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Retrofitting Religion: The Life Cycle of Buildings A Study of the Architectural Retrofit of European Religious Buildings from the age of Antiquity to the Medieval Period (447 BC – 784 AD) AR597 Dissertation 2014 Kent School of Architecture University Of Kent Dr. Nikolaos Karydis

Orhan Unlu

Word Count: 8056


Acknowledgements

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Nikolaos Karydis, who is an extremely supportive, insightful, encouraging and enthusiastic dissertation supervisor. He went above and beyond helping me to identify a clear and exciting topic of study, guiding my research and informing its final composition. He also introduced me to the exceptional work of Hans Buchwald; whose writings have proved to be an invaluable resource. I would also like to thank my family and friends, as they have supported me throughout the entirety of my architectural studies.

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Retrofitting Religion: The Life Cycle Of Buildings Cities are defined by architecture. Both the form and function of these monumental structures maintains an architectural style that represents the buildings context. These stylistic conventions bestow identity, whilst also reflecting upon the achievements of an age. More than ever, there is a concern with how we preserve the built urban fabric, whilst progressing with the developments of modern society. As time goes on and the world develops, so does its architecture. Inevitably redundant buildings are demolished to accommodate new buildings. However with valued iconic edifices there is an effort made to maintain or adapt to some degree. This can be recognised explicitly in religious architecture across Europe from late antiquity to the medieval period. A key component of the continuity of these buildings is retrofitting. The process is defined as: ‘A radical transformation of an existing building, where only essential elements such as a facade, room or monument is retained or emphasised, whilst others may change to fit a new design image or function.’1 This seemingly allows a religious building to maintain relevance across decades and centuries. By altering its existing form and structure, and introducing new components. In some cases changing the buildings function. A temple has become a church, which has then been retrofitted into a mosque. Furthermore religious and sacred buildings are recognised for extensive symbolism and imagery. They accommodate particular religious ideologies, rituals and worship. This creates an immense challenge for the architect; they must readapt an intrinsically designed building that meets the exact needs of a specific religion. Whilst also retaining valued elements of the existing building. Through examining how retrofit has been utilised on now iconic religious buildings, specifically as a means of preservation and development. An analysis will present the implications and reactions to the process and its results.

Figure 1.1 Diagram of Religious Retrofit, From Temple to Church from Church to Mosque

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H. Buchwald, 1999, 3

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Chronologically examining three religious buildings subjected to retrofit across their life span, will present a holistic understanding of the process. Uncovering how retrofit has allowed the reinvention of existing buildings, to such extent that they become relevant to a new society. The prescient nature of retrofit is reflected in the architects concern for transition across time from at least antiquity, and through extensively studying their procedures, this research could be applied to the current age of architecture. This study is logically structured into three main sections covering; what retrofit is in architecture, the retrofit of religious buildings and how retrofit has been and could be a means to preserve and develop. Through also investigating existing scholarly arguments by architectural conversationalists, retrofit will be contextually examined alongside other methods of restoration and innovation. The continuity of religious buildings has been a focal point of many scholars. Strong explorations of the building lifecycle can be found in Fred Scott’s ‘On Altering Architecture’ (2007), Christopher Alexander’s ‘The Timeless Way of Building’ (1979) and Charles Bloszies’ ‘Old Buildings, New Designs: Architectural Transformations’ (2012). Each author discusses and illustrates how buildings can develop over time, with reference to a variety of case studies and techniques. This topic also directly relates to the importance of building conservation, which is diversely explored in John Ruskin’s ‘Seven Lamps of Architecture’ (1865), Eugene Viollet-Le-Duc’s ‘On Restoration’ (1875) and Jukka Jokilehto’s ‘A History of Architectural Conservation’ (1999). The most relevant and arguably direct study of retrofit is from Hans Buchwald’s journal article; ‘Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?’ He states clearly its function in the Byzantine Empire, arguing its pivotal nature, with exposed and explained cases of religious retrofit. Retrofitting seems to emphasise the value humanity places on the design decisions our architect ancestors. It has the potential to forge appalling or inventive juxtapositions of the new and old. Whilst representing ideas of rule and control. At its core; retrofit can be the most practical means to ensure the success of the urban fabric. But what are the structural, functional and aesthetic effects of its application within the overall life cycle of a religious building.

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Contents Abstract 02 1.0 Retrofit in Architecture 1.1 Introduction 07 1.2 Methodology 08 1.3

Scales of Retrofitting

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1.4

Conservation and Retrofit

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2.0 Retrofitting Religion 2.1

The Parthenon (447 BC - 1802 AD)

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2.2

The Temple of Aphrodite (1st Century BC - 1962 AD)

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2.3

The Great Mosque Of Cordoba (784 AD - 1523 AD)

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3.0 Retrofit in The Life Cycle 3.1

Reviewing Retrofit

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3.2 Conclusion 38 4.0 Sources & Bibliography 4.1 Nomenclature 42 4.2 References 43 4.3 Illustrations 45 4.4 Bibliography 49


‘The process of unfolding goes step by step, one pattern at a time. Each step brings just one pattern to life: and the intensity of the result depends on the intensity of each one of these individual steps.’ -Christopher Alexander, 1979, 85

Retrofitting In Architecture


Introduction There is a great effort made to understand how buildings will function within their life cycle. Through ensuring extensive analysis and regulation, new designs consider the possibility of transition, but historical precedents can vary greatly. Some have been demolished a few years after construction, others have stood for centuries. As stylistic trends change, timeless buildings are inevitably rare. However, recognised iconic architecture has sustained relevance to different societies across their existence. Many of these buildings have endured through retrofitting – the introduction of new elements through the adaption of existing features. Retrofitting in architecture is the development of a structure at varying scales. It can alter a city, building or single facade. With changes in power and culture comes national religion; and the retrofit of a sacred structure can accommodate multiple civilisations. This method to preserve ensures the longevity of a building but is highly controversial, prominently dividing conservationists. They dispute originality and essence, and what is lost and gained through the redesign of a building. As religion is a dominant aspect of past societies, examining these symbolic buildings will exemplify how retrofit can dramatically transform and reintegrate. This typology utilises extensive imagery, artefacts and apparatus, serving specific functions that are designed with contextual consideration. These differ across each religion, and even within the same. It is an extremely difficult task to adapt such a building effectivly. Analysing these extreme extents, will exemplify retrofits flaws and ability to creatively adapt the supposedly unadaptable. Furthermore through restricting to European religious buildings; a focused account of its function across the continent can be compared and contrasted. Retrofitting is an attempt to allow architecture to endure time through transformation, and pertinent principles will form for assessing other outcomes within architecture.

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The Methodology ‘The work of intervention is collective across generations, whereas the work of architecture may often be considered individual – with contrasting sensibilities and contrary imaginations.’ - Scott, 2008, 15

Retrofitted religious architecture is collectively designed, encompassing the ideas of previous iterations. There are moral obligations with adjusting these ideas, potentially erasing the legacy of a religion and architect. This is debated amongst architectural professionals, and must be examined first, in relation to relevant cases of retrofit. By surveying their educated ideas a foundation will form to explore specific cases within Europe. As well as highlight the public implications of retrofitting. Detailed study of retrofitting iconic religious buildings will ensure an objective understanding of the process. By approaching each instance as a historical study and then interrogating specific criteria, the consequences of retrofitting will emerge. Through localised selection, correlations will form, for an overall understanding of how retrofit has developed. Each building is selected upon the explicit use of retrofit and significant reactions to its application.

