Sounds of Learning Guide: THE LOVE FOR THREE ORANGES

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WELCOME Welcome to Opera Philadelphia. We are so thrilled that you will soon be joining us at the Academy of Music for the final dress rehearsal of Sergei Prokofiev's opera, The Love for Three Oranges. Whether this is your first time attending an opera, or your hundredth, we are excited to have you. Seeing an opera can be a thrilling experience as it tells stories using all of the art forms – music, dance, theater, visual art, and more. While the music and text of opera may have been written centuries ago, the stories are still meaningful today. We hope this guide will allow you to connect with opera and The Love for Three Oranges. How might a character in The Love for Three Oranges relate to you or to a person in your own life? What similarities or differences are there? In what ways can you see yourself being a part of opera – whether it be on stage or off ? Your unique experience is important to us and is likely to be different from that of your friends, classmates, and teachers. That’s okay! How great is it that we can all have different feelings and opinions about the same piece of art? When you return to school, consider sparking conversations with your classmates about the opera. Opera can be dynamic and engaging but also complex and confusing. Unpacking what you’ve just seen and hearing from others is a great way to appreciate opera even more. As you find your seat in the Academy of Music, remember that this historic theater is a part of your community and welcome to everyone. Enjoy the opera and take in all it has to offer. In the end, we’ll know that we have done our job if you leave feeling both inspired and full of self-discovery. Welcome to our family.

G O A L S A N D O B J E C T I V E S of Sounds of Learning D ress Rehearsal P rog ram Connect with the plot or themes

Connect something from your exploration of opera to your own personal stories

Draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the story presentation

Experience the opera with an open mind

Analyze, synthesize, and evaluate what you have learned or experienced during the challenge

Use the Sounds of Learning blog to reflect on your experience and provide insights about your journey

Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education

TA B L E O F Contents O P E R A 101 Defining Opera Throughout History 2 Philadelphia's Academy of Music 4 Opera Etiquette 5 Operatic Voice Types 6 The Language of Opera 8 Theater Anatomy 9

H I ST O R I C A L C O N T E X T The Man Behind the Music: Sergei Prokofiev What in the World?: Events During Prokofiev's Life

10 12

L I B R E T T O & P R O D U C T I O N I N F O R M AT I O N The Love for Three Oranges: Cast and Creative Team 14 The Love for Three Oranges: Synopsis 16 The Love for Three Oranges: Libretto 18

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Character Analysis Pyramid 32 Plot the Action of The Love for Three Oranges 33 Commedia dell'Arte 34 Who was Carlo Gozzi? 35 People Watching 36 Operatic Libs: Truffaldino's Plan 37 What are Oranges, Anyway? 38 Too Funny for Words 39 March Madness 40 Getting to Know the Cast of The Love for Three Oranges 42 Write a Review of the Opera 44

The Love for Three Oranges is one of the great operatic comedies. Oranges have also inspired many great jokes. Look for this icon and find some great and not-so-great jokes about oranges.

DEFINING OPERA Throughout Histor y Opera has been called the greatest of all art forms. Why? Operas like Sergei Prokofiev's The Love for Three Oranges bring all the arts together to tell stories in incredibly moving ways—stories that have been a reflection of the time and of the people throughout history. The oldest opera still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo, written in 1607. During the Baroque period from 1600-1750, Italian aristocracy wanted to recreate the great classical dramas from ancient Greece and Rome. Such stories provided the ruling elite with a strong connection to the supernatural. When asked to write an opera for Grand Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga of Mantua, Monteverdi thought that Orpheus, the Greek hero of music, would be of great interest to his audience. Monteverdi's opera brought to life Orpheus’s dramatic journey to the underworld in an effort to save his love, Euridice. The premiere of L'Orfeo was a great success, and Monteverdi emerged as someone who could use music to not only propel a narrative but also deeply affect an audience. While Monteverdi got his start composing opera for the ruling elite, he also helped bring opera to the public. Opera’s emotional stories created a frenzy in Venice, Italy, towards the middle of the 17th century. No fewer than nine public opera houses opened during this period as the public wanted more opera that reflected the culture of the time. Monteverdi’s The Coronation of Poppea (1642) is a great example of this desire. Poppea tells the story of one of Rome’s most evil rulers, Emperor Nero, and his love affair with Poppea, his ambitious mistress. Monteverdi’s opera premiered in Venice, and Poppea’s sensational and bawdy story perfectly matched Venetian interests while creating a gripping and emotional drama.


Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro shocked 18th century audiences when the servants Figaro and Susanna (pictured above) turn the tables on the aristocracy. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

The 18th century, known as the Age of Enlightenment, was the next great period of political and cultural change in Europe. People were talking about new forms of government and organization in society, especially the developing middle class. As society changed, so did opera. Composers felt the need to reform opera and move away from the complexity of the Baroque style and wanted to instead write music that was simpler and more focused on pure, raw emotion. Christoph Willibald Gluck was one of the first to achieve this with his opera Orfeo and Euridice (1762). Gluck’s music had a freedom that evoked the unaffected expression of human feelings. While Gluck's opera told the same story as Monteverdi's L’Orfeo, his music brought new life to the narrative that better reflected audiences’ tastes at the time. The later part of the 18th century marked a period of great revolt. In 1776, the American Revolution changed the world. A few years later, the French had their own revolution (1789)

The Marriage of Figaro

The Barber of Seville



Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Gioachino Rossini

and the first modern democracies were born. Reflecting this new way of thinking, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) did just that. It told a story about aristocratic class struggle that had both servants and nobility in leading roles. With the characters of Figaro and Susanna, Mozart gave opera relatable human beings. Mozart’s operas embody the tenets of the Enlightenment such as equality, freedom, and the importance of the lower classes. In the 1800s, Italian opera developed further with the bel canto movement, which means “beautiful singing.” Opera continued to be about real stories and achieving honesty in expression. The most famous bel canto composers were Gioachino Rossini (1792–1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848), and Vincenzo Bellini (1801–1835). The success of these composers can be measured in their ability to withstand the test of time. Rossini’s popular comedies, The Barber of Seville (1816) and Cinderella (1817), are still some of the most popular operas performed today. By the middle of the 19th century, the Romantic Movement led many composers to champion their own national identities. Composers and librettists created operas for the audiences they knew best. Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi continued to develop the bel canto style of his predecessors and became a national hero by using nationalism in his operas like Nabucco (1842) to promote the cause of Italian unification. German operas like Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz (1821), Russian operas like Mikhail Glinka's A Life for the Tsar (1836), and French operas like Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots (1836) were performed frequently in their native countries. In Germany, Richard Wagner brought the Romantic period to its peak by exploiting the grand potential of opera. How could all of the elements — orchestra, set, chorus, soloists, and more — be elevated to transform a story and

deeply affect an audience? In The Ring of the Nibelung (1876), a series of four operas taking more than 15 hours to perform, Wagner created one of opera’s greatest masterpieces. Opera in the 20th century emerged as a period of great experimentation. Composers like Giacomo Puccini (La bohème, 1896), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905) and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) continued to evolve their national styles. Others, horrified by the destruction of World War I (1914-1918) and other aspects of modern life, created music that was new and drastically inharmonious. Meanwhile, American opera had a huge hit with George and Ira Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935), which included the musical styles of jazz and blues.

Five Philadelphia youths are portrayed in Daniel Bernard Roumain's 2017 opera We Shall Not Be Moved. Photo: Dave DiRentis

Today, opera continues to grow and expand. Opera Philadelphia helps to shape the future of opera by producing important new works like Daniel Bernard Roumain and Marc Bamuthi Joseph's 2017 opera, We Shall Not Be Moved, a story about Philadelphia youth and many of the issues facing society today. In October 2017, the opera went on to be performed at the famous Apollo Theater in Harlem. In September of 2018, it also took to the big screen for Opera Philadelphia's biggest yearly civic event, Opera on the Mall, and was broadcast across Independence Mall.

Porgy and Bess

We Shall Not Be Moved



George and Ira Gershwin

Daniel Bernard Roumain


P H I L A D E L P H I A’S AC A D E M Y O F M U S I C A place for you

Photo: George Widman

Opera Philadelphia's home, the Academy of Music, opened in 1857. Opera is only one type of performance that takes place in the Academy. There are also ballets, concerts, and galas. The building is a historical monument and the oldest grand opera house in America still used for its original purpose. The Academy of Music is sometimes called the "The Grand Old Lady of Locust Street." The opera house was initially built with a plain white exterior because the architects wanted the beauty to be on the interior, as it was at the famous opera house, La Scala, in Italy. Later, the exterior was revised to look as it does today. Unlike other performance houses, the Academy of Music's seating has a 'U' shape. This was for the audience to have the best view from every angle possible. The first opera presented in the brand new opera house was Giuseppe Verdi’s Il trovatore on February 25, 1857. The basement of the Academy of Music has a history, too. It was used as a dining hall because of its beautiful interior decoration. During World War II the hall was transformed into the Stage Door Canteen, serving refreshments and featuring appearances by entertainers performing 4

at the Academy of Music, such as Abbott and Costello, Duke Ellington, and Frank Sinatra. Today, the Academy of Music continues to entertain people through concerts, operas, ballets, and more. The wondrous hall dedicated to the arts has blossomed into the perfect place for a performance of any kind. Academy of Music Facts: The auditorium seats 2,509. 14 columns support each of the Academy’s tiers. • The red and gold pattern on the Academy’s stage curtain simulates a pineapple, a Victorian-era symbol for “welcome.” • The first-ever indoor football game was held on the Academy’s Parquet level on March 7, 1889, between the University of Pennsylvania and Riverton Club of Princeton. • 1,600 people attended the first-ever public motion picture screening on February 5, 1870. • •

