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Thank You For Subscribing to Rocky Mountain Mason Magazine!
Rocky Mountain Magazine EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
elcome to the premiere issue of the Rocky Mountain Mason magazine! Thank you for supporting us in our publishing endeavors. Our hope is to provide you with the most relevant magazine for Masons in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. We want this magazine to be an eﬀective communication tool between the Brethren, providing further light in Masonry, current events, and plenty of photos. This is your magazine, so please feel free to send feedback, comments, ideas, content, or just a note to say “well done!”to the Editor at the contact provided in the side bar. Our goal is to provide content relevant to each Masonic body operative in the great state of Colorado. And we are always open to ideas. This inaugural issue of the Rocky Mountain Mason is dedicated to A. Lynn Sanburg - an exemplary man and Mason. May he enter into the House of the Lord to hear those weclome words, “Well done thou good and fairthful servant.”
Write to us at: P.O. Box 1200 Norwood, CO 81423 (970) 327-4199
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD CHAIR
Grand Master’s Address from the 2013 Grand Lodge by M.W. Bro. Karl Hinkle
Glenwood Springs Lodge No. 65 A.F. & A.M. 125th Anniversary by W. Bro. Ben Williams
Tomas Cox Michael McMillan Michael Smith
Freemasonry, What it Is and What it Can be by R.W. Bro. Michael McMillan pg. 14
A Near Death Experience, the Grand Orator’s Oration by W. Bro. Robert Herd
visit: www.rockymountainmason.com $33 per annum, payable online. Or mail a check to:
Over the Secret Vault Most Excellant Grand High Priest pg. 23 Solomon & the Queen of Sheba by W. Bro. Ben Williams
Laughing Lion PO Box 1200 Norwood, CO 81423
© 2013 Laughing Lion All rights reserved Title is protected by a Trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Oﬃce. Printed in the U.S.A. Rocky Mountain Mason
Cover Photo by Ben Williams
Rocky Mountain Mason is a trademark publication of Laughing Lion, LLC. All rights reserved. All articles used with permission. First publishing rights. No articles, pictures, content, or parts of this magazine useable without the express permission of the author. Contact the Editor for inquiries.
Under the Ninth Arch Thrice Illustrious Grand Master How CMMRF is Erasing Disease by W. Bro. Ben Williams pg. 29
Ideas From the Vault Sometimes a great notion? pg. 32
Leading the Vanguard Right Eminent Grand Commander pg. 18
@ In Memorium
In memory of our Brother, mentor, and friend, an exemplary man and Mason, the Rocky Mountain Mason is honored to dedicate our inaugural issue to:
Lynn Sanburg @ Albert April 3, 1928 - September 15, 2012 Albert Lynn Sanburg Born April 3, 1928, Cedar Park Ranch in Eckert, CO -- passed September 15, 2012 at home. He was a member of Eckert Lodge No. 136 Entered Apprentice 5/24/1949 Fellow Craft 6/14/1949 Master Mason 7/12/1949 Worshipful Master 1957 Treasurer 1958-2012 He received his 50-year pin September 1999 He was named Mason of the Year in 2006 by Colorado Grand Lodge He was a 50-year member of Eastern Star and served as Worthy Patron. He was a member of: Delta Chapter No. 38, Royal Arch Masons Telluride Council No. 10, Cryptic Masons Delta Commandery No. 34 Knight Templar He received his 50-year pin in all three York Rite Bodies He served as Right Eminent Grand Commander in 1986-87 and as Most Excellent Grand High Priest in 1971 Received his degrees in the Scottish Rite from the Grand Junction Consistory on November 1, 1972, was conferred the honor and distinction as Knight Commander of the Court of Honor on October 18, 1987 and designated a Mason of the Thirty-Third Degree by the Supreme Council on November 19, 2005. He served as principal Officer of three of the four Bodies of the Valley of Grand Junction. Charter Member of: Four Corners York Rite College No. 171 Black Canyon Council Allied Masonic Degrees No. 318 Member of: Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests Red Cross of Constantine KYCH Past Prior Royal Order of Scotland He has attended the Four Corners Royal Arch Festival since its beginning, a total of 47 years. 6
Rocky Mountain Mason
@ In Memorium
lbert Lynn Sanburg died Sept. 15, 2012, at his ranch near Eckert. He was 84. He was born April 3, 1928, to Harry and Bessie Sanburg on the Cedar Park Ranch northwest of Eckert. Mr. Sanburg attended the Tongue Creek School through the eighth grade and graduated from Cedaredge High School in 1946. On Nov. 28, 1946, he married Alice Frost and they both attended Mesa Junior College where he received his associate’s degree in agriculture. Mr. Sanburg was a long-time member of the Eckert Presbyterian Church, served as an elder and was instrumental in working with Presbytery to keep the church alive during the lean years. He was a past moderator for Western Colorado Prsbytery. He was a member of the Delta County Farm and Livestock Bureau for 47 years and was a past county board director and president. He entered the Eckert Masonic Lodge No. 136 in May 1949. He was Worshipful Master in 1956, treasurer from 1958 to 2012, a Royal Arch Mason, Cryptic Mason and Knight Templar, Right Eminent Grand Commander in 1986-87, Most Excellent Grand High Priest in 1971, a member of Holy Royal Arch Templar Priests, Red Cross of Constantine, KYCH Past Prior, Grand Junction Consistory 33rd Degree, Eastern Star Spruce Chapter No. 129 and past patron. He was a charter member of Four Corners York Rite College No. 171, Black Canyon Council Allied Masonic Degrees No. 218. He helped start the Four Corners Royal Arch Festival 47 years ago and attended since its inception. Mr. Sanburg is survived by his wife of 65 years, Alice Sanburg of Eckert; two sons, Rolf Sanburg and Hugh Sanburg, both of Eckert; former daughter-in-law Jo Sanburg; and one grand-daughter, Caisa Sanburg.
Rocky Mountain Mason
Twilight and Evening Bell, And after that the Dark! And may there be no sadness of farewell When I embark.
ight Worshipful Deputy Grand Master, Grand Lodge oﬃcers, Past Grand Masters, visiting dignitaries, members and brethren of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, I welcome you the 152nd annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. As I conclude my nine-year journey as a Grand Lodge oﬃcer and my term as Grand Master, I stand before you today a humble and grateful man. It is one thing to have been selected simply to take a leadership position for a group of people. It is quite another to have been selected by a group of men I hold in the highest regard. I am forever grateful to you, my Brethren, for having put your trust in me to shepherd our beloved fraternity in Colorado. Your Grand Lodge oﬃcers continue to serve the Brethren of Colorado tirelessly and selﬂessly. Although they travel countless miles and devote countless hours, they do so joyfully, knowing that their labors are for the beneﬁt of the Craft. I thank them for their work, their dedication and their friendship. During the course of the year, your Grand Master traveled more than 22,000 miles, attending more than 200 meetings and events, including 70 open or tyled Lodge meetings at which 75 Lodges were represented. I made every eﬀort to attend the Grand Sessions of every Masonic Family body who extended invitations. When I was unable to ﬁt an engagement into my schedule, my fellow oﬃcers made every eﬀort to have at least one Grand Lodge oﬃcer in attendance as an expression of our commitment to Masonic Family unity and support. A special eﬀort was made to attend various gatherings of our youth groups throughout the year, believing we owe a special obligation to them. Your Grand Master even consented to allowing the youth at the annual Trash 8
Bash to pie him in the face. Add to all of that the innumerable occasions on which the Grand Lodge oﬃcers attended meetings and events beyond their oﬃcial duties, and I’m pleased to note that your Grand Lodge oﬃcer corps was visible and involved throughout the year.
Most Worshipful Brother Karl Hinkle Grand Master of Masons of Colorado 2012-2013
1 State of the Craft
e are all aware of the reality of our experience of the past 50 years – declining membership and declining participation. Where once we had nearly 50,000 Masons in Colorado, we now
have fewer than 10,000. And the rate of participation of those of us who remain is less than ideal. We have been looking outward both for the reasons for our situation and for our salvation. We all have heard the explanations that center on societal causes, the proliferation of competing diversions and entertainment options, the increase in time spent commuting to work, thereby decreasing our available leisure time, the rise in two-wage-earner households, and so on. And it does indeed make sense that these factors have had some eﬀect on the Craft. However, while we have been focused on these inﬂuences we have failed to acknowledge our own complicity in creating the current state of our Craft. I would submit to you that over a number of years we have moved away from our foundation, and that Freemasonry has come to appear very much like the plethora of service organizations and civic clubs that, likewise, have suﬀered declines in membership and participation over the same time period. And it makes sense, given that we have become largely like those other groups, that our experience would mirror theirs. Good works in our communities have always been a part of who we are. They are manifestations of our identities as Masons and expressions of our Masonic ideals. I am certainly not suggesting that we abandon those eﬀorts, as they beneﬁt mankind in countless ways, and we owe it to our fellow man. I would suggest, however, that rather than being a manifestation of our identities as Masons these endeavors have for many become the reason for our existence. Our energies, once focused within the Lodge, became directed outside the Lodge. Brethren, we ﬁnd ourselves at a critical stage in our history. We may very well have reached a tipping point, and it Rocky Mountain Mason
is within our power to decide what our future will be. Are we going to continue on the path we’ve been traveling for the last century or more, by continuing to do the same things we’ve been doing, and doing them in the same way? Or are we going to be honest with ourselves about our circumstances and resolve to do some things diﬀerently? We are seeing in some quarters a renaissance within the Craft – as the word suggests, a “rebirth” of the Fraternity’s original purpose and mission – a rediscovery of the roots of Freemasonry and, consequently, what we have to oﬀer to a world that desperately needs it. Beginning a few years ago, glimmers of energy within the Craft began to glow in various places around the world. They go by many names and identify themselves by numerous labels, but they all share a desire for, and commitment to, the highest standards of practice in Freemasonry. Lodges in Colorado such as Enlightenment Lodge no. 198, East Denver Lodge No. 160, Glenwood Lodge No. 65, Doric Lodge No. 25, and points of light in numerous other lodges, are creating experiences attractive enough both to encourage active participation by current members and in some cases to attract waiting lists of men desiring light that has been promised by us for generations. And there isn’t anything magical about what these Lodges have been doing. It simply takes a commitment by the brethren to create the best Masonic experience they can possibly create. It means making Lodge meetings so meaningful, so enriching, and so enlightening, that brethren lament their own absences. It means challenging your intellect, pushing the envelope, journeying into territory perhaps uncomfortable, but rewarding and satisfying. How does a Lodge accomplish this? Rocky Mountain Mason
By making certain that each meeting contains something of esoteric value and conducting the meeting with the reverence and solemnity beﬁtting the important work of the Lodge. And lest one be put oﬀ by the term “esoteric,” note that MerriamWebster deﬁnes “esoteric” simply as “designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone.” Many of our Brethren make themselves available through the Grand Lodge Masonic Speakers Bureau to deliver fascinating, educational programs in Lodges, and you should avail yourselves of their services. But beyond that, how does a Lodge begin to develop its own culture of education and esotericism? Many brethren, in fact, have said to me and to others that they want to develop their own Lodge programs, but they don’t know where to start. In answer to that desire your Grand Lodge Masonic Education Committee, under the direction of its chairman, Worshipful Brother Cliﬀ Porter, published during the year the ﬁrst two of an anticipated three volume series of books. This series is designed to introduce Brethren to a wide range of topics, ranging from an explanation of the necessity of the initiatic experience, to discussions of the inﬂuences of ancient mystery schools on the modern Craft. These volumes comprise contributions from nationally known Masonic authors, speakers, and leaders, both from within Colorado and without. I wish to express my appreciation to the authors who contributed to this eﬀort. I especially thank Worshipful Brother Porter for his work in putting the series together. This project was his idea, and he made it happen. All of us will be forever indebted to him for giving us this most useful resource. My hope is that once Lodges have
become accustomed to utilizing these tools to enrich their Masonic experience, they will begin to develop their own educational pursuits. And once that happens, Lodges will naturally begin sharing with one another, as they once did with regularity, such that we will never want for interesting and enriching Lodge programs. This, Brethren, is what men today expect from Freemasonry. Indeed, it’s what we have always told them we have to oﬀer. Too often, though, once initiated, passed or raised, the Brother ﬁnds himself disillusioned, not having found what he expected to ﬁnd. Consequently, we fail to deliver that which we promised. The good news is that we are experiencing an increase in interest in Freemasonry, as evidenced by the number of inquiries, petitions, and degree conferrals we are seeing. Unfortunately, the number of demits and suspensions for non-payment of dues exceed the number of master mason raisings. The challenge, Brethren, is to retain the men we bring in. The challenge is to deliver on our promise. We cannot be, nor should we try to be, all things to all people. We can, however, provide what countless men for countless generations have sought – and that’s Freemasonry. It means raising the bar on the content, character and style of our Masonic experience. It means experimenting with enhancements and embellishments to the way in which we conduct our meetings. It means creating a transformative Lodge experience – not just when we confer degrees, but every time we gather together, without exception. We must be ready and willing to seize this opportunity. We must be willing to commit to doing things diﬀerently than we’ve been doing them – to dream of what can be in your Lodge experience, and to be willing to make it happen. Because, Brethren, if we continue doing things as 9
we’ve always done them, we can’t very well expect a diﬀerent result.
t the beginning of the year I appointed a special committee, working under the direction of the Custodians of the Work, whose charge was to review the Book of Constitutions, identify inconsistencies, contradictions and other such housekeeping items that require correction or clariﬁcation. The committee completed their work and submitted their report to the Custodians of the Work before the end of the year. The Custodians will subsequently propose amendments accordingly. As one might imagine, the volume of suggestions was astonishing. In order to manage the process, I recommend that this initiative be continued over a period of time suﬃcient to allow the Brethren adequate time to carefully consider the proposed changes. Masonic education continues to top most lists of what Brethren desire on their Lodges. More speciﬁcally, Brethren consistently express a hunger for esoteric education – instruction in the ancient mysteries as expressed in Freemasonry. To that end, I recommend the Brethren continue, as you have the past few years, to devote your resources toward Masonic Education and to make your voices heard with respect to the programs, resources and tools you want. We are fortunate to have in Colorado so many knowledgeable, talented and generous Brethren who are schooled in these disciplines. They can help you along your way toward making Freemasonry and the Masonic experience in Colorado second to none. Our endowments and charitable funds, left to us by generous Brethren of generations past, have been declining in value. One cause, certainly, is the economic climate under which we have been operating for the past decade. The state of the economy is beyond our control. However, within our control is the way in which we manage those funds. Regrettably, most of our funds have been spending at a rate far too high to ensure the long-term viability of those funds. Our boards, ﬁnance committees and Lodges must accept the realities of their current situation. They must plan and budget expenditures in such a way as to ensure that these funds will still be here for 10
future generations. Similarly, the Fraternity ﬁnds itself in most instances “real estate poor.” That is, during the good times of the early- to mid-twentieth century we embarked upon a program of building and purchasing single-use facilities for our Masonic family bodies. The business model on which those facilities were built depended substantially, if not completely, upon dues revenue from the membership. As our membership has declined to 20% of what it was ﬁfty years ago, the error in that model has emerged in stark relief. Nearly all of our Masonic buildings are facing decades of deferred maintenance, with no solution on the horizon. As these buildings continue to decay, their condition conveys a lamentable message, unintended though it may be, to the world at large. Each Masonic building association must assess honestly its current circumstances and move toward remedying their situation within a reasonable period of time. All solutions must be considered, including the sale of properties that no longer support themselves.
