Sounds of Learning Guide: LUCIA DI LAMMERMOOR

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WELCOME Welcome to Opera Philadelphia. We are so glad that you will soon be joining us at Philadelphia’s Academy of Music for the final dress rehearsal of Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor. Whether this is your first time attending an opera or your hundredth, we are so excited to have you. Seeing an opera can be a thrilling experience as it tells stories using all of the art forms – music, dance, theater, visual art, and more. While the music and text of opera may have been written centuries ago, the stories are still meaningful today. We hope this guide will allow you to connect with opera and Lucia di Lammermoor. How might a character in Lucia relate to you or to a person in your own life? What similarities or differences are there? In what ways can you see yourself being a part of opera – whether it be on stage or off ? Your unique experience is important to us and is likely to be different from that of your friends, classmates, and teachers. That’s okay! How great is it that we can all have different feelings and opinions about the same piece of art? When you return to school, consider sparking conversations with your classmates about the opera. Opera can be dynamic and engaging but also complex and confusing. Unpacking what you’ve just seen and hearing from others is a great way to appreciate opera even more. As you take a seat in the Academy of Music, remember that this historic theater is a part of your community and there for you. You have the right to enjoy opera and to take in all it has to offer. In the end, we’ll know that we have done our job if you leave feeling both inspired and full of self-discovery. Welcome to our family.

G O A L S A N D O B J E C T I V E S of Sounds of Learning D ress Rehearsal P rog ram Connect with the plot or themes

Connect something from your exploration of opera to your own personal stories

Draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the story presentation

Experience the opera with an open mind

Analyze, synthesize, and evaluate what you have learned or experienced during the challenge

Use the Sounds of Learning blog to reflect on your experience and provide insights about your journey

Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education

TA B L E O F Contents O P E R A 101 Defining Opera Throughout History 2 Philadelphia's Academy of Music 4 Opera Etiquette 5 Operatic Voice Types 6 So You Want to Sing Like an Opera Singer? 8 The Language of Opera 9

H I ST O R I C A L C O N T E X T The Man Behind the Music: Gaetano Donizetti 10 The Man Behind the Text: Sir Walter Scott 12 The History of Scotland 13 What in the World?: Events During Donizetti's Life 14

L I B R E T T O & P R O D U C T I O N I N F O R M AT I O N Lucia di Lammermoor: Cast and Creative Team 16 Lucia di Lammermoor: Synopsis 17 Lucia di Lammermoor: Libretto 18

ARTICLES & CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Writing a Review of the Opera 35 Plotting the Action of Lucia di Lammermoor 36 Character Analysis Pyramid 37 Lucia's Loveless Marriage 38 Meet the Artists on Stage 39 Meet the Artists Backstage 40 A Closer Look at Madness on and off the Stage 42 Into the Pit: The Physics of Sound in Orchestral Instruments 44 Opera on Trial: Lucia Takes the Insanity Defense 46 Acting the Story Using Tableaus 47 Glossary 48


DEFINING OPERA Throughout Histor y Opera has been called the greatest of all art forms. Why? Operas like Gaetano Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor bring all the arts together to tell stories in incredibly moving ways—stories that have been a reflection of the time and of the people throughout history. The oldest opera still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo, written in 1607. During the Baroque period from 1600-1750, Italian aristocracy wanted to recreate the great classical dramas from ancient Greece and Rome. Such stories provided the ruling elite with a strong connection to the supernatural. When asked to write an opera for Grand Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga of Mantua, Monteverdi thought that Orpheus, the Greek hero of music, would be of great interest to his audience. Monteverdi's opera brought to life Orpheus’s dramatic journey to the underworld in an effort to save his love, Euridice. The premiere of L'Orfeo was a great success, and Monteverdi emerged as someone who could use music to propel not only a narrative but also deeply affect an audience. While Monteverdi got his start composing opera for the ruling elite, he also helped bring opera to the public. Opera’s emotional stories created a frenzy in Venice, Italy, towards the middle of the 17th century. No fewer than nine public opera houses opened during this period as the public wanted more opera that reflected the culture of the time. Monteverdi’s The Coronation of Poppea (1642) is a great example of this change. Poppea tells the story of one of Rome’s most evil rulers, Emperor Nero, and his love affair with Poppea, his ambitious mistress. Monteverdi’s opera premiered in Venice, and Poppea’s sensational and bawdy story perfectly matched Venetian interests while creating a gripping and emotional drama.


Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro shocked 18th century audiences when the servants Figaro and Susanna (pictured above) turn the tables on the aristocracy. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

The 18th century, known as the Age of Enlightenment, was the next great period of political and cultural change in Europe. People were talking about new forms of government and organization in society, especially the developing middle class. As society changed, so did opera. Composers felt the need to reform opera and move away from the complexity of the Baroque style and wanted to instead write music that was simpler and more focused on pure, raw emotion. Christoph Willibald Gluck was one of the first to achieve this with his opera Orfeo and Euridice (1762). Gluck’s music had a freedom that evoked the unaffected expression of human feelings. While Gluck's opera told the same story as Monteverdi's L’Orfeo, his music brought new life to the narrative that better reflected audiences’ tastes at the time. The later part of the 18th century marked a period of great revolt. In 1776, the American Revolution changed the world. A few years later, the French had their own revolution (1789)

The Marriage of Figaro

The Barber of Seville



Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Gioacchino Rossini

and the first modern democracies were born. Reflecting this new way of thinking, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) did just that. It told a story about aristocratic class struggle that had both servants and nobility in leading roles. With the characters of Figaro and Susanna, Mozart gave opera relatable human beings. Mozart’s operas embody the tenets of the Enlightenment such as equality, freedom, and the importance of the lower classes. In the 1800s, Italian opera developed further with the bel canto movement, which means “beautiful singing.” Opera continued to be about real stories and achieving honesty in expression. The most famous bel canto composers were Gioachino Rossini (1792–1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848), and Vincenzo Bellini (1801–1835). The success of these composers can be measured in their ability to withstand the test of time. Rossini’s popular comedies, The Barber of Seville (1816) and Cinderella (1817), are still some of the most popular operas performed today. By the middle of the 19th century, the Romantic Movement led many composers to champion their own national identities. Composers and librettists created operas for the audiences they knew best. Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi continued to develop the bel canto style of his predecessors and became a national hero by using nationalism in his operas like Nabucco (1842) to promote the cause of Italian unification. German operas like Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz (1821), Russian operas like Mikhail Glinka's A Life for the Tsar (1836), and French operas like Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots (1836) were performed frequently in their native countries. In Germany, Richard Wagner brought the Romantic period to its peak by exploiting the grand potential of opera. How could all of the elements - orchestra, set, chorus, soloists, and more - be elevated to transform a story and

deeply affect an audience? In The Ring of the Nibelung (1876), a series of four operas taking over 15 hours to perform, Wagner created one of opera’s greatest masterpieces. Opera in the 20th century emerged as a period of great experimentation. Composers like Giacomo Puccini (La bohéme, 1896), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905) and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) continued to evolve their national styles. Others, horrified by the destruction of World War I (1914-1918) and other aspects of modern life, created music that was new and drastically inharmonious. Meanwhile, American opera had a huge hit with George and Ira Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935) which included the musical styles of jazz and blues.

Five Philadelphia youth are portrayed in Daniel Bernard Roumain's 2017 opera We Shall Not Be Moved. Photo: Dave DiRentis

Today, opera continues to grow and expand. Opera Philadelphia helps to shape the future of opera by producing important new works like Daniel Bernard Roumain and Marc Bamuthi Joseph's 2017 opera, We Shall Not Be Moved, a story about Philadelphia youth and many of the issues facing society today. In October 2017, the opera went on to be performed at the famous Apollo Theater in Harlem. In September of 2018, it will take to the big screen for Opera on the Mall and be broadcast across Independence Mall.

Porgy and Bess

We Shall Not Be Moved



George and Ira Gershwin

Daniel Bernard Roumain


P H I L A D E L P H I A’S AC A D E M Y O F M U S I C A place for you

Photo: George Widman

Opera Philadelphia's home, the Academy of Music, opened in 1857. Opera is only one type of performance that takes place in the Academy. There are also ballets, concerts, and galas. The building is a historical monument and the oldest grand opera house in America still used for its original purpose. The Academy of Music is sometimes called the "The Grand Old Lady of Locust Street." The opera house was initially built with a plain white exterior because the architects wanted the beauty to be on the interior, as it was at the famous opera house, La Scala, in Italy. Later, the exterior was revised to look as it does today. Unlike other performance houses, the Academy of Music's seating has a 'U' shape. This was for the audience to have the best view from every angle possible. The first opera presented in the brand new opera house was Giuseppe Verdi’s Il trovatore on February 25, 1857. The basement of the Academy of Music has a history, too. It was used as a dining hall because of its beautiful interior decoration. During World War II the hall was transformed into the Stage Door Canteen, serving refreshments and featuring appearances by entertainers performing 4

at the Academy of Music, such as Abbott and Costello, Duke Ellington, and Frank Sinatra. Today, the Academy of Music continues to entertain people through concerts, operas, ballets, and more. The wondrous hall dedicated to the arts has blossomed into the perfect place for a performance of any kind. Academy of Music Facts: The auditorium seats 2,509. 14 columns support the Academy’s tiers. The red and gold pattern on the Academy’s stage curtain simulates a pineapple, a Victorian-era symbol for “welcome.” • The first-ever indoor football game was held on the Academy’s Parquet level on March 7, 1889, between the University of Pennsylvania and Riverton Club of Princeton. • 1,600 people attended the first-ever public motion picture screening on February 5, 1870. • • •

OPERA Etiquette AT T E N DI NG T H E OPE R A There’s nothing as exciting as seeing a performance in Philadelphia’s beautiful Academy of Music. If this is your first time at the opera, there are a few things for which you should prepare: You are attending the opera’s final dress rehearsal, the last chance for performers to run through the show before opening night. The goal is to treat this rehearsal exactly like a performance and perform the opera straight through without a pause. You may notice several computer monitors and large tables spread out over the seats in the center of the first f loor of the auditorium. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, Set Designer, and others. They’ll take notes and communicate via headsets with the many people backstage who help make all of the operatic magic happen: Stage Managers, Master Carpenter, Lighting Technicians, Stagehands, and others. They’ll be able to give notes so that changes can be instantly made. Should things go wrong, they may stop and repeat a section to make sure that it is perfect. OPER A E T IQU E T T E 101 Opera singers are unique because they are trained to sing without microphones. As a result, it is important to remain quiet, listen carefully, and not interfere with the music and the story being told. With this in mind, remember that at the heart of opera is a story rooted in deep emotion. So, when the time is right, don't be afraid to laugh or extend your appreciation through applause! Performers need to know how their work is being appreciated. In addition to showing respect to the people around you, it is important to appreciate the physical theater. Many opera houses or theaters are designated today as historic monuments. So that we can continue to use these cherished spaces, we

