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Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness

Apollo and Daphne

Thursday 25 October 2018 Queen Elizabeth Hall 7pm


Apollo and Daphne


“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness”. The American Declaration of Independence

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Thomas Jefferson’s immortal words were inspired by the brilliant energy of the Enlightenment in 18th century Europe. Even now they cast an optimistic beam over humanity and the challenges it faces. Questions about the state and the individual beat in the hearts of many in the 17th and 18th centuries. Their answers still define our lives and what freedoms, if any, we might enjoy. Some of the music in this Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness season is overtly about the grand question of human freedom. Some works have a historical context, and we can pinpoint them as reactions to particular flashpoints, such as the failed revolutions in Germany in 1848. Many pieces relate the conflict between external forces and individual identity, and sing with a voice of undaunted independence. All relate to a notion of intrinsic freedom set out by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the decade before Jefferson and his committee sat down to draft the Declaration of Independence. “L'homme est né libre, et partout il est dans les fers,” he wrote in Du contrat social (1762): “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains”.


Contents Introduction 03 Soloists and concert information 06 Orchestra & choir 07 Programme notes Lindsay Kemp 08

Apollo and Daphne text 12 Handel's dramatic cantata Thomas Short 16 Support us 18 Biographies 20 Introducing the Baroque double bass Cecelia Bruggemeyer 22 OAE education 24 OAE team 29 Supporters 30 Future concerts 33


Apollo and Daphne

Repertoire and soloists

Thursday 25 October 2018 Queen Elizabeth Hall Southbank Centre 7pm

Jonathan Cohen conductor/harpsichord

The concert will finish at approximately 9pm, with one 20 minute interval.

Pre-concert talk 6pm Queen Elizabeth Hall foyer

Katherine Watson soprano James Newby baritone Handel Suite from The Alchemist Manfredini Concerto Grosso in D major, Op.3, No.9 Handel Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op.6, No.4 INTERVAL Handel Apollo e Dafne

Concert supported by Sir Martin Smith and Lady Smith OBE


Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness

James Newby baritone Rising Star of the Enlightenment

Also featured on front cover: Camilla Morse-Glover - cello Ann & Peter Law OAE Experience scheme Max Mandel - co-principal viola

Back cover: Amelia Shakespeare - flute Ann and Peter Law OAE Experience scheme Katharina Sprecklesen - co-principal oboe Matthew Truscott - violin - leader



Violin 1 Margaret Faultless Huw Daniel Debbie Diamond Violin 2 Rodolfo Richter Claire Holden Henry Tong

Flute Rachel Beckett

Theorbo/guitar David Miller

Oboes Katharina Spreckelsen Alexandra Bellamy Bassoon Peter Whelan

Viola Rebecca Jones Annette Isserlis Cello Jonathan Manson Andrew Skidmore Bass Cecelia Bruggemeyer

Sponsor an instrument: Become one of our Chair Patrons and enjoy a meeting with the musician in that role. You'll receive an invitation to get inside the Orchestra and sit beside the musician at a rehearsal. To find out more visit or contact: Marina Abel Smith Head of Individual Giving


Apollo and Daphne

Programme Notes Lindsay Kemp

George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) Suite from The Alchemist Overture Prelude Minuet Sarabande Bourree Gavotte Gigue When Handel arrived in London in November 1710 to prepare for his triumph the following year with the Italian opera Rinaldo, any chance that opera in English had had of establishing itself it was effectively squashed. In truth it had always struggled in this country, especially when ranged against a strong native tradition in spoken drama, and it had mainly been in spoken plays that music found its way on to the stage in the forms of songs, overtures and instrumental dances, often by leading composers such as Locke, Purcell and Eccles. Yet ironically, possibly the first music by Handel ever heard in London had come in the form of nine instrumental numbers for a revival in January 1710 at the Queen’s Theatre, Haymarket, of Ben Jonson’s 100-year-old comedy The Alchemist. Typically, Handel’s music was not new, but adapted (probably without his knowledge) from the unusually extended overture to his opera Rodrigo, first performed in Florence in 1707. As with most incidental music that survives from this time, we do not know what original function the music performed or where it was it was placed in the play itself. Perhaps it all served as the overture once again, or maybe some of the dances appeared at other strategic moments in the action.

Jonson's The Alchemist by Johann Zoffany

Francesco Onofrio Manfredini (1684-1762) Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3, No.9 Adagio Presto Largo Allegro Francesco Manfredini was born in the Tuscan town of Pistoia, the son of a trombonist. In his youth he studied in Bologna, where his teachers included the influential Giuseppe Torelli for violin, and for composition the maestro di cappella (or musical director) of the Basilica di S Petronio, Giacomo Antonio Perti. Bologna was an important musical centre at this time, home of the Accademia Filarmonica, a sort of high-level guild of composers and performers whose demanding standards made it a benchmark of excellence – particularly on matters theoretical – right up to Mozart’s time. 09

After spending some years working in Ferrara, Manfredini returned to Bologna and himself became a member of the Accademia in 1704, the same year as the first publication of his music. There is reason to think he was in Monaco at some time during the 1710s, perhaps as maestro di cappella to Prince Antoine I: the prince stood as godfather to Manfredini’s son, and in 1718 the composer dedicated to him his Op. 3 concertos. Manfredini returned to Pistoia sometime in the late 1720s, and served as maestro di cappella at the cathedral there until his death. The twelve concertos of Manfredini’s Op. 3 are in the style known as concerto grosso, a genre best exemplified by the Op. 6 concertos of Arcangelo Corelli, published posthumously in 1714, but widely known long before that. Corelli’s lovingly crafted works – which made use of the interplay between a small kernel of players (or concertino) and a larger orchestral group (ripieno) – were enormously influential, though the part played in the genre’s creation by Bolognese composers such as Manfredini’s teacher Torelli, should not be underestimated. The ninth concerto announces its credentials as a concerto grosso at the outset in the most explicit of terms, casting the whole of the short opening adagio as a duo for unaccompanied violins before the ripeno jumps in energetically to instigate a more conversational dialogue in the second movement. The third movement then separates the two sections more formally – the ripieno serving only to frame and punctuate the concertino’s elegant duetting – before the concerto closes with a thoroughly Corellian allegro bustling with violinistic figuration.


