AINADAMAR Student Guide | Opera Philadelphia

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OperA Philadelphia and t h e S c h oo l D i s t r i c t o f P h i l a d e l p h i a present



Fountain of Tears

Academy of Music | final Dress Rehearsal W e d n e s d ay, F e b r u a r y 5 , 2 0 1 4 A T 6 : 1 5 P. M .


Opera Philadelphia believes the family is the most important foundation to learning. Let your kitchen table become a classroom where your children can build their knowledge of opera and the humanities. As you join in the teaching and learning process with your children, watch their eyes sparkle. Opera is a communal celebration, so too should be your children’s education. Pennsylvania’s standards in education call for students to demonstrate what they know and are able to do and children need to share what they have discovered or learned. Thus, the title of our program is Sounds of Learning™. It reflects our belief that children must actively be engaged in sharing ideas. The Sounds of Learning™ workbook and teacher guide will integrate with the local core literacy curriculum in many ways. Just as opera is a uniquely integrated art, combining orchestra, voice, literature, drama, and dance, Sounds of Learning™ is an interdisciplinary, student-centered program. The goal of the Active Learning sections is to have your children engaged in the process of self-teaching. They will be able to show how they have gained insights into their learning by drawing, writing, and discussing the issues most relevant to them. In this way, students demonstrate what they can do with what they know. In reading the libretto, or script, we suggest that you and your family members take turns reading particular roles. Dr. Ellen Winner of Harvard’s Project Zero found that “drama helps to build verbal skills that transfer to new materials,” and helps improve not only students’ reading skills but also “oral and written language development.” ( Journal of Aesthetic Education, v34, #3/4, Fall/Winter, 2000) In preparing for the opera, we suggest you purchase the Deutsche Grammophon Grammy Awardwinning recordings of this opera. We are grateful to DG for offering us their recording for use in this program. Together, we hope to build future audiences for, and performers of, the arts. Visit DG on the web at G O A L S A N D O B J E C T I V E S O F S O U ND S O F LE A RNIN G ™

Improve literacy achievement by using the opera’s libretto to teach lessons across the curriculum Understand the plot, characters, and their motivations of the opera Learn something about the composer and others involved in writing the opera Make a connection to the historic and social context of the story Know some key musical elements, recognize certain melodies, differentiate between voices Understand the role music plays in expressing emotions and heightening the dramatic experience Understand the various elements of producing opera and the functions of those involved;

e.g. conductor, director, set designer, technical crew, etc.

Develop the ability to make inferences about the opera, production, and performance. Relate incidents in the opera to those of the present day


Best Practices in Arts Education is sponsored by Pennsylvania Alliance for Arts Education, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and the Pennsylvania Department of Education




