THE ELIXIR OF LOVE Sounds of Learning Student Guide

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OPERA PHILADELPHIA AND THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA PRESENT

ACADEMY OF MUSIC | FINAL DRESS REHEARSAL W E D N E S D AY, A P R I L 2 7 , 2 0 1 6 A T 2 : 0 0 P. M .


A FA M I L Y G U I D E

Opera Philadelphia believes the family is the most important foundation to learning. Let your kitchen table become a classroom where your children can build their knowledge of opera and the humanities. As you join in the teaching and learning process with your children, watch their eyes sparkle. Opera is a communal celebration; so too should be your children’s education. Pennsylvania’s standards in education call for students to demonstrate what they know and are able to do. Children need to share what they have discovered or learned. Thus, the title of our program is Sounds of Learning™. It reflects our belief that children must actively be engaged in sharing ideas. The Sounds of Learning™ student guide integrates with core literacy curriculum in many ways. Just as opera is a uniquely integrated art—combining orchestra, voice, literature, drama, and dance—Sounds of Learning™ is an interdisciplinary, student-centered program. Reading the libretto, or script, provides you and your family members with an opportunity to perform together, with each member taking on one of the characters. Research has shown that “performing art activities in dance, music and theater have a tremendous amount of support in the literature for helping young people to express themselves, interpret, and develop themselves within a community context.”¹ “Opera specifically can offer many developmental benefits for children. Opera helps increase language development, teaches higher level thinking skills and creative problem solving skills in real world situations, develops an appreciation for the arts, involves all learning styles and stimulates the imagination. Opera is literature, mythology, folk tales and legends, history, conflicts, and emotions. Exposure to opera builds and sustains cultural intelligence. ”² So enjoy coming to the opera with your family! ¹Ball. A. & Heath.S.B. (1993). “Dances of Identity: Finding an ethnic self in the arts.” In Brice and McLaughlin, ed . Identity and inner city youth…beyond ethnicity and gender. (pp. 69-95). New York: Teachers College. ²Overland, C.T. (2013). “Integrated Arts Teaching: What Does It Mean for Music Education?” Music Educators Journal, ISSN 0027-4321, 12/2013, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp. 31-37.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SOUNDS OF LEARNING™

Improve literacy achievement by using the opera’s libretto to teach lessons across the curriculum Understand the plot, characters, and their motivations in the opera Learn about the composer and others involved in writing the opera Make a connection to the historic and social context of the story Know some key musical elements, recognize certain melodies, and differentiate between voices Understand the role music plays in expressing emotions and heightening the dramatic experience Understand the various elements of producing opera and the functions of those involved, e.g., conductor, director, set designer, technical crew, etc. Develop the ability to make inferences about the opera, production, and performance Relate incidents in the opera to those of the present day

Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education


TA B L E O F

GETTING READY FOR THE OPERA 1

Opera Etiquette

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Philadelphia’s Academy of Music

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Language of Opera

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Operatic Voice Types

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Then and Now of Opera

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So You Want to Sing Like an Opera Singer

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Theater Anatomy

RELATING OPERA TO HISTORY 9

Gaetano Donizetti: Prolific Composer

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A Closer Look: Una Furtiva Lagrima*

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The Elixir of Love: A Comedic Hit

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Connect the Opera Terms

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Nemorino: Little Nobody

LIBRETTO AND PRODUCTION INFORMATION 16

The Elixir of Love: Synopsis

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The Elixir of Love: Libretto

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The Elixir of Love: Meet the Artists

ADDITIONAL LESSONS 37

Setting Elixir in the Post World War II Italy*

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Plot the Action

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McCarthyism and the Red Scare*

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Invest in Grand Opera!

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Miracle Remedies and Propaganda:

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2015-2016 Season Subscriptions

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Art Lesson: Love Potion No. 9*

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Spotlight on Careers in the Arts

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Elixirs of Love Throughout Pop Culture

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Sing Out with Opera Philadelphia

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Character Analysis Pyramid

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Glossary of Terms

* Individual lesson plan for this article is included in the teacher guide


OPERA

There’s nothing quite as exciting as attending an opera in a beautiful theater like the Academy of Music in Philadelphia. If this is your first time at the opera there are a few things for which you should prepare: As you attend the final dress rehearsal for the opera. It’s important to remember that this is a working rehearsal and the last chance the performers have to run through the show before opening night. The goal is to treat this rehearsal exactly like a performance and perform the entire opera straight through without a pause. You may notice several computer monitors and a large table spread out over the seats in the center of the Parquet level, the floor level of the Academy. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, Set Designer, and other members of the production team. They’ll be taking notes and communicating via headsets with the many people backstage who help make all of the operatic magic happen: Stage Managers, Master Carpenter, Lighting Technicians, Stagehands, and more. They’ll be able to give staging notes so changes can be instantly made. Should things go awry, they may stop and repeat a section to make sure that it is perfect.

Unlike actors on television or in the movies, performers onstage are acutely aware of the audience and very much want to share their love of singing and acting with you. Everything you do in the audience affects what happens on stage and behind the scenes. Because this is a working rehearsal, we ask that you please refrain from talking so that the production team can concentrate on fine-tuning the production. Have you ever tried to study for a test and there’s just too much noise at home or outside? It’s almost impossible to concentrate! You can show the artists how much you appreciate their work and the opportunity to come to this free rehearsal by being as quiet as possible. Please refrain from talking out of respect for the cast, musicians, and the entire production team. Give the artists and the production your full attention. Here’s a list of do’s and don’ts so that everyone in the theater will enjoy the opera. Please Do...

Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!� for the men and “Brava!� for the women. Enter and exit the theater in an orderly manner. Use the bathrooms before the opera begins or at intermission. Be careful in the auditorium! The theatre is over 150 years old and can be tricky to get around. Turn off your cell phone and all electronic devices. Enjoy the show. You’ve spent a lot of time preparing for today! Don’t Forget...

No food or beverages are allowed in the theater. No photos or video can be taken during the opera. No talking or whispering during the opera. No whistling, yelling or singing during the opera. Keep all objects to yourself. If you throw something, you might hurt someone and cause a disruption in rehearsal. It is grounds for removal from the auditorium. Students from Harris Elementary School get ready for the opera

MAKE YOUR SCHOOL PROUD! Thank you!


LANGUAGE OF

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THEN AND NOW OF

Have you ever wondered how opera got its start? Back in the late 1500s, during the height of the Renaissance (1400– 1600), a group of men called the Florentine Camerata got together to create a new and moving theatrical experience. They wanted to recreate what the ancient Greeks did during their legendary dramas. The result was something entirely new – opera! Most of the early operas were based on Greek myths. The most famous opera of this early period that is still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607). Certain basic ingredients were included in opera: songs, instrumental accompaniments, costumes, dance, and scenery. We use all of these ingredients today! The early operas were first performed in the grand courts of Italian nobility, but opera quickly became popular with the public, too. Special theaters just for opera were soon built to create the magical special stage effects needed in opera.

Above: Soprano Michelle Johnson as Puccini’s Manon Lescaut Below: A comic moment from Rossini’s The Barber of Seville

During the Baroque period (1600–1750), Italian opera spread all over Europe. The Italian style of opera was so popular that even non-Italians wrote in this style. For example, Georg Frederic Handel (1685–1759) was a German-born composer who lived and worked in England. His operas, like Julius Caesar (1724), were written in the Italian language and used an Italian style of music. The eighteenth century was full of change for both Europe and opera. During this time known as the Age of Enlightenment, citizens yearned for equality among social classes, better representation in government, and more control over their lives. Music displayed this new thinking as composers dropped the Baroque era’s complicated musical style for simpler, more emotional music. One of the first operas to use this new style was Christoph Willibald Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice (1762). In 1776 the American Revolution changed the world. A few years later the French had their own revolution (1789) and the first modern democracies were born. To match the times in which they were created, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage, not gods and kings. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) featured a timely story of aristocratic class struggles that had both servants and nobility in lead roles. In the 1800s opera continued to grow. The Italian tradition continued in the bel canto movement, which literally translates as “beautiful singing.” The most famous bel canto composers were Gioachino Rossini (1792–1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848), and Vincenzo Bellini (1801–1835). Their operas, like Rossini’s popular comedies The Barber of Seville (1816) and Donizetti’s The Elixir of Love (1832), are still some of the most popular operas performed today. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Romantic Movement led many composers to champion their own national identities. German operas like Carl Maria von Weber’s

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with George and Ira Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935) which included jazz and blues musical styles.

Above: The Act I finale of Puccini’s La bohème Below: Lawrence Brownlee in Charlie Parker’s YARDBIRD

Der Freischütz (1821), Russian operas like Mikhail Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar (1836) and French operas like Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots (1836) were performed across Europe. By using nationalism in his operas like Nabucco (1842), the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) became a national hero. In Germany Richard Wagner (1813-1883) took Romanticism to the extreme in The Ring of the Nibelung (1876), which takes over 15 hours to perform! Opera in the twentieth century became even more experimental. Composers like Giacomo Puccini (La bohème, 1896), Claude Debussy (Pelléas et Mélisande, 1902), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905), and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) evolved their national styles. Others, horrified by the destruction of World War I (1914-1918) and other aspects of modern life, created music that was new and drastically dissonant. Later, American opera had a huge hit

Today, opera is still growing and expanding. Opera Philadelphia helps to shape the future of opera by producing important new works like Kevin Puts and Mark Campbell’s Silent Night (2013), an opera based on the World War I Christmas Truce, Charlie Parker’s YARDBIRD (2015) by Daniel Schnyder and Bridgette A. Wimberly, about the troubled jazz saxophonist, and the and Jennifer Higdon and Gene Scheer’s Cold Mountain (2016), based on Charles Frazier’s novel. Upcoming productions include Breaking the Waves in September 2016, based on the film of the same name by Danish filmmaker Lars von Trier. The opera is written by Lansdale-born composer Missy Mazzoli and librettist Royce Vavrek. Although opera is one of the oldest musical art forms, it remains popular and continues to expand today. From the old favorites to the new experimental works, opera continues to be a moving art form of the people.

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On what were the first operas based? 7

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What kind of opera spread all over Europe during the Baroque period? Give an example of this kind of opera. 8

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How did the Enlightenment movement during the 18th century change how composers wrote operas? 9 6

What new operatic qualities did Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro display due to the American Revolution and its effect in the world? :

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Describe bel canto opera and give one example of a composer who used this style. ; 6

Nationalism was a prominent feature in the operatic world in the 1800s. Give an example of an opera written in a nationalistic style. <

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What other musical styles did the American opera Porgy and Bess include? =

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Name a new opera that Opera Philadelphia has produced or will produce.

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T H E AT E R

Opera singers must act on stage as well as sing! This means that they have to understand the stage set-up. When the director is rehearsing with the singers, he or she must communicate where they should be on stage. Otherwise there could be a big traffic jam! So, a special vocabulary is used. Up Stage is the very back of the stage (away from the audience) and Down Stage is at the front (near the audience). Stage Left and Stage Right may seem to be on the wrong sides as well. Can you figure out why? You might also wonder about “up” stage and “down” stage. Opera sets are frequently built on a platform or “deck” that’s lower in the front near the apron and higher in the back near the back stage area. Thus, the lower end is “down stage” and the higher end is “up stage”. Also, when you visit the Academy of Music, look for the bas-relief portrait of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the top of the proscenium, the part of a theater stage in front of the curtain.