Students from the Penn Alexander School prepare to see the f inal dress rehearsal of Mozart's The Magic Flute. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

must remember to leave them the way they were found. This means keeping your feet on the f loor as opposed to on the back of the seat in front of you. In addition, any food or beverage must remain outside of the theater. Finally, you may be asking yourself what to wear to an opera. This answer can vary from person to person. Ultimately, you should not feel as if you will be turned away because of your attire. However, dressing up for the opera is a classic tradition, so don't hesitate to show off your best new tie or your favorite dress. The way you dress and carry yourself can only add to the opera experience. Please Do... • Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!” for men and “Brava!” for the women. • Use the bathrooms before the rehearsal begins or at intermission. • Be careful in the auditorium! Theaters can sometimes be old and difficult to navigate. • Turn off your cell phones and all electronic devices. • Obey all directions given by theater ushers and staff. Please Don't... • No food, gum, or beverages are permitted inside the theater. • No photographs or videos may be taken during the performance. • No talking or whispering during the performance. 5

O P E R AT I C Vo i c e Ty p e s Have you ever wondered why every person's voice sounds slightly different? The human voice is a fascinating and complex instrument with many factors that make each one of us sound unique. The length and strength of the vocal chords, the thickness of the vocal chords, the shape of the nasal passages, mouth, and throat all help to determine whether a voice will be high or low, bright or warm. In opera, voices are classified into seven main categories (from highest to lowest): soprano, mezzosoprano, contralto, countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass. It is important to know that a person can only know their true voice type when they become an adult. The following people have distinguished themselves as past and present leaders of their voice type. Choose one opera singer to research and share your discoveries with your friends. Use the QR Codes and social media tags to hear each voice type and learn more about a few of these artists.

S O P R A N O is the highest female voice type, with a traditional range of A below middle C to the C two octaves above that. The soprano usually plays the heroine of the story and is often the center of the romantic storyline.

Brenda Rae soprano

Ying Fang soprano

M E Z Z O - S O P R A N O is slightly lower than soprano, with a range usually G below middle C to the Bb two octaves above. Mezzos are often supporting roles, playing motherly types or villains. They also often sing trouser roles in which they portray boys or young men.

Daniela Mack mezzo-soprano

C O N T R A L T O is the lowest female voice, with a range of the F below middle C to the second G above middle C. It is a rare voice type, so the roles can often be sung by mezzo-sopranos. It is the darkest in timbre and is reserved for specialty roles, such as grandmothers, noble witches, and goddesses. 6


Marietta Simpson mezzo-soprano

Marian Anderson contralto

Meredith Arwady contralto

David Daniels countertenor

John Holiday countertenor

C O U N T E R T E N O R is the highest male voice, with a range that is similar to the contralto: a below middle C to the F an octave and a half above middle C. Frequently these men achieve their high range through bridging their chest voice with their head voice (falsetto). While this voice type was less popular from 1800-1940, composers today utilize countertenors more often.

@danielssings @johnholidaylive

T E N O R is considered the highest “natural” male voice, with a range of D below middle C to the C above middle C. Beginning in the Classical era (1775-1825), the tenor has been assigned the role of the hero or the love interest of the story.

Lawrence Brownlee tenor


Troy Cook baritone

Will Liverman baritone

Michael Spyres tenor

B A R I T O N E is the most common male voice type, with a range midway between tenor and bass, from A an octave below middle C to the G above middle C. The baritone is often the comical leader, but can also be the villain who stands in the way of the soprano and tenor’s love.


B A S S is the lowest and darkest of the male voices, with a range of E almost two octaves below middle C to the F above middle C. Basses can portray characters who convey wisdom or nobility, but also comedic characters. @mdrbass

Christian Van Horn bass

Photo Credit: Brenda Rae - Kristin Hoebermann, Ying Fang; Daniela Mack - Simon Pauly, Marietta Simpson - JR Simpson Photography; David Daniels - Simon Pauly, John Holiday - Fay Fox; Lawrence Brownlee - Ken Howard; Troy Cook - Arielle Doneson, Will Liverman - Larrynx Photography; Christian Van Horn; Morris Robinson - Ron Cadiz

Morris Robinson bass


S O Y O U WA N T T O S I N G Like an Opera Singer?

Soprano Christine Goerke leads former Opera Philadelphia Emerging Artist Thomas Shivone in a master class at the Perelman Theater. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography

Singing on the opera stage is very hard work! Singers are like athletes, constantly training to perfect their voices. They ask their voices and bodies to do what most of us without training can’t do: sing incredibly intricate and difficult music and project their voices to be heard over a 60-piece orchestra without microphones or amplification. Singing begins with the human voice, a very versatile instrument. It can produce sounds that present a wide range of frequencies that we call pitches. Our voices are able to change in volume as a result of the air we exhale from our lungs and control with our diaphragm, a muscle right behind our stomach that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen. When we inhale deeply, the diaphragm lowers and the ribs and stomach expand as the lungs fill with air. Then the diaphragm guides the air out when it contracts, causing our vocal folds to vibrate. Vocal folds are fibrous bands that are stretched along the two sides of our larynx, or our sound instrument, just below the ‘Adam’s apple.’ When we hum, talk, 8

or sing, air passes through the larynx causing the vocal folds to vibrate, creating a sound that is then shaped by the other parts of our bodies including the mouth, tongue, teeth, and lips. To sing different pitches and volumes, singers must control the flow of air through the vocal folds in their larynx. They practice vocal exercises daily so that they can quickly adjust to the demands of the music without thinking about it.

To see the vocal folds in action, visit To see how the diaphragm works, visit


main sections of a play or opera a solo song sung in an opera dance set to music action on stage usic composed for a group of singers; the name of a group of m singers in an opera person who rehearses and leads the orchestra a song performed by two singers a specialist in drama, especially one who acts as a consultant to a theater company, advising them on possible repertory the text or words in an opera; an opera’s script a group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments a piece of instrumental music played at the beginning of an opera words that are sung in the rhythm of natural speech a sequence of continuous actions

Lawrence Brownlee, tenor, performs the title role in Charlie Parker's YARDBIRD. After its 2015 World Premiere with Opera Philadelphia, the opera traveled to Harlem and graced the stage of the historic Apollo Theater. It has since been performed at Madison Opera, Lyric Opera of Chicago, and Hackney Empire in London. Photo: Sof ia Negron


THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC Gaetano Donizetti Granata, which caught the attention of Domenico Barbaia, the most important theater manager of his time. After Barbaia offered Donizetti a contract, the young composer moved to Naples, where Barbaia's business was located. For the next eight years, Donizetti wrote works with mixed success. It was not until 1830, with the performances of Anna Bolena in Milan, that Donizetti achieved international fame.

Gaetano Donizetti was born on November 29, 1797 in Bergamo, Italy. Together with other Italian composers Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835) and Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), they were known as the three great masters of the opera style known as bel canto. Bel canto translates as "beautiful singing" and operas from this time feature arias and ensembles with long, florid melodies. Operas were designed to show off the human voice to maximum effect. These works demanded great virtuosity from the singers and served as star vehicles for leading operatic performers. Donizetti dominated the Italian opera scene during the years between Bellini's death and Verdi's rise to fame after his opera Nabucco. Donizetti's musical talents were apparent at an early age; he was admitted to the Lezioni Caritatevoli school on full scholarship when he was nine years old. The school was founded by composer Simon Mayr, who had a significant influence upon Donizetti's musical development and helped the young composer launch his professional career. Between 1817 and 1821, Donizetti received several commissions from Paolo Zanca. His first staged opera was Enrico di Borgogna (Henry of Burgundy) in 1818. He wrote several other works during this period, including chamber and church music. It was the success of his fourth opera, Zoraida di 10

Donizetti was a prolific composer, writing both comic and serious operas as well as solo vocal music. Throughout his career he battled with the powerful Italian censors to perform his works. Two of his best-known comedies, The Elixir of Love (1832) and Don Pasquale (1843), are considered masterpieces of comic opera and continue to hold their places in the standard repertoire. Perhaps his most famous serious opera is Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), although Anna Bolena has enjoyed considerable success in this century through the efforts of such opera singers as Maria Callas and Joan Sutherland. As Donizetti's fame grew, he was able to accept a variety of engagements, writing operas for Paris as well as the famous opera houses of Italy. He relocated to Paris in 1838. It was there that he composed The Daughter of the Regiment (1840), which is frequently performed today.

Juliette Borghèse as Marie and François-Louis Henry as Sulpice in the premiere of The Daughter of the Regiment.

While Donizetti experienced great success onstage, the same could not be said for his personal life offstage. Donizetti met the love of his life, Virginia Vasselli (pictured left), while working in Rome in the 1820s and the two would eventually marry in 1828. They had three children, but none of them survived longer than a few days due to health complications. His parents also died in the mid-1830s. A year after his parents' death, his wife succumbed to a cholera epidemic and died in 1837. Donizetti himself was diagnosed with cerebro-spinal syphilis when symptoms of his illness became evident as early as 1843. By 1845 his condition deteriorated to the point that he was hospitalized for over a year. It was Donizetti's good friend, Baron Lannoy, who would eventually demand that the great composer be moved to his Paris apartment where he could receive better care and be visited by loved ones more often. Friends in Bergamo finally arranged for Donizetti to be brought back to his hometown. There, he was able to stay at Baroness Scotti's palace until his eventual death in 1848. Today, Donizetti continues to be one of the most celebrated and performed composers in opera. His Lucia di Lammermoor alone, with libretto by Salvadore Cammarano, will receive over one hundred performances across the world in 20182019 alone. In addition, of his 65 completed operas, a total of 11 will receive performances this year. In the end, Donizetti's compositional style and contributions to bel canto would pave the way for Italian opera composers like Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1902) and Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924).


#guydonizetti As you read Donizetti's bio, take a look at some of his real-time reactions. Also, don't forget to use our official Lucia di Lammermoor hashtag: #PHLucia. You can also tag us at @operaphila.

April 1, 1806 Just got my acceptance letter to @lezionischool! #lookoutrossini

November 14, 1818 First opera in the bag! Proud of Enrico di Borgogna and thankful to @paolozanca! #timetoturn21

May 14, 1827 Virginia and I have decided to make things official. #wheninrome #shesaidyes

February 11, 1840 He survived!!! Congrats MariĂŠ on hitting all the high notes as Tonio! Tonight's Daughter of the Regiment was amazing! #highC #ninetimes #yolo


THE MAN BEHIND THE TEXT S i r Wa l t e r S c o t t Grimm, better known as the Brothers Grimm. They researched the folk tales of their homeland Germany and produced stories like Cinderella and Hansel and Gretel. The brothers' success encouraged Hans Christian Andersen to write his own original fairy tales, and thus stories like The Little Mermaid were written. Interestingly, all three of the works mentioned above were adapted into successful operas, just like Lucia di Lammermoor. Many of today's blockbuster films like Harry Potter, The Avengers, and The Hunger Games are originally based on popular novels and comics. Similarly, Donizetti based Lucia di Lammermoor on The Bride of Lammermoor, a popular novel of his day written by Sir Walter Scott.