here is no way I would have been able to dispatch my duties to the Brethren of Colorado without the steadfast and loving support of my wife and life partner, Gytha. She has shouldered more than her share of the burden of running our household and our business, particularly during the last year. Moreover, she has done so willingly and happily, knowing that my love of the Craft and my association with you Brethren bring me joy and make me a better man, husband and father. Thank you seems inadequate, but I say thank you to her nevertheless. My three children, Austin, Jenna and Annika, have likewise sacriﬁced, wishing as they have that I had not been away from home as often. However, they, too, willingly and proudly consented to my frequent absences. I oﬀer special thanks to Most Worshipful Brother Ed Zorn. When he called me a bit more than nine years ago I thought he was returning a phone call I had placed to him regarding the Grand Lodge Scholarship Committee, which I then chaired. He was, in fact, calling to ask whether I would consider an appointment as a Grand Lodge oﬃcer. I will be forever grateful to him for the opportunity he
aﬀorded me to experience a journey like no other. Thank you, Most Worshipful Brother Ed, for the conﬁdence you had in me. I hope my performance has met your expectations. Thank you to the Grand Lodge oﬃce staﬀ – Right Worshipful Brother Ernie Pyle, Worshipful Brother Scot Autry, and Mildred Jones. You three do so much for our Craft, always with kindness, helpfulness, and with the best interests of the Fraternity at heart. To my fellow Grand Lodge oﬃcers, present and past, I want you to know what an honor it has been to serve with you. Your dedication, hard work, counsel and friendship have made the journey all the sweeter for me, and I treasure you in my heart. To the Brethren of El Paso Lodge No. 13, thank you for having been the foundation of my Masonic career. You have earned the solid reputation you enjoy. To the Brethren of Enlightenment Lodge No. 198, thank you for showing me how much more our shared Masonic experience could be. I am humbled to be counted among you. Finally, I thank all of you – the Brethren of Colorado, for having given me the opportunity to serve you. You entrusted to me the stewardship of the Craft for a year, and every action I took was with that mind. As my year draws to a close, my most ardent wish is that you Brethren are satisﬁed that your trust was well placed. Let us move boldly forward, together, that we may ensure the perpetuation of the Craft into eternity. May the Great Architect of the Universe shower his blessings upon you. Fraternally submitted,
/s/ Karl J. Hinkle Karl J. Hinkle
Rocky Mountain Mason
Tending the Flame
125 Years of Light in
n September 22, 2012, Glenwood Springs Lodge No. 65 A.F. & A.M. celebrated 125 years of Masonry in the North Fork Valley. The Lodge room was dark, illumined only by candles, as the Brethren entered shortly after noon. Laughter in the hallway turned serious. The mood was reverent, but not somber. A recording of Gregorian chants maintained an attitude of silence from the Brethren as, one by one, in the candlelight, they seated themselves on the sidelines. The smell of incense was still tangible, the remnants of smoke from the censer ringed halos around the candles. Aprons and gloves seemed to glow as faces settled into 12
the shadows. The gavel rang out. A moment of meditation was called from the East and each of us sat in quiet reﬂection to consider the work we were about to undertake. Some of us prayed. I know I did. The Lodge was opened in due form. On this 125th anniversary of Glenwood Springs Lodge, a feeling of history was unshakable. The great bonds of Brotherhood swept through the Lodge room and it was as if the Masters of yesterday were reawakened in the words spoken during that ceremony – those same words, unchanged no doubt, since ﬁrst the Brethren of Glenwood Springs Lodge met here back in 1887. The past was
reawakened in us – in memories shared by the common forms and ceremonies of the Craft. As the meeting began, a presentation was made. The Brethren of Enlightenment Lodge No. 198, A.F. & A.M. had wrought two candle holders to honor the day, and Bro. Roger Tigner was pleased to read a letter from W. Bro. Ray Dunn, Master of Enlightenment Lodge, specifying the importance of the symbolism of light in our tradition. The twenty-two candles were lit, light was added to light. The Lodge was moved to refreshment and the visitors were brought in. R.W. Bro. Michael McMillan, Junior Grand Warden of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Rocky Mountain Mason
Photos by Ben Williams
Colorado, gave the featured presentation (see adjacent article for a transcription of this speech) on What Freemasonry was, is, and can be. Following the closure of the Lodge, the Brethren retired for a light lunch. Discussion was continued there on the nature of Charity. Each of the Brethren was called on to share thoughts regarding what Charity meant to him, why he gave, and how he gave. It was noted that Charity should not be restricted to simple monetary exchange, that the more noble and glorious Charity is anonymous, rendered in time and assistance, and given freely for love of one’s fellow man. A ﬁne meal was prepared for dinner and the Brethren were treated to a private showing of the Glenwood Springs Vaudeville Revue, a theater troupe that rents the downstairs of the Lodge building. The performances matched the quality of the meal, and fun was had by all. If you happen to be in Glenwood Springs this summer, stop by the Lodge for a meeting with the Brethren. Stay afterwards for the Vaudeville show. You won’t be disappointed. Glenwood Lodge No. 65 A.F. & A.M. meets the fourth Saturday of the month.
Oﬃcers of Glenwood No. 65 - from left: Tom Gamble, Junior Deacon; Michael Smith, Treasurer; Jonan Vail, Senior Warden; Al Walker, Worshipful Master; Oscar Diaz, Junior Warden; James Murphy, Secretary
The Master’s chair in the East. Note the Setting Maul gavel.
The Brethren move from labor to refreshment.
Glenwood Springs - Fast Facts Founded: 1887 Became Traditional Observance Lodge: 2010 Glenwood Springs Vaudeville Revue rents downstairs: 2010
Rocky Mountain Mason
Freemasonry: what it was, is, and can be... W
By Brother Michael McMillan
We have also frequently hen we look been accused of being back at the a religion, even though formative years we have no plan for of our organization, we look salvation of the soul to the operative stonemasons or any organized form of Europe. The legends of worship. We are a concerning our founding go group that encourages back much earlier, but we each man to practice can easily show that the early his own religion and second millennium period we do not ask what that is the ﬁrst time when men religion is, nor is it of were initiated into the lodges any concern to us, as who were not actual working long as he believes that stonemasons and were there is a God or higher referred to as “speculative” power. Neither do we Freemasons. espouse a particular Some would have you political position, believe that we didn’t come allowing each man to into existence as speculative make his own decisions Masons until 1717 with concerning two of the the founding of the Grand Michael McMillan, Junior Grand Deacon, delivering the keynote address at most divisive issues that Lodge of England, but that Glenwood Springs Lodge No. 65’s 125th Anniversary. exist. In fact, these two is so easily disproven that I subjects are forbidden can only say that those who as topics of discussion in a lodge while hold to this opinion do not read very ultimate authority on these teachings, my open, although they do come up at other much. Our ﬁrst written records of men words, and those of countless others that times, but not during the meetings. being admitted to the lodges who were have been written and spoken about the Th ese attitudes and practices have caused not working stonemasons are found in craft are only our personal opinions and much misunderstanding and have had us Scotland as early as the 1300’s with some observations and should not be treated accused of being what in some people’s slightly rather obscure references coming as Dogma by any person, Freemason or mind is a horrible thing, “free-thinkers”. up earlier. From these humble beginnings not. However, we have a long intellectual The application of three basic ideas of the “craft”, as we often call it, spread tradition and many have come to general behavior to our lives, personal integrity, throughout Europe and was brought to the agreement concerning some things we th religious tolerance, and political freedom, shores of America in the late 17 century. deal with in our lessons. Discussing our have a great tempering eﬀect on us, and The lessons of Freemasonry are personal ideas concerning these things most Masons are actively involved in their taught by assigning moral principles to can help in discovering aspects which we communities and are frequently business the working tools used to build stone may have never considered and is highly and community leaders. buildings, such as the plumb, level, square, recommended even in our rituals. There were certain periods where compasses, and trowel, and using allegory In our most productive years of we experienced quite dramatic growth, and symbols to express the tenets of our the early formation of the current lodge among which were the “enlightenment” organization. The rituals of the fraternity system, the Enlightenment period as we period, the “recent unpleasantness” as the only give a very basic explanation of those know it today, we had a proud tradition American Civil War was often referred to however, and we expect the Brothers, as of scholarly debate and discussion in when and where I grew up, and the post we call our members, to study and explore the lodges along with dinners and other WWII period. As to the latter, it was a further to discover and interpret the deeper social activities. Sometimes these talks period when men and women joined meanings for themselves and thereby gain or discussions took on issues that were social and service groups in large numbers a more complete understanding of our outside mainstream thought and might and many men became members of our teachings and the applications to their be considered by some as not the kind of fraternity due to their experience with lives. Since no individual is considered the things “gentlemen” should be considering. Masons in the various theatres of the war. 14
Rocky Mountain Mason
For the next 25-30 years we became more of a social organization that was so busy initiating new members that it became the very reason for our existence in many members’ minds. My early experiences in my mother lodge were of rather boring meetings followed by stale doughnuts and weak tepid coﬀee unless we had degree work to do. Fortunately for me I did not get discouraged by this experience and worked to bring about some of the changes we are seeing today where we are in many cases looking back to our past to provide a brighter future. We are getting back to the idea that a good education about aspects of our ritual and teachings, as well as other subjects which may be rather esoteric in nature, are important to personal growth. After all, the purpose of our craft is to help men build a newer better version of the person wearing their shoes. You have almost certainly heard the statement that “We make good men better” and that is truly what it’s all about. Not making bad men good, but starting with a good man and helping him re-invent himself in a more perfected form. Becoming a Freemason has made a huge improvement in me, at least according to my wife and others who have known me for many years. I was heavily inﬂuenced in my early life by Brother Will Rogers, in part due to where I grew up which was just a few miles from his home. I took to heart his statement that “I never met a man I didn’t like” at a pretty early age, although later frequently adding the modiﬁer of “at least not until I got to know him better”. He was asked once how he could believe such a thing and explained it by saying: “When you meet people, no matter what opinion you might have formed about them beforehand, why, after you meet them and see their angle and their personality, why, you can see a lot of good in all of them.” At a later date he was talking to Pinky Tomlin, a songwriter from Oklahoma who challenged him on the impossibility of liking everyone and he responded: “Well young man, you and me are from the same part of the country. We both know everyone that pulls on pants ain’t no man.” I ﬁnd that second statement to be an excellent way to drive home the point that we need to be very careful about who joins our beloved craft to make sure we start with a good man. Sure, we’ve all made mistakes and will continue to do so. We’re human. The point is to Rocky Mountain Mason
Secretary of Glenwood 65, James Murphy (left) rings a note or two from his cranium during a piped rendition of “chop sticks” by some musically inclined members of the audience at the Glenwood Springs Vaudeville Revue
Following a delectable dinner, Bro. Fred Davidson takes to the stage for a lesson in the slide ﬂute at the Glenwood Springs Vaudeville Revue. One suspects he had a couple other things on his mind.