OPERA Etiquette AT T E N DI NG T H E OPE R A There’s nothing as exciting as seeing a performance in Philadelphia’s beautiful Academy of Music. If this is your first time at the opera, there are a few things for which you should prepare: You are attending the opera’s final dress rehearsal, the last chance for performers to run through the show before opening night. The goal is to treat this rehearsal exactly like a performance and perform the opera straight through without a pause. You may notice several computer monitors and large tables spread out over the seats in the center of the first f loor of the auditorium. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, Set Designer, and others. They’ll take notes and communicate via headsets with the many people backstage who help make all of the operatic magic happen: Stage Managers, Master Carpenter, Lighting Technicians, Stagehands, and others. They’ll be able to give notes so that changes can be instantly made. Should things go wrong, they may stop and repeat a section to make sure that it is perfect. OPER A E T IQU E T T E 101 Opera singers are unique because they are trained to sing without microphones. As a result, it is important to remain quiet, listen carefully, and not interfere with the music. With this in mind, remember that at the heart of opera is a story rooted in deep emotion. So, when the time is right, don't be afraid to laugh or extend your appreciation through applause! Performers need to know how their work is being appreciated. In addition to showing respect to the people around you, it is important to appreciate the physical theater. Many opera houses or theaters are designated as historic monuments. So that we can continue to use these cherished spaces, we

Students from the Penn Alexander School prepare to see the f inal dress rehearsal of Mozart's The Magic Flute. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

must remember to leave them the way they were found. This means keeping your feet on the f loor as opposed to on the back of the seat in front of you. In addition, any food or beverage must remain outside of the theater. Finally, you may be asking yourself what to wear to an opera. This answer can vary from person to person. Ultimately, you should not feel as if you will be turned away because of your attire. However, dressing up for the opera is a classic tradition, so don't hesitate to show off your best new tie or your favorite dress. The way you dress and carry yourself can only add to the opera experience. Please Do... • Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!” for men and “Brava!” for the women. • Use the bathrooms before the rehearsal begins or at intermission. • Be careful in the auditorium! Theaters can sometimes be old and difficult to navigate. • Turn off your cell phones and all electronic devices. • Obey all directions given by theater ushers and staff. Please Don't... • No food, gum, or beverages are permitted inside the theater. • No photographs or videos may be taken during the performance. • No talking or whispering during the performance. 5

O P E R AT I C Vo i c e Ty p e s Have you ever wondered why every person's voice sounds slightly different? The human voice is a fascinating and complex instrument with many factors that make each one of us sound unique. The length, strength, and thickness of the vocal chords, the shape of the nasal passages, mouth, and throat all help to determine whether a voice will be high or low, bright or warm. In opera, voices are classified into seven main categories (from highest to lowest): soprano, mezzosoprano, contralto, countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass. It is important to know that a person can only know their true voice type when they become an adult. The following people have distinguished themselves as past and present leaders of their voice type. Choose one opera singer to research and share your discoveries with your friends. Use the QR Codes and social media tags to hear each voice type and learn more about a few of these artists.

S O P R A N O is the highest female voice type, with a traditional range of A below middle C to the C two octaves above that. The soprano usually plays the heroine of the story and is often the center of the romantic storyline. @LeahCrocetto

Leah Crocetto soprano

Eri Nakamura soprano

M E Z Z O - S O P R A N O is slightly lower than soprano, with a range usually G below middle C to the Bb two octaves above. Mezzos are often supporting roles, playing motherly types or villains. They also often sing "trouser roles" in which they portray boys or young men.

Daniela Mack mezzo-soprano

C O N T R A L T O is the lowest female voice, with a range of the F below middle C to the second G above middle C. It is a rare voice type, so the roles can often be sung by mezzo-sopranos. It is the darkest in timbre and is reserved for specialty roles, such as grandmothers, noble witches, and goddesses. 6


Marietta Simpson mezzo-soprano

Marian Anderson contralto

Meredith Arwady contralto

John Holiday countertenor

Tim Mead countertenor

C O U N T E R T E N O R is the highest male voice, with a range that is similar to the contralto: A below middle C to the F an octave and a half above middle C. Frequently these men achieve their high range through bridging their chest voice with their head voice (falsetto). While this voice type was less popular from 1800-1940, composers today utilize countertenors more often.

@johnholidaylive @tim_mead

T E N O R is considered the highest “natural” male voice, with a range of D below middle C to the C above middle C. Beginning in the Classical era (1775-1825), the tenor has been assigned the role of the hero or the love interest of the story.

Lawrence Brownlee tenor


Troy Cook baritone

Will Liverman baritone

Evan Leroy Johnson tenor

B A R I T O N E is the most common male voice type, with a range midway between tenor and bass, from A an octave below middle C to the G above middle C. The baritone is often the comical leader, but can also be the villain who stands in the way of the soprano and tenor’s love.


B A S S is the lowest and darkest of the male voices, with a range of E almost two octaves below middle C to the F above middle C. Basses can portray characters who convey wisdom or nobility, but also comedic characters. @_Zachary_James @mdrbass

Zachary James bass

Photo Credit: Leah Crocetto - Jiyang Chen; Eri Nakamura - Chris Gloag; Daniela Mack - Simon Pauly; Marietta Simpson - JR Simpson Photography; John Holiday - Fay Fox; Lawrence Brownlee - Ken Howard; Troy Cook - Arielle Doneson; Will Liverman Larrynx Photography; Morris Robinson - Ron Cadiz

Morris Robinson bass



main sections of a play or opera a solo song sung in an opera dance set to music action on stage usic composed for a group of singers; the name of a group of m singers in an opera person who rehearses and leads the orchestra a song performed by two singers a specialist in drama, especially one who acts as a consultant to a theater company, advising them on possible repertory the text or words in an opera; an opera’s script a group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments a piece of instrumental music played at the beginning that sets the mood for the opera words that are sung in the rhythm of natural speech a sequence of continuous actions

Lawrence Brownlee, tenor, performs the title role in Charlie Parker's YARDBIRD. After its 2015 World Premiere with Opera Philadelphia, the opera traveled to Harlem and graced the stage of the historic Apollo Theater. It has since been performed at Madison Opera, Lyric Opera of Chicago, and Hackney Empire in London. Photo: Sof ia Negron


T H E AT E R Anatomy Opera singers must act on stage as well as sing! This means that they have to understand the stage set-up. When directors rehearse, they communicate where the singers should be on stage. Otherwise there could be a big traffic jam! To make everything clear, a special vocabulary is used. UPSTAGE is the name given to the very back of the stage (away from the audience) and DOWNSTAGE is at the front (near the audience). STAGE LEF T and STAGE RIGHT are used to identify the sides of the stage. It is important to know that left and right are always from the performers perspective as they look into the auditorium and at the audience. You might be wondering why it is called "up" stage and “down” stage. This is because opera sets are frequently built on an angled platform or “deck” that is lower in the front near the apron and higher in the back. Thus, the lower end is “downstage” and the higher end is “upstage”.









VIEW OF THE ACADEMY OF MUSIC STAGE TAKE YOUR PLACES Pretend you are on the Academy of Music stage. The director needs you to take your place on stage. Follow the directions to indicate where you go.







THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC Sergei Prokof iev Prokofiev was born on April 23, 1891 in Russia. His mother, an avid art lover, started him on piano at the age of four. After a few visits to the opera house, at only eight years old, Prokofiev decided to make an opera of his own (The Giant), performed for his family with a cast of childhood friends. Recognizing his musical gifts, Prokofiev’s family entered him into the St. Petersburg Conservatory at 13, where he studied composition and concert piano. In the years after his graduation, Prokofiev traveled abroad and produced some of his most memorable music, including his shocking, harsh-sounding Scythian Suite and his Classical Symphony, which set a trend of writing music inspired by the older styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Just before his opera The Gambler was supposed to premiere, the 1917 Russian Revolution halted the production and drove Prokofiev to seek better musical opportunities in America. 26-year-old Sergei Prokof iev in 1917, a year before his trip to America. Source: Library of Congress, id: ggbain.28258

Sergei Prokofiev is one of the most beloved composers of the 20th century, and among the most celebrated in Russian history. He wrote an incredible amount and range of music, including sonatas and symphonies, operas and ballets, and even movie scores. Most importantly, Prokofiev loved fairy tales and love stories. He made the classic tales of Romeo and Juliet and Cinderella into two of the most famous and beautiful ballets of all time, and his piece Peter and the Wolf has helped teach generations of kids why an orchestra is so fun. In Prokofiev’s hands, these and other stories have captured the imaginations of audiences for over a century.