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Diagram from OPER A America’s MUSIC! WORDS! OPER A! Level II Teacher’s Manual ©1991, OPER A America Inc. A


P H I L A D E L P H I A’ S by Dr. Dan Darigan

Very soon, you’ll be coming to the Academy of Music to see a dress rehearsal for a staged opera production. For years school groups just like yours have entered this beautiful building, amazed by its grandeur and bright chandeliers. Did they miss seeing the old-fashioned gas lanterns by the front doors? Did they see the balcony above those lamps where people used to stand to watch parades pass by? Did they notice the original marble floors they walked on to get to their seats? There are so many things to see and know about in the Academy. Here are a few things you won’t want to miss: For decades before the U.S. Civil War (18611865), Philadelphia had dreams of building its own opera house. That dream was realized when the Academy of Music opened on January 26, 1857, presenting its first opera, Giuseppe Verdi’s Il trovatore, a month later. After more than 150 years, the Academy still looks very much like it did then. When you enter the auditorium you’ll first notice the red and gold stage curtains, embroidered with a pineapple-shaped design, a Victorian symbol for welcome. Looking up you’ll notice the huge Academy chandelier which is 25 feet tall and almost 17 feet in diameter. Put simply, it would be twice as high as the ceiling in your classroom and it is wide enough that it would fit just inside your classroom with just enough room for you to walk all the way around it. Additionally, there are 23,000 crystals on it and if you laid each of those out end to end they would equal the distance of 14 football fields! What you don’t see are the three-foot thick solid brick walls that surround the Auditorium. Those walls keep the outside noises out and they enhance the noises inside so you can hear everything from onstage without microphones. Looking up above the chandelier, you will see the four ceiling murals showing the muses of the arts: poetry, dance, music, and theatre. Looking

to the front, you will notice the big arch, known as the proscenium, which separates the stage from the auditorium. At the very top, there is a medallion of the great composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791); the Academy was dedicated to his memory. To the left of Mozart is a seated figure representing Poetry and to his right, that of Music. What’s changed in the Academy since it opened? Until the 1950s the Academy had a special wooden floor that could be installed over the main floor seats. That gave a flat space so large 1500 people could easily dance the night away. They had circuses in the Auditorium and in 1899 even hosted the first indoor football game in Philadelphia. That floor is gone, but what is new? Just under the proscenium arch, you’ll see a large, black rectangular screen. A translation of opera’s text, called supertitles, is projected onto a screen above the stage during the opera so you’ll understand the meaning of every word. Some standard modern conveniences came late to the Academy, like air conditioning in 1959 and an elevator for general public didn’t come until 1990! Here are a few more historical facts about the theater. In 1872, it hosted the Republican National Convention where Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) was unanimously nominated for his second term as President. In 1900 the renowned Philadelphia Orchestra made the Academy its home, performing there for the next 101 years! The music for the Disney film Fantasia was recorded in the Academy. Finally, native Philadelphian Marian Anderson (1897-1993), who is remembered all over the world, made her first of many Academy appearances in 1929. =hg m fbll3 gas lanterns by the doors outside same marble floors and faux-marble design and color selection in Main Lobby balcony along Broad Street to watch parades pineapple pattern on the stage curtain three-foot thick solid brick walls the chandelier and ceiling mural proscenium arch, Mozart medallion and statues of Poetry, and Music V


O P E R AT I C

Opera began in the late 16th century in Florence, Italy as an experiment by the Florentine Camerata. Composers quickly started writing in this new form because of the high demand, and it allowed them to better express themselves through different emotions and dramatic situations. From the beginning and throughout the Baroque period, opera was about experimentation; everything was new. Composers insisted that the most skilled singers had the most important roles. Voice classification describes how high or low a singer can sing. Beginning in the second half of the eighteenth century, the distinction between the different voice types dictated which characters or roles the person would sing. The seven main categories of singing voice types from highest to lowest are as follows:

Soprano – the highest female voice, with

Countertenor – the highest male voice,

a traditional range of A below middle C to the C two octaves above that. The soprano usually portrays the heroine of the story and the object of affection for one or more men.

with a range that is similar to the contralto: A below middle C to the F an octave and a half above middle C. These men achieve their high range through bridging their chest voice with their head voice (falsetto). Having men sing in this high vocal register fell out of popularity by the mid-18th century. In later performances their roles were performed by mezzo-sopranos. However, composers today have utilized countertenors more often.

Mezzo-Soprano – slightly lower than the soprano, with a range usually G below middle C to the Bb two octaves above. They are often supporting roles of motherly types or villains and will often sing the trouser roles—portraying the boys or young men. In recent years, many of the trouser roles are being reclaimed by the countertenors, whose popularity has gained ground starting in the mid-20th century. Contralto – the lowest female voice, with

a range of the F below middle C to the second G above middle C. It is a rare voice type, and their roles are often sung by mezzo-sopranos. It is the darkest in timbre and is reserved for specialty roles, such as grandmothers, noble witches, and goddesses.

Tenor – the countertenor’s falsetto singing aside, the tenor is considered the highest “natural” male voice, with a range of D below middle C to the C above middle C. Beginning in the Classical era, the tenor has been assigned the role of the male protagonist, as is most often the hero or the love interest of the story. Baritone – the most common male voice type, with a range midway between tenor and bass, from A an octave below middle C to the G above middle C. The term baritone was not standardized until the mid-19th century. The baritone is often the villain, the comical leader, or the hero that sacrifices himself for the tenor or soprano. Bass – the lowest and darkest of the male voices, with a range of E almost two octaves below middle C to the F above middle C. The bass can portray characters who convey wisdom or nobility, but also comedic characters.

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S O Y O U WA N T T O S I N G

Singing on the opera stage is very hard work! Singers are like athletes, constantly training to perfect their voices. They ask their voices and bodies to do what most of us without training can’t do: sing incredibly intricate and difficult music and project their voices to be heard over a 60-piece orchestra.

When we hum, talk, or sing, air passes through the larynx and it vibrates creating a sound that is then shaped by the other parts of our bodies including the mouth, tongue, teeth and lastly our lips. To sing different pitches and volumes, singers must master the control of the tension or flow of air through the vocal cords in their larynx. They practice vocal exercises daily, so that they can quickly adjust to the demands of the music without thinking about it. In addition, specific sounds are controlled by the size and shape of the singer’s mouth and the open space in their sinuses and skull which help project their voices like a megaphone. The singer also learns to raise the soft palate which is located on the roof of the mouth towards the back, in order to create more space and change the placement of the sound, so the sound projects better.

Singing begins with the human voice, a very versatile instrument. It can produce sounds that present a wide range of frequencies that we call pitches. Women sing the highest pitches and men sing the lowest ones. Our voices are also able to change in volume suddenly and are powered by the air that we exhale from our lungs using our diaphragm, a muscle right behind our stomach muscles that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen. When we inhale deeply, the diaphragm lowers and the ribs and stomach expand and fill with air. Then the diaphragm forces the air out when it contracts causing our vocal cords to vibrate. Vocal cords are folds of fibrous bands that are stretched along the two sides of our larynx or our sound instrument, just below our ‘Adam’s apple.’ @

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To see the vocal cords in action, visit http://tinyurl.com/cords-in-action To see how the diaphragm works, visit http://tinyurl.com/diaphragmatic-demo

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Let’s make a model of our human instrument, the voice. Our model will not be able to shape the sounds into words, but it will express the various humming pitches necessary for words to be created. In this model, our vocal cords will be represented by a rubber band and our mouth will be represented by various size paper or plastic cups

Make a small hole in the bottom of the cups. Cut rubber bands so that they become long stretches of rubber. Pull on the rubber band so that it vibrates. How does pitch change? Record your findings. Tie the rubber band to a paper clip) that is larger than the hole in the cup. This object will act as a plug to the hole. Be sure to make a square knot on the object so that the pressure in the next step does not cause the knot to slip out and the object to be ejected from the cup. \

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G A E TA N O D O N I Z E T T I

Gaetano Donizetti was born November 29, 1797 in Bergamo, Italy. Donizetti’s musical talents were apparent at an early age and he was admitted to the Lezioni Caritatevoli School on full scholarship when he was nine years old. The school was founded by composer Simon Mayr (1763-1845), Donizetti’s mentor, who helped the young composer launch his professional career. Mayr also partially paid for the lessons in composing and arranged for Bartolomeo Merelli to write the librettos for Donizetti’s early operas. Between 1817 and 1821, Donizetti received several commissions including his first staged opera, Enrico di Borgogna (1818). He wrote several other works during this period, like chamber and church music. It was the success of his fourth opera, Zoraide di Grenata (1822), which caught the attention of Domenico Barbaia, the most important theater manager of his time. After Barbaia offered Donizetti a contract, he moved to Naples, where Barbaia’s business was located. For the next eight years Donizetti wrote works with mixed success. It was not until 1830 that Donizetti achieved international fame with the premiere in Milan of Anna Bolena, an opera about the British monarch Anne Boleyn (15011536). Donizetti was a prolific composer, writing both comic and serious operas as well as solo vocal music. However, throughout his career he battled with the powerful Italian censors to perform his works. Two of his best-known comedies, L’elisir d’amore (The Elixir of Love) (1832) and Don Pasquale (1843), are considered masterpieces of comic opera and are frequently performed today. Perhaps his most famous serious opera is Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), a tale of a young woman who goes mad when forced into an arranged marriage. As Donizetti’s fame grew, he was able to accept a variety of engagements, writing operas for Paris as well as the famous opera houses of Italy. He relocated to Paris in 1838. It was there that he composed the comedy, La fille du régiment (The g

Daughter of the Regiment), in 1840, which is still frequently performed. Donizetti endured great tragedy in his personal life. He married his wife Virginia Vasselli in 1828. They had three The young Gaetano Donizetti children, none of whom survived. His parents’ deaths in 1837 were followed a year later by his wife’s death from a cholera epidemic. Donizetti himself suffered from cerebro-spinal syphilis. Symptoms of his illness became evident as early as 1843; by 1845 his condition deteriorated to the point that he was institutionalized for over a year. The composer was moved to a Paris apartment where he could be cared for and receive visitors. Friends in Bergamo finally arranged for Donizetti to be brought back to his hometown, where he stayed at the palace of a baroness until his death in 1848. Donizetti was reputed to have great facility and could compose very quickly. His favorite librettist was Salvadore Cammarano, with whom he first collaborated on Lucia di Lammermoor. Donizetti often assisted in writing the librettos for his operas. He completed 65 operas during his career; The Elixir of Love, Don Pasquale, and Lucia di Lammermoor are generally considered the outstanding examples of his work. He was a master of the operatic style known as bel canto, which features very florid vocal writing designed to show off the human voice to maximum effect. These works demanded great virtuosity from the singers and served as star vehicles for leading operatic performers. His compositional style proved influential for future Italian opera composers, most notably Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901).


THE ELIXIR OF LOVE

A popular legend in the world of opera is that Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) wrote his 36th opera, L’elisir d’amore (The Elixir of Love) in two weeks. The more practical truth is that he wrote the work in anywhere from twenty-four days to one month. In the spring of 1832, impresario Alessandro Lanari (1787–1852) had been promised a new opera for his theater by another composer, which was never delivered. Lanari asked Donizetti to provide a replacement. Donizetti immediately set to work, assisted by the leading librettist of the day, Felice Romani (1778-1865). Using the libretto of an existing opera by another composer, Romani rewrote the text to suit Donizetti’s requirements. The “newâ€? opera was a big hit on opening night (May 12, 1832) and has remained a popular piece ever since. Elixir is one of four operas, (including Lucia di Lammermoor, Don Pasquale, and La fille du rĂŠgiment ) which kept Donizetti’s name and fame alive as a composer. For many years after his death, people tended to ignore the larger bulk of his musical output.

people, with real emotions. We meet four distinct types of human beings: the simpleton village mechanic (Nemorino) who turns out to be a pretty noble fellow, the sweet innocent village teacher (Adina), the blustering military bully (Belcore), and the sly con man (Dr. Dulcamara) who is always out to make a quick buck. This mix of character types was already an entrenched part of the Italian operatic tradition long before 1832. The universality and timelessness of the story and the characters make it easy for producers and directors to re-set this opera in various locales and time periods. The traditional setting for Elixir is in a village in the Italian countryside in the 1800s, but our story will be set in late 1940s, Italy, with Nemorino as a poor auto mechanic and Adina as the village school teacher. This allows for some fun costumes and sets, including the wonderful fashion and unique cars from the 1940s and 50s.

Donizetti’s great number of operas clearly shows his flexibility, versatility, and speed as a writer, as well as his firm grasp of theatrical composition and extraordinary knowledge of the limitations and capabilities of the human voice. He knew his singers; he knew what they could and could not do, and he did not ask them to perform feats they were incapable of achieving. He also knew his average Italian audience, their likes and dislikes, their temperaments, and their theatrical preferences. For his first Elixir cast, Donizetti was quoted as saying that he had “a German prima donna, a tenor who stammers, a buffo with the voice of a goat, and a French basso who isn’t worth much.� Despite this low opinion of the cast, he produced a marvelous piece of work. By his own admission, some of the verses Romani wrote were truly inspirational, and Donizetti responded with superb music. The Elixir of Love is a simple opera, a sentimental comedy about simple country folk in a pastoral setting. These are not gods and goddesses, nor royalty and aristocracy. The characters mimic real

Donizetti described Giuseppe Frezzolini (1789-1861), the first Dr Dulcamara in L’elisir d ’amore, as having the “voice of a goat.� Here’s a picture of Frezzoli at the time of the opera’s premiere. in Milan, on May 12, 1832


W H AT I N T H E W O R L D ? >O>GML =NKBG@ =HGS>MMB L EB?> Below is a list of important historical and cultural events which occurred throughout the world during Donizetti’s life. The items in boldface type are events in the composer’s life, and items with an arrow ( ) have local significance. Discuss what it might have been like to be alive during the time period and how your life might be different. How did the inventions of that time affect daily life? 5

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Born on November 29 at Bergamo, Italy, the son of Andrea and Domenica Donizetti. Construction of the Philadelphia Water Works began along the Schuylkill River; water was first sent through its pipes in 1801.

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The first United States Navy Yard was built in Philadelphia near the base of Federal Street.

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Napoleon of France defeated Austria which led to Austria renouncing claims to the Holy Roman Empire. 9 5

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The Lewis and Clark Expedition began exploration of what is now the northwestern United States. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in Philadelphia.

