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THE OAE AND THE
BRANDENBURGS CONCERTOS 1987 – 2017
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PERFORMANCES OF AT LEAST ONE CONCERTO: PENRITH
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A MESSAGE FROM OUR MAJOR SPONSORS
am delighted to welcome you to tonightâ€™s concert, Bach: The Brandenburgs by the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment.
Jupiter has been sponsoring the Orchestra since 1999 and over the past seventeen years we have established a successful partnership based on our shared strengths of integrity and innovation. Founded just one year apart, in 1985 and 1986 respectively, Jupiter and the OAE have much in common. Like the Orchestra, over the past three decades Jupiter has also developed an impressive reputation for expertise and professionalism - albeit in the field of fund management rather than music! I hope that you will enjoy listening to another memorable performance from the OAEâ€™s fine musicians. Maarten Slendebroek CEO, Jupiter Asset Management
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OAE and the Brandenburg Concertos Instruments: Horn Instruments: Oboe Instruments: Flute Instruments: Violin Support Us Instruments: Recorder Instruments: Viola Instruments: Trumpet Instruments: Harpsichord Instruments: Cello etc. OAE Education News OAE Team Supporters
67 8 12 Tonightâ€™s concert
This concert is generously supported by Julian & Annette Armstrong and Jupiter Asset Management.
Tuesday 2 May 7pm St John’s Smith Square
The concert will finish at approximately 9pm, including a 20 minute interval. Pre-concert performance at 5.45pm in the hall – free admission.
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750)
CONCERTO NO 1 IN F MAJOR
I [Allegro] II Adagio III Allegro IV Menuet–Trio–Menuet–Poloinesse–Menuet– Trio–Menuet
CONCERTO NO 4 IN G MAJOR
I Allegro II Andante III Presto
CONCERTO NO 6 IN B FLAT MAJOR
CONCERTO NO 3 IN G MAJOR
I [Allegro] II Adagio ma non tanto III Allegro
CONCERTO NO 5 IN D MAJOR
I [Allegro ] II Andante III Allegro assai
I [Allegro] II Adagio III Allegro
I Allegro II Affetuoso III Allegro
CONCERTO NO 2 IN F MAJOR
NBURGS PLAYERS BY CONCERTO:
1 4 6 3 2 5
Violino piccolo Oboe Horns Violins Viola Cello Double Bass Oboes Bassoon Harpsichord
Huw Daniel Katharina Spreckelsen Roger Montgomery Nicholas Benz Pavlo Beznosiuk Oliver Cave Max Mandel Luise Buchberger Cecelia Bruggemeyer Mark Baigent Geoff Coates Zoe Shevlin Steven Devine
Violins Violas Cellos Double Bass Harpsichord
Pavlo Beznosiuk Huw Daniel Oliver Cave Max Mandel Simone Jandl Annette Isserlis Luise Buchberger Richard Tunnicliffe Emily Ashton Cecelia Bruggemeyer Steven Devine
Violin Flute Harpsichord Violin Viola Cello Double Bass
Pavlo Beznosiuk Lisa Beznosiuk Steven Devine Huw Daniel Simone Jandl Luise Buchberger Cecelia Bruggemeyer
Violin Recorders Violins Viola Cello Double Bass Harpsichord
Pavlo Beznosiuk Rebecca Miles Ian Wilson Huw Daniel Oliver Cave Simone Jandl Luise Buchberger Cecelia Bruggemeyer Steven Devine
Violas Gambas Cello Violone Harpsichord
Simone Jandl Max Mandel Richard Tunnicliffe Emily Ashton Luise Buchberger Cecelia Bruggemeyer Steven Devine
Violin Recorder Oboe Trumpet Violins Viola Cello Double Bass Harpsichord
Pavlo Beznosiuk Rebecca Miles Katharina Spreckelsen David Blackadder Huw Daniel Oliver Cave Max Mandel Luise Buchberger Cecelia Bruggemeyer Steven Devine
A CAREER CRAFTSMAN
oday we recognise Johann Sebastian Bach as one of the great geniuses of history. But Bach’s career as a musical functionary in early eighteenth-century Germany was relatively uneventful. Bach held down a string of court and church jobs but only his final appointment, as Cantor at St Thomas’s School and Music Director in Leipzig, was one with real prestige. Bach, in fact, was no stranger to professional rejection. He had to fight his own cause, argue his own merits and spot his own opportunities as much as any artisan of the time. Sometimes, as a conscientious craftsman whose chief priority was the glorification of God, Bach was outgunned in that department. Thankfully, the composer’s legacy rests on his unwavering and superlative compositional skill, even though he would never have expected his creations to outlive him. Bach’s output reflects the musical specifics of his various places of employment: he wrote mostly organ music during his time as a church musician in Arnstadt and Mülhausen; he focused on instrumental works when serving at the court at Cöthen where he had no church duties at all; his huge catalogue of vocal cantatas came from his time leading the large group of musicians of St Thomas’s in Leipzig. But it was back in Cöthen that Bach experienced the professional frustrations that would spawn the masterpiece we hear tonight. In 1717, the composer moved from Weimar, where he had served as organist to the ducal court, to Cöthen, where the reigning aristocrat Prince Leopold had assembled a capable ensemble of musicians. Bach sensed this
