Rocky Mountain Mason, Vol I, Iss. 4

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Rocky Mountain Mason Vol. I Iss. 4.

Craft ‡ Capitular ‡ Cryptic ‡ Templar ‡ AASR Rocky Mountain Mason

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Rocky Mountain Mason EDITOR-IN-CHIEF


Rodney Johnson


Write to us at: 2360 E. Evans Ave. # 1044 Denver, CO 80210 (720) 328-5343


From the Editor


elcome to the fourth issue of the Rocky Mountain Mason! Yes, it is true – we fell behind on publishing this issue. A rapid move to Denver in fall, followed by another move two months later (to escape the ungodly construction racket in Lower Highlands) landed your publisher quite behind. Add to that the increasing responsibilities of civilian life, and, well, enough said. Nonetheless, we hope you will temper any frustration with the trowel, and take up this issue with enjoyment and intrigue. Our new address is now:

2360 East Evans Ave. # 1044 Denver, CO 80210

You will notice there are now four lights depicted on the cover of this issue – we have thus rendered the tetractys symbolically, from the ignition of a first candle (issue one) to further light in Masonry (two candles, issue two; three candles, issue three). I had to resist the temptation to depict giant pieces of silverware, with evident fork handles, to make a rather bad visual pun, but have for your enjoyment included such a graphic here. The astute reader will note such symbolism repeated in Volume Two’s cover art in the coming year. Thank you for subscribing to the Rocky Mountain Mason. This is your magazine, and we hope you will continue to enjoy it. Sincerely and Fraternally yours,

Rodney Johnson MEMBERS

Michael McMillan Thomas Cox Michael Smith SUBSCRIPTIONS: visit: $33 per annum, payable online. Or mail a check to:

Ben Williams Publisher & Editor-in-Chief

Fork Handles

Cover Photo by John Moreno

Laughing Lion 2360 E. Evans Ave. # 1044 Denver, CO 80210

Rocky Mountain Mason is a trademark publication of Laughing Lion, LLC. All rights reserved. All articles used with permission. First publishing rights. No articles, pictures, content, or parts of this magazine useable without the express permission of the author. Contact the Editor for inquiries.

© 2014 Laughing Lion All rights reserved Title is protected by a Trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Printed in the U.S.A.

Unless otherwise noted, all articles and photos are by the Editor. Copyright 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. All others, see by-line. Used by permission. Articles do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Colorado A.F. &A.M., the Grand Chapter, Council, or Commandery of Colorado, or the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction.


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In each issue, a fool is hidden somewhere in the layout.

Finding YOUR fool is the only way to begin on the path to wisdom.


Filament Kabbalistic Musing

by Theophilus LVX


abbi Shimon said:

“They who understand cannot know. I do not understand: I know. I know because I understood. I understood, and above I saw the Host attended to the Chariot. Beneath, the wheel into which the forms took shape. They descend into it. They prey on bodies. They come forth, to praise in Holy Silence. So through the ages He is forever rising, yet never standing.” They congregated at the bath. Rabbi Yehuda said:

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“The world is like a flat mirror in the possession of a beautiful maiden. Her father gave it her, so she could see beauty on the eve of her wedding day.” Rabbi Berg said: “The world is like a maiden who commissioned an ornate chest be made. Here she placed her treasures in one place, gathered together that she might open the chest, and hold them, one by one.”

Rabbi Simeon said: “The world is a river moving through the landscape of silence. Because we are in it, all we hear is the sound of the water rushing passed. It is here the maiden comes to bathe, and to look at herself in the still waters where she finds them.” Rabbi Yochi agreed. “The water is fresh to be drinking, as long as you drink from upstream.” Rabbi Yehuda said: “The world is a small candle. You may look at it as many times as you like. Or, you can pick it up, walk through this dark house and make the Rediscovery.” They laughed, and let tears become their voice.



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Letters to the Editor.... Traveling from the Grand East M.W. Bro. Charles G. Johnson, P.G.M.


A Colorado Mason Creates a Legend. R.W.Bro. Bob Elsloo S.G.W.


rder of the Galluses, created for Alaska by Most Puissant Grand Master, James A. Kirkbride, serving as MIGM of Colorado in 1977-1978. After serving as MIGM-CO, four days after presiding over his Grand sessions, he was appointed Right Puissant, NW Region Deputy General Grand Master, General Grand Council, Cryptic Masons International (GGCCMI), and traveled as I did appointed in that capacity last Triennial, to Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. (This is the title no one is able to pronounce, save a Companion who actually served as one.) Obviously smitten during his visits by Alaska’s grandeur, and hospitality of hearty Alaska York Rite Companions, he decided to compose a ritual surrounding the origins of the order by a somewhat mythical beings’ relationship and encounters with the Right Puissant General Grand NW Deputy during his excursions about the state. Therefore, following induction into this august body, Bryan and I are bound by a mystic tie with the obligation to never be caught during a Cryptic Council event without Rocky Mountain Mason

our galluses, and their original price tag attached thereon, or suffer the penalty of paying a fine over to the Cryptic Masons Medical Research Foundation http:// a very good cause, the only Masonic charity that saves lives. Right Puissant James A. Kirkbride became General Grand Master, serving the General Grand Council, Cryptic Masons International, 1987-1990, he passed away January 26, 2002, leaving this world a better place. It is an honor to serve the GGCCMI, great exposure to the global Masonic Family; hope we have more Colorado appointments in the future.

n my travels… …with my Brethren in the Grand Lodge of Colorado, I had occasion to meet many exceptional members of our Craft. They were located in the Lodges of the communities I was honored to visit and they certainly added to my enjoyment as well as benefitting my view of the diversity of our Fraternity. One of those special Brothers was Keith Hoey who served as Grand Tyler while I was Grand Master. As you probably know, Keith was a trooper in the Colorado State Patrol and spent most of his career in the Montrose area of the Western Slope. He is a man of great integrity but very few words. During his tenure as Grand Tyler, he tried his best to ‘blend’ when we were in a public setting and did not relish speaking in front of a group. In my quest to be a team leader, I usually asked him to offer some words to the Brethren and he always had something thoughtful although usually short in duration. On one occasion while killing time in some obscure parking lot prior to presenting a cornerstone ceremony, some of the Grand Officers were engaged in conversation about people who whine and complain about everything. There were numerous testimonials and it was pretty unanimous that this behavior is an aggravation. After some unique accounts from other officers of how to handle a complaining individual, I inquired of Keith what his response would be to a person he had stopped for speeding and had just offered lots of excuses and complaints. In true Keith fashion he answered in a short but meaningful way… ”press hard, five copies”. We had a great laugh and after that if any Grand Officers were caught complaining, they all got the same caring and empathetic response…press hard, five copies. 9

Heresies T

he word “heresy” is coined from the Greek hairesis, meaning choice. Thus a “heretic” is someone who has chosen to believe something contrary to church cannon, or an established norm. The following is a brief list of some of the religious movements that were outlawed as heresy by the early Christian and Catholic churches.

Many of the heresies of the early Christian church involve the “hypostasis of the Trinity”. The Trinity is a complex idea, and many of the earliest heresies concern interpretation of the hypostases of Trinity (one in three and three in one – separate but whole). Nowadays it is accepted that God is entirely three even while He is only One. That the Son and the Father are coexistent, consubstantial, sameness with the Holy Ghost. But this has not always been the case.


• Adoptionism

• Apollinarism

Forwarded by Theodotus of Byzantium, a leather merchant, in Rome around 190, Adoptionism propounded that Jesus was human born; a man who later was adopted as the “Son of God” for a virtuous and blameless life. Theodotus was excommunicated by Pope Victor. When the heresy was revived by Paul of Samosata, it was condemned by the Synod of Antioch in 268 AD.

Declared heresy in 381 AD by the First Council of Constantinople, Apollinarism proposed that Jesus had a human body, a lower soul, and a divine mind. Apollinaris of Laodicea taught that bodies propagated, but that souls also propagated.

• Arianism

• Docetism

A substantial and widespread heresy that almost became church canon, Arianism alleged that Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, was created by the Father, and therefore not co-eternal or consubstantial with Him. Arius of Alexandria, the heresy’s founder, was pronounced a heretic at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, but later exonerated, and finally pronounced heretical once again following his death.

Followers believed that the body of Christ was an illusion – that Christ existed only as a spiritual body and therefore could not undergo physical death. Rejected at the ecumenical councils and died out in the first millennium AD. Gnostics in later centuries, however, would be found guilty of harboring Docetic beliefs (s.a. the Cathars, see bleow).

• Luciferians The name Lucifer means “bringer of light” and has nothing to do with the devil. It was an appellation given to Venus when rising as the “morning star”. As the brightest of the heavenly bodies (after the Sun and Moon) Venus has often been associated with brilliance. In fact, Jesus Christ is named the “morning star” in the New Testament (see, for example, 2 Peter 1: 19; Revelations 2:28; Revelations 22:16). The association with the devil comes from St. Jerome’s translation of Isaiah 14:12-15, wherein “Morning Star” was rendered as, “Lucifer”, a common practice in the Latin-speaking medieval world (just as the Evening Star was readily known as “Noctifer”). The Luciferians in this sense were not, therefore, followers of the devil, but the Bishop of Cagliari, Lucifer Calaritanus of Sardinia, who was virulently opposed to the Arians (and thus believed in the hypostasis of the Trinity and the consubstantiation of the Son with the Father). But his rhetoric went too far and was denounced as heretical by St. Jerome in his Altercaio Luciferiani et orthodoxi. Rocky Mountain Mason

of the Early Christian Church • Melchisedechians

• Monarchianism

The Melchisedechians considered Melchisedech, the righteous King mentioned in Genesis who indoctrinated Abraham in the mystic ways, as an incarnation of the logos and identified him with the Holy Ghost. Denounced by Marcus Eremita in his book Eis ton Melchisedekites, the heresy likely died out in the 9th Century.

Monarchianists placed an overemphasis on the indivisibility of the Father, diminishing the other hypostases of the trinity. At the extremes, Monarchianism trended to Modalism (see below) or to Adoptionism (see above).

Sabellianism Monothelitism Monophysitism Monarchianism


Melchisedechians Luciferians Docetism Arianism Apollinarism Adoptionism

Ophites Sethian Naassenes Pneumatomachians Patripassianism Psilanthropism


Priscillianism Paulicianism Manichaeism Jehovah’s Witnesses Mormonism



Christian Heresies MEDIEVAL Bogomils


Catharism Free Spirit Fraticelli



Henricians Triclavianism






Pelagianism Semipelaganism

Ebionites Euchites Iconoclasm

Rocky Mountain Mason


• Gnostic Heresies

• Paulicianism

• Manichaeism

Gnostics claimed that God could be known through a process of understanding. Many Gnostic sects were characterized by a belief in the supremacy of the spiritual world over the material world, in which spirit was imprisoned. While this dualistic belief has been associated with many Gnostic sects and writings, it is a misappropriation of the term “gnostic” to assume Gnostics in general were dualists, per se. However, many “Gnostic” sects practiced a dualistic symbolism, that led many to the flames of orthodoxy.

An Adoptionist sect of Gnostics, Paulicians flourished between 650 and 872 AD in Armenia and Eastern Byzantium. Suppressed and persecuted in the 9th Century by Empress Theodora, in which more than one hundred thousand Paulicians were killed, Paulicianism still persisted in one form or another through to the 17th Century. Some scholars allege Paulicianism was a major influence upon the Cathar movement.

Founded by Mani in the third century (Mani lived from 210 – 276 AD), Manichaeism alleged a dualistic world where good and evil were equally powerful. The material world was a trick of the Archons to enslave spirit in the flesh. Emperor Theodosius 1 issued a decree in 382 denouncing Manichaeism, but the movement continued to grow through the 16th Century.

• Priscillianism

• Monothelitism

• Patripassianism

Founded in the 4th Century by Priscillian, the Biship of Avila, Priscillianism was an offshoot of the Manichean movements of dualistic and Gnostic philosophy taught by Marcus. Priscillian was put to death in 385 AD by the Emperor Gratian for practicing magic. He was the first person in the history of Christianity executed for heresy (that we know of ).

Originating in Syria and Armenia in 633 AD, Monothelitism believed Jesus Christ had two natures (human and Divine) but only one will. Orthodox Christianity teaches that Christ has two wills corresponding to each of his human and Divine natures. Monothelitism was condemned at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680-681 AD.

Belief that the Father and Son are not separable at all, and that God the Father also suffered upon the cross as Jesus.

• Sabellianism

• Pneumatomachians

A modalist heresy ascribing the Trinity as three states of one God, as opposed to three distinct “persons” in one God. The heresy was first proffered around 190 AD by Noetus of Smyrna, and popularized by Sabellius around 210 AD. Noetus was condemned by the presbyters of Smyrna, Tertullian wrote Adversus Praxeam to counter the modal ideology, and Pope Callistus condemened Sabellius. Patripassianism is a heretical offshoot of the Sabellianistic ideology.

The word Pneumatomachians literally means “sprit fighters”. The Pneumatomachians believed in the Divinity of Christ, and the indivisibility of the Father and the Son, but espoused the Holy Spirit was a creation of the Son, and therefore not consubstantial with the Father and the Son, but rather a tool or servant to the Father and the Son. Condemned as Heresy at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD.

• Psilanthropism

• Monophysitism (Eutychianism)

A belief that Jesus Christ was never divine – did not exist before his corporeal birth and never became divine after his crucifixion. Outlawed at the First Council of Nicaea (325 AD), which was convened especially to deal with the nature of Christ’s divinity.

A belief that held Christ to be completely Divine at the expense of His human attributes. It’s first proponent, Eutyches, was excommunicated in 448 AD. His doctrine of Monophysitism was rejected at the Council of Chalcedon three years later, in 451 AD.


Rocky Mountain Mason

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Marriage of

Mithraism and

Christianity By Dr. Reza Farrokh, Ph.D


Rocky Mountain Mason


f mythology is the method an ancient community used to dramatize its surrounding world, to allegorize life and death, we can surely say that the changing of seasons is the main stage upon which the theater of God is played. Look around yourself in Denver. We recently celebrated Halloween, for example. By looking deeply into its meaning and rituals, one can immediately detect that they are the reminiscence of old “pagan” agricultural rites, beliefs and ceremonies. The same is true about the beginning of the New Year a few days after the Winter Solstice – the longest night of the year, from whose morrow the nights begin to become shorter, and days longer. Sometimes it is impossible to trace the origins of such festivities, and, on the other hand, at many times, such as the case of the New Year, we have ample documents to understand the origins. These documents show that the last week of December is related to the mythological birth of an Aryan God, whose name is Mithra. According to Aryan beliefs, the birth of Mithra occurs at the night of Winter Solstice. Mithra, a derivate of the Aryan word Mei, means “relationship”. Mithra is the God of friendship, love, and any other mutual contracts and exchanges. He supervises these relationships and punishes those who break their vows. To fulfill this role of supervision, he is situated in the sky, with the Sun and stars being his watchful eyes. Mithra is called “the God of thousand eyes and ears”. He is also the God of the Sun, and the last day of each week is called Sunday in his honor. Consequently, he is the God of purifying fire in front of which people settled their contracts, and nations set up their boundaries. Aryans celebrated the Winter Solstice and decorated an evergreen tree, called

Rocky Mountain Mason

“sarve”, also known as the cypress tree, in their homes. Being straight, upright and resistant to the cold weather – a symbol of hardship – this tree was thought appropriate to represent Mithra. Young girls had their “wishes” symbolically wrapped in colorful silk cloth, and hung them on the tree with lots of presents for Mithra, to answer their prayers. When the Aryan tribes, who lived in Central Asia some 8,000 years ago, began to sweep down from the steppes and scatter in different directions around 4,000 years ago, they took their gods with them. They went east towards China, south-east to India, southwest to the Iranian plateau, and west to Anatoly (present-day Turkey), Greece and northern Europe. Their descendants finally reached the British Isles through the Roman conquest of Britain. Mithraism was already flourishing throughout the vast Roman Empire by that time, and Mithraic temples dating from the Roman conquest have been discovered in central London at an old settlement of the Roman army. Mithraism was the official religion of Roman aristocracy and the army for quite a long time. As Renan, the famous historian, asserts: “If the growth of Christianity had been halted by some mortal illness, the world would have become Mithraic.” The story of Christianity in the Roman Empire is a long and complicated one. It began at the grass roots of the society and soon grew into a popular religion. The Roman Emperor then decided to adopt it as the new official religion of his realm. The result was a mixture of Christianity and Mithraism. Cooper, the American writer and historian, confirming that Christianity has a sacrament which is strongly borrowed from the Mithraism, writes: “Mithraic rites included wine as a symbol of sacrificial blood and used bread in wafers or small loaves marked with a

cross to symbolize flesh. Mithra’s followers called each other “brother” and were led by a priest call “father” whose symbols were his staff and ring, his hat, and a crooked sword. Christianity adopted the crook and staff as the shepherd’s crook and the hat became stiffened and was called a Miter (from the name of god, Mithras). Thus was derived the symbolic heraldry of the Bishop. Similarly, Mithraic priests were ruled by a “father of fathers”, who lived in Rome. And he, like the Pope, was elected by a council of priests. Pope Leo, in the fourth century, proclaimed the 25th of December as Christ’s birthday instead of January 6th, a date that is still celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as by many Armenians. Again, in the same tradition, Luther, the German reformer in the 18th century, having learned about the Sarve tree, introduced the Christmas tree to the Germans. As Sarves were not much known in Germany and in most of Europe, the chosen tree became a genus of pine, which was abundant in Europe. So, this year, when celebrating the “birth of the Christ” and the advent of the New Year, think about one of the most ancient belief systems and rites of human beings, centered around the God of the Sun. This is the meeting point of East and West, the melting pot of the human perpetual wish for love, peace and friendship between individuals and nations. As the mystics of the east say: “Call it by any name, if there is love in your intention, all names become one – that of love itself!”



An Oration at the

Dedication of

Freemasons’ r Hall r in Sunderland

on the 16th Day of July, 1778


by Bro. W. Hutchinson 16

Rocky Mountain Mason

The following is excerpted from The Spirit of Masonry, by William Hutchinson, F.A.S., a New Edition, with copious notes, critical and explanatory, by Rev. George Oliver, D. D., Macoy Publishing, New York, 1903. The Editor has added footnotes where appropriate for the edification of the reader.


ight Worshipful Grand Master, and attainment of his approbation, we should bands which filled the solar mansions3 and ye, my much esteemed Brethren, fill our souls with gratitude, and imitate surrounded the throne of Majesty.4 They – Institutions, religious or civil, his universal benevolence. looked up to this grand luminary as the if not founded on the strictest rules of In benevolence is comprehended native realm from whence they were sent propriety, will soon sink into ruin. By the the whole law of society; and, whilst we on this earthly pilgrimage, and to which perpetuity we must necessarily distinguish weigh our obligations towards mankind they should, in the end, return. The figure the propriety of the institution. by the divine assay, “Love thy neighbor as of the sun was at once a memorial of their From this argument men are led to thyself,” we must deduce this second rule, divine origin, a badge of the religious faith determine that our society is supported which includes all the moral law, “Do unto they professed, and a monitor of those by the purest maxims, as it has continued all men as thou wouldst they should do principles which should conduct and through innumerable ages unshaken unto thee.” ensure their restoration. How soon, or in its principles, and uncorrupted by The natural wants and infirmities of to what extreme, superstition and bigotry innovations. human life would very early be discovered, debased this emblem, is a research painful We are not to search for our antiquity and the necessity of mutual aids become and unprofitable. in the mythology of Greece It was a custom, or Rome – we advance into in remote antiquity, to “We discover in the Amonian and Egyptian rites consecrate and devote to the remoter ages. Religion was the original and constituent the most perfect remains of those originals to whom our service of the Deity places and principle; a recognition of the altars; the many instances in society refers...” Deity first distinguished us the Holy Writ need not be from the rest of mankind; our enumerated to this assembly; predecessors searched for the it will suffice to mention that divine essence in the wonders displayed several of them were named El and Beththe immediate result; but till those aids on the face of Nature; they discovered el,5 the literal translation of which leaves were regulated by religious principles, supreme wisdom in the order of the and man’s natural ferocity was subdued, no doubt of the consecration. From universe – in the stellary1 system they we may readily conceive few examples of thence we derive the original composition traced the power, in the seasons and their virtue took place. Our predecessors were of the two characters, the artificer and the changes the bounty, and in animal life the first who tasted this felicity. devotee;6 thence our present rules and the benevolence of God; every argument I may venture to assert, that it was brought with it conviction, and every the only consequence which could 3. Not to be mistaken as some sort of large object confirmation, that all the wonders ensue, whilst men were looking up to houses in the Celestial orb, rather, celestial daily displayed to the eye of man were to the Divinity through his works, that they stations where the Sun reposes (to dwell) during the perennial course through the great be produced by some superlative being, would conclude the sun was the region cycles of Ages. and maintained by his superintendency. where, in celestial glory, the Deity reposed. 2 It was from such conviction that men We discover in the Amonian and 4. That is, the form of the Glory of the formbegan to class themselves in religious Egyptian rites the most perfect remains of less, the manifest outpouring of Deity arising societies. No rational mind could confess those originals to whom our society refers. from the Supernal Chariot. the being of a Supreme, from whose hand We are told they esteemed the soul of 5. El – the letters aleph (1) and Lamed such bounties were poured forth, and by man to be an emanation of the Supreme, (30) – is translated as “most high”, but bears whose miraculous power such a complex and a spirit detached from the seraphic meaning of formlessness taking form (aleph, existence as man was sustained (to whom aspirant air, and lamed, a yoke). Beth-El even himself is a system of insoluble translated literally is “house” of “the most miracles), without conceiving that, for the 1. A clear astrological reference to the “fixed sphere of the stars” the primum mobile, or “first movement”. Rocky Mountain Mason

2. From Jacob Bryant (1715 – 1804), British scholar and mythographer, who titled early peoples of the Levant “Amonians” because of their presumed worship of the god, Amon.

high” (also, “blessing” of the “most high”).

6. Referenced in Eastern mysticism as the Lover and the Beloved, the Lingam and the Yoni, and, also, Yang and Yin. 17

maxims were deduced; thence, also, arose the mixed assumption of these badges of architects and religions. It is not to be wondered that the first principles of natural religion should be extended hither from the regions of the east; for we are told, by authors of undoubted authority, the Germans and Scandinavians, in very early ages, had received Amonian rites; the Amonians also possessed all the borders of the Mediterranean; the Phoenicians and their allies, for merchandise, gained access to the coast of Britain. Amongst the many tribes of Amonians which spread themselves abroad were to be found a people who were styled Anakim, and were descended from the sons of Anak;7 they were particularly famous of architecture, which, according to the authority of Herodotus,8 they introduced into Greece. In all parts whither they came they erected noble structures, eminent for their beauty and splendor, which they dedicated to the Deity. Wherever they settled they were remarkable for their superiority in science, and particularly for their skill in building. Whenever the hands of our brethren have been exercised in architecture, they have been employed as devotees in erecting temples to the service of Heaven. We find them with Moses in the wilderness,9 and with Solomon at Jerusalem, under the distinctions of the Righteous and Wisehearted. The idolatrous and impious were not admitted to partake in the acceptable service, in which alone clean hands (hands unstained with the works of iniquity) and pious hearts, which had received the benefic gift of divine wisdom, could be received to the labor. After the benign influence of Christianity prevailed, and, with healing in her wings, had passed through Europe, religious works continued to attend this 7. See Deut. 2: 11 and Joshua 15: 13. See also the Egyptian Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom, where “people of Anaq” are mentioned as among the enemies of the Canaanites. In Numbers 13: 33, the size of the Anakim is given poignancy, “the descendants of Anak come from the Nephilim”, that is, the giant race bred from intercourse between the fallen angels and humans. 8. Herodotus (c. 484 – 425 B.C.) is, of course, the famous Ancient Greek historian and author of The Histories. 9. Exodus 31; 1 King 5; 2 Chronicles, 2 18

society, and grew into great splendor in the foundation of monasteries and abbeys. Many holy artificers attended the crusades for the purpose of building churches in Palestine. In our first stage we see the devotee, with his own hands, erecting the sacred column, which he sanctifies with the name of El – literally implying,

which first sheltered the human race from the inclemency of seasons, edifices more commodious were invented. As the joys of common intercourse and mutual aids were experienced, men exercised their talents in projecting suitable structures to receive the growing societies; and, at length, places for divine worship where congregations

Photo used by courtesy of Queen Street Heritage Trust, Sunderland, England

Pheonix Hall, located in Queen Street East, Sunderland, is believed to be the oldest purpose built masonic hall under the English Constitution. It was built in 1785 following a fire that destroyed Freemasons Hall at Vine Street, where the present oration was delivered. Pheonix Lodge No. 94 was constituted on October 7, 1755.

“The true God”, where he performed his religious offices; the place having been rendered holy by the presence of the Deity, as it was with Jacob. In the second and third classes we observe them divided into two orders, and those who labored were distinct from the rest of the brethren; yet there was no diminution of honor in the one, or increase of pre-eminence in the other – they were all Masons. Our reverend and learned brother, Dr. Scott, in his excellent oration, pointed out to us that the progressive advancements in human civilization were perfectly distinguished by the steps of architecture. As men arose from the state of Nature, through the cultivation of society, the genius of art was developed and set forth; from the cavern and grotto,

might assemble, were devised. In the process of ages these talents experienced a refinement; elegance took place, and proportion, symmetry, and ornament were studied. As the cavern had furnished the first idea of the mansion, and as the sacred groves and forests, held to be hallowed in the primitive ages, had given the first model of columns and arches for temples, so it can be no matter of astonishment that men, who had formed their original plan form Nature, should resort to Nature for their lessons of proportion and ornament to complete their labors. The eye that was charmed with the fair sex, the heart that was conscious of woman’s elegance and beauty, would instantly catch the idea from thence, and, fired with this favorite object, transpose the fair symmetry to Rocky Mountain Mason

the system he was studying. It was a natural transposition – nothing could be conceived more likely to refine the maxims of the architect’s design, who was touched with such passion and sentiment as the poet happily expresses :– On she came; Grace was in all her steps, heaven in her eye, In ev’ry gesture dignity and love. (He) led her, blushing like the morn; all heaven And happy constellations, on that hour, Shed their selectest influence; the earth Gave sign of gratulation, and each hill; Joyous the birds; fresh gales and gentle airs Whisper’d it to the woods, and, from their wings, Flung roses – flung odors from the spicy shrub, Desporting, till the amorous bird of night Sung spousal, and bid haste the evening star On his hill top to light the bridal lamp.10 This day we dedicate a house to the peculiar11 services of our society: the secrets and mysteries there to be exercised are wholly consistent with the purest maxims of the Christian revelation: they are peculiar to us in form, but, in effect, pertinent to the principles of every moral and religious man. The first character of a Mason which passes these gates and is revealed to the eyes of the world is Charity; the amiableness of this part of our profession deifies this panegyric. The heart of humanity feels its divine influence; compassion acknowledges kindred with the spirits of heaven. We do not arrogate to ourselves a more sublime possession of this virtue than others; but we profess it

an ordination which we are bound to obey and a duty which we must necessarily perform. The ordinary motives are felt by this whole assembly; in benevolence to our fellow-creatures we are all Masons. The miseries of human life, the misfortunes of mankind, are equally objects with all; but we singularly attach ourselves to their relief. The next distinguishing characteristic is truth; excellent as the duty may seem, difficult in its accomplishment, and happy in its consequences, no man, professing himself a Mason, stands approved without possessing this jewel uncontaminated with the fashions of the age; pure as the celestial ray first descended, unstained by rhetorications and mental reservation, she is possessed by us, wholly, undivided, and in the simplest character. We must not only speak of each other nothing but truth; for suppression is a crime as well as an infringement. Thus it is with us, the guilty seldom escape retribution, or the meritorious go without reward. I have already trespassed on this audience; time so limited will not suffer me to expatiate on all the excellences of our Order. It must suffice that I express a sincere hope, as our maxims are void of offence, that they will claim the patronage of the good and wise. As we avow our fidelity to the best of kings, and our firm attachment to the excellent constitution and laws of this realm, we may still possess the support and continence of government. And as our internal rules are devised for the honor, protection, and welfare of each individual of the society, I entreat that every member, by his conduct, may prove to the observing world it is not a superficial profession which distinguishes him to be a Mason, but his virtue, his temperance, and morality.


