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OperA Philadelphia and t h e S c h oo l D i s t r i c t o f P h i l a d e l p h i a present


Academy of Music | final Dress Rehearsal W e d n e s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 2 0 1 4 A T 2 : 0 0 P. M .


Opera Philadelphia believes that family is the most important foundation to learning. Let your kitchen table become a classroom where your children can build their knowledge of opera and the humanities. As you join in the teaching and learning process with your children, watch their eyes sparkle. Opera is a communal celebration; so, too, should be your children’s education. Pennsylvania’s standards in education call for students to demonstrate what they know and are able to do, and children need to share what they have discovered or learned. Thus, the title of our program is Sounds of Learning™. It reflects our belief that children must actively engage in sharing ideas. The Sounds of Learning™ workbook and teacher guide integrates with the local core literacy curriculum in many ways. Just as opera is a uniquely integrated art—combining orchestra, voice, literature, drama, and dance—Sounds of Learning™ is an interdisciplinary, student-centered program. The goal of the Active Learning sections is to engage your children in the process of self-teaching. They will be able to show how they gain insights into their learning by drawing, writing, and discussing the issues most relevant to them. In this way, students demonstrate what they can do with what they know. In reading the libretto, or script, we suggest that you and your family members take turns reading particular roles. Dr. Ellen Winner of Harvard’s Project Zero found that “drama helps to build verbal skills that transfer to new materials,” and helps improve not only students’ reading skills but also “oral and written language development1.” In preparing for the opera, it may help to purchase a complete recording of the opera, or use the YouTube links provided throughout the guide to enhance students’ appreciation of the opera. We hope to build future audiences for, and performers of, the arts. 1.

Journal of Aesthetic Education, v34, #3/4, Fall/Winter, 2000.


Improve literacy achievement by using the opera’s libretto to teach lessons across the curriculum Understand the plot, characters, and their motivations in the opera Learn something about the composer and others involved in writing the opera Make a connection to the historic and social context of the story Know some key musical elements, recognize certain melodies, differentiate between voices Understand the role music plays in expressing emotions and heightening the dramatic experience Understand the various elements of producing opera and the functions of those involved: e.g., conductor, director, set designer, technical crew, etc. Develop the ability to make inferences about the opera, production, and performance Relate incidents in the opera to those of the present day


Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education


Going to the Opera at the Academy of Music


Theater Anatomy


The Then and Now of Opera


Opera Vocabulary



Caron de Beaumarchais: The 007 of the 1700s


Gioachino Antonio Rossini: Parties, Food, and Music


What in the World? Events in Rossini’s Life


Spanish Fairs and Films: The Inspiration



The Barber of Seville Synopsis


The Barber of Seville Libretto


The Barber of Seville: Meet the Artists



Find the Literary Terms in The Barber of Seville


Further Reading & Activites: Pop Culture


Plot the Action in The Barber of Seville


Recognizing Facts and Opinions


Supporting Your Opinions



45 Glossary


G O I N G T O T H E O P E R A AT T H E AC A D E M Y O F M U S I C There’s nothing as exciting as attending the opera in a theater like the Academy of Music, where you’ll see the final dress rehearsal of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville. The Academy is a very special building in that it is the country’s oldest grand opera house still used for its original purpose - performing opera! It is a grand opera house with a huge chandelier hanging from the ceiling. Its four-level design was based on the famous La Scala opera house in Milan, Italy. The Academy opened on January 26, 1857 with a Grand Ball and Promenade Concert and the first opera performed there was Verdi’s Il trovatore on February 25, 1857. The Academy is so important to our nation’s history that it was made a Registered National Historic Landmark in 1963. Thousands of world-famous performers have also appeared on its stage, like Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Igor Stravinsky, Arturo Toscanini, Marian Anderson, Maria Callas, and Luciano Pavarotti. More recently Alvin Ailey, Billy Joel, Elton John, Savion Glover, Chris Rock, even Mike Tyson have performed there! When you’re at the Academy of Music for The Barber of Seville, you may see several computer monitors and a large table spread out over the seats in the center of the first floor of the auditorium. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, and Set Designer, among others. They’ll be taking notes and communicating via headsets with the many people backstage who help make operatic magic. They’ll be able to talk to the crew so changes can be made right away. Should things goes wrong, the rehearsal might be stopped or a part repeated to make sure that it is perfect. Unlike actors on television or in the movies, performers on stage are very aware of the audience. They want to share their love of performing with you. Everything you do in the audience affects what happens on stage. You can show them how much you appreciate their work and the opportunity to come to the rehearsal by being as quiet as possible. Show your respect for the cast, musicians, the production team, and everyone in the theater by not talking. Give the artists and the production your full attention! To take a tour of the Academy of Music, please


DOs and DON’Ts at the OPERA Here are some things you can do to make sure everyone in the theater can enjoy the opera: Use the bathrooms before the opera begins or at intermission. Enter and exit the theater in an orderly fashion. Turn off your cell phones and all electronic devices. Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!” for the men and “Brava!” for the women. Don’t Forget... Please obey the theater ushers and staff. No food, gum or beverages are allowed inside the theater. No photographs or audio/video recording may be taken during the performance. No talking or whispering during the performance. No shoving, jumping, running, spitting or throwing anything in the theater. Make your school proud!

AC A D E M Y O F M U S I C F U N FAC T S The auditorium seats 2,897; 14 columns support the Academy’s tiers; the auditorium is encased within a three feet thick solid brick wall. The Academy Chandelier is 25 feet high, 50 feet in circumference, almost 17 feet in diameter, and 3,500 pounds in weight. It has 23,000 crystals on it, which, if laid out, could reach from Broad Street to Rittenhouse Square and back. The red and gold pattern on the Academy’s stage curtain is of a pineapple, a Victorian-era symbol for “welcome.” The first-ever indoor football game was held at the Academy on March 7, 1889 between the University of Pennsylvania and Riverton Club of Princeton. At halftime, tug-of-war matches were held as entertainment. 1,600 people attended the first-ever motion picture screening on February 5, 1870. The film showed a gymnastics routine, a couple dancing, and more. Air conditioning was installed in 1959. There was no elevator for the general public in the Academy until 1990!

Photo: Michael Bolton

T H E AT E R A N ATO M Y Opera singers must act on stage as well as sing! This means that they have to understand the stage set-up. When the director is rehearsing with the singers, he or she must be clear about where they should be on stage. Otherwise there could be a big traffic jam! So, special vocabulary is used. Upstage is the very back of the stage (away from the audience) and downstage is at the front (near the audience). Stage Left and Stage Right may seem to be on the wrong sides as well. Can you figure out why? You might also wonder about “up” stage and “down” stage. Opera sets are frequently built on a platform or “deck” that’s lower in the front near the apron and higher in the back near the back stage area. Thus, the lower end is “downstage” and the higher end is “upstage.” Also, when you visit the Academy of Music, look for the bas-relief portrait of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the top of the proscenium.














Diagram from OPER A America’s MUSIC! WORDS! OPER A! Level II Teacher’s Manual ©1991, OPER A America Inc.


THE THEN AND NOW OF OPERA Have you ever wondered where opera got its start? Back in the late 1500s, during the height of the Renaissance (14001600), a group of men called the Florentine Camerata got together to create a new and moving theatrical experience. They wanted to recreate what the ancient Greeks did during their legendary dramas. The result was something entirely new – opera! Most of the early operas were based on Greek myths. The first opera that we know of was called Dafne by Jacopo Peri in 1598, but the most famous opera of this early period that is still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607). Certain basic ingredients were included in opera: songs, instrumental accompaniments, costumes, dance, and scenery. We still use all of these ingredients today! The early operas were first performed in the grand courts of Italian nobility, but soon opera became popular with the public, too. As it became all the rage, productions became more lavish! Soon, theaters were built just to mount operas. These theaters had elaborate stage machinery to create special effects like flying actors or crumbling buildings. Not everyone embraced the new form of theater. Some critics thought that all of the stage antics in opera detracted from the music and drama. Some people even believed that seeing too much comedy in opera could make you immoral! During the Baroque period (1600-1750), Italian opera spread all over Europe. The Italian style of opera was so popular that even non-Italians wrote in this style. For example, Georg Frederic Handel (1685-1759) was a German-born composer who lived and worked in England. His operas, like Julius Caesar (1724), were written in the

Italian language and used an Italian style of music. The only nation to create its own national operatic style was France. Ballet played a large role in the French culture, and operas often included ballets in the middle of the opera. The most famous French Baroque opera composers were Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) and Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764). The eighteenth century was full of change for both Europe and opera. This time period was known as the Age of Enlightenment. People were talking about new forms of government and organization in society, especially the ever-growing middle class. Music displayed this new thinking as composers dropped the Baroque era’s complicated musical style for simpler, more emotional music. In less-flashy music, characters could express their thoughts and feelings more believably. One of the first operas to use this new style was Christoph Willibald Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice (1762). In 1776 the American Revolution changed the world. A few years later the French had their own revolution (1789) and the first modern democracies were born. To match the times in which they were created, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage, not gods and goddesses. They also wanted to see issues that were important to them. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) featured a timely story of aristocratic class struggles that had both servants and nobility in lead roles. The ideals of the Enlightenment also came to the stage in Ludwig van Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio (1805), a story about equality and freedom. In the 1800s opera continued to grow. The Italian tradition continued in the bel canto movement, which literally translates to “beautiful singing.” These operas asked performers to sing complicated groups of fast notes in the melodies. The most famous bel canto composers were Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848), and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 –1835). Their operas, like Rossini’s popular comedies The Barber of Seville (1816) and Cinderella (1817), are still some of the most popular operas performed today.

Photo by Kelly and Massa

By the middle of the century, the Romantic Movement led many composers to champion their own national identities. As a result, operas in languages other than Italian became more common; new works often reflected pride in a country’s people, history, and folklore. German operas like Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz (1821), Russian operas like Mikhail Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar


Opera in the twentieth century became even more experimental. Composers like Giacomo Puccini (La bohème, 1896), Claude Debussy (Pelléas et Mélisande, 1902), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905), and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) evolved their national styles. Others, horrified by the destruction of World War I (1914-1918) and other aspects of modern life, created music that was new and drastically dissonant. These operas often explored either dark psychological topics (Wozzeck by Alban Berg, 1925), or the simple and absurd (The Rake’s Progress by Igor Stravinsky, 1951). American opera had a huge hit with George and Ira Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935) which included jazz and blues musical styles. Today, opera is still growing and expanding. Opera Philadelphia helps to shape the future of opera by producing important new works like Argentinian-born composer Osvaldo Golijov’s flamenco-inspired Ainadamar (2008 & 2014), Hans Werner Henze’s Phaedra (2011), which interprets Greek mythology through the eyes of a World War II survivor, and Nico Muhly’s Dark Sisters (2012) which explores the lives of the women in a polygamist community. More recently, Opera Philadelphia co-produced Kevin Puts and Mark Campbell’s Silent Night (2013), an opera based on the World War I Christmas Truce. Upcoming productions include Theo Morrison’s Oscar (2015), based on the life of Oscar Wilde, and Cold Mountain (2016), an opera composed by Philadelphian Jennifer Higdon and based on the book of the same name by Charles Frazier. Although opera is one of the oldest musical art forms, it still remains and expands today. From the old favorites to the new experimental works, opera continues to be a moving art form of the people.

Photo by Kelly and Massa

(1836) and French operas like Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots (1836) were performed across Europe. By using nationalism in his operas like Nabucco (1842), Italian Giuseppe Verdi became a national hero. In Germany Richard Wagner took Romanticism to the extreme in a four-part operatic miniseries based on Norse mythology, The Ring of the Nibelung (1876), which takes over 15 hours to perform! The operatic stereotype of the singer in the Viking helmet comes from these operas.

above: Kevin Puts and Mark Campbell ’s new American opera, Silent Night below: Up-and-coming soprano Michelle Johnson as Puccini’s Manon Lescaut far left: Bass Morris Robinson dominates Verdi’s patriotic Nabucco


1. During the Renaissance, on what were many of the first operas based? 2. What kind of opera spread all over Europe during the Baroque period? Give one example of this kind of opera. 3. What artistic genre played a huge role in French opera during the Baroque period? 4. How did the Enlightenment movement during the 18th century change how composers wrote operas? 5. What new operatic qualities did Mozart’s The Marriage

of Figaro display due to the American Revolution and

its effect in the world? 6. Describe “bel canto” opera and give one example of a composer who used this style. 7. Nationalism was a prominent feature in the operatic world in the 1800s. Give an example of a composer who strayed from the Italian operatic form to write nationalistic operas. 8. What other musical styles did the American opera Porgy and Bess include? 9. Name three new operas that Opera Philadelphia has produced or will produce in the future.


