Fidelio Ludwig Van Beethoven
and The School District of Philadelphia
The School District of Philadelphia School Reform Commission Sandra Dungee Glenn, Chairman Martin G. Bednarek, James P. Gallagher, Ph.D, Denise McGregor, Heidi A. Ramirez,
Sounds of Learningâ&#x201E;˘ was established by a generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation. Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learningâ&#x201E;˘ program has been provided by:
$20,000 to $49,999
$5,000 to $9,999
Alpin J. & Alpin W. Cameron Memorial Trust
member member member member
Hamilton Family Foundation Lincoln Financial Foundation
Dr. Arlene C. Akerman Superintendent of Schools and Interim Chief Academic Officer
Presser Foundation Universal Health Services
Dennis W. Creedon, Ed.D.
$10,000 to $19,999
Robert B. Driver General and Artistic Director
Corrado Rovaris Music Director
David B. Devan Managing Director
Michael Bolton Director of Community Programs
Deluxe Corporation Foundation Dolfinger-McMahon Foundation McLean Contributionship
Administrator, Office of Creative and Performing Arts
Opera Company of Philadelphia
Bank of America Foundation
The ARAMARK Charitable Fund at the Vanguard Charitable Endowment Program
Sheila Fortune Foundation Wachovia Foundation
$1,000 to $4,999
Citizens Bank Foundation
Louis N. Cassett Foundation
Ellis A. Gimbel Charitable Trust
Reading Anthracite Company
Ethel Sergeant Clark Smith Memorial Fund Eugene Garfield Foundation GlaxoSmithKline
Opera Company of Philadelphia Corporate Council ADVANTA KPMG Park Hyatt Philadelphia at the Bellevue
Hirsig Family Fund Morgan Stanley Foundation The Patricia Kind Family Foundation PNC Bank Foundation Samuel S. Fels Fund
Pennsylvania Trust Quaker Chemical Sunoco Wyeth Wachovia Wealth Management The Opera Company of Philadelphia is supported by major grants from The William Penn Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, and The Lenfest Foundation. Additional support is provided by the Independence Foundation and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. The Opera Company of Philadelphia receives state arts funding support through a grant from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
A Family Guide to
Pennsylvania’s standards in education call for students to show what they know and are able to do and children need to share what they have discovered or learned. Thus, the title of our program is Sounds of Learning™. It reflects our belief that children must be actively engaged in sharing ideas. The Sounds of Learning™ workbook and teacher guide will integrate with local core literacy curriculum in many ways. Just as opera is a uniquely integrated art, combining orchestra, voice, literature, drama, and dance, Sounds of Learning™ is an interdisciplinary and student-centered program. The goal of the Active Learning sections is to have your children engaged in the process of self-teaching. They will be able to show how they have gained insights into their learning by drawing, writing, and discussing the issues most relevant to them. In this way, students demonstrate what they can do with what they know. We believe the family is the most important foundation to learning. Let your kitchen table become a classroom where your children can build their knowledge of opera and the humanities. As you join in the teaching and learning process with your children, watch their eyes sparkle. Opera is a communal celebration, so too should be your children’s education. In reading the libretto, we suggest that you and your family members take turns reading particular roles. Dr. Ellen Winner of Harvard’s Project Zero found that: “drama helps to build verbal skills that transfer to new materials;” helps students in “reading readiness and achievement;” and “oral and written language development.” (Journal of Aesthetic Education, v34, #3/4, Fall/Winter, 2000.) In preparing for the opera, we suggest you purchase one of EMI’s excellent audio or video recordings of this opera. We are grateful to EMI for offering us their libretti for use in our program. Together, we hope to build future audiences for, and performers of, the arts.
Goals and Objectives of the Sounds of Learning™ • Improve literacy rates by using the opera’s libretto to teach courses across the curriculum • Understand the plot, characters, and their motivations • Learn something about the composer, and others involved in writing the opera • Know something of the historic and social context of the story • Know some key musical elements, recognize certain melodies, differentiate between voices • Understand the role music plays by expressing emotions and heightening the dramatic experience • Understand the various elements of producing opera and the functions of those involved; e.g. conductor, director, set designer, technical crew, etc. • Develop the ability to make judgments about the opera, production, and performance • Relate incidents in the opera to those of the present day
Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education.
Table of Jun Kanekoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design for Pizarroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vengeance aria in Act I.
Please visit our webpage at
www.operaphila.org/community for more Fidelio information and downloads!
Contents Opera 101: Getting Ready for the Opera 4 6 8 9 10 11
A Brief History of Western Opera Philadelphia’s Academy of Music Broad Street: Avenue of the Arts Philadelphia’s Walk of Fame Opera Etiquette 101 There’s a Place for You at Settlement Music School
Relating Opera to History: The Culture Connection 12 14 16 17 18 19
Portrait in Silence: Ludwig van Beethoven Events During Beethoven’s Lifetime Beethoven’s Medical Mystery Women and the Enlightenment Jailed for His Ideals: Florestan the Political Prisoner America’s First Penitentiary: Eastern State Penitentiary
Fidelio: Libretto and Production Information 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 49 50 53 54 58
Robert Driver and Jun Kaneko’s Vision for Fidelio Visual Artist Jun Kaneko Minimalism: The Bare Essentials Meet the Artists Spotlight on Soprano Christine Goerke Fidelio Background Fidelio Synopsis Game: Connect the Opera Terms Acting the Libretto Fidelio LIBRETTO Beethoven’s Fidelio: Inside the Music Into the Pit: The Opera Orchestra The Trumpet Shall Sound Careers in the Arts Game: Fidelio Crossword Puzzle
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 69 70 72 73 74 75
Etymology: The Study of Words The German-English Connection Fidelio Discussion Questions Make Your Own Synopsis Props and People Conflicts and Loves in Fidelio How You Hear with Your Ears Kaneko Inspiration: Create Your Own Sculpture Active Learning in the Creative Arts Produce Your Own Opera! 2008-2009 Season Subscriptions Invest in Grand Opera! What Happens Next?/Alternate Endings Opera - Online!
Glossary State Standards State Standards Met
76 79 80
A Brief History of
Theatrical performances that use music, song and dance to tell a story can be found in many cultures. Opera is just one example of music drama. In its 400-year history each opera has been shaped by the times in which it was created and tells us much about those who participated in the art form as writers, composers, performers, and audience members. The first works to be called operas were created in Italy at the end of the sixteenth century. They were inspired by a group of intellectuals known as the Camerata who, like many thinkers of their time in the late Renaissance, admired the culture of the ancient Greeks. They proposed the invention of a new type of musical theater that would imitate Greek drama’s use of music. The result was a series of operas based on Greek myths, starting with Dafne by Jacopo Peri in 1598. The most famous work of this early period is Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607), based on the myth of Orpheus. These early operas had all the basic elements that we associate with opera today, including songs, instrumental accompaniments, dance, costumes, and scenery.
These early operas were performed in the courts of noblemen in Italy, but soon opera became Claudio Monteverdi popular among the general public 1567-1643 as well. Europe at the time had a growing middle class with a taste for spectacular entertainment. As opera’s popularity grew, so did the complexity of operas and the level of spectacle. Many opera houses had elaborate machinery that could be used to create special effects such as flying actors and crumbling buildings. There was much debate about whether an excess of visual elements in opera detracted from the quality of the music and drama. Some people even worried that too much comedy in opera could lead to immorality among the public! During the period from about 1600 to 1750, the Baroque period in music, Italian opera spread across Europe. In fact the Italian style of opera was so popular that even though other countries and regions often had their own traditions of musical drama, the Italian form was usually preferred. George Frederick Handel was a German-born composer who lived and worked in England, but his operas such as Julius Caesar (1724) were in the Italian language and used an Italian style of music. The only nation to develop a national
A tense scene from Act II of Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro. (l-r: bass Richard Bernstein, baritone Simone Alberghini and sopranos Christine Brandes and Mary Dunleavy.)
Bass Kevin Glavin gets a close shave from baritone Roberto DeCandia in Rossini’s The Barber of Seville.
tradition to rival the Italian was France, where operas often included ballets inserted into the story. Jean-Baptiste Lully and Jean-Philippe Rameau are the most famous French Baroque opera composers. By the middle of the seventeenth century Europe was changing. The growing middle class was more influential than ever, and people were starting to talk about new forms of government and organization in society. Soon the American and French Revolutions (1776 and 1789) would seek to establish the first modern democracies. Music was changing, too. Composers abandoned the complicated music of the Baroque period and began to write music with simpler, more expressive melodies. In opera, this meant that composers could write melodies that would allow characters to express their thoughts and feelings more believably. One of the first operas to use this new style was Cristoph Willibald Gluck’s Orpheus and Euridice (1762). With the new democratic sentiments came interest in operas about common people in familiar settings, rather than stories from ancient mythology. A good example is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786), in which a servant outsmarts a count. Several of Mozart’s operas remain among the most popular today. They include Figaro, Don Giovanni (1788), Così fan tutte (1790), and The Magic Flute (1791). In the nineteenth century operas continued to grow more diverse in their subject matter, forms, and national styles. The Italian tradition continued in the bel canto movement. Operas written in this style, which means “beautiful singing”, included arias with intricate ornamentation, or combinations of fast notes, in the melodies. The most famous composers of bel canto are Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti and Gioacchino Rossini, whose The Barber of Seville (1816) is one of the most beloved comic operas.
Later in the century the Romantic Movement led many composers to take an interest their national identities. As a result, operas in languages other than Italian became more common, and new works often reflected pride in a country’s people, history and folklore. Among the operas that show the growth of national traditions are Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz (Germany, 1821), Mikhail Glinka’s Ruslan and Lyudmilla (Russia, 1842) and Georges Bizet’s Carmen (France, 1875). In Italy Giuseppe Verdi composed in a bold, direct style, and his operas often included elements of nationalism. In Germany Richard Wagner took the Romantic style to the extreme in an ambitious series of operas known collectively as The Ring of the Nibelung (1876) based on Norse mythology. In the twentieth century opera became even more diversified and experimental, to the point that it sometimes became difficult to distinguish it from other forms of musical theater. Some composers such as Giacomo Puccini (La bohème, 1896), Claude Debussy (Pelléas et Mélisande, 1902), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905), and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) continued to write operas that were similar in many ways to those of the nineteenth century. Others, horrified by the destructive effects of World War I (1914-1919) and other aspects of modern life, created works with radically experimental and dissonant music. These operas often explored topics that were either disturbing (Wozzeck by Alban Berg, 1925) or absurdist (The Rake’s Progress by Igor Stravinsky, 1951). American opera also came into its own in this century, beginning with George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935) which incorporated jazz and blues styles of music. In the latter part of the century a repetitive and hypnotic style known as minimalism was exemplified in Phillip Glass’s Einstein on the Beach (1976), a piece that would hardly be recognized as an opera by earlier standards. The late twentieth century even saw a return to some of the traits of Romantic opera in works such as John Corigliano’s The Ghosts of Versailles (1991). Today, opera is a living art form in which both new works and those by composers of the past continue to be performed. It remains to be seen what the future of opera will be, but if history is any indication, it will be shaped by the creativity of librettists, composers and other artists responding the changing times in which they live.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791
Academy of Music
Few Philadelphians know that the great Academy of Music was dedicated to the memory of Mozart. As the guests enter the Opera House’s main hall, there above the proscenium arch, over the Academy stage, a bas-relief of Mozart looks down upon the audience. This place of prominence for Mozart indicates that the builders of the Academy expected to attract the finest performing arts known to the world. However, building this Opera House was not an easy task for the young country. Between 1837 and 1852 there were five attempts to raise the funds needed to build an Opera House within the city limits of Philadelphia. After Commissioners were appointed by an act of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Charles Henry Fisher began to sell stock in the Academy of Music on May 24, 1852. On October 13, 1854, the land on the southwest corner of Broad and Locust Streets was purchased. At that time, the area was undeveloped. (The Old State House, now known as Independence Hall, was the heart of the city at that time.)
The Commissioners held a competition to select the design of the Academy. Fifteen architects submitted designs between October 3 and December 15 of 1854. The winners were announced on February 12, 1855. Gustav Rungé and Napoleon le Brun won the $400 prize. It was their idea to dedicate the Academy to Mozart’s memory. Within four months the ground-breaking took place. This project was so important that President Franklin Pierce, along with Governor James Pollock and Mayor Robert T. Conrad, laid the cornerstone on July 26, 1855. On January 26, 1857, the Academy held the Grand Ball and Promenade Concert of its opening. The first opera presented in the brand new opera house was Verdi’s Il trovatore on February 25, 1857. Gounod’s opera Faust had its American premiere here on November 18, 1863. On February 14, 1907, Madama Butterfly premiered to “emphatic success” with its composer, Giacomo Puccini, in attendance. On May 14, 1897, John Philip Sousa’s composition “The Stars and Stripes Forever” was premiered on the Academy stage. On March 29 and April 5, 1900, Fritz Scheel conducted two serious concerts of professional musicians. These two concerts are considered the genesis of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Today the Opera Company of Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Ballet call the Academy home. Numerous presidents have visited the Academy, including Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Richard Nixon. The Academy has had many world-famous performers on its stage: Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Richard Strauss, Igor Stravinsky, Anna Pavlova, George Gershwin, Arturo Toscanini, Marian Anderson, Maria Callas, Leontyne Price, Luciano Pavarotti, and thousands more.
A wood engraving from the Academy Proscenium Box in 1857. Historic images of the Academy courtesy of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
The Academy was made a Registered National Historic Landmark in 1963. Since then, a few changes have been made to the structure. In 1996 the “Twenty-First Century Project” began, which allowed for a new rigging system, replacement of the stage floor, and cleaning and restoration of the historic ceiling. With Mozart’s image looking down on the Academy’s audiences from his position above the stage for over one hundred years, let the joy of opera and dance continue forever.
Academy Facts ✒ Built in 1857, The Academy of Music is the oldest grand opera house in the United States used for its initial purpose. ✒ In 1963, The Academy was honored as a National Historic Landmark. As a National Historic Landmark, live flame can never be produced on the stage. ✒ The auditorium seats 2,897; 14 columns support the Academy’s tiers; and the auditorium is encased within a three foot thick solid brick wall. ✒ The Academy Chandelier is 50 feet in circumference,
16 feet in diameter, and 5,000 pounds in weight. The chandelier was removed in June 2007 for 13 months to restore it to its original appearance.
✒ The red and gold pattern on the Academy’s stage curtain simulates that of a pineapple, a Victorian-era symbol for “welcome.” ✒ The Academy of Music has an expandable orchestra pit to accommodate works with larger orchestral requirements. The first two rows of seats on the Parquet level are on a platform which can be removed to enlarge the pit. The decorative brass and wooden orchestra pit railing is then adjusted to fit the expanded pit as well.
✒ In the 1800’s, an artificial floor was placed over
the Parquet level seats for balls, political conventions, gymnastic and ice skating expositions, carnivals, parades, and other events. You’ll see a wooden guide along the edge of the Parquet wall that helped support the floor.
✒ The first-ever indoor football game was held on
the Academy’s Parquet level on March 7, 1889 between University of Pennsylvania and Riverton Club of Princeton. At halftime, tug-of-war matches were held as entertainment.
✒ A motion picture was first screened at the Academy
on February 5, 1870. The silent movie consisted of an oratory, an acrobatic performance by a popular Japanese gymnast, and a waltz danced by the presenter, Henry H. Heyl and his sister. 1,600 people attended.
✒ There were talks underway to turn the Academy of Music into a movie theater in 1920.
Starting in 1884, electricity was used to light the large chandelier (originally lit by 240 gas burners), the auditorium, and stage lights. New regenerative gas lights were placed along the exterior walls on both Broad and Locust streets.
Incandescent electric lighting was introduced to the foyer and balcony in 1892.
✒ ✒ ✒
Air conditioning was installed in the theatre 1959.
There was no elevator for the general public in the Academy until 1990!
For more information on the Academy of Music, go to the library and take out Within These Walls, by John Francis Marion or go online to www.academyofmusic.org.
Avenue of the Arts Here is part of a map of Center City. This area, which includes Broad Street south of City Hall, is the home of many famous theaters, museums, hotels, restaurants and cultural centers. Here are some descriptions of the attractions around the Academy of Music. See if you can match them to the lettered flags on the map.
_____ The Kimmel Center Dance, orchestra, chamber and folk music _____ Prince Music Theater Contemporary music, musicals and blues _____ Merriam Theater Theater and broadway musicals _____ University of the Arts Art and Design School _____ Wilma Theater Modern theater and musicals _____ Ritz Carlton Hotel World famous 5-star hotel and restaurant
The Academy of Music is marked on this map with a picture. What is its address? _______________________________________
How many blocks is it from City Hall to the Academy?
All but one of the East to West streets on this map have names that have something in common. What is it? _______________________________________
For more information about this exciting part of the city, visit www.avenueofthearts.org/visit.htm.