ensemble would inspire him to significant creativity in the instrumental genres he’d tasted but not fully explored in Weimar. He applied for the post as the Prince’s music director and was appointed. For four years at Cöthen, Bach indulged in the instrumental composing that had been lacking in his mostly church-based work up to that point. But in 1721, Leopold married a woman who didn’t like Bach and admired his music even less. The composer saw the writing on the wall. He targeted another potential employer, the Margrave of Brandenburg, writing six instrumental concertos for the Margrave and sending them off to him unsolicited. That action and its repercussions are puzzling on many levels. The Margrave had met Bach in 1719, had heard him play the harpsichord and had even requested a score from him. So why did Bach wait so long to respond? More pertinently, why would Bach write a set of concertos scored for such varied instruments (everything from the viol to the trumpet) and send it to an aristocrat who had no such ensemble to perform it? There’s no straightforward answer to either question, not least as the Margrave probably never mounted a performance of the concertos. He apparently didn’t even acknowledge receipt of the full score from Bach, which was discovered in pristine condition on the shelves of the court library long after both men had died. The general consensus is that the pieces never got any further; Bach never mentioned them and there is no word of them in CPE Bach’s obituary of his father. But some say the Margrave’s response might have been lost; that the concertos would never have been played from a full score anyway, but from individual instrumental parts. Even so, if the so-called Brandenburg Concertos were intended as a professional calling card, they didn’t work. Bach’s next move was to Leipzig.
Left: Portrait of JS Bach by EG Haussmann, 1746
THE IDEA OF A CONCERTO
ad the Margrave so much as glanced at the score for Six Concertos With Several Instruments Bach had sent him, he might have sensed from doing so that the composer had delivered something superlative. The Brandenburg Concertos are the culmination of Bach’s instrumental project born in Weimar and matured in Cöthen. They reveal how much the composer knew about other styles in Europe and how much he could assimilate them into his own, bettering both in the process. The Brandenburg Concertos are best approached without the baggage we associate with the word ‘concerto’ today. There are, effectively, no solo instruments in the Third and Sixth Concertos at all. Where there are solo instruments in the other concertos, they emerge from within the bustling textures of the instrumental discourse itself. The latter technique was an established tenet of the Italian ‘concerto grosso’ style. But Bach also knew all about the emerging trend for solo concertos associated chiefly with Antonio Vivaldi. Vivaldi’s concertos nicknamed The Four Seasons probably stand with Bach’s Brandenburgs as the most loved and accomplished instrumental works of the baroque period. Bach can be said to have fused both the ‘solo’ and ‘grosso’ concerto traditions in his Brandeburgs, investing the resulting language with many of his own characteristics at the same time. The concertos for the Margrave, for example, are dominated by contrapuntal discussion in a way their texturally simpler Italian counterparts
weren’t. In other words, the movement of the music’s inner voices and the creation of its harmony (as a direct result) is not only far more intrinsic but also more calligraphic and sophisticated. Bach even indulged his penchant for fugue – the complex and ‘ultracontrapuntal’ discussion of a theme, introduced by different instruments or instrumental groups at staggered intervals (the best example comes at the end of the Fifth Concerto). Elsewhere, he introduced his own novelties – allowing the soloists to seize the full ensemble’s material and introducing long cadenzas or improvisatory flourishes (also noticeable in the Fifth Concerto). But the Brandenburg Concertos didn’t just take the respective concerto traditions to their upper limits. Nor did they just prove more analytically complex and deeply satisfying than their predecessors (thanks largely to Bach’s fondness for number games and long-route symmetry). They also wedded dynamism, contrast and instrumental dexterity while proving far more than the sum of those parts. The very word ‘concerto’ implies such dynamism and contrast: a musical dialogue founded on competition and rivalry but also concord and common purpose. The Italian harpsichordist and conductor Rinaldo Alessandrini sums up Bach’s ‘concertante’ concept in the Brandenburgs thus: ‘each instrument must defend its own ideas with the utmost conviction and show great assurance in the tight-knit dialogue with others.’ Bach realised that concept with unmatched skill in the Brandenburgs, but with a degree of flair too. It feels as though he wanted the concertos to grab attention, infused as they are with that bit more energy, alchemy and ‘show’. It remains a sad irony that Bach’s actual completed score, let alone its inherent treasures, apparently failed to attract any attention whatsoever.
SIX CONCERTOS WITH SEVERAL INSTRUMENTS
s well as a wide armory of solo instruments, we hear a huge array of textures in the Brandenburg Concertos – from the high and light to the deep and dark, and sometimes fusions of both. Often there are distinct and sudden shifts in texture even within single movements. In the final movement of the First Concerto, for example, the music appears to journey at the last through all the varying landscapes already heard: the polite courtly dance and the rustic hunt; the broadly-painted and the intensely focused. This concerto, for horns, oboes, ‘violino piccolo’ (a small violin sounding a fourth above a standard instrument) and strings, is distinguished by the depth of its scoring and by its four movement structure. The concertos that follow all fall into the standard Italian format of three movements, fast-slow-fast. Bach further explores the idea of contrast in the Second Concerto by writing for solo instruments that sound at a similar pitch but by different means of production: trumpet, flute, oboe and violin. This concerto is probably the closest Bach got to the Italian concerto grosso model. As such, the opening solos are stated simply, only slowly moving towards interactivity. More striking are the textural conditions of the united solo group; the trumpet, for example, is asked to play with all the pinpoint dexterity of instruments that are generally considered far lighter. Bach’s chosen sonorities also present him with a challenge in the Third Concerto for three violins, three violas and three cellos. But the result is a masterpiece of balance. The pivotal
Adagio, comprising just two chords, flips the concerto into a binary reflection of two bustling Allegros. On top and underneath, there are fascinating number games at work: the three sets of three solo instruments together fragment their material into little sets of three, often marked-out by three-note rhythmic patterns. Nobody knows for sure what instruments Bach had in mind when he designated ‘flauti d’eco’ in his Fourth Concerto. These days, flutes or recorders take the role of these two subsidiary solo instruments that echo the sentiments of the solo violin. It may effectively be a violin concerto, but the lolling, pastoral sound of the recorder family becomes the concerto’s predominant sound. Not even that, however, can stop Bach writing a grand fugue to end. Bach’s Fifth Concerto is the first in history in which the keyboard is freed from its role as the harmonic linchpin at the centre of the ‘continuo’ group, becoming instead a soloistic entity in its own right (albeit with flute and violin for company). Thus, this first keyboard concerto in history explores the potential of the latest harpsichord technology in a free and improvisatory style that has been said to foreshadow Mozart’s piano concertos. Somehow, the instrument maintains its role as accompanist and facilitator at the same time. The Sixth Concerto was probably the first to be written. Bach’s inclusion of old-style, mellow-sounding viola da gambas (precursors to the cello) is a sure sign that he intended the scores to be performed with one instrument per part, without which the gambas would have been drowned out. With these toneddown colours and a restricted range, Bach trusts in singing melodies and lilting dances to carry his conversation forward. But the muted tones of this concerto also underline the principle of deep listening from player to player; Bach wrote that into his music, but clearly hoped to instill it in his musicians too. Programme notes by Andrew Mellor © 2017
INSTRUMENTS: THE HORN
n Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 1, you’ll find the horn players using one of the most primitive set ups of any that we use in the OAE. I’ll be playing a new instrument I’ve had made, a copy of an Eichentopf horn from Leipzig in 1738, made by Luke Woodhead. Although the instrument is still quite long, it’s got quite a small bore, and the bell is very small. This means we don’t play with the hand in the bell like we would for 19th century and modern French horn music. This gives the horn quite a direct and unfiltered sound. The natural series of notes we have available to us on these instruments is very widely spaced at the bottom and gets closer and closer together at the top. The options for writing music for these horns is you either have very simple tonic fanfares in the middle register or more intricate music high up. Bach uses both of these in the Brandenburg concerto. The shrillness, directness and high tessitura of the baroque horn disappeared once players started putting their hands in the bell of the instrument, and that ushered in the modern era of the sound of the horn. – Roger Montgomery, Co-Principal Horn
© Alexa Kidd-May
MONTGOMERY Principal Horn
Roger studied at the University of York and at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama with Anthony Halstead. Interested in contemporary music and period instrument performance, he plays horn with many of the leading groups in both fields, and is a member of the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House.
Nick enjoys a busy and varied career as both a period instrument specialist and modern horn player. Since studying with Roger Montgomery at Trinity College of Music, Nick has gone on to perform and record with all the leading british period instrument ensembles, in addition to freelancing in London’s major symphony orchestras and West End shows.
INSTRUMENTS: THE OBOE
CERTAIN KEYS TO EXPRESS CERTAIN MOODS.
he oboe I use to play baroque repertoire looks very different from the modern oboe. Probably the biggest difference is its colour. Modern oboes are made out of a black, hard wood. Mine, like many of its time, is made of boxwood, which is much, much softer. The sound too is softer, less penetrating and more mellow. The second difference is the lack of keys. I only use two keys. Everything else, like on a recorder, is covered directly by my fingers. For certain semitones I’ve got to use half-holing or cross-fingering, which opens up a whole new variety of sounds and colours. Bach was amazing at using certain keys to express certain moods. He would set something in C minor, which needs half holes and cross-fingerings so the whole scale is much more mellow than something in C or D major which uses a lot of straight fingering. That is something that got lost with the addition of keys. I feel incredibly passionate that the lack of keys should never be seen as a disadvantage. At the OAE we try to bring to you different repertoire from different centuries on different instruments, so you can experience the different sound worlds that these instruments create. – Katharina Spreckelsen, Co-Principal Oboe
AMAZING AT USING
Born in Germany, Katharina Spreckelsen studied first with the late Michel Piguet in Basle and then with Paul Goodwin in London. She has worked as principal oboist with many European ensembles, is in demand internationally both as a concerto and obligato soloist, and has recorded extensively. Katharina is committed to teaching and is currently professor of baroque and classical oboe at the Royal Academy of Music.
INSTRUMENTS: THE FLUTE
he flute I use in OAE for playing baroque composers such as Bach is made of grenadilla wood and is about ten years old. It was made in south Germany by Martin Wenner and is a copy of an original instrument from the mid18th century by Carlo Palanca. The original instrument is in a private collection. Woodwind players tend to play copies because the originals often deteriorate, which is opposite to how violins and cellos seem to get better with age. It’s different from a modern flute in that it’s made of wood. It’s also a very simple
THE SOUND IS
instrument compared to a modern flute. The wood makes the sound gentler, and the size of the blowing hole is smaller, therefore the sound is sweeter and smaller and not as loud. There’s less volume, but to my ear a lot of subtlety with each note. Due to the fact there are only six holes, we have to use cross fingerings, which means all of the notes have their own colour. – Lisa Beznosiuk, Principal Flute
SWEETER SMALLER LISA
BEZNOSIUK Principal Flute
Lisa has an international reputation as an historical flautist, having performed and recorded a wide range of 18th and 19th century music on a variety of flutes from her own collection. Her solo recordings include Bach and Handel sonatas and concertos by Vivaldi and Mozart. Lisa is proud to be a founding member of OAE and has been involved in programme planning and season curation. She is also a passionate teacher and coach, holding positions at Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music and Guildhall School.