George Frideric Handel Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 6, No.4 Larghetto affettuoso Allegro Largo, e piano Allegro Handel’s set of twelve concertos Op. 6, composed in the space of just over a month in the autumn of 1739, is one of his most astounding achievements. At that time still best-known for his operas and oratorios, he had previously engaged only intermittently in instrumental music, while the printing of his concertos, sonatas and keyboard suites had been no less haphazard, dictated more by the opportunism of his publishers than by inner compulsion of his own. But although the Op. 6 concertos were composed to be performed to entertain the audience during the intervals of his forthcoming London oratorio performances, it is clear that when he decided to devote four solid weeks to writing them Handel also had publication in mind. Handel’s adoption of their style (as well as his conspicuous addition of the opus number 6 to the second edition soon afterwards) must have been carried out in full recognition of this fact. Maybe he was even paying homage to Corelli, whom he had known during his time in Rome in the early 1700s. Whatever the case, he certainly had nothing to fear from comparison, for in these twelve superbly rich, varied and fluent works he produced a set to rival even Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos at the very pinnacle of Baroque orchestral writing.

Apollo Chasing Daphne, by Carlo Maratta

The title under which they eventually appeared in 1740 – ‘Grand Concertos’ – literally translates the Italian term concerto grosso, and reveals that Handel was aligning them with the Corellian model which had remained immensely popular in England long after the three-movement, Vivaldian type of solo concerto had taken over the rest of Europe. Throughout his life, Handel was in the habit of using pre-existing material when writing new works, not all of it necessarily by himself. The Op.6 concertos were no exception in this regard, yet it is noticeable that Handel here drew primarily on his own recently composed music. The impetuous last movement of Concerto No. 4, for instance, is cleverly adapted from an aria in the opera Imeneo, on which he was also working at the time.

Not that the opening movement, with its sobbing appoggiaturas and poignant downward leaps, doesn’t sound just as much as if it is could be setting the scene for some operatic aria – a particularly pathetic one at that – even if the second movement it eventually leads to is a vigorous, angular and rather serious fugue. The third movement is a particularly fine Handelian creation, the violin lines intertwining intimately over a supportive ‘walking’ bass-line that rises up at the end to push to the top of the texture.



George Frideric Handel Apollo e Dafne, preceded by Concerto Grosso B flat, Op. 3, No. 2,

Vivace and Largo

The years Handel spent as a young man in Florence, Rome, Venice and Naples, from 1706 to 1710, were crucial to his development as a composer. It was there, in the land of opera and of the latest developments in vocal and instrumental music, that he met and engaged with famous musicians such as Corelli, Pasquini and the Scarlattis, listened to operas, composed two of his own as well as church music and numerous secular cantatas, and established links with some of the star singers who would later perform in his operas in London. Above all, it was in the compositions he produced in Italy that he perfected his own musical language, adding to his native gifts a melodic fluency, vocal lustre and natural elegance that were to remain with him for the rest of his life.

In December 1709, however, the premiere in Venice of the opera Agrippina brought Handel’s stay in Italy to a successful climax, and by the following summer he was back in his native Germany. Within a few weeks he had been appointed Kapellmeister at the court of the Elector of Hanover, a post he may well have lined up for himself while still in Venice, where the Elector maintained a representation. Handel’s time in Hanover was to be short, however, and with his duties apparently light ones, few works are known from this period. For the most part his output at this time was a continuation of the fast-running stream of secular cantatas that had occupied him in Italy – quite literally so in the case of the large-scale dramatic cantata for soprano, bass and orchestra Apollo e Dafne, which, though completed in Hanover, appears to have been begun in Venice. The story is a classical one from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and describes the pursuit of the nymph Dafne by the god Apollo. Having just killed a monster who has been menacing Greece, Apollo brags of his skills with bow and arrow which, he says, outstrip those of Cupid himself. Cupid’s aim proves sure, however, when Apollo falls instantly in love with Dafne and she, declaring herself a follower of Diana and therefore chaste, rejects his advances. After much badgering, Apollo resorts to force, but she flees, finally to escape his clutches forever when she is transformed into a tree. Although Apollo e Dafne is a long piece compared to the cantatas, its arias are shorter and more numerous, showing that Handel had by now learnt much about economy and dramatic pacing. There is no surviving opening orchestral movement and so the Orchestra has decided to include the first two movements of Handel's Concerto Grosso in B flat, Op. 3, No. 2 as an 'Overture' to begin the cantata.


Apollo and Daphne

Texts and Translations Text by an anonymous author. Translation by Peter Jones. Recitativo (Apollo) La terra è liberata, la Grecia è vendicata, Apollo ha vinto! Dopo tanti terrori e tante stragi che desolaro E spopolaro i regni giace Piton Per la mia mano estinto. Apollo ha trionfato, Apollo ha vinto!

Recitative (Apollo) Earth is freed, Greece is avenged, Apollo has won! After so many terrors and so much suffering, that ravaged and depopulated kingdoms, Python lies dead by my hand. Apollo has triumphed, Apollo has conquered!

Aria (Apollo) Pende il ben dell’ universo Da quest’ arco salutar. Di mie lodi il suol rimbombe Ed appresti l’ecatombe Al mio braccio tutelar.

Aria (Apollo) The well-being of the universe hangs on the strength of this bow. The land resounds with my praises and hundreds of cattle are sacrificed to gain the protection of my arm.

Recitativo (Apollo) Ch’il superbetto Amore Delle saette mie ceda a la forza; Ch’omai più non si vanti De la punta fatal d’aurato strale; Un sol Piton più vale Che mille accesi e saettati amanti.

Recitative (Apollo) Let proud Cupid admit to the power of my arrows; from now on he cannot boast about the fatal blow of his golden dart; just one Python is worth more than a thousand burning and pierced lovers.

Aria (Apollo) Spezza l’arco e getta l’armi Dio dell’ ozio e del piacer. Come mai puoi tu piagarmi, Nume ignudo e cieco arcier?