OPERA VOC ABUL ARY Act - main sections of a play or opera Aria - a solo song sung in an opera Audience - people who watch a performance and sit in the “house� or auditorium Ballet - dance set to music within an opera Blocking - action on stage Character - person who is part of the opera’s story Chorus - music composed for a group of singers or the name of a group of singers in an opera Conductor - person who rehearses and leads the orchestra Duet - a song performed by two singers Libretto - the text of an opera or other long vocal work Orchestra - a group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments Ornamentation - any of several decorations, such as the trill, occurring chiefly as improvised embellishments in music Overture - a piece of instrumental music played at the beginning of an opera Program - booklet that contains information about the opera, composer, performers, the opera company, and includes advertisements Recitative - words that are sung in the rhythm of natural speech - a bit like the 18th century version of rap Rehearsal - time when singers/actors practice with or without the orchestra; time when musicians practice together with the conductor Scene - segments of action within the acts of an opera T Y P E S O F S I N G E R S: Soprano - highest pitched female voice Mezzo-soprano - female voice between soprano and contralto Contralto - lowest pitched female voice Tenor - highest pitched male voice Baritone - male voice between tenor and bass Bass - lowest pitched male voice


CARON DE BEAUMARCHAIS 0 0 7 o f t h e 17 0 0 s The author of the play upon which our opera is based is Pierre-Augustin Caron. He was born on January 24, 1732. Caron was the son of a Paris clockmaker. He became an apprentice to his father when he was a teenager. At age 20, he invented a new way for a watch to work. His idea was stolen, so he wrote his first essay, which is a piece of writing allowing the author to show his or her opinion on a given subject. It was addressed to the Academy of Sciences, against the man who claimed the invention as his own. The lawsuit ended in his favor. This incident with the law was the first of many throughout his life. He often won his cases because of his flawless logic, superior eloquence, and his biting sarcasm and wit. In 1755, Caron was appointed the watch­maker at the court of King Louis XV (1710-1774). The wife of a Clerk Controller at the court soon showed interest in the ten-years-younger Caron. When her husband died, Caron married her (1756) and gained her deceased husband's court office, but then she died ten months later. Among her assets was the village Beaumarchais (boh-mar-SHAY), a name Caron adopted as his own. However, most of his inheritance from his wife was lost in lawsuits with her relatives. In 1768, he married another wealthy widow of a court official but she died two years later. It was then that Beaumarchais’s enemies spread rumors that he had poisoned his wives in order to inherit their wealth. Beaumarchais harshly condemned their accusations. At the court of Louis XV, Beaumarchais became the music teacher to the daughters of the king. He also began a successful business relationship with the financier ParisDuverney. Beaumarchais soon became a rich man. With his newfound wealth, he was able to purchase the title of Secretary of the King as well as the office of LieutenantGeneral of Hunting of La Varenne du Louvre. Yet, Beaumarchais never hid his humble beginnings. In his writings, time and again he affirmed the close relationship he always maintained with his family. While engaged in the court of Louis XV and then Louis XVI (1754-1793), he was entrusted with several secret missions which took him to England, Holland, Austria and other countries. When he was in England, Beaumarchais often visited several influential leaders who opposed the government, and they informed him of the conflict between England and her American colonies. As a believer of the principles of the Enlightenment, Beaumarchais immediately took to heart the cause of the American

revolutionaries and became convinced that France must help them with equipment and weapons. France and Spain lent him millions of francs which he used to supply the Americans with huge amounts of weapons and ammunition. To have participated in American Independence was one of the great satisfactions of his life. In 1777, Beaumarchais founded the Society of Authors and Dramatists (Société des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques). It worked to obtain legislation that would defend the rights of authors. In 1779, Beaumarchais decided to publish the complete works of Voltaire (1694-1778), the witty French writer, historian and philosopher. The project was completed in 1790. In 1791, the National Assembly finally enacted a law that granted authors full ownership of their works. In 1792, Beaumarchais attempted a gun-running scheme that had him arrested in Holland, again in London, and eventually barred from France, so that he sought refuge in Hamburg until 1796. As a result, he escaped the French Revolution's Reign of Terror that took place between 1793 and 1794. Beaumarchais’s first comedy, Le Barbier de Seville, was written in 1772, but because of censorship issues it wasn't staged until February 23, 1775. Like Rossini's opera in 1816, it failed on the first night. Beaumarchais made changes, and the second performance was a complete success. His second major comic success was Le Mariage de Figaro (1784). Mozart made this into a great operatic masterpiece also. The central character in these operas is Figaro, who many scholars feel is Beaumarchais himself.

Active Learning 1. Beaumarchais was a musician, a lawyer, a spy, a clockmaker, a playwright, a politician, a con artist and a financier. What contemporary person can you think of that is similar to Beaumarchais in that he/she is a jack of all trades? Are people like Beaumarchais rare or common nowadays? Why do you think that is? 2. Gossip was always around, even before tabloids. Write a tabloid article about Caron’s brief marriages to wealthy woman, their sudden deaths, and his resulting inheritances. Find photos of his wives and add to your article. 3. Why do you think Beaumarchais provided weapons and ammunition for the Americans to fight against the English in the American Revolution? Do some research on how much impact this contribution had on the American cause.


GIOACHINO ANTONIO ROSSINI Part i e s , Food , and M u s i c Gioachino Antonio Rossini was born in the town of Pesaro on the east coast of Italy on the Adriatic Sea. He came from a musical family; his mother sang and his father played the trumpet. Rossini spent much of his childhood in theatres where his parents performed. The young Rossini was noted for his remarkable memory and ear. When he was 13 years old, his patroness, the woman who financially supported Rossini’s music, asked him for the sheet music of an aria from a popular opera. Rossini went to the tenor who had written it and was refused a copy. Rossini solved the problem by attending a performance of the opera. He then went home and wrote out the aria and a complete piano score from memory. At school he was a troubled student and often got into fights, but the young Rossini took refuge in music. At 14, he went to Bologna Academy, a fine arts academy which is still in use today. That year he wrote his first opera and learned to play the harpsichord, the trumpet, and the violin. Rossini had a beautiful voice and sang well and he was able to earn a good living from performing and composing before he was out of his teens. After success as a performer and composer made him a rich man, he retired at the age of 37 and lived a life full of parties and fun for the next four decades. When he lived in Paris, he hosted elegant dinner parties that were high social events written up in all the newspapers. He was always a good-looking man in his youth, but when he went bald in middle-age, he dealt with it by buying seven toupees, one for each day.

Rossini is best known for his many operas. He wrote both opera buffa (comic) and opera seria (serious). The Barber of Seville is generally regarded to be the best of the buffa genre. His style is fast paced and cheerful, yet elegant in its simplicity. He wrote for the bel canto style of singing which translated means “beautiful singing.” Rossini was one of the first composers to write out vocal decorations called ornamentations in his arias. Bel canto singers often added so many ornaments that Rossini’s arias would sound nothing like what he wrote. A larger and more forceful type of singing began to develop after Rossini’s retirement that he was much less happy with. For men, it meant a switch from using a falsetto sound, a lighter female sound, in the top registers, to a full chest voice, which sounds more like a yell. When he heard one tenor singing high notes this way in William Tell, Rossini remarked that he sounded like “a capon (a rooster) having its head cut off.” Rossini’s life as a composer spanned over two major musical periods, that of the Classical era (1750-1810) and the Romantic era (1815-1910). A response to the rationalism of the 18th century, Romanticism was about love, as well as a celebration of nature and of the simpler life. The Barber of Seville aligns more with the characteristics of classical elegance and balance, while Rossini’s last opera, William Tell typifies the more deeply emotional Romantic style. Biography courtesy of Sally Sweatman, Manitoba Opera, Winnipeg, MB

Active Learning

It is possible that Rossini loved to eat more than he loved to compose and there are humorous stories about his adventures with food. He is said to have composed an aria while waiting for his risotto to cook in a Venetian restaurant. Later in life he composed short little-known piano pieces with titles like Radishes, Pickles, Almonds Raisins and Hazelnuts. While Rossini lived in Paris, he befriended a chef and in exchange for pâté, would send him arias.

1. Listen to a clip of Rossini’s piano piece The Radish: http://

Rossini’s music echoes his love for life. It sparkles with energy and radiates a playful humor. Over his lifetime Rossini wrote three dozen operas, six cantatas, three pieces of sacred music, numerous songs and duets, a songcycle, and several instrumental works. And most of this was done before he was 37 years old.

4. Visit the Pesaro Rossini Festival website at http://tinyurl.

10 Does it sound like vegetables to you? 2. Listen to the overture to Rossini’s opera Guillame Tell (William Tell— Have you heard this music before? What does the main musical theme sound like to you? 3. Rossini was popular during the Age of Enlightenment. How do the themes of The Barber of Seville reflect those times? com/RossiniOperaFestival. What operas were performed there this year? 5. Can you find Pesaro on a map? How far away is it from Rome, Milan, and Venice? What are its latitude and longitude lines? What other cities are on or near those lines?

W H AT I N T H E W O R L D ? E V E N T S I N R O SSI N I ’ S L IF E Below is a list of important historical events both in Rossini’s life and throughout the world. The items in bold type are things that happened to Rossini and items with an asterisk (*) have local significance. All other items are historic or cultural events. Discuss what it might have been like to be alive during the time period. How would your life be different or the same? How did the inventions of the time affect daily life? 1792 Born on February 29 in Pesaro, Italy, the only child of Giuseppe, a horn and trumpet player, and Anna, a singer. 1806 Studies singing, cello, piano, and counterpoint at the local Liceo Musicale. He begins working in local opera houses. 1810 His first professional operatic commission is a one-act comic opera, La cambiale di matrimonio. 1812 Writes five new operas, including his first great success, La pietra del paragone. 1816 Il barbiere di Siviglia premieres in Rome, and La gazzetta and Otello premiere in Naples.

* The first savings bank in the United States opened in Philadelphia. 1817 Writes four new operas: La cenerentola, La gazza ladra, Armida, and Adelaide di Borgona. 1822 Marries famous Spanish soprano, Isabella Colbran. Vienna’s Rossini Festival, April 13 - July 8. Meets Beethoven. 1823 Premieres his last Italian opera, Semiramide (from a tragedy by Voltaire) in Venice. Travels to Paris, then to

London. 1829 His last opera, Guillaume Tell, premieres in Paris and is attended by a magnificent audience. He returns to Bologna.

* The cornerstone for first United States mint was laid at Chestnut and Juniper Streets in Philadelphia. 1830 “Mary Had a Little Lamb” was first published by Sarah Josepha Hale in the anthology “Poems for Our Children.” 1832 Forms a relationship with Olympe Pélissier, a beautiful and intelligent woman who nurses him during his many

illnesses throughout the rest of his life. 1837 Separates legally from Isabella Colbran. 1839 His father, age 80, dies.

First recorded use of “OK” [oll korrect] in Boston’s Morning Post. 1845 Visits his ailing former wife, Isabella Colbran. She dies a month later at age 60.

Rossini’s signature

Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” was first published. 1846 Marries Olympe Pélissier. 1847 The first doughnut with a hole in it was created. 1855 Takes up permanent residence in Paris. 1857 Returns to composing with a gift to Olympe–Musique anodine. It is the beginning of a

new phase in Rossini’s creative and social life. 1858 First samedi soir – December 18, where artists, politicians, diplomats, and the well-to-do

come to meet and hear a galaxy of musical talent. 1868 Last samedi soir – September 26. Dies on Friday, November 13 in Paris at age 76.

Over 4,000 people attend his funeral. 1869 * Charles Elmer Hires sold his first root beer in Philadelphia. 1870 * The first section of the famous boardwalk in Atlantic City, N.J., opened to the public.

The first root beer was made in Philadelphia in 1869.

1874 * The first United States zoo opened in Philadelphia. 1887 Re-buried at Santa Croce Church in Florence, Italy, where he lies next to Michelangelo,

Machiavelli, Galileo and other great men.


S PA N I S H FA I R S A N D F I L M S T H E I N S P I R AT I O N Women dressed as flamenco dancers at The Seville April Fair.

D irector M i c h a e l S h e l l gives T h e B a r b e r o f S e v i l l e a f re s h ne w loo k , s ett i n g i t d u r i n g t h e S e v i l l e A p r i l Fa i r .

Dating back to 1847, the Seville April Fair in Spain generally begins two weeks after Holy Week and lasts for six days. There’s a daily parade of carriages and riders at midday, carrying Seville’s leading citizens who make their way to the bullring. The fair is attended by men and women dressed up in their nicest clothes, ideally the traditional short jacket, tight trousers, and boots for men with the flamenco style dress for women being the highlight. Director Michael Shell recreates the feel of a fiesta on stage by integrating Flamenco dancers throughout the opera. In addition, there are colorfully-dressed characters from the fair littered throughout the show, including stilt walkers, carnival musicians, and dancers. All of this helps place the opera in Spain and more specifically in Seville.

The Count’s love interest, Rosina, is put to work as the assistant of her guardian Dr. Bartolo. Dr. Bartolo wants her to act and dress modestly, but she tries to be her own independent woman. In Act I she wears a sheer blouse, pushing the envelope in any way she can.

Further, the scenery and costumes in this production of The Barber of Seville are inspired by the zany films of Pedro Almodóvar, a Spanish film director, screenwriter, producer, and former actor. Almodóvar’s films have complex plots, are overly dramatic and use elements of pop culture, popular songs, silly humor, strong colors, and glossy décor. His films, like All About My Mother and Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown are also marked with a somewhat vintage feel that could place them anywhere between the 1970s and the early 2000s. Mr. Shell gives the opera a similar look: the sets have vibrant colors and patterns, and the costumes match the style of the sets and are specifically suited to clarify the character that wears them.

Don Basilio, the music teacher, transports us to the 1970s, portraying a John Lennon-like free spirit. He changes his occupation to suit whomever he is trying to impress at the time. His motivation is solely to make money and to create drama. The inspiration for his look stems from Salvador Dalí, the famous eccentric Spanish artist.