Cast members of the Glenwood Springs Vaudeville Revue treated the audience to many well-written original numbers, including this artful hillbilly band. The cast writes all original material – and it is very good indeed. 15
o N tra on C
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know a man’s heart before allowing him lives and what it means to be a man in as fast as possible so they can leave, they to become a Mason and trusting him with today’s society to provide a better future are often there for several hours and try our secrets and believing he will live up to for not only their own families, but the not to miss any of the meetings because it the obligations we make to each other. world as a whole. They enjoy our “Old has become a very satisfying and enriching You see, a lodge is not a building, School” practices and ﬁnd many parts of experience. This is what Freemasonry can but a group of men that want to have a them very fulﬁlling and meaningful to be, if we just make it that way. shared experience that should be fulﬁlling their lives, not only by providing a link A great deal of this recent movement and enjoyable to each of them. In many to their past, but by showing them that has been brought about by Colorado cases in the past few decades it was not, there are certain principles that come to us Freemasons, and we are having an eﬀect and many left while others hung around, from time immemorial and will always be and providing inspiration to lodges not slowly chipping at the building blocks of relevant to the human experience. only within our state and the United States, the fraternity and trying to make changes These men are infusing a new energy but around the world and extending into that made sense to them and met the needs into their lodges and the craft as a whole, other bodies of our fraternity including of our current society without violating or coming up with new ideas concerning the the Scottish Rite, the York Rite, and losing the meaning of the basic tenets of way some things are done. Some examples other appendant bodies. When I am at the craft. They felt that there had to be include modes of dress for both oﬃcers conferences or attending communications more fulﬁlling activities at our meetings and members, diﬀerent practices during in other states or countries, I often get than hearing what happened at the last the opening and closing of the lodges, cornered by members and oﬃcers and meeting, the “organ recital” (or list of often doing things that were done in the questioned about what we are doing, who is sick with what, which drugs past but which are no longer the usual why we are doing it, and how we are they are taking, and how bad they are practice. The presentation of papers on going about it. Some like it, and in other doing), the paying of the bills, and then subjects both esoteric and exoteric have places they are so upset because things are having the aforementioned un-inspired become more prevalent, and longer periods changing that they are actually passing refreshments. Given the rich teachings of time spent before being advanced from legislation to stop it. In my opinion that and history of this great organization there one degree to the next to be certain that is their loss, and these changes are quite had to be something likely going to happen better we could be once experienced by doing with our time “These men are infusing a new energy into their lodges and some of their members the craft as a whole... often doing things that were done in while attending our whether they like it or meetings. Thankfully not. Some will insist on the past but which are no longer the usual practice.” we are now usy hanging on to their old turning that corner ways of doing things and and seeing new activities and enthusiasm the new members truly understand our not allowing these changes to take place in our lodges while providing thought basic teachings, and generally promoting to meet the needs and desires of a certain provoking and relevant activities for our a closer connection between the members percentage of our members which will cost members and their families. Yes, I said of the lodge, concern for their welfare, and them not only in numbers, but also in families, for Freemasonry has bodies that that of their families. Several lodges are attitudes and perceptions of the fraternity reach out to young men, young women, treating their meetings as events rather than which can lead to further decline. They and our wives. It is not exclusively a men’s holding that style of meeting I mentioned will continue to run their lodges with the organization. We often refer to ourselves earlier. The lodge room is looked upon as revolving front door that they don’t even as the Masonic Family and truly treat it as a sacred space with a mood often set by see ﬁrmly in place and wonder why so such. dim lighting and classical music playing many men leave soon after receiving the The future of Freemasonry is looking while the members enter the lodge. Rather degrees. They will keep looking for ways much brighter recently with younger men than having backslapping and jokes being to make it cheaper, easier, and faster to joining in fairly large numbers. When I told in the room or people running around become a Mason even though that model ﬁrst joined I was in my early 40’s and was in disorder, they enter with a sense of has failed us in the past and continues to frequently the youngest man in the room reverence and often have a short period do so today, and seek those bigger numbers by 20-30 years. You see, not many men in of meditation after entering to clear their that they perceive as the only thing that my generation, the Baby Boomers”, joined minds and get ready to be attentive to will save us. It is indeed an interesting and anything. Thankfully that is never the the subject of the day. The ritual work is exciting time to be a Mason, not only in case these days, and this infusion of “fresh practiced in advance and is performed to Colorado, but everywhere in the world. blood” is bringing with it new ideas of the highest standard possible which makes what and how we should do certain things a deep impression on initiates and visitors while maintaining the rich traditions and as well as the members of that lodge. This is a paper presented at a public teachings of the craft. Many of these men Afterwards they are having a ﬁne meal gathering on September 22, 2012 are joining not because their fathers were while discussing the events of the day and to celebrate the 125th anniversary of Masons, but because their grandfathers enjoying each others company. Instead of Glenwood Springs Lodge #65 by RWB were. They are looking to the past to looking for excuses not to attend, and when Michael L. McMillan JGW of the GL of provide inspiration for how to live their they do, trying to get everything over with AF&AM of CO
Rocky Mountain Mason
A Near Death Experience January 2013 Grand Orator’s Oration
ost Worshipful Grand Master, denotes. It is a simultaneous end of one if his heart is pure? An Egyptian coﬃn distinguished guests, and thing, and the beginning of a new one. text called the Leiden papyrus, tells us of Brethren, it is my distinct In our case a symbolic death and birth, or a very interesting initiation ceremony that pleasure to speak to you for just a moment rebirth, of a state of being. happens next. this morning. The title of my oration is This brings up the questions, what is Anubis leads the candidate to a door A Near Death Experience. Before I begin our purpose? Why do we do this,? What and tells him to knock. A voice from however, I would ﬁrst like to thank our do we think this causes? within asks him who he is, why he comes Most Worshipful Grand Master for the What do we do, and why do we do it? here, and if he can keep secrets. After opportunity, honor, and privilege, to serve “To Make Good Men Better.” What is a making promises as such, he is allowed to you, this Grand Lodge, as Grand Orator word that we can use to describe “making enter a sanctuary. He is told that he will this past year. good men better?” be representing the dead god Osiris. He is How many of you out there have had Transformation. told that the body of Osiris is buried on a near death experience? Interesting… The pinnacle of Masonic Initiation is a hill in the West where a tree had grown because all of you should have raised your the 3rd degree. We symbolically play out up to reveal the grave. He goes through hands. If our Tylers have certain trials and afterward is done their job, nobody should declared to be Osiris himself When our lodges once again fulﬁll our Brothers, and is ceremoniously brought be in this room who has not our Brothers will once again ﬁll our lodges... been through the 3rd degree back to life, given new clothes, or at the very least initiated and invested with the new into Freemasonry. I submit knowledge and privileges he to you that all of you who have done so, the death of a man, and we play very active desired. have in a way been through a “near death roles in doing it. During this degree do In Greece the Eleusinian mysteries experience”. Now, depending upon the we not touch on all four of the things we were also an initiation process with Demeter size and stature of the Brother playing “3rd mentioned earlier with the descriptions of a and Persephone as central characters. Most base” you may have had a nearer death near death experience? We have a “coming people only know the story of Persephone experience than others…but I digress. into the light”. We experience death, both and Demeter as being symbolic of the What are some common descriptions from a 1st person and 3rd person sense cycle of the seasons. However it was much we’ve all heard about near death of perspective. We are told that there is more about the unending cycle of life, experiences? an immortal part of us that can never, no death, and rebirth. Some also think it was never, die. We come away from this degree just a story for women, however, in the • Experienced death sort of by 3rd and its lectures with a deeper appreciation Eleusinian mysteries both men and women party or watching it happen. for life, and are inspired to lead a better were initiated, and what is important in • Tunnel of Light one. our context is the fact that the initiates had • There is something immortal / Indeed, for thousands of years, every to portray Demeter and/or Persephone beyond death. civilized society practiced some sort of during the ritual. This was deemed of • Life changing event – initiatic ceremony that held the same the utmost importance; it aﬀected the appreciated life more and wanted timeless philosophies that we practice. candidate on a much more personal level, to be “better” afterwards. Let’s take a moment and look at some of creating a deeper understanding far more these. impressive upon the memory. Keeping these things in mind, let’s Who has heard of The Egyptian Book Pythagoras took the initiation rites of move to Freemasonry. Let’s lay some of the Dead Dead? Nearly everyone right? Do both these ancient civilizations and created Masonic groundwork ﬁrst so that we can you know that a better translation of its his own. His candidates were some of the all come to agreement. title is, “The Book of Coming into the ﬁrst to be called catechumen, which meant What is Freemasonry? Light?” How many of you have heard “one who is being instructed” and was Freemasonry is a philosophical system of its story of the dead traveling to the sometimes referred to as “one who echoes of degrees or initiatic experiences. underworld with “Anubis” and having his words”. It is of course where the word Brethren my study and research heart weighed on the scale with a feather? Catechism comes from, also. of Initiatic Orders and my 15 years of Again, nearly everyone. We know that if his Pythagoras’s teachings, and one of his experience in our Craft, has led me to heart is heavy, he is eaten by an alligatorcontemporaries, Empedocles’s, teachings believe that Initiation in our fraternity, is type monster and is destroyed; but how were spread all over the areas of Greece, the just as the classic deﬁnition of the word many of you happen to know what is next Middle East, and North Eastern Africa.
Rocky Mountain Mason
Robert Herd, Grand Orator Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Colorado A.F. & A.M.
Alchemists of both European and Middle Eastern cultures took them and modiﬁed them further using their symbolisms to promote this ancient philosophy of selfimprovement. The most well-known and immediately recognizable by most being the speculative work of turning lead into gold, or turning your base self into something purer or more perfect through a process of transformation. The Enlightenment period saw once again a spread and integration of these philosophies, traditions and initiatic orders. The Templars going back and forth between the Middle East and Europe brought back much of this knowledge again. A family known as the Medici propagated and circulated the great wealth of knowledge coming in from these vast far lands educating and supplying men no less important to the world than Leonardo da Vinci with ideas and philosophy already thousands of years old by this time. This supply of information spread throughout Italy, and made its way around lower and then upper Europe. The Rosicrucian movement popularized this collection of philosophy and ideas and it again continued to be studied and carried on further by men who many see as our direct founders of speculative Freemasonry. Those men including Elias Ashmole and Robert Moray. By the early 1700’s we very quickly see a lot of the memento mori or death symbolism ﬁnd its way from Alchemy and other older orders into our ritual work, and in 1738 we get the ﬁrst reference to the 3rd degree legend of the death of H.A. in the Anderson Constitutions. What an amazing lineage or heritage our initiatic experience has had! In this we can ﬁrmly say we have connections and similarities to initiations that happened thousands of years ago, and that one of the reasons for Freemasonry’s endurance is the fact that some of the perennial philosophy, self-improvement or personal transformation and immortality of the soul, are some of man’s most ancient and lasting lessons. Rocky Mountain Mason
I believe, however, that over the past century Freemasonry lost its way. It began to focus on actions that had less to do with personal transformation and more about socializing; less about self-improvement, and more about the improvement of others by its charities. We began spending way more time, energy, and money educating others than educating ourselves. I was particularly proud to see our Grand Master and Bro. Walt Stewart design the Phoenix rising from ashes as this year’s pin. I believe it truly symbolizes our Craft’s return to a more personal, educational, enlightening, and Masonic experience. I also believe that Colorado is leading this movement and many are looking to us as shining examples of how Freemasonry can and should be practiced. In a way, the past 40 years or so of Freemasonry can be looked at as a Near Death Experience itself. We watched as our Fraternity bled nearly to death, its life and history ﬂashing before everyone’s eyes. Thankfully it appears as if our Craft has learned its lesson as to why it found itself in the position it did. More and more jurisdictions are ﬁnding that the numbers games of the past decade do not work. That simply getting more men in the front door didn’t stop the steady stream out the back door. More and more jurisdictions are ﬁnding that the key is quality, not quantity, and that education programs and personal experiences are what are keeping the Brothers active, participating, and fulﬁlled. I’ve always said that when our lodges once again fulﬁll our Brothers, our Brothers will once again ﬁll our lodges. Let us take these experiences and lessons to heart, let us awake from our near death experience and appreciate that which we have. Let us better ourselves so when our life does ﬂash before our eyes that last time, we are proud of what we see.
Bro. Rob Herd with his recently published book The Initiatic Experience. Bro. Herd is also publisher of Living Stones, a monthly magazine for Freemasons. Visit him at www.livingstonesmagazine.com
Grand Lodge 2013, Colorado Springs 1
Rocky Mountain Mason
1. 2. 3. 4.
At the banquet East Denver 160’s banner The ladies of Grand Lodge W.Bro. Kevin Hilken explains the symbolism of the Trestle board 5. GM Karl hinkle receiving a remake of the Bible Wsshington was swron in on, from the GM of NE 6. At the Rewards ceremony. 7. PGM John Egan in 150th anniversary beard 8. Who the heck is this handsome devil?
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9. MW. Bro. Hugh Ferdows, GM of Iran in exile. Note the Ahura Mazda jewel 10. DeMolay receives the support of GM Karl. 11. The lovely Ladies of Grand Lodge 12. Head of Education, Cliﬀ Porter, with Vol. II of the GL’s education series 13. The crediential’s Committee’s W.Bro Paul McCabe 14. Grand Lodge in session 15. Vail Pass on the way home
Over the Secret Vault
PETER D. DuMONT, 32Deg., MASONIC AFFILIATIONS: KYCH Raised a Master Mason in 1973 Born in upstate New York November – Trumansburg Lodge 157 F & AM, 24, 1933 and raised in Ithaca. Trumansburg, N.Y. Educated at Ithaca High School, Past Master Rico 79, Rico, CO.,Past Cornell University and Hobart College, Master Cortez Lodge 133, Cortez, CO. majoring in English and minoring in (Demitted), Montezuma 145, Dolores, History and Psychology. CO.,Animas Lodge 15, Farmington, NM. A U.S. Navy veteran of the Korean San Juan Chapter 15 R.A.M., War, served in the Naval Durango Council 3 C.M., (Air) and Army (Infantry) Ivanhoe Commandery 11 Reserve until discharged in K.T., Cortez, CO. 1964. Basin Chapter 19 Family consists of Wife R.A.M., Navajo Council Anne (a Texan and Speech6 R.& S. M., Shiprock Language Pathologist. Commandery 15, K.T., Also a Navy veteran of the Farmington, N.M. Vietnam War), Four Sons, La Plata Chapter 83, Two (step) Daughters and Durango, CO., Valley Of Eight Grandchildren. All Grand Junction, Scottish children and grandkids Rite, Al Kaly Shriners, reside on the East Coast Pueblo, CO. including Portland,Me., Past Excellent Chief, Rochester,NY., Ithaca, NY., Four Corners Emerald Orlando, Fl., and St. Croix, Council No. 26 Knight Virgin Islands. Masons, Four Corners Work experience York Rite College No 171, includes ﬂying and sales with Black Canyon Council Mohawk Airlines, No 318 Allied Ithaca, N.Y., Sales Masonic Degrees, Companion Peter DuMont Engineering with Pikes Peak Priory Most Exellent Grand High Priest Morse Chain No 21 KYCH. Division of Borg Cayuga Warner, Ithaca, N.Y, and my own property Chapter DeMolay, Ithaca, NY (Life and business management company, Ithaca, Member), Perpetual Life Member General N.Y. and Toronto, Canada. Grand Chapter R.A.M. Int’l., Life Member More fun stuﬀ was serving as a General Grand Council Cryptic Masons Scoutmaster for 10 years, and on the Vestry Int’l., Cripple Creek Chapter 33 R.A.M. of an Episcopal Church in Trumansburg, Grand Council of Ish Sodi, Order Of N.Y., Coaching Ice Hockey, College High Priesthood of Colorado, Colorado Lacrosse, and refereeing both at a Division Council of Thrice Illustrious Masters, 1 level for 25 years. Beginning in my Past Commanders Association K.T. of youth, I was a radio and a stage actor, Colorado, Columbine Order No. 118 appearing in over 100 plays with my last Grand Order of the Sword of Bunker Hill, in Las Vegas, N.M. in 1996. Anne and I Salida, Co., Past President Southwestern owned bookstore/coﬀee houses in Las Co. Scottish Rite Club, Past President Vegas, N.M. and Cortez, CO. I currently Escalante Shrine Club., Member of Magi am a Professional Swim Coach at the Ute Tabernacle LXIII Holy Royal Arch Knight Mountain Ute Tribe, Towaoc, CO. Templar Priests, Holder of King Solomon’s Pass.
Rocky Mountain Mason
he aﬀair of the Queen of Sheba and Solomon, King of Israel, is one of the most famous romances of the ancient world. While only a brief mention is made in the Bible (in the ﬁrst book of Kings), the legendary story of their meeting has inspired apocrypha, literature, even movies. This article details two of the most famous accounts of this meeting and how, according to one apocryphal book, the Ark of the Covenant was taken to Ethiopia by the illegitimate son of Solomon and the Queen, Menelik I, and a replica left in the Sanctum Sanctorum in the Temple of Solomon. Our ﬁrst source for this tale is the Ethiopian book, the Kebra Nagast, the “Book of Kings”. It was probably written in the third century of the common era (although, scholars say, some parts are likely much older and date to around the time of Solomon himself, and some parts are much more recent, dating to around the thirteenth century). As testimony of the importance of 24
this work, several of the early Christian Patriarchs argued in support of the Kebra Nagast at the Council of Nicea in 318 C.E. Although it did not make it into the Bible approved at that meeting, it remains nonetheless an important apocrypha to this day, revered by the Coptic Christians of the near East and, of course, the Rastafarians. The Kebra Nagast presents the most thorough account of the meeting between the Queen of Sheba, known as Makeda, and Solomon, King of Israel. Our other source, oﬀering a more colorful and magical tale, will be the Koran.