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The United States Congress passed a law, which was largely ignored in southern states, banning the importation of slaves into the United States.

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John Dalton argued that matter consists of a range of atoms, each of which has a distinct weight. America’s oldest, continuously operating theater, the Walnut Street Theatre, opened in Philadelphia.

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Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12th. 5

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Congress declared war against Britain on June 18, 1812, known as the War of 1812. The Grimms Brothers’ collection of fairy tales were first published. 9 5

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A negotiated treaty ended the War of 1812 and restored “peace, friendship, and good understanding” between the United States and “His Britannic Majesty.” Francis Scott Key wrote the poem “The Star-Spangled Banner”. 5

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Enrico di Borgogna, Donizetti’s first publicly performed opera, premiered in Venice on November 14. The 49th parallel was established as the boundary between Canada and the United States. 5

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The Missouri Compromise was signed by President James Monroe, allowing Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, but prohibiting slavery in the rest of the northern Louisiana Purchase territory. The United States became the world’s biggest producer of raw cotton. R. J. Tyers patented roller skates. 5

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Araminta Ross, better known as Harriet Tubman, was born in Maryland. 9 5

Freed American slaves returned to Africa to assist in forming the country of Liberia. 5

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The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society was founded in Philadelphia. 5

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Donizetti married Virginia Vasseli on June 1. 5

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Donizetti became Musical Director of the royal theaters of Naples (until 1838). Harriet Tubman


The cornerstone for the first United States Mint was laid at Chestnut and Juniper Streets in Philadelphia. 5

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Anna Bolena, a tragic opera about British Queen Anne Boleyn, was staged in Milan on December 26, marking Donizetti’s first international success and the maturity of his talents. “Mary Had a Little Lamb� was first published by Sarah Josepha Hale. The Book of Mormon, the sacred text of the Church of Latter Day Saints, was published by Joseph Smith.

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Charles Darwin, 22, completed his B.A. at Cambridge and sailed as an unpaid naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle to South America, New Zealand, and Australia.

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In Boston, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison began publishing an anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. 5

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Donizetti’s L’elisir d’amore, a comic opera, premiered May 12. Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia, a tragic opera, premiered December 26. 9

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He wrote Maria Stuarda, which was plagued by censorship and didn’t premiere until December 30, 1835. :

Donizetti’s hugely successful tragic opera Lucia di Lammermoor premiered September 26 in Naples and his father died in December. The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia cracked while being tolled at Chief Justice John Marshall’s death. It was never rung again.

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Donizetti’s mother died in February. 200 Texans, among them Davy Crockett, fought the Mexican Army for 12 days in San Antonio before being killed at the Alamo Mission.

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Donizetti’s wife died on July 30. Roberto Devereux premiered October 28. Samuel Morse patented the telegraph.

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Donizetti’s Maria de Rudenz was staged in Venice on January 30. In October he moved to Paris. Building on a theory about geology by Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin developed a theory of evolutionary selection and specialization.

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United States authorities took custody of a slave trading ship, the Amistad, a Cuban schooner. It had 53 Africans on board who had taken control and were trying to sail the ship back to Africa.

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Donizetti’s comic opera La fille du règiment was presented in February; his Les Martyrs in April, and La Favorite followed in December, all in Paris. The census of the United States grew to 17,063,353, up 33% from 1830. At this time, four states exceeded one million in population: New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia. 9

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Donizetti composed Linda di Chamounix, which premiered in Vienna on May 19. 9

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Donizetti composed the comic masterpiece Don Pasquale, which premiered January 3, and Dom Sèbastien, which premiered November 13, both in Paris. Maria di Rohan premiered June 5 in Vienna. 9

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The Great Migration across the North American continent to the Pacific established the Oregon Trail.

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Donizetti’s Caterina Cornano premiered in Naples January 18.

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Edgar Allen Poe’s poem “The Raven� was first published.

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The first doughnut with a hole was created. Gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California. Niagara Falls stopped flowing for 30 hours because an ice jam blocked the Niagara River. Gaetano Donizetti died on April 8 in Bergamo, Italy of complications from syphilis.


NEMORINO

Even in Gaetano Donizetti’s day, authors and composers understood well the situation of the person who supposedly doesn’t belong. He is the eternally bumbling “poor soul”. Charlie Brown of Peanuts fame is a modern version of this characterization. He is the proverbial Everyman, from every time and in every place. The character we know as The Elixir of Love’s Nemorino (which means “little nobody”) is a member of this distinguished group. Our hero likes the village girl, Adina, who tends to take him for granted – until she comes to realize his true worth. Nemorino goes to great lengths to impress the object of his affection, even such desperate measures as enlisting in a military regiment to obtain a promised signing bonus – which in turn will provide the funds to purchase a magical “love potion”. This is rustic chivalry in its truest form. It is a wonderfully human comedy full of heart. Right at the start, we are introduced to Nemorino’s noble and affectionate nature. In the aria “Quanto è bella, quanto è cara” (see page 18), he is longing for his lady-love (“How beautiful she is! How dear!...”).

Adina, surprisingly, does have a soft spot in her heart for Nemorino. He is more than a friend, but perhaps just not the type of fellow she imagined herself marrying. Unrequited love often has its light comedic touches, but also possesses the seeds of potential tragedy. The “elixir of love” Nemorino believes can win Adina’s heart is no magical “love potion” as in mythology and fairy tales; it is nothing more than a bottle of cheap wine purchased from a peddler. The Elixir of Love isn’t the only opera that features a love potion. The story of Tristan and Isolde, which Nemorino overhears Adina reading, is a tale of a handsome knight and a hard-hearted princess who hate each other on first meeting and then fall in love when the knight enlists the aid of a wise sorcerer who gives him a magical elixir which transforms the princess’s indifference into a burning passion. Richard Wagner’s (1813-1883) 1865 opera Tristan und Isolde is perhaps the most famous retelling of this story. Nemorino, of course, is no Tristan; he is merely a simple resident of a country village who is inspired by a folktale to pursue his romantic quest. Nemorino’s light, comic nature is one of his best qualities. He can be funny, but he is never a buffoon. The elixir may go to his head and momentarily make him a bit tipsy, but he is neither a sentimental fool nor a buffoon. He is hopelessly smitten with adoration and love for Adina, and remains steadfast and true to both his quest and his lady-love. He simply needs a chance to prove himself.

Enrico Caruso as Nemorino and Frieda Hempel as Adina in the 1904 production of The Elixir of Love at the Metropolitan Opera http://tinyurl.com/ElixirCaruso

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In the end, having obtained Nemorino’s release from military service by buying back his enlistment contract, Adina begs him to stay at home, where she admits that everyone loves him – herself included. Our “little nobody” has become a very important somebody. Chances are, he would have succeeded without the introduction of the elixir. But then, we would have been deprived of a very human story – and a beautiful opera.


A CLOSER LOOK by Adam Pangburn

“Una furtiva lagrima”, a beautiful love aria made famous by the great tenor Luciano Pavarotti, is from Act Two, Scene 8 of Donizetti’s opera, The Elixir of Love. Nemorino, the poor village mechanic and main character in the opera, has just purchased what he thinks is a love potion from a man who calls himself a doctor in order to win the affections of Adina, the village teacher. By this point, the audience realizes that this love potion is really just a cheap bottle of wine, and has done nothing to further Nemorino’s quest in gaining Adina’s affection. After many interesting twists and turns, Adina’s secret admiration of Nemorino is discovered when she jealously sheds a tear as he finally gets attention from all the other girls in town. This single tear fills Nemorino with hope that Adina may indeed love him. Donizetti constructed the aria in a simple form so that the tenor voice and the words would be the focus. As such, the instrumental texture in this piece is relatively thin. Donizetti chooses to save the full texture to reveal moments of overwhelming emotion. “Una furtiva lagrima” begins with a rolling arpeggio in the harp and

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Una furtiva lagrima negli occhi suoi spuntò: Quelle festose giovani invidiar sembrò. Che più cercando io vo? Che più cercando io vo? M’ama! Sì, m’ama, lo vedo. Lo vedo. Un solo istante i palpiti del suo bel cor sentir! I miei sospir, confondere per poco a’ suoi sospir! I palpiti, i palpiti sentir, confondere i miei coi suoi sospir... Cielo! Si può morir! Di più non chiedo, non chiedo. Ah, cielo! Si può! Si, può morir! Di più non chiedo, non chiedo. Si può morir! Si può morir d’amor.

pizzicato chords playing in the strings. Then, a single, lonely bassoon presents the introspective main theme, quietly singing over the harp and strings. The minor key of the aria supports the emotional state of Nemorino; he is elated that Adina has finally shown that she cares for him, but he also feels a bit guilty for flirting with all of the girls in town right in front of her, which caused her to cry. When the instrumental theme is presented for a second time, it is passed on to Nemorino’s vocal line. He takes over the melody, rejoicing in Adina’s love for him. Then, the aria blossoms briefly during a joyful moment in a major key with Nemorino singing: “M’ama!” (She loves me!) as Donizetti brings Nemorino to an emotional and musical high point just before the final cadenza. “Oh, heavens! Yes, I could! Yes I could die!” he sings, as he is overcome with joy. This culminating moment is set up by a rising musical line in the bassoon, and the mood of the aria drastically changes with sustained strings, demonstrating Nemorino’s emotional release from his somber thoughts through music.

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A single furtive tear from her eyes sprang: Of those festive, young girls envious she seemed to be. What more need I look for? What more need I look for? She loves me! Yes, she loves me, I see it, I see it. Just for an instant the beating of her beautiful heart I heard! And my sighs became as one fleetingly with her sighs! Her heart beating, her heart beating to hear, our sighs confounded as one... Heavens! Yes I could, I could die! More I can’t ask, I can’t ask. Oh, heavens! Yes I could! Yes I could die! More I can’t ask, I can’t ask. Yes I could die! I could die of love. 4


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THE ELIXIR OF LOVE

ACT ONE

Scene One:

The lovesick Nemorino gazes with rapture, while Adina is teaching the local school children the story of Tristan and Isolde. She emphasizes that, thankfully, there are now no more elixirs to bring the merry hearts of women into slavish dependency on love. Nemorino sees no joke in the legend and wishes for a magical potion for his own hopeless situation with Adina. The dashing Sergeant Belcore arrives with his soldiers. He tries to win over Adina, who is amused but not impressed. The villagers tease Nemorino about his rival, but Nemorino renews his pursuit as soon as Belcore leaves. Adina respects the worthy Nemorino, but finds him a little dull. She tells him his interest in her is hopeless and he should go visit his sick uncle. S c e n e Tw o : Dulcamara, a quack doctor, enters the empty village square disguised as an old woman with his wonderful collection of medicines. He distributes his flyers in the square and leaves as the village descends. He then makes his grand entrance to the amazement and delight of the villagers. To Nemorino, Dulcamara is heavensent, and he immediately requests a love potion. The doctor loses no time in producing a bottle of wine, which he tells Nemorino is an elixir of love that will work within 24 hours. Nemorino gives Dulcamara his last coin and, as soon as the doctor leaves, drinks the entire bottle. The wine takes effect immediately and Nemorino begins to dance and sing, momentarily forgetting his problems with Adina. Adina is astonished to see her love-sick Nemorino so happy. Believing that the love potion will work its magic in time, Nemorino pays no attention to Adina. This piques her so much that when Belcore returns and presses her for an immediate marriage because the troops are moving on, she consents to wed him in six days. Nemorino laughs loudly at this, which so enrages Adina that she sets the wedding for that very evening. At this, Nemorino

sobers, fearing that the marriage will take place before the potion begins to work. He begs her for a delay, but Adina and the others only laugh at him and begin preparing for the wedding.

ACT TWO

Scene One:

The scene opens on hurried preparations for the wedding feast. The notary arrives and the wedding party leaves to sign the marriage contract. Nemorino laments to Dulcamara that the elixir did not work. Dulcamara obligingly produces another bottle of elixir, but Nemorino has no money with which to buy it. Belcore arrives and Nemorino desperately confides his misery to him. Ever on the lookout for new recruits, the sergeant suggests that Nemorino enlist and tempts him with promises of immediate pay and renown. Nemorino signs the papers, takes his advance and quickly buys the second bottle of elixir. S c e n e Tw o : The villagers have heard about the death of Nemorino’s uncle, who has left all his money to Nemorino. The girls begin to flirt with Nemorino who, unaware of his uncle’s death, thinks the love potion is beginning to work. When Adina sees him surrounded by pretty girls and finds out he has enlisted in the army, she sadly realizes she cares more for Nemorino than she had realized. Nemorino is moved with compassion at the sight of her tears. Adina buys back Nemorino’s enlistment papers from Sergeant Belcore and declares her love for Nemorino. Belcore bears the loss of Adina with the bravery of a soldier. Nemorino and Adina are told about the uncle’s death and Nemorino’s good fortune. Dr. Dulcamara credits his elixir of love for everything, and as the curtain falls, he is relieving the villagers of their money in return for bottles of his wonderful elixir of love.