Scott is also considered the founder of the historical novel. Historical novels focus on creating a believable story that is based in an historic time. Scott's novels influenced authors like Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Charles Dickens.

Sir Walter Scott is a fascinating figure in Western literature. As a baby, he suffered from an illness that left him with a lame leg. His health constantly caused him grief as a boy and he was not able to attend school with his peers. As a result, he took to reading the medieval history of his native Scotland while at home. From his sufferings grew an intellectual brilliance when it came to all things Scottish and a deep love for his people's heritage. The young Scott loved studying the ruins, landscape, and folklore of his country.

Scott was humble. For twelve years he published anonymously. He wrote more than thirty-three novels for an English audience that was becoming increasingly fascinated with Scottish history and culture. He built a mansion at Abbotsford, Scotland on the Tweed River. However, he lost his fortune when his publishing house went bankrupt. Rather than taking the easy way out, he sold his mansion, moved to Edinburgh, and wrote for the rest of his life to pay off the creditors of his publisher. Like the characters in his Scottish novels, he was a Scotsman of honor.

Each of these experiences had a direct impact upon his creative vision as an author. From his exploration of the ruins came an admiration of Gothic architecture. He used the Gothic style as the backdrop for many of his stories, including The Bride of Lammermoor. His enjoyment of the history of the Middle Ages enabled him to envision his own characters living and breathing in those long gone times. Scott's work encouraged other authors of his day to consider researching and recording the folk stories of their people. Two authors who were influenced by Scott were Jacob and Wilhelm 12


What folktales are passed down from your own culture or ethnicity? Research these stories and then adapt one for yourself. What changes would you make?


Choose two regions of the world to research indigenous folklore. How are the stories from these areas similar or different? Why might this be so?

T H E H I STO RY O F S C OT L A N D Conflict and unity Tensions between the fictional Ashton and Ravenswood families drive the plot of Lucia di Lammermoor. Looking back in time, one can recognize that conflict between dominant families has long influenced the history of Scotland. UNITY OF THE WARRING TRIBES The native people of Scotland were a tribe known as the Picts, who arrived from the European mainland in approximately 1000 B.C.E. In the fourth century, the tribe called the Scots invaded from Ireland. The Picts and Scots were united into the Kingdom of Scotland in 843 C.E. By the late 12th century, Scotland was organized into a feudal state where peasants could receive a piece of land in return for service to the lord or king. BETRAYALS AND INVASIONS

its head. When Henry VIII died, Mary's cousin Elizabeth became queen. Mary ruled in a Protestant kingdom while religious wars were raging across Europe. She took a second Catholic husband and had a son, James VI of Scotland. With religious and political fights within her court, Mary eventually fled to England. There, Queen Elizabeth imprisoned Mary in the Tower of London for twenty years to prevent her from taking the English throne. Mary was accused of plotting to kill Elizabeth and was beheaded in 1587. When Elizabeth died without a husband or son, Mary's son James I became king. Under James I, England and Scotland were finally ruled under the same monarch.

In 1290, the throne of Scotland was left vacant. The nobles turned to King Edward I of England for help in choosing the next king. Edward chose A FRAGILE UNITY John Balliol, a descendant of the Scottish royal line. However, Balliol made an alliance with France, While King James I had ruled over both Scotland and England, it wasn't until 1707 that the states England's enemy, and declared his independence were fully united as Great Britain. The union of English influence. The betrayed King Edward was economically beneficial for Scotland while invaded Scotland and ruled over both kingdoms England was able to secure the northern border. shortly after defeating the rebellious Balliol. Under the Act of Union, the two parliaments were united. However, a series of Scottish uprisings Conflict between England and Scotland continued called the Jacobite Rebellions began when the into the 14th century. In 1306, a nobleman named death of Queen Ann ended the House Stuart and Robert the Bruce was crowned the King of handed the crown over to the Hanover family of Scotland. King Edward II of England invaded modern-day Germany. The Jacobite invaders waged with an army of 20,000. Robert defeated King a series of battles against the Hanovers but were Edward with an army of just 6,000 in the decisive finally defeated in 1746. Many Scots emigrated Battle of Bannockburn (1314), freeing Scotland to the American colonies at this time. After this from the English crown. Robert's descendants bloody civil war, Scottish culture and language became the first kings of the House of Stuart who were crushed. For a time, the British government ruled Scotland for almost two hundred years. even banned the kilt. TURMOIL IN THE FAMILY

Queen Mary I took the Scottish throne in 1542. Scotland was under the influence of John Knox, who founded the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Mary's uncle, King Henry VIII of England, had formed the Anglican Church with himself at

Today, the question of independence continues to divide Scotland. In 2014, 44.7% of Scots voted to leave the United Kingdom. Who knows if we will see a truly independent Scotland in our lifetime. 13

W H AT I N T H E W O R L D ? E v e n t s d u r i n g D o n i z e t t i ’s L i f e Listed below are some historic and cultural events that took place during Gaetano Donizetti's lifetime. Events in boldface type are things that happened to Donizetti; an asterisk (*) indicates events of local interest.

1795 1797: Born on November 29 at Bergamo, Italy.

1800 1801: * The first United States Navy Yard was built in Philadelphia near the base of Federal Street. 1803: Congress ratified the Louisiana Purchase. 1804: Lewis and Clark began their exploration of what is now northwest United States.

1799: * Construction of the Philadelphia Water Works began along the Schuylkill River.

1805 1807: Congress passed a law banning the importation of slaves. It was largely ignored in the southern states. 1808: John Dalton argued that matter consists of a range of atoms.

1810 1812:

1809: * America’s oldest continuously operating theater, the Walnut Street Theatre, opened in Philadelphia.

Congress declared war against Britain on June 18, marking the start of the War of 1812. The Brothers Grimm first published their collection of fairy tales.

1814: Francis Scott Key wrote the poem “The StarSpangled Banner."

1820 1820: The Missouri Compromise was signed, allowing Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, but prohibiting slavery in the rest of the northern Louisiana Purchase territory. 1822: Araminta Ross, better known as Harriet Tubman, was born in Maryland.

1815 1818:

Enrico di Borgogna, Donizetti's first publicly performed opera, premiered in Venice on November 14. The 49th parallel was established as the boundary between Canada and the United States.

1825 1828: Donizetti married Virginia Vasseli. 1829: Donizetti became Musical Director of the royal theaters of Naples (until 1838).


* The Eastern State Penitentiary admitted its first inmate.

1830 Sam Morse's telegraph 1830: Anna Bolena, a tragic opera about British Queen Anne Boleyn, was staged in Milan on December 26, marking Donizetti's first international success. Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act. 1831: In Boston, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison began publishing an anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. 1832: Donizetti’s L’elisir d’amore, a comic opera, premiered May 12. 1833: Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia, a tragic opera, premiered December 26. 1834: Donizetti wrote Maria Stuarda, which was plagued by censorship and didn’t premiere until December 30, 1835.

1840 1840: Donizetti's comic opera La f ille du règiment was presented February, his Les Martyrs in April, and La Favorita followed in December, all in Paris. 1843: Donizetti composed the comic masterpiece Don Pasquale, which premiered January 3, and Dom Sèbastien, which premiered November 13, both in Paris. The Great Migration across the North American continent to the Pacific established the Oregon Trail. 1844: * Edgar Allen Poe’s poem “The Raven” was first published.

1835 1835: Donizetti's hugely successful opera Lucia di Lammermoor premiered on September 26 in Naples. His father died in December. * The Libteryy Bell in Philadelphia cracked while being tolled at Chief Justice John Marshall's death. It was never rung again. 1836: Donizetti's mother died in February. 1837: Donizetti’s wife died on July 30. Roberto Devereux premiered on October 28. Sam Morse patented the telegraph. 1838: Donizetti's Maria de Rudenz was staged in Venice on January 30. In October he moved to Paris. Tens of thousands of Native Americans began their forced march westward in what is known as the Trail of Tears. 1839: United States authorities took custody of a Cuban slave trading ship, the Amistad. 53 Africans had taken control of the ship and were trying to sail back to Africa.

1845 1847: The first doughnut with a hole in it was created. 1848: Gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California. Gaetano Donizetti died on April 8 of complications from syphilis.

Visit to continue exploring the events in Donizetti's life.


LUCIA DI L AMMERMOOR C a s t a n d C r e a t i v e Te a m Final Dress Rehearsal – Wednesday, September 19, 2018, 7:00 p.m. at the Academy of Music. Music by Gaetano Donizetti. Libretto by Salvadore Cammarano. Performed in Italian with English supertitles.



Brenda Rae soprano


Michael Spyres* tenor


Christian Van Horn* bass-baritone


Hannah Ludwig* mezzo-soprano D I R E C T O R

Troy Cook baritone


Andrew Owens* tenor


Adrian Kramer* tenor Laurent Pelly

CO N D U C T O R Corrado Rovaris



Laurie Feldman*


Chantal Thomas*


Laurent Pelly


Duane Schuler


Elizabeth Braden

Follow some of our artists today: Christian Van Horn - @vanhorncvh Andrew Owens - @aowens_tenor Hannah Ludwig - @mezzo_ludwig Adrian Kramer - @aitkramer

*Opera Philadelphia debut

LUCIA DI L AMMERMOOR Synopsis ACT I Scotland, mid-19th century. An intruder has been spotted at night on the grounds of Lammermoor Castle, home of Enrico Ashton. Normanno, the captain of the guard, sends Enrico’s men off in search of the stranger. Enrico arrives, troubled. His family’s fortunes are in danger, and only the arranged marriage of his sister, Lucia, with Lord Arturo can save them. The chaplain Raimondo, Lucia’s tutor, reminds Enrico that the girl is still mourning the death of her mother. But Normanno reveals that Lucia is concealing a great love for Edgardo di Ravenswood, leader of the Ashtons’ political enemies. Enrico is furious and swears vengeance. The men return and identify the intruder as Edgardo. Just before dawn at a fountain in the woods nearby, Lucia and her companion Alisa are waiting for Edgardo. Lucia relates that, at the fountain, she has seen the ghost of a girl who was stabbed by her jealous lover. Alisa urges her to leave Edgardo, but Lucia insists that her love for Edgardo brings her great joy and may overcome all. Edgardo arrives and explains that he must go to France on a political mission. Before he leaves, he wants to make peace with Enrico. Lucia, however, asks Edgardo to keep their love a secret. Edgardo agrees, and they exchange rings and vows of devotion.