10. Milton, Paradise Lost, book 7. The first sentence is juxtaposed incorrectly here; in fact, Bro. Hutchinson has been pleased to omit a number of verses to present Milton’s verse to his purpose, and our instruction. 11. “Peculiar” used here, not as odd or unusual, but in the older and secondary meaning of belonging exclusively to. Rocky Mountain Mason




q Orator’s M

ost Worshipful Grand Master, Grand Wardens and Brethren all, In taking a good look at the world around us today, it should come as no surprise to anyone that good values are in decline; not only in this country but in society as a whole. I feel this is due mostly to the fact that the greater portion of society does not stop and take time to realize that life’s blessings surround us on a daily basis. This decline is vividly displayed in the ever-growing impatience of people towards one another and man’s inhumanity to man. But maybe by banding together, we can bring about a change to some of that in our own small way. It all depends on where you look and how closely you wish to examine life. As Freemasons, we have a unique benefit that society in general cannot fully take advantage of. That benefit is to put into use what we’ve learned from the wise teachings handed down for generations of friendship, morality and brotherly love. That, coupled with a sincere wish to be of service to others, and to be grateful to our creator for our own blessings. Let me clarify by saying that it is not my intention, in the process of this oration, to lecture or preach to any of you – nor to profess to you the need for


Ed McLaughlin

Grand Orator, 2013 M.W.G.L.CO any enlightened wisdom gleaned from some hidden meanings of our glorious Craft, which we all cherish. Even though I wholeheartedly believe that these things are of tremendous value with regard to the continuing education of a Mason, the simple truth is that it’s just not my agenda for today. Moreover, it is my intention to express to you that I personally feel that

many of us may have overlooked – and in some sad cases – forsaken the true reason of why we sought out and joined this hallowed fraternity in the first place. I believe that the vast majority of us no doubt originally sought initiation to the Craft due to an acquaintance we had made and a desire to learn more about how that person learned to live their life in a fashion that we held in high regard. Further, to emulate that person, if possible, and to adopt this respected way of life. Now whether this was result of conscience thought or blind intervention, that factor remains strictly the knowledge of each individual Brother. Nonetheless, I firmly believe that we were all searching for something greater when we first sought admission to this fraternity; and that goal was to be soon realized with the discovery we could now associate with, and learn from, other men of good character. Through such associations, we are enabled to be part of something that not only allows for, but encourages goodwill towards our fellowman and sets a higher standard in the principles by which life is to be lived. Many of you, throughout this past year, have heard me speak. That being the case, you will well understand that no discussion from me would be truly complete without some mention about my loving dog. There is a reason for this; Rocky Mountain Mason

Grand q


this wonderful creature looks at life with which she deems superior and, if possible, possibly become a better entity to work for a different, even magnificent perspective. to contribute to the happiness of others. the betterment for all mankind? Each and every day she wakes with a vibrant Sadly, my Brethren, I think this is the Your eyes were wide open to all the and fresh view of the world. She does not message that portions of society, and we as possibilities of how each and every day let the things that happened yesterday alter Freemasons alike, have lost sight of. might teach you how to become a better the fact that today is a bright new start, With that said, I would ask for each man. You were armed with a new hope and that everything can be just as fresh and every one of you to go back in time that was being fueled by a vision. That and exciting as each new day. She does with me. Back to that exact moment when vision was that, with each new day, you not look to others could begin to for a reason to make “I would ask for each and every one of you to go back in time with witness more and her day become possibilities me. Back to that exact moment when you decided to submit your more more important or of achieving more valuable, but petition for the degrees of Masonry. Back to that time when all you greater self worth, rather she accepts desired was a path to a greater vision and the hope to begin a journey and along with everything that that vision, aided happens as just what to lead you to learn how to be a greater benefit to all those around you by your new her creator had association with as well as to enlighten you to a greater way of life.” intended. others, that each No matter what new day might the circumstance, she simply continues on you decided to submit your petition for bring you closer to a realization of your with her day as if each and every moment the degrees of Masonry. Back to that time primary goal. was exactly what it was intended to be when all you desired was a path to a greater Even though it may not have been without regard to what might have or vision and the hope to begin a journey clear to you at that time, this was a defining could have been. to lead you to learn how to be a greater moment, because it was the beginning of a Each new day seems to bring forth benefit to all those around you as well as to lifelong journey. Your education process more things which the previous day did enlighten you to a greater way of life. will never cease, until you do. not, and my dog seems eternally grateful Was it not at that moment when you Now let us drift forward in time to for each and every instance – with fervor realized a greater good that dwelled within that next defining moment – when you and delight – as if it had never happened you? Was it not at that moment when you first received light in Masonry. When you before, regardless if that event had taken acknowledged that doing good works for knelt at the altar of Freemasonry and you, place every day of her life or had little or no others was truly the path to improving no doubt, were in a state of bewilderment significant value to that present moment. yourself? Was is not at that moment, due to all the information thrust at you. This loving creature simply wishes Brethren, that you understood that only Then suddenly the dark shroud was lifted to be and to serve to the delight of that through improving yourself could you from your eyes. It was then that you Rocky Mountain Mason


witnessed before your eyes a gathering of never be completely bridged. Yet I That being said, I feel we have distinguished men; and those men had wholeheartedly believe that if each and collectively begun to overlook the core only one purpose at that moment. That every one of us will take the opportunity lessons of what our ritual teaches. Because, purpose was YOU. to widen our viewpoint and remember as taught us in our early lessons, Brotherly This was to be your first lesson, that, if who we are, what we stand for, and why Love must be the constant practice of every those men deemed it important to gather we do what we do, then I think we have a Mason, for it is through the repetition and there for you, then, accordingly so should greater chance of narrowing that gap and continuing awareness of our fundamental you in the future gather for all the men who achieving our ultimately unified goal. virtues that we can realize and take will follow you into the fraternity. And Given that mindset, if we all will advantage of the key messages offered by just as it was those men who brought forth work to broaden our individual scope on our ritual. And, much like we need to hear the early beginnings of your education in this subject, and take a moment to give those lessons repeated in Lodge during Masonry, then so should it be your mission credence to the opposing opinion, then degree work of each newly made Brother, to be part of the education of ALL the men we just might shed some light on the it is likewise vital for us to constantly who follow you in the craft. Because, you possibility of affording value and respect practice these fundamental values, which, see, it is only through the enlightenment to that differing viewpoint. Our ritual by the way, lie at the very heart of each and of those who follow us that our education teaches us not to allow ourselves to enter every lesson that Freemasonry has to offer. truly begins to bear fruit; it is only through into argument with those who, through Therefore, I believe that we must all reach our collective wisdom that they have a ignorance, may ridicule it. To that I deeper into ourselves and continually work heritage. Likewise only through their would also add, nor enter into argument towards the vision of that greater man that curiosity do we have a future. So the with those who through arrogance, may dwells within all of us and always make the result is that neither can survive without ridicule another’s opinion. greatest effort to display our best selves to the other. Thus, only through this curious With that in mind, let each and the world at large. relationship can the strength of this unique every one of us be fully cognizant of the My Brethren, only together can we bond be fortified and flourish. fact that this ridicule may very well come make a difference. One of the greatest This education should be, and needs from within the fraternity. So in effort to things about this fraternity is that it has to be, more than a man can an almost uncanny ability receive elsewhere. It should to seek out and make use of My Brethren, only together can we make a difference. the strengths of each of its reach deeper than just the mind, it should go further members, no matter what than the catechism of our those strengths may be. ritual, and it should go well beyond the be upright, and take that often times lesser Guided by the lessons taught us by those symbolism of the Craft. This education traveled, higher road, let us act wisely cardinal virtues laid down in our ritual, should reach down to the very spirit of and prudently. Instead of casting undue and strengthened by a unified force of a man and impress upon him the need judgment, or taking a stand of unyielding the multitudes of this fraternity, let us all for the standards and principles that this opposition, let us try to take a moment to make every effort to practice the principles fraternity stands for and which we hold understand and respect why that Brother of brotherly love, mutual respect, and so valuable. In short, it should teach the holds the opinion he does, all the while forgiveness. lessons of always trying to do what is right, bearing in mind that this momentary Make it your duty to put aside and simply because it is the right thing to do. reflection does not mean you must look beyond petty differences, forgive Now, on the subject of Masonic automatically change your own opinion. the past indiscretions and move toward a education; while I earnestly believe that Nor does it mean that you must withdraw common future. Try to avoid judging a the continuance of Masonic education is from your position. Such reflection is man by his faults, for they only represent absolutely paramount to the overall lessons considerate, it banishes any presumption that which lies on the surface of a man. we need to learn in order to enrich our that there is only one way to accomplish Instead make every effort to look deeper own lives, yet it is of a greater importance things. If not, then at the very least, we into that inner man so that you may then where the good of the Craft itself is would be able to afford to ourselves the discover a useful respect for those hidden concerned. However, I also believe that ability to act in the character and dignity qualities and character attributes that lie the content and extent of that education of a Mason. deep within all of us. Seek from within should be – and needs to be – the decision To act as we are instructed in our ritual, yourself an inner strength to exercise the of the individual Brother. In order that whereby we can make use of the Trowel practice of all the great Masonic virtues he may be the judge as to whether his which unites us into one sacred band and and values so that you may then uncover enlightenment is worthwhile. among whom no contention should ever the strengths and value of each and every Further, I believe that this fraternity is exist save that noble emulation of who can individual Brother. Consequently, you no different from any other organization, best work and who can best agree. Then, just might find that you yourself are in that we have within ourselves certain my Brethren, after every effort has been rewarded with a richer life experience and sects or groups; each one with their made and all the commendable lines of will no doubt become a better Mason in own opinions or agendas where the communication have been exhausted, the the process. aforementioned education is concerned. only truly Masonic option is simply agree In order to fully understand the This chasm or division may unfortunately to disagree, agreeably. wisdom of those aforementioned lessons 22

Rocky Mountain Mason

we must realize that words are only part of the equation. Our everyday actions speak loudest. It is through those actions that each of us will display our own strengths of character and through them that each and every one of us has something to share, something to teach to those less informed. I think we can all agree that no man is perfect; mistakes will be made throughout a lifetime. Yet inasmuch as a man chooses to pursue a healthy mindset and adopt the valuable principles inculcated by this Craft, then let us do as we are taught in our ritual by displaying kindness, forgiveness, whispering good counsel, encouraging redemption of an erring Brother and remain a positive aide to his reform. Greater still, let each of us from this day forward, take every necessary caution to display only those qualities which reflect well on the fraternity. If imitation is truly the sincerest form of flattery, think how inspiring our younger Brethren to imitate right action; maybe the community at large might choose to imitate our actions, too. Now maybe you never considered yourself a mentor, but don’t sell yourself short. By your everyday actions, both good and bad, you are teaching. Keep this in mind when you are in the public eye and we will all reap the benefit as a whole, because positive reputation is very fleeting and must be continually reinforced, but negative reputation stays around much longer. Whether you like it or not, someone is always watching and whether you choose to believe it or not, you are always teaching. This ideal should be strictly attended to by all Masons, all the way down to those seemingly less significant issues. So, for instance, the next time you are in your car and someone cuts you off in traffic, before you get angry or reply with some gesture, try to remember you might be displaying a Masonic sticker on your car. The next time you choose to post something slightly questionable on a social network, or forward on a less than tasteful email, or tell a story or joke that may be less than favorable, bear in mind that your message may reach out to those who see you as a representative of the fraternity. Or worse yet, should you decide to go against that which is proper and speak poorly or untruthfully about another person; regardless whether it is of a malicious nature or unintentional; Rocky Mountain Mason

be aware that your statement may easily remain as a standard of your character. Brethren, do your best to avoid these pitfalls at all cost, heed the lessons which you have been taught, stand true to your vows and then take a good look around and realize that the whole world is your audience. Be particularly mindful of these things and remember well that you are a Freemason twenty-four hours of the day, and you just might find it easier to try to guard your actions accordingly. My Brethren, goodness dwells within all men; let us then concentrate our efforts more on seeking out that goodness rather than finding fault, fault inherently within all of us. Let all of us take time to discover, nurture, educate, uphold and guide each other in order that the strengths of the many can uplift and support this fraternity as a whole. So then, my Brethren, armed with the vision of that first defining moment and fueled by the spirit of the second enlightening moment, I charge each and every one of us to go forth and continue to strive to be a guiding force for our younger, less informed Brethren; to be that shining example of fellowship, friendship, and citizenship. To teach not only the lessons of our ritual, but to teach that which it takes to become better educated. Further, and quite possibly more importantly, to do as we are instructed in our Master Mason charge, by the regularity of your own behavior afford the best example of conduct for others less informed, thus allowing those that follow us the privilege of becoming the better man they sought to be, as well as ensuring we’re being the greater men we envisioned not so long ago. This concept should be widespread. It should not be limited strictly to they within the Craft; as we go forth into the community it is this very principle that will prove us to be an example to those less-informed men, men of the profane world, and will give them cause to want to be like us. I, for one, am proud to belong to this hallowed fraternity. I am firmly committed to uphold the standards set forth by our teachings and continue to reach out to demonstrate the values for which the fraternity stands. Each and every one of us serves as a beacon to the less-informed that there is a better, greater, and more dignified path on which to travel. I encourage each of you to intentionally shine as that beacon,

so that the entire community can see the unwavering spirit that exemplifies why we care enough to do all we do. I charge each of you to be that Mason, and to live by these examples so that the world will have no other cause but to respect us and follow us. Because my Brethren, only united can we display the undying commitment to the spiritual, moral, and Masonic beliefs that our forefathers set down for us. More importantly, only through solidarity can we impart to the men who follow us in our Craft that the wisdom of our predecessors should not wither away, and collectively ensure that those who follow us are properly instructed, in order that they too can someday become the educator and pass along this wisdom to the men who will follow them. Further, to demonstrate to the community at large that the vision of Ancient Freemasonry is not only one of sound reason but that our message has relevance in the modern world and should be viewed and adopted as that which is right. So then my Brethren as a closing thought: In the end it is up to us, as the present day caretakers of this ancient Craft, because for centuries we as Masons have taken it upon the fraternity as a whole to separate ourselves from the normal standards set forth by society and to create and uphold a higher standard by which to live. For that reason, I truly believe, whether we knew it at the time or not, that this was the fundamental reason we sought admission to this fraternity in the first place. Consequently, I believe that this is this very ideal which will draw those like minded men of the modern day world to us and allow the rich principles and values of this glorious fraternity to prosper and to continue well into the future.



Scrivenous Scribblings Notes from the York Rite Young Emerging Leaders Seminars

Transcribed by Bro. Ben Williams


Rocky Mountain Mason

Five Levels of Leadership The Five” P”s • As presented as Part of the York Rite High Potential Emerging Leaders Program (YRHELP) • Taken from the materials of John C. Maxwell.

“Leadership is action. Not position.”


ohn Maxwell forwards the “Law of the Lid” to leadership. Leadership alone determines the effectiveness of any organization. Increasing the “lid of leadership” increases business and organizational effectiveness. The leadership lid is the ceiling to all effectiveness. Therefore, increasing leadership skills increases the effectiveness of any organization. “You can lift your leadership lid. Everything rises and falls on leadership,” says John Maxwell. John Maxwell relates an anecdote shared with him by a Fortune 500 CEO, one of his leadership mentors. According to Maxwell, he told Maxwell that, “When we go into a bankrupt company, there are two things we always do. First, we train all the people in the service industry in relationship skills. Second, we fire the president.” If the president was successfully performing as a leader, the company would not be going bankrupt. 1. Position. RIGHTS. People follow you because they have to.

Level 1. – People follow you because they have to.

Don’t let envy or jealousy impede your assistance to others. Managing people involves developing people. Organizations grow together.

“He who would lead others must first lead himself.”

Best and worst factors for Level 1, see Table 1.



Deceived by title

Knows that the title must be earned

Devalues people (“they can’t”)

Values people as greatest asset, and trusts them

Focuses of prerogatives

Focuses on the job of leadership

Caught in the game (“politico”)

Keeps eyes on the prize – influences people to accomplish great things Table 1.

You must begin with yourself. • Check your attitude: understand the reality.

3. Production. RESULTS. People follow you because of what you have done for the organization.

“He who leads without followers is just taking a walk.”

5. Pinnacle. RESPECT. People follow you because of who you are and what you represent. A level is never left behind. Each level is a winding staircase. Leadership is all about relationships, and relationships involve other people. Rocky Mountain Mason

Apply your leadership. Change a behavior. Teach the concept to others.

Someone thinks you have leadership potential. You have been given a position of responsibility, which is only an opportunity. The position, and its title, does not make you a leader – it gives you a chance to become a leader. You have not arrived, you have just begun a journey.

2. Permission. RELATIONSHIPS. People follow you because they want to.

4. People development. REPRODUCTION. People follow you because of what you have done for them.


• Develop self-awareness. • Perform a leadership inventory. • Dedicate yourself to learning, and selfimprovement. • Create a Personal Leadership Development Plan. • Look, listen, and take notes. Review what you learn. Always remember to “Sharpen the Saw”. Act – as you learn about leadership, code the concept as to what to do with it.

Problems with Positional Leaders: • They push people • Create distance from people • Need to assert superior knowledge in the face of ignorance • Inspire minimal compliance • Remain out-of-touch (self-absorbed) • Lose trust “Half the harm that is done in the world is due to people who want to feel important… they do not mean harm…. They are caught in the endless struggle to think well of themselves.” ~ T.S. Eliot. “It is not titles that honor men, but men that honor titles.” ~ Machiavelli. 25

If you get stuck as a positional leader, you’re in big trouble. And so is the organization. This is especially true of volunteer organizations – there is no carrot and stick (people can just quit) – all you have is leadership. You must progress to the higher levels of leadership. Start connecting with people in positive ways. If you have to remind people of your title, then you are failing – it’s just a title. Begin with those you need the most: • The informal leaders • The staff – especially the recorder or secretary in Masonry • The doers in the organization (Past Masters) • A leadership team – all of the members and their families Important Specifics: • Always be genuine –no one cares how much you know, until they know you care. • Never speak ill of anyone • Treat everyone with respect • Listen! • When you speak keep on solid ground • Take responsibility – admit failures as your own • Remain a servant You have more power the less you use. People give power.

Leadership is a process – it cannot be implemented overnight. Leadership is influence. Leadership is navigation (it moves people toward a destination). Leadership is empowerment – empowering other people. Leadership is relationships. Leadership is timing. Leadership is momentum. Leadership is sacrifice – the ability to give something up so you can go up. Leadership is attitude, it’s the way you think. It’s the ability to understand a lot of things that make you well-rounded. The secret of our success is discovered in daily process. Success is never a destination, always a journey. “All my life I’ve worked hard at being an overnight success!” Remember to model the values you profess, and the values of an organization. Once you have a position of formal leadership, always remember people are watching. Look for people who will honestly assess situations and your leadership role in them – never surround yourself with sycophants. Diversity of opinion is good. Be able to disagree without being disagreeable. Be open to other perspectives and ideas – and honor them, even if you don’t agree with them. Disagreement is a learning opportunity. Take the blame, but share the success.

The “Law of Process”: Leadership develops daily, not in a

Level 2. People follow you because they want to.

Leadership is learned. Developed. Practiced.

Charisma is a mix of respect and attraction.


Often leadership fails because we overestimate the event (or the idea) and underestimate the process. The event is a calendar issue. The process is a cultural issue. The event challenges people, but the process changes people. You can make a sudden decision, but you can’t make a sudden change. The event is easy, the process is difficult. 26

What got you to Level 2? • Connecting with people • Showing respect • Staying on solid ground • Building an atmosphere of trust • Living your values and those of the organization What have you gained?

Connecting with people, you now have relationship-based influence. You are now able to move beyond the nominal leadership tasks to those that really count. Now what? Challenge the process: most of what you’d like to see done involves change of some sort. Change triggers fear, and with fear, resistance. Start small and build a track record. Make the change flow through the process. Baby steps – every project, no matter how small, is an opportunity to build relationships, especially with your team, and develop navigational skills that enable you to get things done. The goal at level 2 is to demonstrate your ability to get things done. • Planning at Level 2: Small projects do not require an elaborate plan, but they do require one. Build relationships. Develop a plan. Projects only succeed to the extent that people are committed. People will not buy-in to your project until they buy-in to you as a leader. Start with “why” – without a clear purpose for a project, it won’t go far. Run it up the flag pole, see who salutes. Assemble your team. Involve the team in planning. Be prepared to revise the plan to accommodate the input of team members. Break the project into discrete tasks. Assign people to the tasks, then let them perform – put them in charge! Debrief – always do an analysis afterwards. Celebrate the success. Focus on results Cumulate the small victories Positive attitude gets things done Build momentum People fail at Level 2 by failing at Level 1. If the tenets of a good positional leader have been transcended, then Level 2, based on relationships, is bound to Rocky Mountain Mason

succeed. Failure in relationships at Level 2 is typically a result of failing under a Level 1 precept (i.e. managing people, instead of leading them, losing touch with the team due to self-absorption, relying on title, playing the “big-shot”, monopolizing the team, detracting responsibility from others, failing to apply leadership principles to yourself, etc.)

“When the real leader speaks, people listen.”

When a decision is to be made in a group working on a common project, people automatically look at who the leader is. People take signals from the leader.

And not because you’re standing at the front of the room – the real leader may be on the side-lines, but when he speaks, the whole room pays attention.

Thus, real leaders are easy to spot. Hutton’s Law is related to the “Law of Influence” – leadership is influence, nothing more, nothing less.

The Law of E. F. Hutton:

You should approach the leader, and gain buy-in previous to presenting your project to the group. “All good leaders take the ‘me’ to ‘we’.” Positional leaders have a title, but not always a following. Real leaders have a following, and not always a title. Positional leaders influence positional people. Real leaders influence everyone. When you have to tell people you’re the leader, then you are probably not. Real leaders lead by character, who they are – not what they are. Real leaders lead by relationships – who they know – and because of knowledge – what they know. Real leaders lead by intuition, what they feel, and because of experience, where they’ve been. Real leaders lead because of past success – what they’ve done. And because of ability – what they can do.

Level 3. People follow you because of what you have done for the organization. The only way to compensate people in a volunteer organization is to recognize them publicly. At Level 3, your relationships are growing and your connection with people has deepened. And you have demonstrated, with small projects, an ability to get things done. Pitfalls to Level 3 – don’t overpromise. Stay on level ground and create more detailed plans. Formal planning for Level 3 Same as Level 2 – create a formal document. Begin with a vision and a clear Rocky Mountain Mason


purpose. Define success in some detail. Two key points to remember: 1. A plan is never static; it must be fluid, but to be fluid, it must be used. 2. A plan is of little use unless it is communicated. It must be shared. Your team needs attention. If you want your team to commit to the project, they must commit to you; and they won’t commit to you until you demonstrate that you are committed to them. Actively engage in developing the leadership capabilities of your team members. A leader makes sure his people improve their leadership skills as well. To build a team: • Get the right people on the bus. • Get them in the right seats – find jobs for people that match their abilities and tendencies. • Look for learners. • Take an active interest in their development as leaders – you will have to invest your time with them. Prioritize. Set priorities and focus your efforts – it’s impossible to invest time in everyone. Ensure a production line is planned. Pareto’s curve – 80% of you problems are going to come from 20% of the people, and 20% of your people are going to do 80% of the work. Evaluate your team members. Dimensions: What value do they add to me? What value do they add to the team? What value do they add to the organization? Strength of your relationship: 28

Does he trust me; does he think I am truthful? Does he confide in me? Does he think I am fair? Does he share my core values? The leader must establish trust vertically throughout the team and laterally among members. Evaluate your projects and tasks. High cost vs. High return vs.

Low cost Low return

Significance to overall organization: Long term vs.

Short term

Major differences of Level 3 over Level 2: • Allow plenty of time for buy-in and planning. • Strengthen the relationships within the team – the level of commitment required is much higher for larger projects. • Heavy team member involvement in planning – before tasks, much work (potentially more work) due before the onset of project. • Communicate, communicate, communicate. • Monitor and mentor: The goal is to empower – give people the authority to make decisions based upon your analysis of their competency and trust level. • Acknowledge and celebrate. Working with your team: • Shared vision – values should align. • Relationships among members is strong: They must be as committed to one another as to you and the vision. • Positive and tenacious attitude. • Communication that is open, honest, and continuous. • Results are the goal! Key concepts to Level 3: • Who you are is who you attract. • People do what people see – exemplary leadership is key.

• Find a way to win; defeat is not an option. • Sacrifice – to go up you must give up. • People buy-in to the leader, and then buy-in to the vision. • Production is measured by what you get done through others (not what you are capable of getting done yourself). Once you have a well-developed team of leaders who you have been developing and empowering, and production is more a result of the team’s activity than your own activity, you are ready to move to Level 4. Leadership provides the tools, defines the objectives, and empowers others to complete and fulfill objectives. The big project’s success, enhancing momentum, and the organizational narrative is becoming more positive.

Level 4 – People follow you because of what you have done for them. The true measure of a leader is not what he accomplishes while leading an organization, but what the organization achieves without him. The accomplishments of a leader are ephemeral. What lives on, is the people. Leadership, therefore, engenders legacy – continuity in success absent the leader himself. Thus leadership makes new leaders. Importance of developing your people. • To sustain organizational growth. • Empowers people to fulfill leadership roles. • Releases the initial leader. (By the time you’re in the East, it is too late. You must be focusing on the SW and JW.) Back to the bus: Recruit well – the four C’s –chemistry, character, capacity to meet the needs of the team all the time, contributions beyond specific job duties. Right seats: Rocky Mountain Mason

Not always the best person, results are achieved by working together. The best team, then, is the best dynamic between team members, and not necessarily the best person. Developing Leaders • Modeling – you are the example. • Teach them leadership – give them the working tools of a leader. • Help the do their jobs well: I do it and you watch. You do it and I’m coaching you. You do it. Key concepts at Level 4: • People development. • Back to basics – leadership is developed daily, not in a day. • Your leadership is limited or enhanced by your team • If you have a good team, you will get results. Legacy • Have a clear vision of the legacy you want to leave. • Start leaving that legacy now by living it. • Develop the people who will carry on your legacy. • Pass the baton – never let ego restrain others’ progress, or cling to a position overdue a worthy successor.

Level 5 – The Pinnacle You have arrived at the pinnacle if the organization continues to prosper and grow after you are gone. You are a pinnacle leader when you have developed Level 4 leaders. You are a pinnacle leader when you have established an enduring leadership culture. John Maxwell’s Law of Explosive Growth: “Leaders who develop leaders multiply growth.”

Leaders math is multiplication. If you want to multiply, you have to become a leader. Leaders who develop leaders vs. leaders who develop followers: 1. Desire. There’s a difference – leaders who develop followers need to be needed. Leaders who develop leaders want to be succeeded. Your goal has to be that people pass you on the way up. 2. Focus. Leaders who develop followers focus on the weaknesses of people. Leaders who develop leaders focus on the strengths of people. Working on weaknesses leads to average performances. People don’t pay for average. Focusing on strengths creates better return – increasing from a 6 to an 8, for example, is more significant than increasing from a 2 to a 4, say, which is still unprofitable. Identify strengths in people, and capitalize on them by empowering them. 3. Priorities. Leaders who develop followers devote attention to the bottom 20%. Leaders who develop leaders focus attention on the top 20%. 4. Quality. Leaders who develop followers are good leaders. Leaders who develop leaders magnify, and are great. 5. Attitude. Leaders who develop followers uplift themselves. Leaders who develop leaders lift up others. 6. Time. Leaders who develop followers spend time with people. Leaders who develop leaders invest time in people. 7. Quantity. Leaders who develop followers ask for commitment. Leaders who develop leaders ask for much commitment. 8. Leadership. Leaders who develop followers lead everyone the same. Leaders who develop leaders lead everyone differently. They lead according to who you are. 9. Impact. Leaders who develop followers impact this generation. Leaders who develop leaders impact the next generation(s).

The Law of Legacy A leader’s lasting value is measured by succession; “Succession is one of the key responsibilities of leadership.” The relay race is always lost in the exchange zone, in the handing off of the baton. Every other part of a relay race is individual. But when it comes to the exchange zone, you’re no longer running for yourself, you’re running for someone else. Achievement comes when someone is able to do great things for himself. Success comes when someone enables someone else to do great things with them. Significance comes when someone enables someone else to do something for themselves. Legacy comes when someone enables someone else to do something without him. Progression of Leadership Intent: • I want to make a difference. • I want to make a difference with people. The only way to make a difference with people is to learn how to lead. • I want to make a difference with people who want to make a difference. (The law of the inner circle.) • I want to make to make a difference with people who want to make a difference doing something that makes a difference. Adding value to people is the key – people are the most valuable asset in any organization. And people last longer than any person. Commit to adding value to people. To handing the baton to the next generation and letting them go on above you.


PLEASE BE AWARE: On August 16th, 9 am - 3pm, at 1614 Welton St., Denver, Colorado, M.W.Bro. John Palmer will be present to provide leadership training to Master Masons looking to “sharpen their saws”. Please see the ad on page 13 for more information.