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THE ELIXIR OF LOVE

S A R A H S H A F E R (Adina) Why do you like to sing? I love that you can communicate deep thoughts through singing that you just can’t always get across by merely talking. Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family? Yes. My dad is a pianist, and my mom is a choir director and pianist. My two sisters and I grew up playing the piano from a young age, and singing in choirs in school. Did you always know that you wanted to be a singer? Nope, but I narrowed it down to singing and piano. I happened to get into the Curtis Institute of Music here in Philadelphia majoring in voice, which is why I ended up choosing singing! If you couldn’t be a singer, what career would you have pursued? I probably would have been a pianist, or a high school choral conductor. I would also have loved to be an English teacher! Who were some of the major influences and mentors in your life? My parents were and still are huge mentors in my life -- they were my first music teachers, and they’re still the first people I turn to for advice. I also think of Mikael Eliasen, who brought me to Curtis, gave me so many opportunities, and provided me with the right roles at exactly the right time for my development while in college. My voice teacher, Tiziana Descano, has been another major influence on my life as a singer.

Has anything funny ever happened to you onstage where something went wrong? Many times! Once (in a dress rehearsal thankfully!), I was singing a duet looking up at a tenor, and I could feel my wig slowly slipping off my head...he could see it sliding, too. We both were trying not to burst out laughing as we were singing our love duet to each other, and then it finally slipped totally off and I finished singing in my wig cap looking totally bald! What you do in your “downtime” for fun? I love watching Jimmy Fallon videos on YouTube! FAST FACTS: Hometown Location: State College, PA Siblings: Two younger sisters, Elisabeth and Grace Education: Curtis Institute of Music, BM in Voice and MM in Opera Hobbies: Reading, swimming, writing letters, watching movies, going to concerts Favorite Book: Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë Favorite Movies/TV shows: Julie and Julia, You’ve Got Mail. 24, Lost, Downton Abbey Favorite Singer: Ella Fitzgerald Favorite Foods: Salmon, pizza, chocolate, and sweet potatoes! Favorite Quote/Mantra: Be curious!

CHRISTOPHER TIESI (Nemorino)

What is the most difficult aspect of your job? The one thing that is still difficult for me is practicing! I too often want to take the easy way out and run through things, rather than patiently and slowly taking things apart and then gradually putting them back together.

Why do you like to sing? I have sung since I was a very young boy, and it’s always been a way for me to express myself and what is going on inside of my head and heart. Whether it’s love, happiness, sadness, victory.... these emotions change the voice and allow you to share with the world a little piece of yourself.

What is the most rewarding aspect of your job? I think the most rewarding thing is getting to know great art! Opera is such a beautiful art form, and it is always amazing to be a part of one. I also love being part of a story, diving into a character, and making music with new people and old friends!

Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family? I grew up in a family of physicians who played music. My father is a neurosurgeon who is also a very skilled classical guitar player. My grandfather was a doctor in the Dominican Republic who, as a young man, paid for his medical school by singing opera.

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Did you always know that you wanted to be a singer? It’s not really something I ever thought about actually. I have always sang and the natural progression of my life just led me to it. If you couldn’t be a singer, what career would you have pursued? I would definitely have wanted to be a soccer player. That’s my huge passion besides singing. Too bad I stink at soccer! Who were some of the major influences and mentors in your life? I have three truly major influences on my life: Marlena Malas, who I have studied [singing] with since I was 16, Mikael Eliasen, [the artistic director of the Curtis Opera Theatre], who has been a true rock for me both professionally and personally, and Maestro Rovaris [Conductor of Opera Philadelphia]. He taught me how to carry myself in the opera house, how to function in that environment, and how to expect more of myself as an artist. This opera represents a reunion of sorts for him [Rovaris] and me, since we’ve not worked together since my career began after school. I’m very excited to make music with him once again. What is the most rewarding aspect of your job? [I love] being able to share a tiny bit of myself with an audience. The primary reason for being at the opera is to relax and enjoy a night of music and a wonderful story. Has anything funny ever happened to you onstage where something went wrong? While I was performing this opera on tour with Glyndebourne [Opera House], I was singing my final aria on a table which was full of plates of food. The legs of the table snapped while I was on it, sending the spaghetti and me tumbling towards the pit. Normally this would be scary and maybe not so funny, but the audience laughed and I laughed and we shared a little moment there. What you do in your “downtime” for fun? On every job I travel to, around the world, I always HAVE to bring my Xbox and my projector. A lot of my time resting the voice in my hotel room between rehearsals and shows is spent on the Xbox. It’s a great way to pass the time and keep my mind active. I’m a FIFA fanatic but also play other games like Elder Scrolls. But FIFA is my jam, and I’ll challenge anyone in the audience to a match after the show.

FAST FACTS: Hometown Location: Philadelphia, PA Education: Juilliard School of Music, Curtis Institute of Music Hobbies: Soccer, gardening Favorite Singer: Franco Corelli [opera], Freddie Mercury [rock] Favorite Composer/Opera/Role: L’elisir d’amore/ Nemorino/Donizetti Favorite Foods: Prosciutto

C r a i g Ve r m (Sergeant Belcore) Why do you like to sing? My entire body, mind and spirit is my instrument and every fiber of my being comes alive and works together to make music. I love it! Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family? I grew up surrounded by classical music. My parents took me to the Houston Symphony frequently, provided me with piano and voice lessons, and encouraged me every step of the way. My grandmother led the singing at small country churches from the piano her whole life, so I guess it’s kind of in my genes. Did you always know that you wanted to be a singer? I knew that I loved classical music, and I thought that perhaps I would become a music minister/ choir director. I didn’t know I had singing talent until I was in high school and was encouraged to pursue singing by my voice teachers and choir director. Once I was put in my first opera in college, I was hooked! If you couldn’t be a singer, what career would you have pursued? I have a passion for fixing and building things and working with my hands. I can often be found fixing cars, doing construction projects around the house, or helping my father-in-law rebuild WWII planes. I’ve also recently started working for a contractor part-time in between gigs doing home remodeling, construction, and general handyman stuff. It helps keep me sane. What is the most difficult aspect of your job? Hands down the hardest part of the job is being away from my family. During most years I am away from my family 5-6 months out of the year. And as difficult as that is for me, it is even harder on my wife as she then has to raise our daughter by herself and work full-time.

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Sometimes they get to travel with me, but only when my wife is on break from her opera coaching job at Carnegie Mellon University. I think my wife is my hero. I certainly couldn’t do what I do without her! I often joke that she supports my opera habit. What is the most rewarding aspect of your job? The list is pretty big, which makes up somewhat for being away from my family so much. The most rewarding parts are the times when I hear how the opera or my singing has had an impact on someone’s day or their life. It reminds me that art isn’t just some fleeting form of entertainment or escape from reality. Art is necessary. And in my opinion, opera is the greatest and most complete synthesis of multiple art forms. I hope the opera makes an impact, even a small one, on your soul today! FAST FACTS: Hometown Location: Raised in Houston, TX, but I’ve lived in Pittsburgh, PA almost 12 years. Siblings: Two older brothers. Education: Rice University – University of Cincinnati College Conservatory of Music Hobbies: Spending time with my wife, 6 year old daughter, 2 dogs and cat. Also, road cycling, woodworking/building/fixing stuff, rock climbing, hiking, bow hunting. Favorite Book: Endurance by Alfred Lansing. Favorite Singer: Sir Thomas Allen – British Baritone. Favorite Foods: Mexican food and anything breakfast related. Favorite Quote/Mantra: “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.” “Choose your battles wisely.”

K a t r i n a T h u r m a n (Gianetta) Why do you like to sing? I feel a connection to the music and I tend to forget about anything that’s got me worried or stressed out. I just let the music take over! Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family? My grandma played piano and organ by ear and donated her musical gift to her church. I also have an aunt and uncle who play guitar and they inspired plenty of sing-alongs.

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Did you always know that you wanted to be a singer? From the time I was in grammar school I knew I wanted to be a singer. At that time, though, I wanted to be in a rock band! If you couldn’t be a singer, what career would you have pursued? I have a passion for fixing and building things and I have always loved animals and definitely would have wanted to work with them in some capacity. Who were some of the major influences and mentors in your life? My parents have always been a positive influence because they never discouraged me from pursuing a singing career and they always believed I could “make it”. My choir teachers and voice teacher in junior high and high school were great mentors who gave me a lot of guidance and helped me to stay on track. What is the most difficult aspect of your job? The most difficult aspect of the job is constantly looking for the next “gig” and the not knowing what will come. How do you learn a role? I start by reading through and listening to the score and doing research on the opera, the composer who wrote it, and any historical information that might help me to understand the period in which the opera is set. I then break down the score and make a “learning map” of it for myself. The learning map tracks my progress in translating and working on the rhythm and notes in the score. I also track my vocal coachings and lessons on the role and how I’m doing in memorizing the score. By keeping track of the work I have done, I am aware of my progress and where I need to do more work. What is the most rewarding aspect of your job? What did Gaga say? “I live for the applause?” OK, OK that’s really not it exactly, but there is something so satisfying about connecting with an audience. What you do in your “downtime” for fun? When I am alone working around the house, learning music or just getting stuff done at the computer, I sometimes need a dance break. Things get too exhausting or boring and I just have to shake it off. I will put in a really fun song like OutKast’s “Hey ya!” Or Lenny Kravitz’s “Are you gonna go my way” and break it down for a few. Then, I’m ready to get back to concentrating!


FAST FACTS: Hometown Location: Moore, Oklahoma. Siblings: 5 Education: Oklahoma City University, Cincinnati Conservatory of Music Hobbies: Yoga, Cooking, Traveling, Wine, Watching my fav TV Series Favorite Book: I loved the Harry Potter, His Dark Materials, and Lord of the Rings series Favorite Singer: Dame Kiri Te Kanawa Favorite Quote/Mantra: Asking for what you want greatly increases your chance of getting it.

Who were some of the major influences and mentors in your life? I was extremely fortunate to have started my career at the New York City Opera when the roster was full of the great American singing actors of that time: Bob Orth, Joyce Castle, Lauren Flanigan, Mark Delevan, David Daniels, Bill Burden, Elizabeth Futral – the list goes on and on. Being able to sit in rehearsal and watch those artists work was the best influence I could have ever asked for. Also, when I was a young artist in Paris, I had the honor of working with Paolo Montarsolo on a production of The Elixir of Love. Dulcamara was one of Paolo’s great roles, and we worked extensively for weeks on my interpretation of that role. That work was invaluable and laid the foundation for the work I do now as a singing actor.

Kevin Burdette (Dr. Dulcamara) Why do you like to sing? I have always enjoyed performing, in part, I think, because it got me attention that, as the youngest child of five children, I might not otherwise have gotten. I am told that one of my tricks when I was 3 and a half years old was to jump on my rocking horse and sing, at full throat, “Oh what a beautiful morning” from Oklahoma!. That desire to entertain has remained with me – I love to hear the audience laugh! Did you grow up in a musical/artsy family? I grew up in a family where music played an important secondary role as a hobby and extracurricular activity. All of my siblings before me were involved in music – singing, taking piano, viola, and guitar lessons, and performing in school plays and musicals. While my parents had not trained as musicians themselves, they were adamant that their children be exposed to music – I remember with such fondness the entire family doing sing-alongs in the family station wagon on trips to see grandparents! Did you always know that you wanted to be a singer? Not at all. In fact, when I was in college, I was intent on becoming an attorney. After my junior year, though, I spent a year in Vienna, Austria, and while there, I began to realize that music, which had always been a secondary interest of mine, could be a primary interest. So, upon returning from Vienna, I ended up going to grad music school and starting a singing career, then going to law school and working as an attorney. After having pursued both careers, I finally realized that my heart lay with singing.