4. You and your friends are planning a night on the town. You will hear a lecture about famous artists, see the Broadway musical Mamma Mia! and scout celebrities at a fancy restaurant. Where do you go? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________
Walk of Fame As you walk down the Avenue of the Arts between Walnut and Spruce Streets, you will find over 100 bronze plaques adorning the sidewalk. Each plaque is imprinted with the name of a person of importance to Philadelphia’s musical world, from major influences in the classical music world, such as contralto Marian Anderson, to hip-hop successes like Will Smith. The Walk of Fame was started by The Philadelphia Music Alliance, a non-profit organization founded in 1986. The Alliance was established by music executives and local citizens who wanted to commemorate Philadelphia’s contribution to the world of music. Other programs offered by The Alliance include an instrument donation program in collaboration with the Mr. Holland’s Opus Foundation as well as the Philadelphia International Airport Music Project and an annual piano competition. The Philadelphia Music Alliance has also worked alongside the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (Grammys), the Franklin Institute, the Philadelphia Corporation for Aging, Trane Stop, the University of the Arts, the Philadelphia Convention and Visitors Bureau, and the City Representative’s Office on various projects. New members are always being inducted onto the Walk of Fame and the event is featured on local television. To be honored with a plaque on the Walk of Fame doesn’t mean one has to be born or raised in Philadelphia. Many of the honorees may not have been from here, but made a significant impact on the musical scene in Philadelphia. Honoree Eugene Ormandy, for example, was a Hungarian conductor and violinist who was the Philadelphia Orchestra’s music director and conductor for 44 years. There is also the example of Dick Clark, the New York born disc jockey who gained huge success with the nationally televised Philadelphia based teen dance show, American Bandstand, and as host of New Year’s Eve celebrations on TV. There are several walking tours in the city which feature this popular public attraction. The Walk of Fame is a celebration of Philadelphia’s musical contributions that everyone can enjoy. You may even learn about some of the city's great musical personalities with whom you may not be familiar.
Philadelphia Walk of Fame Honorees Here are a few musicians honored on the Walk of Fame. Do you recognize any of these names? Marian Anderson – Contralto • Born in Philadelphia, attended South Philadelphia High School for Girls • First African-American to sing a leading role at the Metropolitan Opera, singing the role of Ulrica in Verdi’s A Masked Ball • Performed at the White House for President and Mrs. Roosevelt as well as King George VI • United Nations Goodwill Ambassador and winner of the U.N. Peace Prize Mario Lanza – Tenor and Movie Actor • Born in Philadelphia, performed in local operatic productions here early in his career • First artist for RCA Victor Red Seal to receive a gold disc and sell two and a half million records • Portrayed Enrico Caruso in the film The Great Caruso • His recordings were the first to ever be transferred to CD Frankie Avalon – Popular Singer and Actor • Born in Philadelphia • His songs “Venus” and “Why?” both reached number one on Billboard magazine’s Top 100 • Played Teen Angel in the film Grease Dizzy Gillespie – Jazz trumpeter, Band Leader • Moved to Philadelphia to pursue a music career • Major influence in the development of bebop and modern jazz • Led the United Nations Orchestra Anna Moffo – Soprano • Born in Wayne, Pennsylvania, graduate of Radnor High School • Won a scholarship to the Curtis Institute of Music • Performed many roles at La Scala as well as at the Metropolitan Opera including the role of Gilda in Rigoletto • In Italy, she hosted “The Anna Moffo Show” and was voted one of the 10 most beautiful women in the country Will Smith – Movie Actor and Hip-Hop Artist • Born in Philadelphia; graduate of Overbrook High School • Won two Grammys with longtime musical partner DJ Jazzy Jeff, also honored on The Walk of Fame • Star of the TV sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air • Nominated for an Academy Award for his performance in The Pursuit of Happiness Leopold Stokowski – Conductor • Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra • Conducted the score of the movie Fantasia. Most of the music was recorded at The Academy of Music • First conductor in America to record all four Brahms symphonies
Can you find these plaques along the Walk of Fame?
Opera Etiquette101 Attending the Opera
There’s nothing quite as exciting as attending the opera in a beautiful theater like the Academy of Music. If this is your first time at the opera there are a few things for which you should prepare:
Unlike actors on television or in the movies, performers onstage are acutely aware of the audience and want very much to share their love of singing and acting with you. Everything you do in the audience affects what happens on stage and behind the scenes. Because this is a working rehearsal, we ask that you please refrain from talking. The production team needs to concentrate on fine-tuning the production. You can show them how much you appreciate their work and the opportunity to come to this free rehearsal by being as quiet as possible. Have you ever tried to study for a test and there’s just too much noise at home or outside? It’s almost impossible to concentrate! So, please refrain from talking out of respect for the cast, musicians, and the entire production team. Give the artists and the production your full attention.
You will be attending the final dress rehearsal for this opera. This is the last opportunity that the artists will have to rehearse the entire opera before opening night just a few nights away. The goal is to treat this rehearsal exactly like a performance and perform the entire opera straight through without a pause. You may notice in the center of the Parquet level, the floor level of the Academy, several computer monitors and a large table spread out over the seats. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, Set Designer, and other members of the production team. They’ll be taking notes and communicating via headset with the many people backstage who help make all of the operatic magic happen: Stage Managers, Master Carpenter, Lighting Technicians, Supertitle Operator, Stage Managers and more. They’ll be able to give notes so changes can be instantly made. Should things go awry, they may stop and repeat a section to make sure that it is perfect.
Here’s a list of do’s and don’ts so that everyone in the theater can enjoy the opera:
Please Do... • Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!” for the men and “Brava!” for the women. • Enter and exit the theater in an orderly fashion. • Please use the bathrooms before the rehearsal begins or at intermission. • Be careful in the auditorium! Because the theatre is 150 years old, it’s not necessarily designed for modern conveniences. • Turn off your cell phones and all electronic devices. • Enjoy the rehearsal. You’ve worked too hard preparing for the rehearsal not to!
Don’t Forget... • Food, gum and beverages are not allowed inside the Academy of Music. • Photographs or video footage may not be taken during the performance. • No talking or whispering during the rehearsal. • No shoving, jumping, running, or spitting in the Academy of Music. The Holland Homeschool is prepared for the Sounds of Learning™ Dress Rehearsal of La bohème.
• No hooting, whistling, yelling or singing during the rehearsal. • Keep all objects to yourself. If you throw something, you might hurt someone and cause a disruption in rehearsal. It is grounds for removal from the auditorium. • MAKE YOUR SCHOOL PROUD!
There’s a Place for You at
Settlement Music School Settlement Music School is a community school of the arts: a place where everyone can find programs and activities in music, voice, dance and the related arts that will help them achieve their greatest potential. Settlement is dedicated to a belief that people of all ages, abilities, backgrounds, and financial circumstances deserve and will benefit from the high quality programs that Settlement offers. Founded in 1908, the School began as the music program at the College Settlement, a charitable institution serving immigrant families in South Philadelphia. Initially, two young women volunteer teachers offered piano lessons for a nickel. There was an overwhelming response, so much so, that they had to raise the price to a dime to hire more teachers. A full program of instruction soon took shape, encompassing all musical instruments and voice and taught by professionals, including members of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Today, Settlement’s reach extends throughout Philadelphia and while the lessons are no longer a nickel a piece, the benefits of music instruction are still many. Six Settlement branches now serve more than 9,000 students on site and another 6,000 with outreach programs. Students from every zip code in the eight Pennsylvania and New Jersey counties in and around Philadelphia attend Settlement Music School. Settlement maintains four Philadelphia branches (Germantown in the Northwest, KardonNortheast, West Philadelphia and the original South Philadelphia location, the Mary Louise Curtis branch in Queen Village); one in lower Montgomery County (Jenkintown); and the newest location in Camden, NJ. Settlement Music School has also produced an impressive list of alumni that have achieved success in their careers. Among them, actor Kevin Bacon and his musician-brother, Michael; jazz bassist Stanley Clarke, pianist Joey DeFrancesco and The Tonight Show guitarist Kevin Eubanks. There’s also Hollywood composer Alex North, Star Wars director Irv Kershner, numerous members of The Philadelphia Orchestra as well as musicians in orchestras around the country – even scientist Albert Einstein was a Settlement Music School student. In fact, studies show that science and music use similar principles —so music lessons may help your math skills, too.
Famous Philadelphiaborn actor Kevin Bacon took lessons at Settlement Music School. You can, too!
Settlement is a vital force in the communities it serves. It brings together an enormous diversity of students, providing many with opportunities otherwise unavailable to them through scholarship and financial aid. Settlement Music School helps them not only to develop musical and artistic talents, but also to build self-confidence and readiness for academic and other achievements. Students who come here begin life-long friendships with other students who perform with them in ensemble and orchestra programs. One student, a current member of the Philadelphia Orchestra, still plays “gigs” on the side with a friend he met when he was 14 years old at Settlement. Students’ work at Settlement puts them in touch with the best of themselves, the best of their neighbors, and the best that the world has to offer in creative expression. And, anybody, no matter what your skill or circumstance is accepted. Call 215-320-2600 or visit www.smsmusic.org for more information.
Settlement Music School Branches Mary Louise Curtis 416 Queen Street, Philadelphia, PA 19147
Germantown (215) 320-2610 6128 Germantown Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19144 Kardon-Northeast (215) 320-2620 3745 Clarendon Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19114 Jenkintown Music School (215) 320-2630 515 Meetinghouse Road, Jenkintown, PA 19046 West Philadelphia (215) 320-2640 4910 Wynnefield Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19131 Camden School of Musical Arts 531-35 Market Street, Camden, NJ 08102
Visit the Settlement Music School website at www.smsmusic.org.
Portrait in Silence:
Ludwig Van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven. The name itself is imposing like granite. His portrait is almost daunting in its severity. He was called arrogant, rude, argumentative, absentminded and unkempt by friends and acquaintances. What shaped this 5’4” tall man who changed classical music and who tragically became deaf by the time he was 48 years old? Ludwig van Beethoven was born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany to Johann and Maria van Beethoven. Beethoven was the second of five children. His older brother, also named Ludwig, only lived for six days in 1769. His family had a difficult life. Beethoven’s father, Johann, was a bitter man who lived in the shadow of his father, a successful musician at the Royal Court. Despite his attempts, Johann never found the success and respect that his father had. Johann applied for his father’s court position after he died, but was denied. Johann turned to drinking and spent the little money they had in taverns. Beethoven, like his father, was expected to continue the family musical tradition and at 5 years old began studying with his father. Beethoven would practice for hours, sometimes standing on tip-toe to reach the piano and crying in the process. Johann unsuccessfully tried to turn his son into a musical Wunderkind, like Mozart who had amazed the courts with his abilities ten years earlier. In 1781 Beethoven began to study with Christian Gottlob Neefe, a court organist, whose temperament was the opposite of his father’s. Neefe saw his student’s budding genius and encouraged the boy. By 1783, Beethoven wrote his first composition for piano. The following year, the 14-year-old Beethoven was hired as an assistant court organist, earning 100 florins annually. Neefe arranged for Beethoven to visit Vienna, the cultural capital of the world at the time, in 1787. Beethoven, then 16, visited Mozart, and possibly studied with him. Mozart was extremely impressed, saying “Mark that young man; he will make himself a name in the world!” After four weeks in Vienna, Beethoven returned to Bonn when he received news that his mother was gravely ill. His mother died of tuberculosis several weeks later and within a year his sister Maria also died of TB. Unable to deal with these events, his
father’s alcoholism became worse, and Beethoven became the head of the family. Over the next three years, Beethoven struggled to support his family. In 1790 he accepted the commission to write two cantatas: one honoring the death of Emperor Joseph II of Austria, the other celebrating the coronation of Joseph’s brother Leopold as Emperor. Neefe gave a copy of it to the great composer Franz Joseph Haydn. Haydn invited Beethoven to come to Vienna as his student and he accepted. Soon after leaving, Beethoven’s father died but he did not return for the funeral. By 1795 the world was changing: the French Revolution had begun; Austria had been stunned by the execution of its native daughter Marie Antoinette; and the Age of Enlightenment was ending. Fitting to this new age, Beethoven composed in a new style and changed the world with his dramatic, forceful piano playing. Up to this point, musicians and composers were more like servants to the nobility. Beethoven demanded to be respected as a composer first, and refused to take orders from anyone. Beethoven ended his formal musical training. He was a successful composer and publishers were fighting for his works. He had also gained confidence as a performer. Far removed from his first disastrous performances when he was eight years old, Beethoven was now a commandingly virtuosic performer. During this period, Beethoven gave piano lessons to noblemen’s daughters, frequently falling in love with them. Beethoven was shy around women, and fell for women far above his social status. For Beethoven to marry any of these women would have been socially unacceptable. Instead these women inspired him, and he would dedicate his compositions to them. He wrote his famous “Moonlight” Piano Sonata for his pupil Giulietta Guiccardi. Beethoven never found the love he so desperately wanted and never married. His romance with one noblewoman broke his heart; resulting in a famous letter to the woman he only named his ‘Immortal Beloved’. In 1800 Beethoven’s life changed. He developed a hearing problem called tinnitus, which causes a “ringing” sound in one’s ears. Beethoven went to several doctors, but nothing could cure it. He didn’t want anyone to know about his condition and became more solitary. Depressed and considering
suicide, the 32-year-old went to Heiligenstadt, Austria where he wrote a letter, the “Heiligenstadt Testament”, to his two brothers telling them how sad he was over losing his hearing, but how determined he was to fulfill his artistic destiny. Beethoven threw himself into composing and developed a heroic style of music unlike anything anyone had heard before. He premiered the Symphony #3, the “Heroic”, in 1804. Fascinated by the French Revolution and the Enlightenment, Beethoven dedicated the symphony to Napoleon, who he thought would continue the Revolution’s ideals. When Napoleon arrogantly named himself Emperor, Beethoven removed Napoleon’s name and replaced the dedication with “to the memory of a great man.” Wanting to write an opera, Beethoven struggled to complete his first opera, Fidelio, which was based on a French text by J. N. Bouilly. Austria was under occupation by French military. Fidelio unsuccessfully premiered to a half-empty house of French soldiers and a few of the composer’s friends in 1805. Beethoven continued to work on the opera to improve it. By 1814, Beethoven’s hearing had become much worse. He made his final appearance as a pianist at a concert honoring the end of the Napoleonic wars. Unable to hear the orchestra, the performance was a fiasco, humiliating the composer. Later that year, Beethoven’s Fidelio saw its first successful production in Vienna after undergoing many changes. Beethoven’s brother Caspar was dying from tuberculosis. Custody of Caspar’s son Karl was awarded to Beethoven, because Beethoven convinced his brother that his wife was an unfit mother. Caspar’s widow Johanna fought in vain to overturn the decision. Karl came to live with Beethoven, but the composer was a horrible father. He abused Karl just as he had been abused as a son. Beethoven was disappointed that Karl was not musical and felt that nothing Karl did was good enough. Very depressed, Karl unsuccessfully attempted suicide. In his late forties and completely deaf, Beethoven concentrated on his music, sometimes forgetting to bathe, shave, or change his clothes. He had his most creative period yet writing his groundbreaking Symphony #9, which was inspired by a poem about joy, and the choral mass, Missa Solemnis. At the 1824 world premiere of the Symphony #9, Beethoven had to be turned around to face the ecstatic audience to see their reaction as he couldn’t hear it.
The composer had become increasingly ill with bouts of jaundice, his feet and stomach would swell with fluids, and he even spat blood. Beethoven had a painful death. He became ill after visiting his brother. Doctors removed 25 liters of fluid from his stomach to reduce the swelling. He died on March 27, 1827 in his home during a violent thunderstorm. Over 20,000 people paid their respects to him at his funeral.
Active Learning 1. What other artists had physical challenges like Beethoven did?
2. How have musicians like violinist Itzhak Perlman, percussionist Evelyn Glennie, or singer Stevie Wonder risen above their disabilities?
3. Are you familiar with Beethoven’s music? Go to youtube.com and use these keywords to listen to some of Beethoven’s most famous pieces: beethoven, symphony, sonata, joy, fidelio.
Beethoven lived between 1770 and 1827. Listed below are some historic and cultural events that took place during his lifetime. Events in boldface type are things that happened to Beethoven; an asterisk ( ) indicates events of local interest. Discuss what it might have been like to be alive during the time period. How would your life be different or the same? How did the inventions of the time affect daily life?
1770 1773 1774
Beethoven was born. Boston Tea Party took place to protest taxes imposed by British Government. philanthropists formed the first Anti-Slavery Society. * Philadelphia Beethoven began music lessons with his father. Continental Congress met for the first time in Philadelphia.
* Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall.
1780 1782 1783 1784 1787
* The Pennsylvania Bank, the first public bank in the United States, opened in Philadelphia.
In July a mob assaulted the Bastille prison in France, causing French royalists to flee Paris. First United States Congress met in Philadelphia.
1790 1792 1793 1794 1795 1798 1799
Beethoven was presented by his father as a “six-year old” prodigy. French scientist Antoine Lavoisier proved air is mainly oxygen and nitrogen.
Ludwig van Beethoven's first pieces of music were printed. The Revolutionary War ended with the Treaty of Paris. Beethoven became organist for the Maximilian Franz Church Choir.
* * America’s oldest law school, The Law School of the University of Pennsylvania, was founded. *
Beethoven traveled to Vienna and studied with Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn. The first Federal Mint of the United States was established in Philadelphia. King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette of France were executed during the Reign of Terror which lasted 15 months. Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, which mechanically removed seeds from cotton. Beethoven gave his first public performance in Vienna, playing his own works. Bouilly wrote Léonore, ou l’amour conjugal, on which Fidelio was based.
of the Philadelphia Water Works began along the Schuylkill River; water was first sent through * Construction the pipes in 1801.