ACT II It is some months later, the day on which Lucia is to marry Arturo. Normanno assures Enrico that he has successfully intercepted all correspondence between the lovers and has in addition procured a forged letter, supposedly from Edgardo, that indicates he is involved with another woman. As the captain goes off to welcome the groom, Lucia enters, continuing to defy her brother. Enrico shows her the forged letter. Lucia is heartbroken, but Enrico insists that she marry Arturo to save the family. He leaves, and Raimondo, convinced no hope remains for Lucia’s love, reminds her of her dead mother and urges her to do a sister’s duty. She finally agrees. As the wedding guests arrive, Enrico explains to Arturo that Lucia is still in a state of melancholy because of her mother’s death. The girl enters and reluctantly signs the marriage contract. Suddenly Edgardo bursts in, claiming his bride, and the entire company is overcome by shock. Arturo and Enrico order Edgardo to leave but he insists that he and Lucia are engaged. When Raimondo shows him Lucia’s signature, Edgardo curses her and tears his ring from her finger before finally leaving in rage.

ACT III Enrico visits Edgardo at his dilapidated home and taunts him with the news that Lucia and Arturo have just been married. The two men agree to meet at dawn by the tombs of the Ravenswoods for a duel. Back at Lammermoor, Raimondo interrupts the wedding festivities with the news that Lucia has gone mad and killed Arturo. Lucia enters, covered in blood. Moving between tenderness, joy, and terror, she recalls her meetings with Edgardo and imagines she is with him on their wedding night. She vows she will never be happy in heaven without her lover and that she will see him there. When Enrico returns, he is enraged at Lucia’s behavior, but soon realizes that she has lost her senses. After a confused and violent exchange with her brother, Lucia collapses. At the graveyard, Edgardo laments that he has to live without Lucia and awaits his duel with Enrico, which he hopes will end his own life. Guests coming from Lammermoor Castle tell him that the dying Lucia has called his name. As he is about to rush to her, Raimondo announces that she has died. Determined to join Lucia in heaven, Edgardo stabs himself. 17

LUCIA DI L AMMERMOOR Libretto ACT ONE Scene 1 In the grounds of the castle NORMANNO & CHORUS Let us roam through these deserted ruins. Let the truth no longer be averted. Let the veil of doubt fall and reveal what honor is due. As a flash from the cloud after thunder, we will speak though this day we may rue. Let the veil of doubt fall and reveal what honor is due. (Enrico's men leave. Enrico and Raimondo enter.) NORMANNO (to Enrico) You are upset! ENRICO And with good reason. You know that the star of my fortunes has grown dim. Meanwhile Edgardo, that mortal enemy of my family, mocks me! Only one hand can restore me and my tottering power. This is Arturo but Lucia dares to reject it! Ah, she is no sister of mine!


when a raging bull suddenly rushed at her. It was then when a shot rang out in the echoing air and the beast suddenly fell to the ground. ENRICO And who fired the shot?

RAIMONDO Unhappy girl, mourning at the fresh grave of her dear mother, how can she think of marriage? Let us respect a heart which grieves and is averse to love.

NORMANNO A man who kept his name a secret.

NORMANNO Averse to love? Lucia is aflame with love.

NORMANNO Fell in love with him.

ENRICO What are you saying?

ENRICO So she saw him again?

RAIMONDO (aside) I fear his words!

NORMANNO Every morning at dawn.

NORMANNO Hear me out! She was walking along the lonely path in the park where her mother is buried

ENRICO And where?

ENRICO And Lucia...?

NORMANNO Along that path. ENRICO Rage chokes me! Didn't you recognize her seducer? NORMANNO I only have a suspicion. ENRICO Ah, tell me! NORMANNO He is your enemy. RAIMONDO (aside) Oh heaven! NORMANNO You detest him. ENRICO Could it be Edgardo? NORMANNO You are right. ENRICO A cruel, deadly frenzy you have awakened in my heart! Too horrible is this fatal suspicion! I freeze and tremble, and my hair stands on end! So shameful is she who was born my sister! NORMANNO Out of respect for your honor, I had to tell you the whole cruel truth. RAIMONDO (aside) Your clemency I implore; you refuse it, oh heaven! ENRICO Ah! Before revealing yourself guilty of such a treacherous love, it would be less bitter grief had lighting struck you! NORMANNO and RAIMONDO Oh heaven!

CHORUS (rushing to Normanno) Your doubt is now confirmed. NORMANNO (to Enrico) Do you hear? ENRICO Tell me. CHORUS As we were overcome by fatigue, after a long wandering search, we stopped to rest in the crumbling entrance of the tower; Suddenly a man passed through the tower in silence. As he passed close to us we recognized him as the one who saved Lucia. He on a swift steed fled from our sight. A falconer nearby told us his name. ENRICO What is it? RETAINERS Edgardo. ENRICO (angered) So it is he! Oh, the burning rage that inflames me is more that human heart can bear. RAIMONDO Ah, no! Do not believe it! Hear me! 19

ENRICO I do not want to hear!

ALISA Why do you look about so fearfully?


LUCIA That fountain...ah...I never see it without shivering. You know the tale: A Ravenswood, mad with jealousy, stabbed his sweetheart here and the poor girl fell into the water, which became her tomb. I have seen her ghost...

ENRICO Speak not to me of pity and kind feelings for her. They are useless. I will only listen to you if you speak to me of vengeance. Wretched pair, my fury already over you terribly roars. The unholy flame that consumes you two I with blood shall quench! CHORUS Calm yourself ! In the morning, Edgardo won't escape you. ENRICO Keep quiet! RAIMONDO What a cloud of terror has surrounded this house! (Enrico goes off in rage. The others follow.)

Scene 2 The park (The fountain of the Siren, a spring once sheltered by an imposing castle showing the typical adornments of Gothic architecture, but now in ruins. It is twilight. Lucia enters with Alisa.) LUCIA He still has not come? ALISA Rash girl! What have you brought me to? Daring to come here, now that your brother knows the spot, is madness. LUCIA You are right! But Edgardo must know of the horrible danger that threatens us.


ALISA What are you saying?

ARIA - Regnava nel silenzio LUCIA Listen. At dead of night and in the silent darkness, a pale ray of eerie moonlight fell upon the edge of the fountain when a low moan was heard in the breeze. On that edge, the ghost appeared to me! I saw her lips moving as if she were speaking and with her lifeless hand she seemed to beckon me to her. For a moment, she stood motionless but then suddenly disappeared. The waters, so clear before, reddened as with blood. ALISA Clearly, oh God, very clearly I hear in your words dire omens! Ah! Lucia, desist from a love so perilous. LUCIA He brings light to my days, and solace to my suffering. When rapt in the ecstasy of burning desire he swears eternal faith to me from his heart. I forget my sorrows and joy dries my tears. It seems that when I am near him heaven opens for me. ALISA Ah, days of bitter weeping are in store for you. Lucia, give him up. LUCIA Ah...When rapt in the ecstasy...

LUCIA What do I hear? Ah, no! Let our love remain a secret for now. EDGARDO I understand! The evil persecutor of my family is not satisfied with my misfortunes! He robbed me of my father and my ancestral heritage. Is that not enough? What more does that bloodthirsty villain want? My utter ruin? My life? He hates me! LUCIA Ah, no! EDGARDO He loathes me! LUCIA Oh heaven, calm his mad fury. ALISA He is coming... I shall keep watch nearby. (She leaves. Edgardo enters.) EDGARDO Lucia, forgive me for asking to see you at this unusual hour. It is for a very important reason. Tomorrow, very early, I shall be far from my native land. LUCIA What are you saying? EDGARDO I am to set sail for France's friendly shores. I have been assigned to deal with the fate of Scotland over there. LUCIA And you leave me here to weep? EDGARDO Before leaving you, I must see Ashton. I will offer him the hand of peace, and ask your hand in marriage to seal our pact.

EDGARDO A searing flame courses through my heart! Listen to me. LUCIA Edgardo! EDGARDO Hear me and tremble! Over the tomb where my father lies buried in my rage I swore eternal war on your line. But, when I saw you another emotion stirred in my heart and anger fled. Yet that vow is not broken. I could, yes, fulfill it still! LUCIA Please! Calm your anger. Control yourself ! EDGARDO Ah, Lucia! LUCIA A single word can be our undoing! Is my suffering not enough? Do you want me to die of fright? EDGARDO Ah, no! 21

EDGARDO I call on Heaven to witness my vows. We must part now. LUCIA Oh, how I dread those words! My heart goes with you. EDGARDO My heart stays here with you. LUCIA Oh, Edgardo! EDGARDO We must part now. LUCIA Ah! Now and then send a letter as messenger of your thoughts, and I shall nourish my fleeting life with hope. LUCIA Banish all other feelings and let only love inflame your breast. A pure love is nobler and holier than any vow. Yield to me! EDGARDO But that vow is not broken. I could well fulfill it yet! (with sudden resolution) Here, before heaven, swear to me your faith as my wife. God hears us. God sees us. A loving heart serves both as church and altar. (solemnly placing a ring on Lucia's f inger) To your fate, I link mine... I am your betrothed. LUCIA (giving a ring to Edgardo) And I yours. EDGARDO and LUCIA Ah, only icy death can quench our passion. LUCIA I call on love to witness my vows.


EDGARDO I shall always cherish vivid memories of you. LUCIA On the breeze will come to you my ardent sighs. You will hear in the murmuring sea the echo of my laments. When you remember of me living on tears and grief, shed a bitter tear of your own on this ring. LUCIA and EDGARDO Ah! On the breeze, they will come to you. EDGARDO Remember, Heaven has joined us! EDGARDO and LUCIA Farewell!

ACT TWO Scene 1 Enrico Ashton's apartments in the castle (He is seated at a table with Normanno.)

LUCIA Stop! I beg you! ENRICO Why?

NORMANNO Lucia will come to you soon.

LUCIA I am promised to another.

ENRICO I nervously await her. My noble kinsmen have already assembled in the castle to honor the distinguished marriage. Arturo will be here soon. And if she stubbornly dares to refuse?

ENRICO You cannot be.

NORMANNO Do not fear. The long absence of your enemy, his letters we intercepted, and the false report that he is afire with a new flame, will stifle the blind love in Lucia's heart.

ENRICO (angrily) You cannot be.

ENRICO (to Normanno) She is coming. Give me the forged letter. (Normanno hands him the letter.) Now ride out to the highway leading to Scotland's royal city and amid cheers and joyful shouts escort Arturo here.

ENRICO Enough. (giving her the forged letter) This letter fully shows you what a cruel and wicked man you loved. Read it!

(Normanno leaves. Lucia enters and lingers near the door. She is hesitant and crushed.) ENRICO Come closer, Lucia. I had hoped to see you happier on this day when Hymen's torches are lit for you. You look at me and say nothing? LUCIA This mortal sickliness which horribly masks my face mutely blames you for my grief and anguish. May God forgive you for your inhuman cruelty and for my grief. ENRICO That ignoble passion of yours is a good reason to render me pitiless. But enough of the past, I am still your brother. I have cooled my anger, now cool your insane love. I have cooled my anger. A noble husband...

LUCIA Enrico!

LUCIA I gave a solemn promise to another.