The opera’s characters are also directed like Almodóvar’s movie characters. Figaro, the barber, is our guide and a constant observer. He is a manipulator of not only relationships and characters, but also of the physical set. His character blurs the lines between reality and fantasy, which is a common theme in Almodóvar’s films. He is not only able to move in and out of scenes, making his way through walls and in and out of windows, but also slips in and out of every class of society, while being totally accepted in every situation. Figaro’s friend, Count Almaviva, is imagined to be like a famous Arabian prince. His image is plastered all over the scenery in the form of magazine covers. He is Spain’s most eligible bachelor—rich and famous and well-known—so the audience has a familiarity with the Count’s face right at the beginning of the show. When he reveals his true self to the army at the end of Act I, they are familiar with his face already and it becomes more believable.


Rosina’s guardian, Dr. Bartolo, is an ophthalmologist, or eye doctor, which is ironic because he is blind to the fact that Rosina will never love him the way he loves her. He is very stuffy and conservative, hearkening back to the 1950s era male personalities and looks. Also he is represented by a rooster bust in many forms around his house, trying to lead the flock, but all the while being butted by Almaviva and Rosina.

Throughout the show the maid Berta tries to capture Dr. Bartolo’s attention with her outlandish fashion choices, which are very impractical for a maid. For her second costume, Berta’s dress is the same pattern as the wallpaper in the house, so she can appear and disappear readily which provides for some good comic timing. Also, Berta offers her expertise as Rosina’s fashion consultant. Browse the pictures provided in the libretto to see the unique costumes of the characters from our exciting production.

AC T I V E L E A R N I N G 1. The traditional setting of The Barber of Seville is in the mid 1700s, with corsets and big gowns and men with white wigs. Discuss with your class whether or not the opera being set in contemporary times is appealing to you or not. Why do you think opera companies update the shows to be more modern? 2. Design a costume inspired by flamenco dancers or bullfighters, like the costumes worn during the fair. 3. Create a wallpaper print using water colors inspired by 1970s pattern. See a sample here: wallpapersample 4. Investigate the costumes worn in Almodóvar’s Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown: AlmodovarWOVNB

THE BARBER OF SEVILLE SYNOPSIS AC T I SCENE 1 Count Almaviva has fallen in love with Rosina, the ward of Dr. Bartolo, and comes to serenade her. The Count pretends to be the poor student “Lindoro” so that Rosina will not fall in love him solely for his money. Figaro, formerly the Count’s servant and now a barber in Seville, arrives singing happily about being a barber. He tells the Count that Bartolo has plans to marry Rosina for her family’s money. While they are talking, Rosina appears on the balcony with a note she has written to the handsome young stranger (Count Almaviva disguised as Lindoro) who has been serenading her. Unfortunately Bartolo is right behind her and, seeing her note to the Count, determines that he must act quickly and plans to marry her soon. After leaving instructions that no one is to enter the house, Bartolo hurries off to organize the wedding. Meanwhile, the Count pays Figaro to get him into Rosina’s house, disguised as a soldier seeking lodging.

SCENE 2 Rosina is determined to marry Lindoro. Bartolo tells his friend and Rosina’s music teacher, Don Basilio, of his suspicions that Count Almaviva is in town and in love with Rosina. Basilio suggests that they spread mean rumors about the Count. Figaro tells Rosina that Lindoro is his cousin and adds that the young man is deeply in love with her. Rosina is delighted and gives him a note to deliver to the Count known to her as Lindoro. The Count arrives in his soldier’s disguise, only to discover that Dr. Bartolo is exempt from housing the military. Almaviva/Lindoro slips Rosina a note, which Bartolo sees, but Rosina smartly gives him the laundry list instead. The noise from the ensuing confusion attracts the police, and the Count avoids arrest only by secretly revealing his true identity as the Count to an officer.

AC T II Count Almaviva enters Bartolo’s house again, this time disguised as Don Alonso, a music teacher. He says that Basilio, Rosina’s regular music teacher, is ill and has sent him to give Rosina’s music lesson in his place. He gains Bartolo’s trust by producing Rosina’s letter to Lindoro/ The Count. Bartolo dozes off during the lesson and the Count and Rosina are able to share their mutual affection. Elsewhere, Figaro manages to obtain the keys to the balcony which is the escape route the Count and Rosina plan to use for their secret wedding that evening. Basilio appears, but is told to go home because he looks so ill, advice he accepts more readily when Almaviva slips him a bribe. Rosina and the Count continue to arrange their wedding but Bartolo catches the lovers and the Count and Figaro must make their escape. When Don Basilio returns to admit that he has never heard of Don Alonso, the substitute music teacher, Bartolo gets suspicious and instructs him to fetch a notary to perform his wedding to Rosina right away. Meanwhile, Bartolo uses Almaviva’s letter, which he took earlier, to convince Rosina that the Count intended to seduce and betray her. Furious, Rosina reveals the elopement plans and agrees to marry Bartolo, who rushes off to fetch the police. When Figaro and Almaviva arrive, Rosina confronts her lover who reveals that he is, in fact, the Count. Their rejoicing is cut short when Basilio enters. He has brought the notary that Bartolo requested. Figaro persuades the notary to wed Almaviva and Rosina instead, while the Count bribes Basilio into acting as a witness. Bartolo arrives too late and with no choice remaining, he blesses the marriage and everyone wishes the couple love and eternal fidelity.

To preview The Barber of Seville with the exciting Opera Philadelphia cast, check out

Set designer Shoko Kambara's concept for Act I



English translation courtesy of Words bolded in the libretto are def ined in the glossary in the back of the guide. To see videos of the audio selections, go to the links provided in the gray boxes. FI GA RO (FEE- g ah - ro h)............................................................................. J o n a t h a n B eye r, b a rit o n e ROSI N A (ro h -ZEE- n ah)............................................................. J e n n i f e r H o l l owa y, m ez zo - s o p ra n o CO U N T A L M AVIVA (ahl - m ah -VEE- vah).............................................................Ta y l o r S t a y t o n, t e n o r D O CTO R BA RTO LO (BA R- to h - l o h )..................................................................Kev i n B u r d e t t e, b a ss D O N BASI L I O (b ah -ZEEL- yo h).............................................................Wa y n e T i g g es, b a ss - b a rit o n e B ERTA (B EH R- t ah).................................................................................Ka t ri n a T h u r m a n, s o p ra n o FI O REL LO (f yo ur- EH - l o h)................................................................................S e a n Pl u m b, b a rit o n e A N O FFI CER............................................................................. J o h n a t h a n M c C u l l o u g h, b a rit o n e M usicians, s o l die rs, tow nsp e o p l e, a n o t ar y CO N D U CTO R.....................................................................................................C o r r a d o Rova ris D I RECTO R................................................................................................................ M i c h a e l S h e l l SE T D ESI G N ER....................................................................................................S h o ko Ka m b a r a COST U M E D ESI G N.......................................................................................... A m a n d a S ey m o u r L I G H T I N G D ESI G N....................................................................................................D risco l l O t t o CH O RUS M AST ER..............................................................................................E l i z a b e t h B r a d e n Co-production with Opera Theatre of Saint Louis

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ACT ONE | SCENE ONE A small piazza in Seville. Just before sunrise. Dr. Bartolo’s house in centre stage; it has a small balcony, overlooking the piazza, above the front door. Fiorello enters from the right, slowly, surveying the scene, urging his hired musicians to follow him. FIORELLO Piano, pianissimo, without a word, all gather around me here.


CHORUS Piano, pianissimo, here we are. FIORELLO All is silence, no one is near our songs to disturb. COUNT (Count Almaviva, wrapped in a cloak, enters from down left) Fiorello … ho! FIORELLO Sir, I am here. COUNT Well! … and our friends? FIORELLO They are all ready.

(He crosses to the musicians) COUNT Bravi, bravissimi, softly softly; piano, pianissimo, utter no word. CHORUS Piano, pianissimo, without a word. FIORELLO Without a word, gather round. COUNT Piano, utter no word. (The musicians tune their instruments, and the Count sings, accompanied by them) c d E x c e r p ttrack 2

Cavatina: Ecco ridente in cielo

COUNT Lo in the smiling sky, the lovely dawn is breaking, and you are not awake, and you are still asleep? Arise, my sweetest love, oh come, my treasured one, soften the pain, oh God, of the dart which pierces me. Oh joy! Do I now see that dearest vision: has she taken pity on this soul in love! Oh, moment of love! Oh, moment divine! Oh, sweet content which is unequalled! COUNT Ho, Fiorello? FIORELLO M’Lord … COUNT Say, have you seen her? FIORELLO No, sir. COUNT Ah, how vain is every hope! FIORELLO Behold, sir, the dawn advances.

COUNT (The Count is in despair, he dismisses the musicians) Retire, retire. (He gives a purse to Fiorello) I have no longer need of your songs or your music. FIORELLO (Fiorello pays the musicians off ) Good night to all. I have nothing further for you to do. (The musicians surround the Count, thanking him and kissing his hand. Annoyed by the noise they make, he tries to drive them away. Fiorello does the same.) CHORUS Many thanks, sir, for this favour: better master, nor a braver, ever did we sing a stave for. Pray, good sir, command our throats! We will ever sing and pray for one who gives its gold for notes! etc. COUNT Silence! silence! cease your bawling, nor like cats with caterwauling wake the neighbours - stop your squalling. Rascals, get away from here! If this noise you still keep making, all the neighbours you’ll be waking. etc. FIORELLO Silence! Silence! What an uproar! Cursed ones, away from here! What a devilish commotion, I am furious, do you hear! Cursed ones, get out, get out, scoundrels all, away from here! etc. (Fiorello manages to push the musicians slowly out of the piazza.) COUNT Indiscreet rabble! FIORELLO They had nearly, with their importunate clamour, awakened the whole neighbourhood. At last they’re gone! FI G A RO (offstage left) La la la la la la la la la la. COUNT Who is this coming now? I’ll let him go by: unseen, under this archway, I can see what I want. Dawn is already here, but love is not shy. (He hides)

COUNT Ah, what am I to think! What shall I do? All is vain. Well, my friends!

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CHORUS ( softly) M’Lord …

FI G A RO (Figaro enters with a guitar around his neck) La ran la le ra la ran la la. Make way for the factotum of the city. La ran la la. Rushing to his shop for dawn is

Cavatina: Largo al factotum della città:


amusement, always with some money in my pocket, proof of my reputation. So it is: not a girl in Seville can marry without Figaro; the little widows come to me for a husband; with the excuse of my comb by day, of my guitar by night, to all, and I say it without boasting, I honestly give service. Oh, what a life, what a trade! (Figaro goes up right on the way to his shop; the Count comes out of hiding) Now, away to the shop COUNT (Figaro? Am I mistaken?) FI G A RO (Who may this be?) COUNT (Oh! It’s certainly he!) Figaro …


here. La ran la la, etc. What a merry life, what carefree pleasures for a barber of quality. Ah, bravo Figaro, bravo, bravissimo, bravo! La ran la la. Most fortunate of men, indeed you are! La ran la la. Ready for everything by night or by day, always in bustle, in constant motion. A better lot for a barber, a nobler life does not exist. La la ran la la ran la. Razors and combs, lancets and scissors, at my command everything’s ready. Then there are “extras” part of my trade, business for ladies and cavaliers … La la ran la …la …la. Ah, what a merry life, what carefree pleasures, for a barber of quality. All call for me, all want me, ladies and children, old men and maidens. I need a wig, I want a shave, leeches to bleed me, here, take this note. All call for me, all want me. I need a wig, I want a shave, here, take this note. Ho, Figaro, Figaro, Figaro. Heavens! what a crowd! One at a time, for pity’s sake. Ho, Figaro! - I am here! Figaro here, Figaro there, Figaro up. Figaro down. Quicker and quicker I go like greased lightning, make way for the factotum of the city. Ah, bravo, Figaro, bravo, bravissimo, On you good fortune will always smile. La la ran la. I am the factotum of the city. FI G A RO Ah! ah what a happy life! Little fatigue, and much


FI G A RO My master … Oh! Whom do I see? Your Excellency … COUNT Hush! Be prudent! I am not known here, nor do I wish to be. I have the best of reasons. FI G A RO I understand, I’ll leave you alone. COUNT No. FI G A RO What can I do? COUNT No, I tell you, stay here. Perhaps for my purpose you’ve come at the right time. But tell me, you wily rascal, how did you come here? FI G A RO Misery brought me, sir! COUNT What a scoundrel! FI G A RO Thank you. COUNT Are you behaving yourself ? FI G A RO And how! And you, why in Seville?

COUNT I will explain. On the Prado I beheld a flower of beauty, a maiden, the daughter of a silly old physician, who recently established himself here; enamoured of this damsel, I left home and country; and here I came, and here, night and day, I watch and wander near this balcony. FI G A RO Near this balcony? A physician? You are very fortunate; the cheese fell right on the macaroni! COUNT Explain! FI G A RO Certainly. In this house I am barber, surgeon, botanist, apothecary, veterinary … In other words. I run the house. COUNT Oh, what luck! FI G A RO But this is not all. The girl is not the daughter of the physician. She is only his ward.