THAN A MODERN
INSTRUMENTS: THE VIOLIN
IT’S NOT ONLY ABOUT
THE INSTRUMENTS, BUT ALSO ABOUT THE WAY WE
©Tim Mintiens (timmintiens.nl) / Jumpstart Jr. Foundation
Pavlo Beznosiuk has secured a formidable reputation as one of Europe’s most respected Baroque violinists with a busy international career as soloist, chamber musician, concertmaster and increasingly as a director. This season sees Pavlo appearing as soloist and director in Poland, Bulgaria, Thailand and China as well as numerous performances throughout Europe and the UK and concerts and recordings with Reinhard Goebel, James Gilchrist, Alison Balsom and Avi Avital.
Huw Daniel was a pupil at Ysgol Gyfun Ystalyfera, South Wales, and then studied at Robinson College, Cambridge and the Royal Academy of Music. He plays with OAE, Dunedin Consort, Irish Baroque Orchestra, and leads Orquestra Barroca Casa da Música, Porto. Huw plays a violin by Alessandro Mezzadri c.1720, on loan from the Jumpstart Junior Foundation.
or Brandenburg Concertos 2 to 5, I’ll be playing an Italian Baroque violin made by Alessandro Mezzadri in Ferrara in the 1720s. The baroque violin has catgut strings made from sheep intestines. The angle of the neck is different from a modern violin – it’s parallel with the rest of the body – and the fingerboard is shorter because you don’t need to play as high in this repertoire. I’m also playing the solo violin part of Brandenburg 1, written for the piccolo violin, on an instrument made by Jacob Stainer in 1659. It’s smaller and tuned a minor 3rd higher than a normal violin, which makes it a good key for playing alongside the horns and oboes. The bow is perhaps what’s changed the most between when Bach was writing and modern violins. It’s a completely different shape, the curve goes outwards rather than inwards. There’s less hair, and the hairs are less rigid. It creates a very incisive sound especially when you’re playing fast notes, while a modern bow is designed to sustain the sound. We play these instruments because they suit the music, they are the instruments the music was written for. But it’s not only about the instruments, but also about the way we play them. That at the end of the day makes even more of a difference. – Huw Daniel, violin
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Our education work reaches over 12,000 participants annually across the UK. The Night Shift, our pioneering late night series of informal performances, now tours internationally attracting audiences of over 4,000 each year. We love what we do and weâ€™re proud of our international reputation for performing with warmth, imagination and expertise.
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INSTRUMENTS: THE RECORDER
ystery surrounds Bach’s score for Brandenburg 4, which uses the term ‘fiauti d’echo’ for the two recorder parts. While this part is generally played on recorder rather than the flute, that phrase ‘d’echo’ remains more controversial. Is it because at times the recorders echo the piano phrases? Or because they echo each other in the first movement? Or even that Bach wanted two instruments to be combined together to create an ‘echo flute’? Various hypotheses have been put forward, but no-one knows for sure. Regardless, the recorder was widely used by all the great Baroque composers, who treated it as a serious instrument before it gained the rather unfortunate reputation as an instrument you play in school that it has today. While the flute and recorder are from the same family of reedless wind instruments, a key difference between the instruments of Bach’s time (and now) lies in something called a ‘fipple’, which the recorder has but the flute doesn’t. This is a mouthpiece that compresses the air when it’s blown into the recorder. While this makes the recorder an easier instrument to play for beginners, becoming a world-class recorder player takes as much skill as any other instrument. – OAE Staff
Rebecca Miles studied recorder and baroque violin at Trinity College of Music. She has appeared all over the world in performances and recordings either as obbligato or solo recorder player, or as violinist. For almost 25 years she was Professor of Recorder at Trinity College of Music. She teaches at Winchester College as well as giving lecture recitals, master classes and examining at the UK Conservatoires.
Ian is the principal recorder professor at the Guildhall School of Music & Drama and Head of Woodwind at Eton College. He is a founder member of the Flautadors Recorder Quartet, a group that celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.