How do you learn a role? I like to start with the text and to become very familiar with that before jumping into the music – there is so much I can find out just from the text. Once I am comfortable with the text, I then add the music to it, trying to find clues as to the composer’s vision of the character. After that, if there some sort of primary material for the opera, I will read that material – but I prefer to get familiar with the librettist’s and composer’s take on the story and character before I study the source from which they drew those takes. What’s the most moving part of your job? Nothing beats connecting with and moving an audience. FAST FACTS: Hometown Location: Knoxville, TN Siblings: David, Allison, Jonathan, and Hillary (who lives in Philadelphia!) Education: University of Tennessee, Knoxville (BA in College Scholars, BA in Music), The Juilliard School (MM in Vocal Performance), Columbia Law School (JD) Hobbies: Sports (particularly running, swimming, and soccer) bird-watching, musical instruments Favorite Book: Evidence of Things Unseen, by Marianne Wiggins Favorite Movies/TV shows: The Inspector General, with Danny Kaye Favorite Singer: I’m into bluegrass of late, as my nieces have a band, The Dan River Girls. So, I’d say Alison Krauss currently. Favorite Foods: My wife’s homemade tacos -- divine. Favorite Quote/Mantra: “Life is painting a picture, not doing a sum.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

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SETTING ELIXIR IN by Vincent Renou

When a director decides to present an opera, there are two choices: to stage it the way it was originally intended by the composer, respecting the time period of the action, or to transpose the action of the opera to a different place or time. In the text, The Elixir of Love is set in a small village in Basque Country, in the western Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain on the Atlantic coast. The time of the action is the end of the 18th century. In the production you will see with Opera Philadelphia, the action is set in the countryside of post-World War II (WWII) Italy, thus transforming the experience and meaning for the audience. Before WWII, Italy was dissatisfied with the insufficient territorial gains conceded by its Allies as a victor in World War I (WWI 1914-1918). Economic and political struggles after WWI led to intense nationalism. Benito Mussolini, leader of the Italian National Fascist Party, and his foot soldiers, the infamous ‘Black Shirts’, rose to power. Mussolini marched his party’s soldiers into Rome, where King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to form a fascist government and bring domestic peace to Italy. As soon as Mussolini took power, he began dismantling the Italian democracy, and by 1925 he was officially referring to himself as ‘Il Duce’, meaning ‘The Leader’. When WWII broke out in 1939, Mussolini’s government joined with Germany and Japan, forming the “Axis,” and declared war on Great Britain and France (the Allies) in 1940. Italy invaded Albania in 1939 and captured some British and French possessions in Africa. The Allies reacted quickly and forced Italy to surrender the occupied territories by 1943. This set the stage for an Allied invasion of the Italian homeland in 1943, invading Southern Italy within the year, and most of Italy by the end of 1944. What local support remained for Mussolini evaporated and the Allies were largely welcomed by everyday Italians. Not long before the end of the war, Mussolini was discovered attempting to escape near the Italian-

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Moving up through Prato, Italy, the 370th Infantry Regiment have yet to climb the mountain.” Bull, April 9, 1945, World War II. Public Domain

Swiss border, and he was summarily executed by Italian communists. With the fall of Mussolini and fascism after Italy’s defeat in WWII, the Italian people seized the opportunity to redesign their government. By mid-1945, Italy was a disaster. Cities were ruined. Railroads were destroyed. The Italian overseas empire was stripped. Their navy had been lost. The currency was devalued. The people were impoverished. The first major post-war political decision took place in June 1946 when 54% of Italians voted to abolish the monarchy in a popular referendum. In order to prevent possible royalist uprisings, the royal family was expelled from Italy and banned from living within Italian borders. Communism also gained in popularity, as Italy’s experience with democracy and capitalism in postWWI years was unpleasant. The United States, threatening to stop economic aid if socialists or communists should come to power, conducted a massive campaign to prevent the communist party from taking power in Italy. Consequently, a democratic republic was established in 1948 after a popular election, bringing Italy under influence of the West rather than the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Setting the action in this particular place and time, and without changing a word from the original libretto, the director alters the way the characters are viewed by a contemporary audience, adding a fresh new perspective on their lives.


MEANWHILE IN THE U.S. by Vincent Renou

From 1945-54, the threat of Communism seemed very real to many Americans. The most enduring symbol of this “Red Scare” was Republican Senator Joseph P. McCarthy (WI), who spent almost five years trying in vain to uncover communists and other “loyalty risks” in the United States government. In the suspicious atmosphere of the Cold War, insinuations of disloyalty were enough to convince many Americans that their government was full of traitors and spies. McCarthy’s accusations were so threatening that few people dared to counter him.

of alleged communist infiltration of the government. In hearings he aggressively asked, “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?” -- a blatant violation of civil rights. Despite no proof, over 2,000 government employees lost their jobs as a result.

Following World War II (1939-1945), events at home and abroad gave many Americans the impression that the “Red menace” was real: the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb, Communist forces established the People’s Republic of China, and Soviet-backed North Korea invaded the pro-Western south. This pushed the U.S. to enter the conflict supporting South Korea.

In April 1954, McCarthy turned his attention to “exposing” the supposed communist infiltration of the armed services. He went one step too far and the aura of McCarthy’s invulnerability faded. The Army damaged the senator’s credibility with evidence of special favors for his enlisted aides. The broadcasting of the “Army-McCarthy” hearings on TV allowed the American people to watch McCarthy intimidate witnesses and evade direct questions. After McCarthy attacked an army lawyer, the Army’s chief counsel thundered, “Have you no sense of decency, sir?” The hearings struck many observers as shameful.

Consequently, the Republican-led House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) began a campaign to battle communism at home. HUAC’s targets included liberals in Hollywood and the State Department, and it accused individuals such as Charlie Chaplin, Langston Hughes, Pete Seeger, and Albert Einstein, among others, of being communists. In February 1950, McCarthy, a first term senator, waved a piece of paper in the air on the Senate floor describing his list of 205 members of the Communist Party who were “working and shaping policy” in the State Department. He instantly came to national prominence. In March 1950, a Senate subcommittee launched an investigation and found no proof of any subversive activity. Moreover, many of McCarthy’s Democratic and Republican colleagues, including President Dwight D. Eisenhower, disapproved of his tactics (“I will not get into the gutter with this guy,” Eisenhower said). Still, the senator continued his “Red-baiting,” and in 1953 McCarthy chaired the Committee on Government Operations. He launched even more expansive investigations

Senator Joseph P. McCarthy

At the end, McCarthy lost his political allies. The committee charged McCarthy with contempt of Congress and defamation of Senators. The committee voted for censure, 67 to 22, citing conduct “unbecoming a senator.” Universally shunned, McCarthy finished his term. His health was in rapid decline and he appeared drunk in the Senate. He died of alcohol-related liver disease at age 48 on May 2, 1957. Sources Cited: http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/rise-and-fall-joseph-mccarthy#sect-thelesson http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6444 http://www.ourdocuments.gov./doc.php?flash=true&doc=86 http://edsitement.neh.gov/sites/edsitement.neh.gov/files/worksheets/McCarthy03.pdf http://www.authentichistory.com/1946-1960/4-cwhomefront/1-mccarthyism/ h t t p: //a m e r i c a n h i s t o r y .u n o m a h a . e d u /m o d u l e _ d i s p l a y .p h p?m o d _ id=108&review=yes http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/potsdam-conference http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/joseph-mccarthy http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/176702.pdf http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6440

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M I R A C L E R E M E D I E S A N D P R O PA G A N D A

“…A great man, a celebrity, an aristocrat of royal bearing, a pioneer in the science of medicine, a benefactor of mankind, a wonder worker, a generator of miracles—he says so himself… Meet Doctor Dulcamara. But first let me remind you: even today… the art of selling snake oil is not extinct.” Act I, Donizetti’s The Elixir of Love We laugh at Nemorino in the opera. We pride ourselves as being too sophisticated and worldly to fall for a self-important salesman. We live in a big city, we have access to cable TV and the internet. We don’t believe in love potions, or promises of bargain tonics that both “kill off rats and roaches,” and renew the strength and virility of “a man well in his eighties” (Dulcamara, Act I). But are we really beyond the reach of con men and grifters? According to psychologist, Maria Konnikova, in her new book, The Confidence Game: Why We Fall for It …Every Time, the cons are alive and well in 2016. Konnikova claims we want to trust people, and because of our own anxieties, we are easily manipulated by con artists, who size us up and learn our needs and desires. Are we desperately trying to lose weight, erase wrinkles,

“Professor Thaddeus Schmidlap” (historical interpreter Ross Nelson), the resident snake-oil salesman. This work is from the Carol M. Highsmith Archive collection at the Library of Congress. 3

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and stay forever young? All of these longings make us easy marks, or targets, for the phony experts, who are ready to separate us from our money. And these “experts” effectively use TV, the internet, and celebrity endorsements as tools of their trade. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was created to keep fake, ineffective, and/or dangerous substances off the shelves, and out of our unsuspecting hands and bodies. Established in response to the sale of oil from Chinese water snakes and the copycat salesmen who sold fake oils with little or nothing to do with snakes, the FDA has been unsuccessful in keeping up with the fraudulent advertising and sales of bogus products and treatments. Today the most despicable medical con artists, or snake oil salesmen, promise to use stem cell therapies to cure Cerebral Palsy, ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - also known as Lou Gerhig’s Disease), MS (Multiple Sclerosis), Cancer, and a host of other conditions. Dr. Joanne Kurtzberg, co-chair of stem cell research at Duke University, believes stem cells will help patients in the future, after the research has been completed. She is worried that unsafe, experimental infusions of stem cells could cause strokes and other complications in the patients involved. However, these experimental cures are illegally marketed by salesmen claiming to be accredited doctors, who have offices in major cities, sophisticated websites, and clinics in Mexico, Ecuador, and other locales beyond the reach of the FDA. The investigative show, 60 Minutes, has been on the trail of these phony doctors and clinics. In 2010, reporter Scott Pelley, collaborated with two ALS patients and filmed a scam in which two “doctors” assured the patients that they could reverse the degenerative effects of ALS, keep them out of wheelchairs and prolong their lives. The two men and the 60 Minutes’ team travelled together to Mexico for their promised miracle treatment.


When confronted by Scott Pelley, one of the “doctors,� Mr. Morales, left the room, but the other man, Mr. Stowe, stayed and argued that he was offering these patients more than anyone in the States was. Mr. Morales did not graduate from an accredited medical school and Mr. Stowe was not a medical doctor either. Since the report aired, the patients have died, and the “doctors� have been indicted for committing 1.5 million dollars in fraud. These two snake oil salesmen are out of business and face up to 95 years in jail, but hundreds of other websites claiming miraculous stem cell successes are still going strong. In 2012, 60 Minutes did a follow up with a family, with a quadriplegic child, who went to Ecuador, after they had been assured by StemTech Labs that their child would be able to see, speak, and move after receiving their $20,000 treatments. StemTech’s representative, Dr. Dan Ecklund of Alabama, walked out of Pelley’s interview, claiming that there was a conspiracy between our government and the pharmaceutical companies to withhold stem cell treatments. 60 Minutes learned that Dr. Ecklund’s medical license had been revoked earlier in Alabama because of his unprofessional behavior with patients. Still think you can’t be conned? When we are ill, or someone we love is given no hope of improvement, we are all vulnerable.

SOURCES: Mahler, Jonathan (2016, January 10) The Grifter’s Gifts: From Ponzi to Madoff, scam artists have been reeling in marks for ages. ( Review of the book The Confidence Game: Why We Fall for It‌Every Time, by Maria Konnikova ) The New York Times Book Review. [60 Minutes]. (2012, January 9). Stem Cell Fraud: A 60 Minutes Investigation [Video File]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl. com/60minstemcell [60 Minutes]. (2010, September 24). 21st Century Snake Oil, Part I: A 60 Minutes Investigation [Video File]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/SnakeOilPart1

St. Jacob’s Snake Oil from Flickr by Tim & Selena Middleton. Advertisement from “Ivanhoe� published by “International Book Company� of New York, 1892.

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Why is propaganda so effective? How can we resist it? What changes will you, as a student, make as a consumer? Answer the questions below, and create a question/ example for others to answer. Which technique of propaganda is being used in the following examples? 1. Everybody is switching to Geico insurance, don’t be the last to make the change! A. Testimonial B. Snob Appeal; C. Bandwagon D. Plain Folks 2. Jennifer Hudson, the spokeswoman for Weight Watchers, lost weight and has kept it off for five years. Join today, and you can be a success too! A. Testimonial B. Transfer; C. Bandwagon D. Plain Folks 3. Four out of five dentists support the use of CREST toothpaste with their patients. A. Testimonial B. Evidence Claims C. Bandwagon D. Transfer 4. Design your own question/example. Include four possible answers.

60 Minutes]. (2010, September 24). 21st Century Snake Oil, Part II: A 60 Minutes Investigation [Video File]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/SnakeOilPart2 4


ART LESSON by Joann Neufeld

Did you ever hear that song “Love Potion No. 9” written in 1959 by Mike Stoller and Jerry Leiber? I told her I was a flop with chicks, I’ve been this way since 1956, She looked at my palm and she made a magic sign, She said “What you need is Love Potion No. 9”. This opera The Elixir of Love uses an elixir of love, or a love potion, to drive the story. Do you believe that such a magical drink can exist? Or is that what people want you to believe? Is that what the doctor, Dr. Dulcamara promotes, a phony mixture that will pretend to give you love, strength, or power? Sometimes, the elixir will seem to elevate your level of confidence so that you can overcome obstacles. In the 1949 movie Dumbo, Timothy Q. Mouse leads Dumbo to believe that the magic feather enables him to fly. Even young children realize that Dumbo’s large ears allow him to fly, that he doesn’t need any ‘magic’ to soar, other than what he already has within himself. The same can be said for Nemorino. The graphic designs for this year’s opera series posters use high contrast silhouettes to advertise each opera. You will choose from two different silhouette styles to capture the essence of this opera in a strong visual manner. You can emphasize the ‘magical powers’ flowing into a person’s profile with imagery or text being poured into the silhouette.

buy Uncertainty, Aggravation, Guilt, or Sweat? Design your own silhouette bottle with whatever quality you wish could be sold and actually work. Would you want Honesty sprayed onto boyfriends? Politicians? Perhaps the fragrance Loyalty can be shared with friends. The possibilities are endless!