1800 1801 1802 1804
Beethoven studied briefly with Mozart in Vienna until the death of his mother. United States Constitution was signed in Philadelphia.
Beethoven wrote his Symphony #1 and the “Pathetique” piano sonata. Beethoven developed tinnitus and began to lose his hearing.
* The first United States Navy Yard was built in Philadelphia near the base of Federal Street. Beethoven became severely depressed and wrote the Heiligenstadt Testament. Beethoven began work on his opera Fidelio. Lewis and Clark expedition begins exploration of what is now northwest U.S.
Beethoven’s Symphony # 3 “Eroica” had its public premiere in Vienna. The Symphony was dedicated to Napoleon, whom Beethoven initially admired. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in Philadelphia. The first performance of Fidelio took place in Vienna.
Beethoven traveled to Vienna in 1787 to study with Mozart.
1807 1808 1809 1811
* Joseph Hawkins, of Philadelphia, manufactured the first carbonated water made in America.
Grimms’ Fairy Tales first published. Beethoven sent love letters to an unknown woman called only ‘Immortal Beloved’.
Beethoven’s Symphony #7 premiered in Vienna. The earliest known printed reference to the United States by the nickname “Uncle Sam” occurred in the Troy Post.
The first plastic surgery is performed in England by Joseph Carpue who rebuilt an army officer’s nose who lost it by mercury poisoning. Beethoven wrote his 8th Symphony and completed the third and last version of Fidelio. Francis Scott Key wrote the poem, The Star-Spangled Banner.
Beethoven’s deafness was such that he began to use a notebook and pencil in conversation. The 49th Parallel was established as the boundary between Canada and the United States
The Missouri Compromise was signed by President James Monroe allowing Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, but prohibited slavery in the rest of the northern Louisiana Purchase territory.
R.J. Tyers patented roller skates.
The first African-American newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, was published in New York City. John Walker invented modern matches. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society was founded in Philadelphia.
Beethoven wrote his Symphony #5 and Symphony #6, the “Pastoral Symphony”.
* America’s oldest, continuously operating theater, the Walnut Street Theatre, opened in Philadelphia. Beethoven attempted to perform his Piano Concerto #5 “Emperor” but failed due to his increasing deafness. It was his last public performance.
Beethoven wrote his famous Symphony #9 which features the Ode to Joy. Freed American slaves formed the country of Liberia.
Death of Beethoven.
Active Learning 1. Explore the library or the internet and discover more events that occurred during this era. Create your own timeline by cutting apart three supermarket paper bags. Cut them open down one of the side seams and cut off the bottom so that when laid flat, you have a rectangular piece of paper. Tape the bags together at the shorter ends, creating a long rectangular piece of paper. From the longer side of the bag near the top, measure in 10" and place a dot. Do the same near the bottom. Draw a straight line from the top to the bottom of the bag through both dots. Select the most important incidents for your timeline from the events listed above and with those found through research. Information taken from Timelines of History website at http://timelines.ws.
Medical Mystery Ludwig von Beethoven is considered one of the greatest composers ever. How tragic is it that a great composer would have been robbed of hearing his own music. Beethoven was not born deaf, but he gradually lost his hearing over twenty years. He was completely deaf by the age of 42. There are several theories why Beethoven lost his hearing, but no one really knows the exact cause. We’ll look at two of those theories as well as a few common types of hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is when sound does not follow through the outer ear to the inner ear normally, or is obstructed in some way. Conductive hearing loss is not as serious as some types of deafness because the inner ear can still pick up some sounds even if the middle and outer ear do not. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when the hairlike structures in the cochlea do not function, or when the nerve that connects the cochlea to the brain does not work. It can cause mild hearing impairment to complete deafness. Hearing loss can also occur from loud sounds. For example, iPods and other headsets set at a loud volume can cause vibrations which can damage the hairs in the cochlea, causing hearing loss. This type of hearing loss can happen to people who live near noisy airports, too. Some hearing loss is caused by genetics. Diseases and illnesses, and even some medications can cause deafness or hearing impairment if the nerves that transmit sound messages to the brain are damaged. Injury to the head area can cause deafness or hearing loss, especially if the injury is to the outer ear or the surrounding area. It is believed that Beethoven may have had a form of tinnitus, which is Latin for ringing. When Beethoven first started to lose his hearing, he complained of a “roaring” in his ears, like that of tinnitus. Tinnitus can be brought on by many factors. Aspirin and other medications can cause tinnitus, as can too much earwax in the ear canal. Today there are many treatments for tinnitus, ranging from surgery to taking zinc vitamins and supplements. Sensitivity to sound is called hyperacusis. It can occur if the inner ear is damaged. It can also be caused by damage to the brain. Mostly, it is caused by extended exposure to loud sounds, Lyme’s disease, or head injury. Tinnitus often accompanies hyperacusis, and the sufferer also may have ear pain.
Beethoven in his study. A painting by C. Schloesser
Normal sounds like a shower, phone ringing, door closing, and other everyday noise may startle or hurt the ears of someone with hyperacusis. Another theory is that Beethoven may have become deaf due to lead poisoning. When Beethoven died at age 57 a lock of hair was cut from his head. In 2000 the hair underwent testing which showed that Beethoven suffered from extreme lead poisoning. Beethoven was known to take mineral spas; the lead in the bath’s water would have been absorbed into his body, leading to lead poisoning. Lead can cause nerve damage, which could explain his deafness, and other health problems. Lead has no known health benefits for humans and can kill a person if absorbed in high amounts. Deafness, hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis are all serious problems. The people who have them typically do not receive the same attention or recognition as those with blindness. “Blindness,” as Helen Keller said, “isolates people from things. Deafness isolates people from people.”
Active Learning 1. The ear is a very delicate organ and it consists of different parts. For more information on how the ear works, visit the lesson on page 66.
2. What are some noises you hear everyday at home, at school, in your neighborhood?
Women and The Enlightenment A new era had dawned by the time Fidelio premiered in 1805; the Age of Enlightenment was slowly changing people’s ideals. European intellectuals were discussing the idea that all men are born equal and free in the eyes of God and, therefore, deserve equal liberties under the law. In France, many Enlightenment intellectuals, called philosophes, felt so strongly about democracy and equality that in 1789 at the beginning of the French Revolution, they wrote a document called a “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.” This declaration called for the equality of all men and was influenced by our Declaration of Independence, which was written in 1776. The 18th century European ideals of liberty and equality for all did not include women. When the writers of the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” said all “men are born free and remain equal in rights” they meant the term men to refer to only members of the male sex (and even then only men of European descent). The term “man” was not being used in its generic sense to mean humankind as it sometimes is today. The men who wrote the declaration did not consider women equal to men. They believed that only men are born with the ability to reason. Women, they felt, are too emotional and irrational to hold a position outside of the home. Women were expected to be good wives and mothers and their lives were confined to the domestic sphere. They were supposed to be obedient to their husbands and accept the role given to them by nature. Throughout Europe there were, however, women who were unwilling to accept the male definition of a woman’s role. In France, Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793), a playwright and revolutionary, was an outspoken critic of the way women were treated by the revolutionary republicans. She wrote the “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen” to counter the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”. In de Gouges’ declaration, presented to Queen Marie Antoinette in 1791, she demanded that French women be given the same political and legal rights as French men.
In England, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) rejected the idea that women and men have different natures and claimed that women only appear irrational and more emotional than men because when growing up they were not given the same chances as boys to develop their rational intellects. Wollstonecraft wrote “Thoughts on the Education of Daughters” (1786) and “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (1792) in which she called on a national government to create a new system of equal education for girls and boys. Another woman who spoke out against the treatment of women was a Spanish woman named Josefa Amar y Borbón. She demanded in her “Discourse in Defense of Women’s Talent and Their Capacity for Government and Other Positions Held by Men” (1786) that women be given a larger role in society. These three women were outspoken in their belief that women were capable of being more than just wives and mothers. They rebelled against the idea that only men have the ability to think rationally and women are by nature destined only for a submissive role in society. Their claims were very controversial at the time. In fact, many women who rebelled against the way men treated them were physically punished. For example, Olympe de Gouges was guillotined during the Reign of Terror because she was considered a threat against the men’s French Revolutionary Republic. Although the claims and demands ultimately, made by these early feminists met with little advances, it is important to know that there were women who did fight against the way men defined them. These women understood the true meaning of Enlightenment: “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” for all.
Active Learning 1. Do a research paper and/or a portrait on American Heroine, Susan B. Anthony.
17 Influential British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft.
Jailed for His Ideals: 18
Florestan the Political Prisoner Florestan has been secretly imprisoned for two years by Don Pizarro, the prison governor, who spread rumors that Florestan died. Florestan was put in jail because he accused Don Pizarro of imprisoning citizens who question his authority and of abusing the inmates in overly harsh conditions. Florestan has been jailed to be silenced; he is a political prisoner.
What is a political prisoner? A political prisoner is someone who is put in jail because he or she has or promotes nonconformist political views. This is someone who criticizes the government’s actions or policies, or whose ideas may threaten a government’s security or authority. Political prisoners are often put in jail without a trial. Some political prisoners are arrested and tried under false charges with fake evidence to hide the person’s political prisoner status. Unfair trials might be held if the person’s imprisonment would be condemned for human rights or censorship violations.
Are there political prisoners today? Yes, there are. In fact the organization Amnesty International (AI) was formed to champion the enforcement of internationally recognized human rights for all. With over 2.2 million members in over 150 countries, AI fights to free prisoners of conscience, like Fidelio’s Florestan, and those jailed for their religious or philosophical beliefs.
Enforced Disappearance If Fidelio were set in 2008, AI would consider Florestan a victim of enforced disappearance. Enforced disappearance is when the state, agents acting for the state, or an underground militant group force a person to vanish from public view.
Victims are kidnapped and hidden where no one can help them, not even the police. Victims could be illegally or secretly imprisoned, and even tortured or executed. Often enforced disappearance victims are never released; their fates unknown. According to Amnesty International, Enforced Disappearance violates the following human rights: • the right to security and dignity of person • the right not to be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment • the right to humane conditions of detention • right to a fair trial • right to a family life • when the disappeared person is killed, the right to life Enforced disappearance victims have little legal protection or access to lawyers. They are stripped of their rights by their captors, are in constant fear for their life, and may be captive for years. If the person is released, he or she may have physical and psychological problems for the rest of his or her life. In the United States, our right to criticize the government is protected through the First Amendment of the Constitution which guarantees our freedom of speech. Fidelio’s Florestan may have been punished for speaking out, but on U.S. soil, people are protected from becoming political prisoners thanks to the 1791 Bill of Rights.
Active Learning 1. Imagine that you were in Florestan’s situation. What do you think may have happened to him while he was in the dungeon?
2. What other freedoms are guaranteed U.S. citizens in the Bill of Rights?
A photo of a political prisoner at the Russian Kara gold mine prison who escaped with others from prison in April, 1882, by digging a tunnel under the prison wall. When recaptured, eight prisoners were permanently chained to wheelbarrows. Courtesy Library of Congress, #LC-USZ62-128212
3. Who was Nelson Mandela? Why was he a political prisoner and how did he overcome his imprisonment?
4. Under the reign of Saddam Hussein, tens of thousands people disappeared in Iraq during Operation Anfal. What was Operation Anfal and why did so many people disappear?
5. The world discovered atrocities at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq in 2003. Would the prisoners there be political prisoners and why?
Americas First Penitentiary:
Eastern State Penitentiary
Content courtesy Eastern State Penitentiary
Imagine the horrors that Florestan suffered while isolated in his prison dungeon in Fidelio. What do you think prison life was like under the dangerous tyrant Don Pizzarro? Prisons are scary, horrible places, and in the time of Fidelio, a prison cell was more like a big holding pen — no matter your gender, age or crime, prisoners were in the same cell. Prison conditions were rough and inmates were regularly beaten, abused, and even tortured and mutilated. In the late 1700s the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons wanted to change the brutal prison conditions by building penitentiaries, where criminals would become truly remorseful for their crimes. The result of these plans was Eastern State Penitentiary. From the outside the prison looks like a fortress with torture chambers, but the inside was more like a monastery with 30-foot, vaulted hallways, tall arched windows, and skylights throughout. Built on a former cherry orchard, Eastern State Penitentiary opened in 1829. It was one of the most expensive buildings in America at the time and became the world’s most famous prison. At a time when many prisons relied on physical punishment, Eastern State instead used a Quaker method that isolated criminals from human contact, forcing inmates to spiritually reflect on their actions. The isolation was so strict inmates were hooded whenever they left their cells. This also prevented all interaction with guards and familiarity with the building’s layout. Eastern had seven cell blocks that branched out from a central observation station. Each prisoner had their own centrally-heated cell with running water, a flush toilet, and a skylight. Prisoners were given a Bible and honest work (shoemaking, weaving, and such) to lead to penitence. Each cell had its own outdoor exercise yard enclosed by a ten-foot wall. Comparatively, the new White House (built 1792-1809) had no running water and was heated with coal-burning stoves. Governments from around the world studied Eastern’s construction and over 300 prisons internationally were based on its plan. For many nations, Eastern’s distinct form and isolation regimen became a symbol of modern principles.
A sketch of Eastern State Penitentiary sometime between 1821 and 1836.
Tourists also came to see the architectural marvel. Some questioned the value and compassion of isolation. Was it cruel to hold these people without books, letters, or any human contact? One critic was Charles Dickens who said in his travel journal, American Notes for General Circulation: “I hold this… daily tampering with the mysteries of the brain to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body.” Critics won and the isolation system was abandoned in 1913. Eight additional cell blocks were added through the mid 1900s. Although the system of solitary confinement faded away and the prison’s policies became more liberal, underground cells, with neither light nor plumbing, brought solitary confinement back to Eastern to punish prisoners. Over the years the old prison became severely rundown and was closed in 1971, 142 years after incarcerating its first inmate. The City of Philadelphia purchased the site in 1980 and the building is now run by Eastern State Penitentiary Historic Site, Inc., a nonprofit organization that has offered regular guided tours since 1994. Eastern State Penitentiary is a snapshot of how prisons were changing in the time of Fidelio. While its idealistic theory of reforming criminals through penitence was criticized, the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons was able to change imprisonment standards around the world.
Active Learning 1. Visit the Eastern State Penitentiary website at www.easternstate.org.
2. Visit the Penitentiary on a field trip or with your family. 3. In the drawing on the page, where do you think the artist was sitting when this was drawn?
A New Look at a Classic
Robert Driver and Jun Kaneko’s Vision of Fidelio The Opera Company of Philadelphia’s General and Artistic Director Robert B. Driver is excited to open the 2008-2009 Season with Beethoven’s only opera, the grand scaled Fidelio. While Fidelio is one of the most frequently produced operas in Germany, it is not performed as often in the United States and was last produced by the Opera Company in 1989. For this production, Robert is not only its producer, but its director as well. “The opera had a torturous birth,” he says. “Beethoven was suffering greatly with the loss of his hearing. He would meet with the great German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and would be humiliated that he couldn’t hear this great thinker. “Beethoven struggled to perfect Fidelio and revised the opera several times. It starts in the singspiel (comic) opera tradition, becomes a dramatic opera, then almost an oratorio at the end. It’s fascinating that Fidelio, like Mozart’s The Magic Flute, grew out of this singspiel tradition – a comic opera with spoken dialogue. At the time there were no completely sung operas in the German language, and Beethoven was too serious for the singspiel form, so he almost reinvented the German operatic form with this blend of comic, dramatic, and heroic elements. “The opera opens with Marzelline and Jaquino’s comic little quarrel. Their music is light, almost out of a Mozart opera. Then the opera
becomes very dramatic and heroic when Leonore is introduced, dressed as a man, with the hopes of finding her secretly imprisoned husband Florestan. In the opera’s final scene, it almost becomes an oratorio as the stage action is static. The music at this scene sounds very similar to the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9, his ‘Ode to Joy’.” For years Fidelio has been updated from its original 1805 setting in Seville, Spain, to the World War II era; the opera’s fascist themes have been specifically compared to events in Nazi Germany and communist Europe. Robert thinks that these era-specific productions are too simplistic for such a multi-layered opera. While many of these productions were very realistic, Robert feels that a different, almost unrealistic look at the opera will be more interesting. Through studying and reexamining the opera he has decided to present it in a new light that will speak to today’s audience. Operas in Beethoven’s era were staged so that the singers created an image or tableau on the stage by standing in specific poses during arias and ensembles. Robert wants to revisit that tradition in this production by using tableaus that honor the music and text, while giving further insight into the opera at the same time. Robert turned to Japanese artist Jun Kaneko, a world-famous artist known for his abstract designs, to bring his vision to life. He had gone to see Jun’s production of Puccini’s Madama Butterfly. Robert loved Jun’s minimalist vision of Puccini’s masterpiece and thought that Jun would be the perfect designer for this Fidelio. Jun didn’t think he could do it and needed a little convincing; he’s not really an opera person and wasn’t familiar with Fidelio. Plus, it took Jun three years to design Madama Butterfly and with his busy schedule he didn’t think he could complete the Fidelio designs in just over a year. Robert was persuasive, saying that all the elements he wanted for this production were already in Jun’s work: simplicity, abstractness, and structure. It was a natural fit. Robert would not take no for an answer. Jun said yes. Jun wanted to stay true to Beethoven’s music. Before he began designing, he wanted the music to speak to him with its design ideas rather than imposing his own ideas on the music. Jun listened to the opera on CD hundreds of times over three or four months before he started sketching: the music would guide his designs. Then he developed a few concepts for the sets and costumes.