FI G A RO The balcony window opens … (The Count and Figaro run away. The door opens and Bartolo comes out of the house.) B A RTOLO I shall return in a few minutes. Don’t let any one in. If Don Basilio should come to inquire for me, let him wait. (He locks the door from outside) I wish to hasten my marriage with her. Yes, this day (going off down the lefthand street) I am going to conclude this affair. COUNT This very day conclude his marriage with Rosina! Oh, the foolish old dotard! But tell me, who is this Don Basilio? FI G A RO A famous intriguing match-maker, a hypocrite, a goodfor-nothing, with never a penny in his pocket … He has lately turned music-maker, and teaches this girl. COUNT Well, that’s good to know.

COUNT Oh, what a consolation.

FI G A RO Now you must think of a way to please the pretty Rosina. With a simple little song you can explain it all to her, sir.

FI G A RO But … hush …

COUNT A song?

COUNT What is it?

FI G A RO Certainly. Here is my guitar. Come, let’s start. COUNT But I … FI G A RO Heaven give me patience! COUNT Well, we’ll try … COUNT (serenading Rosina) If you want to know my name, listen to the song I sing. I am called Lindoro, who faithfully adores you, who wishes to marry you, your name is on my lips, and you are in my thoughts, from early dawn till late at night. ROSIN A (Rosina answers from behind the shutters) Continue, beloved, continue to sing.



FI G A RO Listen! What could be better?

COUNT To your heart’s content. Come, on your way.

COUNT What happiness!

FI G A RO I’m ready. You cannot imagine what a prodigious devotion (and the sweet thought of gold) makes me feel towards Lindoro.

FI G A RO Bravo! Now continue. COUNT Sincere and enamoured Lindoro, cannot give you, my dear, a fortune. Rich, I am not, but heart I can give, a loving spirit which, faithful and true, for you only breathes, from early dawntill late at night. ROSIN A (Rosina answers again from inside) Sincere and enamoured Rosina her heart to Lindoro … (She breaks off and leaves the balcony) COUNT Oh, Heavens! FI G A RO I imagine someone entered her room. She has gone inside. COUNT Oh, damnation! I am feverish, on fire! At any cost I must see her, speak to her! You, you must help me.

FI G A RO At the idea of this metal portentous, omnipotent, a volcano within me commences to erupt, yes. COUNT Come, let’s see what effect this metal will have on you, some real demonstration of this volcano within you, yes. FI G A RO You should disguise yourself … For instance … as a soldier … COUNT As a soldier? F i G A RO Yes, sir. COUNT As a soldier, and for what purpose?

FI G A RO Ha, ha, what a frenzy! Yes, yes, I shall help you.

FI G A RO To-day a regiment is expected here.

COUNT Bravo. Before nightfall you must get into the house. Tell me, how can you do it? Come, let’s see some feat of your imagination.

COUNT Yes, the Colonel is a friend of mine.

FI G A RO Of my imagination! Well, I shall see … But nowadays … COUNT Yes, yes! I understand. Go ahead, don’t worry; your efforts will be rewarded. FI G A RO Truly? COUNT On my word. FI G A RO Gold in abundance?


FI G A RO Excellent! COUNT And then? FI G A RO By means of a billet, that door will soon open. What say you to this, sir? Don’t you think I’ve hit it right? Isn’t it a fine idea, happy thought, in very truth! COUNT Isn’t it a fine idea, happy thought, in very truth! FI G A RO Softly, softly … another thought! See the power of your gold! You must pretend to be drunk.

COUNT Drunk?

FI G A RO You had better go now.

FI G A RO Even so, sir.

COUNT And you watch out …

COUNT Drunk? But why?

FI G A RO I’ll take care of everything.

FI G A RO Because the guardian, believe me, the guardian would less distrust a man not quite himself, but overcome with wine.

COUNT I have faith in you …

BOTH Isn’t it a fine idea, happy thought, in very truth! COUNT Well, then? FI G A RO To business. COUNT Let’s go. FI G A RO Bravo. (They start to leave in opposite directions. The Count calls Figaro back.) COUNT Farewell! But the most important thing I forgot to ask: tell me, where do I find your shop? FI G A RO My shop? ... you cannot mistake it … Look yonder… there it is … Number fifteen, on the left hand, with four steps, a white front, five wigs in the window, on a placard, “Pomade Divine” a show-glass, too, of the latest fashion, and my sign is a lantern … There, without fail, you will find me. COUNT Five wigs!

FI G A RO I shall wait for you yonder … COUNT My dear Figaro … FI G A RO I understand, I understand … COUNT I will bring with me … FI G A RO A purse well filled. COUNT Yes, all you want, but do your part … FI G A RO Oh, have no doubt, all will go well. COUNT Oh, what a flame of love divine, of hope and joy auspicious sign! Oh glorious moment which inspires my heart, with fire unknown my soul is burning, and fills my spirit with will to dare. FI G A RO I almost can hear the clinking of coin, gold is coming … Already it’s here. Gold is coming, silver is coming, filling the pockets … Already it’s here. With fire unknown my soul is burning, and fills my spirit with will to dare.

FI G A RO A lantern ... There, without fail, you will find me. COUNT I understand.


SCENE TWO A c o u r t y a r d i n B a r t o l o ’s h o u s e c d E x c e r p ttrack 4

Cavatina: Una voce poco fa

ROSIN A (a letter in her hand) The voice I heard just now has thrilled my very heart. My heart already is pierced and it was Lindoro who hurled the dart. Yes, Lindoro shall be mine, I’ve sworn it, I’ll succeed. My guardian won’t consent, but I will sharpen my wits, and at last, he will relent, and I shall be content. Yes, Lindoro. I am docile, I am respectful, I am obedient, sweet and loving. I can be ruled, I can be guided. But if crossed in love, I can be a viper, and a hundred tricks I shall play before they have their way. I am docile. ROSIN A Yes, yes, I shall conquer. If I could only send him this letter. But how? There is none I can trust. My guardian has a hundred eyes … Well … well … meanwhile I’ll seal it. From my window I saw him, for an hour, talking with Figaro, the barber. Figaro is an honest fellow, a goodhearted soul … Who knows, he may be the one to protect our love! FI G A RO (Figaro enters from upstage, Rosina hides her letter.) Good day, Signorina. ROSIN A Good day, Signor Figaro. FI G A RO Well? How are you? ROSIN A I am dying of boredom. FI G A RO The deuce! Is that possible! A lovely girl, full of spirits … ROSIN A Ah! You make me laugh! Of what us is my spirit, what good is my beauty, if I am always shut up between four walls and feel as if I am living inside a tomb? FI G A RO A tomb? Heavens! … But I must talk with you



(The street door is being opened) ROSIN A My guardian is coming. FI G A RO Truly? ROSIN A Definitely. I hear his footsteps. FI G A RO (retreating upstage) Adieu, adieu! I will see you soon again! I’ve something to tell you. ROSIN A And I too. Signor Figaro. FI G A RO Bravissima. I go. (He hides himself) ROSIN A What a nice fellow he is! B A RTOLO (Bartolo enters from street) Oh, that menace of a Figaro! What a rascal, what a villain, what a scoundrel! ROSIN A (He’s off again. Always shouting.)

B A RTOLO They don’t come any worse! He has made a hospital of the whole household with opium, blood and sneezing powder. Signorina, the barber ... have you seen him? ROSIN A Why? B A RTOLO Why? Because I want to know!

DON B A SILIO Just this, that plausibly, we must begin to invent a story which will put him in a bad light with the public, making him seem a man of infamy, a doomed soul … I shall attend to this; within four days, on the word of Basilio, he’ll be thrown out of this town. B A RTOLO Do you really think so?

ROSIN A Has he, too, put you in a rage?

DON B A SILIO Without a doubt! I have my own system, and it is foolproof.

B A RTOLO And why not?

B A RTOLO And you would dare? But... slander …

ROSIN A All right, I shall tell you. Yes, I saw him, I spoke with him, I like him, I enjoy talking with him. I find him handsome. (Choke on that, wicked old man!) (Rosina goes up to her room)

DON B A SILIO Ah, what is calumny! Don’t you know?

B A RTOLO What a charming little miss! The more I love her, the more she disdains me. There is no doubt, it is the barber who has put her up to this. Oh! Devil of a barber … You shall pay for this!

DON B A SILIO No? Then hear and be silent.

B A RTOLO (enters) Don Basilio, you come at the right time. By force or by love, by tomorrow I must marry Rosina. Is that clear? DON B A SILIO Eh, you speak wisely, and it is for that very reason I have come. But keep this secret … Count Almaviva has arrived. B A RTOLO Who? The lover incognito of Rosina? DON B A SILIO The very same. B A RTOLO The devil! Something must be done. DON B A SILIO Certainly. But very hush hush. B A RTOLO That is to say?

B A RTOLO In truth, I do not.

Calumny is a little breeze, a gentle zephyr, which insensibly, subtly, lightly and sweetly, commences to whisper. Softly softly, here and there, sottovoce, sibilant, it goes gliding, it goes rambling. Into the ears of the people, it penetrates slyly and the head and the brains it stuns and it swells. From the mouth re-emerging the noise grows crescendo, gathers force little by little, runs its course from place to place, seems the thunder of the tempest which from the depths of the forest comes whistling, muttering, freezing everyone in horror. Finally with crack and crash, it spreads afield, its force redoubled, and produces an explosion like the outburst of a cannon, an earthquake, a whirlwind, a general uproar, which makes the air resound. And the poor slandered wretch, vilified, trampled down, sunk beneath the public lash, by good fortune, falls to death. Now what do you say? B A RTOLO Eh! That may be true, but meanwhile we are wasting valuable time. No, I want to do things my own way. Let’s go into my room. Together the marriage contract we must prepare. When she is my wife, (moving off to his room) I shall know very well how to keep off these love-sick dandies.


DON B A SILIO (following him) (If there is money to make, I am always on hand.) FI G A RO (Figaro who has been hiding up stage, comes forward.) Bravo! All goes well! I heard everything. Hurrah for the good Doctor! Poor idiot! Your wife? Come, come! Don’t make me laugh! While they are shut up in that room I shall try to talk to the girl … (Rosina comes down from her room) But here she is. ROSIN A Well, Signor Figaro? FI G A RO Great things are happening, Signorina. ROSIN A Yes, indeed? FI G A RO We will be celebrating a wedding. ROSIN A What do you mean? FI G A RO I mean to say that this fine guardian of yours plans to be your husband by tomorrow. ROSIN A What nonsense!

FI G A RO Oh, I swear it. He has locked himself in that room with your music-master to draw up the contract. ROSIN A Yes? Well, he is much mistaken! Poor fool! He has me to deal with … But tell me, Signor Figaro, a little while ago under my window were you talking with a gentleman? FI G A RO (Crossing to right, away from Rosina, and making up a story.) Yes, with my cousin. A fine young man, with a good head and a warm heart. Poor fellow, he has come here to finish his studies and to seek his fortune. ROSIN A A fortune? Oh, he’ll make it. FI G A RO I doubt it. Confidentially he has one great fault. ROSIN A A great fault? FI G A RO Yes, a great one. He is dying of love. ROSIN A Really? That young man, you know, interests me very much. FI G A RO Good Lord! ROSIN A Don’t you believe it? FI G A RO Oh, yes! ROSIN A And tell me, his beloved, does she live far away? FI G A RO Oh, no. That is ... here … two steps … ROSIN A But is she pretty?

Don Basilio


FI G A RO Oh, pretty, enough! I can give you her picture in two words: deliciously plump, high-spirited, black hair, rosy cheeks, sparkling eyes, enchanting hands.

ROSIN A And her name? FI G A RO And her name too! Her name, what a lovely name! She is called … ROSIN A Well, what is she called? FI G A RO Poor little dear! … She is called (spelling) R ... o … ROSIN A Ro …

ROSIN A I shouldn’t see him … FI G A RO Come, courage. ROSIN A I don’t know … FI G A RO Only two lines …

FI G A RO S ...i …si ... ROSIN A a n d FI G A RO Ro-si … FI G A RO n … a … na … Rosina! ROSIN A Rosina! c d E x c e r p ttrack 5

FI G A RO He is awaiting some sign, poor man, of your affection; send him but two lines and you will see him here. What do you say to this?

Duet: Dunque io son tu non m’inganni? BarberDuet

ROSIN A Then it is I … You are not mocking me? Then I am the fortunate girl! (But I had already guessed it, I knew it all along.) FI G A RO You are, sweet Rosina, of Lindoro’s love, the object. (Oh, what a cunning little fox! But she’ll have to deal with me.) ROSIN A But tell me, to Lindoro how shall I contrive to speak? FI G A RO Patience, patience, and Lindoro soon your presence here will seek. ROSIN A To speak to me? Bravo! Bravo! Let him come, but with caution, meanwhile I am dying of impatience! Why is he delayed? What is he doing?

ROSIN A I am too shy. FI G A RO But why? But why? Quickly, quickly, give me a note. ROSIN A A note? … Here it is. (She takes a letter from her bosom and gives it to him) FI G A RO (Already written … What a fool I am! She could give me a lesson or two!) ROSIN A Fortune smiles on my love, I can breathe once more. FI G A RO (in cunning itself she could be a professor.) ROSIN A Oh, you alone, my love, can console my heart. FI G A RO (Women, women, eternal gods, who can fathom their minds?) ROSIN A Oh, you alone, my love, can console my heart. etc. ROSIN A Tell me, but Lindoro … FI G A RO Is on his way. In a few minutes he’ll be here to speak to you.