Figure 1.2 The Parthenon, Athens, Interior Isometric

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A monumental retrofitted form; the Parthenon is celebrated for traversing time through successive adaption to historical circumstance. The iconic temple has transformed from new rule, social demands as well as restoration. Across the Aegean Sea is the temple of Aphrodite, in the ancient Greek city of Aphrodisias. It is recognised for the aggressive approach to its conversion from a temple to a church. In comparison, the Great Mosque of Cordoba in Spain had a systematic transformation from an Islamic mosque to Catholic Cathedral, due to consistent religious indifference. This grand structure grew tremendously; more than tripling in size from its original construction. Through chronologically examining these three religious buildings, a narrative will form that explores retrofitting to both preserve and develop. As iconic edifices, undergoing various public transformations, a contextual reaction can be examined. The process directly affects the relationship between form and function; and so the case studies traverse different typologies. The accommodation of even minor alterations to function will be scrutinized.

Figure 1.3 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Interior Isometric

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Scales of Retrofitting ‘All buildings, once handed over by the builders to the client have three possible fates, namely to remain unchanged, to be altered or to be demolished’ - Scott, 2008, 1

Retrofitting is a construction based development that either alters the form or function of an existing edifice. It can be further classified as an alteration to a buildings structure, aesthetic or technology, reactivating a redundant space. Moreover retrofit is the implementation of new or relevant construction techniques, materials or technology within the fabric of an existing building requiring modernisation. It responds to the passing of time, and a need for revitalization. Unlike restoration, retrofit is not a means to rebuild or recreate the exact design of a ruinous building, but is a reimagining and imposition of new ideas, generally by a different architect. The renewal of the world is inevitable, with the preciousness of resources; retrofit is implemented to reinvigorate and repurpose. To fully understand retrofitting, it is necessary to recognise the extent of its application. It can be classified under three scale based groups. The largest is city-wide retrofitting and involves the redesign or regeneration of a city, sometimes retrofitting a particular infrastructure or aesthetic. It impacts the existing master-plan and aims to re-inhabit or re-configure the entire urban fabric, for improved sanitation, circulation, access and atmosphere. It can also respond to an overlooked feature, not concerning a past society. Religious buildings of antiquity were a pinnacle in the city’s image and by retrofitting a temple or mosque the cityscape dramatically changes. Building retrofits can vary from a completely new image to the subtle introduction of a particular form or structure. Historical precedents have undergone retrofitting to stay relevant to a society or be preserved and maintained as significant architecture. This can be recognised in Byzantine religious buildings, and is a characterising hallmark to assert dominance when conquering a territory.5 Retrofit also preserves significant pillars of our past, but there are clear ethical concerns with what we value and keep, and what is sacrificed. 5

H. Buchwald, 1999

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Figure 1.4 The Scales Of Retrofit, CityWide, Building and Technology or Sculpture

Hans Buchwald identifies 3 primary preconditions for a building retrofit: 1.There must be an abundant number of suitable buildings from an earlier period. 2.Significant changes to attitudes, technology or life style must make the earlier buildings obsolete. 3.Earlier buildings must be valued, whether for aesthetic or other reasons, making it more desirable to retain them.6 The sculpture, structure and technology of these building can also be isolated and retrofitted. Older city buildings such as offices, hospitals and schools, have new technology integrated as a means to increase efficiency and decrease pollutants. As religion is symbolised by artistic representations and intrinsic imagery – a change of interior decor is applied instead of building new elements. During the retrofit of Istanbul’s Hagia Sophia there was a respect for the existing sculpture. The church was highly decorative; featuring multiple mosaics throughout the centuries of its existence, depicting religious figures and motifs. Rather than destroying them, the mosaics were preserved under a coat of plaster, in accordance with a ban of such imagery. During restoration in 1847, the brothers Fossati uncovered the mosaics and rather than repair them, repainted and inferred creatively, leaving some in a ruinous state. Although the church had been retrofitted to create a distinctively Islamic form, a degree of appreciation for historical art had allowed the buildings Christian past to remain.7 The history of a structure is shaped by its aesthetic, and the typology of religious buildings is dominated by form and meaning. Retrofitting creates change for a building and its effectiveness in religious or sacred architecture relies on how it has been received by its society and impacted the function and relevance of the structure.

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6

H. Buchwald, 1999, 1

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Nelson, 2004, 20


Conservation and Retrofit ‘We may not be able to command good, beautiful, or inventive architecture; but we can command an honest architecture; what is there but scorn for the meanness of deception?’ - Ruskin, 1865, 29 Retrofitting significant religious architecture can spark controversy. A prominent argument against modern ideas of retrofit comes from architectural conservationists. With its implementation, a building loses its designed essence. Deviations and retrofit are seen as unnatural and intrusive. A building should age and fall as prescribed by its original design. French architect and theorist Eugène Viollet-Le-Duc has been recognised as a pioneer of restoration, adapting existing architecture with techniques such as retrofit. As a conversationalist, he relied on his knowledge and skill as an architect to resourcefully interpret when the original design documents were not available. Using the remaining structure and its known history, Viollet-Le-Duc would infer how the building once stood, creatively accommodating new elements with reference to the buildings complete history. This is exemplified in his restoration of Notre Dame in Paris, where with architect Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus,9 damages from the French revolution and previous repairs were to be investigated and restored. In 1845 they produced a detailed historical treatise on the cathedral, fully evaluating its condition, to avoid ‘causing the disappearance of many remains whose scarcity and state of ruin increases our interest’.10 They reconstructed the most indicative elements including; the partitioning walls of the chapels in the side aisles and the cathedral entrances. Through examining the ruinous remnants of the previous structure Le-Duc implemented retrofit, creatively reimaging the building with the addition of a central spire over the roof crossing. The spire was retrofitted to the highest pitch of the roof, and arguable surpasses the originals imagery, embodying the desired magnitude of a Gothic Cathedral piercing the heavens. It took twenty years and was completed in 1864. Although this started as a case of creative 9

Lassus unfortunately died in 1857, Viollet-Le-Duc proceeded to complete the restoration in 1864. 10

Lassus, Viollet-Le-Duc, 1977, 62ff

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reconstruction, Viollet-Le-Duc was both able to restore the structure to its original state of completion, whilst imposing his own design ideas on the original building with retrofit. Although this seemingly allows the progression of an otherwise static medium, Architectural historian John Ruskin considers retrofit dishonest or artificial, being built around masks and imitation. He maintains an ‘admonition against meddling’11 arguing that there should be an appreciation for a structure across its natural life cycle, including the beauty of its ruinous state. Although restorative retrofit replicates elements of a building to support the original design, it mediates the existing fabric with foreign elements. Ruskin writes: ‘The true meaning of the word restoration is not understood. It means the total destruction which a building can suffer: of which no remnants can be gathered: a destruction accompanied with false description of the thing destroyed. Do not let us deceive ourselves in this important matter; it is impossible, to restore anything that has ever been great or beautiful in architecture.’12 In the mid 19th century, Ruskin criticised the contemporary trend of stylistic restoration describing it as ‘arbitrary renewal of the historic fabric’13, eventually forming the anti-restoration movement. He directed his criticisms towards architects specialising in restoration such as Viollet-Le-Duc and Sir George Gilbert Scott. Believing they were responsible for destroying the authenticity of architecture, and wanted to fight to conserve a buildings natural state. Ruskin denounced all restoration, particularly retrofitting as a direct occurrence of intruding a historical edifice.