Jun bases his work on the Japanese Hindu concept of ma, which he defines as “the idea of space in between things or space itself - physical or mental space, or time. This idea includes our relationship to all things. In art, all spatial relationships within a canvas change each time you add more paint strokes to it. These relationships are based on form, color, and texture. “One must pay attention to the concept of ma,” he continues, “even in music. Music, too, has its own spatial relationships. When music stops, the tone decays and goes away and then the music begins again. There is a relationship to the music that follows this break and to that which has preceded it. Each instrument that is playing has its own relationship, its own ma, with the other instruments being played. “The interesting thing about the opera is that there is much to think about in the way space is used: singers move around stage, the lighting and set change, music moves all the time – everything is flowing. How do you make each moment make sense while having a balanced relationship to each other? There are frequently one to five people onstage. In the finale there are almost 50 people on stage and the spatial environment changes drastically. How do you solve that mechanical problem while honoring the music within the physical realm? The production needs to be a fantastic collaboration between the sets, costumes, movement, and the music. You can’t change the music, you must come from the music first, no matter how radical the design idea.” Robert met with Jun at his studios in Mexico. Jun was ready with sketches inspired by Beethoven’s music and Robert’s needs as a director. Jun’s designs are very controlled and feature a massive grid, representing the rigid prison environment. The opera’s themes of lightness and darkness are represented on the set which is divided into dark and light sides. Robert says, “The evil character of Pizarro inhabits the world of darkness, but only when he goes into the light is his evil exposed.” The dark side represents tyranny, repression, and evil whereas the light side represents hope, truth, freedom, and love. Robert and Jun have decided to use projections to add subtext to the drama. Color will be used symbolically. For example, during the quartet in Act I (“Mir ist so wunderbar”), all of the characters sing the same music in a canon form, but each of them expresses different emotions. Robert and Jun will use projections to enhance and clarify this moment. Each character will have his or her own projected image
which will move independently and intersect with each other to show how that character is feeling. Another example occurs in the second act, which opens in the complete darkness of the dungeon. Florestan’s opening line is “God! How dark it is here!” In his monologue Florestan dreams of his wife Leonore, who he calls his angel. During this portion of the aria, the stage will be flooded with yellow light to symbolize Leonore, which will fade away as Florestan’s mind returns to the darkness of reality. This exciting new production has been invigorating for both artists. Jun has said that working with Robert Driver has been wonderful and that this has been an immensely satisfying experience. When asked what Robert liked most in the Jun’s work, Robert said, “Jun can be so simple on one level and so profound on another – just like Beethoven’s music. He is able to capture the essence of the music, never superimposing anything on the music that betrays its essence.” The Opera Company hopes that you will have a profound and satisfying experience at this rarely performed opera as well!
Active Learning 1. For more information on this production, visit the Opera Company’s technical website: http://tech.operaphilly.com/sets/fidelio/sketch, where you’ll see set and costume sketches.
2. After reading the complete libretto, design your own sets and costumes for Fidelio!
Jun Kaneko is a world-famous artist whose works are on display in museums around the world – including the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Born in 1942 in Nagoya, Japan, both Jun’s mother and father were dentists. Jun’s mother wanted to study art professionally, but her father encouraged her to become a dentist. She was an artist at heart: while she filled patients’ cavities during the day, she filled canvases with her art at night. When Jun was in grade school he took his required weekly art class. He would draw and paint at home, but never showed anyone his work. His mother found his work and secretly showed it to several respected artists who happened to be her patients. They all thought he should study art seriously. His mother helped him find his first tutor, Satoshi Ogawa. Jun studied with Mr. Ogawa in the morning and went to high school at night. This style of education worked well for Jun as he found the traditional Japanese educational system too strict with no room for creativity. When he was twenty-one, Jun left Japan for the United States to study art. He stayed with Satoshi Ogawa’s friend Jerry Rothman in California. Jerry, who spoke a little Japanese, agreed to help young Jun. Jun did not speak English, and learned from what he could see. His first real encounter with ceramics was while house-sitting for Jerry’s friends, Fred Marer and his wife, who later became his friends. The Marers had a very large ceramic collection and they often brought Jun to visit the studios of the artists whose pieces they collected – and again Jun absorbed all he could through observation.
Jun at work on one of his famous ceramic heads. This head measures 101”h x 70”w x 77”d.
Jun began taking painting classes at the Chouinard Art Institute. Since he was still learning English, he used his eyes instead of his ears to learn the techniques taught in class. Later, Kaneko would say, “everything we look at comes from our intuition and feeling, which comes from our human body.” Jun has held this belief since his early days as an artist. If he had not trusted his intuition in a place where he could not speak the language, his talents might have gone undiscovered. The famous artist Peter Voulkos, who taught in the ceramics department at the University of California in Berkeley, hired Jun to be his assistant. Jun was able to go to ceramics classes even though he wasn’t enrolled, and shared available workspace. The artist developed his own style with ceramics. Instead of imposing his personal ideas upon a piece, he allows the art to come to him, rather than chasing it with his own images and ideas. Jun has slowly entered the world of opera. He designed the sets and costumes for a stunning production of Madama Butterfly, about a geisha during World War I, for Opera Omaha. When asked to design Fidelio, Jun spent months listening to recordings of the opera, waiting for Beethoven to tell him how to design the production. His opera designs are based on the movement within the music and on the stage. Look for this sense of motion when you see the opera! With pieces in museums and on display throughout the world, Jun Kaneko’s works today balance structure and creativity. His artwork bridges his Eastern heritage and his Western home. Known for his large scaled ceramic pieces that can be over ten feet tall, Jun has brought a unique voice to the art world. Peter Voulkos said that Jun “has become a true visionary, combining Eastern and Western thought, propelling the medium towards a universal language.”
Active Learning 1. Visit Jun’s website at junkaneko.com 2. Get inspired by Jun’s art work to do the art lesson on page 68.
3. Can you and your classmates find Nagoya, Japan on the map? How far away is it from Tokyo?
The Bare Essentials When you come to see Fidelio on October 8th, you will become aware that the production is not set in 19th Century Spain. Once the opera begins, you will notice that director Robert B. Driver and designer Jun Kaneko have used a Minimalist approach for the production. Minimalism is the name of an artistic movement that influenced many art forms and design, especially visual art and music. Minimalism strips a work down to its most basic elements and Minimalist artists believe that any piece of art should reflect its own identity and personality. The object itself should be able to be appreciated at face value; the artist should not force their own personality onto a piece. In the article on page 20, artist Jun Kaneko talks about this need to let a piece speak on its own terms through the Japanese Hindu concept of ma. If you haven’t yet done so, take a moment to read this article. Minimalism began in New York City in the 1950s, starting as a form of abstract art, but became very important in the 1960s and '70s. It has its artistic roots in the Modernism school of art, which also sought to scale down art to its essential elements. Some scholars say that Minimalism came about as a reaction against the excessive self expression and raw emotionalism of the Abstract Expressionist movement, as shown in the art of Jackson Pollock, Ad Reinhardt, and Robert DeNiro, Sr. Unlike other art forms, Minimalism throws away any elements of self-expression, social commentary, or suggestions to history, politics, or religion. You won’t find Minimalists painting naturalistic pictures like a portrait, a still life, or a landscape. Its goal is to create beautiful and fascinating objects with presence. When creating Minimalist pieces, artists tend to use geometric-like designs and bursts of color in stripes, polka dots, solid planes of color, and continuously repeated patterns. Minimalist art should be experienced outside the context of the traditional art elements of composition, theme, and subject. The “concept” for any Minimalist piece is based on the materials used to create it. The objects used to create a piece are not intended to represent
Jun Kaneko’s minimalist design for the opening of Act II.
anything other than the Color is used to define within the creative space. no emotion, but should the viewer, which is the any Minimalist piece.
work’s literal presence. space and relationships The work should express evoke an emotion from most important goal for
In this production of Fidelio, designer Jun Kaneko has consciously tried to remove his own artistic personality from the piece, allowing the music to guide the designs. Throughout the opera you will see the hallmark elements of Minimalism: squares, rectangles, triangles, circles, and lines that mutate into each other, sway and move in time to the music, and more. When the curtain opens, the stage will be split horizontally into two sections: black (signifying Don Pizzaro’s tyranny and Florestan’s suffering) and white (signifying freedom). Grids frequently appear in Minimalist art, and are seen throughout Fidelio. For more information on Minimalism, visit the Jun Kaneko website at www.junkaneko.com, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, or the Institute of Contemporary Art at the University of Pennsylvania.
24 Leonore (leh-oh-NOH-reh) Fidelio (fee-DAY-lee-oh)
Artists Florestan (FLOH-rehs-tahn)
Anthony Dean Griffey, tenor Christine Goerke, soprano Alice - Falstaff, 2007 Norma - Norma, 2007
Don Pizzaro (pee-TSAHR-roh) Greer Grimsley, baritone Escamillo - Carmen, 1992
Marzelline (mahr-tseh-LEE-neh) Ailyn Perez, soprano OCP Debut
Don Fernando (Don fehr-NAHN-doh) Kirk Eichelberger, bass Monterone - Rigoletto, 2007
Set and Costume Designer Jun Keneko OCP Debut
You may have seen these artists in one of our recent productions. To learn more about them, visit our website at www.operaphila.org.
Rocco (ROHk-koh) Julian Rodescu, bass Sparafucile - Rigoletto, 2007 Lord Walton - I Puritani, 1995
Jaquino (yak-KEE-noh) Brian Anderson, tenor OCP Debut
Director Robert B Driver A Masked Ball, 2005 The Barber of Seville, 2005 The Marriage of Figaro, 2006 La bohĂ¨me, 2006 Falstaff, 2007 Rigoletto, 2007
Conductor Corrado Rovaris A Masked Ball, 2005 The Barber of Seville, 2005 The Marriage of Figaro, 2006 La bohĂ¨me, 2006 Cinderella, 2006 Falstaff, 2007 Rigoletto, 2007 Hansel and Gretel, 2007 Norma, 2008
Spotlight on Soprano
Christine Goerke It’s been an interesting road to the opera stage. I never even thought of pursuing a career as a singer when I was in high school. I started out wanting to teach high school band. I played the clarinet for years and learned to play other woodwind instruments too. Flute and saxophone were fun, but when I learned to play the Bass Clarinet, I thought that was a blast! I didn’t really know I could sing until I was in college. I had to take a placement test at the music school to see if I could sight read music. That means just looking at a piece of music and “singing” what’s on the page. You don’t have to sing it well, just get the notes and note values right. It turned out that the school liked my singing more than my clarinet playing! I was very confused by this, but then realized that I didn’t have to carry around an instrument in a case, and could just sing instead... so – I guess you could say I’m a singer because I was lazy! Actually, I laugh sometimes when people say that they think that singing is something that you just get up and do, and that’s that. Singing is really hard work! Education plays a very big part in it, too, but education is important in any choice of career, not only music. We singers all train for years. Not just learning how to sing, but learning about different kinds of music, different composers, and what was going on in the world historically when pieces were written. This makes a difference when you’re trying to become a character in a different time period. We study movement, acting, and I even studied Oceanography and Statistics too! Then there are the many languages we have to learn and study in order to be able to sing in them. Fidelio is by Ludwig van Beethoven. It was written in German and was first performed in Vienna, Austria on December 26, 1805. I had to study German and learn German diction when I was in college. Diction is just a schmancy word for pronouncing a language correctly when you sing in it. I started to study different languages in college. I’m not fluent in all of them, but I can speak enough Italian, German, and French to get by - and I can understand what I’m saying when I sing in all of them now. But it took time, like anything that you learn for the first time! The first time I had to sing an opera in a language other than English I was scared to death. I was in college and didn’t know German very well yet.
I translated everything on the top of the page and hoped that it would be enough. I somehow was able to get through it and made lots of mistakes! I was able to laugh about it. That was the greatest thing I learned very early on. We will always make mistakes and if we can’t laugh about them and learn from them? What is the point? I came away from my education with so much more than just my knowledge and understanding of music. This is the way that any education or career path should go. Learn everything that you can. Soak it up like a sponge. I promise – you’ll never know when you can use the information that you’ve learned, and when it will make you more valuable at your job! I really love what I do, but being away from my friends and family when I have to travel far from home is toughest part of the job. So, when I’m home, I really make the time count. My husband Jim used to be a chef - he’s incredible in the kitchen, and I’m a very lucky lady... but we love two things: pizza night and BBQ night. There is a place near our house called “Cubby’s BBQ.” The most amazing ribs! We also really have an addiction to miniature golf. I know that probably sounds stupid but it’s so much fun! I love watching Family Guy – it cracks me up. In preparing for Fidelio, I’ve gotten hooked on American Gladiator - Helga is awesome! Despite all the hard work, it’s so much fun to be able to sing. Singing is fun wherever you do it: in the bathtub, in the car, on stage, in school – you name it. I’m very lucky because I get to make a living doing what I love, and having fun too! Plus, I love seeing and feeling the audience enjoying themselves. When people sit in an audience to watch a show, and they get involved with what is on stage? The performers can “Feel” that involvement. When I know that the audience is being moved by what I’m doing? It’s the best reward I could ask for. I hope you enjoy Fidelio! Christine To learn more about Christine, check out her webpage at www.christinegoerke.com, and send her a message!
Soprano Christine Goerke. Photo: Christian Steiner.
Background Beethoven’s only opera is a product of its time. Premiered just ten years after the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror, Fidelio is one of several “rescue operas” that were in vogue at the time and were written almost in response to the horrors of the Revolution. They celebrated married love, faithfulness, bravery, the victory of good over evil, and freedom over tyranny. Beethoven wanted to write a “rescue opera” after having been moved by the operas of composer Luigi Cherubini, which were written in that style. Beethoven began looking for a story and turned to the French librettist Jean Nicolas Bouilly who had written the texts for other rescue operas. He found his story in Bouilly’s libretto Léonore, ou l’amour conjugal (Leonora, or Married Love). The story is of a wife who rescues her husband from prison by dressing as a young man, taking a job in the prison, and gaining the trust of the jailer. The plot was inspired by actual events in France during the Reign of Terror. Bouilly claimed he aided in the escape on which the opera is based, but no proof has ever been found. Beethoven thought it was a perfect subject for an opera, but changed the setting from France to Spain to avoid problems with the censors. Fidelio is a mix of the German Singspiel and the French opéra-comique, two styles of comic opera that contain spoken dialogue. Despite the heroic nature of the stories, rescue opera composers preferred this style. In Fidelio the more comic characters (Marzelline, Jaquino and Rocco) live in the same world as the heroic ones (Florestan and Leonore). Beethoven worked hard to perfect the opera, maybe because he identified with the opera’s themes. Like Florestan, Beethoven felt imprisoned by his increasing deafness - cut off from friends and family because he could not hear them. Beethoven also understood Leonore’s faithfulness and loyalty. He deeply wanted to marry and some critics have felt that the character Leonore embodied the qualities of his ideal wife. He felt so strongly about Leonore’s devotion that he subtitled the opera Die eheliche Liebe (Marital Love.) Originally called Leonore, the opera premiered on November 20th, 1805 in Vienna, Austria. Unluckily, one week before opening night, Napoleon’s troops invaded and occupied Vienna. At the premiere the only people in the audience were French troops and few of Beethoven’s friends. It closed after three performances due to lack of public interest.
Beethoven revised the score and the libretto. He trimmed the opera to two acts from three, and the revised version opened four months later, but Beethoven was unhappy with the performance, which he said destroyed his music. He shut down the opera after only one more performance. A few years later, Beethoven asked librettist Georg F. Treitschke to revise the opera’s text. Beethoven revised or rewrote every musical number in the opera and changed the name to Fidelio. It opened on May 23rd, 1814 at Vienna’s Kärntnertor Theatre. Beethoven hadn’t written a new overture, so the piece The Ruins of Athens was played instead. It was a phenomenal success, and was soon performed in theatres all over Europe. It had its U.S. premiere in New York City in 1839. Fidelio’s Leonore and Florestan embodied the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment. Where Leonore symbolizes liberty and freedom from tyranny, Florestan represents the oppressed people. In rescuing her husband, Leonore shows that liberty will free those who are oppressed. Some critics think that this is why the original version of Fidelio failed. Since Vienna had just been occupied, people were not interested in an opera about freedom when Vienna was oppressed by Napoleon’s army. Also, most of Beethoven’s supporters had fled Vienna to escape Napoleon. While this is the only opera Beethoven completed, this masterpiece is performed all over the world. With its rescue themes, Fidelio celebrates the Age of Enlightenment ideals of loyalty and freedom from oppression.
1820 set design for Florestan’s dungeon. (Theatre Museum, Vienna)
Spanish nobleman Florestan mysteriously disappeared two years ago and was secretly imprisoned by his enemy Don Pizarro. Florestan’s wife, Leonore, hatches a daring plan to rescue her husband. She disguises herself as a young man, calling herself Fidelio, and enters the service of the governor at the prison where she thinks her husband is being held.