Third Piano Concerto 10


After his arrival in New York in 1918, Prokofiev made a living as a concert pianist, playing programs with his own music. In 1921, the Chicago Opera premiered his operatic version of a ridiculous 1761 play, The Love for Three Oranges. This became one of Prokofiev’s most successful operas around the world. Prokofiev wrote other important compositions in the U.S., such as the hugely popular Third Piano Concerto. Still, he felt that Americans’ musical tastes were too traditional and returned to the more experimental musical world of Europe in 1922. While in Europe, Prokofiev found that audiences in Russia, which was now known as the Soviet Union, loved his music. During this time, the Soviet Union’s brutal dictator Joseph Stalin was trying to silence anyone who disagreed with him by forcing his country’s music and art to be simple. Romeo and Juliet

Dance of the Knights


Prokof iev loved chess and even beat one of the best players of all time in 1914. Source: Moscovery

Prokofiev realized this disturbing trend could work well with his own simpler musical style, and he moved to the Soviet Union for good in 1936. Prokofiev kept this style for the next decade, and often used his music to celebrate Stalin and the Soviet Union. But in 1948, Stalin’s government

Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union. Source: History Crunch

Peter and the Wolf


formally attacked Prokofiev’s and other composers’ music and banned performance of many of his works for being too rough and "anti-classical." After this, very few people wanted to perform Prokofiev’s music, not even masterpieces like his opera War and Peace, and he became very poor. Not only did he write less music in general, but he was frightened into writing even simpler, more traditional music, which still did not improve his reputation. During these tragic years, Prokofiev’s physical health began to fail, and he died on March 5, 1953 – the same day as Stalin. But Prokofiev’s music is timeless and universal, because it captures everything we feel. It can have gorgeous melodies and ugly clashing notes. It can be deadly serious and hilariously silly. Even though Stalin tried to destroy Prokofiev and other artists and thinkers by spreading fear, the music Prokofiev left behind is fearlessly human.


The Clock Strikes Twelve



W H AT I N T H E W O R L D ? Events during P rokof iev's Life Listed below are some historic and cultural events that took place during Sergei Prokof iev's lifetime. Events in boldface type are things that happened to Prokof iev; an asterisk (*) indicates events of local interest.

1890 1895 1896: The first modern Olympic games were held in Athens, Greece. 1896: The U.S. Supreme Court upheld racial segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson. 1898: The U.S. gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as a result of the SpanishAmerican War.

1891: Sergei Prokofiev was born on April 23 in Russia. 1892: The game of basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith at a YMCA in Springfield, MA.

1900 1900: Prokofiev wrote The Giant, the first of four operas he would create during his youth. *The Philadelphia Orchestra was founded.

1905 1908: The first mass-produced car, the Model T, was introduced by the Ford Motor Company. 1909: The NAACP was established to fight for racial justice in America.

1915 1916: The Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to Northern cities began. 1917:

Prokofiev wrote the Classical Symphony, as well as his first major opera, The Gambler.

1918: Prokofiev arrived in the United States and began to perform around the country as a concert pianist. 1919: The Treaty of Versailles was signed, signifying the end of World War I. 12

1901: *The first annual Mummers Parade was held in Philadelphia. 1904: Prokofiev entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory.

1910 1912: Prokofiev won first prize in his conservatory’s piano competition, playing his own First Piano Concerto. The British ocean liner Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg. 1914: World War I began with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria.

1920 1920: In the U.S., women won the right to vote with the adoption of the 19th Amendment. The Harlem Renaissance, a intellectual and artistic celebration of African American culture, began in New York.


1921: The Love for Three Oranges finally premiered at the Chicago Opera. 1922: Prokofiev left the U.S. for Europe.

1929: The New York Stock Market crashed, beginning the Great Depression worldwide.

1930 1933: *The Philadelphia Eagles were founded.

1940 1941: Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor, a U.S. naval base in Hawaii, leading the U.S. to enter into WWII and hold over 120,000 JapaneseAmericans in internment camps. 1944: The Invasion of Normandy (D-Day) led to the establishment of the Allied Forces in France.

1935 1936: Prokofiev permanently returned to the Soviet Union, and completed his ballet Romeo and Juliet and his “symphonic fairy-tale” Peter and the Wolf. 1939: World War II began in Europe.

1945 1945: The ballet Cinderella premiered at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. Nazi forces surrendered to the Allies. The U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. 1946: The opera War and Peace premiered in Leningrad.

1950 1952: The polio vaccine was invented by Jonas Salk. 1953: Prokofiev died on March 5, the same day as Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin.

1947: African-American Jackie Robinson and JapaneseAmerican Wataru Misaka broke the "color line" in their respective sports of baseball and basketball. 1948: The Soviet government formally attacked Prokofiev’s music and banned many of his works.


T H E LOV E F O R T H R E E O R A N G E S C a s t a n d C r e a t i v e Te a m Final Dress Rehearsal – Wednesday, September 18, 2019, 2:00 p.m. at the Academy of Music. Music by Sergei Prokofiev. Libretto by Sergei Prokofiev and Vera Janacopoulos. Based on Vsevolod Meyerhold's adaptation of the play by Carlo Gozzi. Performed in English in a translation by David Lloyd-Jones, with English supertitles.

e pr im


i s te r




Scott Conner* bass



Will Liverman baritone te r




Zachary Altman bass-baritone


heir T RU F FA L DI NO


Barry Banks* tenor

Alissa Anderson* contralto


Jonathan Johnson* tenor



Katherine Pracht mezzo-soprano

Kendra Broom* mezzo-soprano



Tiffany Townsend* soprano

*Opera Philadelphia debut

F A T A M O R G A N A , a witch

C H E L I O , a noble magician

Wendy Bryn Harmer* soprano

Brent Michael Smith bass


Zachary James bass

S M E R A L D I N E , the witch's servant

Amanda Bottoms* mezzo-soprano


Frank Mitchell bass-baritone

F A R F A R E L L O , a helpful demon

Ben Wager bass-baritone


Corey Bonar tenor

The Opera Philadelphia Chorus appears as the Spectators: Comics, Idiots, Oddballs, Romantics, and Tragics.


Corrado Rovaris

Alessandro Talevi*



Ran Arthur Braun


Giuseppe Calabro*



Seth Hoff

Justin Arienti*

Manuel Pedretti*

Elizabeth Braden


T H E LOV E F O R T H R E E O R A N G E S Synopsis PROLOGUE Four groups of impatient theater fans argue over the kind of show they want to see – tragedy, comedy, romance, or pure ridiculousness. A fifth group of spectators, the Oddballs, interrupts them to announce the performance of the main event: “The Love for Three Oranges.”

ACT ONE The Prince has hypochondria – his physical health is fine, but he thinks he’s gravely ill. A chorus of doctors tells the stressed-out King of Clubs about his son’s imaginary sickness, which includes a deep depression that keeps him from laughing. The King asks his jester Truffaldino to organize a party to cheer up the Prince. In the underworld, the evil witch Fata Morgana beats the noble magician Chelio three times in a card game, robbing him of his powers to protect the King. Meanwhile, the King’s niece Clarissa and the scheming prime minister Leander plan to kill the Prince and take over the throne. Fata Morgana’s servant Smeraldine joins them, explaining that with Fata Morgana around at Truffaldino's party, the Prince will never laugh, and so he’ll stay sick.

ACT TWO Truffaldino drags the Prince to the party, but he won’t laugh at the crazy performances. When Truffaldino notices Fata Morgana there and tries to throw her out, she stumbles and falls on the ground. The Prince starts to laugh at her spectacular wipe-out, and soon everybody is cracking up. Now, things get weird. Fata Morgana is so furious that she curses the Prince, making him fall obsessively in love with three oranges. The King begs him to stay and look after the kingdom, but the Prince instead sets out with Truffaldino on a quest to find his beloved fruit.


Above: The Prince discovers a third princess hidden in the oranges. Lower-left: The Spectators get ready for the opera to start.

ACT THREE A demon named Farfarello blows the Prince and Truffaldino all the way to the hiding place of the oranges: the castle of Creonta, a giant sorceress and cook. At the castle, the Prince and Truffaldino distract Creonta with a ribbon from Chelio and steal the three oranges. As the two wander back through the desert, the Prince falls asleep and a thirsty Truffaldino opens two of the now-humongous oranges, disobeying Chelio's directions not to open the oranges unless there is water nearby. Inside each one is a princess who dies of thirst right away, and Truffaldino runs off in terror. The Prince wakes up and finds the princess Ninetta inside the third orange, and they profess their love for each other. The Oddballs in the audience prevent another tragedy by sending over a bucket of water to the Prince, and he saves Ninetta from her own deadly thirst. But the second the Prince leaves to get Ninetta new clothes from the royal castle, Smeraldine attacks Ninetta and turns her into a rat. When the Prince returns to introduce his love to the court, he is horrified to find Smeraldine in her place, but the King insists that the Prince honor his word and marry her.

ACT FOUR Chelio confronts Fata Morgana about her schemes, and the Oddballs break the fourth wall again to trap her, clearing Chelio a path to save the day. The Prince’s upcoming marriage to Smeraldine is upended when Ninetta, now a giant rat, appears on the Princess’ throne. Luckily, Chelio swoops in and returns Ninetta to her human form. The King, suddenly understanding the plot against him, sentences Smeraldine, Clarissa, and Leander to death. Out of nowhere, Fata Morgana appears and helps the traitors escape. The royal court shrugs, and celebrates the newly reunited Prince and Princess. 17

T H E LOV E F O R T H R E E O R A N G E S Libretto Adaptation by Dr. Amy Spencer

CAST (in order of appearance) All characters should be played over-the-top dramatically for maximum fun. SPECTATORS: Tragics, Comics, Romantics, Idiotics and Oddballs. They react to what they like about the show. KING: Father of the Prince. Ruler of the realm. PANTALOON: King’s trusted friend, advisor, and confidant. TRUFFALDINO: Court jester whose job it is to make everyone laugh. LEANDER: Prime Minister. Conspiring with Clarissa to kill the Prince and take over the kingdom.