Followers math is addition. Rocky Mountain Mason



ecently, a brother said to me, “The Star Spangled Banner is our national anthem; always was, always will be.� I thought, he may be partly correct. It may be the national anthem forever. We cannot know the future. But we can know the past. Let us examine some of the songs, patriotic and otherwise, that were the antecedents of The Star Spangled Banner. Arts are reflective of our surroundings, times, and social milieu. For example, when paleolithic humans gathered and hunted in small groups, an unknown artist left us depictions on the walls of a cave near Altamira, Spain, his impressions of what was important to him and those around him: food. The artist portrays a bison as he might have seen it in the hunt. The food supply would have been a constant concern for early humans as well a source of artistic inspiration (see figure 1). As civilization began to develop, the ancient world saw the power and governance of rulers, Pharoahs, and kings who held the power of life and death over all of their slaves and subjects. The art of the that time reflects their thirst for immortality. We see monuments, tombs and temples erected to their glory and accomplishments with common people portrayed in small and mundane roles (see figure2). Increased urbanization led to specialization in divisions of labor. The rise of castes of builders, planters, merchants, artisans, and priests created a greater focus on spiritual thought and religious orthodoxy. Art reflected this in the construction of temples, churches, and statues of deities (see figure 3). The policy of the Devine right of kings and the


power of the Church gave rise to religious paintings (figure 4) and sacred liturgical music. Even in the modern world we see the arts describing our environment. Today we live in a noisy, cacophonic world. Every day our senses are assaulted by traffic noise, aircraft, machinery, arguments, and gunfire. If we examine our contemporary arts we readily see a reflection of this sensory assault. Nudity and violent images are presented for shock value. Tattoos and piercings alter bodies. Loud music blares from automobiles. Amplified concerts play to huge audiences that could never have been accommodated by acoustic instruments. The 18th century saw a similar revolution in thought. Free thinkers and philosophers of the Enlightenment wrote of their reaction to the static dogma of the Church and their opposition to the often brutal oppression of aristocracies and monarchies. It should come as no surprise to us that music and other arts displayed a penchant for nationalism. Songs, poems and paintings emphasized the common man’s longing for freedoms, liberty, and God-given rights. The notion of the divine right of kings was yielding to the popular conviction of the inalienable rights of the people. Even Wolfgang Mozart exemplified the insistence of the common man to take from the exclusive aristocracy what should be the collective property of humankind. The beautiful Miserere by Gregori Allegri was considered the personal property of the Pope, and for years was heard only in the confines of the Vatican. Choirs were rehearsed in secret, and the music was not

permitted to be written down on pain of excommunication. The fourteen-year-old Wolfgang went to a performance, and in

Figure 1

Figure 2

Rocky Mountain Mason

Forging a

National Anthem by W. B. John P. Trainor, Ph.D., G. Mus. one hearing, memorized all the parts, then left and transcribed them. Legend has it that he went back to hear the composition

a fictional city. Others have suggested that the title refers to a friend of William Billings.

Figure 4

Figure 3 a second time to check himself, only to come out saying that he had gotten it right the first time. Through Mozart’s quiet revolutionary action the world now has access to a piece of great beauty that had been kept hidden away by an elitist institution.1 This wave of revolutionary philosophy crested with unprecedented events such as a rag-tag bunch of colonial militiamen in America defeating one of the most powerful military machines in the world, a feat duplicated a decade later by peasants in France inspired by their comrades across the seas. Songs expressing nationalistic pride sprang up throughout Europe, and the fledgling new-world nation of what was to become America followed suit. For example, William Billings published, in 1770, his new patriotic song which he named Chester. The title has been the subject of some speculation since the first appearance of Chester. Some have thought it refers to a New England town or, possibly,

The most likely explanation goes to etymology of the word in Old English. Chester seems to be the Saxon pronunciation of the Latin word, caester (fort), and refers to a stronghold or fortress2. Today we see many places in England where Romans set up fortresses still bearing the name, -chester: Westchester, Colchester, Winchester, and Chichester to mention a few. The lyrics of the song plead with American colonists to stand strong, like a fortress, against imperialism. Chester first appeared in the psalter, New England Psalm Singer, as part of a compendium of religious songs partly due to the message of its text and greatly due to the popularity of psalters, which translated into sales. Profitability meant that the new song could be widely distributed and sung by many people in many venues. Chester functioned as a de facto national anthem for more than a quarter of a century. Its lyrics resonated with the revolutionary

1.Cf. the letter from Leopold Mozart to his wife from Rome to Salzburg dated 14 April 1770

2. Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World, second edition, McFarland and Co., 2006, p. 87

Rocky Mountain Mason

thoughts of most of the colonialist and early Americans until long after the War of 1812 (see figure 5).3

A number of other patriotic songs sprang up as the young American nation began to feel its nationalistic pride. Among the most popular were Free America by Joseph Warren, The Liberty Song by John Dickenson, and Yankee Doodle attributed to Doctor Richard Shuckburgh, a British army surgeon. Each of these is a contrafactum, a technique often used throughout music history to create new songs with a fair amount of ease. A contrafactum puts new words to already-existing music. A commonlyknown example is the 16th century song, Greensleeves, which became the Christmas tune, What Child is This, by simply writing a new set of words. Many Sea Chanties employ the same device singing new seafaring (often obscene) words to common children’s’ songs or famous hymns. Free America was created by Joseph Warren by writing new words to The 3. Anthology, The New England Psalm Singer, 1770, reprinted by University of Virginia Press, 1981. 31

British Grenadiers (See figure 6). Lyrics to Free America (sung to the same tune as The British Grenadiers above): That seat of science Athens, And earth’s proud mistress, Rome, Where now are all their glories We scarce can find a tomb. Then guard your rights, Americans, Nor stoop to lawless sway, Oppose, oppose, oppose, oppose For North America. Another example is The Liberty Song sung to the English hymn, Heart of Oak, which is the official song of the Royal Navy (see figure 7). Compare the lyrics to The Liberty Song (sung to the same tune as Heart of Oak above): Come, join hand in hand, brave Americans all, And rouse your bold hearts at fair Liberty’s call; No tyrannous acts shall suppress your just claim, Or stain with dishonor America’s name. In Freedom we’re born and in Freedom we’ll live. Our purses are ready. Steady, friends, steady; Not as slaves, but as Freemen our money we’ll give. Yankee Doodle has become a commonly recognized tune representative of America and Americans but, originally, it was mocking chant of derision. According to Alan Lomax,4 the Colonel Doctor Richard Shuckburgh, a surgeon in the British army, elicited rousing laughter in the camp by singing his new words to the well-known British tune, Lucy Locket: 4. Lomax, Alan and Lomax, John Avery. American Ballads and Folksongs, MacMillan, 1934, p. 521. 32

Figure 5 Lucy Locket lost her pocket, Kitty Fisher found it; Not a penny was there in it, Only ribbon round it.5 Colonel Shuckburgh’s contrafactum was intended to be a derisive comedy poking fun at the rag-tag militia by suggesting that their unkempt appearance was what they tried to pass off as stylish European fashion, i.e., “macaroni.” The insult backfired after the battle of Lexington and Concord when the victorious Continental militia 5. Kitty Fisher refers to Catherine Marie Fisher, who entertained several upper class gentlemen in mid-18th-century London, and was the subject of Joshua Reynolds’ portraits. Lucy Lockett was a character in the Beggar’s Opera by John Gay, but it is generally believed that the name refers to one of Kitty’s associates. The implication suggests that Kitty came into possession of a full purse and returned an empty one, a reference to one of the many scandals involving her.

burst into the song at the flight of the British regulars. After that, Yankee Doodle became a rallying song for the revolutionaries, and has held a place as the quintessential American song ever since. Americans rallied around these and other patriotic songs while Chester served as the de facto national anthem until other contrafacta arose during the War of 1812. History is written from the point of view of the writer. From the American perspective young entrepreneurs in 1812 were engaging in free enterprise. For the British, we were gun running. Selling munitions to French interests along with the recent purchase of the Louisiana territory from France, thereby financing Napoleon’s efforts to the tune of some three million dollars, did not inspire confidence among the British that the young America was a neutral country. The resulting blockades precipitated our War of 1812. The American perspective was that we had to defend ourselves from British aggression. The British saw it as protection of their safety and interests with the added benefit of possibly regaining their recently–lost colony. By 1814, with the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo, British forces moved from a previously defensive position in America to a more aggressive posture. Emboldened by victories at Washington and other smaller conflicts, the British upper command decided to take Baltimore. After discovering that the Baltimore defenses were stronger than anticipated, including some 10,000 regular troops, several thousand militiamen, and a full complement of artillery, some nineteen gunnery vessels sailed into Baltimore Harbor with the intent of taking Fort McHenry and then Baltimore city. British forces had been arresting and detaining those they perceived as sympathizers in the occupied areas as a matter of routine during the previous weeks. Among them was a Dr. William Beanes who was a prominent physician in the Baltimore area, and was being held aboard HMS Rocky Mountain Mason

Figure 6 prisoners, that they would not be allowed to leave. Throughout the night Key was able to observe the bombardment of Fort McHenry in its entirety. The nineteen vessels, including the bomb ships Terror,

Minden.6 The young Francis Scott Key, a lawyer practicing in Georgetown, along with John Stuart Skinner, the U.S. Prisoner Exchange Agent for the region, were charged with negotiating his release.

Figure 7 Key procured letters from British prisoners of the conflict being held in American compounds, attesting to their good treatment and praising Dr. Beanes for his compassion and skill as a healer. Armed with this information and his persuasive skills, Key and Skinner were conducted to HMS Tonnant, the flagship of vice admiral Alexander Cochrane under flag of truce, and successfully negotiated the release of Dr. Beanes. Their timing was, however, somewhat unfortunate. The Americans aboard the British vessel were preparing to depart when the signals were given that the shelling of Fort McHenry was imminent, and intended to provide for an independent ground assault on Baltimore. Key and Skinner were informed that they now knew too much, and although not exactly 6 Zabecki, David. Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1997, p.43. Rocky Mountain Mason

Volcano, Meteor, Aetna, and Devastation positioned themselves within range of Fort McHenry and began the attack about 2:00 a.m. The flotilla included HMS Erebus, equipped with rockets. The rockets of 1814 were the Congreve versions that were a variation of those used against the British by Indian troops at the battle of Seringapatam in 1799. The Chinese had used similar rockets for centuries. They were something like the pop bottle rockets familiar to us at the Fourth of July, but much larger. The black powder fuel for the rockets would ordinarily burn white or gray, but ferrous metals, when heated sufficiently, oxidize quickly and burn red. The exhaust from burning against the cast iron housings of the rockets would have shown a bright red glare, an observation not lost on Francis Key. The Congreve rocket was later improved with the addition of fins to help guide the projectile, but in 1814

they were notoriously inaccurate. One account, cited by the Fort McHenry historical society, suggests that some 150 rockets were launched and none caused significant damage to the fortress. Bombs were shells with fuses fired from cannons. The timing of the detonation was far from exact. The hope was that bombs would land within the walls of the fortress with the fuses still burning, and explode more or less on target. The reality was that fuses were often extinguished before detonation, or as was frequently the case, the fuse was too short and the bomb would explode in midair. Watching the rocket’s red glare and the bombs bursting in air, Key was inspired to scribble down a contrafactum, which he entitled Defense of Fort McHenry, and added a notation that the words were to be sung to the tune of the commonly known song, To Anacreon in Heaven, the club song of the Anacreontic Society (see figure 8 where the song appears as it did in the 1770 publication). For those who do not read music the words may be sung to the familiar, Star Spangled Banner although the melody of To Anacreon in Heaven is slightly different. The Anacreontic Society was a famous organization in London with chapters in other English cities and in major cities in America. To Anacreon in Heaven had been composed by John Stafford Smith (a fellow brother Mason and member of Inverness Lodge #4, London) in the mid1760s and was sung at every meeting of the Anacreontic Society. The Society was dedicated to the promotion of artistic endeavors and frequently sponsored concerts, poetry, readings and lectures about the arts. Members praised Anacreon as one of the great poets of Greek history who was dedicated to poetry and arts. He was a poet of the sixth century before the Common Era, and was renowned for his odes to drink, a fact commonly known among educated individuals that contributed to the notion that the hymn was a drinking song. They met in public houses, i.e., pubs or taverns, as did many organizations. Public houses were warm, inviting, and had the room to allow for entertainment. It was this setting that is referred to by critics who call it a drinking song. The lyrics are not the type of ribald, bawdy words we expect to encounter a in a drinking song7. Indeed, the only 7. Dalton, Bert P.(Grand Musician of the Masonic Grand Lodge of New Mexico ), “The 33

reference to drink is in the last stanza where the spirit of the poet offers to teach members to “entwine the myrtle of Venus with Bacchus’s vine” which seems, at first blush, to be a reference to the plants that are symbols of the deities governing beauty and hedonism.8 Nonmembers and patrons at the bar would have overheard the events of the evening, especially the club song. Consequently, the tune To Anacreon in Heaven became well known to a large number of people in England and America. We have no information suggesting that Key was a member of the Anacreontic Society, but as a prominent member of Baltimore society, he would have heard the song. He certainly knew it since he wrote on his original lyrics that they were to be sung to the melody of To Anacreon in Heaven. The Star-Spangled Banner was not immediately accepted as a national anthem. Chester, Columbia, and Hail Columbia were already popular, and another set of words entitled Adams and Liberty was written in a similar contrafactum fashion to Key’s lyrics by Robert Treat Paine (nee Thomas Paine)29 in 1798 for the Massachusetts Charitable Fire Society, and intended, as with the The Star Spangled Banner, to be sung to the tune of To Anacreon in Heaven (see figure 9). The Thomas Paine of Adams and Liberty was not the famous revolutionary pamphleteer. The Thomas who wrote Adams and Liberty was a Massachusetts freeman who was a poet, editor, and Harvard graduate. For the next several decades Paine’s Adams and Liberty

vied with the many other patriotic songs for the position of unofficial national anthem. It may have been the Masonic affiliation of both Francis Scott Key and

Banner the official song of the American military, it was being performed as a matter of routine for important functions. Its performance at the 1918 World Series increased its familiarity and cemented its popularity with the American public. A brief setback for the The Star Spangled Banner occurred during World War I when Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean was often used as a rallying tune and identifying song for American service personnel stationed in Europe. But, by the 1920s members of Congress were being petioned to introduce bills to make The Star Spangled Banner the official national anthem with the result that in 1930, Congressman John Linthicum of Baltimore introduced a bill to make The Star Spangled Banner the official national anthem of the United States. The movement was not without its detractors. Temperance proponents such as the Womens’ Christian Temperance Union were vocal in their objections to a national anthem that had its inception in a tavern environment, with even passing mention of alcohol consumption, being offensive and inappropriate for a song honoring America. Music teachers protested (and still do) that the music was too difficult to be To Anacreon in Heav’n, where he sat in full Glee, sung by the average singer and was A few Sons of Harmony sent a Petition, damaging to voices of very young That He their Inspirer and Patron wou’d be; learners. Interestingly, legislators When this Answer arriv’d from the jolly old Grecian from Southern states were some “Voice, Fiddle, and Flute, of the most vigorous proponents “No longer be mute, of adopting the The Star Spangled “I’ll lend you my Name and inspire you to boot, Banner as a national anthem. Still “And, besides, I’ll instruct you like me, to intwine feeling the sting of the loss of the “The Myrtle of Venus with Bacchus’s Vine. Civil War, many were anxious to support a bill that would cast them in Figure 8 a light of patriotic support of union and promote their crusade to honor fallen Southern warriors as much as Federalist soldiers. John Stafford Smith that advanced The Star The Linthicum bill passed The House Star Spangled Banner: A Brief History of the American National Anthem,” presented 2008, Spangled Banner to a place of prominence. on 21 April 1930, and was ratified as p. 3 The movement to make The Star one of the final acts of the 71st Congress. President Herbert Hoover signed the bill Spangled Banner the official national on 3 March 1931, formalizing The Star anthem began in 1889 when the Secretary 8. Those conversant with Latin may recSpangled Banner as the official national of the Navy Benjamin Tracy, who had ognize the double entendre on myrtle, i.e., anthem of the United States of America. expressed his fondness for the band murtos that provides a sexual implication We have sung it ever since. Perhaps my arrangements of the The Star Spangled to the phrase. brother was correct. Perhaps it will be our Banner for some time, signed General national anthem forever. Order #374, requiring that it be played 9. This Paine was born Thomas Paine but later at the raising of the flag at all naval took the name of his grandfather, Robert Treat to avoid confusion with the Thomas Paine of installations within his command. By the the revolutionary pamphlets who had become time of Woodrow Wilson’s 1917 executive unpopular in the years succeeding the war. order to make the The Star Spangled



Rocky Mountain Mason

ADAMS AND LIBERTY. YE sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought, For those rights, which unstained from your Sires had descended, May you long taste the blessings your valour has brought, And your sons reap the soil which their fathers defended. ‘Mid the regin of mild Peace, May your nation increase, With the glory of Rome, and the wisdom of Greece; And ne’er shall the sons of Colmbia be slaves, While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves. In a clime, whose rich vales feed the marts of the world, Whose shores are unshaken by Europe’s commotion, The trident of Commerce should never be hurled, To incense the legitimate powers of the ocean. But should pirates invade, Though in thunder arrayed, Let your cannon declare the free charter of trade. For ne’er shall the sons, &c. Figure 91

1. For more verses see Paine, Thomas Treat, The Works in Verse and Prose of the late Thomas Treat Paine, Esq. printed and published by J. Belcher, Boston, 1812, p 245.


r. John Trainor was born to parents of Sephardi Jewish and Romany heritage. The family traveled several places and finally settled in Denver. John studied Violin, Music Theory, and Composition with Howard Reynolds, a student of Ysaye, and retired concert master of the Denver Symphony. He went on to University Rocky Mountain Mason

of Denver’s Lamont School of Music where he received the Bachelor of Music Education degree, and became interested in Ethnomusicology. John continued in graduate school at the University of Washington, Seattle where he earned the M.A. and Ph.D. in Ethnomusicology. Later, he performed in musical, artistic,

and theatrical venues as well as doing Ethnomusicological research in Southeast Asia, Spain, Austria,and Hungary. John Trainor was initiated, passed, and raised in Columbine Lodge #147 in 1982 and was twice Past Master (2005 and 2006). He was Prelate for the Denver Consistory bodies and has performed in various degrees. In 2007 he received the rank and decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honor and was appointed to be the Grand Musician for Colorado. In 2013 he was coroneted 33rd degree Honorary at the Denver Consistory in Denver, Colorado. Professionally, Dr. Trainor is an ethnomusicologist, music educator, and past lecturer in Ethnomusicology, Music Education, and Theory at the University of Washington and Denver University’s Lamont School of Music. He was with the public schools for 34 years and is the winner of the 2003 Denver Public Schools Outstanding Graduates’ Award. He is also an internationally published author and composer. Dr. Trainor recently retired from the public schools to be the director of the Nova Vivaldi Music Academy and pursue Masonic endeavors. 35



Every now and then the Rocky Mountain Mason is pleased to print a Master’s Message. If you believe your W.M. has delivered a fine Trestle Board, and feel it worthy of our humble pages, please submit Trestle Boards to the Editor. Below you will find a closing message from W. Bro. Erik Groves, of Mesa Lodge No. 55, in Grand Junction. It illustrates a cogent review of his year in the East and elicits strong points to ponder – points relevant to Mesa Lodge 55, certainly, but relevant to the Craft.


t the close of the year, I would like attest that the new system is effective and endeavored to create an atmosphere at to offer my current State of the is no longer so loud as to drown out the each meeting that accomplished three Craft summarizing the successes meeting. It was an absolutely necessary objectives: (1)business is effectively and shortfalls of the last year. expenditure. It also drained a good accomplished; (2)ritual work was properly There is a stark reality that needs to percentage of our savings. performed; and (3)the brethren walked be realized and addressed by freemasonry With that in mind, we looked at ways away having felt enriched and intellectually in general and within each specific lodge. to reduce our expenses. We cut down the nourished. We made progress in these While one of the greatest virtues of number of meals, made use of potlucks areas, but more work remains. I know freemasonry is its timelessness and stability in lieu of catered dinners, and sought there are Masonic programs available in an ever-changing world, we must not let contributions for events the lodge was through the Masonic Speakers Bureau and that affinity for the ‘old ways’ impede us doing. From what I can tell, we reduced other resources that we did not properly from creating an experience that is relevant our deficit from the year before. We still avail ourselves of. We had regular education and appealing today. programs, but we Coming up with a “While one of the greatest virtues of Freemasonry is its timelessness should have done solution to this dilemma more. has weighed heavily on and stability in an ever-changing world, we must not let that 3) We need my mind for much of affinity for the ‘old ways’ impede us from creating an experience to better use our the year. It boils down time in Masonry. that is relevant and appealing today.” to a singular question, Like most of how do we create a our members, Masonic experience that I constantly is true to our past, appealing in the present, have not hit the mark though. There may struggled with balancing the demands and able to survive into the future? still need to be further cuts in programs of work, family, church, social, and We came to a few realizations at the and activities, or dues may need to be Masonic obligations. There seems to beginning of this year that guided our raised going forward. be a never-ending competition [within] actions: 2) Freemasonry is fundamentally a an ever-increasing list of obligations. If 1) We can no longer fund our lodge learning experience; we need to embrace we are to effectively compete with the on our grandfather’s money. While we are that. All candidates come to our doors other demands, we cannot ill-use our grateful for the finances and investments seeking one thing, light. If we are to members’ time. We need to focus on left by prior generations that have made up succeed as a fraternity or a lodge, we need effective meetings, practices and activities. shortfalls in prior years, depending on that to first possess that light, and then perform We need to combine multiple meetings model going forward was unsustainable. our task in a way that conveys that light. together when feasible to accomplish In late 2012, we approved a major Certainly this starts with high-quality the same amount of work using fewer contribution to the Temple Board for the ritual work, but it goes far beyond that. It evenings. I strived to limit Masonic completion of the new HVAC system. goes to the way we mentor candidates and activities to three nights a month during Anyone who has regularly attended new initiates. It includes the programs and the year and for the most part, we met this meetings during the summer months can information that is shared in the lodge. I goal. I feel that our meetings moved along 36

Rocky Mountain Mason

Worshipful Brother Erik Groves is a practicing attorney at Azbell & Groves, in Grand Junction. effectively and business was conducted efficiently. We need to always remember that every meeting and event is time that our members have taken away from some other worthy endeavor, and accordingly respect their time. 4) We need to have more spontaneous fun. Sometimes I forget that we are a fraternity. We are a family of brothers and should enjoy our time. While we have our regularly scheduled meetings and activities, it is never wrong or improper to get a group of brothers together, with their wives/SO’s, and enjoy a good evening. We made some progress in this area; I hope to see more in the future. So, I hope we can honor the past, be appealing and relevant in the present and successfully continue into the future. I hope that I have served the fraternity well and honored the trust you have placed in me as Worshipful Master. I know we have an energetic and dynamic group of leaders following me. I look forward to seeing great things from them as I gratefully return to my seat among the Craft. Thank you. Fraternally, Erik R Groves, WM

Rocky Mountain Mason


A Masonic Purportly kept by

Certain Questions, with Answers to the same, concerning the


written by the hand of King Henry, the Sixth of the Name, †John Leylande was appointed by Henry VIII, at the dissolution of the monasteries, to search for and save such books and records as were valuable among them.


s recorded in The Spirit of Masonry, by William Hutchinson, F.A.S., A New Edition, with copious notes, critical and explanatory, by Rev. George Oliver, D. D., Macoy Publishing, New York, 1903, and purportedly sent to the Earl of Pembroke, on May 6, 1696, by none other than the famed Enlightenment philosopher, John Locke. Spelling and grammar updated for the twenty-first century reader by your faithful Editor of the Rocky Mountain Mason magazine. They be as follows:

Q: What mote it [Masonry] be? A: It be the skill of Nature, the understanding of the might that is herein, and its sundry workings; particularly, the skill of reckonings, of weights and measures, and the true manner of forming all things for man’s use; chiefly, dwellings, and buildings of all kinds, and all other things that make good to man.

Q: Where did it begin? A: It did begin with the first men of the East, which were before the first men in the West, and coming West it hath brought with it all comforts to the world and comfortless.

Q: Who did bring it West? A: The Venetians [Phoenicians!], who being great merchants came first from the east in Venetia [Phoenicia]for the commodity of merchandising both east and west, by the Red and Middleland [Mediterranean] seas. King Henry VI 38

Q: How come it to England? A: Peter Gower [Pythagoras!], a Grecian, journeyed for cunning [knowledge] in Egypt, and in Syria, and in every land where the Venetians [Phoenicians] had planted Masonry, and winning entrance in al Lodges of Masons, he learned much, and returned, and dwelt in Grecia Magna [a Greek Colony in Italy], waxing [growing], and became a mighty wise man, and greatly renowned, and here he framed a great [Grand] Lodge at Groton, and made many Masons, some whereof did journey in France, and made many Masons, wherefrom, in process of time, the art passed in England.

Q: Do Masons disclose their Arts to others? A: Peter Gower [Pythagoras], when he journeyed to learn, was first made, and thence taught; as should all others, being right. Nevertheless, Masons have always in every time, from time to time, communicated to mankind such of their secrets as generally might be useful; they have kept back such practices as should be harmful if they came in evil hands, others such as might not be helpful without the Rocky Mountain Mason


Henry Vi, King of England 1421-1471




and Faithfully Copied by me, Johan Leylande,†

Antiquarian – by the Command of His

Highness ‡

‡ King Henry VIII (1491-1547)

teachings to be joined with them in the Lodge, and others that bind the Brethren more strongly together, by the profit and commodity coming to the Brethren therefrom.

Q: What Arts have the Masons taught mankind? A: The Arts, Agriculture, Architecture, Astronomy, Geometry, Numbers, Music, Writing, Chemistry, Government, and Religion.

Q: How are Masons better teachers than other men? [And why are they so knowledgeable?] A: They are practiced in an art of finding new arts, which art the first masons received from God; by which they find what arts they please, and the true way of teaching the same. What other men do find out is only by chance, and therefore is little, I believe.

Q: What do the Masons conceal and hide?

Q: Do all Masons know more than other men?

A: They conceal the art of finding new arts, and that is for their own profit and praise, they conceal the art of keeping secrets, so that the world may conceal nothing from them. They conceal the art of wonder working [miracles], and the foreseeing of things to come, so that the same arts may not be used by the wicked to an evil end; they also conceal the art of changes [transmutation], the way of winning the faculty of Abrac [dim. of Abracadabra], the skill of becoming good and perfect without the [crutches] of fear and hope; and the universal language of Masons.

A: No so. They only have right and occasion more than other men to know, but many do fail in capacity, and many more lack industry, that is essential for the gaining of knowledge.

Q: Will you teach me the same arts? A: You shall be taught if you are worthy, and able to learn.

Q: Are Masons better men than others? A: Some Masons are not so virtuous as some other men; but on the whole, they are better than they would be if they were not Masons.

Q: Do Masons love each other mightily as has been said? A: Yes, verily, and that man not be otherwise; for good men and true, knowing each other to be such, do always love the more as they be more good. Here endeth the questyonnes and answers.

Rocky Mountain Mason



0 Code Duello X EEE E E E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


n the latter 18th Century, the rules of chivalry were extended to the settling of disputes by mortal competition. In a time when honor was paramount, and men rushed in to meet their death in defense of it, the art of the Duel was forged – from swords to pistols – and, as common to the time, an accepted rule of order was adopted. Here, for your enjoyment, is the gentlemanly way to settle disputes in mortal competition, the rules which all men of proper breeding happily observed, wherein the saying “may the best man win” takes on proper significance…. The Rocky Mountain Mason is proud to present, the Code Duello, as Adopted at the Clonmel Summer Assizes, 1777, for the government of duelists, by the gentlemen of Tipperary, Galway, Mayo, Sligo and Roscommon, and prescribed for general adoption throughout Ireland.


. The first offence requires the first apology, though the retort may have been more offensive than the insult. Example: A tells B he is impertinent, etc. B retorts that he lies; yet A must make the first apology, because he gave the first offence, and (after one fire) B may explain away the retort by subsequent apology.

. If A gives B the lie and B retorts by a blow (being the two greatest offences), no reconciliation can take place till after two discharges each or a severe hit, after which B may beg A’s pardon for the blow, and then A may explain simply for the lie, because a blow is never allowable, and the offence of the lie, therefore, merges in it. (See preceding rule.)


. But if the parties would rather fight on, then, after two shots each (but in no case before), B may explain first and A apologize afterwards.

N.B. Challenges for undivulged causes may be conciliated on the ground after one shot. An explanation or the slightest hit should be sufficient in such cases, because no personal offence transpired.

N.B. The above rules apply to all cases of offences in retort not of a stronger class than the example.



. If a doubt exists who gave the first offence, the decision rests with the seconds. If they will not decide or cannot agree, the matter must proceed to two shots, or to a hit if the challenger requires it.


. But no apology can be received in any case after the parties have actually taken their ground without exchange of shots.


. In the above case no challenger is obliged to divulge his cause of challenge (if private) unless required by the challenged so to do before their meeting.





. When the lie direct is the first offence, the agressor must either beg pardon in express terms, exchange two shots previous to apology, or three shots followed by explanation, or fire on till a severe hit be received by one party or the other.

. As a blow is strictly prohibited under any circumstances among gentlemen, no verbal apology can be received for such an insult. The alternatives, therefore, are: The offender handing a cane to the injured party to be used on his back, at the same time begging pardon, firing until one or both are disabled; or exchanging three shots and then begging pardon without the proffer of the cane. N.B. If swords are used, the parties engage until one is well blooded, disabled, or disarmed, or until, after receiving a wound and blood being drawn, the aggressor begs pardon.


. All imputations of cheating at play, races, etc., to be considered equivalent to a blow, but may be reconciled after one shot, on admitting their falsehood and begging pardon publicly. . Any insult to a lady under a gentleman’s care or protection to be considered as by one degree a greater offence than if given to the gentleman personally, and to be regarded accordingly.


. Offences originating or accruing from the support of ladies’ reputations to be considered as less unjustifiable than any others of the same class, and as admitting of slighter apologies by the aggressor. This is to be determined by the circumstances of the case, but always favourably to the lady. Rocky Mountain Mason




Chivalry of Dueling ‘


. No dumb firing or firing in the air is admissable in any case. The challenger ought not to have challenged without receiving offence, and the challenged ought, if he gave offence, to have made an apology before he came on the ground; therefore children’s play must be dishonourable on one side or the other, and is accordingly prohibited.


. Seconds to be of equal rank in society with the principals they attend, inasmuch as a second may either choose or chance to become a principal and equality is indispensable.