ACT I (The courtyard of the State Prison on a spring morning) Jaquino, turnkey at the prison, and Marzelline, the jailer's daughter, are alone. Jaquino asks when she will agree to marry him, but she says that she will never marry him now that she has fallen in love with Fidelio. Rocco, the jailer, enters with Fidelio, who is carrying a heavy load of newly-repaired chains. Rocco compliments Fidelio’s skill and offers Marzelline’s hand in marriage. Rocco tells them, however, that unless they have money, they will never be happy. Fidelio begs Rocco, as a mark of trust, to let him help in the cells. He agrees but explains that there is one cell where Fidelio will never be allowed to go: the cell of the unnamed prisoner. The prison governor Pizarro arrives with an armed escort and is given a letter telling him that the Minister, Don Fernando, has heard rumors of injustice and is on his way to inspect the prison. Pizarro decides he must kill Florestan, the unnamed prisoner, or be found out. He posts a lookout trumpeter and tells Rocco to prepare Florestan’s grave. Fidelio, hoping to find Florestan, persuades Rocco to let the prisoners roam in the garden and enjoy the beautiful weather. Rocco reenters and tells Fidelio that he will be allowed to help dig the grave. Leonore weeps knowing this must be her husband’s grave, but knows it is her duty as Fidelio to help Rocco. Pizarro returns and angrily orders the prisoners back to their cells.
Jun Kaneko’s design for the Prisoner’s Chorus in Act I.
ACT II (A deep dungeon) Florestan is alone in his cell. He is chained to a stone, but his spirit is unbroken. He has a vision of Leonore coming to save him and tries to follow her, but the chain drags him back and he collapses. Rocco and Fidelio enter to dig the grave and find Florestan asleep, his face hidden. Leonore resolves to save the prisoner, whoever he is. Florestan awakes and is recognized instantly by Fidelio, who convinces Rocco to disobey orders and give Florestan food and wine. Suddenly Pizarro enters and is about to stab Florestan, when Leonore springs between the two enemies, shielding her husband. She cries out “First, kill his wife!” as she pulls a pistol on Pizarro. At that moment, the trumpeter sounds; the minister has arrived. Leonore and Florestan thank God at their reunion. Led by Florestan, the released prisoners and the people join in a hymn to praise Leonore, the noble woman who saved her husband’s life.
Dance spectacle set to music.
Highest pitched woman’s voice.
Dramatic text adapted for opera.
Low female voice.
A drama or comedy in which music is the essential factor; very little is spoken.
Opera with dramatic and intense plots.
Music composed for a singing group.
A composition written for two performers.
A group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments.
Highest pitched man’s voice.
A musical style used in opera and oratorio, in which the text is declaimed in the rhythm of natural speech with slight melodic variation.
10. Chorus 11. Act
14. Opera Buffa 15. Recitative
M. Male voice between bass and tenor.
A piece of music originally designed to be played before an opera or musical play.
The term describing the realistic or naturalistic school of opera that flourished briefly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; libretti were chosen to depict a ‘slice of life’.
Deepest male voice.
Elaborate solo in an opera or oratorio.
Main division of a play or opera.
Inside the Music Use this guide to learn more about the music provided on your teacher’s audio CD. Beethoven struggled to perfect his opera Fidelio over ten years. Just after the French Revolution the “rescue opera” was a popular opera form that dealt with themes of fidelity, heroism, and the triumph of good over evil. Fidelio’s overture begins heroically with this defiant theme (example 1): Example 1
Beethoven wrote five different versions of the overture over the years, and this Leonore Overture #3 (Track 1) is the one most frequently played at performances. In the quartet “Mir ist so wunderbar” (“It is so wonderful to me” – Track 2) Marzelline, Fidelio (Leonore), Rocco, and Jaquino comment on the romantic tension between Marzelline and Fidelio. Beethoven has the characters sing with quiet serenity in a canon form. Many people are familiar with this form through the song “Row, row, row your boat.” Rocco tells Marzelline and Fidelio nothing is as important as money in “Hat man nicht auch Gold beineben” (“If you don’t have money” – Track 3). The mood is very different from the quartet before it. It is very fun and comical. It gives Rocco a downto-earth feeling. The prison governor Pizarro is introduced in the aria “Ha! Welch’ein Augenblick” (“Ha! What a moment!” – Track 4). The strings have a “stabbing”, threatening motion. Pizarro is an explosive tyrant, who is willing to be loud and threatening; even his vocal lines are short and harsh. Suspicious of Pizarro’s plans, Leonore calls him a monster, but prays for hope the she will be able to save her husband in the aria “Komm, Hoffnung” (“Come, Hope” – Track 5). Leonore expresses a wide range of emotions in this aria (example 2) – from anger and fear to hope and confidence. Listen to the two horns and bassoons that play in the middle portion of the aria. Example 2
Fidelio has convinced Rocco to let the prisoners into the courtyard for air in the hopes of spotting her husband Florestan among them. The prisoners rejoice in the sunlight that has been deprived of them in “O, welche Lust!” (“O, what joy!” - Track 6) This chorus is perhaps the most famous moment in the opera and resonated deeply with Germans, Austrians, and Jews during World War II. Beethoven depicts the stark darkness of the dungeon with shocking brass chords to start Act II. Florestan cries out “Gott! Welch Dunkel hier!” (“God, how dark it is here!” – Track 7). In the desperation of the aria he hallucinates that an angel has come to light up the dungeon. Rocco and Fidelio come into the dungeon and begin to dig Florestan’s grave. The mood is ominous, dangerous, and anxious all at once. Rocco presses on, trying to get the job done, while Fidelio is tentative to dig in” “Nur hurtig fort” (“Make haste” – Track 8). Pizarro arrives to assassinate Florestan. Leonore jumps in front of the knife and draws a gun on Pizarro as the trumpet sounds in the distance announcing that the state official Don Fernando has arrived and Florestan will be saved. “Er sterbe!” (“Let him die!” Track 9). Leonore and Florestan proclaim their love for one another in the rapturous, breathless duet “O namenlose Freude!” (“O nameless joy!” Track 10). The opera ends with a rousing finale of joy – Leonore’s light and goodness has defeated the tyrany of Pizarro. All praise Leonore’s courage and proclaim the virtues of marriage and a loving, virtuous wife. (Track 11).
Active Learning 1. When Beethoven began writing the opera, he had already begun to have problems with his hearing. How do you think his hearing impairment affected his ability to write?
2. How is the music for Rocco, a comic character, different than that of the villain Pizarro?
3. What words would you use to describe the scene when Rocco and Fidelio are digging the grave?
4. What words would you use to describe the opera’s finale?
Into the Pit:
The Opera Orchestra The orchestra is very important to the opera, mainly because it provides the singers with a cushion of sound to sing over, while at the same time being independent and equal in importance. The orchestra used for opera is a lot like a symphony orchestra, with four instrumental families and other various instruments. Each instrument family has instruments that sound in four different categories, much like the soprano, alto, tenor, and bass voice parts. The conductor, or maestro, has many responsibilities. He or she stands in the pit in front of the orchestra, and ensures that the opera progresses musically as it should. The conductor is in charge of keeping the music in balance by making sure that the orchestra doesn’t drown out the singers. The orchestra must also have a certain blend, so that the right instrument is highlighted at the right time. The conductor is in charge of that as well. The conductor paces the tempo, or speed of the music, so that it does not rush or drag. He or she also cues the singers and instrumentalists before they make their musical entrance. In some opera houses, video monitors are placed around the stage and in the stage wings, showing the conductor in the pit. Singers may look at the monitors so they don't have to look directly down at the pit so often.
The String Family The instruments in the string family are almost always played with a bow drawn across the strings, but sometimes a composer will mark music as pizzicato, which is Italian for “plucked”, and indicates to the musician that the passage should be plucked with the fingers. The violin we know today has been around since the 1500s, but has been around much longer than that in simpler forms, known as fiddles. The number of strings on the instrument used to vary depending on when the violin was made, but now all string instruments in the orchestra have four strings. The four instruments of the string family are called the violin, viola, cello, and the double bass. The violin is the soprano of the string family. There are usually two violin sections, the first and second violins. These two groups have separate parts to play. First violins play higher than second violins, and all violins play the melody for most of the time. The Concertmaster or Concertmistress is the chief first violinist.
The viola is a little larger than the violin, and it is the alto voice of the strings. When it plays, its sound quality is dark and somber, not at all like the violin. The tenor or baritone voice of the strings is the cello. It is much larger than the viola or violin, so large that the player sits on a chair and plays the cello between his knees while a bottom peg rests on the floor. Its sound quality is beautiful and somber, like the viola. The double bass represents the bass of the string family. It typically has some sort of rhythmic line, and is so much larger than the cello that the player must stand up in order to play it.
The Woodwind Family Woodwind instruments are played by blowing air either across a hole or into a reed, making vibrations that produce sound. The soprano of the woodwinds is called the flute. There are three main flute sizes, the smallest being the piccolo, the medium size called the C flute, and the larger size called the alto flute. Flutes are usually silver-plated or made of silver, while some are gold-plated or have gold-plated keys. The earliest flutes were made of wood, which is why they are in the woodwind family though they are now made of metal. The oboe is the alto of the woodwind family, and sometimes it can sound a little like a duck. Mostly, though, it carries the melody and has a sad sound. It is related to the English horn and bassoon, and all three instruments are known as double reeds. Unlike the clarinet or saxophone that has a reed strapped onto a mouthpiece, the oboe, English horn, and bassoon have two reeds tied together and no mouthpiece.
The tenor voice of the woodwinds speaks through the clarinet, a single reed instrument, which means it has a reed strapped to a mouthpiece. The clarinet often accompanies the prima donna, and has a wide range and a woody sound. The bassoon’s name means big bass, so it’s easy to guess what voice this instrument represents. It is related to the oboe, contrabassoon, and English horn.
The Brass Family The brass family instruments are played much like the woodwind family, except they are made out of metal, usually brass or silver or silver-plated, and their mouthpieces are made of metal only, with no reeds. The trumpet is the soprano voice of the brass family. It evolved from the cornet and other types of ancient horns, but the earlier horns did not have valves like the modern trumpet does to change notes. The players would have to use their air stream and lips to change the sound of the notes. French horns add an alto voice to the brass family. The player must keep his or her hand inside the bell of the instrument and bring the mouthpiece up to his or her lips. The French horn has so many bends of piping that if someone was to unravel the whole thing, it would measure over eleven feet in length! Tenor voices sound through the trombone section of the brass family. There are many types of trombone: slide trombone (which is most common), valve trombone, tenor trombone, and bass trombone. The typical trombone used is the tenor slide trombone. It has a nine-foot-long slide to change its notes. The tuba is the bass voice of the brass family. It usually plays the rhythm part along with the string familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s double bass.
The Percussion Family The family with the most instruments is the percussion family, with everything from cymbals, tambourines, and xylophones to gongs, triangles, drums and bells. Every percussion instrument has its own unique sound, and no two instruments sound alike. Believe it or not, percussion instruments are actually melodic instruments, even though most of them are not tuned to a specific note.
The snare drum is the smallest of the concert percussion. Underneath the drum is a belt of metal snares that, when the drum is struck, rattle against the bottom of the drum to produce its distinctive sound. The tenor drums, or tom-toms, are a set of two to four pitched drums and are used in conjunction with the snare drum to give the drum line a more melodic part. The timpani, or kettle drums, are very lowsounding drums, two to four or more in number. They look like big copper bowls, and have drum heads stretched across them for the percussionist to strike to make the sound. Timpani have pedals beneath them that stretch or slacken the drum head to make the sound lower or higher. They are used either to build suspense or announce triumphant moments. The bass drum can be the loudest and lowest instrument, but it can also be used quietly to build suspense. Unlike the other drums, the bass drum is positioned vertically in an upright manner. Sometimes this drum is used to give the effect of a cannon.
Special Visitors There are some orchestra instruments that, while falling within the categories above, are unlike the instruments mentioned because they are infrequent visitors to the opera orchestra pit. The piano is considered a percussion instrument because hammers strike the strings that make the sound of the piano. The keyboard has 88 keys, and there are various sizes of piano, from upright pianos to concert pianos that range from 5 1/2 to 9 feet long. The harp is often associated with heaven or dreams, and the player plucks the strings with his or her fingers. The harp may have originated in the sound from plucking a hunter's bow string. The oldest documented references to the harp are from 4000 BCE in Egypt. The standard harp has 46 or 47 strings producing a range of six and a half octaves. We often think of the saxophone as being primarily a jazz instrument, but it is used in opera, too. The sax is a bit like a clarinet, because it has a reed strapped to a mouthpiece, but it is made of metal. It is also made in a variety of higher and lower registers, from the high soprano saxophone to the low bass saxophone.
In the Pit
The Rehearsal Process
Have you ever wondered why the instruments are positioned in the pit they way they are? One reason is practical; communication is of key importance. The Conductor is placed front and center so he can see everything that is going on at all times both in the pit and onstage. He stands on the podium so that all the musicians can see him.
The full orchestra generally has six rehearsals before opening night. Before the first full orchestra practice or “reading” of the score, the orchestra musicians will have received copies of their parts to rehearse at home. Music Director Corrado Rovaris likes to meet with the string section principals to rehearse the score with them when he is conducting an opera here. The principal reading is the perfect way for the maestro to get across his ideas to the section leaders, who can then help him communicate these to the members of their respective sections.
Not only is the conductor communicating with the musicians, but the musicians in the pit are communicating with each other. The section principal, or leader, sits in the first chair. It is the principal’s responsibility to work out specific ways to play musical phrases so that everyone in the section plays it the same way. They also play any solo for their instrument that is in the score. Section principals also have to communicate with each other and must be positioned in the pit so that they not only see the conductor well, but can make eye contact with the other principals. Another reason is that softer instruments, like the violins and violas, are placed in the front so that their sound can travel into the house more freely. The louder instruments are placed more towards the back underneath the overhang so that they balance better with the entire orchestra and with the singers onstage. You’ll also notice that there are twice as many string instruments as there are brass and woodwind instruments because the brass and woodwind families tend to be more powerful instruments than their string cousins.
Then the full orchestra meets three times to read through the score. The maestro will sometimes rehearse sections of the score rather than running the entire opera at each rehearsal. This enables him or her to fine tune the musical interpretation of the opera. The cast joins the orchestra for the Sitzprobe, a German word that means “sitting rehearsal.” The musicians will be in the pit while the soloists sit on the stage and sing through the entire opera without doing their blocking. This gives the conductor the chance to hear where the orchestra may be too loud, and gives the singers and orchestra their first chance to hear each other. The final two rehearsals are full dress rehearsals. The artists run through the entire opera as if it were a performance. These rehearsals are the final times that the cast and full orchestra will meet before opening night. The last dress rehearsal is also special as students enrolled in the Sounds of Learning™ program attend this rehearsal, free of charge. Portions of this article provided by San Francisco Opera Guild
The Trumpet Shall Sound! Florestan has secretly been locked in a dark dungeon for two years by the treacherous Don Pizarro. Pizarro plans to murder him because the government officer Don Fernando is coming to investigate prisoner abuse claims. Florestan’s wife, Leonore, disguised as the young man Fidelio, works in the prison, trying to save him. Just as she is about to rescue her husband, Don Pizarro enters. All seems lost. Leonore brandishes a gun as a trumpet in the distance sounds the arrival of Don Fernando… This moment in Act II of Beethoven’s Fidelio is one of the most spine-tingling in all of opera. The sound of the trumpet lets everyone know that Florestan will be saved. Listen to this scene on track 9 of your teacher’s audio CD. The powerful, penetrating trumpet makes the scene so exciting. Imagine if the call came from a flute or a violin – it wouldn’t be nearly as thrilling! The shiny brass trumpet has been around since 2,000 BC! Trumpets were even found in King Tut's tomb. The first trumpets were probably sticks hollowed out by hungry insects and were made later from cane, animal tusks, and horns. Early trumpets were used in battle and religious ceremonies, not to make music like today. They could be very large and the sound they made was horrible — enough to fill one with terror! Their sound has been compared to donkey’s braying. In the late Middle Ages trumpets were made from hammered sheets of metal. A metal sheet was wrapped round a pole and its edges soldered together to make the trumpet’s tube. To make the bell, a curved piece of metal was shaped like an arc. By 1400 the long, straight trumpets were bent in an S shape. They sounded the same, but were smaller and easier to hold. In medieval times only special guilds would learn to play. Trumpet players were heavily guarded because they passed along military information to other army units. By the Renaissance they were essential at court events. The Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi used them in his opera Orfeo (1607) and by the end of the century the trumpet was a standard orchestra instrument.