Aria (Apollo) Break your bow and throw away your weapons, god of idleness and pleasure! How could you ever wound me, naked god, blind archer?

Aria (Dafne) Felicissima quest’ alma Ch’ama sol la libertà. Non v’è pace, non v’è calma Per chi sciolto il cor non ha.

Aria (Daphne) That soul is happiest that loves only liberty. There’s no peace, there’s no calm for those whose heart is not free.

Recitativo Apollo Che voce! che beltà! Questo suon, questa vista il cor trapassa; Ninfa!

Recitative Apollo What a voice! What beauty! This sound, this vision has pierced my heart; Nymph! 013

Dafne Che veggo? ahi lassa: E chi sarà costui, che mi surprese?

Daphne What do I see? Alas: and who can this be, who has taken me by surprise?

Apollo Io son un Dio ch’il tuo bel volto accese.

Apollo I am a god, whom your lovely face has set on fire.

Dafne Non conosco altri Dei fra queste selve, Che la sola Diana; Non t’accostar divinità profana.

Daphne I don’t know any other gods in these woods, but only Diana; don’t come any closer, impious god!

Apollo Di Cintia io son fratel: S’ami la suora abbi, o bella, Pietà di chi t’adora.

Apollo I am Cynthia’s brother: if you love my sister, o fair one, have pity on him who adores you.

Aria (Dafne) Ardi adori e preghi in vano Solo a Cintia io son fedel. Alle fiamme del germano Cintia vuol ch’io sia crudel.

Aria (Daphne) You burn, love, and plead in vain; I am faithful only to Cynthia. To her brother’s passion Cynthia wants me to be cruel.

Recitativo Apollo Che crudel!

Recitative Apollo How cruel!

Dafne Ch’importuno!

Daphne How annoying!

Apollo Cerco il fin de’ miei mali.

Apollo I seek the end of my woes.

Dafne Ed’ io lo scampo.

Daphne And I avoid it.

Apollo Io mi struggo d’amor.

Apollo I’m dying of love!

Dafne Io d’ira avvampo.

Daphne I’m burning with rage.

a due Una guerra ho dentro il seno Che soffrir più non si può. Ardo, gelo, temo e peno S’all’ ardor/rigor non metti freno Pace aver mai non potrò.

Duet I have a battle in my breast which can no longer be borne. I burn, I freeze, I fear, and suffer, if you do not restrain this passion/ harshness, I will have peace no more.


Recitativo (Apollo) Placati al fin, o cara; La beltà che m’infiamma sempre non fiorirà, Ciò che natura di più vago formò, Passa e non dura.

Recitative (Apollo) Be calm at last, my dear; the beauty that inflames me will not bloom forever, that which nature makes most lovely passes away and does not last.

Aria (Apollo) Come rosa in su la spina Presto viene e presto va. Tal con fuga repentina Passa il fior della beltà

Aria (Apollo) As the rose upon the thorn quickly comes and quickly goes; so with swift flight beauty’s flower fades.

Recitativo (Dafne) Ah! ch’un Dio non dovrebbe Altro amore seguir ch’oggetti eterni Perirà, finirà caduca polve Che grata a te mi rende, Ma non già la virtù che mi difende.

Recitative (Daphne) Ah! If only a god would not pursue any love other than of eternal things; that which makes me pleasing to you will die, will end as frail dust, but not my virtue that defends me from you.

Aria (Dafne) Come in ciel benigna stella Di Nettun placa il furor, Tal in alma onesta e bella La ragion frena l’amor.

Aria (Daphne) As a kindly star in heaven appeases Neptune’s anger, so in the honest and beautiful soul reason restrains love.

Recitativo Apollo Ode la mia ragion.

Recitative Apollo Harken to my explanation.

Dafne Sorda son io.

Daphne I’m not listening.

Apollo Orsa, tigre tu sei.

Apollo You’re a bear, a tigress!

Dafne Tu non sei Dio.

Daphne You’re no god.

Apollo Cedi all’ amor, o proverai la forza.

Apollo Yield to love, or feel my power!

Dafne Nel sangue mio questa tua fiamma amorza.

Daphne Your love will be extinguished in my blood

a due [Apollo] Deh lascia addolcire Quell’ aspro rigor. [Dafne] Più tosto morire Che perder l’onor.

Duet [Apollo] Ah, soften this bitter harshness. [Daphne] I would sooner die than lose my honour. 015

[Apollo] Deh! cessino l’ire, O dolce mio cor!

[Apollo] Ah! end your anger, O my sweetheart!

Recitativo Apollo Sempre t’adorerò.

Recitative Apollo I will adore you forever.

Dafne Sempre t’aborirò.

Daphne I will abhor you forever.

Apollo Tu non mi fuggirai.

Apollo You will not escape me.

Dafne Sì che ti fuggirò.

Daphne Yes, I will flee you.

Apollo Ti seguirò; correrò, volerò su passi tuoi. Più veloce del sole esser non puoi.

Apollo I will follow you! I’ll run, I’ll fly in your tracks. You can’t be swifter than the sun.

Aria (Apollo) Mie piante correte, Mie braccia stringete, L’ingrata beltà. La tocco, la cingo, La prendo, la stringo, Ma, qual novità! Che vidi, che mirai, Cieli! destino, che sarai mai!

Aria (Apollo) My feet pursue, my arms embrace the ungrateful beauty. I touch her, I seize her, I grasp her, I hold her; But, what surprise! What do I see, what do I behold? Heavens! Fate, whatever can it be?

Recitativo (Apollo) Dafne, dove sei tu? Che non ti trovo? Qual miracolo nuovo ti rapisce, Ti cangia e ti nasconde? Che non t’offenda mai del verno il gelo Ne’il folgore dal cielo Tocchi le sacre e gloriose fronde.

Recitative (Apollo) Daphne, where are you? I cannot find you; what new miracle steals you from me, changes you and hides you? Winter’s frosts will not harm you, nor will lightning from heaven touch your sacred and glorious leaves.