. Challenges are never to be delivered at night, unless the party to be challenged intends leaving the place of offence before morning; for it is desirable to avoid all hot-headed proceedings.


. The challenged has the right to choose his own weapons unless the challenger gives his honour he is no swordsman, after which, however, he cannot decline any second species of weapon proposed by the challenged.


. The challenged chooses his ground, the challenger chooses his distance, the seconds fix the time and terms of firing.


. The seconds load in presence of each other, unless they give their mutual honours that they have charged smooth and single, which shall be held sufficient.


. Firing may be regulated, first, by signal; secondly by word of command; or, thirdly at pleasure, as may be agreeable to the parties. In the latter case, the parties may fire at their reasonable leisure, but second presents and rests are strictly prohibited.


. Any wound sufficient to agitate the nerves and necessarily make the hand shake must end the business for that day.


. If the cause of meeting be of such a nature that no apology or explanation can or will be received, the challenged takes his ground and calls on the challenger to proceed as he chooses. In such cases firing at pleasure is the usual practice, but may be varied by agreement.


. In slight cases the second hands his principal but one pistol, but in gross cases two, holding another case ready charged in reserve.


. When the seconds disagree and resolve to exchange shots themselves, it must be at the same time and at right angles with their principals. If with swords, side by side, with five paces’ interval.


. No party can be allowed to bend his knee or cover his side with his left hand, but may present at any level from the hip to the eye.


. None can either advance or retreat if the ground is measured. If no ground be measured, either party may advance at his pleasure, even to the touch of muzzles, but neither can advance on his adversary after the fire, unless the adversary steps forward on him. N.B. The seconds on both sides stand responsible for this last rule being strictly observed, bad cases having occurred from neglecting it. N.B. All matters and doubts not herein mentioned will be explained and cleared up by application to the Committee, who meet alternately at Clonmel and Galway at the quarter sessions for that purpose.


CROW RYAN, President. JAMES KEOGH. AMBY BODKIN, Secretaries.


-- from The Duel: A History of Duelling, Robert Baldick, Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1965; Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., London, 1970.


. In all cases a misfire is equivalent to a shot, and a snap or a non-cock is to be considered a

. Seconds are bound to attempt a reconciliation before the meeting takes place or after sufficieint firing or hits as specified. Rocky Mountain Mason


How Well Do You


presided over Lynn’s Masonic service. It was Tom’s first funeral service and he felt bad about drawing a blank when looking into the eyes of Lynn’s family, but of course those things are understandable. Whatever the case, Tom will never forget such an honor. 2) During this past year when Tom presided as Master of Eckert Lodge, they were able to become an honor lodge for only the 2nd time in their history.

harles T. McLeod. “Tom McLeod?” [pronounced McCloud] Here I get mixed responses which quite understandably suggest that if you’re from the west side of the continental divide, you’ve probably met Tom... if you’re from the east side, not so likely. Worshipful Brother Tom is the outgoing Master of 2013 for Eckert Lodge 136 in Cedaredge. Eckert Lodge like any other has had its struggles but for the most part has been successful because of the ongoing leadership of its Worshipful Masters and the help they get from their officers and a particularly active group of Past Masters. WB Tom McLeod is excited to have joined that active group of Past Masters and will continue his active service at the station of tiler, a tradition at Eckert Lodge for several years. When Tom was asked to mention any of his “Masonic highlights” of the last couple of years he quickly recalled two. 1) He felt very honored to be able to preside at the funeral service of A. Lynn Sanburg, a well-known and wellrespected Past Master of Eckert Lodge 136. Tom recalled that Lynn was into about everything Masonic and Lynn often pushed his lodge into being better, always


improving. Lynn indicated that with all of the Masonic talent at Eckert Lodge there was no reason why they needed to recruit help to perform the funeral service. When Lynn died it was Tom McLeod who

Tom didn’t have far to go from his home, to join Freemasonry, but his path in those days did not lead directly to the nearest lodge. Tom is 60 years old and only been a Mason since 2008... his was a fast track to presiding over the lodge. Tom enjoys the ritual work and the inspiration gained from its lessons but he insists that for him the true fulfillment of being a member of Freemasonry is not only ritual and lessons but the brotherhood and camaraderie of its members. He was born at the old Delta Hospital and grew up on the family homestead. In many cases you may have struck up a conversation where someone figuratively talks of his “homestead,” but Tom assured me that such a term is not figurative when speaking of his homestead. His home is on Black Mesa, and in fact, the Black Mesa Lodge. Black Mesa Lodge is part of the “Homestead Ranch.” Tom has

Rocky Mountain Mason

Know Your

Brother? By M.W. Bro. Rodney Johnson

made extensive improvements over the last several years, but the ranch is the homestead begun by Tom’s great grandfather, his sons and other relatives from Scotland 100 years ago. They pooled their resources to acquire what is now the 2800 acre home, frequented by guests from all over the world. The ranch was recently featured in a special full color hardcover book entitled Great American Guest Ranches which states, “The McLeods are weaponry experts of the rifle, muzzleloaders and compound bows, and highly skilled in stand, still, spot and stalk, and calling hunts of a wide range of game, specializing in trophy bull elk and trophy mule deer hunts. Guests of the ranch include sportsmen and women of all skill levels; each experience tailored to the wants and needs of the individual prior to arrival.” Tom always knew the ranch would be a big part of his life. He graduated from Paonia High School because of a vote of the community in 1963 to close Crawford High School. By two votes, it was decided that Crawford area high school students should transfer to Paonia

Rocky Mountain Mason

High School instead of Hotchkiss. Tom started high school in Paonia 1968. In April of 1976 Tom married Rhonda and to them were born twin boys, Levi and Custer. Some years later, Tom and Rhonda were divorced. In 1992 Tom remarried and has enjoyed 22 years with his wife Benita. With that marriage, came Tom’s step-daughter, Ryan who eventually married and remains in the “North Fork of the Gunnison” area. Tom’s son Custer and his wife Kerri have provided Tom with grandson, Cayden Thomas. Black Mesa Lodge is sort of in the middle of nowhere... nowhere but beautiful country, right next to <the north rim of> Black Canyon National Park! Tom indicates that east to Blue Mesa Reservoir, and then further east it’s 47 miles to Gunnison or at the reservoir, turning back

west, it totals 58 miles to Montrose. West, it’s 26 miles to Crawford... keep going almost 11 more miles to Hotchkiss or maybe all the way to Delta (totaling 56 miles). Attending Eckert Lodge 136 in Cedaredge means a 110 miles round trip for Tom. As is the case in so many stories told, Tom lives relatively “near Hotchkiss Colorado.” Although he could have joined Mt. Lamborn Lodge 102, he had a special connection with Eckert Lodge 136. He is a Past Exalted Ruler of the Hotchkiss Elks. Among other things, Tom is a story teller. He can keep you fascinated with many stories of the ranch and his surroundings and/or how he came to petition Eckert Lodge. He attended Mesa College after high school and followed that with a degree from Texas Christian University... animal husbandry as you might suspect. He surely does have stories to tell of his time at TCU, working at the world famous YO ranch and its 62,000 acres... and much more. Tom hosts three different kinds of “history tours” on his ranch and in the August/September


timeframe he hosts a “bugling” tour. It’s obvious that Tom is proud of his family heritage. He eagerly makes improvements to Homestead Ranch and looks forward to passing the ranch on to his sons. As you drive into the ranch, you will note a very large engraved stone slab showing the McLeod family tree, complete with grandson Cayden Thomas. Tom has traveled to several parts of the world to see the sights and usually there’s some sort of hunting endeavor. Some of those travels include Bolivia, South Africa, New Zealand and of course Scotland. While in Scotland he visited McLeod Castle and is proud to be a part of Clan McLeod! I asked Tom what is a pet peeve of his to which his reply was: “People wasting electricity, or any resource.” ‘Using’ is one thing, but ‘wasting’ is another. And of course it was easy to understand his appreciation for such things since he has worked hard to provide uninterrupted power and crystal clear water at Homestead Ranch. The ranch/lodge is off the grid thus Tom provides water and electricity through facilities he has built or had built and such facilities are so well done that it is easy to take for granted or assume that they are just part of a cooperative system. When I asked Tom to relate a special cherished memory, he shared one of many... several years ago three fellows from Amsterdam were traveling this country on a shoestring. They stopped at Black Mesa Lodge and asked if they could spend a couple of days, though they didn’t have much money. Tom agreed they could stay and found out they played musical instruments and were often on the deck playing. Tom enjoyed the fellows and what began as food and lodging for a couple days turned into a couple of weeks. When it came time for them to leave they were nervous about what it would take to settle up. When Tom insisted that the whole stay was “on the house” tears started flowing. The fellows soon traveled back to Amsterdam and Tom has been in touch with them occasionally ever since. As Tom and I got ready to part company, I asked him to tell me what is something special that he is looking forward to. He replied, “Eckert Lodge 136 and I have started a tradition in which Black Mesa Lodge hosts an annual Masonic Luncheon on a Saturday in August. Masons and wives arrive sometime mid44

morning for some socializing. I will give newcomers a short tour of the lodge and tell them a little of what Homestead Ranch is all about. It’s a very casual time after which we have lunch. A bit more socializing and then everyone begins to travel home in the mid-afternoon. Contact Eckert Lodge to find out which Saturday for this coming year and then join us!” As we went our separate ways after our meeting, I wondered if WB Tom would remain active now that he has finished his year as Master, although he still has a year as tiler. Then I remembered he was just recently installed as Master of

Kadosh in the Scottish Rite. Round-trip to Cedaredge at 110 miles is quite a jaunt, but attending Scottish Rite in Grand Junction is even further! But then what do you expect... Tom’s a traveling man!!


Rocky Mountain Mason

Just Who is Brother

John Wilkes Booth Buried in Leadville, CO?

Permission to publish this paper is given by R.W.B. Davis L. Salberg, Grand Lecturer of the M.W.G.L. of A.F.& A.M. of Colorado - Wayne G. Arner P.M.


ew persons, Masons and nonMasons, know that a John W. Booth is buried in the Masonic section of the Evergreen Cemetery in Leadville, Colorado. Many who do know have wondered: Just who was this John W. Booth? The following is taken from information supplied by Worshipful Brother James M. Kaufman, of Leadville. Brother Kaufman has supplied the History Committee,1 with the minutes of the now extinct Ionic Lodge #35 of Leadville for Dec.31, 1916, and an account from the CARBONATE WEEKLY CHRONICLE , for Jan.1, 1917 : John W. Booth, “The last of the Booths”, Grandson of JUNIUS BRUTUS BOOTH, the great English Tragedian, and nephew of EDWIN THOMAS BOOTH, the eminent American of Shakespearian parts, will be laid to rest this afternoon in Evergreen Cemetery in the secluded spot he desired, far removed from his distinguished family’s burial ground in Baltimore. With the exception of a few years, John W. Booth had lived in Leadville since 1879, but there were few people who knew he was scion of one of the most eminent families of actors England and the United States have known. “The Last of the Booths” died Fri-

1. G.L. history Comm , David L. Salberg, Wayne G. Arner, John F. Burke 9/9/1984 46

day morning at 5 o’clock at St. Vincent’s Hospital of paralysis which had troubled him at frequent intervals in his later years. Only his wife, Dolly A. Baker before her marriage in 1873, survives. She is left alone at the little house at 902 Pine Street, where Mr. and Mrs. Booth resided during much of their Leadville residence. The remains of this last survivor of the Booth family will be buried this afternoon following services to be held at 2:30 at the Masonic Hall. The Masons of Ionic #35 and the Elks of Leadville Lodge #236 of which he was a member will take part in the services. If a careful diary had been kept by John W. Booth, it would have given to the public the story of a noted family as no other medium could make possible and it would have followed the course of as remarkable a western career as any early-day actor possessed. For John W. Booth was not a humble cabinetmaker and carpenter all his life. He mastered the cabinet-making trade only after coming to Leadville, where he cast aside his histrionic ambitions and wished for a life of peace and quiet. As a matter of fact, he played a wide range of parts on the stage for 24 years. When he was only 6 weeks old, he was given as a “Christmas

Junius Brutus Booth, Sr.

Junius Brutus Booth, Jr. Present”, in a stage play, in Salem Massachusetts, where he was born on June 2, 1848, and the son of JUNIUS BRUTUS BOOTH Jr. Junius Brutus Booth sr., the great English Tragedian, who died in 1852, had four sons, Junius Brutus Jr .; Edwin; John Wilkes; and Joseph A. The Rocky Mountain Mason

Edwin Thomas Booth

John Wilkes Booth

entire quartet but Joseph followed in the footsteps of their Father insofar as they entered the professional stage or circus business. Joseph, younger brother of Edwin, studied to be a physician and later became a surgeon. He died in 1902. Edwin died in 1893 and John Wilkes met death followRocky Mountain Mason

ing his assassination of President Lincoln in April of 1865. Early in his life, John W. Booth, absorbed stage life from these famous forebears and it was quite natural that his father started him on a stage career. His Father himself, while not an actor during all his life, followed show business for years. He maintained a place of business, at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. and that business was the buying of bankrupt and second-hand circus outfits and accessories which he refurbished and sold in the winter to circuses which planned on making routes during the spring and summer. While John W. was playing the boards with his father, the latter was determined the he should marry, FANNY DAVENPORT, the most famous actress of her day, but to this proposal John turned a deaf ear. He made no advances, as his father desired and eventually married IDA ZEURAZE, a circus rider, who met a tragic death in Omaha, in 1872, when the ring horse with which she was performing, stumbled, hurling her into the tanbark and breaking her neck. On learning of her death, Junius Brutus Jr., cast aside whatever disappointment he may have experienced after his son declined the marriage proposal he had advanced and came to Omaha to bear the body to the family vault in Baltimore. In 1873, he married Dolly A. Baker, whom he had met in Cheyenne and they continued to live in Cheyenne until 1879, when “they came to Leadville”. On arriving , John W. put all thoughts of further stage appearances behind him and he was led by his wife to learn the cabinet-making trade. Though he was past his youth, he set to work and ultimately mastered this new occupation. John W. Booth was always

reticent during his Leadville life regarding his antecedents and his past history, only a very few intimate friends knew of his family connections. He labored under the misapprehension that his family was ill-fated and he was extremely sensitive regarding the part played in history by his uncle, JOHN WILKES BOOTH, after whom he was named. In spite of the fact that his wife and Masonic friends reminded him frequently that the act was a turn, over which he had no control and for which, he in no way, could consider him, responsible. It was one of the most frequently expressed requests that his body be buried in some secluded spot, far removed from the burying place of his forebears. Differences with his Father in his early years remained poignant till the last. He felt, it was believed, that his Father had displaced him in possession of money which the son thought by rights were his. In a quarrel in an eastern theatre, in which his Father berated young John W., Booth sr. struck him with an Iron pin, causing serious injury! John W. believed throughout his life that this blow which necessitated a “Trepanning”2 operation, was partly responsible for the paralytic attacks which affected him in his later years. According to the minutes of the 763rd. Special Communication of Ionic Lodge #35 at Leadville, Brother John W. Booth was buried in due form on Dec.31, 1916 A.D., 5916 A.L.


2. Trepanning: A hole bored in the skull to relieve pressure on the brain. 47

Hammer of the GODS C

harles Martel is an important figure in early Freemasonry. Who he was, and what he is remembered for, are the subject of this article. We will then briefly discuss his role in the formative Freemasonry of, what I will call, the formal period (mid-18th Century). He is of note to us for many reasons, but as Freemasons specifically because of his mention in the “Old Charges”1 Charles Martel was born c. 688 in the area of Europe which is now known as Belgium. An illegitimate child of Pepin II (Pepin of Herstal) and a concubine, Alpaide, he would rise to power to become the self-titled Duke (or Prince) of the Franks. He was the Major Domus (Mayor of the Palace) under three Merovingian Kings; a title which, in all respects, held the executive power of the day. In fact, Martel would ultimately appoint the very kings for whom he would hold office.... He was thusly a kingmaker, a paramount figure in the history of the Dark Ages, grandfather of Charlemagne, and the founder of the Carolingian Dynasty. He was also, quite possibly, a patron of Masonry in Western Europe. He is best remembered for his sharp military genius, his unusual tactics (for the time) and his streak of victories – most notably against the Umayyad Saracens at the Battle of Tours, which saved Western Europe from Muslim domination. In his entire career he only lost one battle, his first


one. In this, as well as many of the others he’d wage (including the famed Battle of Tours), he was greatly outnumbered. His time was one of pluralistic states. The land we now know to be France, Germany, and Belgium, was united by the Romans as Gaul. After the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, and the rise of the Merovingian King Clovis, Gaul fractured into the Duchies of Austrasia in the North, Neustria across what is now central and Western France, Aquitania to the South down to the Pyrenees, Allemannia to the East, and Burgundy and Provence to the Southeast. Much of these states had arisen under the Merovingians, who had divided Gaul among their descendants and across their dynasty. By the time of Charles Martel, these Merovingian kings had become rois fainéants – the famed “do nothing kings” – figureheads and puppets for the Major Domi; and it was these “Mayors of the Palace” who would continue the tradition of succession in their own names, with their own offspring, until the establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty legitimized Charles’s son, Pepin the Short, and gave way to Charlemagne and the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire. Pepin II (also called Pepin the Middle) was the Major Domus of Austrasia up to his death in 714. He had lost both his legitimate sons by the time of his death – at least one to assassination. Through

the influence of his wife, Plectrude, he had bequeathed his kingdom – including Neustria by conquest – to his eight-yearold grandson, Theudoald. Plectrude was to wield power until the child came of age. But her reign was destined to be short. The Neustrians, still chaffing after their conquest by Pepin II, rose up in rebellion. Plectrude, fearing competition from the ever popular half-brother of her son, imprisoned Charles Martel in Cologne, to quaff an uprising in Austrasia. By 715, with the support of his people, one Ragenfrid proclaimed himself Mayor of the Palace of Neustria with the consent of Dagobert III, the Merovingian rois fainéant. With the Neustrians attacking Austrasia, Martel escaped prison and found favor and support from the Austrasian nobles. In 715 King Dagobert died. The Neustrians quickly named Dagobert’s youngest brother, born with the name Daniel and tonsured to the church, Chilperic II, King of the Franks. In 715 Ragenfrid led an army into Austrasia. Despite his monastic upbringing, Chilperic II rode at its head. Ragenfrid had allied Neustria with the kingdom of Frisia (present day Holland) – lands of which empire Pepin II had likewise conquered – and Radbod, the Frisian King, joined forces with Ragenfrid to meet Charles Martel near Cologne. This was the only battle Martel lost. Rocky Mountain Mason

The Early


CHARLES MARTEL Martel, g r e a t l y outnumbered, fled to the Eifel Mountains. With Martel put to flight, the invading force moved rapidly to siege, the city walls rapidly fell, the treasury was looted, and, perhaps hastier still, Plectrude acknowledged the invader’s choice of king with Ragenfrid as Major Domus. Ragenfrid now effectively r u l e d Austrasia. But Martel had not been idle. He had gathered an army together and trained them. In 716 he met Ragenfrid near Liège and routed him at the Battle of Amblève to retake Austrasia. Then, in Spring of 717, he marched his army into Neustria and engaged Ragenfrid and Chilperic Rocky Mountain Mason

at Vincy, and put them to flight, before closing on his step-mother and Theudoald at Cologne. In an act as gentile as it was contrary to the type of that dark and unsettled time, he spared their lives. Now Martel held power as Mayor of the Palace, and declared the Merovingian Clotaire IV King of the Franks. He turned Northward, and pushed

Radbod b a c k , retaking West Frisia shortly after R a d b o d ’s death in 718. He also defeated the Saxons, who had strayed into Austrasia amid the uprising, and laid waste to the lands along the Weser, the Lippe, and the Ruhr rivers. He had now secured his borders. But Chilperic II was not yet finished – he allied with Odo the Great, who had ascended to power over Aquitaine during the civil war of 715, but was summarily defeated again at the Battle of Soissons. Chilperic fled South and Ragenfrid fled to the County of Angers. Clotaire IV died later that year, and Martel agreed to recognize Chilperic II 49

as King of the Franks in exchange for the legitimacy of his Mayoralty over all the kingdoms. But in 720 Chilperic died, and Martel appointed Thierry IV, son of Dagobert III, King. By 724 Martel had repressed the Saxons; and Ragenfrid, routed in Neustria again, gave up his sons as hostage, collateral for his loyalty in exchange for the County of Angers in the Province of Anjou. This consolidated Martel’s power over Austrasia, Neustria, and West Frisia, the same lands ruled by his father before. In 725 and 728 Martel rode into Bavaria and subdued the Agilolfing Dukes – who had gained independence for the Germanic tribes – and brought the Agilolfing Princess, Swanachild, home with him. About this time he supported the mission of Winfrid (later Saint Boniface) to proselytize the Germans. In 730 he marched against Lantfrid, Duke of Alemannia and, killing him in battle, brought what is now Germany once again to Frankish rule under the dominion of the Cross. Indeed, he would need this consolidated power to resist the invasion of the Muslims into Burgundy and Aquitaine. Already, in 721, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the Emir of Córdoba, had led a large army up from Spain and laid siege to the city of Toulouse. Odo the Great, Duke of Aquitaine, had fled, but returned three months after the siege had begun, to catch the Muslims unawares and sent them back. But Martel knew the Crescent was on the horizon. Christendom itself, as well as his empire, was imperiled. In 725 the Muslims returned under the leadership of Anbasa ibn Suhaym AlKalbi and reached Burgundy, destroying Autun. The Muslims now controlled Arles, Avignon, and Provence. Martel diverted his attention from conquests in Bavaria and Allemannia to prepare a professional army of veterans, able to subsist year round. To outfit and equip, as well as feed and sustain this army, Martel seized Church lands. Martel had previously donated land to the Church to legitimize his reign, but the shock to the Holy See was nonetheless poignant enough for intimations of excommunication – however, any such outrage quickly evanesced when the Muslims crossed the Pyrenees with a huge army intent, not on sacking and raiding as had been common to their previous incursions, but on 50

conquest; the submission of the Cross to the pale blade of the Crescent moon. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, the new Emir of Córdoba, had been at Toulouse when Odo the Great had surprised the besieging Muslims, and, determined not to be caught off-guard himself, he balanced in equal favor his might and ingenuity with the preparedness his predecessor lacked. And so, in 732, Al Ghafiqi arrived in Aquitaine with a force of 80,000 men drawn from across the Umayyad Empire – from North Africa, Yemen, and Syria – including cavalry of seasoned Berber and Arabian horsemen. Odo fell before the Umayyad cavalry, severely beaten at the Battle of Garonne. The defeat was total, the death toll massive. One Western chronicler of the event, Isidorus Pacensis, wrote: “solus Deus numerum morientium vel pereuntium recognoscat”, meaning – God alone knows the number of the slain. Odo fled to petition help from Charles Martel. The Muslims sacked Bordeaux. Martel agreed to march against the Muslims if Odo formally recognized Martel as his overlord. Odo, no doubt recognizing it was better to serve under the latter in dukedom, than under the former in death, agreed. Martel met the Umayyad force near Tours in October, 732, with Odo commanding his right flank. He had moved his army, of only 30,000 men, over secondary roads to avoid detection and hide his numbers. He positioned atop high ground, forcing the Umayyad cavalry to charge uphill. While the enemy was drawing up it’s battle lines, Martel sent a raiding party of scouts to the Umayyad camp to commit sabotage and release the Frankish prisoners. Martel resisted the first wave of the devastating Umayyad cavalry – perhaps the first time in medieval history that an infantry unit repulsed the swift onslaught of horsemen wielding that curved blade of the Saracens. But the scouts had reached the Umayyad camp in time. Believing the spoils of Toulouse were being salvaged, Al Ghafiqi’s lines broke to protect the camp. In the midst of confusion, Al Ghafiqi was surrounded and put to the sword. The Umayyad force dispersed, and made a hasty retreat all the way back to the Iberian peninsula. The Muslim incursion to Western Europe was halted. Most historians, throughout the ages,

believe this sudden victory was seminal in the preservation of Western culture and the rise of Christendom. The victory near Tours, against such odds, engendered Charles’s cognomen, “Martel”, which means “the hammer”. In the years following, Odo the Great died, and Martel brought Burgundy under his complete rule. He quashed the Frisian rebellion in 733-734, killing the Frisian Duke Bobo in battle. Frisia finally adopted Christianity soon after. In 736 he ousted the Muslims from Montfrin, Avignon, Arles and Aix-en-Provence, recapturing Nimes, Agde, and Béziers. His life drawing to a close, he failed to take Narbonne, despite the prospects of victory with a frontal assault as prevailed at Arles. When the last Merovingian King, Thierry IV, died in 737, Martel didn’t appoint a successor, but proclaimed himself Duke and Prince of the Franks. He suppressed an uprising in 739 led by Maurontus in Provence, and then, at the close of his life, in the center of his power with peace predominant, he began the establishment of dioceses for the Christian Church in Bavaria and brought the Germanic pagans to Christ. Upon his death, at Quierzy-sur-Oise on October 22, 741, he divided his kingdom between his two legitimate sons, Carolman and Pepin III (the “Short”), the latter of whom would father the Emperor Charlemagne. Thus began the Frankish alliance with the Holy See, and, in time, the emergence of the Knights Templar from the very lands Martel had sequestered from the Muslim expansion from the South. In the context of Freemasonry during the formal period (mid-18th Century) it is worthy to note references to Martel in the Old Charges. Martel, outfitting a professional army with soldiers free from the necessities of farming, in many respects engendered the chivalry common to the Knighthood of later years. The title of Major Domus was, to a great degree, dependent upon a popular position – one attained from the favor, election, and respect of the nobles – even while it ultimately usurped all executive power. In this way, and during this time, the reigns of power were divested from the hands of noble birthright and passed to men of ability and renown. Was Charles Martel a Mason or a patron of the Craft? Martel is referenced by that name in the Grand Lodge MS No. Rocky Mountain Mason

1, with the date 1583, where we read: “… And there was one of the Regal line of France, that height Charles Martel, and he was a man that loved well such a Craft… And afterward by the grace of God he was elect to be King of France. And when he was in his Estate he took Masons and did help to make men Masons… and set them a-work and gave them both the Charges and man’s good pay that he had learned of other Masons and confirmed them a Charter from year to year to hold assembly where they would… And thus came the Craft into France.”2 The story purports a Mason, Namus Grecus (which I interpret, along with Albert Mackey, as meaning a Greek Mason), brought the Art to France and to the attention of Martel. Martel is also specifically referenced in the following excerpt of Boileau’s Code of the Usages and Customs of the Masons, the Stonemasons, the Plasterers, and the Mortarers, complied c. 1260, where we read: “All stone Masons are free of watch duty since the time of Charles Martel, as the Wardens have heard tell from father to son.”3 King Louis IX of France appointed Stephan Boileau as Provost of the Corporations of Paris in 1258, who then collected the rites and customs of the guilds operative in that city under Louis’s reign. Title XLVIII of Boileau’s Code says “Anyone may be a Mason at Paris, provided that he understands the misterie, and that he works according to the ancient usages and customs of the misterie.” In the earlier Cooke manuscript4, Carolus Secundus (Charles II) is mentioned as being “a mason before that he was king.” Carolus Secundus is mentioned in at least three of the Old Charges, whereas more than 70 reference Charles Martel5 in similar passages. This has led to much confusion interpreting the Old Charges. Who is Carolus Secundus? Some contend this refers to Charlegmagne, others Charles Martel, and yet more to Charles the Great. It is, however, interesting to consider the words Carolus Secundus found in the numismatic arts of the 13th Century on the obverse of coins corresponding to the reign of Charles II (1285 –1309) King of Naples, also called Charles Martel6: Carolus Secundus Dei Gratia Hierosolymae et Siciliae Rex. However, since the dates of this monarch’s reign occur after Boileau’s Code we can infer Charles Martel, as mentioned at least by Boileau, refers to Rocky Mountain Mason

the Carolingian progenerator, and not the King of Naples. With the similarity of names considered more than a century later, perhaps such a reference is applicable to Charles Martel, and not, as others contend, to Charlemagne or Charles the Great. Albert G. Mackey, that great Masonic scholar and friend to the Rite, wrote: “However, it must be remarked, that at the present day the French Masonic writers speak of Charles Martel as the founder of Masonry in France.”7 Dr. Anderson, when formulating the constitutions of the modern Craft in the 18th Century, wrote that Charles Martel “sent over several expert Craftsmen and learned architects into England at the desire of the Saxon kings.”8 Dr. Oliver, in the second edition of the Constitutions, makes a similar assertion.9 Bringing Christianity to the Pagan tribes in Frisia and Allemannia, and erecting new dioceses there, is it not likely that he caused a number of churches to be built? Further, Charles Martel progenerated the Carolingian dynasty from which a military alliance of chivalry and strict observance was fashioned with the Church. His opposition against the Saracens offers an intriguing foreshadowing of the Knights Templar, and, whether or not he was a Mason, it is easy to see why the Fraternity would claim him. The Knights Templar doubtless recognized his military genius and successful campaigns under the banner of the Cross, and, their lineage seeded from the nobles of Aquitaine and the Langeudoc 377 years later, how could they ignore his history? The veracity of the Old Charges and the disputations of well informed Brethren on the subject notwithstanding, this author tends to believe that Charles Martel, in bringing all of Roman Gaul back to common rule, in sowing monotheistic Christianity among the Pagan hordes, and occupying a populist position of power dependent on ability and merit rather than name and birthright, was likely inspired by the same tenets preserved in Craft Masonry throughout the world today. Whether or not he was a Mason per se is ultimately immaterial. His life and times are worthy of our consideration. Our Fraternal forefathers, who wrought his name into our formative documents, clearly thought so.