The Meeting as Told by the Kebra Nagast
olomon had already become famous across the Levant for his wisdom. He presided over a kingdom where, the Kebra Nagast informs us, peace and harmony prevailed to such a degree that all visitors there marveled. “There was neither a thief
or a robber in his days.1” Solomon had many visitors – some to witness the kingdom in its majesty, still more to trade provisions for the construction of the Temple which, we might imagine, was a major economic activity in the region. Solomon had sent out word across the ancient world that he would gladly exchange gold for goods and services, and many merchants deigned to partake of his generosity. One such merchant was “a man of great understanding”, a man called Tamrin, who “comprehended the wisdom of Solomon” and “marveled thereat”. He was a well oﬀ man, a man of means - the Kebra Nagast tells us he “used to load ﬁve hundred and twenty camels, and he possessed about three hundred and seventy ships.2” We don’t know what Tamrin came to sell Solomon, but apparently he stayed in Jerusalem several months to witness and marvel at Solomon’s undertakings: “He watched carefully so that he might learn how the king made answer by his word, and understand his judgment, and the readiness of his mouth, and the Rocky Mountain Mason
discreetness of his speech, and his manner of his life”. For Solomon, “opened his mouth in parables, and his words were sweeter than the purest honey; his whole behavior was admirable, and his whole aspect pleasant.3” Eventually, he was dismissed, and he returned to Sheba (in modern day Ethiopia) where he was pleased to relate his experiences to the Queen as she, too, had already heard much to wonder about this wise King of Israel. “And he told her how Solomon administered just judgment, and how he spake with authority, and how he decided rightly in all the matters which he enquired into, and how he returned soft and gracious answers, and how there was nothing false about him, and how he appointed inspectors over the seven hundred woodmen who hauled the timber and the eight hundred masons who hewed the stone, and how he sought to learn from all the merchants and dealers concerning the cunning craft and the working thereof, and how he received information and imparted it twofold, and how all his Rocky Mountain Mason
handicraft and his works were performed with wisdom.” According to the Kebra Nagast Nagast, this went on for some time, with Tamrin relating stories of Solomon each morning until the Queen, herself possessed of wisdom (for the love of wisdom is the beginning of wisdom), determined to go to Israel and meet Solomon personally. “For I desire wisdom,” the Queen said, “and my heart seeketh to ﬁnd understanding. I am smitten with a love of wisdom, and I am constrained by the cords of understanding; for wisdom is far better than treasure of gold and silver, and wisdom is the best of everything that hath been created on the earth.” So with an enormous entourage she embarked through the desert and, after some time, arrived in Israel as Solomon was working at the building of the House of God. Solomon was apparently quite hands-on with his supervisory role in building the Temple, imparting his wisdom to the masons. The Kebra Nagast tells us that “he showed the workmen the measurement
and weight and the space covered [by the materials], and he told the workers in metal how to use the hammer, and the drill, and the chisel, and he showed the stone-masons the angle and the circle and the surface. And everything was wrought by his order, and there was none who set himself in opposition to his word; for the light of his heart was like a lamp in the darkness, and his wisdom was as abundant as the sand.” “I look upon thee,” said the Queen to Solomon, “and I see that thy wisdom is immeasurable and thine understanding inexhaustible, and that it is like unto a lamp in the darkness, and like unto a pomegranate in the garden, and like unto a pearl in the sea, and like unto the Morning Star among other stars, and like unto the light of the moon in the mist, and like unto a glorious dawn and sunrise in the heavens.” It should be noted that the reference to the Morning Star here is a reference to the planet Venus when oriental, and rising before dawn. Venus is the brightest object in the night sky, after the Moon, 25
Chapter and has long held symbolism of splendor, Solomon, standing in the shadows, steps As the book of Kings notes6, magniﬁcence, and beauty. There is no forward with a half-smile on his face. Solomon was a lover of women. He allusion to the devil intended, although, “Why hast thou broken the oath counted Hebrews, Egyptians, Canaanites, as we shall see, Solomon is said, in many that thou hast sworn that thou wouldst Edomites, Moabites, Syrians, and other traditions, to have exercised power over not take by force anything that is in my women among his 700 wives. And lets spirits and demons. Indeed, the Kebra house?” Solomon asks. And she answered not forget, he had 300 concubines as well. Nagast alludes to this legend when it writes him, we presume tremulously, “Is the oath (The Kebra Nagast says he had 400 queens that Solomon “forced the devils to obey broken by my drinking water?” To which and 600 concubines, but why triﬂe.) That he replies, and we must believe with a should be enough to exhaust any man. him by his wisdom4.” twinkle in his eye, “Is there anything that But not Solomon – who was, evidently, After this exchange, Solomon replies thou hast seen under the heavens that is not only wise. to the Queen that she too must be wise better than water?” Interestingly, the Kebra Nagast Nagast, which for she is seeking wisdom, and that he has “I have sinned against myself,” she is redacted predominantly as a Christian come by wisdom only as far as God has admits. “But let me drink water for my book, explains away Solomon’s polygamy given it to him; that it was never of his thirst.” by saying that he followed the pledge God own devices, but a gift from on high. “Am I perchance free “For from being only from the oath which thou “Those who marry many wives, seek their own dust He hath made me ﬂesh, made me swear?” and from being only water punishment. He who marrieth one wife, hath no sin.” hast He then asks. He hath made me a solid “Be free from thy man, and from being only oath, only let me drink water.” gave Abraham, to multiply his progeny like an ejected drop, which shot forth upon the And the rest needs no words. However, the stars of heaven, and that he was using ground would have dried up on the surface importantly, Solomon has a dream in the his wisdom besides, because, by producing of the earth, he hath fashioned me in His midst of the night – a brilliant sun shining a lot of children, he could overcome own likeness and hath made me in His splendor over Israel. But then it withdraws, the unholy in the region by sending his own image.” Solomon at this point stops a and ﬂies away to Ethiopia – and shines laborer carrying a stone upon his head and sons and daughters out into the world7. with great brightness “for ever, for it willed compares himself to the laborer, saying he However, the book then adds that these to dwell there.” He awakes, and interprets is no better – that they are equal – and “early peoples lived under the law of the the dream as the spirit of God shining on that all men live and all men die, and each ﬂesh, for the grace of the Holy Spirit had a foreign land in a future time as a result has his talents, uses, and services, to the not been given unto them.” And it goes of the sin of Israel violating the covenant performance of the Divine will. Solomon on to caution, somewhat presciently, lest with the Lord. espouses compassion, love, cooperation, anyone be inspired to emulate Solomon “And when Solomon the King saw righteousness, and humility. “And God in ways other than his prodigious wisdom: this vision in his sleep, his soul became loveth the lowly-minded, and those who “Those who marry many wives seek their disturbed, and his understanding was practice humility walk in His way, and they own punishment. He who marrieth one snatched away as by lightning, and he woke shall rejoice in His kingdom,” Solomon wife hath no sin.” Having had the beneﬁts with an agitated mind. And moreover, says. The Devil is arrogant and haughty. of an amorous youth, I tend to agree with Solomon marveled concerning the Queen, “Blessed is the man who knoweth wisdom, this advice. for she was vigorous in strength, and that is to say, compassion and the fear of Anyway, back to the story. So the beautiful of form, and she was undeﬁled 5 Queen of Sheba is readying to leave on the God. ” in her virginity; and she had reigned morrow. And Solomon realizes he’s out of The Queen of Sheba promises never for six years in her own country, and, time. Th e Queen, who must have sensed his to worship the Sun, but the God of Israel, notwithstanding her gracious attraction feelings, makes him promise that last night the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the and her splendid form, had preserved her not to take her by force. Solomon gladly God of Jacob, saying that “The Tabernacle body pure.” Apparently Solomon is a assents to this rather shocking statement, of the God of Israel shall be unto me my mortal after all, and all the wisdom in the but only if she likewise promises to take Lady, and unto my seed after me, and world is still no match for a woman. But nothing in his house by force, either. She unto all my kingdoms that are under my I digress. agrees. And so the pact is made. dominion.” At this point Solomon gives the Solomon now gets a little crafty. They became friends, Solomon Queen whatever she asks for, and she leaves “And with wise intent,” says the book, answered all her questions over a period for Ethiopia, a conqueror, with Solomon “Solomon sent her meats which would of six months until the Queen made ready a little vanquished. Solomon gives her make her thirsty, and drinks that were to leave and return to her kingdom in some incredible stuﬀ , including “a vessel mingled with vinegar, and ﬁ sh and dishes Ethiopia. At this point Solomon realizes wherein one could travel over the sea, and made with pepper.” what he must do. a vessel wherein one could traverse the air, In the midst of the night, then, she “A woman of such splendid beauty which Solomon had made by the wisdom awakens with a terrible thirst. She of hath come to me from the ends of the 8 that God had given unto him” . course reaches for a nearby carafe of water earth!” Exclaims Solomon to himself. Of interest to every Royal Arch to slake her parched throat when, we “What do I know? Will God give me seed Mason, Solomon also gave her a signet might imagine, all the lights come on and in her?” 26
Rocky Mountain Mason
Chapter ring, to give to his child (if a son) by which he could recognize him in the future. “And Solomon took her aside so that they might be alone together, and he took oﬀ the ring that was upon his little ﬁnger [a signet ring] and he gave it to the Queen, and said unto her, “Take [this] so that thou mayest not forget me. And if it happen that I obtain seed from thee, this ring shall be unto it a sign; and if it be a man child he shall come to me; and the peace of God be with thee!” The Queen of Sheba did indeed bare a son, Menalik, and when he was twentytwo he went to visit Solomon, wearing the signet to identify him to the King. The Kebra Nagast establishes that Menelik was of a great likeness to his father, so much so that on his travels to Jerusalem through Judah, many people gave him gifts mistaking him to be Solomon. Eventually Solomon anoints him, consecrates him, and sets him apart to be King David, of Ethiopia. To this day, the kingdom of Ethiopia has within its constitution the provision that only a descendant of King David can occupy the throne. For example, the last Emperor of Ethiopia, who reigned from 1916 to 1974, was Haile Selassie I, whose name means “power of the Trinity”. His full title was: His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God. Tradition says that Menelik, now King David, was given the Ark of the Covenant by Solomon, and a replica was placed in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple. Many people believe the Ark is still in Ethiopia to this day, at Auxum.
The meeting of Solomon and Sheba, as recorded by the Koran
he story in the Koran is much more fantastical and poetic, if more brief. The imagery is rich and concerns only the conversion of the Queen to the worship of the true God. According to the Koran9, Solomon, who was able to converse with all animals freely (as the Rabbinical tradition also records), one day noticed a Hoopoe bird was missing. “I will punish him with a severe penalty, or execute him, unless he bring Rocky Mountain Mason
me a clear reason (for absence),” Solomon says. But the bird returns, with news of a diﬀerent country – Sheba – where the Queen “hath been given abundance of all things, and hers is a mighty throne.” But, the Hoopoe bird explains, the Queen and her people are Sun worshipers, bowing to a false God, tricked by Satan into believing in their false piety. So Solomon sends the Queen a letter exhorting her for her idolatry, calling her to come before him in Jerusalem. The Queen, fearing wrath and war, and mistaking the intent of the letter, sends him a gift of money. But Solomon is not placated at all. “Will ye give me abundance in wealth?” He rhetorically asks. “But that which The One has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay, it is ye who rejoice in your gift!” So Solomon sends the Hoopoe bird back with threats of war. Then Solomon, who commanded demons and spirits, calls out to the Djinn – “O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne, before they come to me in submission?” He asks. “I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose, and may be trusted,” says one of the spirits. “I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye!” Said one “who had knowledge of the book.” Then the throne appeared before Solomon. When The Queen of Sheba arrived in Jerusalem, seeing her throne there disposed, and a watery ﬂoor turn to crystal – and the wonders of the Temple – she renounced her idolatry and came to the worship of one God. The legendary meeting between these two personalities has been an inspiration across the millennia. No matter how their meeting occurred, or what actually happened, we can take enjoyment in the rich tradition of Solomon, our Grand Master, and recognize that there was likely a common source for all these interpretations, including the Bible, that have come down to us through a succession of ages to impart lessons well learned, tried and true, throughout the passage of time.
Endnotes 1 Chapter 22, Kebra Nagast 2 Chapter 22, ibid 3 Chapter 22, ibid 4 Chapter 24, ibid 5 Chapter 26, ibid 6 I Kings 11: 1 7 Chapter 27, Kebra Nagast 8 Chapter 29, ibid 9 Koran, Sura 27
Queen of Sheba in Literature and Art 1 Kings 10. Relatively brief account of the Queen meeting with Solomon. 2 Chronicles 9. Basically a repeat of 1 Kings 10. The Jewish historian Josephus mentions her, in Book VIII, Chapter 6, of his Antiquities of the Jews, written in 93 C.E. The Koran mentions her in the 34th Chapter. After a Hoopoe bird tells Solomon about her kingdom (Solomon could speak to animals and birds), and explains that she worships the Sun and astral bodies, Solomon uses a demon to spontaneously teleport her throne to Jerusalem “in the twinkling of the eye”. This inspires her voyage to meet him (and get her throne back), wherefore he convinces her to the worship the one true God. A clan in Nigeria lays claim to heritage from the Queen of Sheba, and that a series of ditches and walls built in the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries comprise a monument to her greatness. She’s inspired a slew of movies: Betty Blythe played her in the 1921 movie, The Queen of Sheba. Eleonora Ruﬀo played her in the1952 movie, The Queen of Sheba. Gina Lollobrigida played her in the 1959 movie, Solomon and Sheba Halle Berry played her in a 1995 television show, Solomon and Sheba.