ROSIN A Let him come, but with caution. FI G A RO Patience, patience, he’ll be here. ROSIN A Fortune smiles on my love, I can breathe once more. Oh, you alone, my love, can console my heart. etc. FI G A RO (Women, women, eternal gods, who can fathom their minds?) etc. (Figaro leaves through the street door) ROSIN A Now I feel better. That Figaro is a nice young man. B A RTOLO (Bartolo enters from his room) With fair words may I know from my Rosina what brought this fellow here this morning? ROSIN A Figaro? I know nothing. B A RTOLO He spoke to you? ROSIN A He spoke to me. B A RTOLO What was he telling you?

B A RTOLO Bravissima! (He picks up the pen.) And the pen, why was it sharpened? ROSIN A (Heavens!) The pen! To draw a flower to embroider. B A RTOLO To embroider! A flower! ROSIN A A flower. B A RTOLO A flower! Oh! You minx! ROSIN A It is the truth. B A RTOLO Silence. ROSIN A Believe me … B A RTOLO Enough of this. ROSIN A Sir …

ROSIN A Oh, he told me a hundred trif les … Of the fashions of France, of the health of his daughter Marcellina.

B A RTOLO No more … be quiet. Sweets for Marcellina! A design for your embroidery! And the scalding of your finger! It takes more than that, my girl, to deceive me with success. More! More! More! More!

B A RTOLO Indeed? What is the meaning (He seizes Rosina’s finger) of your ink-stained finger?

Why is that sheet of paper missing? I mean to find out what’s going on. No, coaxing is useless. Keep away, don’t touch me.

ROSIN A Stained? Oh! Nothing. I burned myself and I used the ink as a medicine.

No, my dear girl, give up all hope that I’ll let myself be fooled. For a doctor of my standing these excuses, Signorina, I advise you, my dear child, to invent a little better.

B A RTOLO (The devil!) (He counts the sheets of paper on the table.) And these sheets of paper. There are five now, there were six. ROSIN A The note paper? You are right. I used one to wrap the sweets I sent to Marcellina.


Come, dear child, confess it all. I am prepared to pardon you. You don’t answer? You are stubborn? Then I know well what I’ll do. Signorina, another time when Bartolo must leave the house he’ll give orders to the servants who will see you

stay inside. Now your pouting will not help you nor your injured innocence. I here assure you, through that door the very air itself won’t enter. For a doctor of my standing does not let himself be fooled. And little innocent Rosina, disconsolate and in despair, in her chamber shall be locked so long as I see fit. BERT A (enters from upstage) From within this room I thought I heard a noise … Probably the guardian with his ward … He never has an hour’s peace. These girls don’t want to understand … (She hears a knock and the voice of the Count outside) Knocking! COUNT Open. BERT A (going to open the street door) I’m coming - here I am! I’m coming - who the devil is it? (She opens the door. The Count enters disguised as a soldier. He pretends to be drunk. Berta goes out and Bartolo enters.) B A RTOLO For a doctor of my standing these excuses, Signorina, I advise you, my dear child, to invent a little better. Better! Better! Better! Better!

COUNT Hey, good people … Is no one at home! Hey … B A RTOLO Who can that be? What an ugly face! And drunk, too! Who is it? COUNT Curses, is nobody home! Hey … B A RTOLO What do you want, Signor Soldier? COUNT Oh, yes! Very much obliged. B A RTOLO (What on earth is he doing here?) COUNT You are … wait a minute. You are … Doctor Balordo? B A RTOLO What Balordo? What Balordo? COUNT Ah, ah, Bertoldo. B A RTOLO What Bertoldo? Oh, go to the devil! Doctor Bartoio, Doctor Bartolo. COUNT Ah, bravissimo, Doctor Barbaro, bravissimo, Doctor Barbaro. B A RTOLO You blockhead! COUNT Well and good, the difference, after all, is trif ling. B A RTOLO (Shuffling across left in a fury) (I am already out of patience. Prudence is necessary here.) COUNT (Searching for Rosina) (She does not appear! How impatient I feel! How long she delays! Where can she be?) Then you are a doctor?


B A RTOLO Yes, sir, I am a doctor. COUNT


Ah, very fine! Let me embrace a colleague here. B A RTOLO Keep off! COUNT Come. I also am the doctor for hundreds … I am the vet of the regiment. My billet for lodgings, look here it is. (Oh, come, dearest object of my happiness!) B A RTOLO (With rage, with vexation, in truth I shall burst. If I don’t watch out, I’ll do something rash.) (Rosina enters from her room) COUNT Hasten, hasten, your adorer, full of love awaits you here. B A RTOLO If I don’t watch out, I’ll do something rash.

COUNT To the barracks. B A RTOLO To the barracks? COUNT Oh, this is great! B A RTOLO To the barracks? A good joke! COUNT Dearest … ROSIN A Help me … B A RTOLO Oh, damnation!

ROSIN A (A soldier, a guardian, what am I to do now?)

COUNT Then I go … (The Count starts towards the inner room. Bartolo seizes him.)

COUNT (The Count has seen Rosina and approaches her) (It is Rosina! Now I am happy.)

B A RTOLO Oh no, sir, you can have no lodging here.

ROSIN A (He looks at me … he is coming near.)

COUNT What? What?

COUNT (I am Lindoro!)

B A RTOLO No sense arguing … I am exempt from lodging troops.

ROSIN A (Heavens! What do I hear! Prudence, for mercy’s sake)

COUNT Exempt?

B A RTOLO (seeing Rosina) Signorina, what are you looking for? Quickly, quickly, leave the room!

B A RTOLO (going to his desk) Good sir, just a moment and I shall show you.

ROSIN A I’m going, I’m going, don’t shout.

COUNT (aside to Rosina) Since I may not be able to remain here, take this … (He motions to her to take a note)

B A RTOLO Quickly, quickly, away from here.

ROSIN A (Be careful! He is watching us!)

COUNT And, my girl, I am going too.

B A RTOLO (Oh, I can no longer find it.)

B A RTOLO Where, where, sir?

ROSIN A (We must be careful!)


B A RTOLO (Thrashing the Count with his walking stick) I am fed up, my master, out and quickly, or a good stick will dislodge you from here! COUNT Then you wish to battle? Good! A battle I will give you. (Drawing his sword.) A battle is a fine thing! Let me show you how it’s done. (He knocks the stick out of Bartolo’s hand.) Observe! This is the trench … You are the enemy … Attention, and friends … (aside to Rosina) (Drop your handkerchief.) (He lets a letter fall and Rosina drops her handkerchief to cover it.) And friends standing here, attention. B A RTOLO (Who has noticed the maneuvre) Stop, stop …


B A RTOLO (But, yes, yes, I must find it.) ROSIN A and COUNT (A hundred emotions burn within me, I can no longer control myself.) B A RTOLO Ah, here it is. (Moving towards the Count and reading the document to him.) “By this let it be known that Doctor Bartolo etc. is exempted...” COUNT (With a sweep of his hand he flings the paper into the air) Oh, go to the devil! Don’t bother me any more. B A RTOLO My dear sir, what are you doing? COUNT (crossing right to Rosina) Silence now, donkey of a doctor; my lodging is fixed here, and here I will remain. B A RTOLO Will remain? COUNT Certainly, will remain.

COUNT What is it? Ah! B A RTOLO Let me see it. (As Bartolo bends to pick up the letter, the Count puts his sword through it) COUNT Yes, if it were a prescription! But a note … It s my duty … If you will pardon me. (He give the letter to Rosina who quickly exchanges it for a laundry list.) ROSIN A Thank you. Thank you. B A RTOLO Thank you, thank you, thank you nothing! Give me the paper, impertinent one! Quickly, I say! COUNT You wish to battle? On guard … Ah! Ah! ROSIN A But this paper which you ask for fell to the floor by chance. It is only the laundry list. B A RTOLO Oh, you flirt, come quickly here! What do I see! (Rosina gives the laundry list to Bartolo; she and the Count cross left. Berta looks through the spy hole of the street door.) BERT A The barber …


B A RTOLO I was mistaken! It is the laundry list! BERT A So many people! B A RTOLO I am petrified!

B A RTOLO , B A SILLO Good people help … help me. Good people help, for mercy’s sake! COUNT Unhand me, unhand me!

COUNT Bravo, bravo, the old fool!

FI G A RO (Figaro enters, stopping the chase) Stop! What is happening, what clamour is this? Great gods! This uproar into the streets has drawn half the city. (softly to the Count) For heaven’s sake, be careful, sir.

B A RTOLO Yes. I really am an imbecile, oh, what a big mistake! etc.

B A RTOLO (pointing to the Count) This fellow’s a rascal!

B A SILIO (Basilio enters up stage right, singing from a sheet of music) Sol do re mi fa re sol mi la fa si ti sol do, but what confusion this is here.

COUNT (pointing to Bartolo ) This fellow’s a scoundrel!

ROSIN A and COUNT Bravo, bravo, the old fool in the trap at last he is caught. BERT A I am petrified, bewildered, what confusion this is here. ROSIN A (at the fountain, weeping) Once again! The same old story, I am always oppressed and mistreated! What a wretched life I live! I can’t stand it any more. B A RTOLO Ah, poor little Rosina. COUNT (chases Bartolo away. The others try to restrain him.) Come here, what have you done to her? B A RTOLO Stop … nothing at all … COUNT You rabble, you traitor … ROSIN A , BERT A , B A RTOLO and B A SILIO Hands off, away, sir. COUNT I’d like to knock him down. ROSIN A , BERT A Good people help … but calm yourself … Good people, help … for mercy’s sake!


B A RTOLO Oh, what a villain! COUNT Oh, what a cursed fellow! FI G A RO Signor Soldier, have respect, or this basin soon shall teach you of your manners to beware. (For heaven’s sake, be careful, sir.) COUNT Ugly baboon … B A RTOLO Low-born scoundrel … ROSIN A , BERT A , FI G A RO and B A SILIO Be quiet, doctor … B A RTOLO I’ll shout it loud … ROSIN A , BERT A , FI G A RO and B A SILIO Hold, sir … COUNT I am going to murder … ROSIN A , BERT A , FI G A RO and B A SILIO Be silent, for pity’s sake! COUNT I’m going to kill him without mercy.

ROSIN A , BERT A , FI G A RO and B A SILIO Be silent, for pity’s sake! (Hard knocking against door up left)

ROSIN A Pardon him, poor fellow, he is affected by wine. Yes, sir, yes, sir.

ROSIN A , BERT A and FI G A RO Silence, they are knocking …

OFFICER I heard you, I heard you. (To the Count) My good man, you are under arrest. Quickly come away from here.

A LL Who can it be?

COUNT Arrested? I? Stop now!

B A RTOLO (looking out into the street) Who’s there?

(The Count presents a document to the Officer who, after reading it, salutes smartly; the soldiers present arms)

CHORUS (offstage) Open the door in the name of the law!

c d E x c e r p ttrack 6

A LL The police! Oh, the devil! FI G A RO and B A SILIO Now you have done it!

Act I Finale: Fredda ed immobile come una statua

ROSIN A Cold and motionless like a statue. I have hardly breath to breathe!

COUNT and B A RTOLO Have no fear! Let them come in.

COUNT Cold and motionless like a statue. She has hardly breath to breathe!

A LL I wonder how on earth this adventure will end! (Officer soldiers and townspeople burst into the courtyard)

B A RTOLO Cold and motionless like a statue, I have hardly breath to breathe!

CHORUS Stay where you are. Let no one move. Good sirs, what’s going on? What’s the cause of this disturbance? Quickly give an explanation.

FI G A RO Look at Don Bartolo, he stands like a statue! Oh, I am ready to burst with laughter!

B A RTOLO This dog of a soldier, good sir, has mistreated me, yes, sir, yes, sir. FI G A RO I only came, good sir, to calm this disturbance. Yes, sir, yes, sir. B A SILIO and BERT A He is making an infernal noise, he is threatening to kill us, yes, sir, yes, sir. COUNT As a lodger, this villain is not willing to accept me. Yes, sir, yes, sir.

B A SILIO Cold and motionless I have hardly breath to breathe! BERT A I have hardly breath to breathe! B A RTOLO But sir … for a doctor. But if you … but I would like … But if we … but if then … But listen, but hear … CHORUS Silence all! That’s enough! Do not speak, do not shout. Silence! We’ll take care of it. Silence you! Do not speak. Everybody go about their business. Let altercation end. ROSIN A and B A SILIO But if we … but if then … but if then, but if we … Silence here! Silence there! Silence, silence everywhere!


BERT A , COUNT and FI G A RO Silence here! Silence there! Silence, silence, everywhere!

COUNT (enters disguised as a music master) Peace and happiness be with you.

A LL My head seems to be in a fiery smithy, the sound of the anvils, ceaseless and growing, deafens the ear. Up and down, high and low, striking heavily, the hammer makes the very walls resound with a barbarous harmony. Thus our poor, bewildered brain, stunned, confounded, in confusion, without reason, is reduced to insanity.