CLARISSA: Niece of the King. Conspiring with Leander to kill the Prince and take over the kingdom. SMERALDINE: Servant of Fata Morgana. PRINCE: Heir to the realm. Suffers from hypochondria. FARFARELLO: Demon. COOK: Protector of the three oranges. LINETTA: Princess in the first orange. NICOLETTA: Princess in the second orange.

CHELIO: Magician. The King’s protector.

NINETTA: Princess in the third orange, and soul mate of the Prince.


(Romantics enter, shove Tragics and Comics aside.)

(Tragics and Comics are on opposite sides of the stage, facing each other.)

ROMANTICS We are the Romantics, and (dramatically) we love Opera! We want love, dreamers, drama, music, singing, orchestras, costumes, rhyming, foreign languages!

TRAGICS We are the Tragics, and we want to see a tragedy — (sarcastically, to audience) DUH. COMICS We are the Comics and we want to see a comedy - (sarcastically, to audience) DUH. TRAGICS We want murder, global warming, demagorgons!


FATA MORGANA: Sorceress. Leander’s protector.

COMICS We want cartoons, knock-knock jokes, cute cat videos!

COMICS, TRAGICS, ROMANTICS (together, arguing) We’re right! No. WE’RE right! (Idiotics enter, shove Tragics, Comics, and Romantics aside.) IDIOTICS We are the Idiotics, and we don’t want to work that hard to have fun. We want silliness and vulgar humor!

Spectators swarm the stage to argue about their favorite kind of theater. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

(Oddballs enter and begin shoving everyone else off the stage.) ODDBALLS Silence! Out! Off the stage, all of you! Attention! Here’s what you’ve come for! (with a dramatic flourish as if raising the curtain) The Love for Three Oranges! Raise the curtain! (Herald rushes on to CENTER, holds hands to mouth like a trumpet, “toots” a “ta-da” kind of fanfare.) HERALD Ladies and Gentlemen! Our King is sad and depressed. His son, his only heir, is suffering from hypochondria! (steps forward off icially to deliver a def inition to the audience as an aside, whispering loudly) Hypochondria is when you think you’ve got some terrible disease or sickness all the time, but it’s all in your head. ODDBALLS (excited) Let the show begin!

ACT I Scene 1 The Royal Palace. (The King is on his throne, with Pantaloon next to him and the Doctor in front of him.) KING (wringing his hands) Oh! My boy! My heir! What’s wrong with him? DOCTOR (ticking off on their f ingers) The Prince is suffering from... a head-ache, a tooth-ache, a thigh-ache, an eye-ache; according to rumor a giant red tumor; mold on his toes and his nose and it shows; and it appears that his brain has gone right down the drain. KING Isn’t there a pill for that? Give him one of those Spidey-man band-aids. That always worked before! DOCTOR I’m afraid there is no cure in medicine for what ails the Prince. (exits) 19

Doctors update the King of Clubs on the Prince's sickness. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

KING A head-ache, a tooth-ache, a thigh-ache, an eyeache! But without the Prince, who will be my successor? The only one left is my horrible niece Clarissa, and she’s not even funny! (begins to cry) PANTALOON What do they know? So many aches, for heaven’s sake! Poor King! Poor Prince! ODDBALLS (looking judgmental of the King) How embarrassing for the King... KING (suddenly calm, speaking as if in a trance) Once it was said that a single laugh could cure the Prince. PANTALOON (relieved it can be so simple) Seriously? Just one laugh can cure him? Let’s just make him laugh then! KING It will never happen.


PANTALOON Let’s put on a show with the funniest people we know! Truffaldino! TRUFFALDINO (enters and kneels before King) You called me? KING Truffaldino, I want you to throw a party to cheer up the Prince. TRUFFALDINO (a little too briskly and breezily, like he’s not taking it seriously) Your wish is my command. (exits) KING (to Pantaloon) I’m going to regret this. (as if he’s revived with a new idea) I want to see Prime Minister Leander. PANTALOON (aside) Darn it. I can’t stand that guy. He wants the Prince to die. LEANDER (enters) Your majesty.

KING I want you to put on a show to make the Prince laugh. I want a party. With balloons. And party hats! ODDBALLS Party! Balloons! Oooooh! PARTY HATS! LEANDER (sarcastically) Ugh. This is ridiculous. (dryly) My aunt died from laughing. It’s very dangerous, you know. KING (stomping his feet) I. Want. A. Party.

FATA MORGANA Yeah, well, I can look intimidating with cards, too. Take THAT! (slams a card on the table) ODDBALLS Bummer for the King! Fata Morgana won the mysterious and oddly fast card game! LITTLE DEVILS (dancing crazily) Hi! Hi! Hi! (aside, dryly sarcastic) Seriously? I’ve taken 15 years of voice lessons and my parents are here in the audience, and THIS is my big moment? (back to crazy hyper dance) Hi! Hi! Hi! CHELIO Let’s play again! (slams a card on the table)

Scene 2 A dark underworld, full of f ire and smoke. ( With thunder and lightning, Chelio appears, followed by Fata Morgana.) ODDBALLS It’s the magician, Chelio! OOOOH! And the witch, Fata Morgana! (The Little Devils enter, running around, and place a table with a deck of playing cards between Chelio and Fata Morgana.) LITTLE DEVILS (running a full circle around the stage and returning to sit at the foot of the card table) Hi! Hi! Hi! All we say in this whole silly opera is Hi! Hi! Hi! (Fata Morgana and Chelio start playing cards.) CHELIO I’m sure whatever we’re doing with these cards means something, but I’m just going to slap them down on the table and yell, HA! (slams a card on the table)

FATA MORGANA You’ll never learn! (slams a card on the table) ODDBALLS We don’t know what this game is about, but by golly, she’s won again! CHELIO (frustrated) If I can’t beat you at cards, then just DIE. (Chelio and Fata Morgana both sink into the floor dramatically, while the Little Devils take the card table and cards and exit.)

Scene 3 The Royal Palace. (Leander and Clarissa are meeting.) LEANDER Well, this is not going as planned. CLARISSA Leander, darling, you *do* know that when I take the throne I will take you as my husband, yes?

How do you charge a battery with an orange? Using elec-citrus-ity. 21

LEANDER You got it, babe. CLARISSA If you know that, (suddenly enraged) then WHY ARE YOU STILL SITTING THERE?! If you don’t take care of the Prince, you won’t be sharing my throne *or* my toothbrush. LEANDER Patience, darling. I’ve filled his belly with a buffet of sad stories about dying pets, and weepy country songs about broken-down trucks. TRAGICS (from off to the side of the stage) That’s the best you can do? We want real agony! CLARISSA Perhaps you’re being too subtle, Leander. How about just whacking him over the head and killing him? (Truffaldino staggers across the back of the stage, carrying a huge load of props and costumes.) LEANDER Ugh. There goes that Truffaldino. The King ordered him to throw a party to cheer up the Prince and get the kid to laugh. ODDBALLS (like cheerleaders, with arm movements and clapping) Truffy, Truffy, he’s our man! If he can’t do it, nobody can! Goooooo, Truffaldino! CLARISSA Just one laugh? That idiot is totally going to get him to laugh. (hissing at Leander) Just *kill* him! (A noise draws Clarissa and Leander’s attention, and Leander discovers Smeraldine hiding.) LEANDER Smeraldine! You little spy! You could be hanged for such treachery! SMERALDINE Oh yeah, Leander? I wouldn’t talk so fast if I were you. You’re gonna need some help, ‘cause 22

once you kill the Prince you’ll have to deal with Truffaldino. And once you’ve dealt with Truffaldino, you’ll have to handle Chelio! CLARISSA Focus, Leander. You’ll have to kill the Prince before the show tomorrow. (indicates Smeraldine) And then you can kill the little spy, too. SMERALDINE Wait, Princess! I know how to make sure that nobody at the party laughs! Invite Fata Morgana! That girl can kill the vibe anywhere. You just beckon her like Beetlejuice. Say her name three times, and she’ll be here. (Clarissa and Leander exchange a hopeful glance with one another, then turn together to Smeraldine.) CLARISSA, LEANDER, and SMERALDINE Fata Morgana! Fata Morgana! Fata Morgana! Let’s get this party started!

ACT II Scene 1 The Prince’s bedroom. (The Prince is reclining in a chair, covered in hot water bottles, band-aids, etc. Truffaldino is hopping about wildly, coming to the end of a long dance.) TRUFFALDINO Ta-daaaaa! PRINCE (bored and unimpressed) Nope. TRUFFALDINO But I’m hilarious! PRINCE You’re awful. This is (as if preparing to sneeze)! TRUFFALDINO Ouch. This kid is killing me. More songs! More poetry! His condition is (to audience, as cheesy as possible) *versening*.

Truffaldino drags the depressed Prince to the big party. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

ODDBALLS Of course it is! He’s been fed a steady diet of the saddest poetry ever written.

PRINCE (as he’s being shoved off stage) Spidey... (sobs loudly as he exits)

TRUFFALDINO Come now, Your Highness, let’s get you dressed for your party. You’re sure to find something to laugh at once we get there.

Scene 2

COMICS Yippee! Bring on the laughs! Send in the clowns! TRUFFALDINO Come, come, Your Highness, put on this coat. It goes so well with your jammies. PRINCE But where are my Spidey-man band-aids? I need my Spidey-man band-aids! TRUFFALDINO (trying to get the Prince dressed and lead him off stage) Here we go now, Your Highness. (aside, bitter) I’ll show you where to stick those band-aids.