Aria (Apollo) Cara pianta, co’ miei pianti Il tuo verde irrigherò, De’ tuoi rami trionfanti Sommi eroi coronerò. Se non posso averti in seno Dafne almeno Sovra il crin ti porterò.

Aria (Apollo) Dear plant, with my tears I will water your greenery, with your branches I will crown great triumphant heroes. If I cannot have you in my heart, at least, Daphne, I will wear you on my brow.


Apollo and Daphne

Handel's dramatic cantata Thomas Short Many of Handel’s compositions in Italy were written for his patron, the Marquis Francesco Ruspoli. Ruspoli was a leading member of the Accademia degli Arcadi, a literary academy which focused on the importance of restoring a classical ideal of purity and simplicity to Italian poetry, which in their view had become corrupt through baroque ornamentation. Apollo e Dafne was begun in Venice (and completed in Hanover), so it is remarkably different to these Roman compositions in style and content. The Academy might well have appreciated the pastoral setting of Ovid’s tale, but they were not interested in representing the current of moral complexity, violence and sexuality which runs through the Metamorphoses. The myth of Apollo and Daphne was a major source of inspiration to artists in Italy and abroad. In the visual arts, there is perhaps no greater example than Bernini’s life-sized sculpture (pictured on the right), which, despite being cast in marble, somehow animates the terrible drama of Apollo's pursuit. With brilliant clarity, we see Apollo grasping for the object of his desire, his disappointment at his loss, Daphne 's cries right at the moment when she transforms into bark. Unlike the numerous pictoral representations of the myth from this period, the action is fully rendered on all sides for us to see. Something of this theatricality can be found in Apollo e Dafne. Cantatas are an aural form, yet Handel was thoroughly entranced by Venetian opera at this time, and perhaps his musical imagination was becoming increasingly visual. The compressed structure of the cantata seems to suggest this. Following Apollo' s warlike aria, in which he curses Cupid for wounding him, the action skips straight to the pastoral innocence of Daphne's aria Felicissimma quest'alma, without an intervening recitative. This sudden change of instrumentation and style has a dramatic effect, as though Daphne has suddenly been revealed from behind a curtain. The chase seems to begin in the lively duet Una guerra ho dento, which sees the pair sharing melodic and lyrical material before a torrid exchange in which their feelings are competely opposed, 'I burn, I freeze, I fear, and suffer'. The effect of the frantic music is to collide these two positions, animating their inner torment. A sense of restless motion is also a feature of the subsequent two arias, including the contemplative Come rosa in su la spina, where a busy cello line betrays the disquiet beneath Apollo's seemingly rational argument. Communication finally breaks down in Me piante correte' - which bursts into a virtuosic violin ritornello as psychological conflict gives way to a physical pursuit.

Apollo and Daphne by Gian Lorenzo Bernini What is a cantata? A cantata refers to a piece of music written for voice/voices and instruments. From the beginnings of this form in 17th century Italy, both secular and religious versions were written. The earliest cantatas were for solo voice, but soon developed increasingly complex instrumentation. For Handel's Italian patrons, part of the appeal of the cantatas was that they depicted a process where sensuality could be safely sublimated into art. Handel’s oratorio Il trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno took inspiration from the tradition of moral cantatas, depicting a battle between sensual pleasure, spiritual truth and the soul. Truth wins out. It’s also a central part of Apollo e Dafne's story. In the end Apollo accepts the laurel – Daphne’s branches ‘will crown great triumphant heroes', those frantic semiquavers come to a halt in his final aria which has a mood of serene acceptance. Yet this may not have been the overall effect. Much as the astonishing realism of Bernini's statue could titillate (and scandalise the Catholic church) the psychological detail and action invested in Handel's writing suggests he well understood the dramatic potential of myths which could arouse and shock as well as instruct. 017

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Images opposite, left to right: Matthew Truscott – violin/co-leader Ursula Paludan Monberg – horn Henry Tong – violin


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Apollo and Daphne


18/19 season also sees return visits to Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra and Les Violons du Roy, and debuts with Cleveland Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, Mozarteum Orchester, Royal Northern Sinfonia and BBC National Orchestra of Wales. He returns to the BBC Proms for Theodora with Arcangelo, the ensemble which he founded in 2010 and who strive to perform high quality and specially created projects. He has toured with them to exceptional halls and festivals including Wigmore Hall London, Philharmonie Berlin, Kölner Philharmonie, Vienna Musikverein, Salzburg Festival and Carnegie Hall New York. Other recent highlights include a European tour with Vilde Frang with concerts at Oslo Opera House and Tonhalle Zürich and their BBC Proms debut at the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse in 2016. Arcangelo are busy and much in demand in the recording studio, partnering with fine soloists such as Iestyn Davies (their disc Arias for Guadagni won the Recital Category at the 2012 Gramophone Awards and their recording of Bach cantatas was best Baroque Vocal recording in the 2017 Gramophone Awards ), Anna Prohaska, and Christopher Purves for Hyperion Records. Their recording of CPE Bach Cello Concerti with Nicolas Altstaedt on Hyperion Records won the BBC Music Magazine Awards’ Concerto category in 2017. 020

Hugo Bernard

Marco Borggreve

Jonathan Cohen Jonathan Cohen is one of Britain's finest young musicians. He has forged a remarkable career as a conductor, cellist and keyboardist. Well known for his passion and commitment to chamber music, Jonathan is equally at home in such diverse activities as baroque opera and the classical symphonic repertoire. He is Artistic Director of Arcangelo, Music Director of Les Violons du Roy, Associate Conductor of Les Arts Florissants, Artistic Director of Tetbury Festival and Artistic Partner of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra.