Endnotes 1

A collection of manuscripts purporting the legendary origins of the Craft, dating from as early as c. 1390 C.E. (the “Regius” MS) and 1450 C.E. (the “Cooke” MS), many of which mention Martel. 2 Grand Lodge MS No. 1 as quoted in The Charles Martel Legend in Freemasonry, by Bro. O.D. Street. Available at http:// 3 Title XXII, Code of the Usages and Customs of the Masons, the Stonemasons, the Plasterers, and the Mortarers, as quoted in The Charles Martell legend in Freemasonry, by Bro. O.D. Street. I find the text “¶ XXII. The Mortar-makers are exempt from watch duty, and every stone-cutter since the time of Charles Martel, as the preudome (Wardens) have heard it said, from father to son.” See The Freemason’s Monthly Magazine, Vol. 22, by Charles Whitlock Moors, pg. 205, Boston, 1863. 4 c. 1450 5 See The Charles Martell legend in Freemasonry, by Bro. O.D. Street 6 See The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, Vol. 11-12, pg. 123, London, 1871. 7 As cited in The History of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, Chapter 16. 8 As cited in The History of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, Chapter 16. 9 Ibid.

A 51

The Times They Are A-Changing! “The wonder of time sweeps through the ages. A constant movement that in turn moves all things.”


eeping time is not easy. Time, as we know it, is not simply a constant metronome beating into nowhere. It involves the interaction of two bodies. As a clever scientist once said, “time is the distance between two events.” And while this is something we give little thought to, a minute is only as exact as the observation of that distance. Watches slow down. Years crop up unexpected days. The Moon sheds her shadow at varying speeds…

The movement of time must be gauged and measured by the movements of the things which comprise it. (Or the things whose motions become time). And these interactions are always relative. Time, in a manner of speaking, requires a reference, a witness, and an accomplice. As a result, throughout history the keeping of calendars (which, true to humankind, tend to be regular) has proven difficult. Because, perhaps like everything in this world, calendars can only be estimations…. They are like acreages fenced off on time’s shifting sands: They sag, drift, and turn egg-shaped. Even movement is moving. Just ask Julius Caesar, who in 45 BCE, after years of neglect, was forced to readjust the Roman calendar by inserting 67 “epagomenal” days into the year (exactly how isn’t clear). This caused no end of trouble (and, one might expect, amusement). But winter and January were thereby united once more. Unsurprisingly, 45 BCE was later referred to as annis confusionis (the year of confusion) by some Roman wit! Undoubtedly, there’s an equation between time and civilization— and not just the forward motion of “progress.” Calendars are the tools of civic management. If people are to meet together, and perform observances of


“Time is the movement of all things.”

various kinds, conduct business, crown queens, elect governors, etc., an agreed upon measuring stick must be recognized. Calendars are necessary to coordinate many wills among a common purpose. They are like commas in the universe’s endless sentence. The Egyptians calibrated their calendars by the helical rising of Sirius. The Babylonians used the Metonic cycle of the Moon. (As did the Greeks, and the Romans.) The Mayans used the Long Count and the tallying of days. Most attempts at regular timekeeping have been Lunar-Solar; using the movements and interactions of the heavens, in all their inconstancy, has often been the best calibration we can make. (For example: What is this 1/4 day extra each year? It’s the result of averaging— there’s not a 1/4 day each year, but an extra day every four years; at least, these modern “leap years” are how we currently correct the river of time to keep it within our urban banks, there to turn our merry wheels.) Modern humankind likes things to run like, well, clockwork. And so times have changed. Presently, instead of the Moons, we count cesium atoms, regularly vibrating somewhere under close scrutiny… Our time is the time of the modern minute; for better or worse, it’s the age of Daylight Savings (may God ever preserve us). A precise 9,192,631,770 vibrations a second (the oscillation of a Cesium atom) is as close to that metronome, beating into nowhere, we’ve come. But the time of the seasons that marked the movement of the hunt, or the prudence to plant; that time of personal interrelationship between the Earth and the living; remains ever present. Rather than be kept, time must only be observed. (Hence Stone Henge may be the most accurate time piece in the world….) There’s a lesson in this. All one has to do is observe the phases

of the Moon. The problem comes when trying to define these. The Lunar month is 27.3 (or so, on the average) days. More like 27 or 28 days depending on what is happening. Of course, the Synodic month—the mean time between New Moons—is 29.53 days (the Earth is moving too). All this is quite confusing. How long is a month (who’s root is common with Moon)? Clearly, you can’t stuff time into logic’s box: It’s an ever-evolving tune, like birdsong, not confined to human expectancy. It’s perceived entirely relative to its own measurement: If there is a metronome, then the metronome is your heart. An example: Time appears to accelerate as we age. When you are young, say three-years-old, then one year is onethird of your life. It feels like ages until Christmas rolls around again. And yet, by the time you’re thirty, one year is onethirtieth of your life: Relatively, a year feels ten times faster! By the time your sixty, it’s one-sixtieth of your life, or twenty-times faster! You can’t believe it’s Christmas again, already. (Then, of course, there’s the other kind of relativity: The one that birthed the New York minute. But we don’t have time for that.) So, we count cesium atoms in order to avoid arguments and to explain why you can’t have your presents now…. But, if in actuality time is like birdsong, what does keeping it matter? Surely it’s best left… to the birds? So, observe time. Enjoy the present. Take care of the present moment. All these complications arise when we want to meet someone, somewhere, sometime off in the future. (Or if you’re worrying about Longitude.) Rather than saying “I’ll meet you June fifth,” say, “I’ll see you in five Moons.” That’s a better gnomon than the second hand. At least, for a time.

Rocky Mountain Mason

Rocky Mountain Mason


The Path


a Mason T

he path of the Mason or mystic is the path of self-improvement, steps taken towards “Making good men better.” But there is more to this than simply being a good person. As Masons we are given numerous tools to “Circumscribe our desires and keep our passions within due bounds.” In Lodge, we are surrounded by images that remind us to walk the path of balance, to walk upright, and to treat each other on the level. Yet when we make a conscious decision to embark on the Masonic path, that path of self-improvement, and thus to receive more Light from the GAOTU, we may actually invite chaos and challenges into our lives.... Look at it this way, our adversary will not challenge us if we are already doing his work, nor will our adversary challenge us if we are not challenging ourselves to get back to the Light. If we are firmly rooted in the physical realm of duality, we are not a threat to the adversary. However, when we choose to embark on the initiatic path, we become a threat to the adversary and thus, we become a target. The adversary wants us to be blinded with the inconsequential things of the mundane world: TV, sports, gossip, Lodge disputes, and arguments between the supposed “different” political parties, not to mention all of the other distractions we have to fill the void of our lives. All of these things are designed to keep us from exploring the path to GAOTU, that path of selfknowledge and spiritual exploration. It is for this reason that initiates of the Mystery Schools were warned that to embark on this path is to incur challenges and chaos.


This path is not for the faint hearted. This is why we are supposed to guard well the West Gate. To embark on this path, to learn the reality of the physical and spiritual worlds, and then choose to ignore what you know to be the truth, and attempt to go back to the blindness of the mundane world, will cause pain and discontent; so backtracking should not be considered an option. Thus any decision to take the initiatic path should not be taken lightly. But brothers, fear not, for the GAOTU will never give us more than we can handle, even though this seems doubtful at times, at least it does to me. As we all know, life is cyclic and never static. In most people’s lives, short periods of joy or euphoria are expereinced, coupled by periods of distress, pain, and/or challenge. These swings are often extreme. The beauty of our Masonic path is, the harder we work, and the more we learn about ourselves, the more the major swings start to level out and the negative occurrences seem to diminish in intensity and duration, at least somewhat. This small reward for our hard work tends to make the world seem somewhat better. Ultimately, through hard work and introspection, we receive the tools needed to begin to perfect our ashlars and thereby smooth out some of the peaks and valleys we are so used to experiencing in our daily lives. The Kabbalists1 and Gnostics tell us that the way to perfect ourselves is to consciously place ourselves in a position of discomfort; in this way we constantly challenge ourselves. As such, we must seek out the uncomfortable, the unfamiliar, and have faith that the GAOTU will guide

us in the right direction. If the ego, or the adversary, tells us that we need to talk about ourselves, acknowledge this and then do not say anything. If the ego tells us to lie to a brother because that is the comfortable thing to do, then we must be truthful. If we are afraid of something or have a weakness in a certain area, then that is the area we must pursue and challenge ourselves with. To fail to work in this manner, doing merely what is comfortable, will only succeed in keeping us stuck. This is the path of hard work, and is alluded to in the second degree when we are told to study the seven liberal arts and sciences. We must study much, about as many things as possible, so that we can understand the interrelation of all things – not to mention to strengthen our weak areas. I believe this is part of the process of perfecting our rough ashlars. Judgment is another tool the adversary uses to prevent those who are on the Masonic path from receiving more or connecting to the light. When we judge another, we must become aware of the judgment, and then instead of sending out the negative energy of judgment, we must send love and light to that person. Instead of hating those who we believe have wronged us, we must get in the habit of doing the opposite of what our ego or our adversary wants us to do, and send them love and light. This, my brothers, is another way we perfect our ashlars and how we receive “More Light in Masonry.” Again my brothers, the initiatic path is not one that should be embarked upon for frivolous reasons. To send light to an enemy or someone who has wronged Rocky Mountain Mason


lling Br a C oth rs e h er t o Br

us is terribly difficult, and unfortunately, remains unpracticed by many. However, not to do so simply allows them to maintain control over us and our spiritual development and ultimately it only hurts us. Please stop and think about this for a minute before you proceed. Our choice of paths is completely up to us. So my brothers, as you can see, the path of a Mason is much more than being rocketed through our degrees, receiving that next honor, or chasing whatever bobble we have seen pinned to another brothers lapel. The awards a true Mason should be chasing are those of the spiritual. Those awards are seldom observed by the mundane world, but are noticeable if one looks close enough. These awards are reflected by the type of marriage we have, how our general lives are, by our relationships and associates, and by the general calm that surrounds us. If we are lacking in certain areas, then brother, I guess we need to re-evaluate what we are doing and work harder to “Improve Ourselves in Masonry.” Keep in mind, brothers, we will fail. I do. I fail repeatedly, several times a day, and expect to continue to do so…that’s o.k. Be strong and keep striving toward your goal and you will see subtle improvements in your life and character. This, my brothers, is part of what is needed if we are to walk the path of a Mason.


1. Berg, Y. (2004). The Power of Kabbalah: Technology for the Soul. New York, New York: The Kabbalah Center International, Inc.

Rocky Mountain Mason

by W.Bro. Michael Rudloff


ow do we as Masons reach out to those Brothers who have not sat in Lodge for a while? What will work? What can we try? As Master for 2014 I made this my focus and this is my attempt to an answer; As a general statement and apology to all Brothers that have drifted away, we do miss your attendance even though we have been remiss in expressing it. I could blame it on our busy lives but everyone is busy, that is no reason for brothers not to be in touch, the question is how we allocate our time. Emails and texts are a quick and easy way to communicate but lack in the personal interaction of a grip; a word, a smile or a call. There are no smiles in Text or caring tone in an E-mail. I started a program this year to contact all Brothers directly by putting the Lodge at rest during a regular meeting and passing out 3-5 names and numbers to the Brothers attending Lodge. A list of events and a wish you were able to attend message accompanied the Names & Numbers. Since nearly everyone has a cell phone the lodge took on a new buzz of activity, we let Brothers know that they were missed at Lodge and mentioned our scheduled events and extended a warm welcome back. Over the year our Lodge will reach out to all the Brothers generating the energy that builds a Lodge worth having and a

meeting worth going to. This program will continue at least for this year and my hope is that the next Master will continue the program. On the first evening of this program, 50-60 Brothers were contacted. We extended the hand of friendship and Brotherly Love to many Brothers we have not seen for a while. Some calls went to answering machines while others chatted for quite some time. All calls were successful in making a warm touch to those Brothers we know well and to those we haven’t seen or talked to for a while. After the calls were made I could tell of a new positive energy in the Lodge. To some Brothers calling was a bit uncomfortable at first but after the calls were made everyone had a smile and a healthy sense of accomplishment for “doing good for the Lodge” and trying something new. Since we have started the program several Brothers from the past have made Lodge meetings continuing old connections and established new friendships as well. As Brothers we can & should, on our own, give a call to a Brother or a friend we haven’t talked to in a while. A brief call just to say Hi and ask how they are doing, it won’t take but a moment to let them know that you care enough for the thought, besides they were probably about to call you anyway. Why not be first? In short calling works, try it.



Esoterica, Masonophobia, and the

Scottish Rite - an Internview with

Arturo de Hoyos,

Grand Archivist and Historian of the AASR

Originally published online at Freemason Information, by Bro. Greg Stewart December 2013. Used with permission.

33º G.C. Greg Stewart (GS) : Bro. de Hoyos, thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule. I’d like to start with the basics by asking how long have you been a Mason? Do you recall who or what ultimately induced you to become one? Arturo de Hoyos (ADH): I’ve been a Mason about 26 years. I was actually interested in joining earlier, but didn’t know any Masons. When I was a kid, I grew up in Utah. My parents are LDS and, when I was young, I was raised in their faith. Although I no longer share their religious views, I was intrigued when I learned that Joseph Smith, Jr., the founder of Mormonism was a Mason, as were many of its other early leaders. As I began to investigate Masonry I was impressed with its principles, its unique system of morality, by its antiquity, legends and rituals. The notion of men meeting upon the level, uniting in a common good irrespective of nationality or creed appealed to me. A couple of years after moving to Texas I attended an open house at my local lodge (McAllen No. 1110), and asked for a petition. Remarkably, I was the only person to attend that night, but I’m glad they left the lights on, and I think it also paid off for them. At least I hope so! GS: Did your experience live up to the expectations you had built up about it? ADH: Joining definitely lived up to my expectations. I found the ritual very satisfying and the members of my mother lodge amazing. The secretary was a Past Grand Master and Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rite Mason, and we had the strongest lodge in the Rio GrandeValley. My lodge has given Texas three Grand Masters, of whom we’re quite proud. We were frequently called upon to confer degrees in other lodges, and several of Rocky Mountain Mason

our members were expert ritualists. But it was more than that. There was a genuine comradery amongst the members, which I can honestly (and perhaps sadly) say I haven’t seen equaled in other lodges.

them all, I was familiar enough with Masonic literature, that I recognized his unreferenced sources, and knew what was taken out of context, and paraphrased or distorted.

GS: How so?

GS: Do you remember who that preacher was and the sermon that you rebutted?

ADH: Although I’ve certainly enjoyed my lodge experiences elsewhere, I felt that my mother lodge had a perfect balance. Perhaps it’s an idealized reflection like one’s “first love,” but there was such a deep affection and friendship among the members, that we were willing to help each other at the drop of a hat. There was a warm spirit in the lodge, and a sense of pride that we had several members capable of conferring all the work and giving all the lectures. If someone was ill, we’d show up and help with whatever we could. It was like the The Lodge in Friendship Village, if you’re familiar with the book. GS: Without a doubt your role with the Supreme Council speaks to your affinity with the material, but I’m curious what lead you into your role? ADH: It’s pretty easy to get my position. You simply have to read everything on Masonry ever written, remember most of it, and then write about it. I’m joking of course, but it was my fascination with everything Masonic that eventually got me here. I am, first and foremost, a bibliophile. Once I joined I read everything I could get on Masonry, including things like Mackey’s and Coil’s encyclopedias, coverto-cover. The first Masonic book I wrote was a response to anti-Masonry in which I revealed all the sources used in a sermon against the fraternity, and showed how the speaker was disingenuous. Although the speaker didn’t reveal

ADH: I do, The preacher which caused me to respond was Dr. Ron Carlson (d. 2011) [he] made a living selling antiMasonic tapes, and giving anti-Masonic sermons, along with bashing other faiths which were not his brand of Christianity. GS: The sermon was Freemasonry, Masonic Lodge and the Shriners Are Not Compatible with Biblical Christianity. Did Carlson ever respond to your book? ADH: Carlson refused to debate me publicly, even though he was the one who made the offer. Sadly, he died before I could send him my Albert Pike’s Morals and Dogma of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (Annotated Edition. I wanted him to see how he’d misquoted Pike, and blamed him for “ant-Christian” remarks that were actually made by Christian ministers. The book I sent him was Cloud of Prejudice. He signed the receipt, which I included in the second edition, along with my acceptance of his challenge to a debate but wouldn’t talk to me personally. [At some point] When he was on the radio in the Pacific Northwest, someone called him and referred to my book, and acceptance of his challenge, and he just kept saying that I was unfair, and took him out of context. I have a chapter on Carlson in [the book] Is It True What They Say About Freemasonry?


GS: So then, how does one become a Grand Archivist and Historian in the Rite? ADH: I have tried to learn about every aspect of Freemasonry: its history, symbolism, and ritual. I have tried to read and study something about the history and rituals of every Masonic organization on the planet, in order to understand how they are interrelated, and grasp their inner teachings. This is not an easy task, and my abilities as a polyglot were a great help. Stubbornness is also useful! How did I get here? Grand Commander C. Fred Kleinknecht asked me to take the position. For about 20 years I’ve served on the board of the Scottish Rite Research Society, and had previously done some contract work for the Supreme Council over the years. I had also traveled to DC on my own and would spend days at a time researching in the library and archives when I was researching the origins of Morals and Dogma. I knew the library and archives so well that they’d actually call me in Texas to ask where something was located. When the position opened, Bro. Kleinknecht called me and invited me to fly to Washington to discuss it. I accepted. GS: Knowing what you know now, would you do it again? ADH: Yes, I would. It’s involved a tremendous amount of work, but has been rewarding. GS: Is there any one instance that would sum up your role as the Grand Archivist and Historian? Any good take aways from the experience? ADH: I believe that my role is to preserve and disseminate Masonic light and knowledge. One of the things I’ve tried 58

to do is publish and/or write books which I wish had existed when I was a younger Mason. It was well-nigh impossible to find some of the things I’ve published when I was younger. What have I taken away? The satisfaction of knowing that I kept true to my obligation as a Past Master to share Masonic light and knowledge with my Brethren. GS: So, I’d like to delve into an area that is a personal favorite of mine. Very often terms like occult, esoteric, mystical and so on get tossed around in the definitions of descriptions of Masonry. I’m curious, from your perspective, what do you see as the role of these esoteric aspects? ADH: Some people see Freemasonry as the outer fraternity to an inner mystery. Certainly, some types of Freemasonry employ symbols common to the esoteric schools and to alchemy, but not all types of Freemasons do. There’s a question as to how, and whence it derived its esoteric symbolism. Our Masonic forefathers were familiar with the interests of their day, and as well as the popular contemporary literature. Freemasonry is both eclectic and organic. It uses symbols to teach lessons in a way very similar to the books of Choice Emblems published throughout its formative years in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries. These books assigned moral meanings to the square, compasses, skull and cross bones, pelican, and other familiar symbols. They taught virtues like constancy, zeal, brotherly-love, and even used the bee hive as an emblem of industry. I think we must have borrowed symbols from them as well as from alchemical texts, which I believe I demonstrated in an article I published 20 years ago on the Royal Arch word (The Mystery of the Royal Arch Word,

Heredom, Vol 2., 1993) But what role does it all play if our teachings don’t have any practical purpose? If they have none, they aren’t really of value. I think they are there to point us to further fields of study, as do other things mentioned in Masonry, like the orders of architecture, or the cardinal virtues. Freemasonry states its truths, and points the way to education, admonishing us to learn the greatest mystery: who and what we are, and what our obligations are. Freemasonry is “occult” in the sense that its mysteries are hidden or concealed, which it the literal meaning of the word. I do believe that Masonic ritual conceals its truths in unique ways which are esoteric, but Masonry does not teach practical magic. It is not an occult school in that sense, as Pike makes clear in a couple of places. GS: This may dive even deeper, but what do you see as some of the deeper meanings of Scottish Rite Masonry? Is it a subject that can easily be distilled down into a few sentences? ADH: Scottish Rite Masonry is the intelligent advocate of the principles of an enlightened society. It advances the notion that we can create an empire of reason and wise morality, and its degrees provide practical examples, in symbolic form, of what is necessary to achieve this. It prompts us to consider ourselves as integral to the advancement of the human race, and challenges us to make ourselves fitting to the task. It teaches us that duty is the one great law of Masonry, and obligates us to its performance stressing that we must come to understand the great mystery of who and what we are: mortal in body, although immortal by the results of our actions. GS: You’ve spent a great deal of time Rocky Mountain Mason

surrounded by Pike’s writings, ideas and ephemera. Do you have a sense of what he was ultimately trying to communicate in the body of all his work? Did what he was trying to say change over time and do you think his ideas work in the world today? ADH: Pike’s ideas did change with time, as I explained in the book Albert Pike’s Esoterika: The Symbolism of the Blue Degree of Freemasonry. As he matured, [Pike] discarded some of the popular but unfounded notions on the origins of Masonry, and realized that Freemasonry’s practical value lay in its ability to transform lives for the better, but he believed it also assured us of a future existence after this life. Pike’s ideas continue to be valuable today because human nature is the same. Technology is merely a tool for humans; it doesn’t modify who we are. Pike notions of Masonry inspire men to greatness. His ritual revisions provide valuable teachings in a profound and simple way, which resonates with the thinking man who has overcome the notions and credulities of childhood. GS: So, from the depths of the esoteric, I’d like to come back up and talk about the Supreme Council in general. I’m curious what you see as the greatest strengths of the Scottish Rite and how that compares with the strengths of lodge masonry? Do you see the two as different institutions on similar paths or one and the same occupying the same space? ADH: In my view, the strength of the Supreme Council lies in its coherence and stability. Unlike Grand Lodges, [the Scottish Rite’s] government does not change every year, or every couple of years which permits the Scottish Rite to set and follow its goals

Rocky Mountain Mason

without fearing they’ll be discarded in twelve months. Grand Lodges are necessary and useful, and not in any way a competition to the Scottish Rite. In fact, I believe that Scottish Rite adds value to the Blue Lodge by its coherence. The best Scottish Rite Masons I know are strong supporters of the Grand Lodges. I agree with Pike when he said, “Let us … always remember, that first of all and above all, we are Master Masons; and wherever we work and labor, calling ourselves Masons, let us work and labor to elevate and dignify Blue Masonry; for we owe to it all that we are in the Order; and whatever we may be elsewhere, we are always amenable to its law and its tribunals, and always concerned to maintain and magnify its honor and glory.” GS: Is there any one artifact, work, item or book that you feel really stands out as a jewel in the crown of the Rite that readers might not have heard of before? ADH: That’s tough. I believe that Esoterika is such a jewel. Before I published it, almost no one knew that Pike had written a book on Blue Lodge symbolism, since there were only two handwritten copies in the world. Of course, Morals and Dogma is a masterpiece of an anthology on comparative religion and philosophy. The 20 years I spent reverse-engineering the text, and the 4000 notes I put in my published annotated edition taught me a hell of a lot along the way. It’s quite remarkable when read with the notes, if I can flatter myself for a moment.

I know that may surprise some people, but the Mason I respect most is Giles F. Yates (1799-1859), of Schenectady and Albany, who was once a member of our Supreme Council, but later transferred to the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction eventually becoming Grand Commander. Yates was indefatigable. He revived Francken’s Lodge of Perfection, authored the first Scottish Rite Monitor, wrote the first ritual revisions of the Scottish Rite, wrote an etymological study of its secret words, and pushed J.J.J. Gourgas to revive the Scottish Rite in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction following the Morgan affair. He was an antiquarian, and built the Schenectady Lyceum and Academy which future President Chester A. Arthur attended. There’s much more I could say about Bro. Yates, but let me sum it up by saying he was an amazing man and Mason. His personal motto was prodesse quam conspici (accomplish rather than be conspicuous). _______ The RMM would like to thank Bros. Greg Stewart and Arturo de Hoyos for allowing republishing of this interview. Find the original online at:


http://www.freemasoninformation. com/2013/12/a-interview-with-arturodehoyos/

GS: One last question, who is the person who influenced you the most? ADH: Masonically, it’s not Albert Pike.


FIGURE 1 – Horoscope for 10:42 p.m., December 30, 2009, Denver, Colorado 60

Rocky Mountain Mason


o name something is to grasp it, to understand it and contextualize it. In the book of Genesis we read that God brought before Adam all creatures to receive a name, that he named them according to their natures.

A name and the named are linked. A name embodies, symbolically, the nature of its object. Names are thus vincula1 to the higher perceptions. Modern man makes much use of names, beyond even the simple words of quotidian conversation; in fact all science can be reduced to a single commonality – the act of naming. Naming something contextualizes it; it allows the mind to hold it, to see it and examine it. Thus, naming something defines it. Quark. Golgi body. Encephalitis. These are the names we choose through identification – assembled logically from fragments and meanings – and indeed they inform the construct and argot of language. (The names we don’t choose are perhaps the more curious – our birth name, for example, or the title bestowed upon us by another.) It is for this reason God cannot be named. Like the physicists of the contemporary age, ancient man also made use of names to herald higher consciousness, instill wisdom and establish understanding. From the perspective of an older worldview, names and words were the vehicles of speech – a creative act which set humans distinct as the sum of all natures. Indeed, language contains in it’s infinite expression the totality of existence. Man is the speaking animal, and with his power of naming, he brings all into existence through definition. This is much like the creation of the cosmos. In the beginning was the word.... But the purpose of this article is not to discuss the philosophy of man. Rather, it is to demonstrate an ancient method of naming according to the nature of the object at hand. We use the word “object” both in the phenomenal and noumenal sense – the thing itself, and the thing as it is perceived – but also in the abstract, as in the object of one’s intention. To demonstrate this, we will discuss naming an angel of a particular time. At the same time we will come to understand why 1. Latin, vincula, Nominative plural of Vinculum, a bond or chain. Rocky Mountain Mason

angels have been associated with unfurling the canopy of time across the universal expanse, and why every moment is ‘ruled’ by, what we shall term, its corresponding intelligence. We will also inference the numerical significance alluded to by Pythagoras when he said, “the universe is made by number.” To begin. The movements of the planets have long been taken to exemplify the cycles of time, that ever-changing movement which never repeats itself but marks uniqueness in every moment. The stars, far from radiating causes, rather embody them – such that the small world of man can be understood by the larger world in which he moves. The planets’ movements are like the punctuation marks in this sentence, they delimit clauses, and bring the observer (through the medium and necessity of time) to a singular conclusion. But they are not, themselves, the author. If we take a particular time and place and erect a horoscope we can discern the name of the object at hand, under the moment, reflecting its cause. A horoscope is much like the image of the Sun upon the ocean. There are then many ways to draw letters out of the chart. The Arabs used the five Hylegical2 places, the degree of the Ascendant, Sun, Moon, Part of Fortune and preceding syzygy (full or new moon). The Jews used the four cardinal points. There are still other ways, depending on the level of the name to be discerned. Typically, we place the letters of the Hebrew alphabet throughout the zodiac, starting at the first degree of Aries, repeating the sequence as necessary, until we come full circle to the 30th degree of Pisces. For any particular chart, and depending on which points we elect, we will draw out a number of letters, in a certain order, specific to the moment. These, added with the appropriate suffix (–iel or –iah in Hebrew is common3), will 2. A bastardization of the Arabic Hilaj, meaning “giver of life”, incurred during medieval translations of Arabic texts (themselves the translations and preservations of older Greek texts destroyed during the dark ages). 3. These suffixes make the name an appellation of the divine – El, being Ancient One (as in Elohim, El Shaddai, etc.) and Iah being the name of the third sefira Binah, and the first half of the Tetragrammaton.

give us the appropriate appellation. Lets take an example: The minute of 10:42 pm, December 30, 2009 in Denver Colorado. A horoscope for this “space-time” is shown in Figure 1. The five Hylegical places are: The Ascendant is 22º VIRGO 13’ The Sun is at 9º CAPRICORN 40’ The Moon is at 1º CANCER 49’ The Part of Fortune4 is at 0º ARIES 04’ The previous syzygy was the New Moon, at 24º SAGITTARIUS 39’ To find the name we draw the letters from their corresponding degrees. Starting with Aleph (‫ )א‬at the first degree of Aries, we assign letters, in order, through the 30th degree of Pisces. Thus, the letters are set forth as shown in Table 1. The name, with the suffix “iel” is therefore ‫ קצדאאאל‬which can be contracted to ‫ קצדאל‬or “Quatzadiel”. The number for which is 205 (with suffix), or 196 (from table), or 225 (final form). We now determine the Almuten Figuris5, the “Lord of the Chart”. In this example we will use the same Hylegical places. The Almuten Figuris is determined by summing the essential dignities6 of the planets for each of the chosen points. We use a weighted point system to describe the relative strengths each planet would have at these places. These numbers aren’t fixed in stone, they merely give preference to the more powerful dignity. Thus sign rulership 4. To calculate the Part of Fortune, as this is a night chart, we take the arc from the Moon to the Sun, or the longitudinal distance from 1º CANCER 49’ to 9º CAPRICORN 40’, or 187º 51’. Adding this to the Ascendant brings us to 0º ARIES 04’ 5. Another Latinization of the Arabic Al-Mubtaazz, meaning “the conqueror”. Thus Almuten Figuris means, literally “Conqueror of the figure (or chart)”. 6. Essential dignity is the positioning of the planet in zodiacal longitude, relevant to points which augment or diminish the planetary nature. Thus Mars in Aries is an essential dignity (by sign). Using a musical analogy you can think of this as the planet’s pitch. Essential dignity is different than accidental dignity, or the position of the planet in the houses. To extend the musical analogy, accidental dignity is like a planets amplitude, for example a planet rising is “louder” than a planet cadent at the cusp of the 12th house. 61



Ascendant Sun

23rd º f 10th º j

Moon Part of Fortune

2nd º d 1st º a


25th º i

Hebrew Letter

‫ק‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ד‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬



100 90

“Qof ” “Tzaddi”

4 1

“Daleth” “Aleph”



TABLE 1 – Letters Keyed from the Five Hylegical Places

Sign (5) Ascendant

C G Moon B Part of Fortune E Syzygy F Sun

Exaltation (4)

Triplicity (3)

C E -


A -

Te r m (2)



*These are the Ptolemaic Terms, not the Egyptian Terms.