Sequence of the Story

5 Theater Anatomy


Make Your Own Synopsis


34 Lorca Analysis: El Niño Mudo

Going to the Opera at the Academy of Music Opera Vocabulary



31 Plot the Action in Ainadamar

7 Connect the Opera Terms

35 Diamond Poems

8 The Then and Now of Opera


Opera Jeopardy

37 Propaganda

RE L ATIN G O P ERA TO H ISTOR Y : 10 Local Roots: Osvaldo Golijov

38 Lorca in His Own Hand 39

Supplemental Activities

40 Careers in the Arts

11 Reluctant Revolutionary: Federico García Lorca 12 The Spanish Civil War 14

Bullying and Anti-gay Attitudes


Out in Public

16 Flamenco: Rhythm of a Nation


17 The Trouser Role: An Operatic Tradition 18 Poetic Inspiration 19

Ainadamar Synopsis


Ainadamar  Libretto


Spanish Heroine Mariana Pineda

25 The Falange 27 The Real Margarita Xirgu 29

Ainadamar: Meet the Artists


Sound Design and the Opera Stage


41 Glossary

G O I N G T O T H E O P E R A AT T H E A C A D E M Y O F M USI C There’s nothing as exciting as attending the opera in a theater like the Academy of Music, where you’ll see the final dress rehearsal of Osvaldo Golijov’s Ainadamar. The Academy is a very special building in that it is the country’s oldest grand opera house still used for its original purpose - performing opera! It is a grand opera house with a huge chandelier hanging from the ceiling. Its four-level design was based on the famous La Scala opera house in Milan, Italy. The Academy opened on January 26, 1857 with a Grand Ball and Promenade Concert and the first opera performed there was Verdi’s Il trovatore on February 25, 1857. The Academy is so important to our nation’s history that it was made a Registered National Historic Landmark in 1963. Thousands of world-famous performers have also appeared on its stage, like Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Igor Stravinsky, Arturo Toscanini, Marian Anderson, Maria Callas, and Luciano Pavarotti. More recently Alvin Ailey, Billy Joel, Elton John, Savion Glover, Chris Rock, even Mike Tyson and Jerry Springer have performed there! When you’re at the Academy of Music for Ainadamar, you may see several computer monitors and a large table spread out over the seats in the center of the first floor of the auditorium. Seated in this area is the production team: Director, Assistant Director, Costume Designer, Lighting Designer, and Set Designer, among others. They’ll be taking notes and communicating via headsets with the many people backstage who help make operatic magic. They’ll be able to talk to the crew so changes can be made right away. Should things goes wrong, the rehearsal might be stopped or a part repeated to make sure that it is perfect. Unlike actors on television or in the movies, performers on stage are very aware of the audience. They want to share their love of performing with you. Everything you do in the audience affects what happens on stage. You can show them how much you appreciate their work and the opportunity to come to the rehearsal by being as quiet as possible. Show your respect for the cast, musicians, the production team, and everyone in the theater by not talking. Give the artists and the production your full attention!

DOs and DON’Ts at the OPERA Here’s some things you can do to make sure everyone in the theater can enjoy the opera: Use the bathrooms before the opera begins or at intermission. Enter and exit the theater in an orderly fashion. Turn off your cell phones and all electronic devices. Applaud after the arias; you can shout “Bravo!” for the men and “Brava!” for the women. Don’t Forget... Please obey the theater ushers and staff. No food, gum or beverages are allowed inside the theater. No photographs or audio/video recording may not be taken during the performance. No talking or whispering during the performance. No shoving, jumping, running, spitting or throwing anything in the theater. Make your school proud!

A C A D E M Y O F M USI C F UN F A C TS The auditorium seats 2,897; 14 columns support the Academy’s tiers; the auditorium is encased within a three feet thick solid brick wall. The Academy Chandelier is 25 feet high, 50 feet in circumference, almost 17 feet in diameter, and 3,500 pounds in weight. It has 23,000 crystals on it, which, if laid out, could reach from Broad Street to Rittenhouse Square and back. The red and gold pattern on the Academy’s stage curtain is of a pineapple, a Victorian-era symbol for “welcome.” The first-ever indoor football game was held at the Academy on March 7, 1889 between the University of Pennsylvania and Riverton Club of Princeton. At halftime, tug-of-war matches were held as entertainment. 1,600 people attended the first-ever motion picture screening on February 5, 1870. The film showed a gymnastics routine, a couple dancing, and more. Air conditioning was installed in 1959. There was no elevator for the general public in the Academy until 1990! For more information on the Academy of Music, visit


T H E AT E R ANATO M Y Opera Singers must act on stage as well as sing! This means that they have to understand the stage set-up. When the director is rehearsing with the singers, he or she must be clear about where they should be on stage. Otherwise there could be a big traffic jam! So, special vocabulary is used. Upstage is the very back of the stage (away from the audience) and downstage is at the front (near the audience). Stage Left and Stage Right may seem to be on the wrong sides as well. Can you figure out why? You might also wonder about “up” stage and “down” stage. Opera sets are frequently built on a platform or “deck” that’s lower in the front near the apron and higher in the back near the back stage area. Thus, the lower end is “downstage” and the higher end is “upstage”. Also, when you visit the Academy of Music, look for the bas-relief portrait of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the top of the proscenium.












Diagram from OPER A America’s MUSIC! WORDS! OPER A! Level II Teacher’s Manual ©1991, OPER A America Inc.