Figure 1.5 Notre Dame, Elevation Proposal, Viollet-LeDuc, Including New Tower Design

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11

Scott, 2007, 47

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Ruskin, 1865, 203

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Jokilehto, 1999, 174


After gaining notoriety - ‘Restoration’ became a negative word. This led restorers to replace their title with ‘Conversationalists’ and the movement retaliated by changing its name to the ‘Conservation Movement’. Ruskin held sympathy for the architect who had made personal sacrifices to create their own perception of beauty. As an artist he recognised the spirit that went into crafting a building, ‘spirit which is given only by the hand and eye of the workman can never be recalled. Another spirit may be given and it is then a new building; but the spirit of the dead workman cannot be summoned up and commanded to direct others.’14 Time contributes to a buildings beauty, and it is marks of age that become the essential part of the object lost when retrofit occurs. John Ruskin maintained the ideologies of an art critic and theorist, although never wrote a theory on conservation. He was the first to identify the significant value of historic buildings – and initiated theories that followed. A contemporary of Ruskin, artist and writer William Morris also opposed the destructive nature of restorative retrofit. In 1877 he proposed an association for the defence of historic buildings within a letter published in ‘The Athenaeum’: ‘My eye caught the word restoration in the paper; I saw that this time the Minster of Tewkesbury is to be destroyed by Sir Gilbert Scott. It is too late to do something to save it. Would it not be of use to set on foot an association for the purpose of watching over and protecting these relics?’15 There was a great response and like minded intellects met on the 22 March 1877 forming the society for the protection of Ancient buildings or SPAB. Members included John Ruskin, Professor James Bryce and Thomas Carlyle. Morris as head secretary lead discussions and decided the organisations activities. They opposed restorative retrofit because of its use of inference; but they championed the maintenance and conservation of buildings. Morris believed all hand-made crafts maintained their own aesthetic and function. Therefore retrofitting was not possible, as a modern workman had the advantages of industry unlike the artistry required by the ancient craftsman. Small English churches of the medieval period maintained an intrigue with the sheen of age and variety of construction. To attempt to change the function or form is gutting the building of its history, as each church is naturally altered, to create a characterised building where retrofit would intrude with artificiality. 14 15

Ruskin, 1865

The Athenaeum, 1877/Jokilehto,1999, 184

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His theories reflect the doubts of modern theorists, who believe retrofitting forces compromise. Through implementing a function based design scheme, the architect must work around existing parameters. However by taking into account the previous function; a correlation could be observed to create an effective space, designing with similar ideas to the architect of the existing building. Modern architect and writer Ellen Dunham-Jones has emphasised the benefits of retrofit in her TED Talk ‘Retrofitting Suburbia’ (2010). Although her argument doesn’t address the concern of losing heritage, it promotes bringing function to a building which has become redundant. The most successful means of retrofitting is in re-inhabitation, utilising a previously disused structure potentially for a different function. Re-inhabitation allows the ‘adaptive reuse of existing structures for more community serving purposes.’16 This works in large suburban areas, where rundown and abandoned buildings are allocated new functions, without drastic alterations to the buildings existing shell. There is a greater impact on the larger infrastructure. Repurposing in function whilst retaining form is revitalising environments, and emissions from new construction are non-existent. Religious architecture is at the forefront of this scholarly debate, as arguably the most varying, and unique typology. There is an immense amount to both be lost and gained, as with the passing of time a church can decoratively age, but also slip into irrelevance. The following cases of religious architecture have maintained a degree of prominence, and retrofit has potentially ensured this.

Figure 1.6 The Quarry, John Ruskin’s Painting, Depicting the Subtle Qualities of Age

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15

Dunham-Jones, 2011, 8


‘The Parthenon sits outside time, far from time, free of forms enclosure within ages of statues and icons’ -Tournikiotis, 1994, 280

The Parthenon


The Parthenon is a defining building of classical architecture. Through retrofitting it has undergone dramatic transformations with the influence of empires, war and stylistic conventions from across Europe. In 432BC, the Parthenon of late antiquity was built, replacing a pagan temple destroyed during the Persian invasions of 480BC.18 Designed by architects Ictinus and Callicrates; pioneers of temple architecture throughout the 5th century, and detailed and decorated by Phidias and Kalamis; renowned sculptors. As well as being a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena, Pericles who ordered its construction wanted the building to explicitly connote power and wealth, representing Athens as a leading Greek state. Consequently it was designed with intricate exterior detailing, and a 12 meter high statue of Athena made from Ivory and Gold. On completion it garnered fame for its monumental appearance more than the wealth of materiality, as it dwarfed many temples before it. It also served as a treasury from the mid 5th century to the 4th, were the Opisthodomos room housed the gold reserves of Athens. Saint Ioannes Chrysostomos, a preacher and patriarch accounts the daily functioning of the temple: ‘Every man pays greater respect to the gods by going up to the temple of the goddess Athena and, falling before her, begs her to improve his reasoning so that he may better receive his lesson... they turn back and thank her for many benefactions in their private affairs.’19 Worship was held in high regard. Therefore the Parthenon was designed to accommodate the cult statue and the practice of religious rituals and prayer. The magnificence of the building was a dedication to the gods, and signalled their omnipresence. Figure 2.1 The Parthenon, Pagan Temple, Exterior Perspective

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18

Pre-Parthenon

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Davison, Lundgreen, 2009, 786


Figure 2.2 The Parthenon, Pagan Interior Cella, Prior to the Fire

During the occupation of Athens by Heruls in 267AD, a fire broke out in the temple. This destroyed the roof and significantly damaged the sanctuary’s interior. Many years after in 360AD a wooden roof was retrofitted over the cella as ordered by Emperor Julian. It was covered with clay tiles rather than the original marble, and it sloped at a greater height leaving the perimeter colonnade exposed. This was the first account of retrofitting on the structure, and was implemented as a means to partially repair but predominantly preserve what was left of the interior of building. The roof effectively functioned as a shelter for the cella – by using cheaper, lighter materials, there seemed to be more of a concern with effectively and perhaps quickly shielding the interior remains rather than exactly restoring the building as it once stood. Through also creating a higher pitched roof, rainfall and other substances were diverted onto the perimeter columns. It could be argued that Julian wanted a distinct aesthetic to his development of the Parthenon, imposing with retrofit, but it seems to be applied from a desire to preserve. Figure 2.3 Interior Cella after the Antiquity Fire

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The Parthenon functioned as a temple for over 1000 years with the addition of this roof, but in 435AD the Roman emperor Theodosius II closed all Pagan Temples within the Eastern Roman empire. The cult image of Athena was removed at this point and the nude sculptures and metopes were destroyed. Athens was subjected to a striking transformation in public architecture – with the coming of Christianity. There was a shift from ‘imposing exteriors and open-air monumental complexes to grand ailed enclosed interiors.’20 The Parthenon was retrofitted dramatically from a Greek temple to a Roman basilica styled church. Although there were many explicit additions, the greatest change was arguable to the orientation of the building through removal. The temples original eastern entrance was widened and blocked with an apse, and a new entrance was cut into the western facade, re-orientating the building east as conventional for churches. This allowed the interior eastern side to house an altar and iconostasis adjacent to an apse in place of the original portico entrance. The exterior spaces between the inner columns of the west porch were filled in with a low wall creating an exonarthex, and additional doors allowed access to this space. Through retrofitting interventions to divide the existing main chambers, the greater length formed three aisles: one large central and two smaller side aisles with interior colonnades. Light entered through rows of windows in the walls and the apse at the east end. The existing structural pillars and temple ruins remained. Through retrofitting over these ruins the Romans wanted to explicitly represent Christianities absorption of paganism. This assertion of dominance figuratively crushes and engulfs its opponent with a superior form rising above.