Face (1)


TABLE 2 – Almutens of the Five Hylegical Places


‫ﬠולמים‬ ‫קוץ‬ ‫צוק‬

“Olamim” “Qotz” “Tzoq”

Ages, worlds Thorn Narrowness, oppression


‫הר‬ ‫אדר‬ ‫אבאר‬

“Har” “Adar” “Agares”

Mountain 6th month of Jewish calendar Second Goetic demon

TABLE 3 – Gematric Correspondences to the Name (Final Form omitted)

(for example, Mercury in Virgo) is 5 points (the strongest), Exaltation (for example Sun in Aries) 4 points, Triplicity (for example Moon in an Earth sign at night) 3 points, Term (or bound) 2 points, and Face (or decant) 1 point. The points are relative, and allow us to asses the relative strength of the rulerships to determine the Almuten for those particular places. For example, as Mercury rules Virgo by sign, and the 23rd degree of Virgo ascends, Mercury receives 5 points at the Ascendant. Virgo also exalts Mercury, so Mercury receives another 4 points. Virgo is an earth sign, under the Moon’s dominion by night (Triplicity rulership), so the Moon receives 3 points at the Ascendant. And so on, for each of the points. The planet with the most dignities across these points, then, is the Almuten Figuris. Thusly performed, the planets 62

influence over the Hylegical places are: Saturn 10 Jupiter 15 Mars 15 Sun 4 Venus 1 Mercury 10 Moon 12 Thus the spirit is fiery7, and under the dominion of Jupiter (Zadkiel) and Mars (Samael). Returning to the name, as generated previously, we find through gematria, associations with words as shown in Table 3 (additional words can be found – our 7. Jupiter and Mars are both fiery in nature – Jupiter is “hot and moist”, Mars “hot and dry”. Jupiter rules the fire triplicity by night. Mars is the domicile ruler of Aries.

purpose here is exemplary, and not by any means definitive). The names, which reduce to 7, also have a strong correspondence with ‫ האא‬the 26th name of the Shem Ha-Mephorash8. “Ages and worlds” are a certain narrowing of space and time, and a mountain is something similar. Thus we can see something of the Archon in this spirit. A thorn is distinctly martial. So we will place this spirit, at least for the purposes of this illustration, with consideration to the Almuten Figuris, under the dominion of Mars. (Note also that the horoscope of the time is filled with hard aspects - squares and opposition - athough Jupiter lends a beneficial trine to the Moon.) While there are many ways to make 8. The Great Name of God of 72 letters, derived Kabbalistically from Exodus 14: verses 19 through 21. Rocky Mountain Mason

a sigil, through to single digits. We the lettering of the place a circle at the name, the following origin, a half circle at method is useful and the end. typical of astrological The next couple operations. It of examples include should suffice as an the number 7, which example by which the both 196 and 205 imaginative Brother reduce to. The sigil may find innovation, on the left ends with FIGURE 2 – Qamea of Mars, with 7, the one on the right as desired. Because we have select sigil’s superimposed upon begins with 7. In the allotted the spirit numerical pathways, thus the sigil example on the right becomes encoded with the name. under Mars, we will we’ve placed another 9 circle, this one filled, use the Qamea of on the 1 because the Mars (see FIGURE 3). last two letters are aleph, or 1, twice. We The Hebrew form is replaced by the could have, perhaps, ended on the 10. numbers. The first sigil we can draw is in Further, we could have permutated the the order of the numbers as drawn from name through Agrippa’s Right Table of the the original table, reducing as necessary Commutations10 to use a more secret or 9. The magic square of the planet. Each row, column and diagonal adds up to the same number. In the case of Mars that number is 65. The sum of all numbers in the square is 325. Rocky Mountain Mason

hidden name. Further, we could have used the Qamea of Jupiter as well as, or instead of, the Qamea of Mars. There are many options depending on the intention at hand. But you get the idea. To conclude, the angel Quatsdiel, or Katzdeiah, is a name of the angel associated with this time in Denver. Likewise, applied to a natal horoscope, the name becomes associated with the Guardian. The angel has – or more accurately is – power, and these signs, sigils, letters and numbers are resonances of it. They describe its nature. Indeed, they are made of it. In a way, naming an angel brings it into existence. It has always been, but once named it comes forward and is known. There is great power here. Be gentle, and it will reveal itself to you. This example could be for a birth, a rite, a building, a marriage. What have you. Each place and time is unique: In this example the ascendant will change continuously, and across space, such that in the state of Colorado alone thousands of intelligences hold dominion at the same time. Likewise, in the same place the movement of time can be likened to the changing of names that appear in like manner. From the passing of each minute, to the great ages, we can easily see how angels have been associated with unfurling time, and how the quires gain dominion over certain sequences. For, between Moons are ruling intelligences. Between years. Between great conjunctions. Between Great Years. And so on. Ad infinitum. These are the links in the Great Chain of Being. As each letter is also numerical, we gain a glimpse of the matrix which informs all creation. Four minutes later, for example, and the number of the moment has changed to 296 (8) (this flux is more pronounced using the points of the four angles). Although these numbers are indeed integers, their seemingly random interplay creates a cipher which transcends rationality. At best, we can garner but a glimpse, frozen in a word ­­– the fleck of a syllable in the great, ineffable name, which word fulfills the cosmos.


10. See The Three Books of Occult Philosophy, Llewelyn Source Book Series Edition, edited and annotated by Donald Tyson, Book III, Chapter 25, page 541) 63

In The Shadow of Notre Dame

700 Years later A pilgrimmage to the site of jacques demolay’s Martyrdom By S.K. Ben Williams


his year marks the sevenhundredth anniversary of the martyrdom of our Grand Master, Jacques DeMolay, who was burnt at the stake in Paris, March 18, 1314.

It’s a tragic story of injustice and intrigue, one with which you are undoubtedly familiar. Grand Master Jacques DeMolay had confessed under torture to the crimes of heresy, prosecuted by the Inquisition. He had already been absolved of these crimes by Cardinal Berenger Fredoli in 1308,1 but he was still a prisoner. Facing lifelong imprisonment and the impious destruction of his Order, he recanted his confession in the shadow of Notre Dame Cathedral, on the morning of March 18, 1314, in front of a crowd that had gathered to hear him. We might imagine King Philip IV had hoped DeMolay would confess again, this time publicly, that his self-professed guilt would ring out across the world and exonerate Philip of misappropriating the Order’s properties. Instead, Jacques DeMolay and Geoffrey de Charnay, Preceptor of Normandy, admitted only the crime of acceding to forced confession – they declaimed their innocence, that the Order was spotless, and accused of malicious lies. Quickly, no doubt, they were shuffled off, as fast as Philip’s henchmen could carry them – the crowd was cheering. By sunrise, both Templars would be dead. The fires of orthodoxy were lain at their feet, and kindled that very evening. In the early hours, before the sun broke above the river Seine, anonymous admirers swam out to the mudflats where the embers still smoked and collected the bones. A telling tale of medieval greed and corruption. Of the abuses and lusts of 1. See the Chinon Parchment, discovered 2001 in the Vatican Secret Archives by Barbara Frale, translation by A. A. Grishin in The Knights Templar Absolution, The Chinon Parchment and the History of the Poor Knights of Christ, pg. 129. Rocky Mountain Mason

power. Yet a shining example of fortitude and principle, of enduring truth above all things resplendent – from those ashes a phoenix would rise and, 700 years later, the name of Jacques DeMolay remains the stuff of legend. But remember, this stuff really happened.

King Philip IV, King of France, called by the moniker “Phillip the Fair” not for any inference of justness on his part but because of his complexion and the color of his hair, had racked up a fair debt to the Temple. His vanity was costly. He’d inherited a debt ridden kingdom after his father’s campaigns in Aragon, yet he attempted princely expansion against the English, and sustained lordly living above his people. He maintained military pretensions against Flanders. In 1294 he began a war when he deceived his brother-in-law, the English king, Edward I (who was also Duke of Aquitaine) and expropriated English lands in Gascony. He instated an overweening bureaucracy to automate his government between factions of tiered administration. He borrowed from everyone. The debts piled up.

So he arrested Jews, and seized their assets. He expelled over one-hundredthousand of them from his kingdom in the Great Exile of 1306. He expelled the Lombardi bankers from France when their loans to him came due. He plundered the Church. He married his daughter to the Prince of Wales to smooth things over across the Channel. And he debased his currency to extract more gold from circulation until, confronted with diminishing value in the Parisian medium of exchange, riots broke out in the streets. It was the summer of 1306, one year before the arrest of the Templars, and Philip the Fair was running out of options. For nine days he hid in the Templar’s Commandery at Paris as an angry mob flailed distemper across the cobblestones, through the marketplaces, up to the very walls of the palace. There, in the Commandery, with the consequences of financial mismanagement and paucity outside; here, amidst the scintillation of gold within (the Paris Commandery was a principal drop-off for wealthy merchants and pilgrims en route to the Holy Land) Philip’s eyes must have gleamed. There was plenty of money to fund his desires. He had just to lay his hands on it. Some history is important. Philip had already quarreled with Pope Boniface VIII, the Templars lawful sole superior, and, in 1296, was condemned by Boniface for his lavish appetites. Threats of excommunication were made. Tensions mounted between Paris and Rome. Across Europe, monarchs were reeling from the weight of the Crusades, and tempers were high. The Pope was unpopular; rumors persisted of his sodomy and simony. Overexpenditure to fund the Crusades had everyone up against each other’s borders. The militaristic Orders, with their vast networks and vows of fealty to the Church, were falling out of favor – they were symbols of the Crusades, of the recent loss of Acre, of the vast, uncountable expense. They were a state within the state. Fearing increasing losses from his dioceses across Europe, Boniface VIII issued a Bull, Clericis laicos, February 5, 65

1296, forbidding transference of Church property to the crown. Philip retaliated by Royal Decree forbidding export of goods from France. He banished the Papal tax collectors back to Rome. The divergence between temporal and spiritual dominion had begun, and the Templars were detracted in the middle of it. Boniface capitulated – he even Canonized Philip’s grandfather, Louis IX, to make a point – but the damage was done. In March, 1303, Guillaume de Nogaret, Chancellor at the French Royal Court, Philip’s favorite confident, set himself up in the Louvre and read a list of charges against the Pope declaring trial to depose the Pontiff. Empowered by the king to do whatever was necessary, Nogaret traveled to Italy and united with the Colonna family, rivals of the Gaetani (Boniface VIII’s family). On September 7 they marched 1,600 men into Anagni and abducted the Pontiff from his residence there. They mistreated him, and prepared to take him to France. But the people rose up to support Boniface VIII (the Colonna had taken to plundering), and Nogaret, suddenly imperiled, released the Pope and fled. That October, Nogaret was saved when Boniface VIII died, and the head of the Dominicans, Benedict XI was elected to St. Peter’s chair. But Benedict’s reign was short. He died suddenly, inexplicably, after a mere eight months in office. Poisoning was alleged, and Guillaume de Nogaret – who happened to be at the Papal palace at the time of Benedict’s death, demanding absolution for the King over the feud with Boniface VIII (which had been denied to him) – seemed suspiciously close. A conclave ensued for eleven long months. By 1305 Philip’s designs were realized when a Frenchman, Bertrand de Got, was elected Pope Clement V. There were riots in Rome.2 2. See Clement V, by Sophia Menache, Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pg. 21. Upon Clement’s coronation at Lyons, under direction of Philip, a wall swelled with bystanders collapsed killing, among others, John II, Duke of Brittany; to the medieval mind an inauspicious omen regarding the new Papacy. Interestingly, the famous poet Dante Alighieri mentions Clement V in his Divine Comedy, saying he “has made a sewer of my sepulcher”, (Divine Comedy, Paradise, c. XXVII, vv.22-7. Cited in Clement V., by Sophia Menache, pg. 20). Incidentally, Dante placed Pope Boniface 66

By 1306, when the masses compelled him to seek sanctuary in the Temple Commandery, Philip was at a fork in his quest for temporal power over Europe. On the one hand, he was out of cash. On the other, he had a Pope directly under his control and avenues to power were opening up – if he could just cover his debts, maintain his position, and assure his ascendency.... The plans he had set down to unite the military orders into one potent force, to be directed by the French Crown of course (along with their considerable assets), were becoming possible. But the Templars were resistant. They had even refused his solicitation for membership in 1305. And he owed them money. Lots of money. And so it was that, with the assistance of Guillaume de Nogaret,3 the conspiracy was hatched and that fateful day, Friday, October 13th, 1307, dawned. The Templars were simultaneously arrested, and detained so the Inquisition could work their magic and determine if these allegations of heresy (including sodomy, witchcraft, worshiping idols, denouncing Christ, debasing the crucifix, among other niceties) were true. Friday 13th would live in infamy, evermore. For seven years our Grand Master Jacques DeMolay was held captive, until that day in March, 1314 (the exact day is disputed), when the famous recantation of his confession was publicly heard, when the fires were prepared on the mudflats in the midst of the Seine – to condemn the men on unconsecrated ground – where Jacques DeMolay and Geoffrey De Charnay met their fate with a grim determination and stoicism that still echoes through the ages. It is said that DeMolay denounced the King and the Pope for their iniquitous treachery, that they would both join him before the council of Heaven to answer for their crimes within the year. Indeed, both the King and the Pope died within twelve VIII in the Eighth ring of Hell, as well. 3. Of note is the fact that, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Nogaret attained the title (and pension) of Keeper of the Seal on September 22, 1307, the same day the Royal Council (of which Nogaret was a member) issued the warrant authorizing the arrest of the Templars (to be effected October 13th). See the “Nogaret” entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia at: cathen/11089a.htm

months time.4 Singlehandedly, the greatest Order of Medieval times, that had supplied fierce and uncompromising soldiers to shed blood in the Holy Land for nearly two hundred years, was suppressed and destroyed and – evidence suggests – for no other reason than to sate the appetites of an avaricious monarch and a wily Pope. Moreover, according to the “Templar origination” theory inspirational to speculative Masonry,5 the unjust suppression of the order caused the flight to Scotland (and elsewhere), engendered a necessity for secrecy, initiated infiltration into the operative Craft, and thus birthed the beginnings of a secret society tasked with works of charity, benevolence, probity, and justice. The magnitude of this moment in the history of our Order cannot be overstated. So it was that, in the latter part of February earlier this year, I had the pleasure of discussing the impending anniversary of this momentous occasion with a well-informed Brother at South Denver Lodge No. 93, off of Broadway, in Denver, Colorado. With a sparkle in his eye, and a low voice bristled with wonder, our worthy Brother said he knew of the exact spot where Jacques DeMolay was burnt – that he had visited it, many years ago. My curiosity piqued. You see, the infamous “Iles des Juifs” no longer exists. In the time of Jacques DeMolay, the Ile des Juifs (which means “Island of the Jews”, by the way) was a series of shifting mudflats; unconsecrated ground where heretics were burnt, it was new land forming in the middle of the Seine – aborted land, unfinished and smelly – just west of the Ile de la Citee, that large island where Notre Dame sits, the center of Medieval Paris. If you wanted to burn people, and condemn them to the fires of hell for an eternity, few places were better. It was proximal (everyone could take note). Surrounded by water (those thatched roofs were flammable). There 4. Philip the Fair died on November 29, 1307, and Clement V on April 20. The Trial of the Templars, by Malcolm Barber, Cambridge University Press. 1978. Third printing, 2010. pg. 282. 5. See Born in Blood, John J. Robinson, 1989, for a cogent example of this theory in originating the Craft. Rocky Mountain Mason

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: Statue of King Henry IV at the juncture of Pont Neuf and the Ile de la Citee from the North Bank of the Seine. View of the westernmost tip of the Ile de La Citee, West of Pont Neuf, from the bridge. In the time of Jacques DeMolay it was but a series of shifting mudflats, known infamously as the Ile des Juifs – the Isle of the Jews – burning grounds for heretics. View of the idylic garden where King Henry IV famously chased tail. A couple hundred years before, it was a site of doom and damnation. Henry III had it built up as shoring for Pont Neuf, the “new bridge” connecting the Ile de la Citee to the North and South banks.

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CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: Stairs descend through the centuries to open through a pair of coffin - shaped doors. The plaque between the doors, visible on the island, reads: “At this site Jacques DeMolay, the last Grand Master of the Templars, was burnt on the 18th of March, 1314.�


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was a boat ride required (like traveling across the river Styx, perhaps, to meet Cerberus at the gates of Hades), the mud readily took the upended stake, and it cut a stark and striking image – bones would surely be visible against the black riverine deposits, birds picking at the charred flesh must leap at your approach, and take to the air in a flurry of black wings. Cold and wet, clammy with whorls of mist.... Yes, a perfect scene to instill terror, to meet the Reaper’s blade. But in the 16th Century, King Henry III used these mudflats as shoring to bolster Pont Neuf, a new bridge spanned to connect the Ile de la Citee with the north and south banks of the Seine. It was quite the feat of engineering – and the Ile des Juifs was built up and connected ABOVE: The cab driver’s name was to the western end of the Ile de la Citee. Solomon, and he was from Ethiopia. I The Ile des Juifs disappeared: a grotesque was ready to leave the country - the sooner of history readily forgotten, had not such the better – I thought.... injustice been perpetrated there to inspire, well, almost a millennium of speculation. Armed with this new information, with some quick research online back at home later that evening, I resolved to visit the site, stand there on the 700th anniversary of Jacques DeMolay’s death as close to the spot as I could approximate, and contemplate the moment in quiet reflection. I was also curious to see who else might show up. And so I bought a ticket and scheduled four days in Paris. I found a hotel that was affordable (relatively) and proximal to Pont Neuf. When the night for my departure arrived, I bundled my stuff into a cab and took to Denver International Airport with anticipation. I had Priceline-d my tickets, so had been booked to flights with ungodly hours and an eight hour layover in Chicago. It was 2:20 a.m. as the minicab departed east, down Evans Ave. Coincidentally, the cab driver’s name was Solomon... and he was from Ethiopia. I took this omen with a smile – I was ready to leave the country... the sooner the better, I thought. Over twenty-four hours later, after ABOVE: Denver International Airport is sundry naps snatched between gates at quiet at 3 a.m. O’Hare, I arrived in Paris early Sunday morning. There were some daring chicanes through the narrow streets by an enthusiastic Algerian, and, despite the considerable language barrier and a few white knuckle turns, I made it to Rocky Mountain Mason

the hotel on Rue Jean Lantier, right across from Pont Neuf. It was smaller than I expected. Slinging my bags in the small room (the price began to make sense all of a sudden), I went out into the clear sunlight of those European latitudes, that golden, low-slung sunlight that has been an inspiration to Renoir, Monet, Gauguin, too many others, and my favorites of the Salon des Refuses. It was a beautiful spring morning, clear skies. And in Paris, blossoms were on the trees. I took my bearings. I walked down by the river. Even though I grew up in England, it’d been a while since I’d been in Paris. The history of it all – shining softly in the sun – was made all the more sharp by the newfound purpose I had assumed. I made straight way to Pont Neuf. Close to the juncture with the Ile de la Citee is a large statue of Henry IV, astride a large horse. Padlocks have been slung upon the railing here; apparently young lovers lock their hearts together by closing padlocks along the railings that gird this part of the bridge. I looked out, across the water. The city was awakening. The sounds of Europe were fresh in contradistinction. It’s strange to contemplate, but it’s true – every country has its sound, every city its melody, and the melody of Paris was muted that day by the flats of water and the softness of the sandstones. The new-green of Spring was vibrant. I was alone, in a foreign country. I didn’t speak the language well. I felt conspicuous and out of place. And yet somehow, I felt home. Behind the statue, a narrow set of stairs descended through the centuries, and opened west to a pair of coffin-shaped doors. An idyllic garden came into view, fresh flowers ringed its perimeter. A man was asleep on a bench – but he didn’t seem homeless. I descended a series of steps, behind me a plaque confirmed this was the place, and to my right, in front of the gates into the garden, a small totem bore a similar message. Oddly, the dates commemorated in each were different – one said March 18th, the other March 11th. (There has been some discrepancy among scholars as to the precise date – so perhaps this oddity was fitting.) I believe the 18th is the most commonly cited, the date preferred by most. It’s the one I had selected. And it was just two days away. I walked the path that bounds the 69

peninsula, sensitive of my feelings. As corny as it sounds, this was something of a pilgrimage – I had come to pay my respects to the memory of this man – and the scene impressed me. I explored, took a few photos and left – ready for Tuesday. My plan was to be there at dawn and remain until sunset – the time of his death. That night I attended mass at Notre Dame. I’m not a Catholic, but I didn’t think the Church would mind. (At least not anymore.) The liberal use of Frankincense sustained a celestial image. Then, to bed for a restful sleep indeed. It had been more than thirty-six hours, or so, since leaving. And I was tired. Monday was overcast and colder. I spent the day lazily. I walked around the Ile de la Citee, took a visit to Saint Chappelle to see the stained glass my father noted. I awoke on Tuesday morning early, a couple of hours before sunrise. I had brought with me a replica costume of a Knights Templar tunic from the movie Kingdom of Heaven, made of authentic 70

materials, quite heavy. I had purchased a large sword from Toledo Steel, too, but at the advisement of a Brother had undertaken to research French laws regarding carrying swords in public spaces and determined it best to leave it behind at home. The French are quite strict, apparently, when it comes to carrying large swords around town. I bundled up my tunic, and walked out into the hour before dawn. Moving quietly through those medieval streets with purpose, in the quiet of a sleeping city, before that grey half-light of dawn broke beneath the clouds, I couldn’t help but feel a twinge of excitement. No one was about. A car or two, perhaps. The hour had come. The city was mine. I crossed over Quai de la Megisserie to Pont Neuf. In the recess along the stairway down to those two coffin-shaped doors – one for Jacques DeMolay, the other for Geoffrey de Charnay, I thought – I donned the tunic and cloak. I walked

out into the early morning silence in the cold damp, down by the river. At first I stood by the stairs. I closed my eyes, and prayed. I said a few words into the shadowy expanse. I wondered where DeMolay would have actually stood on those last hours. After fifteen, maybe twenty minutes, I walked to the westernmost end of the island. I felt sure Jacques DeMolay would have faced East, towards Notre Dame. I stood there, the line of the island cutting divergent paths above the black Seine, and I prayed. I sang a hymn. I said more words. In my minds eye I saw a small wooden boat, the men in chains ascend. To the mudflats. I saw the vertical stakes against the darkening world. Here, on the mudflats. I heard the chain clang-clang-clang, like the slow methodic hammer impounding the damned. It was conjured by my imagination, inspired by something I’d read no doubt, but it all seemed quite real. By 8 a.m. I was feeling the cold – that clammy river cold that drips out of Rocky Mountain Mason

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: Pilgrims line up to throw roses into the Seine. Throughout the day anonymous admirers appeared and dropped off flowers. The wreath laid by the International Order of Demolay. On the floor behind it, a picture of JDM and a plaque, in French, commemorating the 700th anniversary. A French Templar gives an oration.

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the mist. The air was thick with it. And standing still for several hours is hard work, for some reason. I have no idea how those bear-hatted guards at Buckingham Palace do it each day. Well, I thought, there’s been enough suffering on this island already. Maybe I’ll get some breakfast. I waited another twenty minutes or so, stilling the mind. Then, doffing the costume in the stairway and curling it up under one arm (it really was quite heavy) I made my way to the Cafe de Pont Neuf on the North Bank to reassess my situation, and warm up. After all, I had come to do what I had planned. Was there any reason to stand there all day long? The whole thing had been beautiful already. Aside from a riverboat captain – driving one of those long flat barges up and down the Seine – who made knightly gestures at me through the window of his cabin, like fencing or something – no one had seen me. I wiled an hour and a half over cafe au lait (numerous cups) and a ham and cheese omelet. It was a ponderous morning. I had resolved to head back to the island for a short time, and then go to the hotel. It was nearing 10 a.m. upon my return, and by now a few other people had shown up. They were busy fitting a large banner to the stairwell wall, visible from the garden. It said something in Italian – some Christian confraternity of Knights Templar, or something. I watched bemused as Italian words rang out, orders rolled against the morning. It was like a whole new world. A number of men and women were wearing mantles of some other Templar order – this Christian confraternity – so I put back on my costume and stood in silence out of the way. A man came up and shook my hand – he didn’t speak English, but I surmised he was in charge of the Italian group. He kissed me on both cheeks. That’s right, I thought, the Continent. Sometime later Americans appeared. The International Order of DeMolay had brought a contingent of youth from around the world to commemorate the event. It was nice to be able to talk to people – American Masons – and enjoy the moment. Successively throughout the day different people ambled by. Some were from Switzerland. A couple were from Mexico. A Marquis from France – who in broken English proclaimed direct 72

ABOVE: International Order of DeMolay members strike a pose. BELOW: International Order of DeMolay members and Officers at the site.

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CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: Mike Salazar, Grand Master of the International Order of DeMolay, receives a certificate from an Italian group of Templars. My hotel on Rue Jean Lantier with the smallest shower I have ever seen. Robert Laing (right), International Master Councilor, and Christopher LaBaw (left), International Congress Secretary, both Officers of DeMolay International, gave stirring orations. Margo Volo, a playwright from Milan working on a Templar play, the Opera Templaria, who like your Editor had flown to Paris solo for the occasion, stands near the site assumed to be most proximal to the actual place of DeMolay’s death.

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descendency from the founding families of the Order in 1118 – did not want his picture taken. It was a fun day. The Italians had brought a CD player and periodically played some hymn with the Templar motto prominent. Thirty, maybe fifty people, from around the globe, had descended to this island in the Seine to commemorate one man, dead, but not forgotten. A small pile of flowers was growing on the steps under the plaque on the wall. Hour after hour, people would come down, drop off a rose, say, or a lily, and walk back into anonymity. It was fascinating. There was beauty in it. To live respected, and die regretted. It seems fitting to me that some sort of monument be erected here. Nothing over-the-top and conspicuous. But something. The plaque is too little – I remember this Frenchman, jogging in the afternoon, came up to me, and noticing my perplexity in response to his question, asked in broken English what was going on. “The music?” He said, pointing at the CD player on the ground. I pointed at the plaque on the wall. “Mon Dieu,” he said. “I have run here for ten years – you know, I’ve never seen this....” And away he went. Some monument would be fitting. It would render the memory of this man in stone, and mark the spot – and what he stood for – for future generations. Among the crowd that gathered that day were three English ex-pats, with wine-stained teeth. Each was a professional tour guide – they had to be in their late 40s, early 50s – and they made a living guiding tours around Paris for English speaking tourists. Since the Da Vinci Code they’d given plenty of “Templar” tours and, of course, this site is one of the stops. Imagine a small pyramid, say, unfinished like the one on the back of the dollar bill, maybe a glass capstone wherein the All Seeing Eye becomes visible, with names of the Grand Commanderies under the jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment carved on the sides. On the front a respectful statement, perhaps in Latin (English in Paris would be garish) honoring Jacques DeMolay. Or a cross, maybe. Or something else – a broken column, even. It doesn’t matter what it is, only that it is. Like the final dot in the ellipsis, that closure to an unfinished sentence.... 74

ABOVE: A group of Frenchmen, who kept to themseves, claimed special descendency from the families founding the order in 1118. BELOW: This gap in the cobblestones, towards the westernmost point of the island, offers a perfect site for a small stone monument erected to the memory of our Grand Master Jacques DeMolay.

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Wouldn’t that be cool? It wouldn’t be hard to do. And there’s a perfect spot already prepared – a square break in the cobblestones where, I imagine, a tree was recently removed. It really wouldn’t be hard to do. Obviously the City of Paris would have to be contacted and a request made. Should the City be amenable – and I think they would be amenable, judging by what is already on that island and the objects around the Louvre (which bring a steady flow of tourists to the nearby shops) – a fundraising initiative could be undertaken among the Grand Commanderies to pay for the monument. The International Order of DeMolay could get involved (and judging from conversations at the site, they would like to). Perhaps even an installation ceremony could be arranged, whereby Knights Templar from around the world, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment, could convene, say, on the island, line Pont Neuf, and perform a simple ceremony marking the occasion in people’s memory for years to come? The aim, to install a small, tasteful, and enduring monument to the memory of Jacques DeMolay who, like our Grand Master Hiram Abiff before him, was slain before the Temple was complete. As the dusk slowly fell, after various personages had given their comments to the small assembly, we went our separate ways, back to our civilian lives. I returned to the U.S. and my over-piled desk. Things quickly became the hectic rhythm of contemporary business. But for a day – a spring day in France – a bunch of strangers, unable to communicate with each other, unknown to each other, from all corners of the world, were united in common humanity by the principle of one man. Jacques DeMolay would have smiled, I thought. His work was good.


