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GRAPHIC DESIGN BASICS CURRICULUM RESOURCES

VOLUME ONE PRINT TECHNOLOGIES BASIC TYPOGRAPHY GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GRAPHIC DESIGN BASICS CURRICULUM RESOURCES

VOLUME ONE PRINT TECHNOLOGIES BASIC TYPOGRAPHY GESTALT PRINCIPLES


OUR CONTENT First year graphic design classes cover a lot of standards that are universal. Teach Design 101 develops class content on the basics like beginning typography, print technologies and Gestalt principles. These useful tools can have a strong base to build your own curriculum from.

WHAT’S INSIDE PRINT TECHNOLOGY Understanding the printing process is an important part of a designers job. If your students don’t have some basic knowledge of how these processes work, their future clients may get short-changed on the final project. BASIC TYPOGRAPHY One of the most important skills that your beginning students need to master is typography. Getting a handle on basic teh vocabulary and basic typesetting like kerning, leading is essential to their success as future design professionals. GESTALT PRINCIPLES Gestalt principles are an essential part of helping your students understand how the viewer organizes visual information. This will help them communicate messages visually in a more effective way.

USAGE RIGHTS This content is for educational use only and can not be distributed for any other use. The resale of this material is strictly prohibited. For more information visit us at teachdesign101.com

GRAPHIC DESIGN EDUCATORS’ RESOURCE

TEACH 101


PRINT TECHNOLOGY


“The invention of the printing press was one of the most important events in human history.” —Ha-Joon Chang


PRINT TECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS 02

THE HISTORY OF PRINT

06

LETTERPRESS

08

FLEXOGRAPHY

10

LITHOGRAPHY

12

ROTOGRAVURE

14

SCREEN PRINTING

16

LARGE FORMAT

18

DIGITAL


PRINT HISTORY Mankind’s earliest known attempt at a visual recording of events dates back 30,000 years in the form of cave drawings. Over time, these pictographs developed into more complex ideographs, cuneiforms, and hieroglyphics. In about 1200 BC the ancient Phoenicians developed the first formal alphabet. This drove the desire to formally communicate and from the development of paper and ink to the ability to print using movable type, we continue to improve our ability to communicate through printed type and image.

First known Alphabet developed by the Cretan

Ts’ai Lun invented paper in 105 AD. It was

in 2800–2000 BC

soot and mixed with glue or oils.

from clay in 1041 AD. Gutenberg created the multiple prints was possible.

Lithography was discovered in 1798 creating

Photography was invented in 1839 and the

Wei Tang created the first block printing ink in China in 400 AD. It was made from lampblack or

In China, Pi-sheng created the first type movable type press in 1440 AD that printing

passed on to the West through the Arabs and by 1200 AD it was being manufactured in Spain.

a method to print detailed illustrations.

halftone screen for photoengraving in 1852, reducing the need for hand engraving plates.

CAVE PAINTINGS AT L ASCAUX 15,0 0 0 -10,0 0 0 BC

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF PRINT

02


The development of printing by Johannes Gutenburg in 1440 is said to be the most important invention of the second millennium.

EARLY PRINTING Gutenburg combined movable cast metal type, ink, paper and a press to produce printing in 1440 AD. The relief printing process is very similar to the letterpress process we still use today. Early wooden printing presses could produce up to 240 impressions per hour. Being able to print multiple copies of the same book, at that time mostly the Bible, helped to get information to the masses. It’s not a coincidence that the invention of print coincided with the end of the Middle Ages. With the development of the printing press came the new skill of casting metal type for printing. Nicholas Jensen is the founder of the Roman typeface, using the Venetian manuscripts as an example. He was not the first to use Roman letters but he created such a well designed typeface that there have been no significant improvement since. JOHANNES GENSFLEISCH ZUR L ADEN ZUM GUTENBERG MADE AFTER HIS DEATH.

03

THE HISTORY OF PRINT

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


PRINTING ADVANCEMENTS The first cylinder press where the paper was carried on a cylinder, was invented in London in 1814, Increasing print speeds to 1100 sheets per hour. The first rotary press where the type itself was on a rotating cylinder was developed in 1847 in the U.S. by Richard Hoe. This increased the speed to 2000 impressions per hour. The process of lithography was discovered in 1798.

PHOTOENGR AVING The invention of photography in 1839 and the halftone screen in 1852, led to the invention of Photoengraving. It reduced the need for plates to be hand engraved and instead they used light sensitive coatings to help make plates and cylinders.

LINOT YPE/MONOT YPE

Based on the idea that oil and water don’t mix, Alois

For 400 years after the invention of the print-

Senefelder’s process using a grease crayon, gum

ing press, all type was set by hand. The first

arabic and ink was capable of reproducing very fine,

commercial machine to mechanically set type

detailed illustrations. In 1906, the offset press was

was the Linotype machine created by Ottmar

discovered by accident when Ira A. Rubel printed on

Mergenthaler in 1886. Much like its name,

the blanket instead of the paper.

this machine would set lines of copy.

DIGITAL PRINTING

Tolbert Lanston followed it up with Monotype a year later. Monotype could set individual

Digital printing started in 1970 with the inkjet printer.

letters mechanically. He actually had to create

Laser printers followed in 1978 and the color laser in

a mathematical model for justification to

1990. The first digital press, the Indigo, was released

make sure the type could be set into lines

by Xerox in 1993. The digital revolution in typeset-

properly. His work became the basis for what

ting occurred in 1985 with the imagesetter and the

would become computerized typesetting.

raster image processor (RIP) and desktop publishing was born.

1940 PRESS SHOP KENTUCK Y, USA. © L AFAYET TE STUDIO 1940

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF PRINT

04


THE HISTORY OF PRINT Cave paintings at Lascaux

2800-2000 BC

15-10,000 BC

150 AD*

First Alphabets Cretans & Phoenicians

Printing Press arrives in Mass.

1638

1692-1700

Paper is invented China by Ts’ai Lun

William Caslon develops oldstyle typeface

1732

1890

Photography invented: Louis Daguere (France)

Lithography Discovered by Alois Senefelder, Munich

1887

1886

1970

1847 First rotary press Richard Hoe (U.S)

1856

1851

1975-1997 Significant changes in digital imaging for platemaking

1993

Imagesetter & RIP foster the development of desktop publishing

The world’s first digital printing press; Xerox, Indigo

05

Halftone engraving discovered: Fox Talbot

First Web Press William Bullock(U.S)

Computers advance to improve electronic typesetting with Video Display Terminal (VDP)

First “offset”rotary press, Ira A. Rubel. The first multi-color gravure print by Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company

THE FUTURE

1839

Commercial Typecasting: Linotype, Ottmar Mergenthaler

Monotype (the basis for computer typesetting) by Tolbert Lanston

1906

1040 Gutenburg first to combine movable type, ink paper and press; Germany

1798

First Flexography Press in England; “Bibby’s Folly”

First Movable Type China Pi-Sheng, China

1470

First Printing Press arrives in Mexico

Benjamin Franklin Published Poor Richards Almanac

Black ink perfected for block printing Wei Tang, China

Nicholas Jenson Formed current Roman typeface structure 1440

1538

400

THE HISTORY OF PRINT

1985

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


RELIEF PRINTING

LET TERPRESS Letterpress is the earliest form of printing, starting with the Gutenberg press in 1440 BC. Reproductions are produced by the repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper. Movable type is composed and locked into the “bed” or “chase” of a press, inked, and pressed against paper to transfer the ink from the image carrier.