Act - main sections of a play or opera Aria - a solo song sung in an opera Audience - people who watch a performance and sit in the “house� or auditorium Ballet - dance set to music within in an opera Blocking - action on stage Character - person who is part of the opera’s story Chorus - music composed for a group of singers or the name of a group of singers in an opera Conductor - person who rehearses and leads the orchestra Duet - a song performed by 2 singers Orchestra - a group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments Overture - a piece of instrumental music played at the beginning of an opera Program - booklet that contains information about the opera, composer, performers, the opera company, and includes advertisements Recitative - words that are sung in the rhythm of natural speech - a bit like the 18th century version of rap Rehearsal - time when singers/actors practice with or without the orchestra; time when musicians practice together with the conductor Scene - segments of action within the acts of an opera T Y P E S O F S I N G E R S: Soprano - highest pitched female voice Mezzo-soprano - female voice between soprano and contralto Contralto - lowest pitched female voice Tenor - highest pitched male voice Baritone - male voice between tenor and bass Bass - lowest pitched male voice



1. Opera Seria

A. Dance spectacle set to music

2. Baritone

B. Highest pitched woman’s voice

3. Opera

C. Dramatic text adapted for opera

4. Ballet

D. Low female voice

5. Orchestra

E. Comic opera

6. Libretto

F. A drama or comedy in which music is the essential factor; very little is spoken

7. Duet 8. Aria 9. Soprano 10. Chorus

G. Opera with dramatic and intense plots H. Music composed for a singing group I. A composition written for two performers

11. Act

J. A group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments

12. Contralto

K. Highest pitched man’s voice

13. Tenor 14. Opera Buffa

L. A musical style used in opera and oratorio, in which the text is declaimed in the rhythm of natural speech with slight melodic variation

15. Recitative

M. Male voice between bass and tenor

16. Bass

N. A piece of music originally designed to be played before an opera or musical play

17. Overture 18. Verismo

O. The term describing the realistic or naturalistic school of opera that flourished briefly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; libretti were chosen to depict a ‘slice of life’ P. Deepest male voice Q. Elaborate solo in an opera or oratorio R. Main division of a play or opera


THE THEN AND NOW OF O P ERA Have you ever wondered where opera got its start? Back in the late 1500s, during the height of the Renaissance (14001600), a group of men called the Florentine Camerata got together to create a new and moving theatrical experience. They wanted to recreate what the ancient Greeks did during their legendary dramas. The result was something entirely new – opera! Most of the early operas were based on Greek myths. The first opera that we know of was called Dafne by Jacopo Peri in 1598, but the most famous opera of this early period that is still performed today is Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607). Certain basic ingredients were included in opera: songs, instrumental accompaniments, costumes, dance, and scenery. We still use all of these ingredients today! The early operas were first performed in the grand courts of Italian nobility, but soon opera became popular with the public, too. As it became all the rage, productions became more lavish! Soon, theaters began to be built just to mount operas. These theaters had elaborate stage machinery to create special effects like flying actors or crumbling buildings. Not everyone embraced the new form of theater. Some critics thought that all of the stage antics in opera detracted from the music and drama. Some people even believed that seeing too much comedy in opera could make you immoral! During the Baroque period (1600 - 1750), Italian opera spread all over Europe. The Italian style of opera was so popular that even non-Italians wrote in this style. For example, Georg Frederic Handel (1685 – 1759) was a German-born composer who lived and worked in England.

His operas, like Julius Caesar (1724), were written in the Italian language and used an Italian style of music. The only nation to create its own national operatic style was France. Ballet played a large role in the French culture, and operas often included ballets in the middle of the opera. The most famous French Baroque opera composers were Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) and Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683 - 1764). The eighteenth century was full of change for both Europe and opera. This time period was known as the Age of Enlightenment. People were starting to talk about new forms of government and organization in society, especially the ever-growing middle class. Music displayed this new thinking as composers dropped the Baroque era’s complicated musical style for simpler, more emotional music. In less-flashy music, characters could express their thoughts and feelings more believably. One of the first operas to use this new style was Christoph Willibald Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice (1762). In 1776 the American Revolution changed the world. A few years later the French had their own revolution (1789) and the first modern democracies were born. To match the times in which they were created, audiences wanted to see characters like themselves on stage, not gods and goddesses. They also wanted to see issues that were important to them. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro (1786) featured a timely story of aristocratic class struggles that had both servants and nobility in lead roles. The ideals of the Enlightenment also came to the stage in Ludwig van Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio (1805), a story about equality and freedom. In the 1800s opera continued to grow. The Italian tradition continued in the bel canto movement, which literally translates to “beautiful singing.” These operas asked performers to sing complicated groups of fast notes in the melodies. The most famous bel canto composers were Gioacchino Rossini (1792 –1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797 – 1848), and Vincenzo Bellini (1801 –1835). Their operas, like Rossini’s popular comedies The Barber of Seville (1816) and Cinderella (1817), are still some of the most popular operas performed today.