Under the Ninth Arch
erry was born in 1937 to Marion enjoy foreign travel and have visited all Randolph Dodd and Josephine Polson continents except Antarctica. Dodd in Atlanta, Ga. Jerry became a Mason in the Panama He attended Atlanta public schools Canal Zone in Chagres Lodge, a part of and graduated from Mercer University. the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (which His major ﬁeld incidentally does of study was not number its mathematics Lodges). with minors Jerry is a life in history and member of Peter physics. He has M. Rasmussen a Masters Degree Lodge, No. 916 in Management and Friendship Science and Lodge No. 185. graduated from He also joined the Command the York Rite in and General Staﬀ the Canal Zone. College. He was a founding He joined member of Peter. the US Army M. Rasmussen and served as Lodge No. 916 in an Artillery Worms, Germany Oﬃcer and as a and served as its Logistician for second Master in twenty years. 1974. Jerry served two Gerald (“Jerry”) Randolph Dodd He served tours of duty in Most Illustrious Grand Master as High Priest Vietnam and was of Heidelberg honored with Chapter No. 4 several decorations. R.A.M. in 1974. He served as Grand When he and his family returned Principal Sojourner for the Grand Chapter from their last overseas tour he had about of Germany in 1976. 17 years of service with only 33 months He has served as T.I.M. for Arapahoe served in the Continental United States. Council No. 23 and Commander of J. E. His last ten years were spent computing Abbott Commandery No. 40 in Colorado. how many bullets, beans, band aids, He currently serves as Treasurer for several medics, mechanics and mess halls were Masonic bodies. needed to ﬁght a war in Europe. When He has also severed as Chapter Dad asked he will gladly volunteer that he is for DeMolay and Rainbows, and Worthy pleased this work went to waste. Patron of Oriental Chapter No. 98 (four After retiring from the Army he went times) and was president of several El Jebel to work for Martin Marietta supervising Shrine inner-bodies, He is a member of the construction of launch complexes the National Sojourners and the Hero’s for space vehicles at Cape Canaveral and of 76 and has served as their President/ Vandenberg AFB, California. He had the Commander. pleasure of seeing the largest moveable He is a twenty-ﬁve year member of building in the world completed. Denver Consistory, Centennial York Rite Following retirement he and his wife, College No. 87, Front Range Council No. Sue, became Master Gardeners and have 28 AMD, Pikes Peak Priory No 21 KYCH, volunteered their knowledge for the last Kincora Council No. 9 Knight Masons 13 years. and Sword of Bunker Hill, Columbine Sue and Jerry have ﬁve children, ﬁve Order No 118. grandchildren and four great grandchildren scattered over the United States. They
Rocky Mountain Mason
How the Cryptic Masons Medical Research Foundation is Changing the World Is Disease Soon to be a Thing of the Past?
Masonic Charity Accelarated:
Timeline of CMMRF Discovery 1995-1999 CMMRF funding leads to establishment of ICVBM, an interdisciplinary research eﬀort. 2000-2004 ICVBM recruits critical faculty members.
Kieth March M.D. presents ﬁndings from stem cell therapy research conducted by the Indiana Center for Vascular Biology and Medicine. The Center received its intial funding from CMMRF.
ecent strides in the ﬁeld of vascular medicine promise nothing other than a miraculous future. Research funded by Cryptic Masons is changing the course of heart disease, emphysema, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and a slew of previously incurable debilitating, and in many cases deadly, diseases. Cryptic Masons have been integral in making this research possible. In 1995 the Cryptic Masons Medical Research Foundation (CMMRF) helped fund the establishment of the Indiana Center for Vascular Biology and Medicine with an initial grant. Today, the Center is demonstrating signiﬁcant results at the (pardon the pun) cutting edge of cardiovascular research – research with striking implications across medical ﬁelds. “There’s been really exciting development over the last couple of years,” says Dr. Keith March, Professor of Physiology and Bioengineering at Indiana Medical School, and leader of CMMRF. Rocky Mountain Mason
“It goes well beyond cardiovascular disease.” It all comes down to those remarkable undiﬀerentiated cell strains, “stem cells”. But the Center’s research involves adult stem cells – cells harvested from fat tissue and bone marrow in adult humans that become usable for remarkable, seemingly science-ﬁction-like treatments. These stem cells have the ability to diﬀerentiate into diﬀerent cells-types throughout the body; but, because they exist in adult humans, they don’t have the controversial history of embryonic stem cells. For seven years the Center has conducted research, including clinical trials, with adult stem cells. The results are profound. The cardiovascular system incorporates the blood vessels that network oxygen around the body. As such, the cardiovascular system reaches all organs. It also distributes additional substances,
2006 National Institute of Health designates ICVBM as a Training Center for Vascular Biologists. Five post-doctoral students assist in research with 20 diﬀerent labs and mentoring scientists. 2008 Indiana University and the Perdue Universtiy Institute are selected as Signature Center for Vascular and Cardiac Center of Adult Stem Cell Therapy. 2010 Partnership developed with the VA Medical Center for Regenerative Medicine. 2012 NIH designates seven sites for Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research network. Indiana Center is number 1.
such as medicine, where needed most. Research into the cardiovascular ﬁeld, then, is turning up results across biological systems. The applications are changing the way humans view disease. For example, Mike Murphy, M.D., from Duke university (who was recruited by the Center) used adult stem cells derived from bone marrow to increase circulation to wasting limbs. Thirty “no option” patients – so called because they had “no option” but amputation of their limbs – participated in the study. The study took three years. At the end of the third year, only 5 patients had required amputation. The other twenty-ﬁve demonstrated increased blood ﬂow – their legs were saved. The Center is enrolling 150 patients slated for amputation for a randomized study. Research by the Center has also demonstrated signiﬁcant reduced heart attack sizes in mice. Mice hearts injected with stem cells showed decreased scar tissue following a heart attack. The results have been reproduced in pigs. Research by the Center reveals that adult stem cells block the development of emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The stem cells harvested from adipose (fat) tissue eﬀectively healed the endothelial cells lining the lungs. “The lungs are not distinguishable from the mice that didn’t smoke at all,” says Dr. March. That’s remarkable. But the research gets more staggering still. Adult stem cells secrete substances that protect the brain from injury following stroke. The cell damage from lack of oxygen reaching the brain when a blood vessel is blocked, which typically kills that area of the brain aﬀected, is called apoxya cortex degeneration. It is completely stopped when the substance secreted by adult stem cells is introduced to those brain areas. Moreover, adult stem cells have implications in treating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and, yes, even diabetes. Mice given adult stem cell therapy after onset of diabetes showed similar blood-sugar curves as control mice. The Center is showing the adult stem cells can form new blood vessels – literally growing new blood vessels in wounds. This has applications for burns and traumatic injuries. Even the growing of tissue in vitro for implant. 30
Adult stem cells have the ability to diﬀerentiate into diﬀerent cell types throughout the body. All this is mind-boggling. I remember, two or three years ago, when my girl friend’s father was diagnosed with a rare form of bone marrow cancer. The VA told him it was from Agent Orange Exposure when he was a helicopter gunman in Vietnam. Ten years ago this would have been a death sentence – with some dreadful surgical procedures to endure. But the VA harvested some stem cells from his bone marrow. He was given a course of pills for several weeks which, somehow, liqueﬁed his bone marrow. The doctors then re-grew his bone marrow using the stem cells they had harvested. I remember seeing him when, in the midst of his treatment, he came out to visit his daughter. Yes, that’s right – for the majority of his care he wasn’t even conﬁned to a hospital. He did look a little gray, and he seemed to tire more easily. But if I didn’t know his diagnosis I would never have guessed he was suﬀering from bone marrow cancer! And just to think: It was research funded by Cryptic Masons that may have made it all possible.
Rocky Mountain Mason
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Symbolism, Gestures and Words aThe Specific Masonic Work, Its Basis, Supporting Background Information and Results That Working Masons Can Expect
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The Building Better Builders Book, DVD & Workshop Series Providing Masons with instruction that makes sense, including giving Higher Degree Candidates Crucial Basic Information missed by typical Masonic Education offerings. This Series helps create clearer, cleaner and better understanding of what is required to Build Better Builders. It contains:
aConcise Uncommon Masonic Educational Instruction a Thousands of Masonic Questions & Answers, Insights & Aphorisms Further Light not found in most Lodges or Schools of Instruction a a Challenging and Interesting side information, codes and ciphers
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A Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a tax designation for a corporate entity that limits corporate tax on real estate investments.
everal decades ago Masonic Lodges across the country began making, in my opinion, a terrible mistake. They began divesting old Masonic Lodge buildings in town centers to build new Lodges somewhere on the outskirts of town. The idea was simple: sell the old building that was expensive to operate and would cost a fortune to renovate and build a multi-functional, modern Lodge on a cheaper lot somewhere else. Save a nest egg of cash from the sale. After all, membership was booming and the Lodges were ﬂush. What possible need could the Brethren have for an old Victorian building with fading upholstery, archaic wiring, and a trove of non-compliance issues? Plus, who wanted to continue to manage such a building? This short-sighted, and in my opinion, lazy view cost Lodges a ready income stream. Lodges were typically housed in two-story buildings – the Lodge room above rental properties below. This ready stream of income, while requiring management, enabled increased Masonic programs. Once Lodges sold their buildings and moved to the outskirts of town, with a “new” Lodge building that lacked any rental value, things began to go down hill. With the present declines in membership some Lodges are now barely subsistent. What I recommend to the Fraternity’s attention is a Masonic Real Estate Investment Trust – a tax free corporate entity able to invest in real estate. Essentially, well-oﬀ Brothers invest in the Masonic REIT. The cash is used to 32
buy buildings in town, with room for a Lodge and rental properties. A Lodge then acquires the building from the REIT, paying the investment back over an amortized term. In other words, well-oﬀ Brothers get an investment opportunity supporting a laudable Masonic undertaking and Lodges get buildings with rental potential and income streams attached. An example looks like this: • Brethren looking to earn an acceptable percentage over an agreed upon term invest in the Masonic REIT. • The historic Montrose Lodge building at 509 Main Street in Montrose Colorado is currently assessed at $348,660 (see side bar). It includes two rental properties in the lower story, each with storefront access to Main Street Montrose. The Masonic REIT acquires the building. • Montrose Lodge, currently residing on Rose Lane on the outskirts of town, forms a 501(c) title holding company. The title holding company acquires the building from the Masonic REIT, agreeing to pay 5% amortized over a 10 year term. • The Montrose Lodge Title holding Company rents out the spaces in the building at an acceptable $13 per Squarefoot per year. • Montrose Lodge Title Holding Company repays the mortgage note from the retail spaces’ rent payments garnering extra cash for Lodge programs in the process.
• Investors make 5% in 10 years – a better return than most investments in the present day. The math looks like this: $348,660 in principal. Amortized at 5% over 10 years results in a $3,698.08 monthly payment. That seems like a lot – but the term is short. Nonetheless, rentals in Montrose Colorado on Main Street go for around $16 per square foot per year. Assuming half the square footage is used for the Lodge then, of the 6,250 square feet available, 3,125 are up for rent. That nets $4,166.67 a month, or a net proﬁt to the Lodge of $468.59. At the end of the 10 year term, the ownership reverts to the Title Holding Company, and the Masonic REIT has earned its 5%, or a total of $95,109.63 net. That’s not bad in this market. And it’s tax free. The fact is that this present economy presents a real opportunity for Masonic Lodges to regain property in town centers with the potential for rental income. And well-oﬀ Brethren can make a tidy return on investment without having to wait for the Fed to up interest rates.
Do you have an idea you think the Craft should contemplate? Send ideas to: Editor, Rocky Mountain Mason, P.O. Box 1200, Norwood, CO 81423. Or write to editor @rockymountainmason.com. Please submit your ideas in an attached word document, times new roman font, single spaced, single tab per paragraph. See our submission guidelines at www.rockymountainmason. com. Rocky Mountain Mason
“The problem with most Masonic buildings is they rent space to other Masonic bodies. They have no other source of revenue. The buildings that are successful are the ones that have some kind of income source.” Jerry Fenimore, Grand Treasurer
Timeline: Montrose Masonic Lodge Building Est. 1911 • May 2, 1980. The Montrose Masonic Building Assoc. sells the historic Masonic building at 509-513 Main Street, Montrose, Colorado, for $171,000 to Jack D. Hutchison.
The historic Montrose Lodge building on Main Street in Montrose, Colorado. A Masonic REIT might be a method of reacquiring this historic structure for the craft while enabling a decent return on investment for well oﬀ Brethren looking to make their money work for them.
• December 21, 2004. InvestWise, LLC, sell the building to JM Salida Investments LLC for $415,000.
• July 25, 2012. JM Salida Investments, LLC, sell to Public Trustee Montrose County, for $0.
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• October 7, 1987. MasTemp Ltd. sells the building back to Jack Huthison and Karen, his wife, for $0. • July 27, 2000. Jack and Karen sell to InvestWise, LLC, for $255,000.
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• November 17, 1985. Jack Hutchison sells the building to MasTemp Ltd., for $150,000.
The actual value property today $348,660
of the (2012)?
Square Footage: 6250
Flow diagram illustrating the process of acquiring Masonic property via a Masonic REIT Rocky Mountain Mason
AS SEEN IN THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR MAGAZINE
Leading The Vanguard
response agencies to establish Mutual Aid ir Knight David L. Reynolds was Agreements, and Standards for Response born in Richmond, Indiana, on for EL Paso County and the surrounding August 28, 1956. areas. He graduated from Northeastern Following retirement in May, 2010, High School in Fountain City, Indiana, he and Korlyn enjoy in 1975. Sir Knight exploring the many Reynolds was active in beauties and wonders school and served as a of Colorado. member of the school’s Sir Knight Art Council, Track and Reynolds grew up in Varsity Golf Team. a house of Masons. He received a His father, John C. scholarship to Rose Reynolds, was an Hulman University of active Master Mason, Architecture in Terre Scottish Rite Mason, Haute, Indiana, but and Shriner. quit college to join the His grandfather, US Air Force. Wiber W. Inglert was After basic training a 33º Scotish Rite he was assigned to Mason and hailed from the ﬁre protection an unbroken line of career ﬁeld where he Masons dating back to found his calling as a 1893. ﬁreﬁghter. While Sir Knight with the Air Force Sir Knight David Reynolds Reynolds became he was assigned Right Eminent Grand Commander a Mason in Tejon to Chanute, Lodge No. 104 Kinchloe, and and received his Master Mason degree in Oﬀutt Air Force Bases. April 1982. He is a Past Master of Tejon During his time at Kinchloe he Lodge, Past Excellent High Priest of became acquainted with and married a Pikes Peak Chapter No. 6 R.A.M., Passt local resident, Miss Korlyn Kay Ketner. Commander of Pikes Peak Commandery Dave and Korlyn have remained happily No. 6. married for 34 years. Their oldest daughter, He is a member of Pikes Peak Priory her husband and their two children live in No. 21 Knight of the York Cross of Alabama.. Their son and daughter-in-law Honor, Sangre de Christo Red Cross of live near them in Colorado. Constantine, and is current VEP of Magi When honorably discharged after Tabernacle No. LXIII, Holy Royal Arch four years, Sir Knight Reynolds took Knight Templar Priests. a ﬁreﬁghting position at Pueblo Army Sir Knight Reynolds is also a Past Depot. Six months later he was oﬀered Govenor of Southern Colorado York Rite and accepted a ﬁreﬁghting engineer College No. 109 and a recipient of the position in Colorado Springs at Peterson Order of the Purple Cross. Air Force Base. He has a lot planned for the Sir Sir Knight Dave has received a degree Knights of Colorado and looks forward to in Fire Science and Public Safety. He serving the members of this glorious state worked as a ﬁreﬁghter at Peterson Air and this wonderful organization. Force Base for over 30 years, attaining the rank of Assistant Fire Chief. Sir Knight Reynolds also taught as a regional instructor for Texas A & M and worked with local and state emergency
Rocky Mountain Mason
The Horns of Hattin F
ew events in history can be identiﬁed as true turning points — points in the unraveling of time where history is irrevocably altered. The Battle of Hattin is one such point — a waterfall in the river of time that inexorably moved the destiny of the Christian empire toward a new horizon. The Battle of Hattin would ultimately result in the fall of Jerusalem, the levy of the Saladin tithe throughout Europe, the death of one Pope, and the onset of the third Crusade. In time, the Christians would withdraw from the Holy Land almost entirely. All of this could have been avoided if not for the actions of one man: Raynald of Chatillon. It’s important to understand this man, his character and his actions, to understand how, in time, he could unite 36
the warring Muslim factions against him and, in so doing, assist the rise to power of the Templars’ greatest adversary, Salalad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub — “Saladin”, the “Defender of the Faith”.
