolved over time, and is now an industry leader in the minimisation of water loss and the prevention of landscape degradation. The Wi-Fi-based Pro-HC controller with Hydrawise software provides time-saving irrigation site management capabilities from anywhere, anytime. Setup is easy and can be done with a standard web browser or through the Hydrawise app, using a wireless password. The Pro-HC also offers the ability to use local weather forecasts to automatically adjust watering schedules based on temperature, rainfall probability, wind speed, and humidity. These adjustments offer significant water savings since they are based on local, real-time weather conditions. With powerful yet easy-to-use Wi-Fi capabilities, the Pro-HC controller with Hydrawise software brings simplicity to irrigation control. This helps save water and protect landscapes — hallmarks of our commitment to providing customers world-class products that represent the forefront of irrigation management. www.hunterindustries.com Installation of Hunter Hydrawise Software: Francois Borman Fluidra Area Sales Manager www.fluidra.co.za Start by choosing a location with good Wi-Fi coverage. Wi-Fi coverage can be easily tested using a smartphone. Signal strength of 2 or 3 bars is recommended. PRO-HC - Mounting Controller 1. Use the hole at the top of the controller as a reference and secure a 25 mm Hilti screw into the wall. 2. Align controller with the screw and slide the keyhole on top of the controller over the screw 3. Secure controller in place by installing screws in the other mounting holes. The outdoor model is water and weather resistant. Connecting the outdoor Pro-HC to the Primary power should be done by a licensed electrician following all local codes. Connecting the Pro-HC to the power 230v 1. Route AC power cable and conduit through the 13 mm conduit opening on the left side of the bottom of the cabinet. 2. Connect the wires to the transformer wire located inside the junction box. International units are supplied with a built-in terminal strip. Always use a UL listed conduit (13mm ) male adapter when installing the AC wiring. 3. Insert the adapter into the (13 mm ) hole at the bottom of the controller. Attach a nut to the adapter inside the enclosure. 4. A battery is not required for this controller. Watering will not occur without AC power. Since this controller has non-volatile memory, the program, clock and calendar will be retained during a power outage. Wireless - Connecting to Network 1. Select your wireless network from the list shown on the controller display and press the Confirm button on screen. 2. Enter your wireless password and press the OK button on keyboard. 3. When connecting to your wireless, the WiFi Icon at the bottom right of the controller screen will flash. Connection takes about 30 seconds and when successfully connected the Wi-Fi Icon will stop flashing and stay on. Garden hose SMART ATSV™ by Cellfast This is a three-layer hose and is anti-twist, meaning it is resistant to knots blocking the stream of water. This features ATS variant™ tricot reinforcement and is UV stabilized, with the internal part resistant to algae It is durable and flexible and available in four diameters 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, 1 inch and can withstand a temperature range from −20/+60°С. The burst pressure is 25 bar (363 psi) the featured technologies include: Anti-twist, UV resistance, Anti-Algae and All Seasons purpose. These hoses come with a 5-year guarantee under normal operating conditions. Weeping hose DRIP This hose can be placed on or under the surface of the ground (recommended depth 15-20 cm. The water consumption will depend on working pressure 1 bar - 10 l/h per 1 m; 2 bar - 17,5 l/h per 1 m; 3 bar - 25 l/h per 1 m. It can run at very low water pressure which is a water saving benefit. The dripping hose works well for economical and precise plant watering and saves up to 70% of water by eliminating evaporation. The fixed nozzles are in place for quick hose connection. The best performance of this hose is while watering plant clusters (hedges, flowerbeds, rock gardens, vegetable gardens). www.cellfast.co.za
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
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KR AAI BOSCH NUR SE R I E S (P T Y ) LTD Suppliers of high quality exotic and indigenous plants since 1983 CONTRACT GROWING: YOU ASK, WE GROW! Kraaibosch Nurseries are wholesalers and suppliers of indigenous and exotic trees, shrubs, groundcovers, bedding plants, colour pots, roses, fruit trees and herbs to retailers, landscapers, property developers, municipalities, farmers, architects and contractors.