Photo by Kelly and Massa

By the middle of the century, the Romantic Movement led many composers to champion their own national identities. As a result, operas in languages other than Italian became more common; new works often reflected pride in a country’s people, history, and folklore. German operas like Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz (1821),


Opera in the twentieth century became even more experimental. Composers like Giacomo Puccini (La bohème, 1896), Claude Debussy (Pelléas et Mélisande, 1902), Richard Strauss (Salome, 1905), and Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945) evolved their national styles. Others, horrified by the destruction of World War I (1914-1919) and other aspects of modern life, created music that was new and drastically dissonant. These operas often explored either dark psychological topics (Wozzeck by Alban Berg, 1925), or simple and absurd (The Rake’s Progress by Igor Stravinsky, 1951). American opera had a huge hit with George and Ira Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess (1935) which included jazz and blues musical styles. Today, opera is still growing and expanding. Opera Philadelphia helps to shape the future of opera by producing important new works like Argentinian born composer Osvaldo Golijov’s flamenco-inspired Ainadamar (2003 & 2014), Hans Werner Henze’s Phaedra (2007), which interprets Greek mythology through the eyes of a World War II survivor, and Nico Muhly’s Dark Sisters (2011) which explores the lives of the women in a polygamist community. More recently, Opera Philadelphia co-produced Kevin Puts and Mark Campbell’s Silent Night (2012), an opera based on the World War I Christmas Truce. Upcoming productions include Theo Morrison’s Oscar (2015), based on the life of Oscar Wilde, and Cold Mountain (2016), an opera composed by Philadelphian Jennifer Higdon and based on the book of the same name by Charles Frazier. Although opera is one of the oldest musical art forms, it still remains and expands today. From the old favorites to the new experimental works opera continues to be a moving art form of the people.


Photo by Kelly and Massa

Russian operas like Mikhail Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar (1836) and French operas like Giacomo Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots (1836) started to be performed across Europe. By using nationalism in his operas like Nabucco (1842), Italian Giuseppe Verdi became a national hero. In Germany Richard Wagner took Romanticism to the extreme in a four-part operatic miniseries based on Norse mythology, The Ring of the Nibelung (1876), which takes over 15 hours to perform! The operatic stereotype of the singer in the Viking helmet comes from these operas.

above: Kevin Puts and Mark Campbell ’s new American opera, Silent Night below: Up-and-coming soprano Michelle Johnson as Puccini’s Manon Lescaut far left: Bass Morris Robinson dominates Verdi’s patriotic Nabucco


1. During the Renaissance, on what were many of the first operas based? 2. What kind of opera spread all over Europe during the Baroque period? Give one example of this kind of opera. 3. What artistic genre played a huge role in French opera during the Baroque period? 4. How did the Enlightenment movement during the 18th century change how composers wrote operas? 5. What new operatic qualities did Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro display due to the American Revolution and its effect in the world? 6. Describe “bel canto” opera and give one example of a composer who used this style. 7. Nationalism was a prominent feature in the operatic world in the 1800s. Give an example of a composer who strayed from the Italian operatic form to write nationalistic operas. 8. What other musical styles did the American opera Porgy and Bess include? 9. Name three new operas that Opera Philadelphia has or will produce.