B A RTOLO A thousand thanks, come right in. COUNT Happiness and peace for a thousand years. B A RTOLO In truth I am obliged to you. (That face is not unknown to me. I don’t recall, I don’t remember, but that face, that face... I do not know, who can it be?) COUNT (Ah, if before I failed to deceive this simpleton, my new disguise should prove more successful.) Peace and happiness be with you. B A RTOLO I heard you! (Heavens, what a bore!) COUNT Happiness and peace, from my heart. B A RTOLO Enough, enough, for pity’s sake. COUNT Happiness... B A RTOLO Happiness...

Count disguised as “Lindoro.”

ACT TWO T h e m u s i c r o o m i n B a r t o l o ’s h o u s e . (There is a harpsichord covered with sheets of music.) B A RTOLO (alone) Look at my ill-fortune! That soldier, as far as I can learn, is known by nobody in the whole regiment. I doubt... oh, damnation... Did I say doubt? I would wager that the Count Almaviva has sent this fellow here to sound out Rosina’s heart. Not even in one’s own house can one be safe! But I... (Knocks are heard at the main door) Who is knocking? Eh, who is there! They are knocking, don’t you hear? I am home, have no fear, open.


COUNT Peace... B A RTOLO Peace...I heard you! (What a bore!) COUNT From my heart, peace and happiness. B A RTOLO Peace and happiness. Enough, for pity’s sake! (What a wretched fate is mine! What a terrible day this is! Everyone against me! What a cruel destiny!) COUNT (The old fellow knows me not. How fortunate for me! Ah, my love! In a few moments we shall be able to speak freely!)

B A RTOLO In a word, sir, who are you? May one know? COUNT Don Alonso, teacher of music and pupil of Don Basilio. B A RTOLO Well? COUNT Don Basilio, poor man, is taken ill, and in his stead... B A RTOLO Taken ill? I’ll go and see him at once. COUNT Take it easy. His illness is not that serious. B A RTOLO (I don’t trust this fellow.) Come, let us go. COUNT But sir... B A RTOLO Well, what? COUNT I wished to say... B A RTOLO Speak up. COUNT (quietly) But... B A RTOLO Speak up, I tell you. COUNT Well, as you wish. Then you shall learn who Don Alonso is. (raising his voice) I’ll see Count Almaviva... B A RTOLO Softly, softly, speak, speak. I am listening. COUNT The Count... B A RTOLO Softly, for goodness’ sake!

COUNT This morning I met him in the same inn where I was lodging, and into my hand, by chance, fell this note, addressed by your ward to him. B A RTOLO What do I see! It is her writing! COUNT Don Basilio knows nothing of this paper, and I, coming instead of him to give lessons to the young lady, wished to acquire merit in your eyes because with this could... B A RTOLO Could what? COUNT I shall tell you...If I could only speak with the girl, I could... with your permission...make her believe that it was given to me by a mistress of the Count, clear proof that the Count is playing with her affection, and therefore... B A RTOLO Softly...A calumny! Oh, you are indeed a worthy pupil of Don Basilio! I shall know how to reward you as you deserve for this happy suggestion. I’ll call the girl. Since you show so much interest, I trust myself to you. COUNT Do not worry. (Bartolo goes to fetch Rosina.) This affair of the note was a slip of the tongue. But what was I to do? Without some trick, I would have had to leave like a fool. I must now acquaint her with my plan; if she consents, I shall be a happy man. Here she is. Oh, how my heart is beating in my breast! B A RTOLO (Bartolo returns leading Rosina by the hand.) Come, Signorina. Don Alonso, whom you see, will give you your lesson. ROSIN A (recognizing the Count) Ah! B A RTOLO What’s the matter? ROSIN A Oh...a cramp in my foot.


COUNT Oh, it’s nothing! Sit by my side, fair young lady. If you don’t mind, in place of Don Basilio, I shall give you a short lesson. ROSIN A Oh, with the greatest of pleasure. COUNT What would you like to sing? ROSIN A I shall sing, if you please, the rondo from The Futile Precaution. COUNT Good, let’s begin. (He sits at the harpsichord and accompanies Rosina.) ROSIN A Against a heart inflamed with love, burning with unquenchable fire, a ruthless tyrant, cruelly armed, wages war, but all in vain. From every attack a victor, love will always triumph. Ah, Lindoro, my dearest treasure! If you could know, if you could see this dog of a guardian, oh, I rage to think of him! Dearest, in you I put my trust, please, come save me, for pity’s sake! COUNT Fear not, be reassured, fate will be our friend. ROSIN A Then I may hope? COUNT Trust in me. ROSIN A And my heart? COUNT It will rejoice! ROSIN A Dear smiling image, sweet thought of happy love, you burn in my breast, in my heart. I am delirious with joy! Dearest, in you I put my trust, please, come save me, for pity’s sake! I am delirious with joy! COUNT A beautiful voice! Bravissima!


ROSIN A Oh! A thousand thanks! B A RTOLO Truly, a beautiful voice! But this aria, damnation! It is rather tiresome. Music in my day was quite another thing. Ah! When, for instance, Caffariello sang that wonderful aria... la ra la la la...Listen, Don Alonso, here it is. “When you are near me, Sweet Rosina...”(Figaro enters and hides behind Bartolo.) The aria says “Giannina”, but I say “Rosina... When you are near me, sweet Rosina, my heart glows in my breast, it dances a minuet...” (He notices the presence of Figaro who is imitating him behind his back.) Bravo, signor Barber, bravo! FI G A RO Excuse me please, it was a moment of weakness... B A RTOLO Well, you rascal, what are you here for? FI G A RO Here for! Here to shave you. This is your day. B A RTOLO I don’t wish it today. FI G A RO Today you don’t wish it? Tomorrow I can’t come. B A RTOLO Why not? FI G A RO (consulting his notebook) Because I shall be busy. For all the officers of the new regiment, shave and haircut... For the Marchioness Andronica, her blond wig tinted brown... For the young Count Bombe, forelock to curl... A purge for the lawyer Bernardone who yesterday fell ill with indigestion. And then...and then...but why continue? Tomorrow I cannot come. B A RTOLO Come, less chatter. Today I do not want to be shaved. FI G A RO No? Nice kind of customers I have! I come this morning, and I find a madhouse... I return after lunch... Today I don’t want you! What do you think? Do you take me for some country barber? Find yourself another. I am going.

B A RTOLO (What can one do? That’s how he is. He is really a character!) Go into the next room and bring the towels. No, I’ll go myself. (Bartolo takes a bunch of keys from his pocket and goes out.) FI G A RO (Oh, if I had those keys in my hand I should be riding high.) Tell me, (to Rosina) among the keys, isn’t there the one which opens the outside window? ROSIN A Yes, indeed. It is the newest. B A RTOLO (Bartolo returns.) (Oh, what a fool I was to leave that devil of a barber here!) Here, go yourself. (He gives the keys to Figaro.) Go down the corridor, and on the shelf you’ll find everything. Take care, don’t touch anything. FI G A RO Oh! I know what I am doing. (Brilliant!) I’ll be right back. (The trick has worked!) (He goes out.) B A RTOLO (to the Count) That is the rascal who took Rosina’s letter to the Count... COUNT He looks like an intriguer of the first order. B A RTOLO He can’t deceive me... (A great noise is heard without.) Oh, misery me!

B A RTOLO He has broken everything, six plates, eight glasses, a tureen. FI G A RO What good luck! (Secretly he shows the Count the key of the balcony window which he has taken.) If I had not held on to a key I would have broken my head in that cursed corridor. He keeps every room so dark...and then... B A RTOLO Enough of this... FI G A RO Then let’s get going. (To the Count and Rosina.) (Be careful.) B A RTOLO (Bartolo prepares to be shaved.) Now to business. (Don Basilio enters.) ROSIN A Don Basilio! COUNT (What do I see!) FI G A RO (How unfortunate!) B A RTOLO How come you are here?

ROSIN A What a crash!

B A SILIO At your service, one and all.

B A RTOLO Oh, that rascal! I felt my heart misgive me! (Bartolo goes out.)

B A RTOLO (What is this new turn of affairs?)

COUNT That Figaro is a great man! (to Rosina) Now that we are alone, tell me dearest, are you content to put your destiny in my hands? Be frank now!

ROSIN A (What will happen to us?) COUNT and FI G A RO (We must act boldly.)

ROSIN A Ah, Lindoro, it is my only desire...

B A RTOLO Don Basilio, how are you feeling?

(Bartolo and Figaro return.)

B A SILIO How am I feeling?



FI G A RO What are you waiting for? That blessed beard of yours, shall I shave it or not?

B A SILIO I am yellow as a corpse?

B A RTOLO (to Figaro) In a minute. (To Basilio.) And...the notary?

FI G A RO Good Heaven, my man, you are all of a tremble! You must have scarlet fever!

B A SILIO The notary...

B A SILIO Scarlet fever!

COUNT I have already told him that everything is arranged. (to Bartolo) Is it not true?

COUNT (secretly handing Basilio a purse of money) Go take some medicine. Don’t stay here and kill yourself.

B A RTOLO Yes, yes I know it all. B A SILIO But, Don Bartolo, explain to me... COUNT Doctor, one word... Don Basilio, I’ll be with you. (to Bartolo) Listen to me for a moment. (aside to Figaro) Try and get rid of him, or I fear he will expose us. ROSIN A I feel my heart tremble. FI G A RO Don’t be alarmed. COUNT (to Bartolo) Of the letter, sir, he as yet knows nothing.

FI G A RO Quickly, quickly, go to bed. COUNT I am really afraid for you. ROSIN A He is right, go home to bed... B A RTOLO , ROSIN A , COUNT and FI G A RO Quickly, go and have some rest. B A SILIO (A purse!...Go to bed! As long as they are all of one mind!) B A RTOLO , ROSIN A , COUNT and FI G A RO Quickly to bed, quickly to bed... c d E x c e r p t- ENSEMBLE: Buona sera track 7

B A SILIO (There is something going on which I certainly cannot fathom.)

B A SILIO I am not deaf, you don't have to beg me.

COUNT I fear he will expose us; he as yet knows nothing.

FI G A RO What a colour!

B A RTOLO You are right, sir. I will immediately send him away.

COUNT You look terrible!

COUNT With such a fever, Don Basilio, who told you to go out?

B A SILIO Terrible?

B A SILIO What fever?

COUNT, FI G A RO and B A RTOLO Oh, really terrible!

COUNT What do you think? You are yellow as a corpse.

B A SILIO Well, I'll go!



Don’t touch it... Blow into it, for pity’s sake!

COUNT, ROSIN A and FI G A RO Well, good-night to you, dear sir, quickly go away from here.

ROSIN A At midnight precisely, my love, I shall await you. May the moments hasten which draw you to me. (Bartolo rises and approaches the lovers.)

B A SILIO Well, good-night, with all my heart, then tomorrow we shall talk.

COUNT But now I must tell you, dearest, that your letter, in order that I might succeed in my disguise...

ROSIN A and FI G A RO Cursed man, you are a nuisance! Well, good-night to you, dear sir, peace and slumber and good health. Well, goodnight, get out of here, quickly go away from here.

B A RTOLO In his disguise? Ah! Bravi, bravissimi! Signor Alonso, bravo! Bravi! Rascals! Scoundrels! Ah! I can see you have all sworn to hasten my end. Out, you villains, or I shall kill you!

COUNT Well, good-night, away from here. Well, good-night to you, dear sir, peace and slumber and good health. Quickly go away from here. B A RTOLO Well, good-night to you, dear sir, peace and slumber and good health. Quickly go away from here. B A SILIO Well, good-night, with all my heart, then tomorrow we shall talk. Do not shout, for pity's sake! (Basilio goes out.) FI G A RO Well, signor Don Bartolo. B A RTOLO I am here. I am here. (Figaro starts to shave Don Bartolo and at the same time tries to conceal the two lovers.) Pull it tight. Bravissimo. COUNT Rosina, listen to me. ROSIN A I am listening. I am here. COUNT At midnight precisely we’ll come for you here. And since we have the keys there is nothing to fear. FI G A RO Ah! Ah! B A RTOLO What’s the matter? FI G A RO Something, I don’t know what, is in my eye!...Look...

ROSIN A , COUNT and FI G A RO Your head is spinning, hush, good doctor, you are making a fool of yourself. Be quiet, be quiet, it’s senseless to shout. This man is delirious. (Now that it’s settled I don’t have to repeat.) It is senseless to shout. B A RTOLO Rascals, scoundrels! Out, you villains, or I shall kill you! You have all sworn to hasten my end. I’m fairly bursting with anger and disdain. I shall kill you! (They all go out. Berta enters.) BERT A What a suspicious old man! Begone and don’t come back alive! Always shouting and clamor in this house... Arguing...weeping...threatening... There is not an hour’s peace with this stingy, grumbling old man. Oh, what a house of confusion! The old man seeks a wife, and the maiden wants a husband, the one is frenzied, the other crazy, both of them need restraining. What on earth is all this love which makes everyone go mad? It is a universal evil, it is a mania and an itch, a thing which tickles and torments you. Unhappy me, I also feel it and do not know how to escape. Oh, accursed old maid! By all I am despised, an old maid without a hope, I shall die in desperation. (Berta goes out. Bartolo enters with Basilio.) B A RTOLO So you don’t know a Don Alonso? B A SILIO Certainly not. B A RTOLO Ah, of course, the Count must have sent him. They’re hatching some monstrous plot. B A SILIO I say that our friend was the Count in person.