Palace courtyard. (The King, the Prince, and Clarissa are on one side of the stage. Leander, Pantaloon, and the Courtiers are on the other side of the stage.) TRUFFALDINO (in the center of the stage) For your joy and laughter, I present these two terrible monsters battling to the death! (Two people making monster growls enter to center stage and start lamely “clawing” at each other – enjoy making it look silly and not at all scary.) COURTIERS Bravo! Bravo! Wonderful! How monstrous! TRUFFALDINO (to the King) Is he laughing yet? 23

The Prince is cursed to fall in love with three oranges. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

KING (checks to see if Prince is laughing, then turns angrily to Truffaldino) No.

TRUFFALDINO (irritated) Oh, fine then. (to “monsters”) Get lost, you two.

PRINCE (noticing Fata Morgana's fall and beginning a groan that turns into a hearty laugh – the weirder the better) Hhhhhhhuuuuh...huuuuuh... huuuuuuuuuuuuuhhhhh...ha. Ha...haaaa...HA. HAAAA. HAAAAAAA!!!

(Fata Morgana arrives, disguised as an old woman. Truffaldino notices her.)

ALL (overjoyed and cheering) That was laughter! The Prince has laughed!

TRUFFALDINO Hey lady, who are you?

FATA MORGANA (stopping all the rejoicing) My turn, fools! Here’s my curse...

FATA MORGANA (proclaiming a curse) I am Fata Morgana, and I promise you the Prince shall never laugh.

LITTLE DEVILS (enter, racing around, waving) Oh hey! We’re back! Hi! Hi! Hi! Hi! Hi! Hi! Hi!

PRINCE (whining) Eeeeh, I’m scared! Too loud! Too monster-y!

TRUFFALDINO (to Fata Morgana) Who in the world are you? Where’s your invitation? You don't belong here. Beat it, old lady. (takes her arm and starts to drag her off stage)


(They begin to struggle in a weird back-and-forth dance, until Fata Morgana stumbles over.)

FATA MORGANA Get your hands off me, you brute!

FATA MORGANA (stopping the Little Devils with a big arm motion) Silence! (to Prince) I condemn you to love. Not your everyday kind of love. You will love three oranges! (aside, with a sneer) I warned you it would be different. (to Prince) You will love them and search for them every waking moment. You love them! You love them! (exits with a flourish)

Why did the orange go to the doctor? It wasn't peeling well.

ODDBALLS Well, I didn’t see that coming.

PRINCE (entranced) Sticky...

PRINCE (suddenly overcome with passion) Man, I could really go for a banana right about now. (reconsidering) Or maybe an apple? A peach. NO. An orange! Or two! Oooooh! Or even three! Oh, that’s it! Three oranges! That’s exactly what I need!

IDIOTICS (bursting in and taking over) We want more mindless humor! Surely there’s time for some silly comments about oranges!


(The demon Farfarello jumps out and gently pushes the Prince and Truffaldino out, off stage.)

PRINCE Juicy and sweet!

KING and PANTALOON All is lost! We’re doomed!

PANTALOON Like, an actual orange?

PRINCE Goodbye, father.

ACT III Scene 1

PRINCE Creonta has some! I know she has oranges! I must find them. Get me my telescope right away, and my sword! Truffaldino! Come with me!

The desert.

TRUFFALDINO Me? (aside) Ugh. Why me?

CHELIO Farfarello! Farfarello! Farfarello!

KING Calm down. Get back in bed. We’ll bring you your Spidey-man band-aids.

FARFARELLO (rushing in dramatically) What what, my friend? Wazzuuuuup?

PRINCE (over-dramatic) No, father, I must go to the sweet juicy spheres of perfection. I am in love! They’re being held prisoner by Creonta in her kitchen, and I must rescue them in the name of love! KING Wrap it up, son. Pull it together! Chasing oranges can only get sticky! TRUFFALDINO (disgusted) Sticky!

(Chelio the magician is waving his arms around in a spell to get Farfarello to appear.)

CHELIO (panicked) Where have you sent them? Where are they? FARFARELLO Chill, dude. I sent them on their way to Creonta’s kitchen to find the oranges! (Farfarello disappears. Chelio remains, frustrated and angry. The Prince and Truffaldino arrive.) CHELIO Stop! What do you want here? 25

PRINCE I want Creonta’s three gorgeous globes of golden sweet goodness. You know. The oranges, man!

PRINCE (smelling the air for the scent of oranges) Mmmmm, oranges. (entranced) Perfect orbs of glorious citrus!

CHELIO But aren’t you afraid of Creonta? If she whacks you with her ladle, you’ll be dead as a doornail.

(The Cook rattles the door from the inside.)

PRINCE I do not run from kitchen utensils! CHELIO (holding up a piece of silk ribbon) Well, at least take this enchanted piece of silk, Truffaldino. It might distract Creonta just long enough for your weird friend with the fruit fantasy to raid the fruit bowl. TRUFFALDINO (taking the ribbon) Why, thank you! Don’t mind if I do! CHELIO And one more word of warning – the oranges must not be opened unless you are near water, or else you’re really in for it. PRINCE (singing to the tune of the holiday song) I’m dreaming of an Orange Christmas... (All exit)

Scene 2 The courtyard of Creonta’s castle. (The Prince and Truffaldino run in and collapse.) PRINCE (nervous) Come on, I’ve got to find the oranges. Chelio said they might be in the k-k-k-k-kitchen. TRUFFALDINO (confused) The k-k-k-k-kitchen? Well, here it is. (suddenly even more terrif ied) Watch out for the ladle!

PRINCE and TRUFFALDINO (clutching one another even more f iercely) Ahhhhhhhhhhh! She’s coming! (They run to opposite sides of the stage to hide.) COOK (enters wielding a huge ladle) Fee-fi-fo-fum! I smell a thief ! Come out and meet my ladle! You can’t hide from me! (The Cook f inds Truffaldino and drags him out of his hiding place.) TRUFFALDINO (whimpering) My dear ladle, I dear lady! COOK I’ll smash your head in with my ladle! I’ll cook you into a cake! TRUFFALDINO No! Not the ladle! Maybe just a teaspoon? (He remembers the magic ribbon and waves it at her.) COOK (transf ixed by the ribbon) Oooooh. What a pretty little thing! Can I have one? It’s my birthday today. Can I have it for my birthday? Please? Pretty please? Pretty please with a cherry on top? (The Prince sneaks away to search for oranges as Truffaldino gives her the ribbon and escapes.) COOK Oh! My beautiful ribbon! You’re mine! (Realizes her prisoner has escaped.) You little scoundrel! Where have you gone?

I had a dream that I was drowning in Crush orange soda, but it was only a Fanta-sea. 26

Truffaldino opens two oranges, and is dismayed to f ind two princesses dying of thirst inside. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

Scene 3 The desert at night. (The Prince and Truffaldino enter, dragging behind them three giant oranges, tied together with a rope.)

LINETTA I am Princess Linetta. And I’m extremely thirsty. In fact, I’m fairly certain I am dying of thirst. Might I have a glass of water, please?

PRINCE Ugh. I’m exhausted. Love is wearing me out.

TRUFFALDINO (panicking) Oh no. I was only expecting an orange. I don’t have any water, my lady.

TRUFFALDINO I’m dying of thirst!

LINETTA Understandable. Champagne will suffice, then.

PRINCE Let’s just lie down and take a little nap. (He lies down and falls asleep.)

TRUFFALDINO Wake up, sir! We have a problem! Right away, my lady! Coming up, some orange juice! (He slices the second orange open with his sword.) Holy cow. Another one. I did not see that coming.

TRUFFALDINO These poor little rich boys. How can he sleep when I’m dying? (trying to wake the Prince) Sir! Wakey wakey eggs and bakey! We’re in a desert here – how will I ever find water? Hmmmm. What if I just opened one of the oranges? (He slices the orange in half with his sword and a young woman steps out.) What? Who are you?

NICOLETTA (stepping out of the second orange) Hello there, kind sir. My name is Nicoletta. I’m terribly thirsty. Might I have a glass of water, please? I think I might be...


The Romantics swoon as the Prince saves Ninetta and they fall in love. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

LINETTA and NICOLETTA Dying of thirst...Water! Water! Please! Thirsty! Just a drop! (They lie down and die.) (Truffaldino panics and runs off.) PRINCE (waking) Truffaldino? Where are you? (noticing the women) What is this? Two angels? Am I dead? (Military soldiers appear.) PRINCE You, soldiers. Take these women and bury them very carefully. (The soldiers take the women off stage, and the Prince turns and notices the f inal orange.) PRINCE Alone at last, my sweet juicy wonder. My marmalade, my Fanta, my Sunny D. Are you in there, my sweet Clementina, Tangerina? (He slices the orange, and yet another young woman steps out.) Ah! A princess! I have looked for you and longed for you my whole life! 28

NINETTA (dreamily, as if in a spell) I am Ninetta, and I have searched for you also, my Prince. I have always loved you. (now the spell is broken) But if we can pause for just a sec, here? I’m actually kind of thirsty. You don’t happen to have a glass of water, do you, my darling snuggle bunny? It appears that I am dying... PRINCE Uh, not right at this very moment, my schmoopsie-poo. We’re in the desert, after all. If you can just give us time to get into town... NINETTA Yeah, that’s a big nope from me. Totally gonna die right here. ODDBALLS (appearing at the sides of the stage) Hey there! (calling out to the other ODDBALLS) Don’t you have some water over there? Give it to the girl, for Pete’s sake! (One of the ODDBALLS brings a bucket of water to the center of the stage.) PRINCE Well would you look at that, my precious poodle-woodle! Water! Drink up, buttercup.