Figure 2.4 The Parthenon Pagan Temple, Plan

Figure 2.5 The Parthenon Christian Basilica, Plan

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19

Kaldellis, 2009, 64


The temples west chamber treasury became an interior narthex, with further entrances from both the north and south walls. The separated chambers were joined to the nave, and a baptistery was built in the north-western corner, with separating screens. Figure 2.6 The Parthenon, Eastern Exonarthex

The church nave was also defined by an upper floor gallery. This was created by retrofitting wooden floors between the two tier colonnade walls which previously enclosed the statue of Athena. New beams supported the gallery, and these were supported on new retaining walls built beside the temple walls. To gain more light, windows were punched through the retaining walls and the frieze on all sides of the upper gallery. As a rigorous case of a retrofit, the Parthenon was directly converted into a church, and became an attraction of the period. Its bold amalgamation of the temple and church form distinguished it amongst other conversions – many of which were entirely demolished and rebuilt. Although there is a clear attempt to reflect the Christian control of Paganism, through retaining a significant amount of the previous building, they coexisted in a unified manner. ‘One of the most notoriously pagan buildings of antiquity became one of the most Christian, without ever fully turning its back on its pagan past.’21 With the introduction of Roman Catholicism, in 1206AD further retrofitting included the addition of a conventional tower to the south west of the building and vaulted tombs in a new basement level. The tower served as a bell tower and observation point, calling worshipers and watching over the city. These additions dramatically reshaped the exterior forms – more explicitly symbolising Christianities appropriation of the pagan temple. Figure 2.7 The Parthenon, Retrofitted Christian Tower

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Kaldellis, 2009,70

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Figure 2.8 The Parthenon, Mosque Conversion, Perspective

The Church remained until 1456AD, when the Ottomans invaded Athens occupying the city and retrofitting the structure into a mosque. It has been cited that the conversion only took place as a punishment by Sultan Mehmed II to the Athenians for plotting to dissolve the rule of the Ottomans. Although the function would change, the building itself would see fewer changes than in the church conversion. The exterior of the Parthenon would embody Islamic convention, as the tower was replaced with a significantly taller minaret. The interior was subjected to more alterations, including the apse being changed with a mihrab, and a minbar being added as a pulpit for sermons to be delivered. Much of the Christian imagery and decoration was also removed, including the altar and iconostasis. The walls were painted white covering up further imagery of saints. Structurally however the Parthenon was unchanged, and its inital temple and church form could still be observed, as well as some sculptures that remained. The traveller Evliya Çelebi recounts his visit in 1667AD describing the building as an ‘impregnable fortress not made by human agency.’22 Retrofit has explicitly been utilised to represent the conquest of a land, partially dissolving what once stood to integrate a new dominant aesthetic.

Figure 2.9 The Parthenon, Mosque Conversion, Plan

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21

Stoneman, 2004, 209


Late into the 17th century the Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis, using the Parthenon as a gunpowder reserve. It was believed to be an ideal location, as Venetians valued the Parthenon’s Christian heritage. Unfortunately this was costly. During the attacks on Athens, cannon fire targeted the Parthenon, igniting the reserve and destroying most of the building. The Ottomans recapture the Acropolis and using both the materials and enclosure of the remaining structure built a smaller mosque on the site. This is a case of resourceful replacement, but was the final reimaging of the Parthenon. It stood there for over a century, until the building and remains were extensively looted. In 1802AD the British ambassador Lord Earl of Elgina, retrieved a number of marbles and sculptures, which were later curated in museums across Europe.

Figure 2.10 The Parthenon, Smaller Mosque, Plan and Section

The history of the Parthenon is intrinsically linked with retrofitting. The building has transformed through elements being, taken away, adapted and retained. Three dominant empires have asserted power through its implementation, and this has characterised the structures distinct amalgamation of religious conventions. However the spiritual essence of the structure has arguably been diluted through its multiple alterations across three religions; and a new primary function had been adopted. This was to represent and signal the power of a nation who could harness the Parthenon’s stature through retrofitting their architectural iconography.

Figure 2.11 The Destruction of the Parthenon, Venetian Attacks On The Acropolis

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‘In the Temple of Aphrodite the contrast between the elimination of ancient features on the exterior and the retention of classical components and monumentality on the interior makes a strong architectural statement’ -

Hans Buchwald, 1999, 6

The Temple of Aphrodite


Figure 3.1 Temple of Aphrodite, Temple Ruins

In the Turkish village of Geyre resided the Ancient Greek city of Aphrodisias. As a highly spiritual location it was named after the goddess of love, Aphrodite. Although a small and fairly isolated city, it maintained a prominent focal point with the temple of Aphrodite to the north. Unlike the gradual transformation of the Parthenon, the temple was dramatically altered in character when retrofitted into a Christian Basilica. Construction of the original temple began in the 1st century BC, and benefited from the immense local supply of marble, as well as the many Aphrodisian sculptors who contributed to its completion in the 2nd Century. As an octa-style temple, it was formed of a temenos or precinct with thirteen columns on each side and eight columns to the front and back of the building. Sometime after its completion with the conquest of Aphrodisias by the Byzantines, the temple was converted with retrofit into a larger and more significant church.

Figure 3.2 Temple of Aphrodite, Monumental Gateway

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A radical approach was taken in the conversion of the temple than that of the Parthenon. Instead of a precise dissection of the existing space, the cella walls were removed in their entirety. The columns to both sides of the peristasis were retained, to form colonnades creating a nave and side aisles, however were rearranged at greater intervals to extend the churches overall length. A new arrangement of exterior walls was constructed outside the peripteros on all sides of the church. An inscribed apse with internal side chambers was also added to the east and an atrium narthex were added to the west. With these changes, both the width and length area of the new church were considerably greater than of the original temple. The height was also increased because the outer aisle walls were made as tall as the peristasis and the clerestory walls which were around five metres higher than the original entablature of the temple. This holistic conversion created a nave which was almost twice as wide as the Parthenon’s and over one third longer. It was the largest church in western Asia Minor at the time, and the changes entirely engulfed the previous exterior form of the temple. Retrofitting had been brutally implemented to the facades of the temple erasing the imagery of the exterior structure, and explicitly representing Christianity with a lack of sympathy for Paganism. This however was dramatically contrasted within the interior. Although the church introduced a new gallery and wall structures; the existing columns were not integrated and remained visible from the nave and side aisles, standing unencumbered to their full original heights. Through removing the cella walls, the architect of the conversion created a new means to experience the peristasis columns of the ancient temple. Perhaps it was not an attempt to respect their historical presence, but through building around these elements a degree of preservation, altered their function to non-structural columns and created greater views of them. The columns of the peristasis formed colonnades between the nave and side aisles providing further spatial division and a monumental appearance, through containing such grand structures.

Figure 3.3 Temple of Aphrodite, Views from the Roman Amphitheatre

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The contrast between the elimination of the temples exterior and the retention of classical components and monumentality on the interior created a strong architectural statement. It reverses the approach utilised in the conversion of the Parthenon, where the Classical forms prevailed on the outside rather than on the functionally altered inside. This would have been surprising for visitors entering the building, as the conventional church exterior masks the explicit temple forms. Rather than portray a dominance of the temple, the conversion has somewhat respected its memory through enclosure for its ruins. This also makes a statement about the relationship between Christianity and Paganism. Robin Cormack suggests that ‘the retention of major Classical features communicated to the Byzantine observer the victory of new over old.’24 As Christian worshippers would have been aware of the pagan past of the building, through retaining some of its most iconic elements they are objectified and mocked. The Church forms a gallery for the abhorrent past of Paganism. By retaining vestiges of the temple, again Christianity conveys there power over the Pagans. Furthermore through positioning them as central attractions of the temple, and completely enclosing them, there is an explicit attempt to denote the looming size of the church, overwhelming paganism. Although this symbolism could have motivated the retrofit, there were also many practical reasons behind its application. The first being that the cella of the temple was about 6 metres wide, and this was not enough for the nave of a church, making its removal imperative. To then replace it with an existing colonnade of the peristasis was both reasonable and economical, as removing the columns would have been extremely intensive, and inevitably involved their demolition. Some of the changes were quite avoidable however. The lengthening of the nave could have been the same as the temple and the apse unit at the end of the peristasis could have been simply retrofitted to the pronaos. These alterations connote that the intention of the conversion was to provide an exceedingly large church, rather than one that simply functioned within the existing parameters. Retrofitting had allowed the architects to extensively impose the arrival of Christianity, and arguably humiliate the diminutive capabilities of the Pagans before them.