To play a trumpet, put the trumpet up to your lips and blow into it like you’re blowing into a balloon. This produces a “buzzing” sound in the trumpet’s mouthpiece. The player can change the pitch by adjusting his or her embouchure – or mouth position. This produces the brilliant sound for which the trumpet is famous. Trumpets have three valves which also help change pitch. By the 1700s the trumpet was popular and was frequently used in concerts. All of the major composers used trumpets in their symphonies, concertos, and church music. The trumpet was so popular that a trumpet factory opened in 1842 in Paris. Other factories opened, including C. G. Conn’s Elkhart, Indiana factory in 1875. To this day most brass instruments from the United States are manufactured here. There is a type of very small trumpet called a clarion, whose players were exclusive and often sat away from the other band members. The clarino gradually fell out of favor and were replaced by clarinets, the sound of which was compared to the clarino trumpet! Most trumpets today are made from brass and are bent in an oblong loop. The trumpet is heard all sorts of music from classical, jazz, and rock, to blues, ska, polka and funk. Among the great modern trumpet players are Maurice André, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, and Wynton Marsalis. The trumpet has evolved through four millennia and is a popular instrument in the concert hall. Beethoven and other composers have been struck by its brilliant, dramatic sound, as have others, since its creation. When you come to the Academy of Music to see Fidelio, make sure to look into the pit to find the trumpet, and keep your ears ready for its dramatic sound!
Careers in the Arts Have you ever wondered what it might be like to work in the performing arts? There are all sorts of jobs onstage, backstage, and everywhere else, too. Not everyone who works for the Opera Company of Philadelphia works on the stage. Here’s a sampling of what some the people employed by the Company do in their day to day jobs to bring an opera to the stage.
The Artistic Team The Artistic Team creates everything you will see on stage. They spend hours studying the music, the libretto, and the opera’s historic context. It helps if they speak the language in which the opera is written. After their research is done, they ask themselves what the composer and librettist are saying about these characters and the subject to create a vision of how they will bring the opera to life. The Conductor is responsible for the interpretation of the music. He (or she) is respectfully referred to as Maestro, which in Italian means master or teacher. The conductor must be a very skilled musician. The Maestro works with the orchestra and the singers to interpret the music. Based on the composer’s instructions, he determines tempo, dynamics, and the musical expression of the opera. He leads the orchestra during the performance, coordinating what is happening onstage with what is happening in the orchestra pit. It is important that the singers and the musicians watch the conductor at all times. The Director ultimately brings to life what will be assembled onstage. After the director has studied the music, text, historical context, and any materials like books, plays or historical figures on which the opera might be based, he (or she) then turns to the designers and together they arrive at a concept. When rehearsals begin, the director helps bring the concept to life through the characters of the opera: how they move, how they behave, why they behave the way they do, how they interact with one another and the environment of the opera.
Costume Director Richard St. Clair puts the finishing touches on tenor Mark Panuccio's costume for Verdi’s Falstaff.
The Scenic Designer must have the vision and creativity of a visual artist and a knowledge and sense of theater. It is this person’s responsibility to create the surroundings in which the characters exist. The design of the scenery directly controls and influences the total visual effect of the opera. The scenic designer must work very closely with the rest of the creative team to devise a set that allows the production concept to be achieved and enhances the work of the performers, director and the other designers. The Lighting Designer uses light to reveal form, and create mood, balance and focus. Light becomes a strong factor in the visual effect of design through the control of intensity, color and distribution. A lighting designer is responsible not only for the general stage lighting but also for special effects such as lightning or explosions. Lighting effects and instruments are controlled by a computer, so the lighting designer must know how to use and program lighting software and be an expert in the principals of electricity and design.
A Costume Designer is an essential part of the total visual effect. He or she must contribute to the concept by deciding how characters will look by what they are wearing. The costume gives us instant information about the characters in the opera. Are they young or old, rich or poor? The clothes have to be historically accurate, too. Opera often has lavish and elaborate costumes with many pieces to them. Often because of cost, an opera company may rent a complete set of costumes to fit the particular production. The Wigs and Make-up Artists use the face and hair as a palette. They can alter the physical characteristics of a person – sometimes by making people appear younger or older than they are. They are responsible for making the artists’ faces and hair look like the characters they are portraying.
The Assistant Director assists the director by writing down the stage blocking into a piano/vocal score. He or she must be able to keep track of the director’s instructions to hundreds of people onstage: why they move, where they move, and at what particular time in the music.
The Assistant Conductor plays the piano as a substitute for the orchestra during staging and music rehearsals. Obviously, this person must be an excellent pianist and be very familiar with the opera score. The Assistant follows the conductor’s direction and must have a lot of stamina, because the rehearsals are sometimes long and tiring. The Assistant Conductor will also conduct off stage musicians and take notes for the conductor.
The Production Team While the artistic team creates, the production team implements the decisions that are made by the artistic team. Each person has an area of responsibility to oversee. These people are detail oriented and have excellent communication skills to work as a team to accomplish the goals of the production. The Production Manager schedules rehearsal time for the orchestra, chorus, principal singers, and technicians, and makes arrangements for the arrival of production staff, sets and costumes. He or she oversees the construction of new sets as well as supervising the stagehands at the theater. The Chorus Master prepares the chorus musically. The chorus is the first of all the singers to begin rehearsal. Since most operas are sung in a foreign language, singers who do not speak the language must learn the words phonetically and memorize what they mean.
Production Manager Greg Prioleau reviews a set model for an upcoming production.
The Stage Manager and Assistant Stage Managers ensure the rehearsal and performances run smoothly. They keep track of the “who, what, where, and when” of the production. Who enters or exits, with what prop, wearing what costume, and when in the music. They cue the various stage technicians to change the set, lights, and where the props are needed. They follow the score and give a “Stand By” and a “Go.” Stage Managers are timekeepers and the problem eliminators.
Chorus Master Liz Braden is ready to go during rehearsal.
Administrative Staff 56
Without the administration there wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be an opera. These people constitute the company that produces opera. They are the business people and the office workers. After all, opera is show business. The Board of Directors is a volunteer group of men and women in the community who represent the contributors to the opera and help set policies.
The General and Artistic Director is responsible for planning all aspects of an opera production from choosing which operas to perform, which singers will be cast in the roles, designs for a production and the production team to be hired. He is also involved in crafting the Company budget and represents the Company in all contract negotiations with artists and all unions. The Music Director is the principal conductor of the Opera Companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orchestra. It is his responsibility to improve the quality of the orchestra, hire new orchestra members, recommend conductors for the operas which he is not conducting and make casting and repertoire recommendations to the General and Artistic Director, and work out any cuts in the music. The Managing Director is hired by the board of directors and is responsible for all of the business aspects of an opera company from Marketing and Public Relations, to Fund Raising and Education. The Chief Financial Officer is responsible for managing the budget, preparing tax statements, and making sure that everyone gets paid. The Director of Development raises money to help fund the running of the Company. Ticket sales pay for less than half of the cost of producing opera.
Artistic Coordinator Laurie Rogers gets to make music every day as she studies the score of Beethovenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fidelio.
The Director of Marketing and Communications oversees all promotional and ticket sales campaigns and maintains contact with press locally and from all over the world. The Director of Community Programs coordinates all aspects of educational and outreach programs for students and adults, and with community organizations. The Artistic Coordinator is the conduit from administration and to artist managers, artists, and music staff. He or she makes sure that artistic details are in place for each production and helps to plan future seasons.
Used by permission of Opera Colorado.
Careers in the Arts: A Sampling Accompanist Actor/Actress Advertising Director Announcer Architect Architectural Model Builder Artist Artistic Director Art Festival Coordinator Art Teacher Arts Administrator Arts Consultant Arts Ed. Curriculum Writer Audio Engineer (recording) Band Director Book Designer Book Illuminator Box Office Director Business Manager Casting Director Choir Director Choreographer Cinematographer Clothing Designer Comedian Commercial Artist Composer Computer Graphics Design Concert Singer Conductor Contract Specialist
Copyright Specialist Costume Buyer Costume and Mask Designer Creative Consultant Critic Cutter (costumes) Dancer Dialect Coach Dramaturg Draper (costumes) Dresser (theater) Extra (background actor) Fashion Designer First Hand (seamstress) Fundraiser (Development) Furniture Designer House Manager (theater) Illustrator (fashion, book, etc.) Instrumentalist Librettist Lighting Designer Makeup Artist Manager (arts organizations) Master Electrician (stage) Model Builder Mold Maker Music Contractor Music Copyist and Transcriber Music Editor Music Librarian Music Teacher
Musician Musicologist Orchestrator Painter Producer (theater, TV, movies) Proofreader (music) Props Buyer Props Designer Public Relations Specialist Publicist Publisher Scene Painter Scenic Designer Sculptor Set Decorator Set Dresser Shop Foreman (stage) Singer Special Effects Coordinator Stage Carpenter Stage Director Stage Hand Stage Manager Stitcher (costumes) Stunt Coordinator Theater Director Ticketing Agent TV Camera Operator Vocalist Wardrobe Mistress Wigmaker
Active Learning What career would you consider interesting? Where do you think you could go to learn more about it? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________
Beethoven Beloved deaf Don Pizarro Driver dungeon Enlightenment Fidelio Florestan Goerke Griffey Grimsley gun Haydn Joy Kaneko Leonore Ludwig man Marzelline Napoleon Penitentiary prison Rescue Opera Rocco Symphony
The last name of the Opera Company’s General and Artistic Director and Fidelio’s Director.
Last name of tenor who sings the role of the nobleman Florestan.
Beethoven may have had a form of tinnitus which made him _______.
This type of opera written just after the French Revolution celebrated love, bravery, and the triumph of goodness over evil.
This character is the jailer who sings about gold.
Last name of the soprano who sings the title role of Fidelio.
Last name of artist who designed Fidelio’s sets and costumes.
Name of the opera’s tyrannical prison governor.
Character who dresses up as a man to work in the prison.
Beethoven wrote nine of these orchestral works – the most famous of which contains the Ode to Joy.
This character has been secretly imprisoned for two years.
The jailer Rocco works in this place.
This French leader had been Beethoven’s hero until he declared himself Emperor.
This 1994 movie is based on Beethoven’s Life. It is called Immortal ____________.
Leonore has disguised herself as a _______ in order to work in the prison
A type of dark underground cell in which Florestan has been kept for two years.
Last name of the German composer who wrote Fidelio.
Name of Beethoven’s only opera.
The ideals of liberty and equality were championed during the Age of ___________.
Leonore pulls this out of her jacket to save her husband from Pizarro.
Beethoven’s 9th Symphony contains the famous Ode to _____.
Beethoven’s first name.
Last name of baritone who is singing the evil Don Pizarro.
Beethoven studied with this famous composer in 1792.
She is Rocco’s daughter and is in love with Fidelio.
Eastern State ____________ is a famous former prison in Philadelphia.
Etymology: The Study of Words
The following exercises are designed to help you read more efficiently, by showing some examples of words derived from Greek and Latin roots. Once you understand these basic elements, you will start to see them appearing all around you. Below is a brief list of some very common roots that will help you with the exercises.
Roots, Suffixes and Prefixes anthropo – man claustro – confined contra – against cracy – rule demo – people dict – speak/spoken ex – out graph – write/written macro – large
mania – obsession with meter – measuring device micro – small ology – the study of phobia – fear of photo – light pyro – fire scope – examine thermo – heat
Combining Exercise Many commonly used words are made up from combinations of Greek and Latin roots. Using the definitions above, complete each phrase by pairing an item from column A with an item from column B.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
MICRO DEMO ANTHROPO PHOTO CONTRA THERMO CLAUSTRO PYRO
OLOGY SCOPE GRAPH MANIA METER CRACY DICT PHOBIA
The academic study of the origin and history of man is known as: A system of government in which the people rule themselves is: The fear of tight spaces is called: A device used to measure the temperature is called: An obsession with fire is called: An instrument which is used to examine very small objects is called: To speak against something is to: The physical representation of a captured image is called a: An unnatural fear of large groups of people is known as: A device used to measure very small distances is called a:
The German-English Connection
The German and English languages belong to the same language family, so you can spot many words in the German libretto that look a lot like English words. They’re called cognates. Look at the list of cognates below from the from the quartet “Mir ist so wunderbar.” Some are identical (so=so) and others just close cognates (ist=is). A pronunciation guide is available on the teacher’s audio CD. These words not only look similar, but they mean the same thing, too! Many of them sound the same if they aren’t spelled the same.
Now try to match the German-English cognate pairs:
Fidelio Discussion Questions
Review the discussion items below. Choose three questions to discuss with your classmates or at home with your parents. Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Make sure to support your point of view.
1. Why do you think Florestan was imprisoned? What do you think he did or said? 2. Could a forced imprisonment like Florestan’s happen today? 3. Why did Marzelline fall in love with Fidelio if he was actually Leonore disguised as a man? 4. When the prisoners were allowed to go outside into the courtyard, they were overwhelmed with emotion. Why? What do you think prison conditions were like for them?
5. What do you think Leonore would have done if the prisoner in the dungeon had not been her husband?
6. Don Pizarro’s character in the opera is very one-dimensional: he is a tyrant. What do you think his life was like outside of his job? Do you think he was married or had children? Why do you think he was so mean?
7. What do you think Leonore and Florestan’s life was like before he was imprisoned? 8. What do you think happens to Leonore and Florestan, Marzelline and Jaquino, and Don Pizarro after the opera ends?
9. How did the sets and costumes of Fidelio at the Academy of Music improve the opera? 10. If you were to change the action of Fidelio to a different time or place, how would you change it and why? 11. What is oppression? Are there victims of oppression in the world today? In the United States? In the Philadelphia area?
12. Do you think that the homeless are oppressed? Do you think the victims of Hurricane Katrina were or have been oppressed?
13. The prisoners’ chorus moved many Europeans after World War II. In what ways is the oppression experienced by the prisoners in the opera similar to that of Holocaust victims?
14. Have there been any tyrants that ruled a country in the past 50 years? If so, what happened to them?
Make Your Own Synopsis A synopsis is a concise summary or brief statement of events. In writing a synopsis, the main points or ideas are written and the supporting details are left out. To do this successfully, we must make judgments on what are the most important facts or details. Often you are asked after a day of school, “How was your day?” or “What did you learn today?” You know how to answer these questions because you know what the important things you did were.
1. In a small group, examine the main characters of Fidelio. How did the actions of the characters move the plot forward? What were the most important things which happened?
a word bank of the main characters. List important adjectives which describe their character traits. Then list the verbs or action words which highlight their actions.
Now write a brief account of Act I of the opera. Check it against the actual synopsis found on page 27 of this activity book. See which member of your group wrote the most comprehensive synopsis. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Use additional paper if needed.)
Props and People
Property is something that belongs to you. In theater, a property, or a prop, is an object necessary for the play, opera or television show. Here is a list of props used in Fidelio:
1. shovel 2. keys 3. gun
4. dagger 5. money
Props accent the development of the storyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drama. Props not only make up the costumes of certain characters, they highlight the role the character plays in the drama. Props punctuate the plot and often serve as connectors through which the action flows. Removing simply one prop from a play can alter its outcome. What would have happened to Helen of Troy if the Trojans did not have their wooden horse? In some cases, the setting determines the type of props used in a drama. Choose the most important prop from the list above. Then write why they are important to the story. Explain how the story could be changed if they were missing or changed. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________
Some people use props to impress others of their success or importance. Other people use props to hide their insecurities. Explain how you have witnessed individuals using props in society. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Use additional paper if needed.)
Conflicts and Loves in Fidelio Draw a picture of Leonore in the middle circle. In the outer circles, draw a picture of those individuals with whom Leonore has a direct relationship. Then in the boxes pointing toward the middle circle, write how that individual feels about the central character. In the boxes pointing to the outer circles, write how Leonore feels about that individual.
Hear with Your Ears Once the overture of an opera begins, your ear captures sound waves and sends them to your brain through a specific process. The first part of this process takes place in the pinna or outer ear. Your pinna collects sounds waves and funnels them into your auditory or ear canal. At the end of your ear canal, the sound waves hit your eardrum (also known as the tympanic membrane). Beyond the eardrum lies the middle ear, which houses a group of three tiny bones known as the ossicles. The vibrations first travel to the hammer, then the anvil, and finally through the stirrup. As sound waves pass through these bones, the bones amplify the vibrations. The stirrup bone is connected to your inner ear through a small window in the cochlea. The cochlea and the semicircular canals contain fluid and are lined with tiny hairs called cilia. The fluid helps conduct the vibrations to these tiny hairs which convert sound energy into electrical impulses. Finally, the auditory nerve carries these electrical signals to your brain. The Eustachian tube is a tiny tube that attaches the middle ear to the nasal passages and throat. Your Eustachian tube is what affects the pressure in your ears. Often on long plane rides, or at the end of a hike up a tall mountain, you feel your ears “pop”. This is the pressure inside your ear equalizing to the pressure on the outside.
and the louder instruments (brass and percussion) in the back underneath the stage overhang. Opera singers are trained to support and project their voices much louder than spoken speech; their voices can cut through the sound of the orchestra playing beneath them in the pit!