• • •

Letterpress is known for its hand-done quality and artisan feel. An impression is made into the paper, creating a textured or embossed surface. Letterpress is best for typography and clean, simple illustrations.

Letterpress works well with fine typography

Rotary letterpress presses can be used for

Letterpress is used for art prints, invitations,

and illustration.

printing commercial labels.

posters, book arts, greeting cards, labels, and business cards.

IMAGE BY CORY DOCTOROW; PRINT-SHOP BEAMISH, DURHAM, UK

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

LETTERPRESS

06


ADVANTAGES

PRESS T YPES

Handmade/High-Quality: Creates crisp,

Platen Press

clean lines and bold images.

Both the paper and the relief plate/lock-up are on flat

Paper Versatility: You can print on almost

surfaces known as the platen and the bed. The press

any paper. Straightforward Process: Easy to learn and small presses are accessible.

opens and closes like a clamshell and is used for small jobs like invites and business cards. Flatbed Cylinder Press The typeform is placed on a flatbed and the substrate is carried on a rotating impression cylinder.

DISADVANTAGES

Rotary Press

Slow process: Long make ready times and

Utilizes a rotating plate cylinder that has a curved

hand work creates long lead times.

metal relief plate. Narrow web rotary presses utilizing

Development: Considered old technology, with no new advancements. Photography: Does not reproduce full color photography very easily.

photopolymer plates and ultraviolet curing inks, are capable of high-speed printing. Belt Press A belt press is used for the high-speed production of books. The press consists of two belts and paper web is fed through the press at speeds of up to 1,200 feet per minute.

RELIEF PROCESS The printing area is on the same plane as the print substrate the non-printing area is below the substrate surface.

impression surface

substrate

plate

07

ink

LETTERPRESS

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


RELIEF PRINTING

FLEXOGRAPHY Flexography or “flexo” is a form of relief printing that uses a flexible relief plate. It is sometimes called a modern version of letterpress. It is fast at 2000 ft. per minute on smooth surfaces and can be profitable even on short runs. The process was patented at the end of the 19th century and the print quality was quite poor until the development of the anilox roller, which controls the amount of ink that is applied to the printing plate.

Flexography can be used to print on almost any substrate; plastic, metallic films, cellophane and papers.

Long make-ready times make it most suitable

The anilox roller meters the amount of ink

Flexo is used for labels, wallpaper, folding

for large volume printing.

It is good for printing continuous patterns on a

You can print 10 or more colors, including

cartons, plastic bags, gift wrap and packaging,

metallic and fluorescent inks.

especially on flexible materials.

roll like wrapping paper and tissue.

Above shows the CMYK printing plates transferring ink toa flexible

applied to the printing plate for better quality.

PHOTO BY MORENO SOPPELSA

packaging substrate.

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

FLEXOGRAPHY

08


ADVANTAGES

PRESS T YPES

Versatility: You can print on a vast amount of

Central Impression Press All color stations are in a

substrates especially non-porous substrates

circle around a large impression cylinder. This set-up

like plastic.

makes holding registration easier but is not efficient

High Speed Production: Flexo uses inks that

for two-sided printing.

are low-viscosity and fast-drying with minimal

Stack Press: Each of the color stations are stacked

clean-up time for increased print speed.

vertically, some configurations using two parallel

Lower Costs: High-volume, high-speed production and lower maintenance costs make it significantly cheaper.

stacks of printing units. The ease of reversing the web allows for both sides of the substrate to be printed in essentially one pass. In-line Press: Separate color stations are mounted

DISADVANTAGES

in a horizontal line from front to back. A narrow-web

Distortion: The flexible plate will cause

widths. They often have inline converting operations

inline press can handle a wide variety of substrate

distortion that must be accounted for.

such as bag making, carton cutting and creasing,

Make-ready Time: Presses are fully set by

embossing, label or form sheeting.

hand, making for long press set-up.

Sheet Fed: Individual sheets are fed through a press

Registration: The registration needs to be

and can print on either the top or bottom. It is used

manually adjusted and closely monitored.

mostly for corrugate boxes and substrates that can’t run through a web

RELIEF PROCESS The printing area is on the same plane as the print substrate the non-printing area is below the substrate surface. impression surface

substrate

plate

09

ink

FLEXOGRAPHY

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


PLANOGRAPHIC PRINTING

OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY Offset Lithography uses a planographic process where thin aluminum metal or polyester plates have the image and non-image area on the same plane. It is based on the fact that oil (ink) and water do not mix. In printing it uses the offset principle in which the ink is offset from the plate to a rubber blanket and then to the paper. Unlike other print processes this allows for a “right-reading” plate.

Produces smooth transitions of color and tone

Offset web presses can print at very high-

Plates can be reviewed easily because they

allowing for high quality photographic imagery.

speeds producing over 3000 ft. per minute.

Water is applied to the plate before ink is

Computer-to-plate technology has sped up

Offset printing is commonly used for printing

applied so that the non-image areas resist ink.

plate-making time considerably.

are right-reading rather than produced in the

books, labels, catalogs, brochures, coupons

reverse like in relief and intaglio printing.

packaging and art reproduction.

The top roll pictured is the right-reading plate and the bottom roll

IMAGE COURTESY OF WWW.PRINTCITYNY.COM

is the rubber blanket which will then apply the ink to the paper.

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY

10


ADVANTAGES

PRESS T YPES

High Quality Imagery: The rubber blanket

Sheet-fed: Individual sheets (approx 25 in. x 40 in.)

conforms to irregular print surfaces improving

are fed into the press and mechanical registered so

quality of half-tones on rough papers.

the sheets relate to each other and the images are

Cost Efficient at Higher Quantities: You can run at high-speed with little maintenance and plates can last longer because they are

printed in the same position. It can print on both sides at speeds of 18,000 plus impressions per hour Blanket-to-Blanket: A web-fed press (prints on a

not in direct contact with the substrate. This

roll) that can print on both sides simultaneously as

helps with cost efficiency at higher quantities.

the blanket cylinders act as the impression cylinders.