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Work of a


rothers, unfortunately for many, Masonry is a trivial pursuit, a club to be joined so that a man can get away from his wife for a while. A place where he can go to gossip about others, discuss building maintenance and other inconsequential things.

Such a Brother looks forward to going to meetings where no real work is accomplished other than, perhaps, voting on a scholarship, for example, or some other item that took him no more effort than the raising of his right hand. This is what Masonry is to too many of our Brethren, and I believe that if this is the type of Masonry they want, there are many, many lodges that will comfortably cater to their needs, and that is o.k. For others of us, Masonry is much more than a trivial pursuit. It’s a psychologically and spiritually transformative experience that we need to make us better men. To us, Masonry is a place where we are free to work on ourselves, as our allegory of the rough ashlar and the application of the square and compasses illustrate, and some of us take those illustrations seriously. We understand that we have not already perfected ourselves, and we understand that the titles and accolades we have received are nice, but are actually little more than a blind designed to keep us from the path of self-knowledge, that is‌


if we start to believe that we are really those titles. For us, we understand that Masonry is a branch of the Mystery Schools, and like them, Masonry too is an initiatic path. As Masonic travelers on the initiatic path, we have made an obligation to ourselves and to the GAOTU that we would work diligently to perfect ourselves. As in any initiatic path, we start out in or of the earth, and are expected to work up through the elements, subtly refining ourselves physically and spiritually as we progress through water, air, and eventually ending in fire. If you doubt this, then reread your EA, FC, and MM obligations paying particular attention to the part about the penalties and the elements alluded to therein. The only way that we, as Masonic initiates, can truly hope to reach the sublime degree of a Master Mason in more than just words or titles, is for us to engage in hard work. This hard work not only encompasses becoming more educated about Masonry, nature, life, and other areas outlined specifically in the FC lectures, but more importantly, it encompasses knowing ourselves. This is not accomplished by going to Lodge and discussing carpet swatches; this is accomplished by going to Lodge and becoming more educated about a specific topic. This education may be in the form of history, but it can and should also be in the

form of our symbology, or the seven liberal arts and sciences, or, dare I say it, about the esoteric meanings of Masonry. Whatever education a Lodge decides on, it must or should be balanced and be designed to help a brother in some facet of his life. The sad fact is brothers, that just because we received a fancy title, or just because a title or position has been given to us, does not mean that we have done the work required to warrant that title. This is especially the case in modern Freemasonry. Thus we see the root of much of the strife experienced in Masonry today. You see brothers, when we fail to learn, and when we stop growing because we begin to believe in our own misunderstandings, then we tend to fall into that well-laid trap set by our esteemed Past Masters. In our self-imposed blindness and narcissism, we begin to do things that, prior to those accolades being laid at our feet, we probably would have never thought of doing in the past. What happens here is that we start believing the lies of the ego; instead of remaining humble and thankful, keeping an eye on the checkered floor, we begin to walk in delusion. The result of believing the lies and ill-counsel of our egos is that we often experience considerable internal disharmony and general discord, and this will eventually spill into all facets of our lives. Many of us have experienced this, and

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by Bro. Rob Jones

some may even be experiencing it right now. But how do we avoid stepping onto this well laid minefield, how do we shut the ego up enough so that we can drag ourselves back onto the initiatic path of Masonry? The best way to avoid this trap is to “Know Thyself.” Unfortunately for the brother who is blinded by his own ego, this does not work so well, and all due to the constant ill-counsel of his ego. The ego will constantly tell the brother that it is not him that is wrong, he does not need to change; it is obviously everyone else who is wrong. If the brother is the one who is constantly at war with one faction or another, who is constantly buried in strife, who curses his other brothers for not seeing things the way he believes things should be, then perhaps that brother should reevaluate himself, his motivations and his goals, because I believe the goals of perpetuating strife, judging others, intolerance toward those who look, think, worship or act differently are not consistent with the overall goals of Masonry. But I could be wrong. Self-knowledge starts with each of us taking an inventory of ourselves. And if this has been done in the past, it should be done again and again, because none of us are the same as we were several years ago or even last year; at least I hope we are not. This personal inventory should delve into the root of our strengths and weaknesses, but not stop there. Once

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we have come up with a page or two of strengths and weaknesses we need to look at our biases and prejudices. You have none you say, well, are you sure that you have not dug deep enough or perhaps you are not being honest enough with yourself? I will leave that for you to answer. Finally you should look at what your hot buttons are, how they affect you and where they originated from. Once you have accomplished all of the above, I recommend you delve into the place where these traits originated and explore how you are what you are as a result of each of these. From there my brother, you will be able to begin to truly see yourself as the checkered pavement, but the checkered pavement with that gold emblazoned star affixed firmly in the middle of it. Once an initiate begins to be honest with himself, he can begin to be honest with others. Then when he can be honest with himself and others, he can begin to knock the chip off his shoulder and thereby begin to walk with the humility, uprightness and strength of a Mason vs. snarling and snapping at everyone he disagrees with as if he were a frightened, cornered little animal. The process mentioned above is the beginning of circumscribing our desires and keeping our passions within due bounds, it is beginning to walk that path of balance between the pillars Boaz and Jachin, or that of judgment and mercy.

This is only the start of the work that we as initiates have sworn to undertake. This is not easy, but it is part of the path to making good men better, and this happens with men of like desire, who are free from becoming persecuted by their fellow brothers who are less than motivated to do anything, let alone attempt to learn about and be honest with themselves. This is the work of all Masons. I would like to conclude that I believe there are Lodges for everyone, those who want to learn and strive to perfect their ashlars and those who would rather not. The beauty of Masonry, at least as I have discovered it, is that as Masons, irrespective of our likes and dislikes, we can and should be able to accept each brother’s differences of opinion and agree to disagree, without attacking each other. Oh, and for my brothers whose egos have become hurt and angry about what I have written, those who say you already know yourself well enough, or those of you who say you have already done the work, you probably need to do the “Work of a Mason” the most! Thank you for indulging me brothers.



Pope Francis I 78

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“My people are poor, and I am one of them.”


ur current Pope, the first Jesuit ever to ascend to St. Peter’s throne, was born Jorge Mario Bergoglio to Italian immigrant parents in Argentina, on December 17, 1936. He was trained as a chemist. Worked as a bouncer. And answered the call of the God in 1958 when he entered the Immaculada Concepcion Seminary, in Buenos Aires. The new millennium is an interesting time for the Catholic Church – as it struggles to redefine its place in the modern world against a hefty inertia of ancient tradition and dogma. Negative press from the sexual abuses committed by perfidious priests, the supposed cover-up, financial mismanagement at the Vatican Bank, among other terrestrial concerns, persist. And more and more people are searching for truth outside the church contradistinct the messy history of its dogmatic expansionism – but even science can’t answer the pressing questions. The world is changing. The world is needing. And Holy Mother Church is vying for a new image to jibe with the times. Francis might be the man for the job. He is already creating waves among the faithful – waves either constructive or deconstructive, depending on your perspective. He is a fresh face, relatively young, a man of few, well-chosen words, a literary man with an obvious intellect and an open heart willing to reject the pomp and ceremony so typical of his predecessors. He wields a metaphor effective to instill in the masses weighty ideas in good-natured epigrams. He seems to want to live up to the ways of Christ. And he’s popular. In 2005, after the conclave following the death of John Paul II, it came to light that Cardinal Bergoglio almost beat Cardinal Ratzinger to succeed the 265th Pope. Reporters from the Vatican discovered that Bergoglio received forty votes at the second ballot – the highest number of votes ever received for a South American Cardinal1 (although, we

1. See Pope Francis, His Life in His On Words by Francesca Ambrogetti and Sergio Rubin, 2010, pgs. xvii-xx. Rocky Mountain Mason

should remember, Bergoglio is of Italian extraction, despite the country of his birth – his family is Italian, his parents are both Italian, and his name, also, is Italian). If Bergoglio had not requested that those Cardinals voting for him instead direct their votes to Ratzinger, who was a close second, it is feasible that Bergoglio could have become Pope in 2005. He was already a favorite then. In the words of Sandro Magister, reporter for the Italian weekly, L’Espresso, Bergoglio would have won “in a landslide” if the Conclave had been convened but a couple of years earlier: Shy, reserved, of few words, he doesn’t move a finger to campaign, but that is exactly what is considered one of his great assets,” he wrote. “His austerity and frugality, along with his intense spiritual life, are the personal qualities that increasingly elevate him to be ‘popeworthy’.2 So when Pope Benedict the XVI stunned the world by announcing his resignation in 2013 (the last Pope to resign was Pope Gregory XII in 1415), Bergoglio was, perhaps, the obvious choice. And so, on March 13, with the planet Jupiter conjunct Alderberan, the star significant of the Archangel Michael, and a prime significator of Christianity during the Crusades 800 years ago (see sidebar), the white smoke plumed above the Sistine Chapel to announce that Pope Francis, the first of that name, had been elected to the Pontificate, to lead the Church into the new millennium. He started his Papacy with exemplary humility – paying his hotel bill in person and moving out of the Papal quarters (they were too lavish, he felt), to take up residency in the guest house. He has maintained a reputation for humility long before his election to the height of Catholic majesty. For example, his dwelling in Buenos Aires was small and modest (atypical of Cardinals before 2. Ibid. Pg. xix.

him). He did not have a driver, and used public transportation. He cooked his own meals.3 Interestingly, reports were heard from the Vatican that, much to the consternation of the Swiss Guard, Francis was sneaking out of the Vatican at night in plain clothes to distribute alms to the poor.4 Apparently something he had already gained a reputation for as Cardinal in Buenos Aires. This all sounds excellent indeed, and appears quite admirable and sincere. But what do we know about the man who is now Pope? Jorge Bergoglio was born in Flores, a middle class barrio in Buenos Aires, the eldest of five children. His father, Mario Jose Bergoglio fled Italy in 1929, apparently to escape the fascism of Mussolini and to reunite with family that had already moved to South America. Jorge Bergoglio’s mother, Regina, was born in Argentina, but was also of Italian extraction – both her parents were from Italy’s Piedmont region. She met Jorge’s father at Mass, at San Antonio chapel in Almagro, in 1934.5 Bergoglio attended a technical trade school, garnering a diploma in chemistry. He worked as a chemical technician in the food department of Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory. He reports receiving the call to join the church en route to meet some friends to celebrate students day, September 21. He was 17 years old. He went into a 3. See ‘El Jesuita,’ biography of Jorge Bergoglio, tells of Pope Francis’ humble beginnings in the church that he maintained throughout his cardinalship, by Sergio Rubin, New York Daily News, available at http:// [Accessed May 12, 2014.] 4. See Pope Francis ‘sneaking out of Vatican at night to give money to poor on streets of Rome’, by Amanda Williams, available at article-2517275/Pope-Francis-sneaking-Vatican-night-money-poor.html. [Accessed May 12, 2014.] 5. See Pope Francis, Ambrogetti and Rubin, pg. 9. 79

Something strange happened to me in that confession. I don’t know what it was, but it changed my life. I think it surprised me, caught me with my guard down. It was the surprise, the astonishment of a chance encounter. I realized they were waiting for me. That is the religious experience: the astonishment of meeting someone who has been waiting for you all along. From that moment on, for me, God is the One who te primerea – ‘springs it on you.’ You search for Him, but He searches for you first. You want to find Him, but He finds you first. 6 He entered the seminary a couple of years later, opting to take the vows of the Society of Jesus (the “Jesuits”) and thus began his priesthood on December 13, 1969, when he was ordained by Archbishop Ramon Jose Castellano. He continued training through 1970 and 1971, finalizing his vows as a Jesuit on April 22, 1973. During this time he taught literature, psychology, and philosophy. On July 31, 1973, he was appointed Provincial of the Jesuits in Argentina, an office he held for the next six years, before returning to academia in 1980 (after three months in Dublin, to learn English) as Rector of the Colegio de San Jose and a parish priest in San Miguel. In March, 1986, Bergoglio traveled to Germany, to finish his doctoral dissertation, at Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt. It was here Francis learned the Byzantine liturgy, under the mentorship of Bishop Stefan Czmil, a Ukrainian Eastern Catholic. A mentorship hinting, perhaps, at inclusivity, the joining of East and West. Francis then returned to Argentina to take a position as Confessor and spiritual director of the Jesuit community at Cordoba. He became the grand Chancellor of the Catholic University of Argentina, where he authored Meditaciones para religiosos (1982), Reflexiones sobre la vida apostolica 6. Ibid. Pg. 34 80

(1992), and Reflexiones de esperanza (1992). On May 20, 1992, Pope John Paul II appointed Bergoglio titular Bishop of Auca and Auxilliary of Buenos Aires, under the tutelage of Cardinal Antonio Quarracino. Therefore, on May 27, Bergoglio received episcopal ordination from the Cardinal in the Cathedral of Buenos Aires. His motto became, miserando atque eligendo, “by having mercy, by choosing him” - or, more colloquially, “lowly, but chosen.” He then inserted the IHS, the symbol of the Society of Jesus, into his coat Father Bergoglio taking public transportation of arms. On June 3, 1997, he was raised to the dignity of Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires – and after the death of Cardinal Antonio nine months later, he succeeded him as Archbishop, Primate of Argentina and Ordinary for the Eastern-rite faithful in Argentina. Three years later, John Paul II created him a Cardinal, giving him the title San Roberto Bellarmino. In characteristic humility, Pope Francis paying his hotel bill in person after Bergoglio requested his election as the 266th pontiff faithful not travel to Rome to celebrate his – ostensibly for St. Francis of Assisi, but Cardinalship, rather, donate what they it is worth noting another potentially would have spent on the trip to the influential St. Francis, inspirational to poor.7 Bergoglio in choosing that name – St. As Archbishop of Buenos Aires, his Francis Xavier, one of the original seven popularity throughout South America founders of the Society of Jesus, who was grew. He made visible outreaches to canonized alongside Ignatius de Loyola, the poor, and continued to take humble the principal founder, by Pope Gregory actions to renounce the trappings of his XV, on March 12, 1622. office – cooking for himself, taking public Since becoming Pope a little over transportation, visiting the fevelas, and a year ago, Pope Francis has made some generally being accessible to the people. fairly strong moves. Notably, he has Then, after the resignation of Benedict increased transparency at the Vatican XVI, he was definitively elected Pope, Bank (technically known as the Institute March 13, 2013, taking the name Francis for Works of Religion), something Benedict started before resigning last year. Benedict 7. See the biography on the Vatican website: created an oversight organization in 2011 keep tabs on what was going on amid phy/documents/papa-francesco-biografia-berthe spidery accounting in that darkened goglio_en.html. [Accessed May 15, 2014.] corner of sovereign finance, where Rocky Mountain Mason

Osservatore Romano / Reuters

nearby church and confessed to a priest. In his own words:

mismanagement and shady deals have long been alleged, and Francis increased its mandate. All this following an inauspicious encounter with an accountant at the Vatican, Monsignor Nunzio Scarano, who was caught attempting to smuggle $27.5 million, cash, into Italy in an apparent tax dodge. Or, more likely, a money laundering scheme. Despite rumblings of closing down the institution, Pope Francis said in April the bank would remain open, under new leadership. An investigation into the 18,900 accounts at the bank should be completed any day now.8 He has also made some rather surprising comments, when viewed adjacent Canon Law of centuries past. For example, last year Francis said that atheists who perform good acts can still be redeemed through Jesus, essentially without believing in him. The Vatican, however, has since clarified the Pope’s comment, issuing a statement that, in fact, anyone will still go to hell if they reject God.9 Vatican spokesman Rev. Thomas Rosica said people “cannot be saved” if they “refuse to enter [the Catholic church] or remain in [the Catholic Church].”10 This presents an apparent conflict, perhaps, between the chief executive and the curia at the Vatican. Francis’s comments regarding homosexuality, long condemned by the Church, are also likely to give some Catholics pause. Francis was widely quoted, in July last year, as saying: “If someone is gay and he searches for the Lord and has good will, who and I to Judge?”11 This appears a marked 8. See, for example, the L.A. Times: http:// [Accessed May 15, 2014.] 9. See, for exammple, Huffington Post UK: vatican-confirms-atheists-still-going-tohell_n_3341368.html. [Accessed May 15, 2014.] 10. See the Independent: http://www. catholic-church-confirms-atheists-still-go-tohell-after-pope-francis-suggests-they-mightgo-to-heaven-8634479.html. [Accessed May 15, 2014.]

Time Line of Jorge Bergoglio 1936, December 17:

Born in Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Eldest of five children of Italian immigrants Mario Jose Bergoglio and Regina Maria Sivori.

1958, March 11:

Entered Novitiate at the Society of Jesus, moved to Santiago Chile.

1960, March 12:

Assumed the temporary vows of the Society of Jesus. Receives licentiate in philosophy from Colegio Maximo San Jose in San Migel, Argentina.


Teaches Psychology and literature at high schools in Santa Fe and Buenos Aires in Argentina.

1969, December 13:

Ordained a Priest by Archbishop Ramon Jose Castellano. Becomes Professor of Theology at the Facultades de Filosofia y Teologia de San Miguel.

1973, April 22:

Assumes Perpetual Vows of the Society of Jesus, at Alcala de Henares, Spain.

1973, July 31:

Named Provincial Superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina.

1992, June 27:

Ordained Titular Bishop of Auca by Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, the principal consecrator.

1997, June 3:

Appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires, automatic succession to post of Archbishop therefore guaranteed.

1998, February 28:

Death of Antonio Quarracino creates Bergoglio Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires.

2001, February 21:

Created a Cardinal by Pope John Paul II.


Cardinal Bergoglio, a front runner for St. Peter’s throne, implores Cardinals voting at the Papal Conclave to give his votes to Cardinal Ratzinger.

2013, March 13:

Following the resignation of Pope Benedit XVI, Cardinal Bergoglio was elected Pope. Hechose the name Francis, after St. Francis of Assisi, but also, perfhaps in honor of St. Francis Xavier, one of the principal founders of the Society of Jesus.

11. See, for example, the New York Times: europe/pope-francis-gay-priests.html?pageRocky Mountain Mason


contradistinction from his predecessor, who remarked that homosexuality was an “objective disorder”, an “intrinsic moral evil”. Of course, it is doubtful that Francis is attempting to break from conventions long established by the Church. And neither does he condone homosexuality or atheism; these comments merely suggest a more tolerant attitude, and perhaps allude to a more inclusive Catholic Church in years to come. If so, that would be good. This author, for one, has always found it difficult to reconcile any teaching that would condemn Gandhi – a non-Catholic – to the fires of Hell. Perhaps Francis is just looking at the world, as Christ taught, with compassion and brotherly love? Or, cynics might note, perhaps he is merely characterizing the Church’s message more suited to modern times? Regardless, that Francis seeks a unifying papacy is hard to refute. For example, he has said his Evangelii Gaudium: Our relationship with the followers of Islam has taken on great importance since they are now significantly present in many traditionally Christian countries, where they can freely worship and become fully a part of society. We must never forget that they ‘profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, who will judge humanity on the last day’.12 This may be a prudent outreach in a time of increasing religious conflict. While this statement has drawn criticism from some (who quickly point out that the Muslims cannot worship the same God as Christians, because Muslims deny Christ is the consubstantial Son of the Father), it is worth noting that Pope Francis has cleverly articulated the claim – he didn’t state it in his own words, he quoted the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. No one can deny that Francis is wanted=all&_r=0. [Accessed May 16, 2014.] 12 Evangelii Gaudium, Pope Francis, Vatican Press, 2013. Pg. 187-188. 82

exact with his words, conspiracy”. even while he sounds Pope Francis’s straight forward and association with the down to earth. In fact, Liberation Theology this is quite a special movement may also skill. And, in many give some people ways, illustrates a rare concern. Dubbed ability to communicate “Christian Marxism” across divides while by some, Liberation walking a carefully theology seeks to charted middle road. bolster the poor and It seems Pope Francis the suffering, to resist is skilled at reaching the dispassionate out to both sides of a Cardinal Bergoglio’s Coat of Arms, exploitation of labor divide. He is a bridge three charges on a blue field – the often inherent in the builder. emblem of the Society of Jesus, a capitalist construct. It is also, arguably, five-pointed star (for the Virgin The first person prudent. Declaiming Mary) and a spikenard (a symbol Francis called upon fundamentalists (of election as the Pontiff of Joseph). any religion) as wrong was none other than typically remains Father Gustavo unhelpful – it merely Gutierrez,13 of Lima, entrenches opinions, Peru, whose 1968 paper, and forces proofs. That “Toward a Theology increases violence. But of Liberation”, has before any conversion, been widely attributed must come trust. as nominative of the Before trust, truce. Liberation Theology And before truce must movement. Ostensibly, come respect. It’s there’s much to admire possible that Francis is with the ideology of working on bringing uplifting the poor. But skeptics allege it could this respect back to be used as a tool for the Church which has, wealth redistribution. many times in the past Nonetheless, at least, appeared rigid Francis’s association and overzealous in the with Liberation promulgation of its Theology is not entirely message. Opening a clear. It’s true that he dialogue of compassion did not censure it, as his and peace seems like a Poep Francis’s Coat of Arms, good idea. (It’s a page three charges on a blue field – the predecessor, Benedict, from the Dalai Lama’s emblem of the Society of Jesus, a had. But he hasn’t playbook, a prelate seven-pointed gold star (for the publicly supported it – whose following only Virgin Mary) and a spikenard (a at least not specifically – since becoming Pope, grows, whose message symbol of Joseph). either. reaches across religious Yet, much of his differences and is, rhetoric is inline with therefore, arguably Liberation Theology more effective in teachings. Francis’s stance against current transmuting humanity’s heart.) But that global market structures is well known. doesn’t necessarily obviate suspicions of He has declaimed against the “idolatry of such open-ended rhetoric which could, money”, writing, for example, that: conspiracists allege, point to a global unification movement, the shadow of the cross falling for, some might say, “the 13. As reported in The Nation, http://www. new world order”. Just like the Masons, Vatican (and especially the Jesuits) are cis-new-champion-liberation-theology#. often cited as at the center of the “global [Accessed May 21, 2014.]

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In this context, detention of two Jesuit some people Priests at the outset continue to of the “Dirty War” defend trickin Argentina, when le-down thethe military Junta ories which swept into power assume that against an exaggerated economic Communist threat. growth, encourIn 1976, when aged by a free Bergoglio was the market, will Jesuit Superior there, inevitably suctwo Jesuit priests ceed in bringworking with the ing about greatlabor movement in the er justice and Favelas were captured, inclusiveness in detained, tortured, the world. This but ultimately opinion exreleased. It is alleged presses a crude Pope Francis has taken a more that Bergoglio should and naive trust humble approach to the Papacy have denounced the in the goodness than his predessors, such as Pope capture. That he of those wieldcould have done more Benedict XVI pictured above. ing economic to effect their early power and in release, even though the sacralised workings of the at this time in the history of the Junta, prevailing economic system. the mortal threat of the “disappearances” Meanwhile, the excluded are was not known. And both priests were still waiting.14 released – many others were not so lucky. However, one of the priests, Francis Some pundits have decried this as Jalics, issued a statement in 2013 saying “pure Marxism”, an appellation often that Bergoglio did not denounce them to given to Liberation Theology. Pope the Junta, and neither did he collaborate Francis has replied, “The Marxist ideology with the Junta as other Catholic priests is wrong. But I have met many Marxists were known to have done. in my life who are good people, so I don’t feel offended.”15 But, in an era of growing I myself was once inclined to wealth disparity, when a global recession believe that we were the vichas shook the markets, when on one hand tims of a denunciation (by an individual can pay $100,000 for a trip Bergoglio). (But) at he end of into space while another, 1,000 miles from the ‘90s, after numerous conthe launch pad cannot get access to clean versations, it became clear to water. Even though, globally speaking, me that this suspicion was unmore people are exiting poverty, wealth founded. It is therefore wrong disparity is more visible and eclipses this to assert that our capture took global average with precedent examples place at the initiative of Father of personal wealth. These images drive Bergoglio.16 a potent message, a message only the uncompassionate can ignore. In fact, according to the Guardian Pope Francis has also been brought Newspaper, Pope Francis actually assisted under some criticism when detractors in hiding wanted men from the Junta questioned his role in the arrest and in the Jesuit college under his care and protection. Nobel Peace Prize winner, Adolfo Perez Esquivel, himself a victim 14. Evancelii Gaudium, pg. 46. of the dictatorship in the 1970s, who

was tortured for 14 months during forced custody, asserts Bergoglio is spotless. “There were Bishops who were accomplices, but not Bergoglio. There is no link relating him to the dictatorship.”17 Another priest, hunted by the Junta for assisting the labor movement, stated on the record that Bergoglio actually “put us under his protection”, hiding him and others in Buenos Aires.18 Bergogli may not have spoken out against the Junta publicly, but he appears to have taken covert actions against it. Considering his position at the time, this might have been a prudent course – appearing neutral could have enabled him to be more effective in protecting his priests than taking up a publicly contrary position to a military dictatorship that would remain in power for six years, until the defeat by Britain at the Falklands Islands. It seems likely Bergoglio would have taken such a course – protecting himself, his position, his ability to effect change, and those under his care, would have ensured he could continue to make a difference. But what remains clear is that Pope Francis seeks a unifying Papacy. On the one hand, conspiracy theorists may point to a Catholic direction in the “New World Order”. On the other, maybe it is time for Christianity to become more united. Many faiths divide righteousness between them. But evil is united in opposing righteousness. Maybe more felicity and collaboration between the various faiths would be good for the world? It would enable focused direction in pursuit of what is good. Last but not least, the question of his position in contradistinction to the Curia at the Vatican, and the role of the Pope Emeritus, remain uncertain. even if Pope Francis’s aims are good, will he be able to realize them against centuries of tradition? Only time will tell.

15. See The Telegraph at http://www. [Accessed May 21, 2014.]

17. See The Guardian, ad http://www. pope-francis-argentina-1970s. [Accessed May 25, 2014.]

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16. Francisco Jalics, as quoted by the NY Daily News, see http://www.nydailynews. com/news/world/priest-clears-pope-dirty-warinvolvement-article-1.1294897. [Accessed May 25, 2014.]


18. ibid. 83

A A Brief Brief Treatise Treatise on on the the Nature Nature of of Light Light


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ight is a marvelous phenomenon that has inspired and intrigued many scientists and enlightened minds throughout the ages.

While humankind’s description of the phenomenon of light has improved – including wave-like phenomenon such as the electromagnetic spectrum and particle behavior as evinced by ‘photons’– no one really understands what light is, and how it propagates through the vacuum. In Masonry, we equate light with knowledge. Here’s a few thoughts to ruminate on. Bare in mind we are equating light and knowledge throughout. 1. Light itself is invisible, yet it makes visible all the visible things. When we see an object, we do so by means of the visible light reflected from it. We do not see the object itself. And yet we perceive the object, and not light. The sky is blue, for example, only because blue light has a shorter wavelength (higher frequency) than other colors in the visible spectrum. Interacting with particles in the atmosphere, blue light – having more energy – scatters more and appears to predominate. The sky reddens at sunset because longer wavelengths scatter less as the Sun shines through more atmosphere relative the observer. Thus matter is the revelation of light, even as light reveals matter. 2. For light to be seen, it must strike up against something. Light fills the eternity, and yet looking up at the night sky we see an expanse of darkness. Were all the light incident your eye, however, it would be a shining brilliance. Light is witnessed by obstruction. So it is ignorance is revealed. What is Good, is made known. “The light shines in the darkness, yet the darkness comprehendeth it not.” 3. Light consists of a diametric propagation of the electric and magnetic forces. An object is revealed by absorbing some wavelengths, and radiating others. Glass is translucent, because the silicon molecules, in a vitrified state, absorb and then radiate visible light from the arrangement of electrons peculiar to that element. Heat, another wavelength of light, on the other hand, is not transmitted Rocky Mountain Mason

through glass. Visible light is a fraction of the entire spectrum, consisting of 10-7 nanometers (blue) to 10-4 nanometers (red) light. Light reveals the invisible and the unknown as well as the visible and the known. 4. Light is pure energy. Light stimulates matter, exciting it. Everything is ultimately made from light. At the smallest subatomic level, all matter is a vibration resulting from the interaction with light. All things are comprised of light. That which is not light exists for light to be revealed. 5. Light is the sustenance of all life. All energy entering the Earth pours from the Sun. Life is an evolved intelligence for the manipulation of energy between various states. All life has an electric and magnetic field resonated from the utilization of light.