MYSTERYSURROUNDS THE RECORDER
We play on gut strings, which are more sensitive to humidity changes than the metal or synthetic strings which nowadays are widely used on modern instruments but were only invented around a century ago. The use of gut strings requires a different approach from the player – they are a lot less forgiving when you apply too much force for example, but also need some speed and decisiveness to actually produce some sound. My instrument is a copy of an Odoardi model from the 18th century, which was made in 2006 by Eduard Schwen in Germany, the bow is also a modern-made copy by Maryan Atwood. – Simone Jandl, Co-Principal Viola
or the Brandenburg concertos, we will be using Baroque violas, their main visible differences to modern violas being the angle of the neck to the body of the instrument, length of the fingerboard and the shape of the bridge and tailpiece. The baroque viola is lighter and the tension of the strings is lower, which means it sounds softer than a modern viola. We are not using chinrests or shoulder rests, which means we have to support our instrument mainly with the thumb of the left hand. Whereas a shoulder rest enables you to move more freely along the fingerboard, playing without it allows more movement when you move between top and bottom strings.
YOU NEED AND TO ACTUALLY PRODUCE THE
Max enjoys a varied and acclaimed career as a chamber musician, soloist, orchestral musician and speaker. He is Co-Principal Viola of the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment. He is also a member of the trailblazing ensembles The FLUX quartet and The Knights. Born and raised in Toronto, Canada, he divides his time between New York and London
As well as being co-principal viola in the OAE, she is a member of the Spira mirabilis project and the Chamber Orchestra of Europe, and is a regular guest with the Dunedin Consort. She also holds a teaching position at the Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler in Berlin, where she currently lives. She enjoys swimming, dancing and reading and is fluent in German, English, Italian and Spanish.
INSTRUMENTS: THE TRUMPET
TRUMPET PLAYERS WERE THE
BLACKADDER Principal Trumpet
David took up the trumpet aged nine following in the footsteps of his grandfather who was a bandmaster in the North East, and went on to study at the Royal College of Music with Michael Laird. He is principal trumpet with the Academy of Ancient Music and a professor at Birmingham Conservatoire.
he first thing to notice about my trumpet is that it doesn’t look like a modern trumpet. It’s much longer and doesn’t have any valves. With valves you can use combinations to produce a whole chromatic scale. However, on this trumpet all we can do is play one basic harmonic series. Those notes are quite spaced out in the lower register and get closer together in the high register. In the low register the trumpet would play loudly for outdoor, fanfare-like music, for example when a member of the nobility arrived. Trumpets were very much a status symbol, and the number of trumpet players you had was the equivalent of what kind of car you drive today. If you like, trumpet players were the Ferraris of the 17th century.
In the upper octave, trumpet players found by using those notes that are close together, they could become more florid in their pattern of play. In Brandenburg 2 we use a trumpet pitched in F, which is quite an unusual pitch for a baroque trumpet. Nothing else in F goes to the stratospheric heights that piece does. The trumpet becomes a very florid, woodwindlike instrument playing very subtle phrases at the top of its register. Most of the instruments I play are very delicate, they can be strident if they need to be, but they have their own special character and that’s the thing we really try to highlight at the OAE. – David Blackadder, Principal Trumpet
INSTRUMENTS: THE HARPSICHORD
Steven Devine enjoys a busy career as a music director and keyboard player working with some of the finest musicians. He has recorded over thirty discs with other artists and ensembles and made six solo recordings. He made his Proms directing debut in 2007 with the OAE. He has conducted the Mozart Festival Orchestra in every major concert hall in the UK and across Switzerland. Steven is Music Director for New Chamber Opera in Oxford.