Katherine Watson Katherine Watson studied Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic at Trinity College, Cambridge where she was a choral scholar. Upon graduating she won a place on William Christie’s Le Jardin des Voix and has since performed regularly with Christie and Les Arts Florissants throughout Europe and further afield. She has worked with a number of eminent conductors including Paul Agnew, Harry Bickett, Harry Christophers, Stephen Cleobury, Jonathan Cohen, Emmanuelle Haïm, Nicholas Kraemer, Stephen Layton, Sir Roger Norrington and Christophe Rousset. In 2012 Katherine was the recipient of Glyndebourne's much coveted John Christie Award, appearing as Fairy/Nymph in The Fairy Queen under Laurence Cummings and then went on to perform the role Diana in Hippolyte et Aricie. Other operatic roles have included Italienne/ Phantome Médée, Virtù/Damigella L’Incoronazione di Poppea at the Teatro Real, Madrid, Cassandra La Didone in Caen, Luxembourg and Paris, Phani Les Incas du Pérou and Dardanus with Ensemble Pygmalion at Opera National de Bordeaux and at the Chapelle Royale, Château de Versailles, and Iphis Jephtha at the Beaune Festival. Recent and future highlights include a return to the Théâtre des Champs Elysées as Giunone in Monteverdi’s Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria, her début with Komische Oper Berlin as Amélite Zoroastre, Miranda with Opéra Comique, Paris, Iphis Jephtha with Opéra National de Paris, a concert of Handel arias as part of the Santander International Festival, Handel’s Messiah with the Handel and Haydn Society, BBC NOW and the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, Bach’s St John Passion with Les Arts Florissants, Bach’s Christmas Oratorio with the Choir of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a concert in Vienna with The Sixteen.

Ben McKee

James Newby British baritone James Newby is the winner of the 2016 Kathleen Ferrier award. That same year he was the recipient of the Wigmore Hall/Independent Opera Voice Fellowship, and in 2015 was awarded the Richard Tauber Prize (for best interpretation of a Schubert Lied) and overall Third Prize at the Wigmore Hall/Kohn International Song Competition. In 2017 he was awarded the Trinity Gold Medal by the board of Trinity Laban Conservatoire. James is a BBC New Generation Artist from 2018-2020. In the 2016/17 season James sang the role of Mercurio in La Calisto with La Nuova Musica and David Bates, and made his BBC Proms debut in 2016 singing in Vaughan Williams Serenade to Music conducted by Sakari Oramo. James was a 2017 Jerwood Young Artist at Glyndebourne Festival Opera and appeared in La Traviata, Hamlet, La Clemenza di Tito and the role of the notary in Don Pasquale during the 2017 Festival, for which he won the prestigious John Christie Award. Recent engagements with the orchestra include ‘Christus’ in the world premiere of Sally Beamish’s The Judas Passion; and various Bach Cantatas as part of the OAE’s Bach, the Universe and Everything series at Kings Place, London. In 18/19 he sings in Brahms Ein Deutsches Requiem under Marin Alsop, and St Matthew Passion under John Butt. Most recently he sang the role of Count Almaviva Le nozze di Figaro for Nevill Holt Opera and a staged Bach St John Passion with the Bilbao Orkestra Sinfonikoa, directed by Calixto Bieito. He will also make his operatic debut at Châtelet Théâtre Musical de Paris in a revival of Bieito’s St John Passion and at La Monnaie Brussels for Howard Moody’s PUSH. James will also perform at the Ryedale, Chiltern Arts and Three Choirs Festivals and return to the Wigmore Hall in recital. James is a recipient of the Musicians’ Company Saloman Seelig Award, and is generously supported by the Drake Calleja Trust. James has just been announced as part of the Evening Standard's Progress1000 list of the most influential Londoners in 2018. James was selected for the prestigious OAE Rising Stars of the Enlightenment programme for the 17-18 and 18-19 seasons.

Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment In 1986, a group of inquisitive London musicians took a long hard look at that curious institution we call the Orchestra, and decided to start again from scratch. They began by throwing out the rulebook. Put a single conductor in charge? No way. Specialise in repertoire of a particular era? Too restricting. Perfect a work and then move on? Too lazy. The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment was born. And as this distinctive ensemble playing on period-specific instruments began to get a foothold, it made a promise to itself. It vowed to keep questioning and inventing as long as it lived. Residencies at Southbank Centre and the Glyndebourne Festival didn’t numb its experimentalist bent. A major record deal didn’t iron out its quirks. Instead, the OAE examined musical notes with ever more freedom and resolve. That creative thirst remains unquenched. The Night Shift series of informal performances are redefining concert formats. Its base at London’s Kings Place has fostered further creativity, such as Bach, the Universe and Everything, a trailblazing Sunday morning series with contributions from esteemed scientists. And from 2017, it started Six Chapters of Enlightenment, six extraordinary seasons exploring the music, science and philosophy of the golden age from which the Orchestra takes its name. Now more than thirty years old, the OAE is part of our musical furniture. It has even graced the outstanding conducting talents of Elder, Rattle, Jurowski, Iván Fischer, John Butt and Sir András Schiff with a joint title of Principal Artist. But don’t ever think the ensemble has lost sight of its founding vow. Not all orchestras are the same. And there’s nothing quite like this one. Written by Andrew Mellor.

To support our Rising Stars scheme please contact Marina Abel Smith 020 7239 9380


JEROBOAMS, London’s local wine merchant, are proud to support the wonderful Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, one of this incredible city's very finest. JEROBOAMS have knowledgeable staff and welcoming shops in the heart of London’s villages offering all year round solutions for your wine and dining needs. A famously extensive range of wines, spirits and beers is matched by party treats and catering as well as wine storage and private account facilities. The bustling shops are always full to the brim of delicious fayre. You can get in touch on 0207 288 8888 or email us at Shops in Belgravia, Knightsbridge, Holland Park, Kensington, Notting Hill and Hamstead.

Apollo and Daphne

Introducing the Baroque double bass Cecelia Bruggemeyer From our video 'Introducing the Baroque Double Bass', with Cecelia Bruggemeyer, Double bass.