Ink Control: The press operator can adjust

Blanket-to-Steel: A web-fed press that has narrow

the amount of ink applied to the ink roller for

plate and blanket gaps. Considered a one color

greater density in the areas needed.

press. Can only print on one side and turning bars are used to turn the paper over during printing

DISADVANTAGES

Keyless offset: This web-fed press using fresh ink

Oxidation: The plates can be sensitive to oxidation and will print in non-image areas. Make-ready Costs: The time and cost associated with plate making and press set-up makes offset expensive at lower quantities.

for each impression by removing residual ink on inking drum. Good for printing newspapers. Variable-size. A web-fed press that has the ability to create variable print lengths by using removable printing units, inserts or cassettes.

PL ANOGR APHIC PROCESS The printing and non-printing areas are located on the same plane. The difference between the two areas is maintained either chemically or by physical properties.

impression surface

substrate

water-receptive surface

ink ink-receptive surface

11

plate

OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


INTAGLIO PRINTING

ROTOGRAVURE Rotogravure is an intaglio printing method which utilizes engraved cylinders. The image areas are etched into the surface of the cylinder as a collection of tiny cells. The cylinder rotates in an ink fountain, ink collects in the cells, and excess ink is scraped from the non-image areas. The substrate is passed between the gravure cylinder and a rubber-coated impression roller, and ink is transferred.

Gravure is extremely high-quality printing, well-suited for a variety of non-paper sub-

strates at high-quantities.

It can print continuous patterns in a wide size

The print cylinders are usually a steel base

range for product like gift wrap or wallpaper.

that is electroplated with copper, engraved, polished and electroplated with chrome.

The impression surface is covered with rubber to help push the substrate toward the engraved cells filled with ink

Most presses are web-fed and can print up to

Gravure printing is used for packaging, uphol-

10 ft. wide

stery, long-run publications, gift wrap, and printing on vinyl and plastic laminate.

PHOTO COURTESY OF R=PAC GLOBAL PRINTING

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

ROTOGRAVURE

12


ADVANTAGES

PRESS T YPES

High Quality Imagery: Gravure has a high

Standard Web-fed Gravure Press: This is the most

density range and can print very fine type

common method that has Individual color stations

and lines down to 1pt. It has tight registration

and can print up to 10 ft. web widths. Pony presses

and is ideal for fine art/photography printing.

have a maximum of 40 in. widths, but can print both sides to compete with offset web.

High Speed Production: Publication runs can achieve 45 ft. per second, and an 8 unit

Sheet-fed Gravure: Mostly used for press proofing,

press to print up to 7 million pages per hour.

corrugate printing, and fine arts posters.

Versatility & paper size: It can print on

Offset Gravure: Used for some substrates that have

non-porous substrates like plastic, on webs up

irregular surfaces. A rubber covered transfer roller

to 10 ft. wide. It can use unique inks like UV,

is used similar to offset lithography. It often uses

metallics and fluorescents.

a converted flexo press, replacing the anilox roller with the gravure cylinder and the offset blanket for the flexo plate cylinder.

DISADVANTAGES

Other—Electrostatic Assist: created to prevent

High Start-up costs: The cost of engraving

“skips” or missing halftone dots due to substrate

makes it only affordable at high-quantities.

imperfections. It uses an electrostatic charge on a conductive blanket on the impression cylinder.

Lead Times: Cylinder engraving is done offsite at a specialized facility causing longer lead times for production.

INTAGLIO PROCESS The non-printing area is on the same plane and the printing area is etched or engraved below the surface. impression surface

substrate

plate ink

13

ROTOGRAVURE

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


POROUS PRINTING

SCREEN PRINTING Screen printing is a porous printing process using a rubber squeegee to force ink through a fine screen made of silk, nylon, Dacron or stainless steel. This can be a simple, manual printing method or it can be done commercially with more automated screen printing machines. There are also rotary screen printers that print in repeat for products like textiles and wallpaper.

You can screen print on almost any substrate

Screen printing inks have the consistency of

including fabrics, plastics and various papers.

thick paint and the ink laydown is greater than

It is a unique short-run process that is labori-

emulsion and the non-image area is exposed to UV light so it hardens, creating the stencil.

Using a heat or UV flash curer between each

Screen printing is used for apparel, signage,

any other process.

The screen is coated with a light sensitive

color helps to set the inks and avoid mixing.

ous to set up and slower to print, although it is

posters, greeting cards, wallpaper, balloons and

getting faster with automation.

party items, textiles, art prints and menus.

PHOTO COURTESY OF DETROIT T-SHIRTS LLC

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

SCREEN

14


ADVANTAGES

PRESS T YPES

High Level of Vibrancy: Because of the thick

Manual Press: This screen press has stations that

ink laydown, screen printing creates vibrant

rotate around a center unit. The substrate is placed

colors even on darker substrates. It is also

on the platen, the ink is screened on by hand, and

used for specialty inks like glow-in-the-dark.

the stations are physically rotated.

Versatility: You can screen print on almost

Flat Screen Press: This press can be in a line or

any substrate including ceramic, wood, metal,

oval with automated squeegee bars and registration.

textiles and latex.

The substrate can be hand fed or have a conveyor

Simplicity: You can set up a screen printing station in your garage or basement relatively easily making it accessible to everyone.

moving the substrate through. The creation of automated screen presses have increased production to approx 1800 t-shirts per hour. Rotary Screen Press: The screen is a cylinder and

DISADVANTAGES

the squeegee and ink are on the inside. Magnets are used to keep the cylinder in contact with the sub-

Slow Process: Even on automated presses,

strate because the screen would bend if put against

handwork is required and production is

an impression surface. This type of press is used for

slower than other print processes

repeat patterns like on textiles.

Limited Imagery: This is a lower line-screen process that can not reproduce vivid photos and is best when printing spot colors.

POROUS PROCESS The printing area is on a fine mesh screen where the non-print areas are blocked to stop the flow of ink.

squeegee blade screen ink

substrate impression surface

15

SCREEN

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


PLATELESS PRINTING

L ARGE FORMAT Large (Wide) format printers are commercial inkjet printers. Jets of ink droplets driven by digital signals print directly on the paper without a press or copier-like device. Large format printers can support a maximum print roll width of between 18 in. and 100 in. Printers with capacities over 100 in. wide are considered Super Wide or Grand format.

Large format printers are more commonly roll-

Signs are often laminated with hot (thermal-set)

fed but can be sheet fed also

or cold (pressure sensitive) lamination.

More economical than other print methods for low quantity print projects, depending on size, and type of substrate.