24

Cormack, 1990, 76

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Over the decades the church eventually decomposed with little to no maintenance. However some of the temple columns still stand with elements of the roof entablature and arches. The statue believed to be the original figure of Aphrodite was also found in 1962 outside the building and has been located in a museum in the city. To some degree retrofitting has respected the existence of the previous temple form, and ensured its survival over many years. However its implementation, like that of the Parthenon, was a means of control and the assertion of power. The dominant encapsulation of the classical temple architecture shaped the churches atmosphere and righteousness, and to some extent mocked the simplistic pagan design. Ultimately retrofitting was used in the dramatic growth of the building, creating a grander structure that relied on the conventions of both religions.

Figure 3.4 Temple of Aphrodite, Church Conversion Plan

Figure 3.5 Temple of Aphrodite, Ruins Perspective

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‘The Great Mosque of Cordoba is a highly representative religious building, testifying to the creative splendour of successive campaigns that form a rare beauty of historical relevance’ -

Lapunzina, 2005, 81

The Great Mosque Of Cordoba


In the Southern state of Andalusia Spain, is the city of Cordoba. It is home to one of the most celebrated religious buildings of Moorish architecture. The Great Mosque of Cordoba also known as the Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady and the Mezquita. In 572AD after an invasion by the Visigoths a Roman temple on the site was converted into a church. Once the land was again conquered by exiles of Damascus this church was converted into a mosque in 784AD. The mosque strikingly transformed overtime, with four main stages of retrofit that the ruling elites each contributed. This systematic expansion occurred over the period of two hundred years, with a functional change from mosque to cathedral in 1236AD. The Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman I wanted to create a mosque which would rival those in Damascus and the Muslim capital of Mecca. The church of St. Vincent was on the site, and the prince purchased this plot through negotiations. With his wealth and the leaders who followed, Rahman I was able to invest extravagant sums of money into the design, decoration and construction of the mosque. Although it would present Islam as a national religion, thousands of Christian citizens worked towards its completion. As such a large development the city benefited from an industrial boom of mining, consolidating many local resources. This included rare stones, marbles and metals. Whilst building upon the existing structure, the design directly related to the axial projections of his palace, and the mihrab was unconventionally orientated south and not southeast towards Mecca. Primarily the building was designed to surpass the grandness of mosques before it, and did not strictly adhere to religious convention.

Figure 4.1 The Great Mosque Of Cordoba, First Design, Plan

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Figure 4.2 Damascus Mosque Plan and Exterior Isometric


Figure 4.3 The Great Mosque of Cordoba Nave Sectional Detailing

Figure 4.4 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Prayer Hall

Figure 4.5 Red and White Arch Voussoirs

The construction began over the ruins of the Visigoth church. The central hall consisted of 110 columns that formed 11 naves. The capitals of these columns had been sourced from local ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and were connected with iconic red and white arch voussoirs. Arguably this was the first act of retrofitting in the building, through the reuse of existing elements and implementation of new iconic features, an eclectic but also unprecedented aesthetic is created from the imposition of the previously designed columns. The interior vividly presented classical architecture, but like Aphrodisias, the dominant mosque form overshadowed and contained these elements. These supported a second tier of arches, which were architectonic features shaping the poetics of the internal space. They consisted of a lower ‘horseshoe’ arch and upper semi-circular arch. Designed to divert and distort light entering the main hall, to create a highly atmospheric and spiritual interior. The building was completed towards the end of the decade, and embodied many of the prince’s goals, as he personally directed its creation. The floor plan can be clearly compared to many early mosques, particularly the Great Mosque of Damascus. Perhaps as retaliation for being exiled, the design represents new ideas and a new beginning for Islam that succeeds the old. The building facilitated the existing needs of the Muslim community, being primarily a rectangular prayer hall with naves arranged perpendicular to the qibla.26 The prayer hall was fairly large and level, and this was enclosed by stone walls and a timber ceiling supported by the repeating arches. 26

The direction that Muslims should face when praying

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Figure 4.6 The Great Mosque Of Cordoba, Interior Sermon Painting

The columns of the mosque incorporated many from the previous Roman church, whilst some were also gifts from provinces across Spain. Of these; the red marble columns were highly regarded. The interior and exterior were both lavishly decorated with ivory, jasper, gold, silver and copper, whilst intricate mosaics and scented woods decorated the walls. The mosque also functioned as a teaching hall and a Sharia law court.27 The buildings context maintained courtyards of orange and other exotic fruit trees. Both the prince and the citizens of Cordoba were content with the outcome, and the city benefited culturally and financially. With the diverse incorporation of conventions from Roman, Byzantine, Gothic, Persian and Syrian architecture, the building instigated a new ‘Califal’ style from the retrofitting of elements appropriated from multiple religious buildings. The style relied on their successful combination, both serving function and creating an original form. This evolved into a new aesthetic for the mosque, through their precise combination and beautiful connections. For many years the mosque went unchanged, but in 833AD under the rule of Abd ar-Rahman II, the mosque was expanded. This was achieved by retrofitting eight arches onto the existing structure, with white marble columns from a Roman amphitheatre.28 This repetition of the existing design caused the building to almost double in size. A staircase to the roof was also added. Whilst a new minaret was retrofitted, containing two staircases, for separate access and exit. The link to the palace was emphasised at this point with a bridge directly linking the prayer hall. These alterations accommodated a rise in population improving the functionality of the space; as the floor area of the prayer hall could now accept almost double the worshippers. Figure 4.7 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman II Expansion 1, Isometric

Figure 4.8 The Great Mosque of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman II Expansion 1, Plan

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27

The religious law of Islam

28

Merida


The minaret would also be used to encourage and call people to pray. However through creating a direct link to his palace Rahman II seemed to be accommodating his own self-grandeur. Arguably this strengthened his grip on the structure, by denoting his ease of access and representing his control over the nation’s religion. In 961AD Al Hakam II ruled Cordoba, and again expanded the structure whilst imposing his own ideals of the building. He felt that the mihrab needed to be more prominent and enriched. Through again repeating the composition of the main hall, the overall building was expanded southwards. The mosque covered an area of 140 Metres by 85 Metres. It was encased in fortified walls, with a watch tower and minaret. Nine outer gates and eleven exterior access doors were incorporated, each opening onto a single nave. The courtyard could be accessed from gates on the north, west, and east sides. He also introduced a cupola, which was formed of crossing arches and vaults and decorated with blue tiling and Islamic motifs. This dominant feature dramatically altered the interior, and was arguably reflecting a more conventional mosque form to complement the mihrab. He seemed to desire a return to the conventional forms of Islam. But this was also the first explicit juxtaposition of the new and old in the interior of the hall. Like the retrofit of the Temple of Aphrodite, visitors would perhaps be surprised when entering the building, as the exterior was a unique amalgamation of forms and the interior contrasted archaic Islamic motifs with a repetition of naves. This could also be reflecting the idea that the new design must grown from old conventions.