NINETTA (drinking heartily, relieved) Ah! I knew my true Prince and savior would rescue me. PRINCE (with exaggerated swagger) Yes, that’s me, for sure. Nothing could stop me from reaching you and saving you. Not cold or flu, or shortage of Spidey-man band-aids, or even Creonta’s big scary ladle! NINETTA Our love for one another has conquered all! ROMANTICS Finally, a fairy tale to make us swoon! PRINCE Now, come home with me to meet my father. NINETTA But I haven’t a thing to wear for such an occasion. You must go and bring me back something appropriate. PRINCE I’ll do just that. Farewell, and see you soon, my dearest. (exits) (Night is falling. Smeraldine creeps toward Ninetta, with Fata Morgana following behind.)

PRINCE Here she is! My Princess! KING (disbelieving) Her? PRINCE (noticing Smeraldine) What? No! Not her! SMERALDINE My Prince, you promised to marry me! Don’t you remember me, (trying to come up with a cutesy lovey name) my little...uh...sandwich-manwich? PRINCE Not in a million years, lady. KING My son, you cannot break the solemn vow of a prince. You are engaged. Way to go! PRINCE Engaged? Nooooo! (The King forces the Prince to take Smeraldine’s hand, and they exit together.) LEANDER (to Clarissa) Well, that orange turned out to be a real lemon!

ODDBALLS Oh no! Smeraldine and Fata Morgana! Hey! Watch out behind you!

ACT IV Scene 1

(Smeraldine bops Ninetta on the head with a magic wand, instantly transforming her into a rat. Ninetta/rat scurries off stage.)

(Chelio and Fata Morgana charge at each other from opposite sides of the stage, ready to battle.)

ODDBALLS Eeeeeek! Eeeeeew! A rat! Disgusting! FATA MORGANA (to Smeraldine) Now, Smeraldine. Stay right there and take the place of the Princess. (Fata Morgana disappears. The Prince arrives leading an entourage including the King, Clarissa, Leander, Pantaloon, Courtiers, and Soldiers.)

In the underworld.

CHELIO I’ll get you, my pretty! And your little dog, too! FATA MORGANA (mocking him) Ooooh, how scary! A sorcerer with no power, and you think you can scare me?! CHELIO You cheated by transforming Smeraldine! Cheat-y cheat-y cheater pants! 29

Why did the orange stop rolling down the hill? It ran out of juice.

FATA MORGANA Better a cheaterpants than a nincompoop. You are ridiculous with your silly enchanted ribbons! ODDBALLS Exqueeeeeze us, Fata Morgana, but can we have just a wee second of your time to chat? You’re going to like what we have to say. Come closer! Come. No, closer still...a little more now... (They lure her to the side of the stage and shove her into a tower and lock her in.) Go, Chelio – now's your chance to save everything! CHELIO (gloating to Fata Morgana) Ha! *Now* who's got the good magic, huh?!

Scene 2 The Throne Room of the Palace. Thrones for the King, Prince, and Princess are on a raised stage. There’s a curtain blocking our view of the Princess’ throne. (The Herald, Clarissa, Leander, Truffaldino, and Courtiers await the royal procession. Chelio and Smeraldine are at the side of the stage, lurking.) LEANDER Let’s get this show on the road, already. HERALD We’re ready. (loudly) Here comes the King! (The King and Prince enter elegantly and sit down on their thrones.) COURTIERS Glory to the King! Glory hallelujah to the Prince!


(The curtain rises from the Princess’ throne, and a rat sits on it, playing with its whiskers. It’s Princess Ninetta. Everyone backs away in fear.)

ALL Ah! What is that grotesque thing?! Help! KING Guards! Call the army! Call the ambulance! CHELIO (stepping in with a flourish of his wand) Abracadabra – SHAZAM! I de-rat-ify you, Princess Ninetta! (The spell works: the rat turns back into Ninetta.) ODDBALLS Are you this Ninetta we keep hearing about? PRINCE (falling at her feet, hugging her knees) It’s her! My juicy juice! My orange crush! My main squeeze! KING Whoah. Nice going, son. She’s a looker. I think I want one, too! (He looks around, and notices Smeraldine.) Say, who’s that tall glass of juice right over there? TRUFFALDINO That girl? That’s Smeraldine. KING (realizing the conspiracy) But Smeraldine is in cahoots with Leander...he must have betrayed us! LEANDER No, sir! Never! CLARISSA Uncle... KING Don’t “Uncle” me, young lady! You’re in just as much hot water as he is! I will not stand for treachery! I sentence Smeraldine, Leander, and my niece Clarissa to death by hanging!

Chelio tackles Ninetta's giant rat tail and summons all his magic to turn her human again. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

TRUFFALDINO Oh, Your Highness! Have mercy on them!

(Fata Morgana, Smeraldine, Leander, and Clarissa disappear off stage, into a cloud of f ire and smoke.)

KING Have no mercy. They’re as good as dead to me.

ODDBALLS (shrugging) Let’s sing "God Save the King"!

(Smeraldine, Leander, and Clarissa all begin to run stage left, and are pursued by the guards. They then run to stage right, and the guards follow. They run toward the tower where Fata Morgana is locked up, just as she pries the door open. The traitors leap toward her, evading the guards.)

KING God save the Prince and Princess!

FATA MORGANA This way! To me! I will protect you!


ALL God save our noble King, and our Prince and Princess!


CHARACTER ANALYSIS Pyramid After reading the libretto of The Love for Three Oranges, choose one character and complete the following pyramid with information you know about him or her. Go back into the libretto to complete sections you don't know. Consider working individually or in a group. When you are done, share with your classmates.







P LOT T H E AC T I O N of The Love for Three Oranges Use the following graphic organizer to track the story of The Love for Three Oranges. You may find this to be more difficult than you thought. Can you remember all of the plot twists? If you need a refresher, check the emoji plot summary at the bottom of the page.


















COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE Making it up as you go along by Margaret Zhang A screenwriter can spend years trying to perfect a script, but sometimes, the most memorable lines are not thought up by the writer, but rather improvised by the actor. In Titanic, for example, Leonardo DiCaprio ad-libbed, “I’m king of the world!” upon boarding the ship for the first time, a line the director loved so much he decided to keep it. And in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Part 2, Ralph Fiennes, playing Voldemort, delivered his lines a bit differently every take to keep the scenes feeling fresh. In both of these examples, of course, a preexisting story still guided the acting, but the actors could experiment fully within these limitations. Commedia dell ’arte brought scenes to life in the same way: even when costumes and scenery were simple, the actors were still able to craft an exciting atmosphere with their improvisation and quick wit. Popular in Europe during the 16th and 17th century, commedia dell ’arte was a form of Italian theater that united stereotypical structure with spontaneity. The form featured "stock" characters—servants, old men, lovers, and captains—who exhibited stereotypical traits associated with various regions of Italy and other European countries, but the actors’ improvisation made them unique and reflective of the times. Carlo Gozzi's original play version of The Love for Three Oranges, on which Prokofiev's opera is based, comes out of this tradition. However, the humor of commedia dell ’arte soon started to fall flat with foreign audiences, who didn’t understand the regional cultures and dialects that served as a foundation to the humor. If you’ve ever shared an inside joke with a friend, you know that a joke can be a complete riot to you while making no sense to anyone else. After all, the context of the joke is what makes it funny in the first place. In an effort to keep audiences entertained, commedia dell'arte performances 34

Harlequin, in a nineteenth-century print of the classic commedia dell'arte character Source: Wikimedia Commons

replaced much of the rich verbal humor with physical comedy, such as miming, stunts, and funny faces. But over time, this made the shows really predictable. Actors gradually improvised less, and the roles stopped reflecting the original, spontaneous nature of the form. Despite its decline, the form was extremely influential: Shakespeare’s works and even modern cartoons are full of characters and devices inspired by commedia dell ’arte, and physical and improv comedy still draw from it to train actors. It's no wonder, then, that Prokofiev was moved to write a modern opera based on this style, can still be funny and feel fresh today.

W H O WA S C A R L O G O Z Z I ? Born in 1720, he eventually became a playwright and defender of commedia dell ’arte, but even from a young age, Gozzi knew his calling. He and his ten siblings would put on improvised plays at their summer home for a local audience. Most of Gozzi’s education came from his own love for reading. And as a young man in the military, he read plenty of Italian literature and participated in plays for the governor general. Though he wasn't a part of the group of rulingclass families, Gozzi shared their traditional values, especially when it came to theater. So when he saw playwrights Pietro Chiari and Carlo Goldoni breaking Italian tradition by writing more "realistic" plays, he vowed to revive the classic form of commedia dell ’arte. He boasted that he could dramatize the most ridiculous story in the world and still match the success that Chiari and Goldoni achieved.

He was right. For his first f iabe, or fantastical play, he selected two stories from the earliest printed collection of European folktales as inspiration. The result, The Love for Three Oranges, was a huge hit, especially for its personification of Goldoni as a magician and Chiari as a wicked fairy. This same troublemaking, rebellious edge that fueled Gozzi's outrageous play in 1761 would influence Prokofiev to create an absurd opera version of Three Oranges over 150 years later. Gozzi became a success overnight, and would go on to write nine more f iabe. The most famous of these, Turandot, came from a Persian folktale about a princess' resistance to love, and inspired Italian composer Giacomo Puccini's gorgeous final opera in 1924.