Printers can have up to 12 ink stations that include: cyan, magenta, yellow, black, red, green, blue, matte black, light cyan, light magenta, gray and light gray

Large format printing is used for trade show graphics, banners, wallpaper, murals, vehicle wraps, posters theater/media, schematics and architectural drawings.

BY DAVID MORGANS, COURTESY OF KING AND MCGAW , NEW HAVEN

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

LARGE FORMAT

16


ADVANTAGES

L ARGE FORMAT T YPES

Vivid Color: Ink Jet inks can produce vivid

Aqueous Inkjet: Uses water-based inks that are

color and the addition of red, green and blue

environmentally friendly and do not contain solvents.

create a higher gamut than normal CMYK

Prints the finest resolution and some have up to 12

process printing.

ink stations for a large color gamut. Relatively inex-

Substrate Size: With rolls up to and beyond 100 in. wide, large format printing is ideal for

pensive, but lamination is used to increase durability. Solvent Inkjet: Produce a durable, scratch resistant

large signage and final print sizes other print

print used for outdoor applications like banners

processes can not do.

and vehicle graphics. Uses uncoated materials and

Versatility: Wide format printers can print on a variety of substrates depending on the

essentially “etch” the surface of the substrate to bond to it. Fumes from the inks require ventilation.

printer; Vinyls, metal, glass, flexible plastics,

Latex Inkjet: Latex and resin based inks that use

wood, canvas, textiles and fiber board.

water as their main ingredient. These printers have heaters built into the printer so that the substrate becomes receptive to the ink and the ink dries

DISADVANTAGES

properly. Inks are durable and are used for printing

Inks: Inks can be expensive, can take a long

outdoor and indoor signage. These inks require both

time to dry without dryers or specially coated

pre-print and post-print heaters to cure media.

paper, and often fade in sunlight. Speed: Printing is slower than most of the

UV-based Flatbed: UV-curable inks do not dry, instead they are cured with ultra-violet light. It does

other processes at only around 1200 ft. per

not require a coated substrate and the ink cures

hour. In comparison flexography can print

almost immediately making it durable for outdoors.

at 2000 ft. per minute.

You can print on a variety of substrates­— foam board, wood, cardboard, glass, vinyls and more.

DROP-ON-DEMAND Piezoelectric: Piezoelectric material in an ink

Thermal: Print cartridges consist of tiny chambers,

filled chamber behind each nozzle. When a volt-

each containing a heater. A pulse of current is passed

age is applied, the material changes shape and

through the heating element causing rapid vapor-

creates a pressure pulse in the fluid. This forces

ization, creating an ink bubble. This causes pressure,

a droplet of ink from the nozzle onto the paper.

propelling a droplet of ink onto the paper.

piezo electric disk charge

orifice plate vapor bubble

ink droplet

ink droplet photoimageable polymer

ink

ink

17

cavity

thin film resistor

LARGE FORMAT

thin film conductor

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


PLATELESS PRINTING

DIGITAL PRESS This printing process directly prints from a digital file to a printed piece. It does not use a fixed image carrier or plate. Digital presses use an electrostatic charge and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to eliminate that charge in the non-image areas. Toner is applied that also carries a charge and a method of heat and pressure fuse the toner to the substrate

You can print on-demand with very little set-up

Each time a ink prints is called a “click” versus

or make-ready time.

an impression in conventional printing and the

Papers used in digital presses have a specific

The most common sheet size is 13 in. x 19 in.

costing is on a per click basis.

There are two types of presses, dry toner based and wet toner based (sometimes referred to as digital or electrostatic ink).

digital coating to help the ink adhere.

Depending on the press, 14.33 in. x 20.5 in. or 29.5 in. x 20.9 in. are maximum sheet sizes.

Digital printing is used mostly for short-runs, books, marketing materials, variable data printing and print-on-demand runs.

PHOTO COURTESY OF CANON INC. HP INDIGO 10000 DIGITAL PRESS

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

DIGITAL PRESS

18


ADVANTAGES

DIGITAL TERMINOLOGY

Speed: There are no plates to make and very

On-demand/Short Run: On demand print-

little press set-up, making printing available

ing has always been around but digital presses

at the press of a button.

have decreased turn around times dramatically.

Variable Data: Individually printed pieces can

Quantities as few as one can be very affordable.

be customized; allowing for targeted market-

.Distribute & Print: The same print file can be sent

ing and eliminating post-printing.

electronically to multiple print locations and printed

Consistency: Every print is the same and there are no manual adjustments of ink or registration during the print process

closer to the distribution area. This helps reduces shipping and fulfillment costs. Variable Data Printing: Varied information can be printed from one to every page of a run. This can

DISADVANTAGES Large Quantities Expensive: Per unit cost does not go down as quantities increase.

includes personalized marketing like someones name or target marketing like specific imagery or copy for specific demographics. Custom Publications: Books can be printed in small

Print Limitations: Sheet sizes and substrates

quantities, even one, allowing for self-publishing.

are limited. Also, spot colors are extremely

This also helps publishers print on-demand so books

cost prohibited and only available in liquid

no longer fall out of print.

toner presses.

DIGITAL PROCESS The press prints works by writing the image to a digital drum using laser exposure and an electrostatic charge. The toner, whether dry or liquid, is also charged so it attaches to the image areas on the drum. Digital presses

charging Station

laser exposure

cleaning Station

use the offset principal so the image is then

blanket drum

transferred from the image drum to a digital blanket. The blanket then transfers the image to the paper where it is fused with pressure and heat. As the drum and the blanket rotate, they get erased and the process continues writing the image for the next color. This gets repeated over and over until all of the colors are printed. Finally, the paper is delivered to a tray at the end of the press.

image drum ink units erasing unit

19

DIGITAL PRESS

blanket heating

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


NOTES

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

NOTES

20


NOTES

21

NOTES

PRINT TECHNOLOGY


NOTES

PRINT TECHNOLOGY

NOTES

20


BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


“Type is what meaning looks like” —Max Phillips


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

CONTENTS 28

TYPE ANATOMY

30

TYPE CLASSIFICATION

32

LEGIBILITY & READABILITY

34

TYPESETTING


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

T YPE ANATOMY Type anatomy is based on centuries of development as type moved from stone to pen, press and finally to the computer. Over that period of time, a nomenclature evolved that helps us identify the various components of individual letterforms. Beyond the individual letterforms, invisible guidelines are drawn that helps keep lines of type aligned. (Carter, Day, Meggs 30). TOP LINE CAPLINE MEANLINE

Typography ASCENDER

X-HEIGHT

BASELINE

DESCENDER

BEARD LINE

Carter, Day and Meggs define the invisible guidelines as: (30)

Top Line: This imaginary line shows where the top of the ascender on lowercase letters such as k and h touch.