Common Sounds in Decibels (dB) Ticking Watch
Piano (soft) Orchestra
Forte (loud) Orchestra
Jet Engine (where you would begin to feel pain)
–––– Why We Have Two Ears –––– –––– Amplified! (On the Inside) –––– Listening to an opera performance is a lot different than listening to a rock concert. Rock concerts use amplifiers to make their instruments and voices much louder than normal. Sometimes, sounds are so much louder that you can still hear them perfectly through earplugs! But at the opera, there are no amplifiers, microphones, or speakers. So how can you still hear everything? Your outer and middle ear are like miniature amplifiers built right into your head. The folds in your outer ear help channel more sound into the middle ear, where the eardrum and ossicles amplify the vibrations. In total, your outer and middle ear provide as much as 20 dB of amplification! The instruments in the orchestra pit and the trained voices of the singers on stage both help to make things easy for your ears. The instruments are arranged in an orchestra pit with the quieter instruments (the strings) toward the front of the pit,
Have you ever wondered why we have two ears? Having one on each side of the head, some space between the two of them, helps the brain figure out where the sound is coming from. When you hear something to your extreme left, your left ear picks up the sound slightly faster than your right. The tiny delay between signals from each ear allows your brain to locate the source of the sound. In listening to music such as opera, your two ears give you “stereo” sound which is fuller and richer.
–––– The Ear –––– During an opera performance, your ears pick up a wide range of sounds. Instruments such as the flute or violin, bass and soprano voices, and even cymbal crashes are all an important part of the opera experience. All of these sounds are picked up by your ears and transmitted to your brain through tiny bones and nerves. Here is an in-depth look at how the ear works.
–––– Parts of the Ear –––– The ear is divided into three main sections: the External Ear, the Middle Ear, and the Inner Ear. Your external ear is what is visible on the outside of the skull, the middle ear contains three tiny bones which are referred to as the ossicles, and your inner ear sends signals to your brain. Anvil or Incus - a small bone that passes vibrations from the to the stirrup. Cochlea - spiral-shaped, fluid-filled soft tissue lined with tiny hairs; creates a nerve impulse. Eardrum - a membrane that vibrates when hit by sound waves. Eustachian Tube - tube that connects middle ear to the back of the nose; equalizes ear pressure. Hammer or Malleus - a small bone that passes vibrations through from the eardrum to the anvil. Outer Ear Canal - tube that carries sound to the eardrum. Pinna or Auricle - the visible outside part of your ear; collects sound. Semi-circular Canals - 3 fluid-filled looped tubes attached to cochlea; maintain balance. Stirrup or Stapes - smallest bone in the human body; u-shaped and passes vibrations from the anvil to the cochlea.
Kaneko Inspiration: 68
Create Your Own Clay Sculptures Jun Kaneko is famous all over the world for his mammoth ceramic figures like the 12-foot tall head pictured here. Jun was able to find his creative voice by creating ceramic dango sculptures. Dango is Japanese for dumpling. Make you own 3”-6” dango in your classroom or at home. Jun Kaneko lets the art speak to him, so take the time to knead the clay through your fingers! Here’s what you’ll need for this activity: newspaper cardboard self-hardening clay (available at your local art and crafts store like Michael’s or A.C. Moore) water popsicle sticks paint paint brushes magic markers Getting Ready Before you start, collect your materials. Lay newspaper on the table in the area where you’ll be working to keep the table from getting dirty. Then, place a piece of cardboard down where you will be molding the clay. Take a moment to get to know your clay. What does it feel like? Roll the clay on a table and squeeze the clay in your hands. Spend as much time as you need getting to know what clay feels like. This will also help soften it and make it easier to mold. You may want to put a little bit of water on it to help soften it. Begin to mold the clay. Build upon your imagination, but let the clay speak to you. How does it want to be molded? Play with some shapes and forms to see what feels best. Your sculpture could be rectangular, square, or circular, or it could stand up or lie down. Let your imagination run wild! Use Popsicle sticks to support your sculpture if it is tall, or if you want a nice flat surface to your piece.
Let your sculpture sit overnight. Once you have sculpted your masterpiece, the clay will need to set and harden overnight. Set it aside on a shelf or someplace where it won’t get in the way or get knocked over. Unlike some other types of clay, you won’t need to bake this or set it in a ceramic furnace called a kiln, to harden. When your clay has hardened by the next day, it’s time to add color and further personalize your sculpture. Adding some color to your sculpture. Now for some more creativity! The next day, after your sculpture has hardened, you can add color to it. Use paints, magic markers, stickers, crayons – anything that will help you put your own personal touches to the sculpture. You can add patches of color, or lines, polka dots – whatever your mind can imagine! If you’re using paint, don’t forget to let the paint dry before using magic markers or stickers on the sculpture. Voila! You’ve completed your masterpiece. Set it in a place of honor in your home, or perhaps give it to a loved one as a gift.
If you don’t have clay at home, you can make your own with this quick recipe! Mix together: • 2 1/2 cups flour • 1 cup water • 1 cup salt Store in refrigerator. This will give you plenty of clay. You may want to separate portions of the clay and add food coloring to those portions. Then mold them as you’d like. You will need to set this aside overnight to harden. Paint will not work as well with this mix, so stick to markers and stickers to decorate your sculpture if using this clay.
Active Learning in the Creative Arts Below are some art activities that you can do at home or in school. Think of using one of these for our art contest.
Opera Dioramas 1. You need a shoe box with lid, tissue box or milk carton,
Make Your Own Mask 1. You will need paper plates, paints, crayons or markers,
crayons, heavy paper (construction, tag or index), paste or glue, colored paper or paint for background.
glue, scissors, popsicle sticks, sequins, feathers, felt, pipecleaners, buttons, beads or anything else fun you have lying around.
2. Paint, color, or paste colored paper on the back and sides of the box to make a background for the characters.
2. Cut out the round bottom of the paper plate and discard
3. Draw in the background scenery. For example, you can
draw houses, trees, and grass.
3. Cut your paper circle into the shape you want your mask
4. Draw characters and other scenery on a separate piece
to be (maybe a cat face, or just an oval...)
of heavy paper. Cut them out, leaving an extra piece for a fold at the bottom.
5. Decide which end the scene will be viewed through.
4. Cut out two holes where the eyes will be. 5. Glue a popsicle stick to one side of the plate, so that you can hold the mask up to your face.
Face the characters that way. Fold the bottom of each cut-out character to the back and paste or glue in place in the box.
6. Decorate your mask with anything you like. Use popsicle
6. Cut out the side of the box if it is an open-view diorama.
sticks for whiskers, feathers along the top, sequins around the eyeholes... Anything you can think of!
Cut out one end, put a peep-hole in the other end and put the lid on, if it is a peep-hole diorama.
7. Write the title and author on a separate piece of paper and then cut it out and glue it to the top or side of the box.
8. There are two ways the class may learn about the story you read: A. Show the box to the class and tell them a summary of what the characters are doing in the diorama. B. Write a summary of what is happening in the diorama and attach it to the box for the class to read.
Make an Opera Mural 1. You need paint or crayons, butcher paper in rolls. 2. Cut a long piece of butcher paper from the roll. 3. Paint or draw a mural of an interesting part of the opera. You may want to ask some of your friends who have read the opera to help you.
4. Write the title of the opera at the top of the mural. 5. Tell the class about the part of the opera you painted or drew on the mural.
6. Hang your mural on a bulletin board or wall. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forget to sign your name at the bottom of the mural.
Make an Opera Poster 1. Using markers and a large piece of paper, make your own poster for Fidelio.
Have you ever wondered what it takes to produce an opera? In this exercise, you’re the boss. You’ll want to break up into teams to complete the tasks at hand: creating your own opera! Remember to have fun with this. It can be as long and as short as you want it to be.
Produce Your Own Opera! Office Administration Fees $220,000 These fees include salaries and benefits for a staff of 30, and office rental and utility fees. Orchestra Fees $225,000 Conductor’s salary, orchestra of 60 players, scores for 60 players, salary for Music Librarian.
Scenario: The Opera Company of Philadelphia is producing a fictitious Dracula-themed opera called Renfield’s Revenge by the fictitious composer Ephraim von Streimenhoffer. The Company must decide whether it is going to build its own production or rent a production, decide on several casting and orchestra issues, and decide whether it will rent or build its own costumes.
Chorus Fees $125,000 Chorus of 45 singers, Chorus Master salary, Rehearsal accompanist. Children’s Chorus
Supernumerary Fees $1,500 “Supers” receive $10 for every performance and every rehearsal they attend.
The Characters include: Melisma, a soprano prima donna, enamored of Canon $10,000-$6,500 per performance Kantata, her mezzo-soprano confidante/maid $7,500-$4,000 per performance
Production Salary Costs $45,000 This includes salaries for Director, Stage Manager, 2 Assistant Stage Managers, and one month’s housing for the Stage Director.
Adjustable Costs: Canon, an heroic vampire-slayer tenor extraordinaire $12,000-$8,500 per performance Renfield, a crazy madman tenor that eats bugs $10,000-$6,500 per performance Nosferatu, a villainous vampire-baritone $10,000-$6,500 per performance Cantus Firmus, pious penitent bass with a penchant for packing garlic $7,500-$4,000 per performance A chorus of 45 singers, a children’s chorus of 20, 10 supernumeraries or extras.
Fixed Costs: Academy of Music Rental Fee $250,000 The Opera Company of Philadelphia has to rent space in which to perform. As a renter, the Opera Company is considered a tenant of the Academy of Music, just as if you rent an apartment, you are considered a tenant of the apartment building. This fee included space rental fees, usher fees and stage hand fees.
Singers: Depending upon the chosen cast, you will have three options as to what your final costs will be. The most expensive cast has the most popular singers. The least expensive cast is not as popular, but the singers are very good younger singers. The middle cast option contains some popular singers and some up and coming singers. Remember, there are 6 performances! Cast A = Cast B = Cast C =
$57,000 per performance $52,000 per performance $36,000 per performance
Set: The Company needs to decide if it should build its own set or rent it. There are a couple of options for both criteria: OCP-Built Set #1: Opulent, very detailed and will need extra union laborers to complete on time. $200,000 #2: Scaled down version of first option, with less expensive materials to create. $100,000 #3: Technology-based design concept that uses cutting-edge production technology. $150,000
Rented Set #1: A bit large for the stage of the Academy and it will be a tight fit – it has stunning sets, however. $45,000
After you’ve figured out a budget, here some other things that you will need to do:
#2: Set is a bit small for the Academy stage, but it is a fairy-tale style production hat audience members will enjoy. $45,000
Costumes: #1: Throwing caution to the wind, these OCP-built costumes are elegant and imaginative. $150,000 #2: A bit scaled back in concept from option 1, these costumes look wonderful onstage and will still be crowd-pleasing. $100,000 #3: These costumes are rented and will enhance the look of the opera. $70,000 #4: This option contains some rented costumes and some built by OCP. $85,000
Optional: Additional Orchestra Rehearsal
Additional Dress Rehearsal
1. Write your own plot – you can’t have an opera without a. You may need to do some research on vampire themes and about Transylvania: What is Transylvania like? What are vampire bats and what are their characteristics? Would you be seriously hurt if you were bitten by a bat? b. In what era will you set the opera? Modern times? Medieval times? The future? c. What is the arc of the story, its beginning middle and end? d. What is Renfield’s Revenge? Why is he vengeful? e. How many acts will it have? f. Write an aria or monologue for Melisma, Canon, and Nosferatu. his should consist of 10-20 lines of dialogue in which these characters express their emotions about someone or something and a plan of action.
2. Design sets and costumes for the opera. a. Use this as an art project with your class or at home.
Active Learning While a lot of negotiations take place among the General Director, Music Director, Production Department, Stage Directors, and the like, it ultimately comes down to managing money. Each season a specific amount of money is set aside for each of the operas we produce. But there are a lot of elements that come into play when deciding how to spend that money. For this exercise you’ll be given $1,000,000 to stage an opera, which is the average cost it takes to put together one production. You’ll be given some fixed costs that are not negotiable and have to be paid. Then there are some other costs that you’ll be able to decide upon when it comes time to pay the bill. You cannot go over $1,000,000. If you go over $1,000,000, you lose. If you stay under $1,000,000, you receive 10 points for every $1,000 you save. Remember, you need to create the best possible production. The better the production is overall, the happier the audience will be. The happier the audience is, the more inclined they will be to renew their subscription and donate to the Company.
b. You can do this on sketching paper, on a computer, or maybe as a collage with images taken from magazines.
Questions: How did you come up with your final budget? What was the most important aspect of the production for your group – singers? Sets and costumes? What was the most difficult choice for you to make? Did you include any of the optional additions to the project? If so, did you include the option rather than using more expensive singers or stage design? What percentage of the $1,250,000 is designated for Academy of Music rental fees? If the Supernumerary budget is $1,500 and there are 10 Supernumeraries and 6 performances, how many rehearsals did the 10 supers attend?
2008-2009 Season Subscriptions
Review the charts of the Opera Company of Philadelphia’s performance season and prices. Then answer the questions below.
2008-2009 SEASON PERFORMANCE SCHEDULE SERIES NAME PRODUCTION
Oct. 12, 2008
Oct. 19, 2008
Oct. 15, 2008
Oct. 10, 2008
Oct. 24, 2008
The Italian Girl in Algiers
Nov. 16, 2008
Nov. 23, 2008
Nov. 19, 2008
Nov. 14, 2008
Nov. 21, 2008
Feb. 22, 2009
Mar. 1, 2009
Feb. 25, 2009
Feb. 20, 2009
Mar. 6, 2009
L’enfant et les sortilèges/Gianni Schicchi
Apr. 26, 2009
May 3, 2009
Apr. 29, 2009
Apr. 24, 2009
May 1, 2009
Curtain Times: Sunday Performances begin at 2:30 PM; Wednesday Performances begin at 7:30 PM; Friday Performances begin at 8:00 PM.
2008-2009 SEASON PRICE CHART SUBSCRIPTION PRICES SUN.
WED. & FRI. 2
Parquet Box/Balcony Box
Parquet Floor front/sides
Parquet Circle/Balcony Circle
Family Circle Center/Proscenium Box
Family Circle Side
1. Turandot will be performed on what day, date, and time in the Friday 2 Series? ___________________________________ 2. If a new subscriber buys 4 subscriptions for the Friday Series in the Balcony Loge, what does he/she pay? _______________ 3. Which performance occurs closest to Halloween? _________________________________________________________ 4. What sets of series have the same curtain time? __________________________________________________________ 5. On Sundays, what is the cost of the subscription for a parquet or balcony box? ____________________________________ 6. How much more does a person pay when buying a Sunday Series as compared to a Wednesday Series in the Parquet Floor section? __________________________________________________________________________
Invest in Grand Opera!
Many adults have trouble understanding charts and graphs, which are used in daily life. Study the information and then see if you can answer the questions below. We want you to join our family of donors. In fact, we need you, as only 40% of our costs are met through ticket sales. Your contribution is critical to our success!
Champagne and wine are served with pastries donated from Termini Brothers.
Private reception at every opera in the Academy of Music Canteen for Bravi Associates and Patron Council members.
Private Intermission Receptions
What do you get for joining? The benefits are listed below. Plus you will benefit by being a part of our success – knowing when the curtain goes up that you have made it possible. Your gift, at whatever level, is greatly appreciated.
DONOR BENEFITS 7 8 9 10
$75 - $149 Contributor
$150 - $249 Supporter
$250 - $499 Sustainer
$500 - $749 Affiliate
$750 - $999 Fellow
$1,000 - $1,499 Partner
$1,500 - $2,499 Bronze
$2,500 - $4,999 Silver
$5,000 - $7,499 Gold
$7,500 - $9,999 Platinum
$10,000 - $24,999 Ruby
$25,000 - $49,999 Emerald
$50,000 - $74,999 Sapphire
$75,000 - $99,999 Diamond
Benefits of Giving 1. Opportunity to purchase and exchange tickets throughout
13. Performance dedication in your name with premier
14. Special Benefits tailored to patrons’ individual interests. 15. Invitation to travel with Company Directors to other
2. Invitation to preview the 2009-2010 Season before it is announced to the general public.
listing on the title page of the program.
opera companies to hear singers.
3. Private vocal recital. 4. Two vouchers to final dress rehearsals. 5. Recognition of your gift in the Showcase program
16. Private dinner with the General & Artistic Director
for one full year.
How many benefits would you receive if you donated $10,000? What is your gift level?
6. Two additional passes to a dress rehearsal (for a total of 6). 7. Invitation to one of the “Inside the Opera Studio” panel
and your choice of singer or conductor performing in an opera production.
interviews with artists from a production.
8. Private intermission receptions in the Academy of Music’s Canteen.
9. Opportunity to meet the artists of an opera at a special
List the benefits of someone who is at the Gold gift level. ______________________________________________
reception in their honor.
Which giving level is the first to receive their name in the opera program book, Showcase?
10. Invitation to the Director’s Salon events with production
11. Private backstage tour for you and your guests. 12. Access to the Academy of Music’s Ormandy Room after every opera to meet the artists and their guests.
At which giving levels would you get a private backstage tour for you and your guests? ______________________________________________
What Happenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Next?/Alternate Endings Using the space below, write what you think will happen next to the characters in Fidelio. Alternatively, you could write a new ending for the libretto based on what you would have liked to see.
________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________
OPERA – Online!
You’ve made it through the end of the book. Congratulations! We’ve given you a glimpse into the world of opera and soon you’ll be attending an opera at the beautiful Academy of Music in Philadelphia. We know that it will be an exciting and thrilling experience for you. The Opera Company wants to make it easy for you to learn more about opera – for free! Visit the Opera Company’s website at http://operaphila.org/ community/sol-prod1.shtml and find out more information about Fidelio and other upcoming operas presented by the Opera Company.