It's like the

umami of continuo


Watch it on our YouTube Channel: "The Baroque era, which most of us count as being from 1600 to 1750, was actually a very transitional time for bass instruments, when the double bass was born and became part of ensembles on a regular basis. In France the double bass wasn't known until 1700. There are records of MontĂŠclair, who was a bass player, bringing a double bass over from Italy and using it for the first time in the Paris Opera, where it was used, for storms, demons, magicians and choruses. Depending on what country or what city you were in, you had different bass instruments. They might have three strings, four strings, five strings or six. I am very lucky to have my bass. It is an old Italian instrument. At one point it was thought to have been made in 1600. That's been revised by repairers since, and the latest information I have is that it could have being made towards the end of the 1600s. It's had lots of cracks along the way, but on a double bass we manage to survive with those. Somehow the sound is ok, whereas on a smaller instrument, like a violin, a crack might be disaster. I don't know many of my modern bass colleagues that would consider mine a big enough instrument for a modern orchestra. As orchestras and other ensembles have developed, the main emphasis on development has been greater projection, greater volume, being able to reach more people at once in bigger venues. Instead of nice shiny metal strings, the strings look quite a dull brown colour.

That's because they are made of sheep gut that is twisted and stretched and washed. That's what they would have played in Baroque times, so that's what we use to recreate the sound we might have heard in the Baroque world. A string maker, Nick Baldock, who works in Germany, has said a whole hillside of sheep goes into making the bottom string. The advantage of gut strings is that they've got a warm and softer quality to them and there's more width to the sound. Compared to a modern bow, the tip of the Baroque bass bow is narrower and therefore lighter, there's less wood. There is a heavier end and a lighter end, and that means that it's easier to play stronger at one end and quieter at the other. In our style of playing baroque music we exploit that inequality. Rather than trying to override it all the time, we use it to our advantage and as a form of expression. The other thing on a modern bow you'll see is a metal band holding the hair flat. That helps keep the hair taut and it helps you give more of an attack at the start of your note. We don't have that, so attack has to be made with the fingers and arms instead. There's always something really impressive about the feeling of sound you get with a double bass. Quite often when we take them into schools, especially with children who might have hearing impairment, we ask them to put their hands on the bass, and they really feel the vibrations. So although the pitch of a double bass is quite low and might be outside some people's natural comfortable hearing range in terms of pitch, you can feel it. It adds a feeling and a depth and a colour to an ensemble. The beginning of Bach’s St Matthew Passion is one of my favourite basslines. On its own it doesn't necessarily sound like much, but when you combine it with the organ and the cellos and the bassoons, it adds a real richness. Maybe it's like the umami of continuo." 023

OAE Education

OAE TOTS at Saffron Hall

A programme to involve, empower and inspire Over the past twenty years OAE Education has grown in stature and reach to involve thousands of people nationwide in creative music projects. Our participants come from a wide range of backgrounds and we pride ourselves in working flexibly, adapting to the needs of local people and the places they live. The extensive partnerships we have built up over many years help us engage fully with all the communities where we work to ensure maximum and lasting impact. We take inspiration from the OAE's repertoire, instruments and players.

This makes for a vibrant, challenging and engaging programme where everyone is involved; players, animateurs, composers, participants, teachers, partners and stakeholders all have a valued voice.

Last season we undertook

265 workshops 54 concerts in 33 towns, cities and villages with over 20,165 people across the country.


A still from our film made with local schools in Darlington.

2018-19: Musical Communities To sit alongside Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness, in 2018-19 we will be creating a programme of events inspired by the communities we live and work in, exploring how we can work together to build relationships and how music can be a fantastic tool for creativity. Our FLAGSHIP project for 2019-21 will begin with preparation for our first community opera Regeneration, which will tour to County Durham, Norfolk, London, Suffolk and Plymouth over the three years of the project. Our TOTS programme will be inspired by the work of great masters Bach, Handel and Mozart in a series of concerts titled The World Around Us. Our Schools programme will focus on 'variations' and how things change. Our Special Needs programme will see culminations of our newly created Fairy Queen project for SEN settings and a new project for all six special schools in Ealing.

Our Nurturing Talent programme will see our OAE Experience students involved in projects throughout the year, a new composition project at Huddersfield University, teacher training and a new course for young musicians to delve into the world of baroque and classical music. Finally, Our Opera programme will continue with works inspired by the great masters and a collaboration with Glyndebourne education on a new community opera by Howard Moody called Agreed.

Support our education programme

The work we do could not happen without the support of our generous donors. If you would like to support our Education programme please contact: Marina Abel Smith Head of Individual Giving Telephone 020 7239 9380


Lubbock Fine is proud to support the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment We are a full service, contemporary firm of chartered accountants based in the city of London, and we’d like to meet you. Along with proudly supporting the arts, our professional team provides specialist accounting, audit and tax advice to a wide range of clients across the full commercial and personal spectrum. Our many clients rely on us to act as a “trusted advisor” across both their commercial and personal matters. Why not give us a call to arrange a free, initial meeting or chat? Please contact partner Russell Rich or feel free to call him on 020 7490 7766.

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T 020 7490 7766

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Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness

Katharina Spreckelsen co-principal oboe

To advertise in our programmes, please contact Catherine Kinsler Development Manager Telephone 020 7239 9370 028

OAE team

Chief Executive Crispin Woodhead

Finance Officer Fabio Lodato

Director of Finance and Governance Ivan Rockey

Digital Content Officer Zen Grisdale

Development Director Emily Stubbs Director of Marketing and Audience Development John Holmes Director of Press Katy Bell Projects Director Jo Perry General Manager Edward Shaw Orchestra Manager Philippa Brownsword Choir Manager David Clegg

Marketing and Press Officer Thomas Short Box Office and Data Manager Carly Mills Head of Individual Giving Marina Abel Smith Development and Events Administrator Helena Wynn Development Manager Catherine Kinsler Trusts and Foundations Manager Andrew Mackenzie Development Coordinator Andrea Jung

Projects Officer Ella Harriss Librarian Colin Kitching Education Director Cherry Forbes Education Officer Andrew Thomson

The OAE is a registered charity number 295329 and a registered company number 2040312 Registered office: Kings Place, 90 York Way, London N1 9AG Telephone 020 7239 9370 Design and art direction –LucienneRoberts+ Photography – Alex Grace

Board of Directors Sir Martin Smith [Chairman] Luise Buchberger Steven Devine Denys Firth Nigel Jones Max Mandel David Marks Rebecca Miller Roger Montgomery Imogen Overli Olivia Roberts Susannah Simons Katharina Spreckelsen Mark Williams Crispin Woodhead OAE Trust Sir Martin Smith [Chair] Edward Bonham Carter Paul Forman Julian Mash Imogen Overli Rupert Sebag-Montefiore Diane Segalen Leaders Kati Debretzeni Margaret Faultless Matthew Truscott Players’ Artistic Committee Luise Buchberger Steven Devine Max Mandel Roger Montgomery (Chair) Katharina Spreckelsen Principal Artists John Butt Sir Mark Elder Iván Fischer Vladimir Jurowski Sir Simon Rattle Sir András Schiff Emeritus Conductors William Christie Sir Roger Norrington

029 029


The OAE continues to grow and thrive through the generosity of our supporters. We are very grateful to our sponsors and Patrons and hope you will consider joining them. We offer a close involvement in the life of the Orchestra with many opportunities to meet players, attend rehearsals and even accompany us on tour.