LUCIA (Lucia reads the letter, her dismay and horror become so intense that she appears to be on the verge of fainting.) Ah! My heart has burst! ENRICO (running to her aid) You seem unsteady! LUCIA Oh, misery! Alas, the fatal thunderbolt has struck! I suffered in tears. I languished in pain. My hopes and life I pledged to one heart. The moment of death is upon me! He gave his faithless heart to another! ENRICO A mad, perfidious heart has set you afire. LUCIA Oh, God! ENRICO But heaven still holds you worth of mercy. 23

(Festive music is heard in the distance.) LUCIA What can it be? ENRICO Joyous music for his arrival! LUCIA What? ENRICO Your bridegroom is coming. LUCIA A shudder courses through my veins! ENRICO The marriage-bed awaits you. LUCIA The tomb awaits me! ENRICO This is the crucial hour! LUCIA A mist is before my eyes! ENRICO Listen to me. William is dead...we shall soon see Mary ascending the throne...and the party I once followed lies prostrate in the dust. LUCIA Ah, I tremble! ENRICO From ruin Arturo can rescue me; and only he... LUCIA And I? ENRICO You must save me. LUCIA Enrico! 24

ENRICO Come to your husband! LUCIA I have sworn to wed another! ENRICO You must save me. LUCIA But... ENRICO You must! LUCIA Oh, heaven! ENRICO If you betray me, my fate is sealed forever. You rob me of honor and life and deliver me to the executioner's axe. In your dreams, you will see me, an angry, menacing ghost! That bloody axe will always be before your eyes! LUCIA (with tearful eyes, addressing Heaven) You who see my tears. You who read what is in my heart. If my grief is not ignored in Heaven, as it is on earth, take, Eternal God, this hopeless life of mine. I am so wretched that death will be a boon for me,

ENRICO That bloody axe will always be before your eyes. (Enrico angrily stalks out and Lucia collapses tearfully into a chair. Raimondo enters and Lucia runs to meet him.) LUCIA Well? RAIMONDO The last glimmer of your hope has disappeared. I suspect, as you did, that your brother closed off all the roads, so that in France no news could reach the man whom you swore to love. In vain, I myself had one of your letters delivered to him by a trusted messaged! He remains ever silent. Such silence shows you enough of his faithlessness! LUCIA And what do you suggest that I do? RAIMONDO To submit to fate LUCIA And my vow? RAIMONDO You are raving! Heaven and the world do not recognize nuptial vows which are not blessed by a minister. LUCIA My mind yields, having been persuaded, but my heart refuses to listen to reason! RAIMONDO You must overcome it! LUCIA Oh, unfortunate love! RAIMONDO Ah! Give in or more misfortunes threaten you, unhappy woman. Do this to ease your brother's predicament. Do it for the sake

of your deceased mother and for me who minister tenderly to you. LUCIA Be silent! RAIMONDO Give in! LUCIA Ah! You've won. I am not so heartless. RAIMONDO What joy in me you awaken! What cloud you've scattered! Offer yourself as a victim for the good of your family; your sacrifice will be written in Heaven. If the mercy of man is not granted to you there is God who can dry your tears. LUCIA Guide and support me! I am beside myself ! A long cruel torture life for me shall be. RAIMONDO Yes, my daughter, be courageous! What cloud you have dispelled! LUCIA Ungrateful Edgardo! 25

Scene 2 The grand hall of the castle. (The scene is ready for the reception of Arturo. Enrico, Arturo, Normanno, knights and ladies, relations of Ashton, pages, inhabitants of Lammermoor, and servants.) CHORUS For you there is great rejoicing all around. Through you we see our day of hope reborn. Here friendship guides you and you are led to love as a star in the treacherous night, as laughter amidst sorrow. ARTURO Your fortune's star has suffered a brief eclipse. I shall see it rise again brighter and more splendid. Give me your hand, Enrico, and accept my cordial greeting. I come to you as friend, brother, and protector. CHORUS Ah! For you we join in jubilation! ARTURO Where is Lucia? ENRICO She will be here now. (aside to Arturo) If her sadness seems overwhelming, you mustn't be concerned. Crushed and numb with grief, she mourns her dead mother. ARTURO Yes, I know. Now resolve this doubt for me. Rumor has it that Edgardo, that bold man, dared raise his eyes to her. ENRICO Yes, it is true, that madman dared, but... CHORUS Lucia is coming, she is coming. ENRICO (to Arturo) She weeps for her dead mother.


(Lucia enters despondently, supported by Alisa and Raimondo.)

ENRICO (presenting Arturo to Lucia) Here is your bridegroom. (Lucia shrinks from Arturo. Enrico whispers warningly to her.) Be careful! Do you want to ruin me? LUCIA (aside) Great God! ARTURO I pray you accept the vows of my tender love. ENRICO (going to the table for the marriage contract, and breaking into Arturo's words; to Lucia) Be careful! (to Arturo) Now let the ceremony begin. LUCIA Oh God! ENRICO Come here. ARTURO Oh sweet request! (He signs the contract and Enrico adds his own signature. Meanwhile Raimondo and Alisa lead the trembling Lucia to the table.)

LUCIA (aside) I must go to my sacrifice! What misery! ENRICO (to Lucia) Do not hesitate! Sign! RAIMONDO (aside) Sustain, good Lord, this poor girl. ENRICO Sign! (Lucia signs the contract.) LUCIA (aside) I have signed my death-warrant! ENRICO (aside) I breathe again! LUCIA (aside) I freeze and burn. I feel faint. (A noise is heard at the door as if someone is trying to force his way in.) ALL What a commotion! Who is coming? (Edgardo enters wrapped in a cloak.)

SEXTET Chi mi frena in tal momento EDGARDO (aside) Who restrains me at such a moment? Who stemmed the flood of my anger? Her grief and terror are the proof of her remorse! But like a withered rose she hovers between death and life! I surrender and I am touched. I love you, heartless girl. I love you still! ENRICO (aside) Who checks my fury and the hand which darted to my sword? A cry rose up in my breast in favor of that wretched girl! She is my kin. I have betrayed her. She hovers between death and life! Ah, I cannot quell the remorse in my soul! LUCIA (aside) I hoped that terror would cut short my life, but death will not help me. I must live on in anguish! The veil fell from my eyes. I was betrayed by earth and Heaven! I would weep, but I cannot as even tears have forsaken me.

ALL Edgardo! Oh terror!

RAIMONDO (aside) What a terrible moment! I can no longer utter words. A dense cloud of terror seems to dim the sun's rays! Like a withered rose, she hovers between death and life. Whoever does not feel for her, has the heart of a tiger.

LUCIA Edgardo! Oh lightning bolt!

ENRICO She is my kin. I have betrayed her,

EDGARDO Edgardo!

ALISA and CHORUS Like a withered rose she is between life and death. ARTURO What a terrible moment! I can no longer utter words.


ARTURO and ENRICO (drawing swords) Begone, villain, or your blood shall be shed. CHORUS Be gone, villain! EDGARDO I shall die, but other blood shall flow with mine. RAIMONDO (intervening commandingly) Respect in me the awful majesty of God. In His name I command you to lay down your anger and your swords. Peace! He loathes a murderer, and it is written: He who harms his brother by the sword shall perish by the sword. (They all put up their swords.) Peace! ENRICO (advancing towards Edgardo) You madman! What brings you here? EDGARDO My destiny and my right.

LUCIA At least...

ENRICO Villain!

EDGARDO Return it.

EDGARDO Yes. Lucia swore to marry me.

LUCIA Edgardo!

RAIMONDO Forget this fatal love! She belongs to another.

(In utmost confusion she returns the ring.)

EDGARDO Another? No... RAIMONDO (showing him the contract) Look! EDGARDO (reading, f ixing his gaze on Lucia) You are trembling...confused... Is this your hand? Answer me! (pointing to the signature) Is this your signature? Answer!


EDGARDO You have betrayed Heaven and love. Cursed be the moment when I first fell in love with you. I should have fled from you, abominable, accursed, I should have fled from you. LUCIA Ah! EDGARDO Ah, may God destroy you!

LUCIA (sobbing) Yes.

ENRICO Insane presumption! Be gone!

EDGARDO Then take back your ring, false heart.


CHORUS Mad presumption! ARTURO, ENRICO and CHORUS Be gone! The fury which inflames me in full force will only be checked for a moment. It will soon be more terrible and more fierce and will fall on your loathsome head. RAIMONDO Unhappy man! Come, save yourself ! Make haste and respect her sad state and the days she has left. Live on and perhaps your grief will be spent. All is mild to eternal mercy. LUCIA (falling to her knees) God, save him at this cruel moment. Hear the plea of an unhappy girl. Save him, oh God, heed the plea of this wretched girl at this moment. It is the prayer of immense grief that has no more earthly hope. EDGARDO (flinging his sword away) Kill me and may the slaughter of my betrayed heart be the preamble to this wedding ceremony. The threshold covered with my blood will be a pleasant sight for that unworthy woman! RAIMONDO (to Lucia) Unhappy girl! (to Edgardo) Please, save yourself ! ENRICO, ARTURO and CHORUS Be gone! The stain so black of outrage shall be washed away with blood. Go, fly, my burning fury refrains one moment from striking. Before long, stronger and fiercer, it shall fall on the heads of those it abhors. ALISA, RAIMONDO and CHORUS Unhappy man! Come, save yourself ! Make haste and respect her sad state and the days she has left. (Raimondo supports Lucia, whose grief is now extreme; Alisa and the ladies surround them. The others pursue Edgardo.)

ACT THREE Scene 1 (It is a wild and stormy night at the tower of Wolf 's Crag, the last ruins of Edgardo's former Ravenswood holdings. The furniture consists of a simple table and an old armchair. The room is faintly lit by a weak lamp. Lightning is flashing amid roars of thunder and the howling of the wind is intermixed with the sound of the falling rain. Edgardo is seated at the table, lost in thought. After a few moment, he rouses himself and looks out the window.) EDGARDO Horrid is the night as it is my fate! Oh heavens, thunder and lightning rages forth. Let the order of nature be overturned and let the world perish! But what approaches? I hear the hoof-beats of a horse close by! It is stopping! Who ever could be coming to me in the midst of the storm's danger and wrath? ENRICO It is I. EDGARDO What audacity, Ashton! ENRICO Yes. EDGARDO You dare steps within these walls! ENRICO To your misfortune, I am here. EDGARDO To my misfortune? ENRICO Did you not come under my roof ? EDGARDO The unavenged spirit of my father still breathes here and seems to tremble! Every breeze here whispers death to you! The ground for you 29

here trembles! You should have trembled as you crossed these fearful walls just as a man who still alive descends into his grave to occupy!

ENRICO At the first glimmer of dawn among the graves of Ravenswood.

ENRICO I have come to tell you that Lucia has fulfilled her sacred rite to marriage.

EDGARDO I will come. Yes, I will meet you there.