Figure 4.9 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Al Hakam II Expansion 2, Plan

Figure 4.10 Interior Cupola

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The final alterations to the building as a mosque were ordered by the caliph Almanzor in 987AD. This was arguably the biggest alteration, as it dramatically reshaped the urban context. The interior hall was to be enlarged, quadrupling the original size of the mosque with primarily blue and red marble columns. It reached its full dimensions with the completion of the outer naves and expansion of the northern courtyards. This use of retrofit relied primarily on repeating the existing elements, whilst not imposing an entirely new aesthetic; Almanzor desired a grander space through elaborating the existing repetition of columns. The Great Mosque of Cordoba was shaped as an Islamic monument for over three centuries. Retrofitting was primarily used towards the growth of the mosque shaping it as the core of the city. Muhammad Iqbal described its final mosque form as having: ‘countless pillars like rows of palm trees in the oasis of Syria.’29 The hall of worship evolved into a forest, connoting a natural growth that was also reflected in the courtyard spaces. Whilst there was recalling to the forms of early mosques.

Figure 4.11 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Almanzor Expansion 3

Figure 4.12 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Interior Prayer Hall

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Anwar, G. Chejne, 1974, 364


After many centuries, in 1236AD the Christians re-conquered Cordoba. King Ferdinand III consecrated the mosque as a Christian cathedral, and it would again be retrofitted under different kings. In the 14th century King Henry II converted the minaret of the mosque into a bell tower. However the most significant alteration occurred in 1523AD. Both the Catholic Church and King Charles V administrated the construction of a Christian cathedral, but directly inside the mosque. This was against the peoples will, as it would intrude into the mosque structure, requiring the extensive demolition of the central naves of the hall. The cathedral would also extend above the existing mosque height and was to be orientated perpendicularly to the existing buildings. The completed cathedral was an expansive renaissance structure. The internal layout intruded the regularity of the columns and arches. Through retrofitting with little consideration for the existing structure there were no clear alignment and access routes. It functioned separately to the mosque, maintaining no union, and the retrofit was incredibly unsympathetic.

Figure 4.13 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, King Charles V Retrofitted Cathedral, Plan

Figure 4.14 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Retrofitted Cathedral, Isometric Interior

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The atmosphere of equality and the spirit connoted by the large undivided naturally lit space had been voided. Perhaps it was intended to add to the eclectic style of the mosque, as the original grew from both the Gothic and Classical style, combining the Baroque and Renaissance elements of the cathedral. However it was formed of an isolated Cardinals Chapel, whilst the external space was enclosed with gated walls and colonnades, adhering to the conventions of a cathedral courtyard. There was also extensive Christian imagery as sculptures and paintings, which contrasted the rejection of pictorial representations of god and people within the mosque. When King Charles V visited the completed cathedral he was famously displeased by the outcome, believing that they had destroyed a unique piece of architecture to build something that was present in every city. This is shared with conservation theorists, as it is impossible to recall the ideologies of the mosque architects when adapting the building, as their individual ideas are unique to them and cannot be resurrected.

Figure 4.15 The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Aerial Perspective

Although this was regarded as destroying the history of the mosque, much of the original structure still stood. Its famous arcaded hypostyle hall remained with 856 columns. The red and white arch voussoirs have been a consistent feature throughout the buildings development. A significant amount of the original coloured mosaics and stained glass windows were retained. The interior walls of the mosque had also not been painted over and they maintained inscriptions from the Quran. The retrofit was negatively received by society; however it may have ultimately preserved the mosque form especially during the Spanish Inquisition. Up until the 18th century architects continued to add sculptural work and detail to the building. Retrofit has been an imperative action throughout its existence, shaping it into a bold amalgamation of religious forms.

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Retrofit In The Life Cycle


Reviewing Retrofit The application of retrofitting on these religious buildings has achieved a variety of outcomes. The aimed outcome of these can be categorised as one or more of these five objectives. The first and most apparent is in asserting dominance. Through retrofitting new elements and adapting those that exist for a different religion, the architect effectively harnesses the intricacies of that original design. They boast their understanding of the existing elements to take control of the building structurally and aesthetically. The second objective is similar, retrofitting to rival another building. The retrofit of a structure can drastically enhance it and has been demonstrated as a tool to adopt the conventions of another building and arguably surpass them. However retrofit is most apparent when utilised to improve the functionality of a building, this can be as dramatic as altering the entire layout of a space whilst also being the additional repetition of existing elements. Unlike this means to accommodate the mass use of a religious building, retrofit can be applied simply to reflect a self grandeur or the imposition of new ideas. The overriding reason to retrofit instead of completely demolish, is clearly the efficient reuse of resources. Each case to some degree has relied on the existing building or prebuilt elements, it is the most logical means to both develop and potentially preserve and building. Retrofitting has demonstrated its success when it takes into account the existing building first, then creates mediation on function, materiality and technology. The negative reactions to the Cordoba Cathedral retrofit demonstrated the incompatibility of retrofitting without consideration of the existing building. Whist the Aphrodite church conversion created a striking consistency that drew from the variation and opportunity of time. Religious architecture has presented the dilemma of spiritual and aesthetic symbolism. However much of this has remained individual to the associated religions or has been removed or covered with new retrofitted elements. With changes in religious buildings there does not have to be a direct correlation between the functions of the existing and intended religion. But ultimately the building will represent them through borrowing conventions, whilst placing the dominant aesthetic as the overall typology of the building.

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Conclusion Throughout this study it has become evident that conversions through retrofit have produced prominent but sometimes notorious religious buildings. These buildings have maintained key locations, in cities that themselves have evolved along with the structures. The conversion of temples to churches quickly produced places of worship for the rising Christian population, whilst also marking a significant leap in architectural design through the introduction of retrofit. This is particularly prominent in the Parthenon as the success of its inital conversion relied intrinsically with retrofitting. The building transformed by adapting and taking away some of the existing structure whilst adding significant forms such as the new roof and bell tower. As the building aged and was controlled by multiple empires its religious significance arguably became less of a priority, whilst its form appropriated a degree of power. The buildings active life span encompassed the eclecticism that resulted from multiple acts of retrofit, and the appropriation of the form became import to those who contributed to it. Through retaining the perimeter columns the Christians absorbed paganism whilst the Muslims relied on the Christian imagery to avoid Venetian attack. Whilst not every form existed at the same time, before its inital destruction, The Parthenon maintained clear representations of each stage of its development. Retrofitting both causes a building to grow whilst preserving elements that are deemed to be historically important. During the retrofit of the temple of Aphrodite, Christians also demonstrated a respected for the existing form. However its implementation was more explicitly representing an assertion of power. The temple architecture was encapsulated within the church, almost imprisoned by the greater religion. Through retrofitting over the structure a dramatic growth occurred whilst representing a completely new design image. A grander building formed, that ultimately relied on the existing temple form to achieve this growth. Retrofitting is an act of expanding and imposing upon a building, but relies on the existence of that building to develop. Its viability is directly related to the significance of the existing structure, and sometimes expands or alters the story of it existence.

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Although at times this story can be negatively received, like the Cathedral retrofitted to the Great Mosque of Cordoba. The distortion of the existing building occurred with a direct imposition of alternate alignment, architectural style, creating two individual forms mutated together. A correlation was not identified in the design stage between these elements, as the previous cases demonstrated, and the element to be retrofitted was incompatible. The earlier retrofitted expansion of the mosque was a highly effective action that was imperative to develop the structure into a renowned religious building. In some regards the added cathedral also created a bold, unprecedented religious form, which is appreciated more in its later life. Retrofitting into a basilica church form occurs both in the Parthenon and at Aphrodisias, and the internal arrangement required smaller degrees of change. This is because the conventional spaces of a Christian basilica; the nave, side aisles and apse could be interpreted successfully from features that already existed in the temples. The scheme would also have been easier to construct than a cathedral, with a limited amount of architectural expertise required. They are particularly simple versions, without transepts, or vaulting. This technique was common within the Byzantine Empire, who mass produced churches across Europe through retrofitting the Basilica form. It also would have been an explicit representation of Christianity, symbolically gesturing their control of the region. This is also true of Islamic conversions as minarets and domes explicitly connoted the mosque form and Muslim occupation.