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Concept Advertising an idea using one image is what (M)Ad Men (and Women) aspire to in their graphic product. Objective Using a strong graphic silhouette, the theme of a love potion will be expressed as entering the profile using any variety of drawn or collaged images. Materials - black construction paper - mounting paper (any light color) - pencil for tracing a profile/silhouette - bright light, to shine on profile and trace it - scissors - glue, collage materials, cut out letters Sequence Shine the light on the face in front of the profile and \

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have classmate trace the silhouette. Cut it out. ^

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Mount the black silhouette onto the lighter colored paper. _

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Draw or collage images of what quality is being

The second approach parodies the fragrance world, which sells its versions of Donizetti’s elixir. Did you know that you could purchase True Love, Dignity, Eternity, and Bliss? Why would anyone want to

‘poured’ into the head. You can use photos, cut out letters, or draw pictures or words. You can use white chalk or white pencil to draw images or text onto the black construction paper. What qualities or thoughts are entering their minds?

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ELIXIRS OF LOVE THROUGHOUT by Dr. Amy Spencer

What if love potions were real? Would you use one? Could you be happy in a relationship you brought about using one? Where is the moral and ethical line when it comes to love? Throughout history, the love potion as a tool to induce infatuation has appeared in many forms. From Tristan and Isolde to Harry Potter, the idea that some kind of magic or alchemy could brainwash someone into falling in love brought hope and despair to both the lovesick and the diabolical. Whether the potion is real or a ruse, it often serves to highlight the foolishness or wickedness of the consumer. In early versions of the tale of Tristan and Isolde, both lovers took the potion, rendering them theoretically unaccountable for the adultery they committed in being together. The magic in their potion was real, and so was the destruction and pain caused by their relationship. In the 1959 song “Love Potion No. 9� by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, the foolish customer who purchased and drank Madame Ruth’s foul-tasting but highly effective Love Potion No. 9 became a laughing stock when he “kissed a cop down on ThirtyFourth and Vine.� We can assume that the potion never brought him true love, only an embarrassing encounter with law enforcement. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, the very powerful Amortentia potion can induce extreme infatuation, but never anything as strong as the bonds of true love. In the film “Perfume: Story of a Murderer�, the protagonist is a serial killer who uses the scent of beautiful women to create a powerful love potion in the form of a perfume. All who smell it become intensely obsessed with the wearer. When the love potions are effective, they wreak havoc and make us question the true nature of love. In stories where the potion is a fake, we often see that a person’s insecurity was what crippled them in the first place. One way or another, they discover their love was reciprocated either all along, or at least once they developed greater self confidence.

he thinks is a love potion. The fateful potion turns out to just be wine. The wine makes him drunk, which complicates his pursuit of Adina. In this case, the elixir almost causes him to lose love! Thankfully Tristan and Isolde oil on canvas by Edmund Leighton 1902 for Nemorino, the consequences of the “magical� elixir are dissolved, as he finds he always had Adina’s love. Our modern love potions come in the form of scents infused with pheromones, or chemical hormones, that the body naturally excretes to indicate fertility. These are available for purchase on the open market, and while the science of pheromones is real, anecdotal evidence shows that they are mostly responsible for a placebo effect. The confidence boost they provide is their true magic. As we often learn in the end, believing in one’s self is the greatest aphrodisiac.

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If love potions were real, should they be legal? ^

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What are the dangers or benefits of using love potions? _

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If you could, would you use a love potion? On whom? `

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Would you mind if someone used a love potion on you? a

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What would you do if you found out your love was induced by a love potion - and yet you still felt love? b

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How is taking advantage of someone under the influence of a love potion related to what we consider assault? c

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Have you ever been infatuated with someone? What does infatuation feel like? d

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What are you attracted to? Are there things that you consider aphrodisiacs? e

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How do you think a love potion would taste? Smell? Make you feel? \

In Donizetti’s The Elixir of Love, Nemorino, a poor auto-mechanic, inspired by Adina’s interest in the tale of Tristan and Isolde, purchases what

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What would you do if you knew a friend was under the influence of a love potion?

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C H A R A C T E R A N A LY S I S

Using the character descriptions from the The Elixir of Love teacher guide, fill out this graphic organizer for one of the opera’s characters, either individually or in groups. After filling out the form, take 10 minutes to discuss the characters and how they would interact.

Name/Title

Physical Appearance

Character’s Role

Character’s Problems/Challenges

Major Accomplishments 4 3


PLOT THE ACTION IN THE ELIXIR OF LOVE Directions: Fill in the required information for each section below in numerical order. Use the information that appears with each section to help you proceed.

2. As the story continues, the Rising Actions introduce complications and problems for the main characters. These difficulties create suspense!

3. The Climax of the story is when the reader is most interested in how the story will end. The suspense is at its peak, but the outcome is not yet known.

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4. Falling Action appears at the ending of the story. Suspense has been eliminated and these events show characters’ lives returning to normal.

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1. The Exposition appears at the beginning of the story. It introduces us to the setting, characters and background information.

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5. The Resolution is the final solution to the problem or conflict. In stories with happy endings it’s called the denouement. Tragic endings are called catastrophe. Graphic organizer from dailyteachingtools.com 4

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INVEST IN

Many adults have trouble understanding charts and graphs, which are used in daily life. Study the information and then see if you can answer the questions below.

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Opera Philadelphia wants you to join its family of donors. In fact, the Opera needs you, as only 20% of our costs are met through ticket sales. Your contribution is critical to our success!

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Mailed copy of the Annual Report

Meet the Artists—an intimate reception with the cast of a current production «

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§

Brunch or dinner with the General Director and/or Opera leadership before underwritten performances

How many benefits would you receive if you donated $10,000? What is your gift level? ________________________

µ

From the numbers above, list the benefits of someone who is at the Gold gift level. _____________________________

Which giving level is the first to receive VIP Patron Service? ________________________________________________ ¶

At which giving levels would you get a private backstage tour for you and your guests? _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ­

®


2015-2016

Review the charts of the Opera Philadelphia’s performance season and prices. Then answer the questions below

¯

Cold Mountain will be performed on what day, date, and time in the Wednesday Series? §

If a new subscriber buys 4 subscriptions for the Weekday Series in the Balcony Loge, what do they pay?

Which performance occurs closest to Halloween? «

What sets of series have the same curtain time?

On Sundays, what is the cost of the subscription for a parquet or balcony box and of a single ticket? °

How much more does a person pay when buying single tickets to all the operas in the Parquet Floor section on Fridays than the person who buys a subscription in the parquet? What is the percentage of savings of a parquet subscription over four individual tickets?

­

·


SPOTLIGHT ON by Dr. Amy Spencer

Opera is one of the greatest art forms, but it takes a village to make an opera come to life – both behind the curtain, onstage, and in Opera Philadelphia’s administrative offices. This season we celebrate a few of the talented individuals behind the scenes who help make operatic magic happen.

Stephen Dickerson, Technical Director, Opera Philadelphia

Stephen Dickerson joined the company as Technical Director in January 2015, where he makes the Set Designer and Director’s vision for the opera come to life. To do this, he uses his knowledge of math, carpentry, architecture, theater, drawing, and a strong sense of teamwork. Stephen saw the opera Madama Butterfly during a high school field trip, but he never would have imagined that he would one day work for the opera. During high school he worked on high school plays and built scenery on stage crew. After he graduated, Stephen entered the United States Coast Guard, studied Architecture and Film at University of the Arts in Philadelphia, and continued to work backstage in local theaters. Eventually, he was known in the business for his positive attitude, quality workmanship, and a strong work ethic, which led to more training and opportunities. Today, he says it’s best to find someone working in the field and engage them as a mentor. The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (also known as IATSE Local 8) offers training programs where a young person can hone their skills and increase their employment options. Stephen uses his math skills in his daily work and must know the final weight of each set piece, so he knows how much counter-weight to add when flying the pieces in and out, lest they could come crashing down onto the stage. He enjoys the challenge of breaking a set down into a puzzle so that it can fit into a truck, be light enough for someone to lift and carry, and be quickly and safely assembled. While Stephen’s job can be stressful, it’s also very exciting. “When you get to the theater, the loading in time...that’s the moment of truth. The actors get on stage and then it comes to life.” Evelyn Santiago Schulz, Soprano

Soprano Evelyn Santiago Schulz hails from San Juan, Puerto Rico, where, as a young girl, she dreamed of becoming a teacher like many of her family members. At San Juan’s performing arts high school, Evelyn played clarinet and piano, sang with the Chamber Choir, and more. After graduation, she followed her dream to pursue a music education degree and attended Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey. To her surprise, many people at Westminster encouraged her to change her degree focus to voice performance instead of music education. She remained committed to her original plan, with the goal of having reliable employment after graduation. However, she still managed to sing quite a bit, auditioning and winning solo opportunities. Today, she can boast solo appearances at the Spoleto Festival in Charleston, South Carolina and Spoleto, Italy, and symphony orchestras in Puerto Rico. She has appeared in operas and concerts throughout Philadelphia, and many performances with Opera Philadelphia in the Academy of Music and in the community. You might even be able to spot her on stage as a member of the chorus in our current production of Donizetti’s The Elixir of Love! To supplement her singing career, Evelyn taught public school, but eventually left to find a job that would allow her more flexibility. Currently she is a Logistics Analyst for Zenetex, a liaison between the Spanish Air Force and the U.S. Government. Her advice to young singers is to “work really hard, but be smart in protecting yourself by having an education and something to fall back on.” As a beloved member of Opera Philadelphia’s chorus for 21 years, Evelyn’s love for singing is evident to all. She most values the camaraderie of the ensemble, and relishes the opportunity to make beautiful music with her friends. ­

¸


SING OUT WITH

Do you love to sing? Write poems? Perform for others? Then join us this spring for the launch of T-VOCE, an exciting new program by Art Sanctuary, the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts and Opera Philadelphia. Over the past several years, Opera Philadelphia has partnered with Art Sanctuary, an arts organization dedicated to bringing Philadelphians together through the unique community-building power of black art by celebrating diversity and embracing cultural differences. This season the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts joins us to launch Teen Voices of the City Ensemble,

or T-VOCE, an all-city youth choir for teens in grades 8-12.

South Philadelphia High School student Sakiema Wood performs an original poem, “Emergency Broadcast System,” at the Annenberg Center, accompanied on the piano by Tim Ribchester. Photo: Phillip Todd

Below: a prompt-inspired poem by a student from Mastery Charter School, Lenfest Campus.

When I Look in the Mirror When I look in the mirror I see a complete stranger looking back at me Unfamiliar eyes staring into my mind And this horrible vision makes me want to resign Into the safe place in the back of my mind My imagination As it seems to be the place of fallen dreams And the dreams are the heroes That keep my looking into mirrors When people look at me, they see A black man who’s 6’3” And instantaneously have to believe I have a murderous intent I must achieve But there’s one thing I don’t understand How’s my being darker than you Make me any less of a man?

We call it T-VOCE (tee-VOH-chay) for the Italian word for voice, voce. It’s about your voice. We believe in the power and authenticity of your voice. We want to hear what you have to say through song. We will celebrate you. In T-VOCE you’ll write poetry, sing songs, learn about music and singing, and engage in the arts. On top of that, you’ll perform for each other, the community, and watch your talents grow. Join us. Not just to sing, but to meet new friends, share your passion for the arts with others, and meet young people who share your interests. We’re looking for the most enthusiastic and talented young men and women to share their talents with the city. T-VOCE rehearsals will be on Saturday mornings from February through May at the Annenberg Center on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania from 10:00 a.m. until 12:00 p.m. Performances will be in May as part of Art Sanctuary’s Celebration of Black Writing and in June as part of the Annenberg Center’s 2016 International Children’s Festival.

How much does it cost to join T-VOCE? Nothing. We want to make it easy for you to participate and even provide SEPTA tokens to help you get to and from rehearsals. Interested? Visit http://tinyurl.com/t-voce to sign up and learn more! We look forward to hearing your voice!

~ Jalen, Mastery Charter School, Lenfest Campus ­

¹


GLOSSARY

ACT

»

¼

½

¾

N.

¿

AFFLICTED

»

one of the main divisions of a play or opera.

À

Á

FLIK

Â

Â

¾

Ã

Ä

¿

¼

Ä

Å

pained or suffering; affected or

Æ

troubled. A L C H E M Y AL »

Â

½

À

Â

Ç

È

È

¿

É

the medieval forerunner of

Æ

chemistry.