The commedia dell'arte is famous for its "stock" characters—even if their names or the overarching story changed, these characters' basic qualities stayed almost exactly the same in every show. Prokof iev translated many of these characters directly from Gozzi's play to his opera, but they can show up almost anywhere there's a story to be told. What other examples from books, movies, TV and more can you think of ? Stock Character Harlequin




Character in The Love for Three Oranges

A fool who is often clumsy and accidentally messes things up.


An old man who cares about money more than anything else in the world.


Two young lovers who frequently fight but always end up together; in one variation, the lovers team up as the scheming villains of the story.

Leander and Clarissa

Famous Examples Patrick Star (Spongebob Squarepants) Steve Urkel (Family Matters) Puck (A Midsummer Night's Dream) Mr. Burns (The Simpsons) Mr. Fischoeder (Bob's Burgers) Ebenezer Scrooge (A Christmas Carol) Macbeth/Lady Macbeth (Macbeth) Joker/Harley Quinn (Batman Comics) Bonnie and Clyde (Bonnie and Clyde)


P E O P L E WA T C H I N G The meaning of P rokof iev's captive audience by Leo Sarbanes Have you ever gotten in an argument with somebody about the best kind of movies, TV, or books? Maybe you’re really into heart-wrenching dramas, but all your friend wants to talk about is stand-up comedy. Perhaps a sibling can’t get enough of mushy love stories, but you’d rather terrify yourself with some old-fashioned horror. These everyday disagreements are the backdrop for The Love for Three Oranges. Before the "real" opera begins, diehard fans of four different kinds of theater – the Tragics, Comics, Romantics, and Idiotics – storm the stage and argue their case for what they want to see. The fight is broken up by a fifth group, the Oddballs, who just want everyone to be quiet and see the story through to the end. These “spectators” stand just off to the side for the entire play, watching the action along with us and saying out loud what many of us might be thinking. As a result, they break the imaginary barrier between the actors and the viewers, otherwise known as “the fourth wall.” Like fans at a sports game, each one of the groups gets excited about different moments in the opera. The Tragics cheer on Leander and Clarissa as they plan to overthrow the Prince; the Comics celebrate Truffaldino’s hilarious party plans. Later, the Idiotics applaud the nonsense of the Prince's orange obsession, and the Romantics rejoice as the Prince and Princess Ninetta fall in love. Their reactions reveal why Three Oranges is so unique: the story doesn’t fit clearly into any category. But the biggest twist comes from the Oddballs, who for most of the play have yelled at the other spectators for interrupting. When princesses emerge from the three oranges in Act III, the story veers into tragedy, as the first two die of thirst and the third, Ninetta, seems headed for the same fate. But the Oddballs do the unthinkable: 36

The Oddballs watch the onstage actors intently. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

they actually deliver a bucket of water onto the stage to save Ninetta. When this isn’t enough to stop Fata Morgana’s schemes, the Oddballs go a step further and trap the witch onstage, allowing Chelio to come to the rescue. The spectators are breaking the fourth wall again – but this time, from the outside in! As a result, the bad guys’ plot is defeated, nobody gets hurt, and the court celebrates the marriage of the Prince and Princess. Happy ending, right? Maybe, but it’s not very satisfying. The story’s failure to decide on a style, just like the unpredictable music, carries right through to its sudden conclusion. We are left wondering, "What the heck did I just watch? Or hear?" But perhaps this was Prokofiev’s greatest trick. As one of the most unconventional composers of his day, Prokofiev was always frustrated with critics trying to box him in to what they thought his music should sound like. Instead, by refusing to give the other spectators a show that nicely fits their favorite style, Prokofiev and his Oddballs reject labels and create a work of art that’s unafraid to be completely different.

O P E R AT I C L I B S : T R U F FA L D I N O ' S P L A N

The Prince is _______________ because he has _______________. To (emotion) (sickness)

make him feel _______________, the court _______________ Truffaldino throws (emotion) (occupation) a(n) _______________. The Prince just wants to stay in his _______________ (event) (noun) and _______________, but Truffaldino pushes him all the way to the big event in (verb) a(n) _________________. Hundreds of _______________ are in attendance at the (plural noun) (noun) _______________ to see the performances. First, two big _______________ fight each (place) (plural noun) other with _______________, and the _______________ one wins. The Prince won’t (adjective) (object) laugh. Then, a big fountain starts spewing _______________ and _______________, and (liquid) (liquid) a bunch of _______________ start filling their _______________ up in the fountain. (plural noun) (plural noun) The Prince still won’t laugh.

Suddenly, Truffaldino notices someone _______________ into the room: it is (verb)

the evil _______________ Fata Morgana! Truffaldino tries to _______________ her (noun) (verb) out of the gathering, and she accidentally _______________ on the floor. The Prince (verb) sees this and starts to ________________ uncontrollably, and soon everybody is (verb) _______________. Fata Morgana feels so _______________ that she curses the Prince: (verb) (adjective) from now on, he will be in love with _______________ _______________. The Prince’s (number) (fruit) father, the King of ______________, orders him to stay at the _______________. But (noun) (place) instead, the Prince _______________ to a huge _______________ in the middle of (verb) (building) ______________to find his new love. (place) 37

W H A T A R E O R A N G E S , A N Y WAY ? And why should we love them? • Oranges were domesticated by humans – you’re not going to see any in the wild. • Oranges originally came from Southeast Asia, and were first mentioned in Chinese literature in 314 BC. After they traveled to Europe in the 1400s, Christopher Columbus himself may have planted the first orange trees in the New World. • Oranges are a great source of Vitamin C, which we need in our diet because our body can’t make it on its own. This vitamin helps our immune system heal wounds and fight off diseases – luckily, just one orange has all the vitamin C you need in one day! • In Europe, oranges were considered a symbol of wealth and luxury for centuries. The picture to the left shows the "Orangery" at the court of French King Louis XIV.

• There are hundreds of different types of orange, including the “blood orange” (it looks exactly how it sounds!). But don’t forget about the fruit’s most famous citrus cousins: grapefruits, clementines, and tangerines, plus lemons and limes.

• Navel oranges are the most popular type of orange because they peel and separate easily, have a long growing season, and taste great! They’re named after the bulge at one end that kind of looks like a human belly button. • Unlike a lot of other fruits, you don’t have to wait for oranges to get ripe after they’re picked. • Brazil produces more oranges and orange juice than any other country. The United States is close behind, though: Florida by itself is the world’s second-highest OJ producer, while California is America’s #1 source of oranges for eating. To the right you can see a map of the regions (in orange!) of the world that produce the most citrus fruit. • The color orange is named after the fruit, not the other way around! 38

TO O F U N N Y F O R W O R D S The P rince Sings a Laugh You know the feeling: you’re down in the dumps, and it feels like nothing will ever make you laugh. Then the most random little thing sets you off: a knock-knock joke, a silly face, a meme. You chuckle a bit, then you start to laugh at your laugh. But laughter is contagious, and now your friends or family start to giggle. Soon, everyone is rolling on the floor cracking up. This is basically what happens to the Prince and his court when Fata Morgana falls over in Act II of The Love for Three Oranges. It’s an opera, though, so what we hear is truly weird and amazing: people singing a laugh. Operas are, at their core, about people and their emotions, so it’s no surprise that laughing in opera has been around for centuries. But Prokofiev took it further than ever before: the Prince’s laughter spins like an engine out of control, until the entire court is belly-laughing

in unison. This hilarious moment sets off Fata Morgana’s furious curse and the events of the rest of the opera. Laughing isn’t the only unusual human sound Prokofiev built into Three Oranges: earlier, the Prince “sings” groans and shivers as he claims to be sick. And throughout the piece, Prokofiev uses recitative – a style of opera singing that is supposed to sound like speaking. Through these techniques, Prokofiev makes his characters sounds less like singers, and more like people in the real world. What would your life sound like if it was an opera? How would you sing your laughs? How would you sing a sob? A yawn? A sneeze? Left: Hear laughing in opera throughout history. Right: Hear the Prince's laughter in this opera.

Above: Everyone cracks up at Fata Morgana's fall. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

Below: The Prince's laughing f it in Act II. Can you sing this laugh, following the up-and-down of the notes? 39

MARCH MADNESS by Leo Sarbanes

the bride and groom walk down the aisle to begin their married days. And the third movement of Frédéric Chopin’s Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor is perhaps the most famous “funeral march,” playing as the dead are carried to their graves and pass into the beyond.