In 2005, Musical America, the national cultural organization for the performing arts industry, named Osvaldo Golijov as its Composer of the Year saying that the composer “emerged as one of the leading figures of contemporary music, with a multicultural style of exuberant dance rhythms and raw emotion that connects instantly to a wide range of audiences.” The New York Times said that he is one of the few young composers “who will change the way music is played and heard.” Mark Swed of the Los Angeles Times said his opera Ainadamar with librettist David Henry Hwang “is amazing, in its opening distant trumpet calls, its insinuating dance rhythms, its vital command of percussion and its arrestingly beautiful arias for women’s voice. The end is a devastatingly lush trio, with the voices of Lorca and Margarita from beyond guiding the way for Nuria...A theater of delirium.” Osvaldo Golijov (born December 5, 1960) grew up in an Eastern European Jewish household in La Plata, Argentina. Born to a piano teacher mother and physician father, Golijov was surrounded by music as a child classical chamber music, Jewish liturgical and klezmer music, and the new tango of Astor Piazzolla (1921 – 1992), an Argentinian tango composer who incorporated elements from jazz and classical music. After studying piano at the local conservatory and composition with Gerardo Gandini (1936 - 2013), a very important Argentinian musical figure, he moved to Israel in 1983, where he studied with Ukrainian composer Mark Kopytman (1929-2011) at the Jerusalem Rubin Academy, and immersed himself in the colliding musical traditions of that city. Upon moving to the United States in 1986, Golijov earned his Ph.D. in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied with famous American composer George Crumb (b. 1929), and was a fellow at the important Tanglewood Festival in Massachusetts, studying with British composer Oliver Knussen (b. 1952). In the opera Ainadamar, the story of the hero Federico García Lorca is told through his muse, or artistic inspiration, Margarita Xirgu. Golijov’s muse is the famous American soprano Dawn Upshaw (b. 1960), for whom he composed several works, including the Three Songs for Soprano and Orchestra, the opera Ainadamar, the cycles Ayre and She Was Here, and a number of arrangements.

In 2000, the premiere of Golijov’s St. Mark Passion took the music world by storm. The piece featured the Schola Cantorum de Caracas, with the Orquesta La Pasión. For the Carnegie Hall world premiere of Ayre, Golijov founded another virtuoso ensemble: The Andalucian Dogs.

Golijov receives many offers to write new music from major ensembles and institutions in the U.S. and Europe. In addition to the artists mentioned above, he works closely with ensembles including the Atlanta Symphony, the Boston Symphony, the Chicago Symphony, Silk Road Ensemble and eighth blackbird; the artist Gronk, playwright David Henry Hwang, and directors Francis Ford Coppola (famous for the Godfather films) and Peter Sellars, who staged critically acclaimed runs of Ainadamar at the Santa Fe Opera and Lincoln Center. In January and February 2006 Lincoln Center in New York City presented a sold-out festival called “The Passion of Osvaldo Golijov”, featuring multiple performances of his major works, his chamber music, and late night programs of music dear to him. In 2007 he was named first composerin-residence at the Mostly Mozart Festival in New York City. He was also composer-in-residence at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Spoleto USA Festival, the Los Angeles Philharmonic’s Music Alive series, Marlboro Music, and many more. Golijov is Loyola Professor of Music at College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA, where he has taught since 1991. He also taught for several years at Tanglewood Music Festival, has led workshops at Carnegie Hall with Dawn Upshaw and teaches in the summers at the Sundance Composers Lab. Golijov scored the soundtracks for several movies including Youth Without Youth, Tetro and Twixt, Darkness 9’11’ and The Oath. Other recent works include Azul, a cello concerto for Yo-Yo Ma and the Boston Symphony; Rose of the Winds, premiered by the Silk Road Ensemble and the Chicago Symphony under Miguel Harth-Bedoya; She Was Here, a work based on Schubert lieder premiered by Dawn Upshaw and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and more. To learn more about this fascinating composer, visit his website at