Capline: An imaginary line that delineates the

Meanline: This imaginary line establishes the

Baseline: An imaginary line that the base of

Beard Line: This imaginary line shows where

top of capital letters.

height of all lowercase letters, not including x-height: The distance between the baseline and the meanline and that is most commonly

the bottom of the descender on lowercase letters such as y and g touch.

their ascenders and descenders.

each capital letter sits on.

Ascender Height: The distance between the meanline and the top line that represents an ascender of a lowercase letter.

measured using the lowercase x.

Descender Height: The distance between the baseline and the beard line that represents a descender of a lowercase letter.

ograp

Aligning characters requires us to make optical adjustments along the invisible guidelines so that the individual characters appear aligned with each other. Rounded letters break the guidelines so they appear visually aligned. Each typeface can be different in how the characters align.

TYPOGRAPHIC DESIGN: FORM AND COMMUNICATIONS, FOURTH EDITION; CARTER, ROB; DAY, BEN; MEGGS, PHILIP. JOHN WILEY AND SONS INC 2007

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

TYPE ANATOMY

28


2

5

5

3

14

10 15 11

16

12 7

1

8

9 6

4 13

Carter, Day and Meggs define the parts of letterforms as: (30-31)

01

Apex: The peak of an uppercase A.

09

Spine: The central curved stroke of the s.

02

Arm: A projecting horizontal stroke that is

10

Hairline: The thinnest stroke within a typeface that has strokes of varying weight.

unattached on one or both ends. 03

Ascender: A stroke on a lowercase letterform

11

the loop of the lowercase g.

that rises above the meanline. 04

Bowl: A curved stroke enclosing the counter

12

Counter: The negative space that is fully or

13

strokes of a letterform

Cross Bar: The horizontal stroke connecting two sides of a letterform (as in A or H), or

14

Descender: A stroke on a lowercase letterform that falls below the baseline

08

Shoulder: A curved stroke projecting from the stem of a letterform.

bisecting the main stroke (as in f and t). 07

Serifs: Short strokes that extend from and at an angle to the upper and lower ends of the major

partially enclosed by a letterform. 06

Loop: The curved stroke enclosing the counter on the bottom of the lowercase g.

of a letter with exception of the loop (see 12) 05

Link: The stroke that connects the bowl and

15

Stem: A major vertical or diagonal stroke.

16

Tail: A diagonal stroke or loop at the end of a letterform as in R, j or y.

Ear: A small stroke that projects from the upper right side of a lowercase g or curved lowercase r

17

18

17

Leg: The lower diagonal stroke of the k

18

Eye: The enclosed part of a lowercase e Stroke: Any of the linear elements that are in a letterform; originally any mark or dash made by the movement of a pen or brush in writing.

TYPOGRAPHIC DESIGN: FORM AND COMMUNICATIONS, FOURTH EDITION; CARTER, ROB; DAY, BEN; MEGGS, PHILIP. JOHN WILEY AND SONS INC 2007

29

TYPE ANATOMY

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

T YPE CL ASSIFICATION Tens of thousands of typefaces are now available to digital designers so great care should be taken in choosing a typeface that communicates the desired message is an integral part of design. Most typefaces fit into four basic groups: serif, sans serif, script and decorative. Within each group are multiple sub-classifications that help us choose and combine typefaces effectively.

SERIF These typefaces are based on Roman letters carved into stone. They characterized by tiny brackets at the end of a letter stroke. Old Style, Transitional and Slab Serif are good for printed blocks of copy Old Style: Characterized by diagonal axis

Slab Serif: Characterized by heavy serifs, that

stress, slanted serifs on ascenders, moderate

usually have minimal to no bracketing and

contrast between think and thin strokes and

almost no contrast in weight of the strokes.

bracketed serifs. BERKLEY OLDST YLE

Type

ROCK WELL

Type

Transitional: Characterized by vertical axis

Clarendon: Characterized by a slight contrast

stress, slightly greater contrast and still has

between thick and thin strokes and short to

bracketed serifs.

medium length serifs.

PERPETUA

Type

CL ARENDON

Type

Modern: characterized by dramatic contrast

Glyphic: Characterized by minimal contrast in

between thick and thin strokes with a vertical

stroke weight and triangle serifs or a slight flair

axis on curved strokes, ball shapes on the stroke

at the end of strokes.

terminals and little or no bracketing.

BODINI

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

Type TYPE CLASSIFICATION

FRIZ QUADR ATA

Type 30


SANS SERIF These typefaces do not have any serifs (“sans” means “without” in French) The letter strokes tend to be all same thickness. Humanist typefaces are good for blocks of copy Grotesque: Characterized by a limited varia-

Humanist: Characterized by a varied stroke

tion in stroke width and often have an R with a

weight, humanist sans serif typefaces have a

curved leg.

more traditional form.

HELVETICA

Type

FRUTIGER

Type

Square: Characterized by squaring off of what

Geometric: Constructed using geometric

would be normally curved strokes

forms, and the “o” tends to be a perfect circle.

EUROSTILE

Type

GOTHAM

Type

SCRIPT

DECOR ATIVE

These typefaces mimic handwriting and are mostly

These typefaces are unique and are usually used for

used for display or artistic effect in invitations and

headlines, signage and dramatic effect. They can use

expressive text.

unusual letter shapes, shadowing and 3D looks.

Formal, Casual & Calligraphic: Formal and

Grunge, Graffiti: These typefaces often reflect

casual script usually connects characters.

culture, street art and tattoos. They also follow

Calligraphic may or may not connect, and

popular trends so they can fall in and out of

appear to be written with a flat-tipped pen.

favor pretty quickly.

BICKHAM SCRIPT

MISER ABLE

Type

Blackletter: Modeled after the ornate lettering

Iconic: Typefaces that reflect object or icons

in manuscripts. GOUDY TEXT

31

Type

Type

PAPERCLIP

Type

TYPE CLASSIFICATION

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

LEGIBILIT Y AND READABILIT Y Legibility is partly a function of typeface design because it refers to the readers ability to easily recognize letterforms and the word forms that are built from them. Readability is a function of how we design with type and refers to the comfortably text can be understood. The text should be engaging, inviting the viewer to want to read it. Readability and legibility can often be affected by type characteristics, contrast and basic typesetting.

legibility

legibility

.

“Legibility is an area where the designer can be misled by what seems like an obvious dictate in type selection and design. Legibility and readability are not

legibility VERSUS READABILIT Y

quite the same — a dull and uninteresting presentation in a highly legible typeface will not be widely read.”

— ALLEN HURLBURT

Readability is how easy you can read the words like in a long passage of text. This is an example of using typesetting rules to create and easily readable block of text. The legibility examples above show how the inability to recognize the individual characters affect your ability to recognize the word.