OAE Thirty Circle We are particularly grateful to the following members of the Thirty Circle who have so generously contributed to the re-financing of the Orchestra through the OAE Trust. Thirty Circle Patrons Bob and Laura Cory Sir Martin Smith and Lady Smith OBE Thirty Circle Members Victoria and Edward Bonham Carter Nigel Jones and Françoise Valat-Jones Selina and David Marks Julian and Camilla Mash Mark and Rosamund Williams Our Supporters Ann and Peter Law OAE Experience scheme Ann and Peter Law

Season Patrons Julian and Annette Armstrong Adrian Frost Bruce Harris John Armitage Charitable Trust Nigel Jones and Françoise Valat-Jones Selina and David Marks Sir Martin Smith and Lady Smith OBE Mark and Rosamund Williams Project Patrons Julian and Camilla Mash Haakon and Imogen Overli Philip and Rosalyn Wilkinson Aria Patrons Denys and Vicki Firth Madeleine Hodgkin Stanley Lowy Gary and Nina Moss Rupert Sebag-Montefiore Caroline Steane Eric Tomsett

Principal Sponsor

Corporate Partners E.S.J.G. Limited Lubbock Fine Chartered Accountants Mark Allen Group Parabola Land Stephen Levinson at Keystone Law Swan Turton Corporate Associates Aston Lark Kirker Holidays Zaeem Jamal Event Sponsors Ambriel Sparkling Wine Markson Pianos


Chair Patrons Mrs Nicola Armitage – Education Director Hugh and Michelle Arthur – Viola Victoria and Edward Bonham Carter – Principal Trumpet Anthony and Celia Edwards – Principal Oboe Sir Vernon and Lady Ellis – Co-Principal Viola James Flynn QC – Co-Principal Lute/Theorbo Paul Forman – Co-Principal Cello, Co-Principal Bassoon and Co-Principal Horn Jenny and Tim Morrison – Second Violin Andrew Nurnberg – Co-Principal Oboe Jonathan Parker Charitable Trust – Co-Principal Cello Professor Richard Portes CBE FBA – Co-Principal Bassoon

Olivia Roberts – Violin John and Rosemary Shannon – Principal Horn Roger and Pam Stubbs – Sub-Principal Clarinet Crispin Woodhead and Christine Rice – Principal Timpani Education Patrons John and Sue Edwards – Principal Education Patrons Mrs Nicola Armitage Patricia and Stephen Crew Rory and Louise Landman Andrew & Cindy Peck Professor Richard Portes CBE FBA Rising Stars Supporters Mrs Rosamund Bernays Denys and Vicki Firth Mr Bruce Harris Ms Madeleine Hodgkin Mrs Sarah Holford Nigel Jones and Francoise Valat-Jones Mr Peter Lofthouse Mr Mark Loveday Mr Andrew Nurnberg Old Possum's Practical Trust Imogen and Haakon Overli The Reed Foundation Associate Patrons Nick Allan Julia and Charles Abel Smith Noël and Caroline Annesley David and Marilyn Clark Christopher and Lesley Cooke David Emmerson Ian S Ferguson and Dr Susan Tranter Jonathan and Tessa Gaisman Peter and Sally Hilliar Noel De Keyzer Madame M Lege-Germain Sir Timothy and Lady Lloyd Michael and Harriet Maunsell Roger Mears and Joanie Speers David Mildon in memory of Lesley Mildon John Nickson & Simon Rew

For more information on supporting the OAE please contact: Emily Stubbs Development Director Telephone 020 7239 9381 Andrew and Cindy Peck Emily Stubbs and Stephen McCrum Shelley von Strunckel Ivor Samuels and Gerry Wakelin Rev’d John Wates OBE and Carol Wates Mr J Westwood Young Ambassador Patrons Rebecca Miller William Norris Young Patrons Joseph Cooke and Rowan Roberts David Gillbe Nina Hamilton Marianne and William Cartwright-Hignett Sam Hucklebridge Alex Madgwick Natalie Watson Gold Friends Michael Brecknell Mr and Mrs C Cochin de Billy Geoffrey Collens Silver Friends Dennis Baldry Mrs A Boettcher Haylee and Michael Bowsher Tony Burt Christopher Campbell Michael A Conlon Mr and Mrs Michael Cooper Dr Elizabeth Glyn Malcolm Herring Patricia Herrmann Rupert and Alice King Cynthia and Neil McClennan Stephen and Roberta Rosefield David and Ruth Samuels Susannah Simons Her Honour Suzanne Stewart

Goldsmiths’ Company Charity Idlewild Trust Bronze Friends Tony Baines Keith Barton Mr Graham Buckland Dan Burt Anthony and Jo Diamond Mrs SM Edge Mrs Mary Fysh Ray and Liz Harsant The Lady Heseltine Auriel Hill Stephen Larcombe Julian Markson Stephen & Penny Pickles Anthony and Carol Rentoul Alan Sainer Gillian Threlfall Mr and Mrs Tony Timms Mrs Joy Whitby David Wilson Trusts and foundations Angus Allnatt Charitable Foundation Apax Foundation Arts Council England Catalyst Fund Arts Council England Ashley Family Foundation Arts Council England Barbour Foundation Boltini Trust Boshier-Hinton Foundation Brian Mitchell Charitable Settlement Catherine Cookson Charitable Trust The Charles Peel Charitable Trust Chapman Charitable Trust Chivers Trust Cockayne – Grant for the Arts London Community Foundation John S Cohen Foundation Derek Hill Foundation D’Oyly Carte Charitable Trust Dunard Fund Ernest Cook Trust Esmee Fairbairn Foundation Fenton Arts Trust Fidelio Charitable Trust Foyle Foundation GarfieldWeston Foundation Geoffrey Watling Charity The Garrick Club Charitable Trust The Golden Bottle Trust