Figure 5.1 The Parthenon

Figure 5.2 The Temple Of Aphrodite

Figure 5.3 The Great Mosque Of Cordoba

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Another consistent feature of both these retrofits is that they maintain their peristasis columns clearly reflecting their origins as temple. They were at least partly exposed which contrasts the removal or alteration of the walls of the cella and other chambers. The column was clearly an iconic representation of the temple; maintain the history and craft of its original construction. Through exhibiting these features as predominantly isolated amongst Christian forms, this idea of succession with retrofit is connoted. The rules of architecture become insufficient when retrofitting, and creative solutions achieve an effect outcome. It’s usually the most cost effective solution, however in Aphrodisias and Cordoba ingenious schemes to expand the buildings required both vast sums of money and material as well incredible effort and artistry. The contrast between the remains and the new religious solution resulted in an exciting architectural relationship. Many of the Parthenon’s classical forms were retained, but new spatial sequences were created in adapting the building. The church of Aphrodite relocated the peristasis columns, to expand the area of the building and exhibit them in a new and striking way. The retrofit of the Great mosque of Cordoba introduced new columns that replicated the existing nave forms to expand the main hall space. It’s not clear if the powerful effects achieved by retrofitting were intended in the conversion of these religious buildings. However there has been a conscious effort to demonstrate a development of architecture with retrofit and a predominant motif of victory and succession of the previous religion be it Paganism, Islam or Christianity.

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Nomenclature Apse – A semicircular recess with a hemispherical vault in church architecture, and generally contains the Altar. Basilica – A large oblong building, usually functioning as a church hall. Caliph – The title given to the ruler of an Islamic community ruled by Shari’ah. Cella – The inner chamber of a classical temple. Colonnades – A long sequence of columns, connected by an upper entablature. Hypostyle – A classical Greek temple hall, which has a roof supported by columns. Iconostasis – An eastern Christian wall featuring extensive religious imagery and separating the nave and sanctuary. Metope – A rectangular sculptural element between two triglyphs in classical architectural columns. Minbar – an elevated platform or sunken pit, where imam gives sermons in a mosque. Mihrab – A semi-circular wall niche that indicates the direction of prayer in a mosque. Narthex – the lobby area to the wet entrance of a Christian church or basilica. Nave – The central space formed of an aisle or aisles that approach the altar in a church. Octastyle – A classical temple that was formed around eight columns. Peripteros – A Greek or Roman temple, surrounded by a portico of columns. Peristasis – A four-sided hall that surrounds the cella of an ancient temple. Pronaos – The inner area of portico in a temple of classical architecture. Temenos – Land that is assigned to kings, and commonly used for religious building. Voussoir – A stone wedge that forms a vault or arch.

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References 1 - H. Buchwald, 1999, 3 - H. Buchwald, “Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?” in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 2 - Alexander, 1979, 385 - Alexander, Christopher. 1979. The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3 - Scott, 2008, 1 - Scott, Fred. 2007. On Altering Architecture. London: Taylor & Francis. 4 - Scott, 2008, 1 - Scott, Fred. 2007. On Altering Architecture. London: Taylor & Francis. 5 - H. Buchwald, 1999, 3 - H. Buchwald, “Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?” in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 6 - H. Buchwald, 1999, 3 - H. Buchwald, “Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?” in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 7 - Nelson, 2004, 20 - Nelson, Roberts S. 2004. Hagia Sophia, 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. 8 - Ruskin, 1865, 29 - Ruskin, John. 1865. The Seven Lamps Of Architecture. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 10 - Lassus, Viollet-Le-Duc, 1977, 62ff - Jokilehto, Jukka. 1999. A History Of Architectural Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 11 - Scott, 2008, 1 - Scott, Fred. 2007. On Altering Architecture. London: Taylor & Francis. 12 - Ruskin, 1865, 203 - Ruskin, John. 1865. The Seven Lamps Of Architecture. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 13 - Jokilehto, 1999, 174 - Jokilehto, Jukka. 1999. A History Of Architectural Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 14 - Ruskin, 1865 - Ruskin, John. 1865. The Seven Lamps Of Architecture. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 15 - The Athenaeum, 1877/Jokilehto,1999, 184 - Jokilehto, Jukka. 1999. A History Of Architectural Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 16 - Dunham-Jones, 2011, 8 - Dunham-Jones, Ellen. Williamson, June. 2011. Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions For Redesigning Suburbs. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 17 - Tournikiotis, Panayotis. 1996. The Parthenon And Its Impact On Modern Times. New York: Abrams Books. 19 - Davison, Claire Cullen, Lundgreen, Birte. 2009. Pheidias: The Sculptures & Ancient Sources, Volume 105, Part 2. London: Institute Of Classical Studies.

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20 - Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 21 - Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 22 - Stoneman, Richard. 2004. A Traveller’s History Of Athens. Northampton: Interlink Books. 23 - H. Buchwald, 1999, 3 - H. Buchwald, “Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?” in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 24 - Cormack, R, ‘The Temple As The Cathedral’ in Roueché, C. and K. T. Erim, eds. Aphrodisias Papers: Recent work on architecture and sculpture, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplemental Series, 1, Ann Arbor, MI, 1990, 75-88. 25 - Lapunzina, Alejandro. 2005. Architecture Of Spain. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. 29 - Anwar, G. Chejne. 1974. Muslim Spain: Its History and Culture. Minnesota: University Of Minnesota Press.

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Illustrations Cover Image. Retrofitting Religion, Image By Orhan Unlu 1.1. Analytical Diagram of Religious Retrofit, Image By Orhan Unlu 1.0. Introduction Cover Image. Retrofit Sequence, [image online] Available at: http://1. bp.blogspot.com/-LpXNG9hho6I/TZj9t8Uut2I/AAAAAAAADJM/O7cLi-gsmtI/s1600/ Squares+Matt+Noiseux.jpg [Accessed 04 December 2013] 1.2. Parthenon Interior Isometric. [image online] Available at: http://fsunw9.ferris. edu/~norcrosa/2006WEB/Greek-Classical.html [Accessed 25 February 2014] 1.3. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Interior Isometric [image online] Available at: http:// www.musliminstitute.org/sites/default/files/Untitled4.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014] 1.4. The Scales Of Retrofit, City-Wide, Building and Technology or Sculpture, Sketch By Orhan Unlu 1.5. Notre Dame, Elevation Proposal, Viollet-Le-Duc, Including New Tower Design. [image in book]: Jokilehto, Jukka. 1999. A History Of Architectural Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 1.6. The Quarry, John Ruskin. [image online] Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/ painting/ruskin/drawings/29.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014] 2.0. Parthenon Cover Image 1, Pagan Acropolis 400BC, [image online] Available at: http://rubens.anu.edu.au/raid2/no_dgb/western_art/western_sorted.html [Accessed 26 February 2014] 2.0. Cover Image 2, Parthenon timeline, Image By Orhan Unlu 2.1. The Pagan Parthenon, [image online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=DbkgtsHGDJc [Accessed 26 February 2014] 2.2. The Parthenon, Pagan Interior Cella [image online] Available at: http://rubens.anu. edu.au/raid2/no_dgb/western_art/western_sorted.html [Accessed 26 February 2014] 2.3. Interior Cella after the Antiquity Fire, [image in book]: Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2.4. The Parthenon Temple Plan, [image in book]: Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2.5. The Parthenon Church Plan, [image in book]: Kaldellis, Anthony. 2009. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2.6. Parthenon Eastern Exonarthex, [image online] Available at: http://www.ekt.gr/parthenonfrieze_text_version/images/introduction/church.jpg [Accessed 26 February] 2.7. The Parthenon, Retrofitted Christian Tower, [image online] Available at: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=DbkgtsHGDJc [Accessed 26 February 2014] 2.8. The Parthenon, Mosque Conversion, Perspective, [image online] Available at: http:// exhibitingcontext.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/history3.jpg [Accessed 26 February 2014]