Photo Credit: Tanit Sakakini


R E L U C TA N T R E V O L U T I O N A R Y F E D ERI C O G AR C Í A L OR C A Federico García Lorca was a very famous writer who used poetry, plays, and theater to rebel against the powerful Spanish rich in the early 1900s. His work also took on the taboo issues of homosexuality and class while challenging the role of women in Spanish society. His political views may have been the cause of his execution by the General Francisco Franco and the new Spanish government in the summer of 1936. García Lorca was born on June 5, 1898 in Fuente Vaqueros, a small town near Granada, Spain. His father was wealthy landowner who owned a farm in the country and a large house in the city. His mother was a teacher and a gifted pianist. García Lorca moved to Granada when he was 11, but still kept his years in the country close to his heart. The country represented beauty and the past to him and both became important themes in his work. He was talented in the arts and excelled in painting, music and poetry. His friendship with the Spanish composer Manual DeFalla (1876 –1946) led him to Spanish folklore, which became one of his inspirations in his early poetry. In 1915, García Lorca studied law, literature, and music composition at Sacred Heart University. He was never a good student and didn’t fit well into university life. His friends would describe him as a smiling uninterested man, but under the surface there was a sadness and frustration with life: a feeling which eventually emerged in his poetry. While he transferred schools and enrolled in the Residencia de estudiantes to study philosophy and law in Madrid in 1919, he avidly continued to write plays and poetry and his writing career took off, like a meteor. However, his first staged play, El maleficio de la mariposa (The Butterfly’s Evil Spell), closed after only four performances in 1920. Still, fame and success were around the corner for the young writer. His first book of poems was published in 1921, containing themes of religious faith, loneliness and nature. At this time, he also began writing poems for his anthology Poema del cante jondo (“Poem of the deep song”, not published until 1931), which contained a poem about f lamenco, which greatly inspired him. His passion for the art form helped re-popularize the it throughout the country. García Lorca’s poetry raised an appreciation of reality to new heights, showing his love for realism, which is a practical understanding and acceptance of the actual nature of the world, rather than an idealized or romantic view of it. Over the next few years, he published poetry collections including Canciones (Songs) and Romancero Gitano (Gypsy Ballads), which became his best known book of poetry. García Lorca’s most famous play, Mariana Pineda, written in 1927, opened to great fame in Barcelona. Taking place


100 years earlier, it describes a woman in love with a revolutionary hero, who gives her life rather than reveal her lover’s location to the authorities. The stage sets of both Mariana Pineda and El maleficio de la mariposa were done by García Lorca’s good friend and inspiration, Salvador Dalí, a famous Spanish painter (1904 –1989). After Dalí rejected García Lorca’s advances, the young writer became deeply depressed because of his homosexuality. His family arranged for him to spend a year in New York City, where he studied at Columbia University. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 happened during García Lorca’s time in the city. It deepened the poet’s disapproval of urban commercialism and inspired him to write the collection Poeta en Nueva York (A Poet in New York, published posthumously in 1942). It was a departure from his previous poetry, which focused mostly on folklore. In 1930, García Lorca returned to Spain during the Second Spanish Republic, which was a free society. In 1931, he was appointed as director of Teatro Universitario la Barraca (The Shack), a university theater group. During these tours he wrote some of his best known plays, Bodas de Sangre (Blood Wedding), Yerma and La Casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba), which all fought against ideals of the wealthy Spanish society and challenged the role of women in society. García Lorca lived in his summer house in Granada from 1926 to 1936. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in July of 1936, he knew he would be mistreated because of his political views, despite that he felt that his art was not political. On the same afternoon that his brother-in-law, the mayor of Granada, was shot, Lorca was arrested. It is thought that Lorca was shot at the Fuente Grande (Great Fountain), by Nationalist militia, outside of Granada on August 18, 1936. He was 38 years old. His assassination at Fuente Grande forms the inspiration for the opera, Ainadamar, or the Fountain of Tears. Controversy still surrounds García Lorca’s death as there is speculation that his sexual orientation played a role in his death as well as his possible association with Marxist Popular Front. His memory lives on to this day in his plays and poetry. He is still well admired for his bravery and social activism. Some even honor him as a martyr for the Spanish people. This aspect of his legend is seen in this Ainadamar production.

T H E S PA N I S H C I V I L WAR In the 1930s, through his poetry, Federico García Lorca became an advocate for the revolution during the Spanish Civil War and was labeled a communist, even though he didn’t mean to be political in his poetry and in his actions. He eventually was killed by the Nationalists (or Fascists) in 1936 for his supposed political beliefs and possibly his homosexuality. Due to the importance of the Spanish Civil War in Lorca’s life, and therefore, in our opera named for the site where he was killed, we’ll look at the important events surrounding the war.