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

LEGIBILITY & READABILITY

32


CONTR AST Black text on a yellow background is actually the most legible based on research by to Walter Sargent and M. Luckiesh. Black text on a white background, although not the most legible, it is the most common because of the cost efficiencies of black and white

SARGENT & LUCKIESH LEGIBILIT Y R ANKINGS BACKGROUND

TYPE

01 Yellow

Black

02 Black

Yellow

03 White

Green

04 White

Red

Designers must take steps to improve legibility by

05 White

Black

tining colors or in some cases creating an outline to

06 Blue

White

help legibility.

07 Yellow

Blue

08 White

Blue

09 Black

White

10 Yellow

Green

11 Orange

Black

12 Yellow

Red

13 Blue

Orange

printing. It also has high contrast and can help the viewer see the typeforms more clearly. Colors that have a similar value or complementary colors that create a visual vibration can make letterforms hard to discern and reading can be difficult.

BL ACK ON WHITE

WHITE ON BL ACK

Black

BLUE ON WHITE

BLUE ON ORANGE

BLUE ON ORANGE

GREY ON BLUE

ORANGE ON BLUE

ORANGE ON BLUE

Orange

14 Blue

Yellow

15 Green

White

16 Red

Black

17 Orange

Blue

18 Green

Yellow

19 Red

Yellow

20 Red

White

21 Black

Red

22 Orange

White

23 Green

Black

24 White

Orange

25 Blue

Orange

26 Orange

Yellow

27 Orange

Red

28 Red

Blue

Green 29 Orange

Red Green

THE ENJOYMENT AND USE OF COLOR; SARGENT, WALTER; DOVER PUBLICATIONS, 1964

33

LEGIBILITY & READABILITY

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

TYPESETTING In order to support legibility and readability, there are some terms and general typesetting rules to guide you. Things like kerning, tracking, paragraph indicators, alignment hyphenation and leading, can all effect how well the viewer can read and understand the message you are communicating.

KERNING AND TR ACKING Kerning is when you make visual adjustments in the spacing between individual characters to achieve a better visual result. You should always kern when setting large or display type because certain letter pairs don’t automatically space well, especially letters with angles and curves like A, V, O and D. Tracking is about overall letter-spacing and refers to a uniform adjustment to the spacing of a word or column of body copy. It helps create visual texture

BAD

KERNING KERNING GOOD

and contrast and helps make text more readable.

MAKE TRACKING A VISUAL CHOICE (+0)

You should not depend on the default settings when

M A K E T R ACK IN G A V ISUA L CH O ICE (+10 0)

tracking blocks of text. In general type set in all caps requires more tracking and you should also increase the tracking for italics or type that is reversed out. Do not kern scripts where characters are connected. It is always best to print out your text and make visual adjustments based on the typeface you are using.

Make tracking a visual choice (+0) Make tracking a visual choice (+20) Make tracking a visual choice (+0) Make tracking a visual choice (+10)

LEADING Leading or line spacing is the space in between lines of type and it is measured in points. The leading space increases with the point size of the type. Much like tracking, you should choose your leading,

When typesetting, make a visual choice when you choose your leading for the best results. Design your type; do not simply let the default choose it for you. (11/14)

not just depend on the default settings. Increase leading as you increase your column width to help your typesetting look proportional. Typefaces with large x-height, long ascenders or descenders and light type on a dark background all need additional leading for better readability.

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

TYPESETTING

When typesetting, make a visual choice when you choose your leading for the best results. Design your type; do not simply let the default choose it for you. (11/16)

34


T YPOGR APHIC ALIGNMENT Type that is legible and readable can communicate content clearly. The most readable type does not call attention to itself or distract the reader from the content. It should be set in columns that are proportional to the type size. The narrowest column width should be the same size in picas as the point size of the type and the widest column should be no more than double that. The alignment for your type can also effect the readability because of the natural way our eye tracks the beginning of each line. FLUSH LEFT ALIGNMENT: Type that is set

FLUSH RIGHT ALIGNMENT: Although type

flush left is thought to be the most readable

that is set flush right can also have consistent

because it has consistent spacing and your eye

spacing it is thought to be less readable. This is

can easily find the beginning of each line. The

because the left side, where your eye expects

negative space a the end of each line gives

the line to start is ragged and uneven. Flush

an area for the reader to rest, especially when

right alignment has a distinctive look and can

trying to get through long blocks of text.

be used to highlight smaller amounts of text.

FLUSH LEFT, R AG RIGHT

FLUSH RIGHT, R AG LEFT

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19)

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19)

JUSTIFIED ALIGNMENT: Type that is justified

CENTER ALIGNMENT: Centering type creates

creates a structured, blocky look with even

a symmetrical and balanced composition but it

edges on both the left and right. It can have a

can also be boring and creates poor readabil-

negative impact on readability because uneven

ity. This is because the eye has to keep finding

word and letter spacing can create odd areas

the beginning of each line. Center alignment is

of negative space. Great care must be taken in

often used for poetry or prose. Otherwise it is

setting justified text to avoid distracting loose

best used for small amounts of text without any

lines unnatural space between words.

hyphenated words.

JUSTIFIED

CENTERED

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19)

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19)

SET TEXT FROM: POP; FOSTER, HAL; FRANCIS, MARK. PHAIDON PRESS INC. 2005

35

TYPESETTING

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


BASIC T YPOGR APHY

PAR AGR APH INDICATORS Paragraph indicators are a visual cue for the reader to know there is a new paragraph. The most common indicators are 1 em or 2 em indents, or a 50% increase in leading. An em space is equal to the point size of the type. Note that you do not need to indent the very first paragraph when using the indent indicator.

1 em

Some young British artists in the 1950s, grew up with the wartime austerity of ration books and utility design, viewed the seductive imagery of American popular culture and its consumerist lifestyle with a romantic sense of irony mixed with a little bit of envy. They saw America as being the land of the free—free from the crippling conventions of a class ridden establishment that could suffocate the culture they envisaged: a more inclusive, youthful culture that embraced the social influence of mass media and mass production. The Dadaists had created an irrational combinations of random images to provoke a reaction from the establishment of their day. British Pop artists adopted a similar visual technique but focused their attention on the mass imagery of popular culture which they waved as a challenge in the face of the establishment. (Frances, Foster 32)

Some young British artists in the 1950s, grew up with the wartime austerity of ration books and utility design, viewed the seductive imagery of American popular culture and its consumerist lifestyle with a romantic sense of irony mixed with a little bit of envy. They saw America as being the land of the free—free from the crippling conventions of a class ridden establishment that could suffocate the culture they envisaged: a more inclusive, youthful culture that embraced the social influence of mass media and mass production. +50%

The Dadaists had created an irrational combinations of random images to provoke a reaction from the establishment of their day. British Pop artists adopted a similar visual technique but focused their attention on the mass imagery of popular culture which they waved as a challenge in the face of the establishment. (Frances, Foster 32)

CORRECT PUNCTUATION Whenever setting type it is important to use the correct punctuation tools. Set your preferences to use typographers quotes for quotations and use the glyphs palette for prime marks. Also, always hang quotations outside of the column block so that text stays visually aligned with the rest of the column. There is also a difference between hyphens and the

1' 12" 1’ 12” 3–15 3-15

characters that mean “through” or show a pause in a sentence. Use en-dashes for duration (to or through)

— Saul Bass

– Saul Bass

in the end…

in the end...

and em-dash for a credit line, a pause or a break in a sentence. Lastly there is a specific glyph for three ellipses used when omitting words in a sentence or paragraph [option+colon]. It should be used instead of typing three periods.