EDGARDO (aside) He further tears at the wounds of my heart. Oh, torment! ENRICO She is in her nuptial bed. EDGARDO (aside) Oh, jealousy ENRICO Listen! My house was resounding with joy and with cheers; however, vengeance spoke louder in my heart! As I traveled here, these voices, now with rage, grew louder in the wind.


ENRICO And there you should prepare to remain. EDGARDO There I will kill you! EDGARDO and ENRICO Oh sun, make haste to rise sooner! My it shine on you in a bloody funeral wreath and illuminate our mortal combat of hate and blind fury. (The storm increases in intensity) Ah! The spirit of hell will have fierce possession of our souls while shrieking vengeance! The wrath that burns within me is more terrifying than the howls of thunder and the roaring of the storm.

EDGARDO What do you want from me?

Scene 2

ENRICO Listen to me! I am here to punish your offense of my family. My family's avenging sword is already hanging over your head. But should I let another man kill you? Never! You know who must kill you.

( Wedding festivities are in progress. The sounds of merry dance music emanate from adjoining rooms. Pages and inhabitants of the Castle of Lammermoor f ill the rear of the scene. Still others, ladies and knights, join the happy throng which now launches into song.)

EDGARDO I swore on my father's ashes to rip our your heart! ENRICO You?

CHORUS Let us raise our voices in wild jubilation, to excite Scotland from shore to shore and warn our perfidious enemies that fortune smiles on us again. The winds of high favor make us more fortunate.


RAIMONDO (out of breath) Ah! Stop your rejoicing!


CHORUS You are pale as death!

EDGARDO (disdainful) When?

RAIMONDO For pity's sake, stop!

The great hall of the castle

CHORUS Oh, heaven! What has happened? RAIMONDO A tragic event! CHORUS You freeze us with terror!

ARIA Dalle stanze ove Lucia RAIMONDO (beckoning to the others) Ah!... From the apartments where I had taken Lucia with her husband, came a moan, a cry, as from a man near death! I ran into the room. Oh, what a terrible disaster! Arturo was lying on the floor, mute, cold, and covered with blood! And Lucia was clutching a dagger which belonged to the murdered man! She fixed her eyes on me. "Where is my husband?" she asked me, and a smile flitted across her pale face! Unhappy girl! She had lost her reason. Unhappy girl! She had gone mad.

CHORUS Oh, what a tragedy! A numb terror paralyzes us all! Oh night, shroud the cruel mishap with your dark, thick veil. RAIMONDO and CHORUS Ah, may that blood-stained hand not bring Heaven's wrath upon us. (Lucia enters, garbed simply in white, her hair disheveled, a pallor of death on her face, giving her a ghostly appearance. Her stony stare, convulsive movements and bitter smile disclose not only a violent insanity, but also that death for her is imminent.)

ARIA Oh, giusto cielo! LUCIA I was struck by the sweet sound of his voice! Ah, that voice won this heart of mine! Edgardo, I am yours again! Ah, my Edgardo! I escaped from your enemies. An icy shiver creeps into my bosom. Every nerve trembles! My steps unsteady! Sit with me a while near the fountain. Alas! The terrible ghost rises and separates us! Here let us hide, Edgardo, at the foot of the altar. It is strewn with roses! Celestial harmony, do you not hear it? The wedding-hymn is sounding! The ceremony awaits us. Oh, how happy I am! Oh joy that I feel but cannot express! The incense is burning. The sacred torches are glowing all around! Here is the minister! "Give me your hand." Oh, happy day! At last, I am yours and you are mine. God has given you to me.

CHORUS Oh, merciful Heaven! She looks as if she has risen from the grave! 31

NORMANNO, RAIMONDO and CHORUS Lord, have mercy on her in her cruel state.

ENRICO and RAIMONDO Ah! Lord have mercy on her.

LUCIA Every rare pleasure I shall share with you. Life for us will be a gentle smile from heaven.

LUCIA Whom did you mention? Arturo! Do not leave, Edgardo! For pity's sake.

(Enrico enters.)

RAIMONDO and CHORUS What a night of terror!

RAIMONDO Enrico approaches! ENRICO Tell me. Is what I see to be true?

LUCIA Shed bitter tears on my earthly garment, while in Heaven above I will pray for you. Only when you join me will Heaven be blissful for me.

RAIMONDO Only too true!

RAIMONDO and CHORUS It is impossible to hold back tears.

ENRICO Ah! Wicked girl! For it you shall be punished.

ENRICO Remorse will bring me days of bitter weeping.


LUCIA Shed bitter tears. Ah! Let me die next to you!

RAIMONDO Oh heaven! Can you not see the condition she is in?

(Lucia faints into the arms of Alisa.)

LUCIA (unaware) What are you asking?

ENRICO Let her be taken away, Alisa. (turning to Raimondo) Man of God, please watch over the miserable girl. I am no longer myself.

ENRICO Oh! What pallor!

RAIMONDO Betrayer! Rejoice over your work!

RAIMONDO She has lost her reason.

NORMANNO What are you saying?

ENRICO Great God!

RAIMONDO Yes, you were the one to strike the first spark of the fire that is now consuming and destroying this happy house!

RAIMONDO You must tremble, cruel man, for her life. LUCIA (to an imaginary Edgardo) Don't look at me so fiercely, I signed that paper. It is true. Oh God! In his terrible anger, he tramples the ring! He curses me! Ah! I was a victim of a cruel brother but I always loved you Edgardo! I love you still! 32

NORMANNO I didn't believe... RAIMONDO You are the guilty cause of this spilled blood. Heaven accuses you and the supreme hand signs your sentence. Now leave and have fear!

Scene 3

Night in the cemetery of Ravenswood Castle

ARIA Fra poco a me ricovero EDGARDO Tombs of my fathers, please give shelter to the last of an unhappy bloodline. My anger's brief fire has gone out. I will fall on my enemy's sword. For me, life is a horrible burden! The whole universe is a desert for me without Lucia! Yet, the castle still gleams with torches. Ah, the night was too short for the merrymaking! Heartless woman! While I waste away in desperate tears, you laugh and gloat by your happy husband's side! You amid joys and I near to death! Soon this neglected tomb will give me refuge. A compassionate tear will not fall upon it! Alas, for wretched me not even the solace of the dead. You forget that despised marble tombstone! Never visit it, oh cruel Lucia, by your husband's side. Ah, respect at least the ashes of the one who dies for you. Never visit it. Forget it exists. Respect at least the one who died for you. I die for you.

CHORUS For Lucia. EDGARDO Lucia, you said? CHORUS Poor creature... EDGARDO Come, tell me. CHORUS Yes, the poor girl is dying. EDGARDO Ah! CHORUS The marriage was a tragic blow for her. Love drove her out of her mind. She is near her last hour and moans and asks for you. EDGARDO Ah! Lucia is dying! CHORUS She will never see the close of this dawning day! The sound of death is tolling already. EDGARDO That sound pierces my heart! My fate is sealed!

(A somber group approached from Lammermoor Castle.)


CHORUS Oh, poor creature! Oh, horrible fate! It is useless to hope now! She will never see the close of this dawning day.

EDGARDO I must see her again.

EDGARDO Great heaven! Answer! CHORUS Oh poor creature!

CHORUS What madness, rash man. Return to sanity! EDGARDO See her again and then... (Raimondo enters.)

EDGARDO Whom do you mourn? Answer, for pity's sake! 33

RAIMONDO Where are you hurrying, poor man? She is no longer on earth. EDGARDO Lucia! RAIMONDO Unhappy man! EDGARDO She is no longer on earth? Then she... RAIMONDO Is in Heaven. EDGARDO Lucia is no more! CHORUS Unhappy man! EDGARDO You who spread your wings to Heaven, o sweet loving heart, look down on me serenely and let your true love soar up to join you. Though mortal's fury so cruelly assailed us, though we were parted on earth, may God unite us in Heaven. O sweet, loving heart, may God unite us. (drawing his dagger) I will follow you...

RAIMONDO What have you done? EDGARDO I come to you... oh dear heart... RAIMONDO Unfortunate man! EDGARDO ...look down, ah, on your true love. RAIMONDO Think of Heaven. EDGARDO Ah, if mortal's fury... CHORUS Oh, horror! EDGARDO cruel a war. May we be united by God in Heaven! RAIMONDO Think of Heaven. God, forgive such horror.


CHORUS Oh terrible, black fate! God, forgive such horror.

RAIMONDO and CHORUS Ah, what are you doing?

(All kneel. Edgardo dies.)

EDGARDO I want to die!


RAIMONDO and CHORUS Come to your senses. EDGARDO No! (Edgardo stabs himself.)



Adaptation of libretto by Gwyn Morris

WRITING A REVIEW of the Opera A review is an opinionated piece of writing. It is an opportunity for someone to communicate their likes and dislikes about a particular event. A good theater review takes into consideration all of the things that happened on stage. Before writing a review, it is good to organize your thoughts. Use the following template to create a review of Lucia di Lammermoor. JOIN OUR BLOG! - When you finish writing your review, consider submitting it online! Opera Philadelphia would love to hear your thoughts about the production. Just remember to include your first name, school, and grade. Visit: PL O T & CH A R AC T ER S Did the performance tell the story dramatically, and were you engaged in the plot? Summarize the main characters and conflict briefly in this opening paragraph.

M USIC & VOICES Did the music carry the characters and action forward? Were there particular voices, arias, or duets that added to your involvement in the conflict?

S TAGI NG How did the sets, costumes, and staging enhance or undermine the plot?

SET TING Make note of the time and location where the opera takes place. Is it the same setting the composer imagined, or has it been updated? If it has been updated, does the change add to the power of the piece, or is it a distraction?

YOU R OPINION Would you recommend this performance to your friends or family? Explain why or why not.


P LOT T I N G T H E AC T I O N of Lucia di Lammermoor Use the following graphic organizer to track the story of Lucia di Lammermoor. You may find this to be more difficult than you thought. Can you remember all of the plot twists?


















CHARACTER ANALYSIS Pyramid After reading the libretto of Lucia di Lammermoor, fill out this graphic organizer for one of the opera’s characters, either individually or in groups. After filling out the form, take 10 minutes to discuss the characters and their interactions.







LUCIA'S Loveless Marriage One may wonder why Lucia does not dispute or question her arranged marriage to Arturo. It is evident that this union, conceived by Lucia's brother Enrico, is one of convenience and politics, not of love and affection. Marriage as merely a financial relationship is a far cry from today's understanding of the word. In the 17th century when The Bride of Lammermoor is set, marriages were often business transactions, especially for members of the upper class. This continued into the 19th century, when our opera is set. Marriage partners were usually chosen by the head of the household. Everything was based on what the bride's family could afford to offer the family of the groom. The exchange of money and lands, the alliance of social and political connections, and the very important trade of titles and bloodlines could mean restored fortunes, power, or social standing for one or both families involved. The choice of a marriage partner could also mean new lands, resulting in a larger family domain and increased political power. Interestingly enough, both secular and religious laws empowered and even encouraged parents to arrange marriages for their children because so much of the family's welfare was at stake. The wedding ceremonies were often lavish and extravagant, allowing the families to display their wealth and power. Being able to make your own choices and chart your own future was certainly not a priority of the time. While men had ownership of women, men were also ruled by social norms. The marriage of sons was also arranged by the father. Our opera offers us an insight into the marriage ceremony of the 19th century. Lucia's wedding to Arturo is arranged by Enrico because the Lammermoor fortunes are in jeopardy. By marrying a wealthy suitor like Arturo, Lucia could save her family's name and political power.