B L O C K H E A D BLAWK »

BOON BORE

»

»

Ò

Ë

Ò

Ë

Ë

Ê

É

¿

¿

Ð

»

À

Á

AMBITION

»

LEG

Â

¼

Â

Ç

Ê

Ë

Á

BIH

Â

Â

Ì

A D V.

¿

Á

À

É

¿

É

musical term for fast and lively. a strong desire to do or achieve

Æ

something.

BOUQUET

AMPLITUDE ( ¼

Ç

Â

Í

Î

Ã

TOOD

Â

¿

É

large or full measure; abundance;

Æ

»

Ë

Ë

Ê

Ë

KAY

Â

»

Ò

¼

Ô

BROOK

½

»

Ò

Ì

Ê

¿

À

Ð

¼

Á

É

DAHN

Â

Â

¾

È

Ï

¿

¼

Ä

Ð

a musical term meaning in

Æ

½

¿

É

Â

A N TA G O N I S T TAG an adversary or opponent of the main character or protagonist in an opera, play, or other drama. A N T I C I PAT E

»

¼

É

É

Â

Â

TISS

Â

Â

Ã

Ë

Á

Â

Â

Í

É

Ã

¼

Ì

Ï

¾

¾

¿

¿

É

Ð

A R I A AHR »

Â

È

»

È

¼

Â

Í

À

Â

»

À

Á

Ë

Á

A R D E N T AHR »

Â

Á

¿

Ä

Ã

É

É

Â

Â

regard as probable; expect or

Æ

¿

¼

Ç

¾

Ã

½

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

overcome with anger.

an operatic song for one voice.

Æ

¾

ROW

Â

PLEK

Â

Ä

À

Å

Á

enthusiastc or passionate; fiery, hot.

Æ

¿

É

a distinctive, typically pleasant smell.

Æ

A S T H M AT I C MA a person who suffers from asthma, a chronic disease involving the airways in the lungs. »

A S P E C T AS »

Â

¼

Í

Ñ

È

Â

½

Â

¾

¿

É

¾

Ã

½

¿

É

Æ

a way in which a thing might be viewed or

Æ

¿

¿

É

É

a type of wine.

Æ

an attractively arranged bunch of

Æ

»

Ò

È

È

¾

¿

É

Ä

Ã

É

Ä

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

»

Â

É

Ì

¿

É

the beat, rate, or measure of any

Æ

rhythmic movement. CAPRICIOUS

»

Õ

À

Á

PREE

Â

Â

Ì

Á

a heavy iron block with a smooth face, frequently of steel, on which metals, usually heated until soft, are hammered into desired shapes.

A N V I L AN »

Â

C A P S I Z E CAP »

CARESS CEDES

»

»

Â

Õ

Ì

À

È

Á

È

¼

Á

Ï

Ñ

RESS

Â

Ä

Ì

Ì

¿

C E R T I F I C AT E

Ð

»

Ð

Ã

Î

¿

É

Æ

»

Ò

¼

É

Ó

Â

½

Ô

Ã

¾

¿

É

an elaborate and formal evening

Æ

meal for many people.

Ð

Ð

¼

Á

Ê

¿

É

Æ

B A R C A R O L E BAR »

Â

Õ

¼

Ê

Â

Ë

Á

Î

¿

É

a song traditionally sung by

Æ

Venetian gondoliers. BARITONE

BAR

»

Â

Ã

Â

¾

Ë

Á

É

¿

É

the range of the male voice

Æ

between tenor and bass. BASS

»

Ò

È

Ï

Ì

¿

É

the lowest male singing voice.

Æ

B E N E FA C T O R

»

Ò

È

É

Â

Ã

Á

Â

FAK Â

¾

À

Ê

¿

É

Æ

a person who gives help to

a person or cause. BESTIR

»

BILLET BLISS

­

º

»

»

Ò

¿

¼

Ä

Å

given to sudden

Æ

(of a boat) overturn in the water.

Æ

gently or lovingly touch.

Æ

À

Ê

TIH

Â

Â

Ö

Ã

Á

Â

½

Ã

¾

¿

É

a document attesting a

Æ

level of achievement. C H A R L ATA N SHAR »

Â

Î

À

Á

Â

¾

Ã

É

¿

É

a person falsely claiming to

Æ

have a special knowledge or skill. CHORD

»

½

¼

Ô

Ê

Ä

¿

É

a group of notes played at the same time

Æ

C H O R U S KAWR »

Â

À

Á

Ì

¿

É

1. a group of singers. 2. a piece of

Æ

music for a group of singers. C H R O N O L O G I C A L KRON

Ò

Ã

Á

BIL Â

Î

Ã

Ì

Ì

Ã

¾

¿

¿

É

É

Æ

Æ

¿

Ð

Æ

make a physical or mental effort.

a lodging for a soldier. perfect happiness; great joy.

Î

Ë

Å

Â

Ã

Â

½

À

Á

Î

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

a method of

PEN of or like COMPENDIOUS ( a compendium; containing the substance of a subject, often an exclusive subject, in a brief form; concise CONFOUNDED

»

À

Õ

Á

À

Ç

É

Â

Â

FOWN

Â

Â

Ä

È

Ä

Ã

È

Â

Ä

À

¿

Á

¼

Ì

Ä

¿

Å

Æ

¼

Ä

Å

used for emphasis,

especially to express anger or annoyance. C O N S TA N C Y CAWN »

Â

Ì

¾

Ã

É

Â

Ì

È

È

¿

É

the quality of being

Æ

faithful and dependable. C O N T R A LT O

»

½

À

Á

É

TRAL

Â

Â

¾

Ë

Á

¿

É

Æ

the lowest female

singing voice. CORDIAL COR »

STUR

Â

Â

arrangement that puts events in order of occurrence. ½

a division of music, marked by two bar lines, containing a set number of beats. Ò

Ì

to yield or formally surrender to another.

Æ

Ì

¿

¿

»

BANQUET

»

À

changes in mood or behavior.

in harmony.

regarded.

BAR

having been oppressed.

Æ

Æ

predict. APOPLECTIC

a stupid person.

Æ

the basic pulse of a piece of music.

B E AT

¼

É

a small stream.

Æ

C A D E N C E KEYD

»

¿

to hit with the hand.

Æ

moderate slow time.

AROMA

DOH

Â

»

»

Ä

a thing that is helpful or beneficial.

Æ

B U R D E N E D BUR

ANDANTE

È

to make someone uninterested.

Ò

Ò

Á

flowers. BOX

copiousness.

»

É

Æ

BORDEAUX

ALLEGRO

Â

Â

Å

À

C O U R I E R CUR »

Â

Î

È

¿

È

Â

¼

À

Ä

Ê

Å

¿

politely pleasant and friendly.

Æ

É

Æ

a messenger who transports goods

and documents. CRAG

»

Õ

Ê

CROWNS

¼

Ó

»

Õ

¿

Ê

É

Ë

Æ

Ô

a steep or rugged cliff or rock face . É

Ì

¿

É

Æ

a British coin worth five shillings.


D A M S E L DAM »

Â

DELIGHTFUL

»

Ñ

À

Ä

Î

È

È

¿

É

a young unmarried woman.

Æ

LAHYT

Â

Â

Ö

À

Î

Î

¿

¼

Ä

Å

causing delight;

Æ

H E S I TAT E HEH »

DELIROUS

»

Ä

À

Á

LEER

Â

Â

È

È

Â

À

Ì

¿

¼

Ä

Å

in a state of wild

Æ

DESPISE

»

Ä

È

È

SPAHYZ

Â

¿

Ð

feel contempt or a deep repugnance

Æ

for. »

Ä

È

DIABETIC

È

»

TEST

Â

Ä

¼

Á

Ï

Â

¿

Ð

À

dislike intensely.

Æ

Á

BET

Â

Â

Ã

½

¿

É

INHERITOR

JOVE

a person who suffers from

Æ

diabetes. »

DIVERT

Ä

»

Ã

Ä

Á

STIL

Â

¼

Á

Ï

¿

Ð

VURT

Â

¿

Ð

distract (someone or their attention)

Æ

D U C AT DUCK »

Â

»

»

Å

Ã

Á

Ã

¾

¿

É

a gold coin current in most European

Æ

È

Á

LIX

Â

Â

À

Ê

¿

É

E N T O U R A G E ON »

Â

a magical or medicinal potion.

Æ

¾

À

Ê

Â

¼

Å

¿

É

a group of people surrounding

Æ

an important person. ETERNAL

»

È

È

TERN

Â

EXQUISITE

»

Â

È

Ø

À

Î

KWI

Â

Â

¿

¼

Ñ

Ã

Ä

¾

¿

Å

lasting or existing forever.

Æ

¼

Ä

Å

extremely beautiful and,

Æ

typically, delicate. FA S T I D I O U S

Ö

¼

Ï

»

É

Ö

¼

STID

Â

Â

È

È

Â

À

Ì

¿

¼

Ä

Å

very attentive to and

Æ

¿

Ë

Á

FIDELITY

»

Ö

Ð

½

Ã

pretend to be affected by someone or

Æ

À

Á

Î

¿

¼

Ä

DEL

Â

Â

Ã

Å

Á

Æ

Â

¾

È

È

¿

É

faithfulness to a person, cause, or

Æ

belief. F L AT a half-step lower than the corresponding note or key of natural pitch. ¼

¾

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

F L O R I N FLOR »

Â

Ã

É

¿

É

a former British coin and monetary unit

Æ

worth two shillings. F O L LY FAW »

Â

Î

F O R T E FOR »

Â

»

Ã

É

É

È

¾

È

È

¿

Ï

É

¿

¼

Ä

»

Ö

Ë

Ê

Ð

¿

Ð

to stop briefly.

Æ

Ã

½

Ì

¿

É

a person who suffers from

Æ

Â

Â

Â

F U R T I V E FUR »

Â

¾

Ã

Ö

À

Ê

Â

È

É

¾

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

having no particular

Â

Ð

¿

É

Ä

À

Á

Ð

Ã

Á

¿

Â

¾

É

À

Ê

¿

É

a person who inherits; heir.

Æ

an Irish princess.

Æ

another name for Jupiter, or Zeus, supreme god

Æ

»

½

È

È

¿

É

the basic note of the main scale used in a musical piece.

Æ

L A R G O LAHR »

Â

Ó

Ë

Á

¿

¼

Ä

Î

¿

È

È

¼

Ì

¿

Ä

È

È

¼

Å

Â

Ä

Ç

Ë

Ð

Á

¿

¼

Ä

Ð

Æ

very loudly.

attempting to avoid notice or

Æ

a musical term meaning in slow

Æ

L A N G U I S H E D LANG Â

Ó

Ô

Ã

Ì

Á

Ä

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

lose or lack vitality;

grow weak or feeble.

L I R E LEE »

Â

»

Ê

Î

Ã

¼

BRET

Â

Â

Ï

¿

É

Ë

Á

¿

É

the words of an opera or musical.

Æ

basic monetary unit of Italy.

Æ

music in a major key uses a major scale, M A J O R MEY in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then another tone (for example, C, D, E). It often has a cheerful, strong sound. »

Â

Å

È

Ê

¿

M AT R O N MAY Â

M E R I T MEH »

Â

Ê

Ã

¾

¾

¼

Ê

¿

Ä

Ã

Å

É

É

Â

¿

É

a married woman.

Æ

a fact that deserves praise or reward.

Æ

Ó

Æ

À

Î

¿

Ð

mix or cause to mix together.

Æ

M I N O R MAHY music in a minor key uses a minor scale, in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then a semitone ( for example A, B, C). It often has a sad, melancholic sound. »

MINX

»

Â

Ç

Ã

É

½

Ì

É

¿

È

É

Ê

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

an impudent, cunning, or boldly flirtatious

Æ

girl or young woman. M O D E S T M AW »

Â

Ä

Ã

Ì

¾

¿

¼

Ä

Å

moderate in the estimation of

Æ

one’s abilities. M O L L I F Y MOHLL »

Â

Ã

Á

Â

Ö

¼

Á

Ï

¿

Ð

appease the anger or anxiety of

Æ

someone. »

in an honest and direct way.

Æ

Å

time and dignified style.

Â

Ç

À

Ê

¿

Ð

say something in a low, soft, or

Æ

indistinct voice.

a musical term meaning loudly.

Æ

TEE

Â

»

attention.

N AT U R A L NACH Â

È

Ê

Â

À

Á

Î

¿

¼

Ä

Å

a note that is neither flattened

Æ

nor sharpened. N O TA R Y NOH »

Â

¾

À

Ê

Â

È

È

¿

É

a person authorized to perform

Æ

certain legal formalities. N U I S A N C E NOO »

Â

Ì

Ã

É

Ì

Ì

¿

É

Æ

a person causing inconvenience

or annoyance.

G A L L A N T GAL »

Â

Ã

É

¾

¿

¼

Ä

Å

brave; heroic.

Æ

N U P T I A L NUP »

G I L D E D GILL »

»

Â

Ó

Î

Ë

Ä

Á

Ã

¾

Ä

¿

¿

GONDOLIERA

Ð

»

¼

Å

covered thinly with gold paint.