I’ll be playing various harpsichords on the Brandenburgs UK tour – copies of historical instruments as the originals can be fragile and don’t travel so well. However, they will all be double-manual instruments, which means they have two keyboards which gives a bit of tonal contrast between loud and soft, with different effects such as nice crunchy chords on the lower keyboard and softer chords on the top. Brandenburg 5 has a rather extensive harpsichord solo which needs the contrast and variety that is supplied by the two keyboards. It is thought this big solo was written by Bach to “show off ” a new harpsichord he’d recently bought – made by Michael Mietke in Berlin. German harpsichords generally have a beautiful singing tone and real clarity – perfect for the interaction that the harpsichord has between it and the other instruments. They are different from the French, Flemish and English instruments of the time, which have different flavours of sound, because each national identity wanted a certain characteristic. Germen instruments are characterised by a very singing tone perfect for those beautiful lines in Bach. – Steven Devine, Co-Principal Keyboard
GENERALLY HAVE A
INSTRUMENTS: THE CELLO, VIOLA DA GAMBA,
THERE ARE FROM THE
VIOLIN –BUT BY NO MEA
n unusual combination of instruments make Brandenburg 6 the least performed of the concertos. It’s not just that it’s led from the viola, but also the collection of larger instruments from the violin family that are similar – but by no means identical – to instruments we know today. The viola da gamba is a forerunner of the cello, slightly smaller, with more strings and a softer sound. They were already somewhat out of fashion by the time Bach wrote the Brandenburgs, but it is often considered that he included the two in Brandenburg 6 as a nod to older sounds. The gambas play alongside a single cello – this cello is closer to the instrument we know today, but held between the legs rather than with an endpin (a comparatively modern invention) which grounds modern instruments to the concert hall floor. Finally, there’s a violone – the forerunner of the double bass, but closely resembling the viola da gamba in shape, particularly in the way the shoulders angle in to the neck. – OAE Staff
ASHTON Emily Ashton is a member of Fretwork, with whom she performs regularly worldwide. She has also performed and recorded with viol consorts Phantasm and Chelys, and many of the leading period instrument orchestras, including the OAE, AAM, Gabrieli Consort and Dunedin Consort. She was recently elected an Associate of the Royal Academy of Music.
VIOLONE AND DOUBLE BASS
N O MEANS IDENTICAL–
FAMILY THAT ARE
UMENTS WE KNOW
BUCHBERGER Co-Principal Cello
Luise Buchberger was appointed principal cellist of the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment in December 2013. Born in Frankfurt am Main, she studied at the Universität Mozarteum Salzburg and the Hochschule der Künste Zurich. Today she is in demand on the modern as well as on the historical instrument as a chamber musician, soloist and continuo cellist. Since 2009 Luise has been a member of the Chamber Orchestra of Europe, with which she appears in the major concert halls of the world.
TUNNICLIFFE Richard is well known as a soloist on both cello and gamba. He has performed the complete Bach suites in major London venues and released an acclaimed recording in 2012. He was a member of Viol Consort Fretwork for 12 years and has played in the OAE since the first concert.
Cecelia found herself unexpectedly taking up the double bass on discovering that there was no room for new flute pupils, and hasn’t regretted it for a single moment. She studyied double bass at the Royal Academy of Music and now enjoys a busy career, touring and performing with most of Britain’s ‘period’ orchestras. Cecelia teached at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, and is actively involved in the OAE’s education programme, where she can often be seen presenting the popular OAE TOTS concerts.
e often talk about the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment being like a family, and families have members of all ages and abilities. Thatâ€™s why we run our OAE Education programme. Each year it reaches over 15,000 people across the country, often in areas where there is little or no access to live classical music. We have partnerships in ten cities across the country, work with 12 music hubs and numerous venues and concert halls, and in every location we have created an extended OAE family, something we are very proud of.
SUPPORT OUR EDUCATION PROGRAMMES The work we do could not happen without the support of our generous donors. If you would like to support our Education work please contact Alex Madgwick, Head of Individual Giving email@example.com 020 7239 9380
BACH, THE UNIVERSE & EVERYTHING
BACH IN ANGER T
his Autumn we’re launching a new Sunday series at Kings Place, where we perform Bach cantatas and invite leading scientists to give a contemporary perspective on the subjects he was exploring in his music.
efore they were famous, Oasis, Blur and lots of other bands graced the stage upstairs at Camden Assembly (formerly Camden Barfly) on Chalk Farm Road.