B A RTOLO The Count?

We’ll see about that! My child, lock yourself in. I’m off. (Bartolo runs out of the house.)

B A SILIO The Count. (The purse he gave me speaks for itself.)

ROSIN A What a bitterly cruel fate is mine! (Rosina exits.)

B A RTOLO Tonight the scoundrels mean to trick me; quick, bring the notary here immediately. Here’s the front door key. (Bartolo gives Basilio the front door key and pushes him out.) Hurry, hurry, for Heaven’s sake.

Storm. It is night. The balcony window is opened. Figaro and the Count wrapped in mantles enter. Figaro carries a lantern.

B A SILIO Never fear, I’ll be back in two shakes. (He leaves.)

COUNT Figaro, give me your hand. Thunder and lightning! What wicked weather!

B A RTOLO Hey! Rosina, Rosina. (Rosina enters from her room.) Come here, I’ve some news of your lover for you. Poor, unhappy girl! You’ve certainly given your affections to a fine rascal! You should know that he’s laughing at your love in the arms of another woman, here’s the proof. (He shows Rosina her letter, but hangs on to it.)

FI G A RO At last we are here.

FI G A RO What a night for lovers! COUNT Hey...Give me some light. Where can Rosina be? (Rosina enters from her room.)

ROSIN A Oh, heavens, my letter!

FI G A RO We shall see... (They see Rosina.) There she is!

B A RTOLO Don Alonso and the barber are plotting against you, don’t trust them. They intend to deliver you into the arms of Count Almaviva.

COUNT Oh, my treasure!

ROSIN A Into another’s arms! What’s that you say? Ah, Lindoro! You traitor! Ah, so!...revenge! This wicked one shall see who Rosina is. Sir, you always wanted to marry me... B A RTOLO And I still do. ROSIN A Well then, you shall! I’m... happy to. But we must wed at once. Listen, at midnight the wretch will be here with Figaro, the barber. I was going to elope with him. B A RTOLO The scoundrels! I’ll run and bar the door. ROSIN A Oh, Sir! They’re going to come in through the window. They’ve got the key. B A RTOLO I’ll not leave from here! But... suppose they’re armed. My child, as you are now so well informed, let us do this. Lock yourself in your room, I’m going to call the law; I shall say that they are two robbers and so, the deuce!


ROSIN A (repulsing him) Stand off, wretch that you are! I have come here to wipe out the shame of my foolish credulity, to show what I am, and what love you have lost in me, unworthy and ungrateful man! COUNT I am petrified! FI G A RO I don’t know what she is talking about. COUNT But have pity... ROSIN A Be still. You pretended to love me in order to sacrifice me to the lust of the wicked Count Almaviva... COUNT Of the Count? Ah, you are deceived! Oh, what happiness! Look at me, my love, I am Almaviva, I am not Lindoro.

c d E x c e r p ttrack 8

TRIO: Ah! qual colpo inaspettato!

ROSIN A (Oh, what a shock! It is he himself! Heavens, what do I hear? With surprise and with joy I am almost delirious!) FI G A RO (They are breathless with delight, they are dying of content, oh, how talented I am, what a coup I brought about!) COUNT (What triumph unexpected! What a happy, wonderful moment! With love and contentment I am almost delirious!) FI G A RO (They are breathless with delight, they are dying of content. Watch out, watch out, watch out, how talented I am, what a coup I brought about!) ROSIN A My Lord! I... COUNT You are no longer just my love, the blessed name of wife, adored one, awaits you. ROSIN A The blessed name of wife! Oh, what joy that gives my heart!

COUNT Two people? FI G A RO Yes, sir... COUNT A lantern? FI G A RO At the door, yes, sir. TO G ETHER What’s to be done? Softly, softly, piano, piano, no confusion, no delay, by the ladder of the balcony, quickly, let us go away. (They start to go out.) FI G A RO Oh, how unfortunate! What’s to be done? COUNT What happened? FI G A RO The ladder... COUNT Well? FI G A RO The ladder is gone...

COUNT Are you happy?

COUNT What do you say?

ROSIN A Oh! Good sir!

FI G A RO Who could have taken it away?

ROSIN A and COUNT Sweet, fortunate knot, the end of all desire! On our sufferings, love, you took pity.

COUNT What a cruel blow!

FI G A RO (Knot!) Let's get going. (Knot!) Quickly, Let's go. (All desire!) Hurry up. This is no time for sentiment. Quick, let's go for goodness sake. Oh, damnation! What do I see! At the door a lantern, two persons! What's to be done? COUNT You have seen... FI G A RO Yes, sir...

ROSIN A Oh, I am so miserable! FI G A RO Qu...quiet, I hear people... And here we are, my master. What’s to be done? COUNT Courage, Rosina mine! FI G A RO Here they are. B A SILIO (Basilio enters, followed by the notary.) Don Bartolo...


FI G A RO Don Basilio...

OFFICER Your name, sir?

COUNT And who is the other?

COUNT I am the Count Almaviva...

FI G A RO Oh, oh, it’s our notary. How jolly! Leave it all to me... (to the Notary) Signor Notary, this evening in my house you are to settle the contract of marriage between the Count Almaviva and my niece. Here is the couple. Are the papers prepared? Very good.

B A RTOLO (resigned) And I’m the one who’s always wrong... FI G A RO That’s the way of things...

B A SILIO But wait...where is Don Bartolo?

B A RTOLO (to Basilio) But you, you rascal, you too betrayed me and acted as witness!

COUNT Here, Don Basilio! (Calling Don Basilio aside, he takes a ring from his finger and motions to him to be silent.) This ring is for you.

B A SILIO Ah! My good Doctor Bartolo, the Count has certain reasons in his pocket, and arguments to which there is no answer.

B A SILIO But I...

B A RTOLO And I, stupid fool that I am, the better to assure the marriage, took away the ladder from the balcony!

COUNT For you two bullets in the head are also waiting if you offer any opposition...

FI G A RO Here is really the “Futile...

B A SILIO Dear me! I’ll take the ring. Who signs?

A LL ...Precaution”!

COUNT Here we are. Figaro and Don Basilio are witnesses. This is my bride.

c d E x c e r p t- finale track 9

FI G A RO Hurray!

FI G A RO So happy a reunion let us remember for ever. I put out my lantern, I am no longer needed.

COUNT Oh, how happy I am!

FI G A RO , B A RTOLO , B A SILIO , CHORUS and BERT A (who has entered in the meantime) May love and faith eternal reign in both your hearts.

ROSIN A Oh, this is the joy I have longed for!

ROSIN A and COUNT May love and faith eternal reign in both our hearts.

FI G A RO Hurray!

COUNT We have hoped and sighed for such a happy moment. Finally this lover's soul begins to breathe again.

B A RTOLO (Bartolo enters followed by an officer and soldiers.) Halt, everyone! Here they are! FI G A RO Gently, sir. B A RTOLO Sir, they are thieves, arrest them, arrest them.


A LL May love and faith eternal reign in both your hearts. ROSIN A You accepted humble Rosina's passion. A brighter fate awaits you, come then and rejoice. A LL May love and faith eternals reign in both your hearts.

MEET THE ARTISTS Baritone Jonathan Beyer, Figaro, made his Opera Philadelphia debut in 2011 as Escamillo in Carmen. He performs a wide variety of roles including Papageno in Die Zauberflöte, Marcello

in La bohème, and Guglielmo in Così fan tutte and has performed all over the world. Mr. Beyer

was a National Finalist in the Metropolitan Opera National Council Competition and received his professional studies degree in opera from the Curtis Institute of Music in 2007.

Mezzo-Soprano Jennifer Holloway, appears for the first time on Opera Philadelphia’s stage

as Rosina. She has sung at leading opera houses around the world with roles such as Dorabella in Così fan tutte, Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro, Donna Elvira in Don Giovanni and the title role in Serse. Ms. Holloway made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera in New York in December 2010 as Flora in La traviata.

Our Count Almaviva, tenor Taylor Stayton, is no stranger to Philadelphia as he is a graduate

of The Academy of Vocal Arts where he sang the roles of Don Ottavio in Don Giovanni, and

Ferrando in Così fan tutte, among others. This year marks his return to the Metropolitan Opera

as Elvino in La sonnambula. Taylor made his debut with Opera Philadelphia as Tybalt in Gounod’s Romeo and Juliet in 2011.

Bass Kevin Burdette has sung Bartolo all over the world and made his Opera Philadelphia debut in 2012 with the world premiere of Nico Muhly’s Dark Sisters. Recently, Kevin took the

Metropolitan Opera stage to perform in Shostakovich’s The Nose. An alumnus of the Juilliard

Opera Theater and the University of Tennessee, Kevin is a former member of San Francisco’s Merola Opera Program.

Bass-baritone Wayne Tigges assumes the role of Don Basilio as his Opera Philadelphia

debut in our production of The Barber of Seville. Other recent performances include Escamillo

in Carmen and Figaro in The Marriage of Figaro. He also joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in

the cast of Salome in May 2014. Originally from Dubuque, Iowa, Wayne received a graduate

degree and Artist Diploma from the University of Cincinnati-College Conservatory of Music. Soprano Katrina Thurman makes her Opera Philadelphia debut as Berta in this production of The Barber of Seville. Most recently, Katrina has performed Musetta in La bohème, Marzelline

in Beethoven’s Fidelio and Adele in Die Fledermaus. She was the Silver Medalist at the 2011

American Traditions Competition, and the First Place & Audience Choice Award winner in the 2008 Classical Singer Competition.

Director Michael Shell has been directing opera since 2006 after he graduated with a Professional Artist Diploma from the A.J. Fletcher Institute in North Carolina. Not only is Michael a talented director, he is also a pianist, vocal coach, accompanist, conductor, vocal

instructor, and choreographer. Upcoming directing engagements include L’ italiana in Algeri

at Opera San Jose, Madama Butterfly at Florida Opera Festival - Opera Tampa, and Fidelio at Opera Omaha.


FIND THE LITERARY TERMS IN THE BARBER OF SEVILLE Rossini’s The Barber of Seville is filled with poetic language and dramatic situations that use literary devices like those you have studied in school. Review the passages from the opera’s libretto below and see if you can determine which literary term they represent.

At the idea of this metal portentous, omnipotent, a volcano within me commences to erupt.

(page 18)

This is an example of: a. metaphor

b. imagery

c. irony

d. alliteration

Silence! silence! Cease your bawling, nor like cats with caterwauling wake the neighbors - stop your squalling.

(page 15)

I go like greased lightning, make way for the factotum of the city. Cold and motionless like a statue.

(page 16)

(page 29)

These are examples of: a. simile

b. metaphor

c. foreshadowing

Dawn is already here, but love is not shy.

d. aside

(page 15)

Calumny is a little breeze, a gentle zephyr, which insensibly, subtly, lightly and sweetly, commences to whisper.

(page 21)

These are examples of:

a. motif

b. plot

c. personification

d. onomatopoeia

They are breathless with delight, they are dying of content, oh, how talented I am, what a coup I brought about! (Figaro to himself)

This is an example of:

a. theme

b. tone

(page 36)

c. metaphor

d. aside

Who is/are the protagonist/s in The Barber of Seville? Who is/are the antagonist/s in The Barber of Seville?


FURTHER READING & ACTIVITIES P O P C U LT U R E The Overture and Largo al factotum (Figaro’s aria) have been famously parodied in animated cartoons. Some of these are listed below. See the YouTube clips to watch selected cartoons.

Woody Woodpecker (The Barber of Seville)

Bugs Bunny •

Rabbit of Seville,

Long-Haired Hare,

Porky Pig and Daffy Duck (You Ought to Be in Pictures)

Tom and Jerry (The Cat Above and the Mouse Below and Kitty Foiled)

The Simpsons (The Homer of Seville)

Rocky & Bullwinkle (Barbara of Seville)

In TV and movies, like Seinfeld - and in Mrs. Doubtfire where Robin Williams voices the bird in this clip

A ctivities History • Read an article on the history of barbering here: • Read an article on the history of Seville, Spain here: Art • Make marionettes of the characters in the opera and act out the libretto using them. • Paper dolls – take a photo of yourself and create costumes based on the opera to dress the photo of you in. • Draw silhouettes of your parents and add the hairstyles of the characters in the opera to the silhouettes. • In a group, create a sketch of one of the scenes in the opera and share it with your classmates. • Create a mask out of paper mache that represents one of the characters in The Barber of Seville. Reading • The Figaro Trilogy: The Barber of Seville, The Marriage of Figaro, The Guilty Mother by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais. Mostly for high school students. • Read the review of the Figaro Plays, put on by McCarter Theater in Princeton, NJ this past May: http:// Write your own review of the opera.


PLOT THE ACTION IN THE BARBER OF SEVILLE Directions: Fill in the required information for each section below in numerical order. Use the information that appears with each section to help you proceed. It’s okay to write through the gray diagonal line in two of the sections.

2. As the story continues, the Rising Actions introduce complications and problems for the main characters. These difficulties create suspense!

3. The Climax of the story is when the reader is most interested in how the story will end. The suspense is at its peak, but the outcome is not yet known.

3. Climax

2. Rising Actions

4. Falling Action appears at the ending of the story. Suspense has been eliminated and these events show characters’ lives returning to normal.