Æ

dwell on one’s own success with smugness.

Æ

Ó

Ä

¼

Á

É

Â

Ä

Ë

Á

Î

Â

È

È

Â

ER Â

¼

Á

¿

É

Æ

a person who

operates a gondola. GRANDEE

»

Ó

Ê

¼

Â

É

DEE

Â

¿

OBLIGED

»

Ë

Á

»

»

Â

Ì

É

a Spanish or Portugese nobleman of

Æ

Ã

É

¿

Ð

Æ

Â

Ã

Á

Â

Ì

¾

À

Ê

Ì

¿

É

Æ

a person who harvests.

be quick to do something.

»

¿

É

À

Î

¿

¼

Ä

Å

of or relating to marriage or

Æ

Â

¾

Ã

Ð

¿

É

¿

Ð

be indebted or grateful.

Æ

a tone on the eighth degree from a given tone.

Æ

»

Ë

Á

Â

Ä

¼

Ô

É

¾

Â

Ã

Á

Â

LAW Â

Å

Ã

Á

Â

½

À

Î

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

of

or relating to the structure of teeth. O P E R A OP Â

È

Ê

Â

À

Á

¿

É

Æ

a play in which the words are sung to

musical accompaniment. O P U S OH a musical composition numbered as one of a composer’s works (usually in order of publication). »

a person legally entitled to the property of another on that person’s death. Ê

Á

BLAHYJD

Â

O C TAV E OK

»

HARVESTERS HARV H A S T E N HAY

Ì

weddings.

ODONTOLOGICAL

the highest rank.

Ï

¾

Â

M U R M U R MUR

lack of good sense.

Æ

F R A N K LY FRANK

¼

Ï

DIH

Â

»

FORTISSIMO

»

¼

HAYR

Â

»

changing frequently, especially as F I C K L E FIH regards one’s loyalties, interests, or affection. Â

Ã

M I N G L E MING

something. »

»

»

concerned about accuracy and detail.

HEIR

¾

Â

SOLE

Â

LIBRETTO

»

G L O AT

Â

»

countries.

Î

Ã

STAYR

Â

Æ

from something.

Ö

Ñ

Á

of the Romans. KEY

purify a liquid by vaporizing it, then condense it by cooling the vapor, then extract the resulting liquid . DISTILL

»

Ã

INDIFFERENT

ISOLDE

DETEST

»

Á

interest or sympathy.

excitement or ecstasy.

FEIGN

»

hysteria.

charming.

ELIXIR

Â

HYSTERICS

Â

Í

À

Á

Ì

¿

É

Æ

Æ

®

×


O R C H E S T R A AWR »

Â

½

À

Á

Â

Ì

¾

Ê

À

Á

¿

É

a large body of people

Æ

playing various musical instruments.

ascending order of pitch. S C R O F U L A SCRUF »

O S T I N AT O

»

Ë

Ì

Â

¾

Ã

NAH

Â

Â

¾

Ë

Á

¿

É

a constantly recurring

Æ

musical fragment.

Â

»

»

Â

Ð

È

Ê

Â

Õ

Á

È

Ê

¿

É

Æ

»

Í

¼

Ï

Ê

Â

À

Á

LIH

Â

Â

¾

Ã

½

¿

É

a person who suffers from

Æ

paralysis.

Â

È

È

Û

¿

»

Ì

Á

¼

Á

Â

Ã

Ì

¿

P E D D L E R PED »

Â

É

Î

»

Â

PHYSICIAN

À

À

Ê

»

Ö

¿

Ã

Â

¿

É

É

Á

a person who goes from place to place

Æ

a small bottle for liquids; vial.

Æ

SOPRANO

»

Ì

À

Á

ZIH

Â

Â

Ì

Á

À

É

¿

É

a person qualified to practice

Æ

È

È

Â

À

Á

NEES

Â

Â

È

È

Â

Ç

Ë

Á

¿

¼

Ä

Ð

Æ

Ú

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

a

musical term meaning very softly. PIANO

»

Í

È

È

P I T Y PIH »

Â

AN

Â

¾

È

Â

È

¿

Ë

Á

É

Í

Â

Ë

¾

¿

É

¿

¼

Ä

Ð

a musical term meaning softly.

Æ

the feeling of sorrow caused by the suffering

Æ

sequence of events in an opera, story, novel, etc.

Æ

PRESCRIPTION

»

Í

Ê

Ã

Á

SCRIP

Â

Â

Ì

Á

À

É

¿

É

a medicine or drug a

Æ

doctor officially tells someone to use. »

Í

Ë

Ê

TEN

Â

Â

¾

Ã

Ì

¿

¼

Ä

Å

of or like a wonderful

Æ

person or thing.

Ì

¾

È

Ï

Å

¿

É

»

Â

¾

Ë

Á

¿

¼

Ä

Ð

a musical term meaning very fast.

Æ

STORM

»

Ì

¾

Ë

Ê

Ç

Å

Ã

¿

STUPENDOUS SUCCUMBED

»

Í

P R E T E N S E PREE »

Â

Ê

¾

È

È

Á

ZUMP

Â

É

Â

Ì

¿

É

Ì

Á

Ã

É

¿

É

»

Í

Ê

Ë

LIHF

Â

Â

PROSCENIUM

»

an attempt to make something that

Æ

Í

Ê

Ë

Ã

½

Á

¿

¼

Ä

Å

É

»

SEE

Â

Â

P R O S P E R O U S PRAHS »

»

Â

»

Â

Ç

Ã

Ê

Ã

É

È

È

Â

À

Á

Ç

¿

É

Æ

the arch or frame

¾

Í

À

Ê

Â

Ã

Ì

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

successful in material

Á

Á

Â

Ä

È

È

¿

PEN

Â

Â

É

¾

Ã

É

a treatment for a disease or injury.

Æ

¾

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

expressing or feeling

R U S T I C RUH »

SCALE

»

Ì

Â

½

È

Ï

Î

½

Ã

Ì

¿

¾

É

¾

Ì

Ã

½

Æ

SWAIN

»

Ì

Ô

¿

É

a foolish or gullible person.

Æ

¿

¿

É

¼

Ë

Á

¿

É

¼

Ä

Å

magnificent; very impressive.

Æ

É

the presentation on the stage.

Æ

À

Á

PEN

Â

Â

CUMD

Â

Ä

¿

Ã

¼

Ï

É

¿

É

Ó

À

Ê

¿

Ð

Ð

Å

Æ

Ì

¿

¼

Ä

Å

extremely impressive.

Æ

failed to resist.

Æ

Æ

a country youth.

Æ

»

Ì

Â

Ã

T E N O R TEN Â

À

Á

NOP

Â

È

Ö

Â

Ê

¿

É

Â

Ì

Ã

É

È

Ì

¿

È

É

¿

É

Æ

a summary, a brief general survey.

Æ

the highest male singing voice.

Æ

T I M I D TIH »

Â

Ç

Ã

Ä

¿

¼

Ä

Å

showing a lack of courage or confidence.

Æ

1. an interval equal to two semitones. 2. the sound quality of an instrument or voice.

TONE

»

¾

Ë

Á

É

¿

É

Æ

Â

Ì

¾

Ã

É

¿

É

a legendary Cornish knight who is in

Æ

love with Isolde. T Y M PA N I T I S TIM Â

Í

À

Á

Â

É

¼

Á

Ï

Â

of or relating to the countryside; rural.

a series of notes arranged in descending or

¾

Ã

Ì

Ì

¿

É

Æ

inflammation of the

ear drum. U N PA R A L L E L E D

»

À

É

PAYR

Â

Â

À

Á

Â

Î

È

Î

Ä

¿

¼

Ä

Å

Æ

having no

parallel or equal; exceptional. VA L I S E

»

Ð

¼

Î

EES

Â

¿

É

a small traveling bag or suitcase.

Æ

VA N Q U I S H VANG Â

VA R I O U S VAYR »

Â

È

È

½

Â

À

Ô

Ã

Ì

Ì

¿

Á

¼

¿

Ä

Å

Ð

VERISMO

»

Ð

À

Á

RIZ

Â

Â

Ç

Ë

Á

¿

É

defeat thoroughly.

Æ

of different kinds or sorts.

Æ

Æ

Ä

the highest female or boy’s

Æ

S Y M P H O N Y SIM a long elaborate musical composition (usually in several parts) for a full orchestra.

Æ

realism in opera.

DYAIR a woman who formerly followed an army or maintained a store on an army post to sell provisions to the soldiers.

V I VA N D I E R E

»

Ô

Ã

Ç

»

»

¿

WILY WIYL

deceitfully.

Ù

Æ

walk or behave in a very confident and typically arrogant way.

WHIM

®

É

¿

Ë

»

R I C K E T S RIH a disease in children characterized by softening and distortion of the bones. Â

Ã

¿

Ë

»

sincere regret or remorse. »

É

to move angrily or forcefully in a specified

Æ

Ì

Ì

»

terms.

R E P E N TA N T

¾

Ä

Ó

Ð

»

T R I S TA N TRIH

plentiful.

Æ

that separates a stage from the auditorium.

R E M E D Y REH

¿

Æ

is not the case appear true. PROLIFIC

Â

Ã

Â

»

a belief that something is true even though it has not been proven. PRESUMPTION

a disease with glandular

Æ

Æ

Â

SYNOPSIS

P R E S T O PRES

É

a platform on which an opera, play, etc. are S TA G E performed for an audience.

»

PORTENTOUS

Î

Ä

S WA G G E R SWAG

Î

¿

Æ

Â

»

»

Á

direction.

of others. PLOT

À

É

É

À

S P L E N D I D SPLEN

»

Í

Á

PRAN

Â

S TA G I N G STEY »

Î

singing voice.

»

medicine. PIANISSIMO

Ë

¿

Í

»

Î

Â

Æ

selling small goods. P H I A L FAHY

¾

Í

»

»

Â

Ê

S I M P L E T O N SIM

Trojan prince from Greek mythology who was told to give a golden apple to the fairest goddess. PA R I S PAYR

Ë

SHARP any note a semitone higher than another note. Also, slightly too high in pitch. »

PA R A LY T I C

Ë

a half step or half tone, an interval midway between two whole tones.

S E M I T O N E SEM

an orchestral composition forming a prelude to an opera or ballet. O V E R T U R E OH

Ï

swellings.

Â

È

Ð

È

É

È

Æ

¿

¼

È

Â

Ð

¼

Á

É

Â

¿

É

Æ

a sudden desire. Ä

Å

Æ

skilled at gaining an advantage, especially


THE SCHOOL DISTRICT

Sounds of Learning™ was established by a

OF PHILADELPHIA SCHOOL

generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation.

Written and produced by: Opera Philadelphia Community

Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learning™

Programs Department ©2016 1420 Locust Street, Suite 210

REFORM COM MISSION William J. Green, member Feather Houston, member Farah Jimenez member Marjorie Neff, chair Sylvia P. Simms, member William R. Hite, Jr., Ed.D. Superintendent of Schools

program has been provided by:

Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. 19102 Tel: 215.893.5927

THE WILLIAM PENN FOUNDATION

Fax: 215.893.7801 operaphila.org/learn

WILLIAM A. LOEB Wells Fargo Hamilton Family Foundation Universal Health Services Ethel Sergeant Clark Smith Memorial Fund Eugene Garfield Foundation The Hirsig Family Fund of the Philadelphia Foundation

OPERA PHILADELPHIA

Morgan Stanley Foundation

David B. Devan General Director & President

Victory Foundation

Corrado Rovaris John P. Mulroney Music Director

The McLean Contributionship Louis N. Cassett Foundation

Annie Burridge Managing Director Jeremiah Marks Chief Financial Officer David Levy Senior Vice President, Artistic Operations Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Programs

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Programs bolton@operaphila.org Adrienne Bishop Education Coordinator bishop@operaphila.org Special thanks to: Dr. Dennis W. Creedon Creator, Sounds of Learning™ Frank Machos Director of Music Education, School District of Philadelphia The Office of Strategic Partnerships School District of Philadelphia Deborah Bambino Dr. Karl Janowitz Joann Neufeld Adam Pangburn Vincent Renou Dr. Amy Spencer Curriculum Consultants Dr. Bettie Joyner Kleckley Dr. Nanci Ritter Program Evaluators Thomas Sauerman Lily Kass Proofreaders

Opera Philadelphia is supported by major grants from The William Penn Foundation, The Pew Center for Arts & Heritage, and The Lenfest Foundation.

Maureen Lynch Cornell Wood Academy of Music Karma Agency Design Concept and Cover Design

Additional support is provided by the Independence Foundation and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. Opera Philadelphia receives state arts funding support through a grant from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Kalnin Graphics Printing Opera Philadelphia production photos by Kelly & Massa Photography The Elixir of Love production photos © Ken Howard for The Santa Fe Opera, 2009 ®

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