However, Lucia is not interested in marrying the man her brother has chosen; she is in love with Edgardo. Enrico considers Lucia's lover to be an unacceptable match for her because Edgardo is a Ravenswood, a family with whom the Ashtons have been fighting for decades. If Lucia married Edgardo, the Ashton family's status would not improve in the least. As was typical for the 19th century, Lucia's thoughts and emotions are not considered when her marriage is arranged. Despite this, Lucia does not voice any objections to the union until the moment she stabs Arturo. This may be a retaliation against both her brother and the society in which she lives. Lucia's actions were certainly atypical and radical for the time. When Sir Walter Scott wrote The Bride of Lammermoor, women were still forced to marry the men of their father's choice. This tradition continued well into the twentieth century. It was not until women received full rights under the United States Constitution that women were truly free to marry whom they loved. To this day, many nations and cultures force women into arranged marriages where the rights of women are not taken into consideration.

DISCUSSION QUESTION Do you think Sir Walter Scott was questioning societal norms and challenging tradition? Or was he merely interested in producing a novel with a unique plot twist? Defend your answer.


FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Appleton, Wisconsin Hobbies: Hiking, reading, playing video/computer games and Dungeons & Dragons with friends Favorite Musical Artists: Imogen Heap, Oh Land, Bon Iver, Anna Moffo Desired Superpower: Flight Hidden talents: Chirping like a cricket What is your favorite part about playing your role? I love the mad scene at the end of the opera! Since Lucia has gone mad, I feel like there can be a lot of freedom in that scene, even after the staging has been set, since madness isn’t rational. I allow myself a little room for improvisation, which keeps the scene feeling really fresh for me. What are the challenges of playing your role? It’s a very virtuosic and long role, so I have to pace myself. In the short moments I have offstage, I drink water and eat little snacks like apple slices to make sure I have enough energy at the end of the evening for the big mad scene! Do you have any funny on/off-stage stories from your time as an opera singer? I didn’t really think it was too funny at the time, but I was singing Donna Anna in the opera Don Giovanni in Frankfurt, Germany, and on opening night, the fire alarm went off during my second aria, and the entire theater had to be evacuated! Luckily it was a false alarm and everyone was able to come back in and we finished the opera.

Photo: Kristin Hoebermann

What do you hope audiences will take away from seeing Lucia di Lammermoor? I just hope they’ll be moved by this incredible music! I also hope they’ll enjoy hearing the glass harmonica, which is such a special instrument that people don’t get to hear very often. Why do you sing opera? I have loved to sing for as long as I can remember, and being able to combine singing and acting onstage without a microphone is thrilling for me. I just feel so complete when I get to sing opera!

What advice do you have for people seeing an opera for the f irst time? Read the synopsis before you come! Even though there are projected translations, which are so great, I find it’s much easier to follow along if I already have an idea of what the story is about. 39

M E E T T H E A R T I STS backstage PAT R I C K M U L H A L L COS T UM E FI RS T H A N D

FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Albuquerque, New Mexico Hobbies: Reading, sewing, going to Las Vegas Favorite Food: Mexican food

FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Hobbies: Sewing, baking, reading Favorite Food: Watermelon

What educational or vocational path led you to where you are now? What obstacles did you face?

Describe your role at Opera Philadelphia.

I did a two year apprenticeship at the Santa Fe Opera while attending the University of New Mexico. The toughest obstacle was finding a full time job while pursuing my career. I usually had a daytime career in the non-theater sector and worked evenings at the local theaters. What is your favorite part about your work? The creativity. And the fact that no two days ever seem the same. I look forward to going to work every day. What advice do you have for people who are interested in your f ield of work? As with any job, you should love what you do. And you should be willing to help with any part of the creative process. You can't always be in charge, so let those who are [in charge] do their work. And you will enjoy it. Do you have any funny or scary stories from your time with the opera? Sometimes we have to work up to the last minute trying to finish a costume, and that can be scary. We never want the show to look undone, so sometimes it is "all hands on deck" to get it finished. Thank goodness we have been able to succeed in this endeavor.



I am a Costume First Hand/Stitcher. I assist the Costume Draper in building costumes for the shows, fitting them, and doing any alterations and finishing work on them. What educational or vocational path led you to where you are now? What obstacles did you face? I went Albright College for Costume Design which prepared me for my job at the opera. I freelance around Philadelphia at different theaters making costumes, so it is always difficult trying to fill your calendar so you have work for a full year. What is your favorite part about your work? I love going to work every day! I work with a great group of people in a great environment. We always have fun while we work and we get to make beautiful things. What advice do you have for people who are interested in your f ield of work? Networking is the key for working in theater. A lot of times, the jobs in my field come by word of mouth or knowing someone at a theater.

High school students from across Philadelphia participate in Opera Philadelphia's f irst Career Day at the Academy of Music. Students had the opportunity to learn about backstage careers in opera including costumes, sets, props, and more. Photo: Dave DeRentis


FA S T FAC T S Hometown: Recently moved to Philadelphia from San Francisco, California Hobbies: Knitting, scuba diving, cooking, eating, hanging out with husband and dog (and cat) Favorite Food: Buttered toast Describe your role at Opera Philadelphia. I stage manage all of the shows as well as help advance future shows and all that entails (meetings, schedules, paperwork, etc.). What educational or vocational path led you to where you are now? What obstacles did you face? I had a Broadway Stage Manager as a teacher in high school and loved doing it. The biggest obstacle was convincing my family it was a viable career choice. What is your favorite part about your work? Getting to be in the room where it happens. It is so great to watch and help and be part of all of the amazing talent that is in a rehearsal process.

What advice do you have for people who are interested in your f ield of work? Learn everything. Languages, music, art history, lighting design, fashion, business, singing. It is all part of it. Do you have any funny or scary stories from your time with the opera? Not at this company... But productions of Aida are usually good for stories because often they want exotic animals for the parade. In one company they had in addition to the usual camels and elephants, large birds of prey that flew out over the audience. All went well until opening night when the birds were attracted to shiny things on the patrons in the audience and they started swooping down much to the consternation of the people wearing them! The birds were cut for the next performance. In another company, the camels got antsy and started kicking while lined up backstage. Since it was so tight backstage, they kicked through the flats behind them. Unfortunately, that was the scenery for the last scene. As Aida and Radames were supposedly suffocating in the tomb, there were holes the size of two large camels behind them! 41

A C LO S E R LO O K AT M A D N E SS On and off the stage written by Fumika Mizuno The mad scene in Act 3 of Lucia di Lammermoor is one of the most iconic scenes in all of opera. But what makes a mad scene, well, mad? First, let’s define a mad scene. In opera, mad scenes involve the portrayal of insanity and were popular during Donizetti’s time. Lucia di Lammermoor comes from a period of opera in the early 1800s known as the bel canto era. Bel canto means “beautiful singing” in Italian. This type of singing is heavily embellished, emphasizing the beauty of the voice. Coloratura, which is a vocal style that involves agile leaps, ornaments, and trills, is a staple of bel canto. For a modern-day equivalent of coloratura, think Beyoncé and her thrilling high notes in "Love on Top." In the mad scene, Lucia’s vocal line embodies coloratura singing. With almost twenty minutes of non-stop singing, the scene requires incredible skill. The high E-flat that ends the scene pushes the soprano voice to its very limits. Donizetti’s own troubled mental health may explain his fascination with mad scenes in opera. Donizetti suffered from syphilis, a bacterial disease. Eventually, the infection spread to his brain and central nervous system, causing him to slowly lose touch with reality. Donizetti's own letters reveal that the disease affected his mental health. In 1846, Donizetti was taken to a mental health clinic. There, Donizetti believed he was being locked up for theft. One could argue that perhaps his personal experiences with mental disorder allowed him to connect with characters like Lucia on a deeper level.


“Melancholy seized me… I have changed in all ways… I don’t know if I’m still alive, because I fall head f irst without helping myself with my hands, as if strangled.” Donizetti's letter to friend, Teodoro Ghezzi. Dated October 2, 1845.

Why were mad scenes so popular during Donizetti’s time? Shortly after the premiere of Lucia di Lammermoor in 1835, the Victorian era began in Europe. Madness, or hysteria, was a commonly diagnosed ailment during this period. Interestingly, the diagnosis of hysteria was restricted exclusively to females. The symptoms were wide ranging, including hallucinations and nervousness. Modern historians and psychologists believe that anxiety and other mental disorders were misdiagnosed as hysteria. In the 1800s, it was normal for almost every aspect of a woman’s life to be dependent on the whims of her husband, father, or brother. At the same time, sexual purity among women was prized. Given the constraints women faced in the Victorian era, it is no wonder that anxiety and other mental ailments were common. Our production of Lucia di Lammermoor is set in the mid-19th century. We see in our opera that Lucia’s freedom is restricted by the patriarchal figures in her life. Just as the marriage between Lucia and Arturo is one of loveless obligation, marriage in this time period was often a tool for political gain. Women weren’t allowed to marry the person they loved. The mad scene expresses the tragic consequences of this repression. In Act 3, Scene 2, a deranged Lucia stumbles into the great hall after murdering Arturo on their wedding night. In front of her wedding guests, she sings of Edgardo and imagines she is with him. There are many ways to interpret this scene. Is Lucia’s madness liberation from repression? Is she forced into madness by the actions of others?

Donizetti wasn’t the only one who featured mad scenes in his operas. Other operas with mad scenes include Verdi’s Nabucco and Macbeth, RimskyKorsakov’s The Tsar’s Bride, and Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde. However, mad scenes have proven to withstand the test of time and continue to appear in popular genres today. Broadway shows and Hollywood films often feature characters spiraling into insanity. The horror film The Shining (1980) contains the iconic “Here’s Johnny” scene in which a mentally distressed author hunts down his family. In the 2010 blockbuster film Black Swan, the plot centers around a young ballerina’s descent into madness while chasing artistic perfection. It is clear that madness has long captivated audiences and continues to do so today. It's important to be aware that portrayals of insanity in opera and in popular genres today can stigmatize or unfairly characterize those with a mental illness. Mental health is a very real issue with one in five Americans suffering from

a mental illness each year (National Alliance for Mental Health, 2015). So while the doctors of the 19th century may not have had the medical advancements to identify and treat anxiety, depression, or schizophrenia, people have long suffered from these illnesses. In the end, the mad scene of Lucia is a reminder of the realities of mental health. As you watch Lucia, consider the protagonist before you and the world in which she lived. Consider instances where empathy is necessary today in support of mental health. What resources do we have at our disposal now? What do we know now that we didn't know in the 1800s? Certainly, this is an opportunity to speak out and support those in our immediate community. Ignoring these conversations about mental health? Now that's mad!