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2.9. The Parthenon, Mosque Conversion, Plan, [image online] Available at: http://www.eie.gr/byzantineattica/view.asp?cgpk=490&lg=en&obpk=439&xsl=detail# [Accessed 27 February 2014] 2.10. The Parthenon, Smaller Mosque, Plan and Section, [image online] Available at: http://www.apan.gr/en/Content/EventDetails/44 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 2.11. The Destruction of the Parthenon, Venetian Attacks, [image online] Available at: http://www.shafe.co.uk/crystal/images/lshafe/Parthenon_destruction_after_F_Fanelli_British_Museum.jpeg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 3.0. Cover Image Temple of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias, [image online] Available at: http://www.arch.ox.ac.uk/APH1.html [Accessed 27 February 2014] 3.1. Temple of Aphrodite, Temple ruins, [image online] Available at: http:// www.travellinkturkey.com/aegean/aphrodisias/aphrodisias_templeofaphrodite. jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 3.2. Temple of Aphrodite, Monumental Gateway [image online] Available at: http://www.travellinkturkey.com/aegean/aphrodisias/aprodisias_tetrapylon.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 3.3. Temple of Aphrodite, Views from the Roman Amphitheatre [image online] Available at: http://www.travellinkturkey.com/aphrodisias.html [Accessed 27 February 2014] 3.4. Temple of Aphrodite, Church Conversion Plan [image in journal]: H. Buchwald, ‘Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?’ in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 3.5. Temple of Aphrodite, Ruins Perspective [image in journal]: H. Buchwald, ‘Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?’ in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 4.0. Cover Image, The Great Mosque Of Cordoba, Watercolour Perspective [image online] Available at: http://lh3.ggpht.com/-WQfsQjWVRSg/TYRe8wZjXAI/AAAAAAAAFlw/oNvjRN7aOsw/w1000/4590549298.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.0. Cover Image, The Great Mosque Of Cordoba Plans [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1238/original/FLS1286. jpg?1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.0. Cover Image, Cathedral Of Cordoba Plan [image online] Available at: http://www.cbcurtis.net/benedict/Humanities%20Site/images/islam_plan.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.1. Great Mosque Of Cordoba, First Building Plan [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1238/original/FLS1286. jpg?1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.2. Damascus Mosque Plan and Exterior Isometric [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1272/original/FLS1320.

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jpg?1384750189 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.3. The Great Mosque of Cordoba Nave Details [image online] Available at: http://www. vincico.com/jimla/s51a3/a15.html [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.4. Cordoba, Prayer Hall [image online] Available at: http://www.paradoxplace. com/Photo%20Pages/Spain/Andalucia/Cordoba/Images/800/Old-Arches-May06DC6274sAR800.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.5. Cordoba, Red and White Arch Voussoirs [image online] Available at: http://www. lashworldtour.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/La-Mezquita-14.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.6. Cordoba, Interior Sermon Painting [image online] Available at: http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Edwin-Lord-Weeks/Interior-Of-The-Mosque-At-Cordova.html [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.7. Great Mosque of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman Expansion 1, Isometric, From Sketch Up Model, by Orhan Unlu 4.8. Great Mosque of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman Expansion 1, Plan [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1238/original/FLS1286. jpg?1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.9. Great Mosque of Cordoba, Al Hakam II Expansion 2, Plan [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1238/original/FLS1286. jpg?1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.10. Interior Cupolas [image online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Plafond_mihrab_mosquee_cordoue.jpg1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.11. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Almanzor Expansion 3, Plan [image online] Available at: http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/1238/original/FLS1286. jpg?1384750163 [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.12. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Interior Prayer Hall [image online] Available at: http://archsoc.westphal.drexel.edu/New/Cordoba9.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.13. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, King Charles V Retrofitted Cathedral, Plan [image online] Available at: http://www.cbcurtis.net/benedict/Humanities%20Site/images/islam_ plan.jpg [Accessed 27 February 2014] 4.14. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Retrofitted Cathedral, Isometric Interior [image online] Available at: http://www.musliminstitute.org/sites/default/files/Untitled4.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014] 4.15. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Aerial Perspective [image online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Mezquita-Catedral_ de_C%C3%B3rdoba.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014] 5.0. Cover Image, Retrofit In The Life Cycle, Image By Orhan Unlu 5.1. The Parthenon, Ruinous Form [image online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/The_Parthenon_in_Athens.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014]

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5.2. The Temple Of Aphrodite, Ruinous Gateway, [image online] Available at: http://www.arch.ox.ac.uk/APH1.html [Accessed 25 February 2014] 5.3. The Great Mosque Of Cordoba, [image online] Available at: http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/images/mosquecordobaextb.jpg [Accessed 25 February 2014]

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Journals -Allen, I 2012, ‘Retrofit as creative catalyst’, Architects’ Journal, 236, 3, pp. 58-61, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 November 2013. -Bayer, Charlene, 2010, ‘A Guide to Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings’ [PDF]AIA. Available at: <http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab082942.pdf>[Accessed 13 November 2013]. -Campbell, I, Doig, S, Gatlin, D, Malkin, A, Pogue, D, Quartararo, R, Gollis, R, Turcotte, J, & Lockwood, C 2009, ‘Building retrofits: green retrofitting of buildings is one of the most significant development activities going on today’, Urban Land, 68, 11, pp. 46-53, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCOhost, viewed 9 November 2013. -Cormack, R, ‘Byzantine Aphrodisias: Changing the Symbolic Map of a City’ in the Cambridge Philological Society, 36, 1990, 26-41. -Cormack, R, ‘The Temple As The Cathedral’ in Roueché, C. and K. T. Erim, eds. Aphrodisias Papers: Recent work on architecture and sculpture, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplemental Series, 1, Ann Arbor, MI, 1990, 75-88. -Eames, M, Dixon, T, May, T, & Hunt, M 2013, ‘City futures: exploring urban retrofit and sustainable transitions’, Building Research & Information, 41, 5, pp. 504-516, Art Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 10 November 2013. -H. Buchwald, ‘Retrofit – Hallmark of Byzantine Architecture?’ in Form, Style and Meaning in Byzantine Church Architecture, VIII, Aldershot 1999, 9-17, 21 -Harrington, SM 1992, ‘Shoring up the Temple of Athena’, Archaeology, 45, 1, pp. 30-43, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 November 2013. -Jones, P, Lannon, S, & Patterson, J 2013, ‘Retrofitting existing housing: how far, how much?’, Building Research & Information, 41, 5, pp. 532-550, Art Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 10 November 2013. -Lubell, S 2002, ‘Parthenon’s rebuilding may be aided by laser-scanning technology’, Architectural Record, 190, 6, pp. 175-176, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 November 2013.

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Films -Manolis090. 2009.History of Parthenon [Online Video]. Available From: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=ZuCVbQod6fs [Accessed 04 December 2013] -TEDxAtlanta. 2010. Ellen Dunham-Jones: Retrofitting Suburbia [Online Video]. Available From: http://www.ted.com/talks/ellen_dunham_jones_retrofitting_suburbia.html [Accessed 04 December 2013]

Websites -Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrofitting Definition (Online). Available From: http:// oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/retrofit (Accessed 25th September 2013). -Crown. 2013. Green Deal, Government Aims (Online). Available From: https://www.gov. uk/green-deal-energy-saving-measures/how-the-green-deal-works (Accessed 25th September 2013).

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Retrofitting Religion: The Life Cycle of Buildings