Another great way to learn more is to sign up for our Sounds of Learning™ email list at email@example.com and each week we’ll send you a video “clip of the week” with famous opera singers singing great arias and ensembles. Some will be funny, some will be thrilling, some will be dramatic, all if it will be exciting! Also included in the email will be the website of the week. We’ll feature links to singers’ websites, music links, other great music and opera websites. You can build a whole library of video clips to go back to again and again! Share the clips and links with your family and friends. Don’t forget to check out our Sounds of Learning™ blog at http://operaphillysol.blogspot.com. The blog will allow you to discuss the opera with students throughout the tri-state area! Log onto the blog and share your thoughts and views about the opera, the music, the set, the singers, the Academy of Music, coming to center city Philadelphia, the email list clip of the week and more! Other students participating in Sounds of Learning™ from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware want to hear what you have to say! Post your comments by going to http://operaphillysol.blogspot.com.
See Pictures of the Singers in Rehearsal on our website at http://www.operaphila.org/production/ behind-scenes. Log on and see our Behind the Scenes area to see how a production develops from the first day of rehearsal to opening night! Also, you can download extra copies of the Sounds of Learning™ guide and past guides from this page as well. All of this content is provided for free! If you’re online, check out our myspace and facebook pages, too. Just search for Opera Company of Philadelphia!
Underlined words are used in the libretto and are underlined in the libretto as well.
act (akt) n. one of the main divisions of a play or opera. agitate (aj-i-teyt) v. to disturb or excite emotionally; arouse; perturb. allegro (uh-leg-roh) adv. musical term for fast and lively. alto (al-toh) n. the lowest female singing voice; also called contralto. andante (ahn-dahn-tey) adv. a musical term meaning in moderately slow time. antagonist (an-tag-o-nist) n. an adversary or opponent of the main character or protagonist in an opera, play, or other drama. arbitrary (ahr-bi-trer-ee) adj. subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent solely upon oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s discretion. aria (ahr-ee-uh) n. an operatic song for one voice. bar (bahr) n. a division of music, marked by two barlines, containing a set number of beats. baritone (bar-i-tohn) n. the range of the male voice between tenor and bass. bass (beys) n. the lowest male singing voice. beat (beet) n. the basic pulse of a piece of music. bawl (bawl) v. 1. to cry or wail lustily. 2. to utter or proclaim by outcry; shout out. beat (beet) n. the basic pulse of a piece of music. brazier (brey-zher) n. a metal receptacle for holding live coals or other fuel, as for heating a room. chord (kawrd) n. a group of notes played at the same time in harmony. chorus (kawr-uhs) n. 1. a group of singers. 2. a piece of music for these. chronological (kron-l-oj-i-kuhl) adj. a method of arrangement that puts events in order of occurrence. contralto (kuhn-tral-toh) n. the lowest female singing voice. dispatch (dis-pach) v. to send off or away with speed, as a messenger, telegram, body of troops, etc.; the act of putting to death; killing; execution. domesticity (doh-me-stis-i-tee) n. Home life or devotion to it. doublet (duhb-lit) n. a close-fitting outer garment, with or without sleeves and sometimes having a short skirt, worn by men in the Renaissance. fetter (fet-er) n. a chain or shackle placed on the feet. flat (b) (flat) adj. a half-step lower than the corresponding note or key of natural pitch.
forte (f) (for-tey) adv. a musical term meaning loudly. gaoler (jeyl-er) n. British variant of jail or jailer. hapless (hap-lis) adj. unlucky; luckless; unfortunate. hypocrite (hip-uh-krit) n. a person who pretends to have certain beliefs or principles that he or she does not possess, esp. a person whose actions belie stated beliefs. idle (ahyd-l) adj. habitually doing nothing or avoiding work; lazy. key (kee) n. the basic note of the main scale used in a piece of music. Music in the key of G, for example has the sound of being based on the note G and often returns to G as a home note. largo (lahr-goh) adv. & adj. a musical term meaning in slow time and dignified style. libretto (li-bret-oh) n. the words of an opera or other long musical. loiter (loi-ter) v. to linger aimlessly; to move in a slow, idle manner; to waste time or dawdle over work. major (mey-jer) adj. music in a major key uses a major scale, in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then another tone (for example, C, D, E). It often has a cheerful, strong sound. minor (mahy-ner) adj. Music in a minor key uses a minor scale, in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then a semitone (for example A, B, C). It often has a sad, melancholic sound. miscreant (mis-kree-uhnt) n. a vicious or depraved person; villain. natural (nach-er-uhl) adj. a note that is neither flattened nor sharpened. octave (ok-tiv) n. a note that sounds twice as high in pitch as another, is an octave above the other note, and has the same letter naming it. opera (op-er-uh) n. a play in which the words are sung to musical accompaniment. opus (oh-puhs) n. a musical composition numbered as one of a composerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s works (usually in order of publication). orchestra (awr-kuh-struh) n. a large body of people playing various musical instruments, including stringed and wind instruments. overture (oh-ver-cher) n. an orchestral composition forming a prelude to an opera or ballet. pall (pawl) n. anything that covers, shrouds, or overspreads, esp. with darkness or gloom. pannier (pan-ee-er) n. a large basket for carrying on a person's back, or one of a pair to be slung across the back of a beast of burden. paragon (par-uh-gon) n. a model or pattern of excellence or of a particular excellence. pianissimo (pp) (pee-uh-nees-ee-moh) adv. a musical term meaning very softly. piano (p) (pee-an-oh) adv. a musical term meaning softly. 2. n. keyed percussion instrument first named pianoforte because it could play both softly and loudly. presto (pres-toh) adv. a musical term meaning very fast. presumptuous (pri-zuhmp-choo-uhs) adj. Going beyond what is right or proper; excessively forward.
providence (prov-i-duhns) n. the foreseeing care and guidance of God or nature over all creatures.
quadrangle (kwod-rang-guhl) n. a square or quadrangular space or court that is surrounded by a building or buildings, as on a college campus. scale (skayl) n. a series of notes arranged in descending or ascending order of pitch. semitone (sem-ee-tohn) n. a half step or half tone, an interval midway between two whole tones. sentry (sen-tree) n. a soldier stationed at a place to stand guard and prevent the passage of unauthorized persons. sharp (#) (shahrp) n. any note a semitone higher than another note. Also, slightly too high in pitch. solace (sol-is) n. comfort in sorrow, misfortune, or trouble; alleviation of distress or discomfort. soprano (suh-pran-oh) n. the highest female or boyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s singing voice. stage (staj) n. a platform on which an opera, play, etc. are performed for an audience. staging (stey-jing) n. the presentation or production on the stage. symphony (sim-fuh-nee) n. a long elaborate musical composition (usually in several parts) for a full orchestra. synopsis (si-nop-sis) n. a summary, a brief general survey. tenor (ten-er) n. the highest male singing voice. tone (tohn) n. 1. an interval equal to two semitones. 2. the sound quality of an instrument or voice. troth (trawth) n. faithfulness, fidelity, or loyalty. tyrant (tahy-ruhnt) n. a sovereign or other ruler who uses power oppressively or unjustly. verismo (vuh-riz-moh) n. realism in opera. waistcoat (weyst-koht) n. a manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body garment, often quilted and embroidered and having sleeves, worn under the doublet in the 16th and 17th centuries. wantonly (won-tn) adj. done, shown, used, etc., maliciously or unjustifiably. wicket (wik-it) n. a window or opening, often closed by a grating or the like, as in a door or gate. wreak (reek) v. to inflict (vengeance or punishment) upon a person.
Pennsylvania Department of Education Academic Standards Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to: Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening 1.1. Learning to Read Independently GRADE 5 D. Identify the basic ideas and facts in text using strategies (e.g., prior knowledge, illustrations and headings) and information from other sources to make predictions about text. 1.1.8. GRADE 8 E. Expand a reading vocabulary by identifying and correctly using idioms and words with literal and figurative meanings. Use a dictionary or related reference. 1.1.11. GRADE 11 H. Demonstrate fluency and comprehension in reading. Read a variety of genres and types of text. Demonstrate comprehension. 1.2. Reading Critically in All Content Areas GRADES 5, 8, 11. A. Read and understand essential content of informational texts and documents in all academic areas. 1.3. Reading, Analyzing and Interpreting Literature GRADE 5 E. Analyze drama as information source, entertainment, persuasion or transmitter of culture. 1.3.8. GRADE 8 E. Analyze drama to determine the reasons for a character’s actions, taking into account the situation and basic motivation of the character. 1.3.11. GRADE 11 E. Analyze how a scriptwriter’s use of words creates tone and mood, and how choice of words advances the theme or purpose of the work. 1.4. Types of Writing GRADES 5, 8, 11. GRADE 5 A. Write poems, plays and multi-paragraph stories (GRADES 8 & 11 - and short stories). 1.4.5, 8, 11. C. Write persuasive pieces (Review of Opera Experience, p. 78). 1.5. Quality of Writing GRADES 5, 8, 11 A. Write with a sharp, distinct focus. 1.6. Speaking and Listening GRADES 5, 8, 11. B. Listen to selections of literature (fiction and/or nonfiction). C. Speak using skills appropriate to formal speech situations. E. Participate in small and large group discussions and presentations. F. Use media for learning purposes. 1.8. Research GRADES 5, 8, 11. A. Select and refine a topic for research. B. Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies. C. Organize, summarize and present the main ideas from research. Academic Standards for Mathematics 2.1. Numbers, Number Systems and Number Relationships 2.1.8. GRADE 8 A. Represent and use numbers in equivalent forms (e.g., integers, fractions, decimals, percents, exponents, scientific notation, square roots). 2.2. Computation and Estimation 2.2.5. GRADE 5 A. Create and solve word problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers. 2.5 Mathematical Problem Solving and Communication 2.5.11. GRADE 11 A. Select and use appropriate mathematical concepts and techniques from different areas of mathematics and apply them to solving non-routine and multi-step problems. Academic Standards for Science and Technology 3.1. Unifying Themes 3.1.10. GRADE 10 E. Describe patterns of change in nature, physical and man made systems. •Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems (e. g., momentum, Newton’s laws of universal gravitation, tectonics, conservation of mass and energy, cell theory, theory of evolution, atomic theory, theory of relativity, Pasteur’s germ theory, relativity, heliocentric theory, gas laws, feedback systems). 3.2. Inquiry and Design GRADE 7 Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations. GRADE 10 Apply process knowledge and organize scientific and technological phenomena in varied ways. GRADE 12 Evaluate experimental information for appropriateness and adherence to relevant science processes. 3.3. Biological Sciences 3.3.10. GRADE 10 D. Explain the mechanisms of the theory of evolution. 3.7. Technological Devices 3.7.7. GRADE 7 E. Explain basic computer communications systems. Describe the organization and functions of the basic parts that make up the World Wide Web. (Check operaphila.org to see photos of the rehearsals and sets.) See Teacher’s Guide for additional science lessons. Academic Standards for Civics and Government 5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship 5.2.12. GRADE 12 C. Interpret the causes of conflict in society and analyze techniques to resolve those conflicts. Academic Standards for Geography 7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy 7.1.6. GRADE 6 A. Describe geographic tools and their uses. •Basis on which maps, graphs and diagrams are created. 7.3. The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions 7.3.6. GRADE 6 B. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics. Academic Standards for History 8.2. Pennsylvania History 8.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12 Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student... skills needed to analyze the interaction of cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to. A. Analyze the... cultural contributions of individuals... to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914. • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Academy of Music architects Napoleon Le Brun & Gustav Rungé, opera star Marian Anderson). 8.3. U.S. History 8.3.9 GRADE 9 B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914. • Historic Places (e. g., Academy of Music). 8.4. World History 8.4.6 GRADE 6 A. Identify and explain how individuals and groups made significant political and cultural contributions to world history. 8.4.12. GRADE 12 C. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions since 1450 C.E. Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities 9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music,Theatre and Visual Arts A. Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and humanities. I. Know where arts events, performances and exhibitions occur and how to gain admission. 9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts C. Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre and to the periods in which they were created (e.g., Renaissance, Classical, Modern, Post-Modern, Contemporary...). D. Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective. E. Analyze how historical events and culture impact forms, techniques and purposes of works in the arts. F. Know and apply appropriate vocabulary used between social studies and the arts and humanities.
State Standards Met
State Standards met in Fidelio Sounds of Learning™ Lessons:
Opera 101: Getting Ready for the Opera A Brief History of Western Opera Philadelphia’s Academy of Music Broad Street: Avenue of the Arts Philadelphia’s Walk of Fame Opera Etiquette 101 There’s a Place for You at Settlement Music School
1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1,
1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2,
1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3,
7.3, 7.3, 7.1, 7.1, 9.1, 7.1,
8.4, 8.2, 7.3, 7.3, 9.2 9.1,
9.2 8.3, 9.1, 9.2 8.2, 9.1, 9.2 8.2, 9.1, 9.2
Relating Opera to History: The Culture Connection Portrait in Silence: Ludwig van Beethoven Events During Beethoven’s Lifetime Beethoven’s Medical Mystery Women and the Enlightenment Jailed for His Ideals: Florestan the Political Prisoner America’s First Penitentiary: Eastern State Penitentiary
1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1,
1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2,
1.3, 1.8, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3,
7.1, 7.1, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5,
7.3, 8.2, 3.3, 5.2, 5.2, 5.2,
8.4, 8.3, 3.8, 7.1, 7.1, 7.1,
1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1,
1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 9.2
1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3,
8.3, 7.1, 1.8, 9.1, 7.1, 1.5, 9.2
8.4, 7.3, 3.1, 9.2, 7.3, 8.2,
9.2, 13.1 8.2, 8.3, 9.2, 13.1 5.2, 8.3, 9.1, 9.2 13.1 8.2, 8.3, 9.2, 13.1 8.4, 9.1, 9.2
1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 9.1, 1.1,
1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 9.2, 9.2
1.3, 1.4, 1.3, 8.4, 1.3, 1.5, 1.3, 1.6, 1.3, 1.4, 13.1
1.6, 9.1, 3.2, 6.1, 1.5,
7.1, 9.2 9.1, 6.4, 1.6,
Fidelio: Libretto and Production Information Robert Driver and Jun Kaneko’s Vision for Fidelio Visual Artist Jun Kaneko Minimalism: The Bare Essentials Meet the Artists Spotlight on Soprano Christine Goerke Fidelio Background Fidelio Synopsis Game: Connect the Opera Terms Acting the Libretto Fidelio LIBRETTO Beethoven’s Fidelio: Inside the Music Into the Pit: The Opera Orchestra The Trumpet Shall Sound Careers in the Arts Game: Fidelio Crossword Puzzle
Critical Thinking: Creative Writing Lessons Etymology: The Study of Words The German-English Connection Fidelio Discussion Questions Make Your Own Synopsis Props and People Conflicts and Loves in Fidelio How You Hear with Your Ears Kaneko Inspiration: Create Your Own Sculpture Active Learning in the Creative Arts Produce Your Own Opera!
9.1, 8.4, 8.4, 8.4, 8.4, 8.2,
9.2, 13.1 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 8.3, 8.4, 9.2
8.4, 9.2 9.2, 13.1 7.1, 7.3, 8.4, 9.2 1.8, 3.7, 6.1, 6.4,
2008-2009 Season Subscriptions Invest in Grand Opera! What Happens Next?/Alternate Endings Opera - Online!
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 5.2, 8.4 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 6.1, 6.4, 7.1, 7.3, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 3.3, 3.8, 9.2 1.4, 1.6, 9.1, 9.2 1.4, 1.6, 9.1, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 3.1, 3.7, 5.2, 7.1, 7.3, 8.2, 8.4, 9.1, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 6.1, 9.1 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 6.1, 9.1 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 9.1, 9.2 1.1, 1.2, 3.1, 3.7
Written and produced by:
Special thanks to:
Opera Company of Philadelphia Community Programs Department ÂŠ2007
Dr. Dennis W. Creedon
1420 Locust Street, Suite 210 Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. 19102
Tel: (215) 893-3600, ext. 246 Fax: (215) 893-7801
Creator, Sounds of Learning TM Curriculum Consultant
Robert Driver Jun Kaneko Ree Kaneko
Director of Community Programs
Christine Jaison Intern Opera Company of Philadelphia
Barbara Mills Volunteer Opera Company of Philadelphia
Ryan Bunch Consultant
Arlene Shults The Teachers of Our Children Academy of Music Ushers Maureen Lynch Operations Manager Academy of Music
Shannon Walsh Assistant Operations Manager Academy of Music
Greg Buch Production Manager Academy of Music
Cornell Wood Head Usher Academy of Music
Debra Malinics Advertising Design
Kalnin Graphics Printing
Center City Film and Video R. A. Friedman The Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Free Library of Philadelphia Print and Picture Department
2008 2009 Opera Company of Philadelphia 1420 Locust Street, Suite 210, Philadelphia, PA 19102 T (215) 893-3600 F (215) 893-7801 www.operaphila.org
2008 October 10, 12m, 15, 19m & 24
2008 November 14, 16m, 19, 21 & 23m
2009 February 20, 22m, 25 March 1m & 6
2009 April 24, 26m, 29 May 1 & 3m
2009 June 5, 7m, 10, 12 & 14m
2009 March 13, 15 & 18
* The Kimmel Center Presents Curtis Opera Theatreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s production in association with Opera Company of Philadelphia