T: 044 889 0092 / F: 044 889 0109 firstname.lastname@example.org / www.kraaibosch.com
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Perfect Planting Palettes for Indigenous & Water Wise Gardening
Andy de Wet Director @ CND Nursery South Africa has always had limited water resources and the droughts in recent years have created severe water shortages. Consequently it is clear that all aspects of gardening will have to adapt to this harsh reality. In order to achieve amazing results and, contrary to common belief, drought resistant plants (and particularly succulents as well) do require good soil preparation when first planted as their healthy growth and particularly deeper roots will make them contribute best to the overall landscape. New cultivars have been developed specially for the industry and perform much better in gardens. The pure species from the wild are mostly adapted to very specific climatic conditions that cannot be duplicated
in a landscape project. The use of pure specimens like Aloe Marlothii has also, in recent years, encouraged an unprecedented plundering of the wild. Examples of good, small and drought resistant plants are Aloe HEDGEHOG and Aloe PERI-PERI. Medium aloes that work well are Aloe TIGER-EYE and Aloe ROCKET; other great, larger specimens are Aloe SAMSON and Aloe CHARLES. Your better agapanthus are BINGO BLUE, TWISTER and BUCCANEER. These plants and many more cultivars grow fast and easily, they flower for longer periods, and they have more flowers which have strong colours. CND Nursery and The Aloe Farm are the homes of De Wet Plant Breeders who grow and supply both wholesale and retail plant material to the industry. www.cndnursery.co.za
Marc Dawson Owner of Fridhem Farm Nursery When asked to provide advice on planting techniques as a solution to drought tolerant landscaping/gardening I always first answer by saying, “Remember we plant to make cooler, not hotter”. Everything has its place and I do not believe that succulents, cacti and stone chip are the only solution. We have to green-up, not brown-up. We need to start thinking long term when planning our landscape projects, as we cannot count on water as a buffer anymore. This is where I as a nursery man feel I can play a bigger role in plant selection, by growing garden ready plants. I get to monitor their growth and performance while preparing them for the trade. I am also prepared to consult and help with plant selection. By using appropriate plants and grouping them according
Anja Freysen Shadowlands Nursery The humble Spekboom (Portulacara afra) has long been known as a resilient and water wise plant. It’s the hardest working plant in your garden. Photosynthesising 24 hours a day, Spekboom is one of the highest carbon fixers in the plant kingdom. With so many new varieties available, gardening options are endless. Big and medium leaf Spekboom will give you height and bulk while the small leaf can be cut and shaped as you please. Add a splash of colour with yellow or variegated flat growing varieties, or frame a bed with the compact green ground cover.
to their water needs, drought tolerant landscaping/ gardening is achievable. Zoning is critical. Plants with similar requirements should be grouped together. This will be determined by the site's characteristics, i.e. shade, sun, wind, damp and low lying areas. Soil preparation is always necessary. Organics equal improved drainage, water retention and aeration. This all equates to better plant health. A well designed irrigation system with a controller, soil moisture sensor and rain sensor will save time, money and water. The result will be that plants only get water when they need rather than on a rigid schedule. Mulching helps to retain water, slows down erosion and stabilises the soil temperature. Practice appropriate landscape maintenance by monitoring watering, weeding, fertiliser application and correct pruning.
The yellow and green upright varieties lend themselves easily to clipped hedges, tall or short, or just let them grow into their natural shape. The prostrate varieties are excellent for retaining walls and borders, hugging the ground with dense shiny leaves. While these brave plants are water wise and hardy, they too respond well to a little extra love and water. Don’t expect them to give their best if they are in survival mode. Feed and water them and you will be rewarded with full and healthy plants. Mass plant them in blocks of their various colours and textures and you will have a PORTULACARA EXTRAVAGANZA!