Life is the witnessing of light in action. 6. Light is the first principle Without light, nothing can exist. Light was before the darkness, because the darkness is the receptacle within which light is made known. The Big Bang was a totality of light. The expansion of the Singularity led to separation, and forged the inter-stellar vacuum into which light pours. Darkness is an apparent absence of light. Cold is a loss, of heat (light). Evil is the absence of Good. Only the Good (light) exists. For what is dark is filled with light, if it were to be seen. What is cold is merely losing heat to something else relative its own internal temperature. What is evil is in man – the choice not to see God. 7. Light is Holographic. Light is a fractaline phenomenon, containing the

all within a single photon. By means of this remarkable holographic principle, astronomers are enabled to make prognostications of distant astral bodies by analyzing the smallest quanta of light. What is all is contained within the piece, even while the piece is contained within the whole. 8. Light acts both as a particle and a wave Light may manifest particle behavior when witnessed one way, and as a wave phenomenon when witnessed another way. Light shone through a single slit makes a single impression. Light shone through two slits makes an interference pattern exceeding the number of slits. Yet a photon (a packet of light energy) is discrete – it can only be measured in discrete quanta. Perception itself has a finite resolution, certain lengths cannot be made known. 9. Light propagates through the vacuum Light radiates through empty space, it is not necessarily conveyed through matter. Somehow, through the action of the magnetic and electric forces, light carries itself, ever effulgent through nothing – a space defined only by the propagation of light therethrough. Light demarks the expanse of time. The propagation of light is the movement of time itself. 10. Light increases by interaction Light shines over everything, it covers all. Light radiates outward in revelation of all things. It is transformed by that it strikes up against, filling innumerable states of its own shining. This principle is evinced in only two other things: Knowledge and love only grow when they are given away. Light is the ever-present symbol of Deity. Matter exists to diminish light into perceptible states that the All may be made known therein. Light of its fullness cannot be withstood. Matter exists that light may be bestowed. God cannot give unto Himself – He requires nothing, and already contains all; all that is, was, will be and even won’t be. As matter is the receptacle for light, so man is the receptacle for God’s love. Man is in the completeness of God, for God comes to bestow even as light must shine.



Around From









1. Royal Arch East at Lamar, Colorado. 2. Tellers at the last Grand Lodge session take a much needed respite. 3. REPGC H. Jack Ward, Prelate at Montrose-Ouray Commandery No. 16, shows off the Bible presented to him at his raising. note the first line signer! 4. Unloading suitable libations to slake the Grand Officer’s ample thirst. 5. Englewood Lodge’s lovely fresco showing a scene of Jerusalem.w 86

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Photos by John Moreno

Denver Consistory

50 Years

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Photo by John Moreno



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1. Georgtown Lodge knows how to properly destroy a ballot. 2. Cryptic Officers at installation at Georgetown Lodge. 3. Ribbons awarded at Georgetown Commandery No. 4. 4. M.W.Bro. Gerry Ford returns to Grand Lodge after installation as Grand Secretary at an Official Visit to South Denver No. 93.

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1. Veterans are celebrated at the Denver Consistory. 2. Memorial rites commemorate those who have served our Craft, and our country. 3. Knights of St Andrew prepare the Colors in memory of those who served. 4. Memorial rites commemrate those who have served our Craft, and our country. 5. District Lecturers prepare for a new year of instruction.

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Photo by Ben Williams


6. Bethel Installation with GM Michael McMillan. 7. Matthew Ingalls prepares an extraction of flora in a practical spagyrics class. 8. an 18th Centruy Lambskin from France. 9. Installation of District Lecturers.

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8. 9.

1. Santa Claus makes an appearance at the Denver Consistory. 2. The SGIG is too big for Satna’s lap. 3. Santa wiht another kid at the Consistory. 4. Santa and the Pope? 5. Knights Templar share a Christmas Observnace with the Kinghts of COlumbus – an annual tradition in LEadville, CO. 6. Dave Salburg, REGC at an official visitation. 7. The MWGM Dana Speaks during an official visit last year. 8. Grand Lecturer David Salberg delights the children during an official visit at South Denver Lodge N. 93. 9. New EAs for Norwood Lodge No. 111. Rocky Mountain Mason


Landing the Landmarks “ The actions of Freemasons, as such, in the Grand Lodge, in their Lodges, and in their individual character, shall be regulated and controlled: By the Ancient Landmarks of Freemasonry, being those unwritten principles of Masonic government and policy which have existed from a time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, and which are among the parts of Masonic law or rules of government which may never be altered or disturbed; and by usages and customs which are based upon such landmarks....” –The Book of Constitutions of the Most worshipful Grand Lodge of Colorado. Section 3. Masonic Government.


he Ancient Landmarks are perhaps the most important governing principles of all Masonic conduct, of all Masons, wheresoever dispersed upon the Earth. They are mentioned frequently, and represent the supreme law of the Masonic institution; they are incorruptible, unchangeable, and evermore the guiding tenets of our society – the very pillars upon which our great Masonic edifice is erected. But what are they? They comprise twenty-five simple injunctions that define the metes and bounds of Masonic governance. Twentyfive provisions that stipulate the character recognizable and peculiar to Masons. For the purpose of this article, they may be grouped into three main sets, being, 1. The Structure of the Craft, 2. The Governance of the Craft, and 3. The Rights and Signs of Masonic character. You may see a complete list of the Ancient Landmarks, in their order, accompanying this article. Of the rights and signs of Masonic character we see the injunction regarding the modes of recognition (Landmark 1), the preservation of the legend and lore of the third degree (which arguably dates these particular immemorial landmarks to the 18th Century, although one might presume an unwritten code of conduct much preceding these particular iterations) (landmark 3), the fact that Freemasonry is to be regarded as a secret society in possession of secrets that cannot be divulged (23), among others.


It is to the twenty-third Landmark that this particular article directs its inquiry, because it is not uncommon in the present age to hear Brethren state, “there are no secrets in Masonry”, or that the secrets of Masonry “are limited to the signs and words given at the altar”. However, while these are certainly considerable as particular secrets never to be divulged, one must ponder the injunction, “That Freemasonry is a secret society”. It is safe to presume that Freemasons assembled to discuss philosophical truths, many of which may have been deemed inappropriate by Church and State at various times during the Craft’s incarnation. For example, the Royal Society practiced medicine that ran contrary to Canon law. And the likes of Rousseau, Paine, and Locke – whose writings arguably ushered in the Enlightenment – iterated theories potentially damaging to any monarchy free enough to enable such discussion openly. This is perhaps reason enough for Freemasonry to be dubbed a “secret society” by the authors of these immutable and perpetual Landmarks. But this is not all that happened in the Masonic lodges of that period. It seems likely that discussion and practices in Masonic lodges were not restricted to degree work, to political or scientific inquiry, or even theology. Rather, perhaps more important still, is the possibility that Masons congregated to practice gnostic philosophies capable, perhaps, of engendering awakening in the candidate. This is not as preposterous as it may at first seem. The ritual of the first three degrees is full of references to such an awakening. There is an experience – a very human experience – which cannot be

contemplated with words alone. Indeed, the whole purpose of any rite of initiation is to symbolically render to a candidate such “wise and serious truths” which, we might expect, transcend mere language. Veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols, indeed. The whole process of being brought to light is, in and of itself, a direct reference to awakening – from darkness into light. The 133rd Psalm is, also, a direct reference to the awakening afforded the priest class when anointed in the sacred ceremony – that precious oil upon the head – that, it was once believed, elicited the vision of Unity at the source and end of all being. How good and how pleasant it is for Brethren to dwell together in unity, this is not just the unity of the Brethren of like Masonic character. It is a unity beyond and above that, as well. It is the bliss that accompanies the knowing of the One Thing. Yes, how good and how pleasant is this? There was a time, arguably, when such rites of perfection engendered in man an ineffable understanding of the secret meaning to life itself. And having passed through the degrees, the awakened assembled in the sanctity of the tyled lodge to marvel at the blessing, “even life forevermore”. This type of awakening is a secret that can only be given to those who already possess it – the slumbering masses readily destroy that which they do not understand. It was the corrupt priesthood of Judea that killed Christ. It was the corrupt governors of Greece that killed Socrates (or, at least, caused him to drink of the Hemlock). Such anger readily surges from the unawakened – an urgent jealousy that manifests as uncontrollable anger. You see, Rocky Mountain Mason

it is possible to know, without knowing. It is possible to see, without seeing. The unawakened parrot words in counterfeit, but the awakened shine only truth. The early Christian forefathers discovered this all too well – an inquiry into the life and death of Valentinus, the Gnostic Christian philosopher, who lived close to Christ (about 100 A.D.), should serve the reader well. Using the terminology of Valentinus (or, at least, of his followers) the Masonic degrees, one might presume, were intended to reveal to the candidate the pleroma, that fullness that fulfills all creation, and thus render in man the perfecti, the spiritualized man capable of performing good works to the betterment of all mankind. It is no accident that Masonry purported to instruct in its speculative Craftsmen the tenets of rulership and governance. The patient and inquisitive reader is asked to consider the following questions that may arise after undergoing the three degrees of Masonry:

acceptance of a single meaning only, means you might find yourself angry at (or dismissive of ) others’ interpretations. But if you do get angry at others’ interpretations, you must have stopped learning; such a finality of opinion, that excludes, only malnourishes – it is a danger to yourself and others. Many times I hear a kind of semiconscious statement of authority – the “I have been a Mason for xx years”, as if the longer you spend carrying an error around can somehow make it right. In fact, it only becomes more wrong the longer it is held onto, and harder to relinquish - perhaps. Many men joined this Craft in recent times. Many men stopped learning, practicing rote a rich and inestimable teaching they no longer cared to understand. But we are on a fresh dawn. Brethren, you are never too old to learn. And never too young not to be taken seriously. If you have stopped learning, then, arguably, you have ceased to be a Mason.

Why is the sandal referenced in the book of Ruth “a testimony in Israel”? Why does the Master quote the formation of the world in Genesis before the candidate is brought to light? What are the wise and serious truths impressed upon the candidate? Why is astronomy the last of the seven liberal arts and sciences, and why is geometry the science preferred by Masons? What does the Senior Deacon mean when he says “in those Sacred Pages, the Celestial Hemisphere”? Why is the Temple unfinished? Is not the death of Grand Master Hiram akin to assailant ignorance stamping out a truth it does not understand? What is the plumb line the Lord placed amidst his people Israel?


There are innumerable other examples an attentive Brother could add to this list. But it is important to see symbolically every action taken in Lodge. If you feel you have an understanding of any particular part of the ritual, look again. You will find yet more. There is no reason that these meanings are mutually exclusive – in fact, they are self-reinforcing, mutually inclusive. But don’t stop at a simple exoteric interpretation, rather look deeper. If you think you understand it – then you likely don’t. And the type of repeated Rocky Mountain Mason


The 25 Landmarks 11111111111 1. The modes of recognition 2. The division of Symbolic Masonry into three degrees. 3. The legend of the third degree. 4. The government of the fraternity by a presiding officer called a Grand Master, who is elected from the body of the Craft. 5. The prerogative of the Grand Master to preside over every assembly of the craft, wheresoever and whensoever held. 6. The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant dispensations for conferring degrees at irregular times. 7. The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant dispensation for opening and holding lodges. 8. The prerogative of the Grand Master to make Masons on sight. 9. The necessity of Masons to congregate in lodges.

10. The government of every lodge by a Master and two Wardens. 11. The necessity that every lodge when duly congregated, should be tyled. 12. The right o every Mason to be represented in all general meetings of the craft and to instruct his representatives. 13. The right of every Mason to appeal from the decision of his brethren in lodge convened, to the Grand Lodge or General Assembly of Masons. 14. The right of every Mason to visit and sit in every regular lodge. 15. That no visitor, not known to some brother present as a Mason, can enter a lodge without undergoing an examination. 16. That no lodge can interfere in the business of another lodge. 17. That every Freemason is amendable to the laws and regulation fo the Masonic Jurisdiction in which he resides. 18. That every candidate for initiation must be a man, free born and of lawful age. 19. That every Mason must believe in the existence of God as the Grand Architect of the Universe. 20. That every Mason must believe in a resurrection to a future life. 21. that a book of the law of God must constitute an indispensible part of the furniture of every lodge. 22. That all men, in the sight of God, are equal and meet in the lodge on one common level. 23. That Freemasonry if a secret society in possession of secrets that cannot be divulged. 24. That Freemasonry consists of a speculative science founded on an operative art. 25. That the landmarks of Masonry can never be changed. These constitute the landmarks, or as they have sometimes been called, “the body of Masonry”, in which it is not in the power of man or a body of men to make the least innovation. 99

Hermeti-SKISM Hermetic Hyperbole - often bandied by bombastic brothers

“The severe schools shall never laugh me out of the philosophy of Hermes, that this visible world is but a portrait of the invisible.” – Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, 1643.


he Hermetica is a loose collection of writings attributed to the mythical sage, Hermes Trismegistus. Trismegistus means “thrice greatest”, as Hermes, legend purports, was at once the greatest king, the greatest priest, and the greatest philosopher.

This thrice greatest title is, of course, alluded to in the Masonic traditions as the Thrice Illustrious Master in the Cryptic Council (as well as elsewhere, no doubt). And, indeed, many authors have associated Hermes Trismegistus with Solomon, Enoch, Elijah, even Moses, all prophetical men integral to Masonic lore. These men are, however, integral to any lore that rests its canon upon the Abrahamic faiths in modern times, and it is because of their purported abilities and Holiness that Hermes Thrice Greatest is associated with them, in much the same way that the resplendence of the sun is associated with gold. Hermes is an archetype – a construct representing the transmission of knowledge. His name, Hermes, is the Greek name for the messenger – that is Mercury of the Romans. Thus he is the thrice greatest messenger of the Gods, the giver of wisdom. Because of this, and because of the origination of the writings purported to him, he is also associated with Thoth (the psychopomp of the Egyptian


pantheon). But in truth he is none of these, and all of them. He is the archetypal construct, the image of the conveyance of truth itself. It is he who brings the scroll, and places it in your lap to open your eye to the mystery of the One True Thing. This image exists elsewhere, of course, and with other names. Thoth, yes, but also, for one example, Vajrasattva in the Buddhist traditions, and, for another example, Elijah in the Kabbalistic traditions, both bringers of the vision of God for the completion of the form of the Glory of the Formless. In Alexandria, a group of writings were produced as dialogues between Hermes Trismegistus and Tat (like the colloquial use of the word “son”), Asclepius (the great healer), and the Divine Poimandres (the noetic vision of the One True Mind). To say that the Hermetica are Egyptian is only to say they were produced in geographical Egypt (in Alexandria) – it does not mean that they contain any references to Ra, Isis, or the pantheon of ancient Egypt. They are from Hellenized Egypt because Alexandria (as its name foretells) was the result of Alexander’s conquest, and their chosen form is the dialogues popularized by Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Posidonius and the Greek thinkers before. Despite much syncretism concurrent in Alexandria at the time of the Christ, the Hermetica should not be mistaken as a mish-mash of covert influences of that

time. They are, of themselves, unique – enough to be separated from other writings, and given the name “Hermetica” in contradistinction. There is nothing quite like them, although there are writings in the Tantric and other traditions that ring a similar bell, so to speak. They are their own revelation. And in all cases they allude to One God – they are not, as some Masonic enthusiasts have claimed, dualistic. In fact, they unify opposites into the One Thing. They are unific. This is an important distinction that cannot be overstated. The great sage Marcilio Ficino (who first translated the Hermetica into Latin), for example, remarked on their prisca theologia – their origination from a single theology, of the only truth, of the One God, to all men. Decidedly, if I may coin the phrase again, unific. Neither are they Gnostic in the sense of the Gnostics (an appellation given to a particular sect and liberally applied, apparently, in the modern day), they are gnostic according to the literal Greek meaning of that term; if read correctly, they are known to engender the revelation of God in the reader. This is “knowing”. All too often, it seems, enthusiasts conflate these distinct homonyms and confuse the sects of religious movements with a set of philosophical mechanics. The Hermetica are certainly powerful writings. They contain much excellence. Rocky Mountain Mason

They have had an influence on every culture that has come to study them. I like to refer to them as “powerful logic circuits to engender awakening”. But they are not the only vessels of truth or the only significant influence on our institution. Neither are they distinctly magical (anymore than, say, the Psalms or the Vedas). Their age has been contested. When first brought to bare in the fifteenth century, it was supposed they were older than the writings of Moses. Then, in the seventeenth century, a Swiss monk showed by contextual analysis they were produced in the second or third century after the birth of Christ. This became the pervasive view, and their influence on society waned. At least, until an extract of the Asclepius was discovered at Nag Hammadi in 1945. In the memorable words of Gilles Quispel, Professor Emeritus at Utrecht and Harvard Universities, we read: In 1614 the Swiss Calvanist from Geneva, Casaubon, proved that the Corpus Hermeticum was not as old as it pretended to be but should be dated after the beginning of the Christian era. After this Hermetic writings lost their general fascination but lived on in secret societies such as the Freemasons and the Rosicrucians. The discovery of Hermetic writings in one of the thirteen codices found near Nag Hammadi in Egypt in 1945 changed this situation completely. They contained a better version in Coptic of parts of the Hermetic Asclepius, preserved in Latin among the works of Apuleius, and moreover, the integral text of an unknown writing called “On the Ogdoad and Ennead”. This work shows without any doubt that the Hermetic believer was initiated into several grades before transcending the sphere of the seven planets and the heaven of the fixed stars (the Ogdoad). Then he would behold the God beyond and experience Himself. It is now completely certain that there existed before and after Rocky Mountain Mason

the beginning of the Christian era in Alexandria a secret society, akin to a Masonic Lodge. The members of this group called themselves “brethren,” were initiated through a baptism of the Spirit, greeted each other with a sacred kiss, celebrated a sacred meal and read the Hermetic writings as edifying treatises for their spiritual progress. All of which sounds rather Christian. Nonetheless, the time these pieces were penned is of little significance to this author, as archetypal awakening has long been the destiny of mankind, and we find it’s import everywhere expressed. What is peculiar to the Hermetica, however, is the form taken to transmit this archetype and the effectiveness with which it engenders such awakening in the reader. For example, much of what is in the Hermetica finds resonance in the Merkevah – Jewish mysticism reserved for the Holy, mysticism about which our erstwhile Masonic enthusiasts know only too little. But it should not be mistakenly concluded that these philosophies were somehow merged into the Hermetica, rather it should be understood that what is preserved in the Hermetica is preserved elsewhere as well (in fact, everywhere), that the union of man with God is the ultimate destiny of all humankind – particularly that this union occurs within the body – again, something particularly and exoterically espoused in the Christian faith. All of these preservations are spokes on the wheel; the wheel is turned at the axle, from whence all movement is effected. All things return to the profound vision. The rest is chaff. Whoever the early “Hermeticists” were, it is arguable they were, in fact, proto-Christians. Some history. In 1460, the monk Leonardo of Pistoria, brought back to Florence fourteen treatises attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. Perceiving this discovery of immense importance the great benefactor of Neo-Platonism, Cosimo de’Medici, requested Marsilio Ficino suspend his work translating Plato’s dialogues and get to work immediately on what would become known as the Corpus Heremticum, the “body of Hermes”. Ficino indubitably found much delight in his newfound task,

and much similarity to reinforce his own worldview. For there is much similarity between the writings of Plato, Ficino and Hermes (these authors had each, if you will, rectified themselves with a Unity). And thus, in a sense at least, was verbiage given to that utterance of humanity that would come to be remembered as the Renaissance. But did it cause the Renaissance, as our enthusiasts like to claim? Perhaps. But, as a matter of perspective, it appears more likely that the Renaissance was – by entertaining a search for new understandings – capable of recognizing newness in old places. After all, this was not the first time gnostic (not Gnostic) philosophies had been read in the West. It is because of some enthusiasts’ avarice and covetousness of Hermes that Hermeticism has been given such bad press of late. Hermeticism has been associated with libertine egoists like Crowley, the socalled Magical Western Mystery Traditions, and we find again today a sort of inimical self-satisfaction in the promulgators of the Hermetic doctrine among our gentle Craft. It wasn’t because some people were incapable of understanding Hermeticism that these things were kept secret, as our lofty Masonic enthusiasts continually assert (at the same time alluding to their own mastery of the material). No, arguably it was because some people thought they did understand it. While they didn’t. In fact, more danger is wreaked upon these teachings by overzealous campaigners intent on domination than by any exposure to the “profane”. The Catholic Church did not burn Marcilio Ficino, for example (although he did tread a thin line). Indeed, the Hermetica find a permanent home in the Vatican to this day. Rather, it is the bombast who profanes what is Holy. The bombast bandies, and counterfeits for his own aggrandizement. Speak with a forked tongue, and you eat your own words. The true master empowers others. Perhaps the best way to understand the Hermetica is to leave aside all the highfalutin murmuring and just read a copy. It could change your life. I know it changed mine. Be reflective. Reason is the light to the Light. Perhaps this small candle is enough.






L L Modern

Myths About

Masonry Held By

Masons 0 0 102

Rocky Mountain Mason


. That the Chamber of Reflection was Never a Part of the First Three Degrees.




he Chamber of Reflection is still used previous to initiation as an Entered Apprentice in the Red Degrees (that is, the first three degrees as transmitted through the A.A.S.R. rather than the York Rite) which places it’s use as common to the Entered Apprentice earlier than the latter 18th Century – and likely a lot earlier still. Resultantly, the Chamber of Reflection is still used in Central and South America and in continental European Lodges in conjunction with the First Degree. Albert G. Mackey – the estimable Masonic Scholar – writes that, “In the French and Scottish Rites, a small room adjoining the Lodge, in which, prepatory to initiation, the candidate is enclosed for the purpose of indulging in those serious meditations which its somber appearance and the gloomy emblems with which it is furnished are calculated to produce, It is also used in some of the advanced degrees for a similar purpose. Its employment is very appropriate, for, as Gadicke well observes, ‘It is only in solitude that we can deeply reflect upon our present or future undertakings, and blackness, darkness or solitariness, is ever a symbol of death. A man who has undertaken a thing after mature reflection seldom turns back.’”1

1. Mackey’s Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, Vo. 1, The Masonic History Company, 1901, pg. 190. See also The Chamber of Reflection, by Giovanni Lombardo, Lodge Room International Magazine, June 2006. Rocky Mountain Mason

. That the word “profane” is derogatory and its use elitist.

he word profane, often associated with “profanity”, and therefore something derogatory and debased, actually means simply “relating to that which is not sacred or biblical; secular rather than religions”. The etymology makes this clearer – Pro, Latin for, “in front”, and Fanum, Latin for “Temple” – or, out in front of the Temple, or, if you will, outside the Lodge. So someone profane, therefore, is someone outside of the Lodge, and not a derided or debased figure. It is true that semantic drift has changed this primary meaning of “secular” into a more derided, secondary meaning. However, the primary meaning remains.


. That Masons should volunteer for every Masonic duty.


hile volunteerism is certainly admirable, it is also, sadly, unaccountable. This author believes it correct, where a Lodge can so afford, to recompense Brethren where appropriate. After all, giving a Brother a useful job for some pay is “teaching him how to fish”, so to speak, as opposed to feeding him for a day with a simple charitable handout. Moreover, Lodges should be run to be self-sustainable, and generate cash-flow whereby activities are afforded. Lodges should be run like a business – the business of Charity requires it.


. That discussion of sacred things in Lodge is against the Constitution.


he famed Masonic author of the nineteenth century, Albert Pike, writes: Every Masonic Lodge is a temple of religion; and its teachings are instructions in religion.2 And the Grand Master of Masons of Colorado, Joseph Milsom, in his address to the San Juan Masonic Society on St. John the Baptist’s day, 1901, titled “On Masonry and its Relation to Religion”, was heard to remark that: The instructions which constitute the hidden or esoteric knowledge of Free Masonry are forbidden to be written, and can only be communicated by oral intercourse of one Mason with another. In all the ancient mysteries, the same reluctance to commit the esoteric instructions of the hierophants to writing is apparent, and hence the secret knowledge taught in the initiations was preserved in the symbols, the true meaning of which was closely guarded from the profane.3 He then was heard to provide an 2. Morals & Dogma, Ch. 13, Royal Arch of Solomon, Albert Pike, pg. 213

3. See Telluride Daily Journal, June 27th, 1901 issue, or the Rocky Mountain Mason, VOl. I, Iss. 2, for a full transcription of this speech.


ancient mystery schools from which Freemasonry claims descent was inseparable from astrology.4

overview of many religions and practices all united by the common bond of secrecy.


. That the 7th Liberal Art and Science is Astronomy.


uring the time when the second degree was established in its recognizable form, the line between astronomy and “astrology” was very thin. The one was the operative art enabling a speculative art in the other. They were not, strictly speaking, distinct. The Senior Deacon reminds every Fellow Craft ascending toward the Middle Chamber that: Astronomy is that Divine art by which we are taught to read the wisdom, strength, and beauty of the Almighty Creator in those sacred pages, the Celestial Hemisphere. And: While we are employed in the study of this science, we must perceive unparalleled instances of wisdom and goodness; and through the whole creation trace the glorious Author by his works.

Further, Paul Foster Case (the worthy Masonic author and scholar of the early 20th Century) says in his primer, The Masonic Letter G: Astronomy is the pinnacle of the Masonic pyramid of instruction. Nor should we forget that the astronomy of the 104


. That the Worshipful Master is All Powerful when Running the Lodge.


hile the Master has great prerogatives, he nonetheless cannot act contrary to a motion carried by the Brethren when voted in Lodge assembled. During Installation of the Worshipful Master, the Brother so elected assents to the following tenets before assuming his office: You agree….to submit to the awards and resolutions of your brethren, in Lodge convened, in every case consistent with the Constitutions of Freemasonry… You agree to be cautious in your behavior, courteous to your brethren, and faithful to your Lodge…. It is clear that the Worshipful Master, as the presiding Officer of a Lodge in assembly, is the director of discussion for the fair and open deliberation of his Brethren – not an autocrat bent on enforcing a personal agenda contrary to the will of a majority.

4. The Masonic Letter G, Paul Foster Case, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc., pgs. 54-55.


. That Masonry Is Not a Religious Society.


he Lecture on the Middle Chamber of the Second Degree clearly establishes the fallacy of this statement: [Masonry] is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligation to pay that rational homage to the Deity which at once constitutes our duty and our happiness. It leads the contemplative Mason to view, with reverence and admiration, the glorious works of creation, and inspires him with the most exalted ideas of the perfections of his Divine Creator. Moreover, the required belief in Deity for membership is worthy to remember.


. That the Chain of Union at the Closing of a Blue Lodge is a Recent Innovation in “Traditional Observance” Masonry.


hile the Chain of Union, represented symbolically by the tessellated border in every regular and well governed Lodge, is not typical of Andersonion Lodge work as practiced today, yet it remains practiced in symbolic Lodge Masonry in South America and Continental Europe, where it has been continually practiced since at least the early nineteenth century, and potentially since Masonry first settled there. Albert G. Mackey informs us: Rocky Mountain Mason

To form the Mystic Chain is for the Brethren to make a circle, holding each other by the hands, as in surrounding a grave, etc. Each Brother crosses his arms in front of his body, so as to give his right hand to his left-hand neighbor, and his left hand to his righthand neighbor. The French call it Chain d’Union. It is a symbol of the close connection of all Freemasons in one common brotherhood.5 Mackey does not specify Companions – and clearly says “Brother” and “Freemasons”. Clearly Albert Mackey was aware of Freemasons practicing the Chain of Union in Blue Lodge Masonry at least as early as the mid-1800s. Let us not forget the Royal Arch closing; which, of course, before the split between the Antients and Moderns in the eighteenth century, was practiced in English Blue Lodges in some Masonic jurisdictions. “I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one…” Jn. 17: 22.

2 I

. That Kabbalah is Unimportant to Masonry

n the 4th degree of the A.A.S.R., the Junior Warden specifically states that: An understanding of Mason-

5. Mackey’s Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert G. Mackey, The Masonic History Company, 1909, Vol. 1, Pg. 189 Rocky Mountain Mason

ry is impossible without some understanding of the Kabbalah. The Three Pillars of the symbolic Lodge are also taken by Scottish Rite Masons to allude to the three columns of the Etz Chayim (the Tree of Life). Arthur Edward Waite, writing in his A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, states that: The root-matter of much which is shadowed forth in the [Hiramic] Legend, as regards the meaning of the Temple and the search for the Lost Word, is to be found in certain great texts known to scholars under the generic name of Kabalah – a Hebrew word meaning reception, or doctrinal teaching passed on from one to another by verbal communication.6 Albert Pike writes, that “All truly dogmatic religions have issued from the Kabalah and return to it: everything scientific and grand in the religious dreams of all the illuminati, Jacob Boehme, Swendenborg, Saint-Martin, and others, is borrowed from the Kabalah, all the Masonic associations owe to it their secrets and their symbols.”7 And, “Masonry is a search after light. That search leads us directly back, as you see, to the Kabalah.”8 And, let us not forget, that King Solomon, our purported first Grand

Master, is accepted as a Kabbalist by nearly everyone with any knowledge of the subject. Kabbalah should never be mistaken for anything but an oral tradition and symbolic system used to communicate abstract ideas on the question of being.


. That Masonry is “not a secret society”, it’s just “a society with secrets”.


his is explicitly contrary to the 23rd Landmark of the Craft! The Landmarks are unchangeable governing principles which are preserved at all times “in which it is not in the power of any man, or body of men, to make the least innovation”. The 23rd Landmark states: 23. That Masonry is a secret society in possession of secrets that cannot be divulged. Enough said.


6. A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Arthur Edward Waite, University Books, Inc., 1970, pg. 417 7. Morals & Dogma, Albert Pike, Pg. 744. 8. Ibid, pg. 741 105



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