WRITING PROMP T : LET TERS TO LUCIA Imagine you are Lucia's friend. Refer back to the libretto and write a letter to Lucia outlining how you would be her ally after the events that unfold in Act 2, Scene 2 (page 29). Can you incorporate some of the suggestions below in your response? Be creative as you write your letter. Can you think of two more ways to be an ally and advocate for those suffering from mental illness?

Wa y s t o b e a m e n t a l h e a l t h a l l y •

Learn about the different types of mental illnesses

Listen to those around you without judgment

Don't be afraid to respectfully call out those who stigmatize mental illnesses

Be mindful of how your language can contribute to stereotypes (e.g. using words like "crazy")

Share your response with a classmate and start conversations about mental health

Have empathy

• •


I N TO T H E P I T The physics of sound in orchestral instruments Throughout Lucia di Lammermoor, certain instruments of the orchestra are given the chance to shine in the spotlight in the form of solos. These instruments include the harp, flute, and in some productions, the glass harmonica. Let’s take a look at the physics and geometry behind these instruments.

HARP In our opera, the harp is featured at the beginning of Act I, Scene 2 in a beautiful cadenza, or virtuoso solo passage. The harp introduces the scene of Lucia by the fountain. The harp is a string instrument just like the violin or piano. With its elegant chords and sweeping glissandi (gliding from a low pitch to a high pitch) the harp is often associated with divine music. Sound is produced by plucking the strings with the fingertips. Each of the 47 strings produce a different pitch. The pitch depends on the length, thickness, and tension of the string. The thicker, longer strings produce lower notes while the thinner, shorter strings produce higher ones. Tightened strings also sound higher than loosened strings. Have you ever stretched a rubber band across your fingers and plucked against it? The tighter you stretch the band, the higher the pitch sounds. The strings on a harp work the same way.

FLUTE While the flute has a prominent role in the orchestra throughout the opera, it is especially highlighted in the solo during Lucia's mad scene. The flute is a member of the woodwind family. Other woodwind instruments include the clarinet, oboe, and bassoon. Most modern flutes are made of metal—usually solid silver, gold, or platinum. Flutists blow air through a small opening at one end of the instrument. Air passes very quickly across the top and bottom of the opening, causing a column of air inside the flute to vibrate. Flutists can change the pitch by pressing down keys along the instrument. The keys open and close holes, changing the volume of air that flows through the flute. In our opera, the solo flute appears many times to signify different themes. In the mad scene, the duet between the flute and soprano voice is like a haunting conversation. The flute and soprano echo and chase each other, climbing higher and higher in pitch. Could the flute solo represent Edgardo’s voice that Lucia hears only in her mind? 44

TA K E A L I S T E N to the instrumental solos from Lucia. • •

GLASS HARMONICA In some productions of Lucia di Lammermoor (including the one you will see), an instrument called the glass harmonica is used instead of the flute during Lucia’s mad scene. Donizetti originally wrote the part for the glass harmonica. However, according to historical experts, the glass harmonica player of the Naples orchestra was unhappy with his contract and stormed out shortly before the premier of the opera. At the last minute, Donizetti rewrote the score for flute. If you’ve ever tried rubbing your finger along the rim of a glass to produce sound, you’ve played a version of the glass harmonica! The instrument was invented by Philadelphia’s own Benjamin Franklin in 1763. It involves a series of glasses attached to a spindle submerged in water. A haunting sound is produced by rubbing fingers along the glasses as they spin. The rubbing produces vibrations that move the glass. How do you think shape affects the energy required to move the glass? With equal water levels, will a thin or wide glass produce a deeper sound? The next time you drink water out of a glass, try experimenting with this technique. Listen to what happens when you change the water levels.

MUSIC TO OUR EARS We all have differently shaped vocal chords—that's why no two voices sound exactly the same. Similarly, each instrument is made with unique materials, dimensions, and shapes that give it a distinct sound. When a harpist plucks a string or a flutist blows into the flute, the air particles surrounding the instrument begin to move back and forth. We can visualize this movement of the particles as sound waves. Most sounds we hear travel through air, but sound can travel through all sorts of mediums like water or wood. When these waves hit your eardrum, your brain interprets the vibrations as sound. How much the particles are displaced, or the amplitude, determines the loudness of the sound. The speed of the vibrations, or the frequency, determines the musical pitch. Frequency is measured in Hz.

smaller amplitude = quieter

lower frequency = deeper pitch

larger amplitude = louder

higher frequency = higher pitch


OPERA ON TRIAL L u c i a Ta k e s t h e I n s a n i t y D e f e n s e Opera is full of stories where a leading character chooses or is forced to make a choice outside the rule of law. Lucia di Lammermoor is one such example as in Act III we learn that Lucia has killed Arturo, the man with whom she is forced to marry. Is Lucia truly guilty of murder? What would motivate her to do this? Could her actions be justified by the way she was treated by her brother Enrico? What else should be considered? You be the judge! Break into two groups and begin to think about arguments for or against Lucia being guilty of murder. In the space provided, list at least two witnesses from the story who could support the prosecution or defense. Include reasons why it would be good to call these witnesses to the stand.

Criminal justice students from Esperanza Academy Charter School participate in Opera on Trial for Bizet's Carmen and put Don JosĂŠ on the stand for the murder of the opera's leading lady. Photo: Dave DeRentis

To participate in an official mock trial about Lucia di Lammermoor, visit




It is the job of the defense attorney to either justify the accused's actions or prove that they are not guilty of acting criminally.

The prosecuting attorney must prove that the accused did commit a crime and that they should go to jail for their actions.

AC T I N G T H E STO RY U s i n g Ta b l e a u s After reading Lucia di Lammermoor, choose one of your favorite scenes and act it out with a few of your classmates. W H AT I S A TA BL E AU ? In a tableau, participants make still images with their bodies to represent a scene. A tableau can be used to quickly establish a scene that involves a large number of characters.

A DDITIONA L IDE A S The tableau doesn’t just have to be a mute frozen image. Students can be told in advance that they will be video taped during the presentation, and that they will need to provide a clue as to who or what they represent in the tableau. As an alternate the teacher or a student could act as a reporter and conduct short interviews with individuals acting in the tableau. The teacher might choose to facilitate a discussion with the audience by highlighting certain tableau details through questioning. For example, you could ask, “Why might this character be smiling?” or “What do you think this character is thinking?”

The cast of The Barber of Seville strikes a pose in this example of a tableau. Photo: Kelly & Massa Photography, 2014

HOW DO YOU M A K E A TA BL E AU ? To begin, give each group an excerpt from the synopsis (like one scene), and ask the groups to create a frozen image that somehow captures the essence of what is going on in the scene. Students must then collaborate to decide how to represent the scene in the form of a tableau. No matter what they do, students should carefully craft their gestures, facial expressions, and physical poses. Give groups enough time to plan and rehearse and, when they are ready, have students present their scenes while the rest of the class discusses what they think is going on in the tableau. Additionally, one of the members of the group can read the scene while the other members act it out in tableau. Finally, have the class discuss the choices that went into making that particular tableau.

Tableau can also be a series of frozen images that, together, tell a story with a beginning, middle, and end. Or, the tableau might be more effective with the music from the opera playing. Groups also might want to use slow motion to transition from one tableau to the next. After the students create the tableau, encourage them to describe how they think music could enhance the scene that they created. Then ask students to use sounds to describe the music and back up their ideas with evidence. For a more detailed lesson plan from Opera America, visit For a reference video on how to create a tableau using an opera scene, visit Sources cited:


GLOSSARY A B O M I N A B L E - ( u h - B O M - u h - n u h - b u h l ) A D J . very bad or unpleasant A R D E N T - ( A H R - d n t ) A D J . intensely devoted A S S A I L - ( u h - S E Y L ) V. to attack vigorously or violently A V E R S E - ( u h - V U R S ) A D J . having a strong feeling of opposition B E T R O T H E D - ( b i h - T R O H T H D ) A D J . engaged to be married B O O N - ( b o o n ) N . something to be thankful for; blessing C E L E S T I A L - ( s u h - L E S - c h u h l ) A D J . heavenly; divine C L E M E N C Y - ( K L E M - u h n - s e e ) N . mercy; lenience C O R D I A L - ( K A W R - j u h l ) A D J . courteous and gracious; friendly F R E N Z Y - ( F R E N - z e e ) N . extreme mental agitation N U P T I A L - ( N U H P - s h u h l ) A D J . of or relating to marriage or the marriage ceremony P E R F I D I O U S - ( p e r - F I D - e e - u h s ) A D J . deliberately faithless; deceitful P E R I L O U S - ( P E R - u h - l u h s ) A D J . involving grave risk P R E A M B L E - ( P R E E - a m - b u h l ) N . an introductory statement; preface P R E S U M P T I O N - ( p r i - Z U H M P - s h u n ) N . assumption of something as true P R O S T R A T E - ( P R O S - t r e y t ) V. to lay flat, as on the ground R A P T - ( r a p t ) A D J . deeply engrossed or absorbed S H R O U D - ( s h r o u d ) V. to cover or envelop so as to conceal from view S O L A C E - ( S O L - i s ) N . comfort in sorrow, misfortune, or trouble T O T T E R I N G - ( T O T - e r - i n g ) A D J . walking unsteadily or shakily T R E A C H E R O U S - ( T R E C H - e r - u h s ) A D J . deceptive, traitorous


OPERA PHILADELPHIA David B. Devan General Director & President

Corrado Rovaris Jack Mulroney Music Director

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Initiatives

Sounds of Learning was established by a

generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation. Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learning program has been provided by:

THE WILLIAM PENN FOUNDATION Wells Fargo Foundation Hamilton Family Charitable Trust Universal Health Services Eugene Garfield Foundation The Hirsig Family Fund of the Philadelphia Foundation The McLean Contributionship Louis N. Cassett Foundation Victory Foundation

Written and produced by: Opera Philadelphia Community Initiatives Department Š 2018 1420 Locust Street, Suite 210 Philadelphia, PA, 19102 Tel: 215.893.5925 Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Initiatives Steven Humes Education Manager Veronica Chapman-Smith Community Initiatives Administrator Katie Kelley Graphic Designer Fumika Mizuno Community Initiatives Intern Special thanks to: Frank Machos Executive Officer, Office of Arts & Academic Enrichment School District of Philadelphia The Office of Strategic Partnerships School District of Philadelphia Dr. Bettie Joyner Kleckley Dr. Nanci Ritter Program Evaluators Maureen Lynch Operations Manager, Academy of Music Frank Flood Assistant Operations Manager, Academy of Music Cornell Wood Head Usher, Academy of Music Academy of Music Ushers