WATER SMART GARDENING WITH TREES & LARGE SHRUBS Written by Suzanne-Francoise Rossouw-Moss Sales, Marketing and Admin Manager – Trees SA
South Africa is not a water rich country and with recent droughts, it has become more difficult to create the lush green gardens from days gone by. Fortunately, the people who are passionate about gardening and greening our cities still find ways to keep our country from becoming a dead dry waste land. Planning a garden according to the local climate and the water needs of plants is the best and most well-known method of gardening in dry areas. This is a complete mind shift for most gardeners but is becoming standard practice in the industry. Many gardens in our older neighbourhoods are dry and mostly dead. This would be due to a lack of water, but also due to a lack of knowledge and gap in our industry when it comes to educating our gardeners. Looking at our current drought situation in Cape Town, we can all see the types of gardens that are surviving all contain established trees & large shrubs, bulbs and succulent plant species. As trees and shrubs make up the backbone of every garden, they would be the most important plants to select when you plan an upgrade to an existing garden or if you are creating a garden from scratch. Why are trees and large shrubs important to a water smart garden? As an example: If you are in a large parking area at a shopping centre, the first thing most of us would look for is shade to park under. If the shopping centre is brand new, most trees would not be of any use as they only provide a small amount of coverage. This unfortunately then makes the parking area much warmer due to all the paved areas absorbing the heat from the sun. As the trees grow and become more
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
established, they will provide more shade, thus reducing the amount of heat being absorbed by the paving. This is the same for any other landscape, the fewer the trees, the warmer the surrounding area would be. Let’s look at the science… During the process of photosynthesis, trees make use of water, and water vapor is then released back into the atmosphere through the leaves when transpiration takes place. The surrounding area will be cooled down as a result and thus creating little microclimate in the garden. If trees are cut down, less water vapor will be released in the atmosphere making the climate drier and reducing the chances of rain in that area. What’s more, large trees also prevent water from evaporating too quickly from the soil. If you thus plant groundcovers or shrubs underneath, they will stay moist for longer periods of time when shaded by a tree. Also, when trees or shrubs are planted as wind filters, they will protect smaller plants from the prevailing winds, as well as reducing rapid evaporation of water from the soil. A network of tree roots from a well-established tree, will help to hold the soil together preventing erosion due to wind or rain. Tree roots reduce soil compaction thus improving the soil drainage. The more trees and large shrubs we have in gardens, the more rain water would then get the opportunity to drain into the soil. And lastly, the tree roots slow down water runoff and encourages water to penetrate the soil. To sum up – trees are pretty amazing for your garden! When it comes to the selection of trees for a water smart garden, look at species suitable to the local climate and the soil conditions in the garden. Most people will say you can only look at indigenous species, but if you consider exotic species that are also from a similar climate, they will also be suitable.
Let’s talk about the water for your trees Yes, watering of newly planted trees will be key to the establishment and survival of the tree at the end of the day. Plants grow better and establish much faster if they are watered slower, so the water has opportunity to drain deep into the soil. The best way of ensuring slow deep watering is to install a drip irrigation system in the garden. This type of system reduces water wastage and less water will evaporate when the system is running. It is very important to plan for a separate watering station when planting trees, as they will require deeper watering than small shrubs and groundcovers. So even though trees require more water than other garden plants and shrubs, you will be using the most watersaving method to apply the water and if you are planning the long-term survival of your garden through a drought, the established trees will be beneficial for your plants and shrubs and will not require water once established. Climatic regions are divided into: • Coastal fynbos -Western Cape & Southern Cape along the coast (Winter rainfall) • Karoo – Namibia, Northern Cape, Parts of Western Cape, Parts of Eastern Cape & Free State in arid areas (Mostly Summer rainfall, but areas in Western Cape will fall in winter rainfall) • Desert -Namibia & Parts of the Northern Cape (Summer rainfall) • Savanna – Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, KwaZulu Natal, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape (Summer Rainfall) • Grassland: Free State, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu Natal (Summer Rainfall) • Subtropical Coast -KwaZulu Natal (Rain year-round, predominantly in summer) The following trees can be considered when planning a water smart garden:
From this list, you can see that there are many options available for planning your next water smart garden by including the much-loved tree as a centre piece! In the long run, it will encourage the rest of the garden to become even more water smart than it would’ve been without a tree. Be smart, choose trees. www.prolandscaper.co.za
Japanese maple Trident Maple Breede River Yellowwood Outeniqua Yellowwood Real Yellowwood White Pear Coastal Silver Oak Tree Wisteria False Olive Sagewood Cape Chestnut White stinkwood Chinese Hackberry River bushwillow Forest bushwillow Red Elder Forest bushwillow Red Elder Assegai Karoo cabbage tree Common Cabbage tree Italian Cyprus Leylandii Cyprus Pompom Bladdernut Wild Pear Kei-Apple Cape ash Coastal Coral tree Common Coral tree Natal Wild Fig Broom cluster Fig Maidenhair Tree Cross Berry Tree Fuchsia Wild Plum Lavender tree Hibiscus Cape Holly Wild Peach Sausage Tree Tarwood Magnolia Apple Lance-leaf Myrtle Forest Elder False ironwood Wild olive Cheesewood London Plane tree Frangipani Henkel’s Yellowwood Red Stinkwood Pear Sawtooth Oak Algerian Oak Holly Oak Water Oak Pin Oak English Oak Cork Oak Cape Beech Quinine Tree Safsaf Willow Weeping Willow Monkey Thorn Karoo boer-bean Weeping Boer-bean Karree White Karree White milkwood Waterberry Water Pear Wild Camphor bush Natal Mahogany Sweet Thorn Paper Bark Fever Tree White Ironwood Pink keurboom Keurboom Chinese Elm
Acer palmatum Acer buergeranum Afrocarpus elongatus Afrocarpus falcatus Afrocarpus latifolius Apodytes dimidiata Brachylaena discolor Bolusanthus speciosus Buddleja saligna Buddleja salvifolia Calodendrum capensis Celtis africana Celtis sinensis Combretum erythrophyllum Combretum kraussii Cunonia capensis Combretum kraussii Cunonia capensis Curtisia dentata Cussonia paniculata Cussonia spicata Cupressus sempervirens ‘Stricta’ Cupressocyparis leylandii Dias cotinifolia Diospyros whyteana Dombeya rotundifolia Dovyalis caffra Ekebergia capensis Erythrina caffra Erythrina lysistemon Ficus natalensis Ficus sur Ginkgo Biloba Grewia occidentalis Halleria lucida Harpephyllum caffrum Heteropyxis natalensis Hibiscus rosa sinensis Ilex mitis Kiggelaria africana Kigelia africana Loxostylis alata Magnolia grandiflora Malus domestica Metrosideros angustifolia Nuxia floribunda Olea capensis Olea africana Pittosporum viridiflorum Platanus x acerifolia Plumeria rubra Podocarpus henkelii Prunus africana Pyrus communis Quercus acutissima Quercus canariensis Quercus ilex Quercus nigra Quercus palustris Quercus robur Quercus suber Rapanea melanophloeos Rauvolfia caffra Salix mucronata Salix babalonica Senegalia galpinii Schotia afra Schotia brachypetala Searsia lancea Searsia pendulina Sideroxylon inerme Syzygium cordatum Syzygium guineense Tarchonanthus camphoratus Trichilia emetica Vachellia karroo Vachellia sieberiana Vachellia xanthophloea Vepris lanceolata Virgilia divaricata Virgilia oroboides Ulmus parvifolia
SUITABLE CLIMATE Coastal Fynbos Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Karoo; Grasslands Grasslands Subtropical Coast Karoo; Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Desert; Grasslands Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Karoo Savanna; Grasslands Karoo; Grassland; Savanna; Coastal Fynbos Karoo; Grassland; Savanna; Coastal Fynbos Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos Desert; Grasslands Karoo; Grassland; Savanna Subtropical Coast Savanna; Subtropical Coast Grassland; Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Grassland; Savanna; Coastal Fynbos Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Savanna; Subtropical Coast Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Karoo; Desert; Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Savanna Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast; Grasslands Savanna Coastal Fynbos Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Karoo; Savanna; Desert; Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Savanna; Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Subtropical Coast Savanna; Grasslands; Coastal Fynbos Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands Subtropical Coast Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Karoo; Desert; Grasslands Savanna; Grasslands; Coastal Fynbos Grasslands Karoo; Desert Savanna; Grasslands Karoo; Desert; Grasslands; Karoo; Desert; Grasslands Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Karoo; Savanna; Desert; Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Grasslands; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Grasslands; Subtropical Coastal Grasslands Grasslands Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Coastal Fynbos; Subtropical Coast Savanna; Grasslands; Coastal Fynbos
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Adrian Geary of ENRICH Garden Design Studioâ€™s creates an essential indigenous, Water Wise garden in Cape Town.