1. The Exposition

1. The Exposition appears at the beginning of the story. It introduces us to the setting, characters, and background information.


4. Falling Action

5. Resolution

5. The Resolution is the final solution to the problem or conflict. In stories with happy endings it’s called the denouement. Tragic endings are called catastrophe.

RECOGNIZING FAC T S A N D O P I N I O N S The following lessons are designed to be worked on in pairs. Pick a partner with whom you can answer the questions. After answering the questions, discuss your answers and the different opinions found in the questions. How do these opinions make you feel? How can facts be misused when backing up opinion? 1. Read the following statements. Before each statement, write whether it is a fact or an opinion. __________ 1. Figaro is very smart. ___________2. Lindoro, the drunken soldier, and Don Alfonso are the same person. __________ 3. Rosina would have married Dr. Bartolo if the Count hadn’t identified himself. __________ 4. Dr. Bartolo is desperate when he tries to keep Rosina’s admirer away from her. ___________5. Berta and Ambrogio don’t work hard. ___________6. Figaro is willing to help the Count because he offers a reward.

2. Write an opinion about each of the following topics. Support each opinion with two facts. Love





SUPPORTING YO U R O P I N I O N S 1. Write “I believe” or ‘I think’ four times. Then complete each phrase with a different statement regarding the opera The Barber of Seville.

2. Identify which statements are fact and opinion by placing an “F” or “O” next to each one. Then combine the two statements to make a sentence using the following connectives: since, because, therefore, thus, however. The first one has been done for you. F

1a. Dr. Bartolo sent the housekeeper and the servant away.


1b. They are lazy.

Sentence: Dr. Bartolo sent the housekeeper and the servant away; therefore, they are lazy. 2a. The Count is a cautious person. 2b. The Count hides his identity to test Rosina.

3a. Basilio warns Bartolo about the Count’s appearance in town. 3b. Bartolo and Basilio must be good friends.

4a. Rosina dislikes Bartolo. 4b. Bartolo must have a bad reputation.

5a. Figaro is an outstanding barber. 5b. Everyone needs his service.

6a. Rosina must be happy. 6b. Rosina marries the Count.


GLOSSARY OF TERMS a c q u a i n t ( u h - kw e y n t ) v . to make more or less

familiar, aware, or conversant.

a c q u i r e (uh -kwahy uhr ) v. to come into possession or

d a n d i e s (dan -dees) n . a man who is excessively concerned about his clothes and appearance; a fop. d e l i r i o u s (dih-l eer-ee -uhs) adj. wild with excitement,

ownership of; get as one’s own.


a n v i l s (an-vils ) n . a heavy iron block with a smooth face,

d e u c e (doos ) n . devil; dickens (used as a mild oath).

frequently of steel, on which metals, usually heated until soft, are hammered into desired shapes.

a p o t h e c a r y (uh -pot h-uh -k er -ee) n . a druggist; a

d e v o t i o n (dih-voh -shuhn) n . profound dedication. d i s c o n s o l a t e (dis-kon -suh-lit) adj. hopelessly



a u s p i c i o u s (aw-spish-uhs ) adj. promising success.

d i s d a i n s (dis-deyn s) v. to look upon or treat with hate.

b a b o o n (ba -boon) n . a coarse, ridiculous person, especially one of low intelligence.

particular place.

b a r b a r o u s (bahr -be r -uhs ) adj. uncivilized; wild;

d o c i l e (dos-uhl) adj. easily managed or handled.

savage; crude.

b a r r a c k s (bar -uh ks) n . a building or group of buildings

for lodging soldiers.

b a s i n ( be y -suhn) n . a natural or artificial hollow place

containing water.

b e w i l d e r e d (bih -wil-derd ) adj. completely puzzled or

confused; perplexed.

b i l l e t ( b il-it) n . lodging for a soldier, student, etc., as in a private home or nonmilitary public building. b l o c k h e a d (blok-hed) n . a stupid, doltish person;


b o t a n i s t (bot -n-ist) n . a specialist in the science of


c a l u m n y (kal-uhm-nee ) n . a false and malicious statement designed to injure the reputation of someone. c a t e r wa u l i n g (kat-er -waw l -ing ) v. to utter long

wailing cries, as cats in rutting time.

c ava l i e r s (k av-uh -le e r ) n . one having the spirit or

bearing of a knight; a courtly gentleman; gallant.

c l a m o u r (klam-er ) n . a loud uproar, as from a crowd of


c o m m o t i o n (k uh -moh-shuhn) n . noisy disturbance. c o n s o l a t i o n (kon -suh -le y -shuhn) n . lessening of

the grief, sorrow; giving solace or comfort.

c o n t r i v e (k uhn-t r ahy v) v. to bring about or effect by

a plan, scheme.

c r e d u l i t y (k ruh-doo-li- tee) n . willingness to believe or

trust too readily.

c u n n i n g (kuhn-ing) n . skill employed in a shrewd or sly

manner, as in deceiving.

d a m s e l (dam-zuhl) n . a young woman or girl; a maiden,

originally one of gentle or noble birth.

d i s l o d g e (dis-l oj) v. to remove or force out of a

d o o m e d (doomd ) n . fate or destiny, especially adverse fate. d o t a r d (doh - terd) n . a weak-minded or foolish old


e m b r o i d e r (em -b roi -der) v. to decorate with

ornamental needlework.

e n a m o u r e d (ih -n am -erd) adj. filled or inflamed with


f a c t o t u m (fak -toh - tuhm) n . a person, as a handyman or servant, employed to do all kinds of work around the house. f a t h o m (fat h-uhm) v. to understand. f a t i g u e (fuh-teeg) n . weariness from bodily or mental


f o r e l o c k (fawr-lok) n . the lock of hair that grows from

the fore part of the head.

f r e n z y (f ren -zee ) n . wild excitement. f r u i t i o n (froo-i sh -uhn) n . attainment of anything

desired; realization; accomplishment.

h a s t e n (h ey-suhn) v. to move or act with the swiftness of

motion; speed.

h y p o c r i t e (h i p-uh-krit) n . a person who pretends to have virtues, moral or religious beliefs, principles, etc., that he or she does not actually posses. i m b e c i l e (i m -buh-sil) n . a dunce; blockhead; dolt. i m p e r t i n e n t (im -pur- tn -uhnt ) adj. rude. i m p o r t u n a t e (im -pawr-chuh -nit) adj. urgent or

persistent in request, sometimes annoyingly so.

i n c o g n i t o (in-kog-n ee- toh) adj. having one’s

identity concealed, as under an assumed name.

i n d i s c r e e t (in-di-skreet) adj. lacking good judgment. i n f a m y (i n -fuh-mee) n . extremely bad reputation. i n f e r n a l (in-f ur-nl ) adj. miserable, like in hell.


l a n c e t s ( l a n - sit) n . a small surgical instrument for

making small incisions.

l e e c h e s ( l e e ch - es ) n . any bloodsucking or carnivorous

s i m p l e t o n (si m -puhl - tuhn ) n . an ignorant, foolish, or

silly person.

s l a n d e r (sl an -der) n . a malicious, false, and defamatory

aquatic or terrestrial worm.

statement or report.

m a n e u v e r ( muh -noo-ver) n . a planned and regulated movement or evolution of troops, warships.

s m i t h y (sm i th -ee ) n . the workshop of a smith, especially a

m e n a c e ( m e n - is ) n . something that threatens to cause evil,


s o t t o v o c e (sot -oh voh -chee) n . in a low, soft voice

harm, injury.

so as not to be overheard.

m e r i t ( m e r- it) n . claim to respect and praise; excellence;

s t av e (steyv) n . a verse or stanza of a poem or song.

m i n x ( ming ks ) n . a pert, impudent, or flirtatious girl.

to inspect, examine.

m i s e r y ( m i z - uh- ree) n . wretchedness of condition or

t e m p e s t (tem -pist) n . a violent windstorm, especially one



m i s t r e a t e d ( mis-t r e e t-d) v. treated badly or abusively. n u i s a n c e ( n o o-suhns ) n . an obnoxious or annoying

person, thing, condition, practice.

o m n i p o t e n t ( om-nip-uh - tuhnt) adj. almighty or

s u r v e y i n g (ser -vey-ing) v. to view in detail, especially

with rain, hail, or snow.

t r a i t o r (trey- ter) n . a person who betrays another, a

cause, or any trust.

t r i f l e s (trahy-fuhls ) n . an article or thing of very little


infinite in power, as God.

t r i f l i n g (trah y-fling) adj. worthless.

o p i u m (o h - pee - uhm) n . the dried, condensed juice of a

t u r e e n (too-reen ) n . a large, deep, covered dish for

o p p r e s s e d ( uh- pr e s-d) v. to lie heavily upon.

t y r a n t (tah y-ruhnt) n . a sovereign or other ruler who


p e t r i f i e d ( p e - truh -fahyd ) v. immobilize, dumbfound,


p i a z z a ( pee - a h - tsa) n . an open square especially in an

Italian town.

p l a u s i b l y ( p l aw-zuh -buhl) adj. having an appearance

serving soup, stew, or other foods.

uses power oppressively or unjustly.

u n e q u a l l e d (uhn-ee-kwuhld) adj. not equaled or

surpassed; matchless.

v e t e r i n a r y (vet-er -uh-ner -ee ) n . a person who

practices the medical and surgical treatment of animals.

of truth or reason.

v e x a t i o n (ve k -sey-sh uh n ) v. to irritate; annoy; provoke.

p o r t e n t o u s ( pawr -t e n- tuhs) adj. an indication or omen of something about to happen, especially something momentous.

v i l i f i e d (vil -uh-fah yd) v. to speak ill of.

p r o d i g i o u s ( pruh-dij-uhs ) adj. extraordinary in size,

amount, extent, degree, force.

p r u d e n c e (p ro od-ns) n . caution with regard to practical


p r u d e n t ( p ro o d-nt) adj. wise. p u r g e ( pur j ) v. to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable;

cleanse; purify.

r a b b l e ( ra b- uhl) n . a disorderly crowd; mob. r a s c a l ( ra s - kuhl) n . a base, dishonest, or unscrupulous


r e g i m e n t ( re j - uh -muhnt) n . a unit of ground

forces, consisting of two or more battalions or battle groups, a headquarters unit, and certain supporting units. r e p u t a t i o n ( rep -yuh-t e y -shuhn) n . the estimation in which a person or thing is held, especially by the community or the public generally; repute. r u t h l e s s ( ro o t h-lis) adj. without pity or compassion;

cruel; merciless.

s c o u n d r e l ( s k o un-druhl) n . an unprincipled,

dishonorable person; villain.

s e p u l c h e r ( s e p -uhl -k er ) n . a tomb, grave, or burial place. s i b i l a n t ( s i b - uh-luhnt) adj. hissing.


v i l l a i n (vi l -uhn) n . a cruelly malicious person who is

involved in or devoted to wickedness or crime.

v i p e r (vah y-per) n . any of various venomous or supposedly

venomous snakes.

wa r d (wawrd) n . a person who is under the protection or

control of another.

w i l y (wah y-lee) adj. crafty; cunning. w r e t c h (rech) n . a deplorably unfortunate or unhappy


w r e t c h e d (rech -id) adj. very unfortunate in condition or

circumstances; miserable; pitiable.

z e p h y r (zef-er ) n . a gentle, mild breeze.

THE S CH O O L DI S TRICT O F PHIL A DELPHI A S CH O O L REF O R M C O M M I S S I O N William J. Green, chairman Feather Houstoun, member Farah Jimenez, member

Sylvia P. Simms, member

William R. Hite, Jr., Ed.D Superintendent of Schools

Penny Nixon Chief Academic Officer

Dennis W. Creedon, Ed.D. Deputy Chief, Academic Enrichment & Support

Sounds of Learning™ was established by a

generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation. Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learning™ program has been provided by:


Written and produced by:

Opera Philadelphia Community Programs Department © 2014

1420 Locust Street, Suite 210 Philadelphia, PA, 19102

Tel: 215.893.5927

Fax: 215.893.7801 Wells Fargo Hamilton Family Foundation Universal Health Services Anonymous Eugene Garfield Foundation GlaxoSmithKline Ethel Sergeant Clark Smith Memorial Fund

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Programs Adrienne Bishop Community Programs Assistant Katie Dune Multimedia Communications Coordinator Special thanks to:


The Hirsig Family Fund of the Philadelphia

David B. Devan General Director & President

Foundation Morgan Stanley Foundation

Dr. Dennis W. Creedon Creator, Sounds of Learning™ Curriculum Consultant

Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Programs

Alpin J. & Alpin W. Cameron Memorial Fund

Amanda Seymour Costume Designer - The Barber of Seville

Corrado Rovaris Jack Mulroney Music Director

The McLean Contributionship Mutual Fire Foundation Louis N. Cassett Foundation

Dr. Dan Darigan Curriculum and Research Consultant Dr. Nanci Ritter Research Consultant Maureen Lynch Operations Manager, Academy of Music Cornell Wood Head Usher, Academy of Music Academy of Music Ushers

Opera Philadelphia is supported by major grants from The William Penn Foundation, the Wyncote Foundation, and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Additional support is provided by the Independence Foundation and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. Opera Philadelphia receives state arts funding support through a grant from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Support provided in part by the Philadelphia Cultural Fund.

Karma Agency Design Concept and Cover Artwork Kalnin Graphics Printing