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

TYPESETTING

36


HIERARCHY You can create hierarchy by creating contrast. This

Pop Art at the Walker

can be done by changing the color, size, weight or

Wednesday, January 26 2017

style of your type. Limit your choices per hierarchy to one change, maybe two. This example uses two effects to create the first level, using a larger sans serif pair. The second level is created using one effect; changing the date to orange. Lastly a third

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was actually the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. It coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by Elvis and the Beatles. (Frances, Foster 19)

level calls out “globalization� by changing it to italic.

ADDITIONAL RULES There are additional basic rules of typesetting that should be used when setting blocks of copy. These rules help improve readability and legibility so that the viewer will be engaged in reading the text.

WIDOWS: A widow is a single word at the end

SETTING GOOD RAG: When setting your type

of a paragraph or column. Avoid having a single

in flush left or right alignment, setting a rag

word ending a paragraph because it creates

that moves in and out helps readability. When

large areas of negative space

your rag creates shapes, it is distracting and can

COLUMNS OF TEXT: For better legibility always have at least 3 lines to end or begin a column of text. HYPHENS: Set your hyphenation so you have a minimum of 3 letters before or after the hyphen. Do not hyphenate names. SHORT & STACKED WORDS: The word after a period at the end of a line should be at least 3 letters. Words shorter than 3 letters will look like they are falling away. When 2 or more lines have the same exact word staked directly above or below it can distract the reader. You will find this most often at the ends of lines.

draw the attention of the reader. When using centered type you should create a comfortable balance of negative space. Avoid lines that are long followed by lines that are really short. GOOD R AG

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19) POOR R AG

Pop Art was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that characterized a sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the 1950s and 1960s. This coincided with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by the Beatles. (Foster, Francis 19)

SET TEXT FROM: POP; FOSTER, HAL; FRANCIS, MARK. PHAIDON PRESS INC. 2005

37

TYPESETTING

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


NOTES

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

NOTES

38


NOTES

39

NOTES

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY


NOTES

BASIC TYPOGRAPHY

NOTES

38


GESTALT PRINCIPLES


“The whole is other than the sum of the parts” —Kurt Koffka


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

CONTENTS 46

THE HISTORY OF GESTALT

48

SIMILARITY

50

CONTINUATION

52

CLOSURE

54

PROXIMITY

56

FIGURE/GROUND


GESTALT PRINCIPLES Gestalt is a psychology term that means “unified whole” and is based on theories of visual perception that were developed by German psychologists. Gestalt gives us an underlying visual framework, built on the idea that our minds want to try and organize visual information into its simplest form.

KURT KOFFKA 1886-1941

WOLFGANG KÖHLER 1887-1967

MAX WERTHEIMER 1880-1943

HISTORY OF GESTALT Early 20th century theorists, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang

A large part of Gestalt psychology suggests that the

Köhler and Max Wertheimer, saw objects related

mind sees as whole rather than the parts. The many

to each other as a unit when perceived within an

ways our minds create these “wholes” are structured

environment that included all of their elements

and organized using grouping laws. The various laws

together. The basic principle behind this is the Law

are called laws or principles, depending on the paper

of Prägnanz; the idea that we tend to process our

where they appear.

experience in way that is orderly, organized and as simple as possible. Gestalt psychologists attempted to further refine this theory by writing down laws that allow us to predict how a viewer will interpret their visual experiences. These useful laws of visual order are often referred to as “gestalt laws” As designers, understanding these laws can help us create visual solutions that the viewer can understand.

“These principles deal with the sensory modality of vision. The visual Gestalt principles of grouping were introduced in Wertheimer’s paper (1923). Through the 1930s and ‘40s Wertheimer, Kohler and Koffka formulated many of these principles of grouping through the study of visual perception.” (Wallschlaeger, Busic-Snyder and Morgan 337)

BASIC VISUAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES FOR ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS AND DESIGNERS; WALLSCHL AEGER, CHARLES; BUSIC-SNYDER, CYNTHIA; MORGAN, MEREDITH GESTALT PRINCIPLES

HISTORY OF GESTALT

46


VISUAL PRINCIPLES Designing visual elements so that they become

CONTINUATION

a strong and interesting composition can be a difficult task. When Gestalt principles are used to create a composition, the elements interact with each other spatially in a way the mind can better understand. This helps you simplify the message and create connections between your elements. We are going to cover five of Gestalt’s principles:

SIMILARIT Y

PROXIMIT Y

A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U

CLOSURE

47

FIGURE/GROUND

HISTORY OF GESTALT

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

SIMIL ARIT Y Objects that share similar characteristics are usually seen by the viewer as a group or pattern. The objects do not have to be exactly alike, but can share shape, color, size, texture or value. You can also use similarity to create emphasis by making an object in the group different (figure 1). This can help draw the viewers attention to the message you want to convey.

A B C D E F G H I J K L MN O P Q R S T U FIGURE 1

When two or more shapes are placed together in an composition, they can be viewed as two different sub-groups within the group. You can see that even though the circle shapes are placed in the rows with the squares, they make their own sub-group in the shape of an arrow (figure 2). The attention drawn to this sub-group causes the squares to move visually backward and the circles come to the foreground. Imagine if you placed one of the most important parts of your composition where the top row center square is placed. The arrow that is created by the circles would draw the viewers eye right to it.

FIGURE 2

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

SIMILARITY

48


DESIGN EX AMPLES

The Hurricane Poster Project

Super Sad True Love Story

Laurie DeMartino Design Co.

Rodrigo Corral Design

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2005

New York, New York, 2010

DeMartino uses the tear drop in light blue to make

The designer uses color to create the grouping of

a pattern in the background. This creates depth

similarity in this piece. Making the circles that

and helps set up the anomaly in the red drop, which

contain the book title black, helps the viewer read

draws the viewer down to the block of text. She uses

down that line of circles. This predictably breaks

the red to create a similar connection between the

our instinct to read left to right first. Other Gestalt

tear drop and the beginning of the information text

principles include proximity and continuation

at the bottom of the poster. Other Gestalt principles include figure/ground, proximity and continuation.