Every great album seems to have a hit single – that one song that hooks people in and soars to the top of the charts. Believe it or not, Prokofiev’s The Love for Three Oranges had one, too – the famous March from Act Two. It only lasts for about a minute, but at the opera’s Chicago But marches can excite us as listeners, too. John premiere in 1921, the audience applauded it Philip Sousa’s background in the U.S. Marine ferociously and even demanded an encore. Soon Band inspired him to write 137 marches in the it was one of the most popular tunes in the whole late 19th and early 20th century. Around the city – so popular that even Prokofiev started to country, audiences flocked to performances by get tired of it. It eventually appeared in major his touring wind band just to hear these marches, radio programs and movies, and to this day, few which soon earned him international fame. people know about Three Oranges, but many will Sousa’s works, including “Semper Fidelis” and recognize the March. So why is it so famous? The “The Stars and Stripes Forever,” are still enjoyed answer is simple: everybody loves a good march! as masterpieces of American music today. And marches continue to capture our imaginations in First and foremost, marches are for marching. popular culture, playing a major role in beloved For at least 400 years, people have matched movies like Mulan, The Jungle Book, and Star the beat of their stomping feet to the beat of Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. music. This connection has traditionally been employed to motivate armies to move forward So, marches are everywhere. But then why do into battle. In fact, you have probably heard the we remember the one from The Love for Three kind of march music, played mostly on drums Oranges? For starters, its melody bobs and swings and fifes (similar to flutes), that united American up and down, up and down from beat to beat, so soldiers in their fight for freedom during the that as listeners we can't help but bounce along Revolutionary War. Both inside and outside with it in our seats. Prokofiev breaks this up with the military, march traditions have carried over a silly, drumroll-like theme and a more graceful, into the enormous popularity and creativity of formal one, making it even more satisfying each marching bands today. These bands, full of brass, winds and percussion, liven up celebrations like parades and sporting events, and even engage in competitions that judge their mastery of both music and movement. Marches also highlight many important moments in life that involve literally and symbolically moving forward. Edward Elgar’s Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 almost always accompanies the entrance of graduating students as they move into the next chapter of their lives. We often hear the “Wedding March” from Felix Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream as


March from The Love for Three Oranges 1919

John Philip Sousa, the "March King." Source:

"Idol" by BTS Performed by the Temple University Diamond Marching Band

The court marches in for Truffaldino's party. Photo Credit: Michele Borzoni

time our main tune returns. Under all this, as a sort of practical joke, Prokofiev slightly changes a bunch of the traditional notes we might hear in a march (like in the back-and-forth bass line) so that they sound “wrong.” Prokofiev also uses this music to literally “march” the story away from simply introducing the characters and towards the real action. We hear the March for the first time being played offstage – a suspenseful sign that Truffaldino’s party for the sick Prince is starting. A few moments later, the full orchestra explodes with the tune as we enter the celebration along with the members of the court. By giving this scene change the most memorable music in the opera, Prokofiev

is preparing us for the fact that the party will have the turning point of the story: the Prince’s laughing fit and Fata Morgana’s curse. When snippets of the march return in Acts Three and Four, they play an equally important role, launching us from the Prince's dizzying journey back into the familiar setting of the court for the story's action-packed conclusion. Combine the long history of marches with the irresistible catchiness and suspense of Prokofiev’s, and you have an instant classic. True to tradition, Prokofiev wrote his March only for instruments to play. Is there any better evidence of how much we all love marches than the fact that the musical highlight of this opera isn’t even sung?

The beginning of the March from The Love for Three Oranges. What do you notice about how the notes are lined up? Why do you think this is important for a march? March from The Love for Three Oranges (Violin)

Star Wars: "Imperial March"

Arranged by Jascha Heifetz


John Williams


G E T T I N G TO K N OW The Cast of The Love for Three Oranges Z A C H A L T M A N / L E A N D E R /bass-baritone

FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Philadelphia Favorite Food: Fried chicken Favorite Movie: Silence of the Lambs Favorite Singer: Patti LuPone Hobbies: Hanging out with my dog, reading, politics, inexpert cooking Q: Do you like oranges? A: Of course! They taste good. Q: What's something you like that's orange? A: My dog! (He's basically orange) Q: How would you describe your role in The Love for Three Oranges? A: He's an ineffective Machiavellian villain. Q: What is your favorite scene in The Love for Three Oranges? A: The plotting scene! Q: How did you prepare for this role? A: Rhythms first. Then pitches. It being in English makes all of this a lot easier! Q: What would you do for a living if you weren't an opera singer? A: Neurosurgeon! Just kidding. I wish I knew. Q: What is the most rewarding part of your job? A: Being around amazing singing. Q: What is the most diff icult part of your job? A: Instability and travel. Q: For someone that is about to see opera for the f irst time, what advice do you have? A: Don't try to get the whole experience in one try. Just let it wash over you.


Zach Altman in Opera Philadelphia's 2019 production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

K A T Y P R A C H T/ L I N E T T A /mezzo-soprano

FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Davenport, Iowa (but I live in Philly) Favorite Food: Almonds Favorite Movie: Pride & Prejudice ( Jane Austen) Hobbies: Building puzzles, talking too much with friends Q: Do you like oranges? A: I LOVE oranges, peeling them is fun! Q: What's something you like that's orange? A: Orange flavored Runts Q: Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family?  A: Yes, I have six brothers and sisters...we all can read music, sing, and play pitched instruments. (My parents can, too.) Q: How would you describe your role in The Love for Three Oranges?  A: I play the “Orange” with the lowest voice...and I’m soooooo thirsty! Q: How did you prepare for this role? A: I received my music, learned the notes, and am practicing singing my role with a vocal coach (pianist).

Q: What would you do for a living if you weren't an opera singer? A: I also teach voice lessons, so being a teacher would be fun. OOH, and I’m a great parallel parker...I could teach driving lessons! Q: What is the most rewarding part of your job?  A: Whether I sing about pain or peace, nothing is more fulfilling than reaching out to people through music. Q: For someone that is about to see opera for the f irst time, what advice do you have? A: Please open yourself up to the acoustic, livetheater experience...feel free to laugh when something is funny, cry when it’s sad, and clap if you enjoy something; we performers like knowing you’re out there with us!

Katherine "Katy" Pracht in Opera Philadelphia's 2015 production of La traviata.

A M A N D A B O T T O M S/ S M E R A L D I N E /m e z z o - s o p r a n o

FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Cheektowaga, New York Favorite Food: Cheesecake Favorite Singer: Ella Fitzgerald Favorite Quote: I am not afraid because God is with me. I was born for this! —Joan of Arc Hobbies: Hiking, Photography, Coding, making babies laugh Q: Do you like oranges? Why or why not?: A: Love them! They're the perfect balance of sweet, citrus and tossable fun. Q: What's something you like that's orange? A: Autumn leaves Q: How would you favorite part in the opera? A: When I get to be an evil pretend princess! Q: Is there anything you HAVE to do before rehearsing or performing? A: Stretching, excessive hydration, prayer and motivational quote post-its. Q: What would you do for a living if you weren't an opera singer? A: Stunt car driver

Mezzo-soprano Amanda Bottoms makes her Opera Philadelphia debut in The Love for Three Oranges.

Q: What is the most rewarding part of your job?  A: Affecting audience members lives in ways that they didn't realize they needed. We have the opportunity to make ourselves and others better people through our work, and it is such a beautiful return for all our effort Q: For someone that is about to see opera for the f irst time, what advice do you have? A: Come as you are! All are welcome! Look out for the little characters, they often are VERY interesting and have big secrets/actions that shift the plot Have fun!


WRITING A REVIEW of the Opera A review is an opinionated piece of writing. It is an opportunity for someone to communicate their likes and dislikes about a particular event. A good theater review takes into consideration all of the things that happened on stage. Before writing a review, it is good to organize your thoughts. Use the following template to create a review of The Love for Three Oranges. JOIN OUR BLOG! When you finish writing your review, consider submitting it online! Opera Philadelphia would love to hear your thoughts about the production. Just remember to include your first name, school, and grade. Visit: PL O T & CH A R AC T ER S Did the performance tell the story dramatically, and were you engaged in the plot? Summarize the main characters and conflict briefly in this opening paragraph. Which group of spectators—Tragics, Comics, Romantics, Idiotics, or Oddballs—fits you the best?

M USIC & VOICES Did the music carry the characters and action forward? Were there particular voices, arias, or duets that added to your involvement in the conflict?

S TAGI NG How did the sets, costumes, and staging enhance or undermine the plot?

SET TING Make note of the time and location where the opera takes place. Is it the same setting the composer imagined, or has it been updated? If it has been updated, does the change add to the power of the piece, or is it a distraction?

Y O U R O P I N I O N (After the performance) Would you recommend this performance to your friends or family? Explain why or why not.


OPERA PHILADELPHIA David B. Devan General Director & President

Corrado Rovaris Jack Mulroney Music Director

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Initiatives

Sounds of Learning was established by a

generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation. Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learning program has been provided by:

The Office of Strategic Partnerships School District of Philadelphia

Hamilton Family Charitable Trust

Dr. Bettie Joyner Kleckley Dr. Nanci Ritter Program Evaluators

William Randolph Hearst Foundation

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Initiatives

Universal Health Services

Steven Humes Manager of Audience Development

Frank Machos Executive Officer, Office of Arts & Academic Enrichment School District of Philadelphia


Written and produced by: Opera Philadelphia Community Initiatives Department Š 2019 1420 Locust Street, Suite 210 Philadelphia, PA, 19102 Tel: 215.893.5925

Veronica Chapman-Smith Manager of Out of School Time Initiatives

Special thanks to:

Eugene Garfield Foundation The Hirsig Family Fund of the Philadelphia Foundation

Deluxe Corporation Foundation

Frank Flood Venue Manager, Academy of Music Cornell Wood House Manager, Academy of Music Academy of Music Ushers Heather Goforth Director of Safety and Security, Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts

The McLean Contributionship Victory Foundation

Katie Kelley Graphic Designer Leo Sarbanes Community Initiatives Intern Margaret Zhang Community Initiatives Intern

Opera Philadelphia is supported by major grants from The William Penn Foundation, the Wyncote Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Additional support is provided by the Independence Foundation and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. Opera Philadelphia receives state arts funding support through a grant from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Support provided in part by the Philadelphia Cultural Fund.