• Raynald of Chatillon Raynald of Chatillon was a scurrilous man by all accounts, cruel, greedy, ambitious, resorting to any tactics, no matter how low, to increase his power and wealth. He makes a great case study in medieval villainy. Contrary to popular opinion, fostered in part by ﬁctionalization in movies such as The Kingdom of Heaven (2005), Raynald of Chatillon was not a Templar. That he allied with the Templar Grand Master, Gerard de Ridefort, however, is true,
but this “unholy alliance” was likely the result of personal misgivings the Grand Master had for other political rivals in the Christian states. (More on that later.) Raynald’s origin and exact arrival in the Hold Land are uncertain. He probably arrived with the second Crusade. We’re not entirely sure where he came from. But we know he entered the service of the Princess Regnant of Antioch, Constance, sometime after 1147. Following Constance’s husband’s death in 1149, Raynald and Constance eloped. Neither King Baldwin of Jerusalem nor the Patriarch of Antioch approved the marriage: Raynald was considered of common birth and a match ill-suited to the nobility. Raynald and Constance had one daughter, Agnes, in 1154. There can be no question that the marriage did Raynald well. He increased his wealth and power. Rocky Mountain Mason
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and the fall of Jerusalem And also, perhaps, his arrogance. Maybe he was fed up with being looked down upon by the nobility, or maybe he was tired of fawning on social superiors. Whatever the reason, he determined he would take what would not be freely given him. In 1156, he sought funds to attack the island of Cyprus, claiming that the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, had reneged on a promise to pay him cash. But, seeing no just cause, the Patriarch of Antioch refused to ﬁnance the expedition. Raynald had the Patriarch stripped naked, lacquered in honey, and left atop the citadel in the noonday sun. Raynald got the money. His forces plundered Cyprus. This iniquitous raid was a mistake. Despite the spoils earned from the looting, it would cause him an amount of humiliation instead of the respect Rocky Mountain Mason
he desperately craved — humiliation, no doubt, that only consolidated his misanthropy. Following Raynald’s foray into Cyprus, Emperor Manuel I raised a large army to teach Raynald a lesson, and entered Syria. Vastly out-powered, Raynald was forced to grovel at the Emperor’s throne and beg for his life. In 1159, Raynald was again forced to pay homage to the Emperor and agreed to accept a Greek Patriarch at Antioch. This eﬀectively split the authority of Antioch, giving religious allegiance to the Emperor. Worse still, when Emperor Manuel visited Antioch in 1159 for a meeting with King Baldwin III of Jerusalem, it was Raynald who was ordered out to greet the Emperor and lead his horse on foot through the city in front of everyone. You can imagine how this made him feel.
He turned his greed and thirst towards the Muslims. In 1160 he was captured during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of Marash. He was imprisoned at Aleppo for 17 years. This is probably where he honed his hatred for the Muslims — it indubitably contributed to the cruelty for which he would later gain notoriety; the torture and misery he’d inﬂict at the castle of Kerak. But, perhaps because Raynald was the stepfather of Maria of Antioch, who the Emperor Manuel married in 1160, or for other reasons unknown to us, Emperor Manuel surprisingly ransomed Raynald for 12,000 gold dinars, or about a quarter ton of gold. That’s $31,176,924.90 in today’s money (calculated in September, 2012). But the cost of his freedom to the Christian empire was much higher. Constance had died in 1163. So 37
Raynald married another rich widow, Stephanie, the widow of Humphrey III of Toron and Miles of Plancy. She was the heiress to the lordship of Oultrejordain, a lordship that included the castles of Montreal and Kerak. These two fortresses, south of the Dead Sea, controlled the trade routes between Egypt and Damascus. Raynald must have been pleased. On November 25, 1177, leading the Christian armies alongside the leprous King Baldwin IV, Raynald was victorious over Saladin at the battle of Montgisard. Saladin narrowly escaped. Four years later, perhaps sensing the growing tension between the Christians and the Muslims, fueled with his own sense of power and greed, Raynald began incursions against the Muslim trade caravans passing his fortresses — a violation of truces forged between the Muslims and the Christians. He took prisoners. It is said he taunted the Muslim merchants and their families, had them thrown over the battlements to fall perilously to their deaths on the rocks below. Outraged, Saladin demanded reparations, but King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, young and aﬄicted with wasting leprosy, held out his hands — he could not, he said, control this “unruly vassal”. War resulted in 1182 and Raynald’s notoriety began to spread across the Muslim world. Unsatisﬁed with villainy on land, Raynald took to piracy upon the Red Sea. His ships were a visible threat to the Muslim Holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Suddenly close, his boasts deprecating the Muslim faith rang out across the Muslim world. The Muslims consolidated behind Saladin. Raynald’s pirates were captured, taken to Cairo and beheaded. But Raynald escaped, and disappeared in Moab. Saladin vowed to his followers that he’d behead Raynald himself. Toward the end of 1182, Saladin attacked the castle at Kerak during the wedding of Raynald’s stepson, Humphrey IV of Toron, to Isabella of Jerusalem. The siege was raised by Raymond III of Tripoli, a noble who’d later vie for the throne of Jerusalem. Following the siege, Raynald was quiet for a few years. But then, in 1186, he attacked a large Muslim caravan travelling between Cairo and Damascus, taking all the merchants and their families hostage. Up to his usual antics, he desecrated 38
their faith, humiliated and tortured them, and locked away the plunder. He refused audience with each of Saladin’s envoys. This violated a four year truce the Christians had signed with Saladin the year before, and Saladin made preparations for revenge.
• Gerard de Ridefort We need also to understand Gerard de Ridefort, and why the Templar Grand Master would ultimately back Raynald’s terrible argument to march out to meet Saladin on those dusty plains near the Horns of Hattin on July 3, 1187. The whims of destiny are curious, many kingdoms have fallen over pride and simple personal diﬀerences. It was a personal diﬀerence, perhaps, between Gerard de Ridefort and Raymond of Tripoli that would lead to that terrible decision prevailing at the war council on July 2, a decision that would force the Christians out, away from the defensible springs at Sephoria, into the desert, with the entire Christian army in tow. Gerard de Ridefort arrived in Jerusalem sometime in the late 1170’s, probably from the lands of modern-day Belgium. He entered the service of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, and in 1179 he attained the rank of Marshal of the Kingdom. At some point, he had made arrangements to marry an heiress in Tripoli. But Raymond III, the Count of Triploli, instead gave her to a wealthy merchant who, legend says, oﬀered Raymond as dowry her weight in gold. Jilted, Gerard took the vows of chastity and entered the Order. His rise was rapid. By 1183 he had attained the rank of Seneschal. In 1185, following the death of Grand Master Arnold of Torroja, he was elected Grand Master. We will never know if he forgave Raymond of Tripoli for maneuvering his bride to the hand of another. But history records Gerard taking opposing sides to Raymond III of Triploi at every turn thereafter.
• Toward The Horns Following Raynald’s iniquitous plundering and murdering of the laden
caravans, and the breech of yet another treaty, Saladin began assembling an army from across the Muslim world. By May of 1187 it exceeded 30,000 men, with 12,000 cavalry. A perfect storm was building. The Muslim factions had united; Raynald’s raiding, murderous lechery, and ungodly villainy were a perfect call to arms. Previously, in 1185, King Baldwin IV ﬁnally succumbed to leprosy, giving his nephew, King Baldwin V, the crown, but not the throne. He was but a boy, and Raymond of Tripoli was appointed regent. But in 1186, Baldwin the V also died and the throne of Jerusalem was contested. On one side, Raymond of Tripoli, on the other Guy of Lusignan, husband of Baldwin IV’s sister, Sibylla of Jerusalem. Before his death, Baldwin the IV had decreed that Sibylla could only become Queen if her marriage to Guy was annulled. But with the support of Raynald of Chatillon and Gerard de Rideford (against Raymond of Tripoli), Sibylla was crowned queen as the rightful heir, and Guy, as husband, became king. Thus, when Raynald attacked the Muslim caravan on that fateful day, the Christians had a new King of Jerusalem — one appointed by marriage — whose claim was openly contested. The nobility was in disunity, factions divided the Christian kingdom, and loyalties were uncertain. In June of 1187 Saladin crossed the Jordan with 30,000 men. In disarray and disunity, the Christians reluctantly united and rallied at Acre. On July 2 Saladin laid siege to Tiberias, a fortress owned by Raymond of Tripoli’s wife, Eschiva of Bure, Princess of Galilee. Eschiva was at that time residing there. This was a move intended not on conquest, but on deceit: Saladin wanted to goad the Christians away from their defensible position to weaken them in the desert. The plan worked. At a war counsel on July 2, Raymond III of Tripoli (whose wife it was imperiled at Tiberias) argued against riding out to meet Saladin. He recognized the danger, and smelled a rat. He would even let his wife go. But Raynald and Gerard de Ridefort, calling him a coward, prevailed on Guy of Lusignan – the new king – to meet Saladin in battle, to save Tiberias, and conquer the Muslim horde. After all, they had beaten Saladin before with less men. Practically the whole military of the Christian Levant Rocky Mountain Mason
was behind them. So it was the Christians rode out into the desert on the morning of July 3 — about 20,000 of them, with 1,200 knights from Jerusalem and 50 from Antioch. The Relic of the True Cross — a purported piece of the cruciﬁx to which Christ Himself was nailed — led the way in the possession of the Bishop of Acre. It was ﬁfteen miles to Tiberias.
• The Battle of Hattin Raymond of Tripoli led the vanguard, Guy of Lusignan led the main army, and Raynald and Balian of Ibelin led the rearguard. Almost immediately the army was under assault by Muslim skirmishers, haranguing and disorienting the army. Not enough to cause retreat, or to break ranks mind you, just enough to create confusion — they buzzed around like ﬂies irritating a horse. The sun beat down. After a fast march the army reached the springs at Turan around noon. They had traveled six miles. “The hawks of the Frankish infantry and the eagle of their cavalry hovered around the water,” a chronicler of the day records Saladin saying. It would have been wise to lay camp near the water. But, said Saladin, “Satan incited Guy to do what ran counter to his purpose.” Despite having only mustered eight miles march in a single day ever, Guy forced the march onward, hoping to surprise Saladin that evening. The long line of men and horses, in the noonday heat, pressed on toward Tiberias — nine miles to go. Watching from afar, Saladin secretly sent two wings of his army around the Christians, severing the springs at Turan from their reach. He increased the guerilla incursions to the rear and managed to split the rearguard by slowing them almost to a crawl. “They were closely beset as in a noose, while still marching on as though being driven to the death that they could see before them, convinced of their doom and destruction and themselves aware that the following day they would be visiting their graves.” Muslim Chronicler, Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, says. The army was forced to camp — with no water, in the middle of a dry Rocky Mountain Mason
plain. During the night the skirmishes continued. At dawn, or just before, on July 4, 1187, Saladin, whose armies now surrounded the Christians, set ﬁre to the dried grasses upwind. The smoke blistered the Christians, adding to their thirst, and weighing uncertainty upon them. Saladin loosed a thousand arrows. They were being attacked from all sides. The sudden understanding of their predicament was enough — they broke ranks, and headed for the Horns of Hattin. But Saladin repulsed them back. Count Raymond led two charges to break through the Muslim ranks, to gain access to the sea of Galilee — water, they all needed water — but Saladin took the second charge, allowing a small retreat, before swooping in behind and isolating Raymond and his knights. Raymond was forced into retreat and separated from the main force. Seeing Raymond severed from the battle, and fearing the worst, the infantry disbanded, and ran to the Horns of Hattin again. Saladin let them go. The cavalry, now unprotected, fell prey to the torrent of arrows, and the horses fell. The cavalry was forced to ﬁght on foot. Then they too made for the Horns of Hattin. Trapped on the hillside, the Crusaders were completely surrounded. What happened next was recorded by Ibn al-Athir from Al-Afdal, Saladin’s son, who was at his father’s side during the battle: When the king of the Franks [Guy] was on the hill with that band, they made a formidable charge against the Muslims facing them, so that they drove them back to my father [Saladin]. I looked towards him and he was overcome by grief and his complexion pale. He took hold of his beard and advanced, crying out “Give the lie to the Devil!” The Muslims rallied, returned to the ﬁght and climbed the hill. When I saw that the Franks withdrew, pursued by the Muslims, I shouted for joy, “We have beaten them!” But the Franks rallied and charged again like the ﬁrst time and drove the Muslims back to my father. He acted as he had done on
the ﬁrst occasion and the Muslims turned upon the Franks and drove them back to the hill. I again shouted, “We have beaten them!” But my father rounded on me and said, “Be quiet! We have not beaten them until that tent [Guy] falls.” As he was speaking to me, the tent fell. The sultan dismounted, prostrated himself in thanks to God Almighty and wept for joy. The prisoners were assembled for ransom. Guy of Lusignan and Raynald of Chatillon were taken to Saladin’s tent. The Chronicler Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani records what happened next: Saladin invited the king [Guy] to sit beside him, and when Arnat [Raynald] entered in his turn, he seated himself next to his king and [Saladin] reminded him of his misdeeds. “How many times have you sworn an oath and violated it? How many times have you signed agreements you have never respected?” Raynald answered through a translator: “Kings have always acted thus. I did nothing more.” During this time King Guy was gasping with thirst, his head dangling as though drunk, his face betraying great fright. Saladin spoke reassuring words to him, had cold water brought, and offered it to him. The king drank, then handed what remained to Raynald, who slaked his thirst in turn. The sultan then said to Guy: “You did not ask permission before giving him water. I am therefore not obliged to grant him mercy.” After pronouncing these words, the sultan smiled, mounted his horse, and rode off, leaving the captives in terror. He supervised the return of the troops, and then came back to his tent. He ordered Raynald brought there, then advanced before him, sword in hand, and struck him between the neck and the shoulderblade. When Raynald fell, he cut 39
off his head and dragged the body by its feet to the king, who began to tremble. Seeing him thus upset, Saladin said to him in a reassuring tone: “It is not the wont of kings to kill kings; but that man had transgressed all bounds, and therefore did I treat him thus. This man was killed only because of his maleﬁcence and perﬁdy.” The severity of this loss is best synopsized by the following facts. Most of the Christian army, from across the Levant, fell that day. The Knights present were summarily executed. The True Cross was nailed upside down, and taken to Damascus. Two days later, the fortress at Tiberias fell. By mid-September Acre, Nablus, Jaﬀa, Toron, Sidon, Beirut, and Ascalon had all fallen. On October 2, Jerusalem fell, too. When word of the sudden reversal reached Rome, the Chronicler Ernoul records that the news of the defeat caused Pope Urban III to die of shock. Pope Gregory VIII, ascending shortly thereafter, issued the papal bull Audita tremendi authorizing the third Crusade. In England and France the Saladin tithe was enacted, and all peoples were taxed additionally to fund the endeavor. This led to much unpopularity of — and uprisings against, — the nobility there. Despite the eﬀorts of other Knights Templar, and King Richard I the Lionheart, the Christians were unable to recapture Jerusalem. The Third Crusade ended in 1192, and the spires of Jerusalem set under the pale blade of the crescent moon. We should never forget that the actions of just one man can cause great changes in the world — for good or ill. As modern Knights of the Temple, we must remember to temper ambition and greed beneath the sword of virtue, to remain a force of positive change in the world. We must be unafraid in all our interactions, look the world in the eye and keep it with a wink. With all the luxury of the modern age, what are you going to do today to make someone else’s life better? Perhaps it’s as simple as a smile.