A difficult site with poor soil; harsh weather conditions and a steep gradient was a worthy challenge for our design team. We needed to ensure a robust water wise garden which our client could enjoy and entertain in while providing a seamless transition between the mountain landscape behind; the garden and stunning views in front. Our focus was to ensure the house sat within a landscape that seemed to naturally surround it. Since the house was modern and expansive we needed the small garden to mirror this. Beautiful views of the Cape Flats were enhanced and planting styles were chosen to soften boundaries and edges but not to screen them. Our design approach considered the strong South Easter as a major factor which could transform the garden into something beautiful. We focused on capturing
the movement of the wind through Restios and grasses such as Elegia stipularis; Thamnochortus bachmanii and Aristida junciformis. We accented our palette with various bulbs of Chasmanthe and Watsonia and softened hard landscaping with larger shrubs of Coleanema album; Metalasia muricata and Rhus crenata. Gabions were used to level the garden and stylishly planted with swathes of Eriocephalus and Aristida. Helichrysum, Carprobotus and Gazanias were planted to cascade effortlessly over the stone finishing softening the wamth of the stones and built facade. A soft indigenous ornamental plant palette with accents of colour throughout makes up the quaint essential indigenous, water-wise garden. Landscape Installation by Ross McGill Landscapes. Pictures by Bruce Meissner.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
Plant List Verge: • Acacia (Vachellia) xanthophloea • Arisitida junciformis • Carprobrotus edulis/ Lampranthus spp • Dietes bicolour • Elegia stipularis • Elegia thamnochortus • Mimemets culculattus Around Driveway • Acacia (Vachellia) xanthophloea • Agathosma apiculate • Arisitida junciformis • Chasmanthe floribunda • Coleonema album • Diospyros whyteana • Elegia tectorum • Gazania rigens • Leucospermum cordifolium – red • Metalasia muricata • Rhus lucida/crenata • Senecio ficoides • Watsonia meriana Main Garden and LHS Alley • Agathosma apiculate • Arisitida junciformis • Buddleja auriculate • Chasmanthe floribunda • Coleonema album • Diospyros whyteana • Elegia equisetacea • Eriocephalus africanus • Gazania rigens • Helichrysum petiole • Leucospermum cordifolium – red • Leucadendron Laureolum • Leonotis leonuris • Metalasia muricate • Restio multiflorus • Watsonia spp. Gabion planting • Arisitida junciformis • Carpobrotus edulis • Eriocephalus africanus • Gazania rigens • Helichrysum petiole • Watsonia meriana bulbs
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
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BOOK CLU B Book: OVERGROWN: Practices Between Landscape Architecture & Gardening
JULIAN RAXW ORTHY
Author: Dr. Julian Raxworthy. Reviewd by: Wallace Honiball Landscape Architect @ GREENinc Landscape Architecture
O WALLACE H
This first meeting I had with Dr Raxworthy was in 2014. I was a final year landscape architect student at the University of Cape Town, and he was my supervisor. After a few interactions with him, I immediately realised that we both shared a similar interest in our profession, which was to create architecture, places and spaces with plants. To me, this is a very specific lens that Dr Raxworthy used to look at the discipline of landscape architecture which stood out in both his lectures and in conversations that I subsequently had with him about plants. In his book, Overgrown, Raxworthy analyses the two professions of landscape architecture and gardening. He makes the statement that their relationship has evolved away from each other into a negative, binary one. On the one hand, the profession of landscape architecture is seen to represent plants with drawings and simulations, while on the other hand, the profession of gardening is perceived to be a more direct and “hands-on” way to work with plants. Raxworthy goes on to investigate this binary relationship in his book and argues against this split mode of practice. Instead, he states that practitioners should move towards an act of reconciliation. He claims that in doing so the differences between the two disciplines could, in fact, be viewed as opportunities
to add value to one another. He also uses the term ‘the Viridic’, an adaptation from Kenneth Frampton’s architectural idea of ‘the Techtonic’, to explore plant growth as a central theme in the book. To him, the majority of designers who work with plants, tend to disregard the factors of both plant growth and time when they use plants to shape spaces in gardens. He draws on the morphological characteristics inherent within plant growth as a scientific argument for this observation. In addition, Raxworthy also states that both disciplines should not overlook the manipulation of plant growth that occurs in garden maintenance for effect. Instead, he points out that vegetal form needs to prioritise plants as living entities that grow and adapt in their environment through different stimuli.