Some might say we’re already famous, but we’ll play at being rock’n’roll stars when we take The Night Shift to the spiritual home of Britpop for the first time on Tue 23 May. It’s still the same old grungy gig den upstairs, but downstairs they’ve spruced the place up a bit, with the obligatory selection of craft beers and trendy burgers. Visit thenightshift.co.uk for more.
ON THE ROAD AGAIN
We only came back from New York on Friday, but already we’re off again, playing the Brandenburg Concertos on a nationwide tour. We’re playing either all six or a shorter selection at: Royal Concert Hall, Nottingham – Thursday 4 May Wiltshire Music Centre, Bradford-on-Avon – Saturday 6 May The Bridgewater Hall, Manchester – Thursday 11 May Cheltenham Town Hall – Friday 19 May
It’s called Bach, the Universe & Everything, and we hope it gives you a Douglas Adams-like awe at the peculiarities and wonder of our universe. The first event is on Sunday 22 October. Visit kingsplace.co.uk for more.
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Leaders Kati Debretzeni Margaret Faultless Matthew Truscott Playersâ€™ Artistic Committee Cecelia Bruggemeyer Lisa Beznosiuk Luise Buchberger Max Mandel Roger Montgomery
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OAE THIRTY CIRCLE The OAE is particularly grateful to the following members of the Thirty Circle who have so generously contributed to the re-financing of the Orchestra through the OAE Trust THIRTY CIRCLE PATRONS Bob & Laura Cory Sir Martin Smith & Lady Smith OBE THIRTY CIRCLE MEMBERS Victoria & Edward Bonham Carter Nigel Jones & Franรงoise Valat-Jones Selina & David Marks Julian & Camilla Mash Mark & Rosamund Williams
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KIRKER MUSIC HOLIDAYS FOR DISCERNING TRAVELLERS Kirker Holidays offers an extensive range of holidays for music lovers. These include our own exclusive opera and chamber music festivals on land and at sea and tours to leading festivals in Europe.
HELSINKI & THE 18TH SIBELIUS FESTIVAL IN LAHTI A SIX NIGHT HOLIDAY | 28 AUGUST 2017
Marking the centenary year of Finnish independence, this year the Sibelius Festival in Lahti will include a guest performance by the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra along with its new principal conductor, Santtu-Matias Rouvali who comes from Lahti. We stay at the Hotel Kamp (5* Deluxe) in the heart of Helsinki for the first two nights, before travelling to Lahti where we will attend four concerts at the striking modern Sibelius Hall, which overlooks the lake. We will also make excursions to important sites associated with the composer, including his birthplace and the simple house where he lived for his final years, and take a boat trip on Lake Vesijarvi. Price from £2,749 per person for six nights including return flights, accommodation with breakfast, three lunches, five dinners, tickets for four concerts, all sightseeing, entrance fees and gratuities and the services of the Kirker Tour Leader.
Speak to an expert or request a brochure:
020 7593 2284 quote code GCN www.kirkerholidays.com
ACADEMY OF ANCIENT MUSIC london concert season 2016-17 Purcell the fairy queen Monday 10 October 2016, Barbican Hall
James Gilchrist Directs Thursday 20 October 2016, Milton Court Concert Hall
the Glory of Venice Wednesday 7 December 2016, Milton Court Concert Hall
bach anD the italian concerto Wednesday 15 February 2017, Milton Court Concert Hall
JorDi saVall Directs Saturday 11 March 2017, Barbican Hall
bach reconstructeD Friday 7 April 2017, Milton Court Concert Hall
richarD eGarr Directs Friday 5 May 2017, Milton Court Concert Hall
monteVerDi VeSPerS Friday 23 June 2017, Barbican Hall
tickets £10-50 plus booking fee* £5 for aamplify members | £70 premium seats available
Book at barbican.org.uk or call 020 7638 8891 aam.co.uk/london * £3 online, £4 by telephone, no fee when booked in person
2016-17 London Listings167x239.indd 1
orchestraoftheageofenlightenment theoae oae_photos
Photography: Eric Richmond
Published on Apr 28, 2017
Concert programme for The Brandenburgs at St John's Smith Square on 2 May 2017. More details: http://www.oae.co.uk/event/the-brandenburgs/