Jack Lane Charitable Trust JMCMRJ Sorrell Foundation J Paul Getty Jnr General Charitable Trust John Lyon’s Charity Lord and Lady Lurgan Trust The Mark Williams Foundation Michael Marks Charitable Trust National Foundation for Youth Music Nicholas Berwin Charitable Trust Old Possum’s Practical Trust Orchestras Live Palazzetto Bru-Zane Paul Bassham Charitable Trust The Patrick Rowland Foundation PF Charitable Trust Pitt-Riverse Charitable Trust PRS Foundation Pye Charitable Settlement RK Charitable Trust RVW Trust Schroder Charity Trust Sir James Knott Trust Small Capital Grants Stanley Picker Trust Strategic Touring Fund The Loveday Charitable Trust The R&I Pilkington Charitable Trust The Shears Foundation The Sobell Foundation Valentine Charitable Trust Violet Mauray Charitable Trust The 29th May 1961 Charitable Trust

We are also very grateful to our anonymous supporters and OAE Friends for their ongoing generosity and enthusiasm.


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020 7935 8682

Upcoming concerts

Visit for more details on all our upcoming concerts.

Brahms' Colossal Requiem

The sounds of the 18th Century

Brahms: A German Requiem


Sunday 11 November 2018 Royal Festival Hall 7pm

Monday 3 December 2018 Queen Elizabeth Hall 7pm

To mark Armistice Day, Marin Alsop conducts Brahms' epic A German Requiem. Music written for the Requiem Mass was usually performed in Latin. But Brahms broke the mould with this colossal German-language masterpiece.

We rarely have more fun than when we performing music from the 18th century and letting the unique sounds of its period instruments come to the fore.

Without direct references to Christ, Brahms' Requiem is famously humanist in approach. It speaks to you directly about death, grief and living after loss.

You can enjoy those sounds with this brilliant Baroque programme, which is a pick’n’mix of Handel’s innovative organ music, Handel overtures and charming Telemann concertos.

Vaughan Williams – Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis Brahms – A German Requiem

Enjoy the sounds of the 18th century on the instruments of the time, performed by the musicians that play them best.

Marin Alsop conductor Elizabeth Watts soprano James Newby baritone Choir of the Age of Enlightenment

Music by Handel and Telemann John Butt Director/Organ

For more information on how to book, visit 033




Kirker Holidays offers an extensive range of independent and escorted music holidays. These include tours to leading festivals in Europe such as the Puccini Festival in Torre del Lago and the Verdi Festival in Parma, as well as Glyndebourne, Buxton and opera weekends in Vienna, Milan and Venice. We also host our own exclusive music festivals on land and at featuring internationally acclaimed musicians. For those who prefer to travel independently we arrange short breaks with opera, ballet or concert tickets, to all the great classical cities in Europe.

THE KIRKER MUSIC FESTIVAL IN TENERIFE A SEVEN NIGHT HOLIDAY | 12 JANUARY 2019 For our fourth exclusive music festival on the island of Tenerife, we will present a series of six concerts featuring the Gould Piano Trio, pianist Benjamin Frith, soprano Ilona Domnich and violist Simon Rowland-Jones. Staying at the 5* Hotel Botanico, surrounded by lush tropical gardens, we shall also enjoy a programme of fascinating excursions. Highlights include the Sitio Litro Orchid Garden, a cable car journey to the peak of Mount Teide and a visit to the primeval cloud forest of the Anaga Mountains. We will also visit historic and picturesque villages along the spectacular north coast, including Garachico with its 17th century convent. Price from £2,698 per person (single supp. £375) for seven nights including flights, transfers, accommodation with breakfast, six dinners, six private concerts, all sightseeing, entrance fees and gratuities and the services of the Kirker Tour Leader.

THE KIRKER MUSIC FESTIVAL IN MALLORCA A SIX NIGHT HOLIDAY | 29 MAY 2019 The works of Frédéric Chopin are central to our Festival in Mallorca and for our seventh visit we will be joined by the Phoenix Piano Trio, Marta Fontanals-Simmons, soprano and Lorena Paz Nieto, mezzo-soprano. Based in the village of Banyalbufar, we will discover the gloriously unspoilt north coast of Mallorca. There will be visits to the picturesque artists’ village of Deia, the capital Palma and the villa of San Marroig. Our series of private concerts includes a recital in the monastery at Valldemossa where Chopin spent three months with his lover the aristocratic Baroness Dudevant, better known as the writer George Sand. Price from £2,290 per person (single supp. £189) for six nights including flights, accommodation with breakfast, two lunches, six dinners, five concerts, all sightseeing and gratuities and the services of the Kirker Tour Leader.

Speak to an expert or request a brochure:

020 7593 2284 quote code GOG

Perfectly tuned insurance

Because helping even the youngest musician strikes a chord with us Our Music policy has been carefully designed to allow you to enjoy playing your instrument with complete peace of mind, whatever your age. Lark Music is focused on protecting your possessions and supporting the musical arts. Lark Music is a trading name of Aston Lark Limited Registered in England and Wales No: 02831010. Registered office: Ibex House, 42-47 Minories, London, EC3N 1DY Aston Lark Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority.

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Principal sponsor

Profile for Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment

Apollo and Daphne Programme  

Our programme for our Apollo and Daphne concert on 25 October 2018 at Queen Elizabeth Hall. Pick up a free hard copy on the night.

Apollo and Daphne Programme  

Our programme for our Apollo and Daphne concert on 25 October 2018 at Queen Elizabeth Hall. Pick up a free hard copy on the night.