The findings from the book provide both gardeners and landscape architects with a series of tools to optimise the way in which they need to work with plants in gardens. This makes the book both a valuable think piece and an item to utilise in everyday practice.
The book is divided into six chapters. Each one concentrates on different aspects of plant growth that ranges from vegetal architecture, change, flux as a state of gardening of the garden, marginalia and time. The examples he cites to demonstrate these aspects range from the 16th-century garden designed by Andre Le Notre to an experimental garden at Marnas, designed by Sven-Ingvar Andersson. He concludes the book by putting forward a manifesto for change that he developed from his hypothesis of ‘the Viridic’.
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
WHY I Where did your love of Horticulture begin? Quite accidentally, actually when working as a HR assistant for the Department of Public Works, just after matriculating. I was offered the opportunity to work in the gardening section of this Department at Grootte Schuur Estate (Home of the State President and ministers) for three days. I remember taking a walk through the estate under the ancient oak trees, passing the massive rose garden, masses of Hydrangeas in a garden bed shaped like a horse’s hoof, ponds and immaculate lawns and garden beds and thinking to myself: This isn’t work… This is the life! I was transferred to this section and I cannot even fathom not working in, or, just being amongst plants or nature. Who, would you say, has influenced your career? As a first-year student and working in immaculately landscaped and maintained gardens, the focus was mostly on presenting the perfect picture. My entomology lecturer taught me that the most important thing about a garden is the life within, not that every flower petal and leaf looks perfect. If you don’t see any bugs flying around, or at least an indication in the foliage that something was foraging, your garden is dead. That became my plant protection motto. Where do you see your profession rogressing in the next 3 years? I believe that horticulture is moving strongly in the direction of feeding the growing population, with an emphasis on using our resources sustainably. I also see that landscaping for 62
Pro Landscaper Africa | March 2019
human health is becoming increasingly important, especially in urbanized cities where it is much needed to unwind after long hours of work. Where might we see some of your projects and who would you most like to work with? As a horticulturist at Grootte Schuur Estate and Tuynhuis there was never a dull moment. I loved the variety and adrenaline of working at a fast pace with continuous functions, including the opening of parliament that required long hours of flower arranging and plant decorations. Also the four seasonal displays of annuals and perennials, the massive rose gardens, garden beds, hydrangeas, vegetable gardens and lawns all of which were kept in perfect manicured state. Another project that I thoroughly enjoyed was being part of the landscaping team when Ratanga Junction Theme Park was built. I oversaw the nursery, propagating and sourcing of plant material for the landscape architects and thereafter the maintenance of the jungle and the canal system. The jungle theme inspired me to focus on forests, which have always fascinated me. The health and conservation of these ecosystems have become my focus and passion. The forest biome is the smallest in South Africa, rich in biodiversity and the benefits to human health and well-being is countless.
ANNE-LIESE KRÜGER I count myself lucky for the wide variety of horticultural projects I was involved with and the further opportunities that came on my path to grow even further in this field. I completed a PhD in environmental health and was privileged to do my research in our ancient forests on Table Mountain and Platbos to determine the health of the ecosystems amongst air pollution. I see the forests as yet another garden with different challenges. Isn’t that our aim as horticulturists? To create, maintain and protect… Your favourite landscaped area in South Africa? Most definitely Babylonstoren in Simondium with its incredible botanical diversity. It possesses all the qualities that I love about horticulture: beautiful design, food, flowers for your vase, tranquil corners, natural areas and trees that remind of raw nature.
Obstacles and achievements? The horticulture department was always the first to endure budget and labour cuts, which was my biggest frustration. www.prolandscaper.co.za
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