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Rocky Mountain Mason
Understanding Muslim Sects
nderstanding the Islamic religion requires a careful look at its history. Islam has been fraught with conﬂict since the death of its prophet some 1,380 years ago. The problems began when Muhammad (may Allah love and bless him!) passed in 632 CE and didn’t indicate a successor. On the one hand, his father-in-law and good friend, Abu Bakr, claimed the position of Caliph, and was elected by the faithful. However, many believed that Ali ibn Abi Talib, the prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, should naturally lead the religion. Ali had been raised in Muhammad’s household since the age of 5, and was the very ﬁrst convert to Islam. Ali had served the prophet in all capacities, proving himself a wise religions leader and tenacious warrior for the cause. This early split formed the two major branches of Islam, the Sunnis, (from the Arabic word Sunnah,, meaning ‘example’) and the Shiites (from the Arabic Shiiatu Ali,, meaning ‘the party of Ali’). Broadly speaking, the Sunnis believed, and continue to do so, that Muslims should elect their spiritual leaders. Islam is a Theocracy, giving complete spiritual and practical leadership to one person. The Sunnis vest this trust and guidance in the Caliph, electeed by the faithful. The Shiites, on the other hand, believe that a direct descendent of the prophet must lead the faithful. This they call Imam, the spiritual leader who alone has the wisdom to interpret the Divine law. The Sunnis and Shiites have a common history, and agree on the ﬁrst four Rashidan, or “Righteously appointed Caliphs”. Whereas the Sunnis recognize Rocky Mountain Mason
Ali as the fourth Rahsidan, the Shiites recognize him as the ﬁrst Imam, and the other three Caliphs as imposters. This has created tension between Muslims for a millennium. This was exacerbated in 680 CE when the Sunni Caliph Yazid marched with 4,000 troops into Karbala and massacred Ali’s younger son, Husayn, and all his family, wives, children, and 71 closest companions. This drama is reenacted annually by devout Shiites and has
The Ismali Lion come to represent the resistance of truth to materialistic
tyranny. Things are further complicated in that the passing of the nass, or the spiritual authority and mystical wisdom required to rule the religion and interpret the law, is often contested. Thus we have Caliphs suppressing Shiite movements, murdering Imams to protect their rule, and the splitting of the Shiite sect into a number of sub-branches as diﬀerent Shiites rallied around diﬀerent descendents of the prophet, each recognizing their own as the righteous inheritor of the faith, and the others as imposters. So it is that the Shiite sect split into Twelver and Sevener Shiites, the former recognizing twelve Imams, all of which were
killed (mostly poisoned) by rival Caliphs excepting the last Imam, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan who went into hiding in the 9th century awaiting his reappearance at the end of the world with the Christ during the second coming. Whereas the Seveners believe that the seventh Imam was Ja’far al-Sadiq’s elder son, Ismail, not his younger son, Musal al-Kazim. (It is argued that Ja’far had apparently disinherited his elder son at some point.) This gave rise to the Ismailis, of which the Nazari Ismailis are familiar to Masonic history as the order of the Assassins who had interactions, both positive and negative, with the Templars. Shi’a Islam has long been suppressed, and often forced into hiding. The Imam is not a ruler in the overt sense, but a master in the esoteric, occult sense. So it is that Shi’a Islam generated the doctrine of Taqiyya, the use of deceit and cunning to hide one’s faith within the mainstream. Shi’a syncretized and absorbed mystical parts of other religions, practiced in secret. They proselytized in secret, requiring complex initiation rites to protect their dias, or messengers. Deep, spiritual resistance and martyrdom are thusly integral to many forms of Islam, and although not required of its followers, such acts of suﬀering are celebrated historically. Thus, as a breeding ground for fundamental ideals which presage terrorism, Islam presents a system honed through the centuries, able to touch people in secret, brandishing a message of freedom from material excesses – even if the religion itself is not ultimately intended as such a tool.
y ﬁrst introduction to the Knight Templar Apron was made on my ﬁrst visit to the George Washington Masonic Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia. There in the ante room to the Lodge is a large portrait of Lafayette wearing a black apron featuring the skull and cross bones. After a bit of inquiry, I was informed that the apron was that of a Knight Templar, which was one of the many orders into which Lafayette was received while he visited the United States during the Colonial Revolution. I was also told that there were three other Knight Templar aprons in the Memorial, located in the Chapter Room. There are at least two examples of the Knight Templar Apron in Michigan. One in the possession of the historical room of Detroit Commandery #1, and one in the collection of the Jackson Masonic Temple. It was at the later location that I was encouraged to write on the history of the Knight Templar Apron by Past Grand Commander Jack MacDonald of the Grand Commander of Michigan, and to him I am deeply indebted.
All Templar encampments were qualiﬁed to give the degrees of the “Rose Croix” and the “Kadosh” which had existed in England as Templar degrees years before the establishment of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. In the original form of the Templar Ceremonies, the “Rose Croix de Herodom (sic)” was one step above the Templar installation, followed by the “Kadosh”1 The signiﬁcance herein is the fact that Templary was related under British Masonry to the Rose Croix and Kadosh
• Early History
hile little has been written on the dress of the early Templars, prior to Thomas Smith Webb’s “Monitor” of 1797, there has been one suggestion as to the origin of the Templar Apron. In early references to the history of Templary in Great Britain, the following signiﬁcant reference is made: 42
degrees. The Rose Croix apron is described as follows: White lined in Black and outlined in Red. On the white side depicting a pelican feeding her young. On the black side a red Latin cross. (Northern Masonic Jurisdiction)
Thus giving us an early look at the potential design of the Knight Templar apron prior to Webb’s “Monitor”. Additionally, it is known that the Templar degrees were worked in this country “under the sanction of the warrant of ‘Blue’ Lodges.”2 This being fact, it is possible that the Knight Templar apron was a direct result of the modiﬁcation of the Symbolic Lodges apron to ﬁt the ritualistic legends of the Templar Orders.
• The First “Standard” The ﬁrst written “standard” for the Knight Templar apron was published in Thomas Smith Webb’s “Monitor” of 1797. (Interesting side note: Webb was only 26 years old when this work was published!). In this volume (and subsequent reissues) Webb describes the apron as “White, with a black border; or black, with a white border. The ﬂap black, and a skull and cross bones embroidered in silver thereon.”3 It is to Webb that the ﬁrst standards of Masonic ritual and ceremony are attributed as his “Webb work” recast some of the degrees, and completely reconstructed others. Webb’s “standard” was accepted by the early Templars, and it was not until after the formation of the Grand Encampment, and its subsequent publishing of the general statutes of 1839, that a new permanent design was agreed upon. In Chapter 4 of the General Statutes of the Grand Encampment, the following description can be found of the Templar Rocky Mountain Mason
By Sir Knight Ron Blaisdell
Uniform: Article 1. The costume of a Knight Templar shall consist of a full suit of black, dress coat and pantaloons, white cravat, black gloves, boots, and gilt spurs, all over a white surcoat, on the left breast of which shall be embroidered a red cross; and undress military cap, and on the front a Templar cross; a crosshilted sword, the scabbard of black leather suspended from a black velvet or leather baldrick (sic), a short dagger on the left side, a black velvet apron of triangular form, having on the centre a patriarchal cross, and on the ﬂap a skull and cross bones all in silver. The edging of the aprons and collars shall be gold for Grand Bodies, and of silver for Subordinate Commanderies.4 There is some doubt as to the adoption of this resolution by all Commanderies subordinate to the Grand Encampment. In the 1859 edition of “The Craftsman, and Freemason’s Guide” by Cornelius Moore the apron is described as “An Apron of black velvet of a triangular form, trimmed in silver lace. On the top or ﬂap is a triangle, with twelve holes perforated through it; in the center of the triangle is a cross and serpent; on the center of the apron is a scull (sic) and cross bones, and at equal distance from them, in a triangular form, a star with seven points; in the center of each star a red cross.”5 The lack of an accepted standard caused the Grand Encampment to enact the famous “Digest of Decisions”.
• The “Digest of Decisions” At the Grand Encampment in 1847 William Blackstone Hubbard was elected Rocky Mountain Mason
as Grand Master. Frater Hubbard was singularly dedicated to Templary, and applied his many business skills to the development of the Grand Encampment. A Jurist by trade, his twelve years as Grand Master were marked with decisions that set a regulated tone to the proceedings of the Grand Encampment. Never one for “fuss and feathers”, Hubbard desired that the Templars become a respected order. In a method to reach that means, Sir Knight Hubbard issued his famous “Digest of Decisions” at the 14th Triennial of the Grand Encampment on September 9, 1856. The “Digest” covered three subjects: Dress, Work, and Discipline of Templar Masonry. The ﬁrst area, “Dress” was not legislated upon until the conclaves of 1859 and 1862. The conclave of 1859 issued the ﬁrst regulations concerning the standard uniform of Knight Templar’s, this was revised however in 1862 and the “Edict on the Uniform of a Knight Templar” was issued. The “Edict” of 1859/1862 made many major changes in the uniform of a Knight Templar. The original edict in 1859 changed the frock coat from black to white, and simultaneously abolished the wearing of the Knight Templar apron. In 1862 the edict was changed to reﬂect the now standard black frockcoat that is worn by subordinate Commanderies. A provision was made in the edicts of 1859/1862 to allow Commanderies formed before 1859 to still wear the old or “black” uniform. In his address to the Grand Conclave of the Grand Commandery of the State of Michigan on June 5, 1860, N.P. Jacobs, Grand Commander, made his report to the Grand Body regarding this new edict. Great and material changes were made in regard to the dress and equipments of Knights Templar. These changes I wish to bring to your notice, that such actions may
be taken by you as will produce uniformity therein, and conformity to the requirements of the Grand Encampment. These changes are radical, and the costume there adopted will undoubtedly remain the standard for all time to come.6 The mixed rule of “black” and “white” (those Commanderies formed after 1859) uniforms continued until 1872. In that year J. Q. A. Fellows, Grand Master, felt it was his duty to enforce a uniform dress in the Order, and issued his decree requiring all Commanderies in the United States which were using the “black uniform” to abandon it, and to adopt the “white uniform”. A single exception was made to this ruling, and that was to Washington Commandery #1 of the District of Columbia. This sole Commandery was allowed to continue to wear the Knight Templar apron. Today, the Commandery only wears its aprons on special occasions and installations.
• Opposition to the Edict of 1862 There was much opposition to the uniform change in Commanderies where the “black uniform” was in use. The Grand Master’s interpretation of the statute of the Grand Encampment was doubted and denied, and the order was disobeyed by most if not all Commanderies still wearing the “black uniform”. Dr. Albert Mackey was in direct opposition to the ruling of the Grand Master and expressed his views in the December, 1872 issue of the National Freemason. Previous to the year 1859 the costume of the Knights Templar of this country was determined only by a traditional rule, and consisted of a black dress, with the 43
richly decorated baldric and apron; the latter intended to show the connection which existed between the Order and Ancient Craft Masonry. In 1856, at Hartford, a new Constitution was proposed and adopted, with the exception of the part that referred to costume. Sir Knight Mackey, from the committee on the Constitution, made a report on the subject of dress, as a part of the Constitution; but the considerations of this report was postponed until the next triennial meeting. The changes in costume proposed by the committee were not very great; the baldric and the essential apron were preserved, and a white tunic, not hitherto used, was recommended. At the session of 1859, at Chicago, the subject of dress was alluded to by the Grand Master in his address; and his remarks, together with the report of the committee made in 1856 were referred to a special committee of seven, of which the Grand Master was chairman, and Sir Knights Doyle, Pike, Simons, Mackey, Morris, and French were the members. This committee reported a uniform which made material differences in the dress theretofore worn, and especially by the rejection of the apron and the introduction of a white tunic and white cloak. These last were favorite notions of Grand Master Hubbard, and they were adopted by the committee mainly in deference to his high authority. The proposed measure met at ﬁrst with serious opposition, partly on account of the rejection of the apron, which many Templars then held, as they do now, to be an essential feature of Masonic Templarism, and a tangible record of the union at a speciﬁc period in history of the two Orders; but mainly, perhaps, on account of the very heavy expense and inconvenience which would devolve on the old Commanderies, if they were required at once to throw aside their old dress and provide a new one. This opposition was only 44
quelled by the agreement on a compromise, by which the old Commanderies were to be exempted from the operation of the law. The regulations for the new costume were then passed, and the compromise immediately after adopted in the words of Sir Knight Doyle, who was one of the committee.7 Such was the nature of this disagreement that it continued until the twenty-third triennial in 1886 when Grand Master Charles Roome returned the control of uniforms back to the subordinate Grand Commanderies. Yet even after this measure, no additional Commanderies adopted the use of the Knight Templar apron as Dr. Mackey purported, save Washington #1.