49

SIMILARITY

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

CONTINUATION The mind has a tendency to follow or see a continuous line of connection rather than individual components. The individual elements that follow this directional path can be separated and the eye will still follow the path across the composition. The viewer will continue to follow the implied path past the edge of the page even though the composition ends, helping to lead them through the composition.

In Figure 3, the eye will follow along a path, line, or

The eye connects the wavy line across the black

curve, as long as the space between the objects is

bars following through the separated shapes and

close enough to follow the linear direction.

even continuing passed them into space.

When two paths cross, the eye will continue to follow the similar path rather than switch directions where the paths intersect (figure 4). You can see where your eye will follow either the first line down YES

to the bottom right or the second line up to the top right. Our mind simplifies it rather than making the more complicated choice of following it down to the middle and then back up to the top.

NO

FIGURE 4

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

CONTINUATION

50


DESIGN EX AMPLES

Commissaries, Poster

The Mayor’s Tongue

Paprika

Gray 318

Montreal, Quebec, 2005

Bishop’s Stortford, England, 2008

Paprika cleverly uses the placement of type to help

This book cover by studio Gray 318 not only reflects

guide the viewers eye along the lines of the chair.

the Dada movement but also the Gestalt principle

It creates the continuation while you are reading the

of continuation. The pattern of typographic shapes

information. Using this principle helps draw your

form a line that flows down the book cover like a rib-

attention through the poster and it keeps the vast

bon. The movement of the directional line and your

amount of negative space from swallowing up the

minds ability to simplify, creates order and direction

message. The other Gestalt principles used is closure.

in the chaotic composition. They also use similarity in color and proximity to help guide the viewer.

51

CONTINUATION

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

CLOSURE The mind has a tendency to complete the areas of incomplete shapes. The closure principle works if the viewer is given enough of the visual information to see the complete shape in the negative space. Your mind closes a composition, form, or object even though it is not all there.

FIGURE 5

In this example (figure 5) the octagon is formed by the

The mind wants to simplify what it is seeing by

viewer’s mind and the negative space created in the

closing the shape formed by the gaps and spaces

group as they relate to each other.

of the arrow shapes. It sees the octagon.

This also works with single shapes or objects that are incomplete. In figure 6 the mind closes off the spaces that are cut out, allowing the viewer to see that they are looking at is a circle. This is one reason we can read type even when parts of the letters get cut off.

FIGURE 6

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

CLOSURE

52


DESIGN EX AMPLES

Art

The Learners

Design Army

Chip Kidd Design

Washington, DC, 2010

New York, New York, 2008

Design Army clearly knew that they were employing

Chip Kidd uses closure to really help animate this

the Gestalt principle of closure when designing this

cover and draw the viewer into the message. The

poster. The hands create the negative space and

type on the round path immediately forms a circle,

our mind sees a rectangle for the word “art” to rest

while cleverly creating an “open mouth” for the

on. The block of left justified text also adds some

character in this illustration. He uses similarity and

additional closure to the shape. You can also see the

proximity to create the feeling of a nose and the

principle of similarity plays a roll in organizing the

bottom of the eyes.

final composition.

53

CLOSURE

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

PROXIMIT Y When you arrange elements of a composition so it creates a relationship between them, your mind will see them as a group. Arranging the element in close proximity of each other helps create that relationship. If individual elements are similar, they can be seen as a large whole first and then as separate sub-groups.

FIGURE 7

When elements are closer together they are seen as

As elements are moved farther away from the large

a group. This can be true even if the object are not

whole, they can begin to form new groups, while

similar in shape or color to each other (see figure 8).

sometimes still being part of the original whole.

Proximity can be used to bring to different object together to form a group, even when they do not have shape or color in common. In figure 8, the composition of stars, ovals and squares on the left do not come together as a whole. Once you close the distance between them, you can see that they now have a visual relationship.

FIGURE 8

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

PROXIMITY

54


DESIGN EX AMPLES

The Birds Poster

Lopsided

Kyle Ahlm Kim

Penguin Group (USA),

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2011

New York, New York, 2007

Kyle uses proximity to bring a group of different bird

This composition uses proximity, or lack of it, to help

images together until they begin to form the whole,

create movement and convey the message of the

which is the title. Designers will often use proximity

title. The distance between the large circle and

to help the viewer form new recognizable shapes or

the rest of group creates an uncomfortable tension

icons. The images also have a similarity in color and

because it is almost far enough to separate itself

shape, which helps to draw you into the center of the

but not far enough for the mind not to group it with

poster; where the designer wants your eye to go.

the larger whole. The Gestalt principle of similarity also plays a role in driving home the message of the book’s title.

55

PROXIMITY

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


GESTALT PRINCIPLES

FIGURE/GROUND In this Gestalt principle, the mind organizes elements by visually identifying the image or figure from the background. For instance, you see words on a printed paper as the “figure” or positive image and the white of the paper as the “background” or negative space. This concept is necessary for us to be able to recognizing objects.

FIGURE 9

The mind chooses to see two different planes of focus

Depending on when you look at the image, the

or the visual information that is found in both positive

mind can see either an apple core or two faces

and negative space (figure 9 and 10). It can sometimes

looking at each other. It all depends on if you mind

move back and forth between the two.

chooses the white or gray as positive space.

In figure 10, there are not any recognizable images created, but the mind can still perceive the black and white squares differently in space. Looking at the top of the image, the mind sees the black as a positive element or foreground. Once the same elements are surrounded with the black, the white squares are now seen as the positive.

FIGURE 10

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

FIGURE/GROUND

56


DESIGN EX AMPLES

Chess

Peter and the Wolf

Design Army

Pheobe Morris

Washington, DC, 2010

New Zealand, 2013

Design Army uses simple geometric shapes and bold

Pheobe Morris uses here amazing illustration skills to

color to create a interesting composition that uses

use the principle of figure/ground to her advantage.

figure/ground to its full advantage. The deep purple

She creates only the wolf and the mouse, but Peter is

recedes into the background until the mind begins

well represented in the negative space. The place-

to recognizes the shape of the chess piece. Th piece

ment of the type helps draw the eye right to the play

pops forward for a moment and then the title pushes

on positive and negative. This uses the principle of

it back again.

continuation to support this narrative also.

57

FIGURE/GROUND

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


NOTES

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

NOTES

58


NOTES

59

NOTES

GESTALT PRINCIPLES


NOTES

GESTALT PRINCIPLES

NOTES

58


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