• The Symbolism of the Knight Templar Apron Deeply rooted in the heritage of the ancient Templars, the Knight Templar apron draws its symbolism from the past, to create a tie between those ancient Templars and the modern Masonic Knight Templar. The black of the apron reminds the Sir Knight of the martyrdom of Jacques DeMolay, and the central, and most striking emblem of the apron the skull and crossed bones - the symbol of the last of mortality. The skull and crossed bones were adopted as an emblem of the ancient Templars between the third and fourth crusade. The legend is one based on love, and is handed down as thus: According to legend, a Templar fell in love with a beautiful noblewoman of Maraclea. She died before they could be married, but he could not endure to be separated from her, and dug up the body, and with full ceremonies married what was left of the corpse. After the body was reburied and he returned home, a voice came to him in a dream and told him to return in nine years. When he returned, he found only the skull and two large leg bones preserved enough to be moved. The voice spoke to him again and told him to guard and keep them
always, and he would be successful in all his undertakings. Thereafter he prospered greatly and defeated all his enemies. The skull and bones was passed on to the Templars at his death, and as mentioned was credited with their rise to afﬂuence and power.8 So impressive is the skull and crossed bones on the apron, it was the ﬁrst object to attract my attention in the portrait of Lafayette, and that which lead to further light in Masonry.
Endnotes 1 History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders”, Fraternity Publishing Company, Boston, 1907, Lt. Col. W. J. B. MacLeod Moore, Supreme Grand Master of the Grand Priory of Canada, p773. 2 ibid, Frederic Speed, Past Grand Commander – Mississippi, p702. 3 “The Freemason’s Monitor; or Illustrations of Masonry in two parts”, Thomas Smith Webb, Cushing and Appleton Publishers, Salem, Mass., 1821, p236. Return to position. 4 “Proceedings of the General Grand Encampment Knights Templar of the United States 1816 to 1856, New Orleans, 1860, p309. 5 “The Craftman, and Freemason’s Guide”, Cornelius Moore, 14th Standard Edition, Jacob Ernst and Company, Cincinnati, 1859, p262. 6 “Reprint of the Proceedings of the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar of the State of Michigan, from its Formation June, 1858 to and including Conclave of 1871, Eaton, Lyon & Allen Printing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1885, p65. 7 “An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences”, Albert G. Mackey, The Masonic History Company, Chicago, 1921, pp412-413. 8 “Famous Crimes in History”, Allen Edwards, et al., as quoted in “The Scull and Cross Bones”, William Brown, Past Grand High Priest – Virginia, Curator, George Washington Masonic Memorial. Rocky Mountain Mason
Shining the Masonic Light Charity Forevermore
couple of years ago a young began doing some research. right before me, was the ineﬀable result of mother came into the bank where She found a ‘clown’, in Grand our charity. It can’t be put into words. It I worked. She was talking to a coJunction. She ﬁlled out an application, came out of my eyes: I was blinking back worker at a desk in the lobby, and from and submitted it. The hope had faded, she tears, too. my oﬃce I couldn’t help but overhear their said. It would never work. At least try, Several days later she returned to the conversation. She was blinking back tears, tough. At least try…. bank. She brought her son with her, the and her entire attitude was like someone The tears began to fall. Right there at cast still fresh on his left arm. She asked who had witnessed a miracle. The subject the desk in the lobby of the bank. Well, me if I was a Mason – I seemed to know a of their conversation hit me, and I came to the next evening, she said, she received little bit about these folks, she said, and she the door and stood nearby. a call. The next evening! And not from was wondering if I could help her. She had She was explaining that her young son some call-center, a secretary, or some lost the contact name from the ‘clown’ she had had some strange brittle bone disorder other distanced professional charged with had ﬁrst got in touch with. She gave me since birth. That he a name (not exactly was always breaking the right name). She ven then, days later in the bank’s lobby, she couldn’t his arms, only his said she just wanted arms, but even to thank him. She believe it. Who were these people? ‘The Shrine, it’s when crawling as a said it again. And baby several times something to do with the Masons,’ she said, blinking back those again. I said that I he had broken his same tears – but new tears, tears of happiness, relief and hope. was a Mason, that wrists. The young I didn’t know him, Tears she probably hadn’t cried in years.” family had spent but I bet I could ﬁnd years seeking a someone who did. diagnosis, despite That evening I inadequate insurance. Break after break. redlining or peeking through cracks in called her with the contact of the Brother Nothing. More breaks. No one could tell paper. But from a surgeon, at one of the in Grand Junction. The Brother who had them what was wrong. And recently he best hospitals in the world. He told her brought so much light into this darkened had broken his arm again. The medical they had accepted her son, and that they corner of the world. She thanked me too bills were crippling. I could still see their would even pay to ﬂy him out to Salt Lake much – I had done nothing – but my ghost on her heart, like the place where a City. No charge, no charge to the family. heart was overwhelmed. There was light lover used to lay. She was ﬂabbergasted. Even then, in Norwood, Colorado! They were at their wits’ end, she said. days later in the bank’s lobby, she couldn’t This, then, is the tangible result All paths had led to the same dead end. believe it. Who were these people? She of Masonry in the world. Where you And now they were exhausted, ﬁnancially, couldn’t ﬁnd much information on them, least expect it, it’s there. In a small rural emotionally; heart-broken horror. She was she didn’t know anything about them. community far from anywhere, in a place about to give up. They were all about to “The Shrine, it’s something to do with where hope had ceased to shine, for a family give up. Resign their son to that place of the Masons,” she said, blinking back nearly resigned to suﬀering and misery, a desperate love where all parents go when those same tears – but new tears, tears new light blazed. It dazzled me, blinded they ﬁnd themselves helpless. of happiness, relief, and hope. Tears she me, and I have never seen the world quite But then it happened. probably hadn’t cried in years. the same again. Her mother, she said, had mentioned We discussed the Masonic fraternity oﬀhand one evening by phone after the a little, I dispelled a few myths, nothing recent break, “why don’t you try to ﬁnd serious. She wanted to know who had a clown?” A clown? Yes, the guys who helped her. I was glad to oblige. used to drive around in those little cars. It was just the beginning. A long They have some sort of children’s hospital, road they had to tread. But they weren’t maybe they could help? She wasn’t alone, there were people manning the way, hopeful, and she expressed this with that directing her on. It would be okay. It same desperation upwelling in her heart. would be better. But she had no other options. So she got At that moment, as I looked into on the Internet, she said, fueled with that those eyes which shone like lamps, I have sense of purpose that kindles hope in the never been prouder to be a Mason. Here, cavity of suﬀering. If only for a time. She
Rocky Mountain Mason
The Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite
ongratulations and best wishes to Brother Ben Williams on the inaugural issue of this magazine. I am looking forward what I hope will be further education and light in our pursuit of knowledge and perfection. I am attempting to make myself write this in December for publication in March. I don’t remember volunteering to do so, but must have forgotten my army training and the Grand Masonic Word “NO”, because here I am. Can you remember December of 2012? We were at the edge of the ﬁscal cliﬀ; twenty–seven innocent children and teachers had just been tragically slain in Connecticut; two ﬁremen had been ambushed and killed by an ex-felon who had bludgeoned his grandmother to death years ago, then killed his sister and himself; there was a mass murder at a midnight movie in Aurora., Colorado; tens of thousands Syrians had been killed by their own government and were still dying; Christians and women were being marginalized and in fear of repression in Egypt; China has a new super Aircraft Carrier; and Iran is about to have the “Bomb”. I wonder what the new year will bring. I am, however, absolutely sure that now more than ever those three great tenants of our profession as Masons are critically needed to be shared and taught to the World. Where better to start than right here at home. If our Lodges, Consistories, and Commanderys, would only ﬁnd the means to spread our philosophy to those so in need of hope, meaning, and purpose in their lives I know we can make a diﬀerence. If we do not decide to make a diﬀerence, who will? If not now, when? In order to spread light and knowledge with greater eﬃciency than mouth-to-ear, publications such as this one are essential. If you are able, get involved and share your thoughts and insights on those matters important to you and your communities. The very genesis of speculative Masonry was the opportunity for men to gather and engage in social and intellectual intercourse about the great question of their time. Please stay involved and continue the quest. I look forward as I hope we all do to what the New Year will bring. Fraternally.
Stephen M. Munsinger, 33º Hon. Stephen Munsinger, 33º Sovereign Grand Inspector General Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Orient of Colorado
• Lodge of Perfection, Ineﬀable Degrees 4º 5º 6º 7º 8º 9º 10º 11º 12º 13º 14º
Secret Master Perfect Master Intimate Secretary Provost & Judge Intendant of the Building Elu of the Nine (Elected Knight of the Nine) Elu of the Fifteen (Illustrious Elect of the Fifteen Elu of the Twelve (Sublime Knight Elect of the Twelve) Master Architect Royal Arch of Solomon (Knight of the Ninth Arch) Perfect Elu (Grand Elect & Sublime Mason)
• Chapter of Rose Croix 15º 16º 17º 18º
Knight of the East, of the Sword or of the Eagle Prince of Jerusalem Knight of the East & West Knight Rose Croix
• Council of Kadosh 19º 20º 21º 22º 23º 24º 25º 26º 27º 28º 29º 30º
Grand Pontiﬀ Master of the Symbolic Lodge Noachite or Prussian Knight Knight Royal Axe, Prince of Libanus Chief of the Tabernacle Prince of the Tabernacle Knight of the Brazen Serpent Prince of Mercy or Scottish Trinitarian Knight Commander of the Temple Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew Knight of Kadosh or Knight of the White and Black Eagle
• Consistory 31º 32º
Inspector Inquisitor Master of the Royal Secret
• Court of Honor 32º KCCH Honor 33º 33º GCCH
Rocky Mountain Mason
Knight Commander of the Court of Inspector General Honorary Grand Cross of the Court of Honor
Timeline of Masonophobic Persecution Adapted from The Masonic Magician, the life & death of Count Cagliostro & his Egyptian Rite, by Philippa Faulks & Robert Cooper 1736 – Florentine Inquisition investigates Masonic Lodge in Florence, Italy. 1737 – June, Inquisition condemns Florentine Masonic Lodge. 1738 – Pope Clement XII issues ﬁrst Papal Bull prohibiting Freemasonry. 1740-80 – Spain forbids Freemasonry. 1743 – English Mason John Coustos condemned to 4 years imprisionment by Inquisition, 3 other Lodge members are hanged. 1744-1798 – Freemasonry outlawed in Switzerland. 1764-80 – Austria bans Freemasonry. 1787 – Catherine II of Russia bans all ‘secret societies’. 1802 – Brazillian journalist & Freemason, Hippolyto Joseph de Costa, imprisoned by Portuguese Inquisition. He escapes in 1805, and ﬂees to England. 1826 – Disappearance of William Morgan in New York inspires Masonophobia in US. 1828 – Anti-Masonic Party formed in the US. 1919 – Hungary is under the dictatorship of Bela Kun. Masonic Lodges raided and ransacked. Several Lodges are seized for anti-Masonic exhibitions. 1924 – Mussolini forces all Masons in his cabinet to resign the Fraternity, or his government. 1925 – Mussolini bans Freemasonry in Italy. General Capello, Deputy GM of the Grande Orient of Italy, resigns his post, is then arrested under false charges, and sentenced to 30 years in prison. 1928 – Miguel Primo de Rivera of Spain orders abolition of Freemasonry. 1933 – Herman Goering states there “is no place for Freemasonry” in national Socialist Germany. Hitler accuses high ranking Masons of being part of the “Jewish conspiracy”. 1934 – German Ministry of the Interior bans Freemasonry and orders conﬁscation of all Lodge property. Freemasons discriminated against. 1937 – Joseph Goebbels creates a Masonophobic exhibition. 1937-1945 – Freemasons made to wear inverted red triangle and shipped to concentration camps. Freemasonry banned in all Nazi allied countries. Estimations of 80,000 – 200,000 Freemasons murdered in concentration camps. 1938 – Japan states that ‘Judeo-Masonry’ was responsible for a potential attack by China. 1940-70s – General Francisco Franco outlaws Freemasonry in Spain. Masons automatically given 6 year jail sentence, longer sentences for Masons above 18th º. 1980 – Saddam Hussein orders death penalty for those who “promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including Freemasonry.”
������������������ Can you recognize the Masonic door below? Which Lodge does it belong to? What town is it in?
Send your answers to: Rocky Mountain Mason P.O. Box 1200 Norwood, CO 81423 or email the editor: firstname.lastname@example.org First correct response will receive an honorable mention in our next issue. We’ve blacked out the name on the door to protect the innocent. Your magnifying glass will not help you now.
From Around the State... (And elsewhere) 1. Tyler’s sword outside Elightenment Lodge 198 2. Medals of Screaming Eagle, W. Bro. Robert Van Sell.
3. Strange happenings at the Knights Templar. 4. Operative Masons lay Telluride Lodge’s cornerstone Oct 13, 2012. 5. M.W. Bro. Karl Hinkle survives a surprise blizzard at a cornerstone ceremony. 6. Controversial author Graham Hancock at Enlightenment Lodge 198’s education event. 7. Jachin at Canyon City Lodge. 8. New Knights of Saint Andrew (2012) assume the Order of the Thistle. 9. Who let these guys in? 10. The Royal Arch Degree Team at A Masonic Journey into Light, Denver Consistory.
11. Prelate for the Orders of the Temple, W. Bro. Joe Kier. 12. A weary pilgrim ﬁnds comfort among friends. 13. Conferring the Orders of Knighthood, somewhere *near* Hotchikiss, CO. 14. Traveling along the level of time. 15. Getting into character. 16. REGC David Reynolds presents a set of spurs to REPGC Gerald Ford III at CoronalAscalon Commandery No. 31. 17. Eastern Star provides a funeral service for W. Bro. Robert Van Sell, trainer of the 101st Screaming Eagles, and all round upright man and Mason, Nucla, CO Feb. 16, 2013. Do you have pictures you’d like to see in the Rocky Mountian Mason magazine? Email jpegs, 300 dpi, with legend to: email@example.com
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