King Alfonso the 8th (XIII) (1886 – 1941) was the king of Spain from 1886 until 1931. His father, King Alfonso the 7th (XII), was king of Spain from 1874 to 1885, after the monarchy came back into power for the first time. In 1931, the monarchy was defeated, King Alfonso XIII fled the country, and the democratic Second Spanish Republic was established. Afterwards, there was a good deal of political conflict as the parties on opposite sides became more and more divided. By the 1936 elections, the social revolutionaries, the Popular Front, won at the polls. They began an uprising against religious leaders and landowners and began to attack the church. On July 18th, 1936, an army rebellion started and the civil war began, and General Francisco Franco (1892 –1975) began a military takeover against the elected government. General Franco gained support from other Fascist governments (an attitude that favors governmental control of private business, control of all opposition, and extreme love for one’s country) including Italy and Germany and gradually took over most of Spain with their help. The Republican forces fighting against Franco were troubled by many problems: limited supplies, bad weapons, and lack of aid from other countries. In April 1937, to help Franco combat one of the last regions of Spain not under his control, a force of German planes bombed the historical town of Guernica, with a death toll of around 100,000 civilians. Between March and June 1938, General Franco continued his fight, took hold of Catalonia (a region of Spain) and captured the city of Barcelona in January of 1939, where the Republican army finally surrendered. On October 1, 1939, General Franco became the Generalissimo of The Fascist Army and Head of State where he stayed until 1975.


Spanish Civil War Revolutionaries fighting against fascism and dictatorship of General Franco


conflict of values between sides both free states

American Civil War Southern states (slave) seceding from the Northern states (free)

Key Political Parties of the Spanish Civil War: The Nationalists vs. the Republicans THE NATIONALISTS (General Franco’s supporters and the ultimate winners) The Carlists: supported returning the descendants of Don Carlos to the throne of Spain. They wanted a return to the traditional “ultra-Catholic” monarchy. The Catholic Church: Catholic party who members switched to the Falange in 1936. The Falange: small fascist party founded in 1933. Supported the new ideas in styles and art, and fought for the lower classes. The Falange lost support in the 1936 election leading up the Spanish Civil war and all that were left of the party were a small group of young activists. In 1937, General Franco seized power, took over as the leader of the Falange and the army of Spain gave the party its full support. As a result, it was the only political party allowed by General Franco, who led Spain into a military dictatorship between 1939 and 1942. This movement developed into the National Movement that survived until Franco’s death until 1975. In the opera, Ainadamar, there is a voice of “Radio Falange,”which the librettist created to instill a sense of what the oppressive government of the time sounded like. All the messages from Radio Falange were printed actually in a number of Spanish newspapers in 1936 and were quotations from Falangist officers. The Monarchists: supported returning the descendants of Queen Isabella II to the throne of Spain. Became the focus of the Republican opposition. THE REPUBLICANS (Anti-Franco revolutionaries, were defeated)

Alfonso XIII of Spain


1. How does democracy compare to fascism (the movement of General Francisco Franco)? Are there any similarities between the two? Fill in the Venn Diagram on page 11.

2. Where does Fascism exist in the world today? How do you think we can fight the ideals of Fascism in our world?

3. How does the Spanish Civil War compare to the American Civil War (see Venn Diagram) if at all?

4. Add these words or phrases to the Venn diagram to the left: no foreign powers “bad guys” won

The Anarcho-Syndicalists: anarchist (anti-government) movement supported by the industrial workers of Barcelona. Worked in secret and formed the Anarchist Militias. The Catalans and Basques: Thought of themselves as separate from Spain with their own languages and cultures. Wanted to form their own nation.

an “industrial” war


used bombs

750,000 deaths

500,000 deaths


oppressed people


The Communists: founded in 1921, small, highly efficient and was supported by Stalinist Russia. Exerted more and more power as the other parties lost support. The Marxists: revolutionary anti-Stalinist (supports social and economic equality) Party


The Republicans: social-democratic group Socialists: most powerful Republican political force, which after the war was dominated by the Communists. General Francisco Franco


supported by foreign powers “bad guys” lost

B U L L Y I N G A N D A N T I - G AY ATTITU D ES Have you ever been teased by another student at school to the point where you felt threatened and really bad about yourself? Have you seen someone being pushed around and made fun of until they no longer want to come to school anymore? This is called bullying and it is a very real problem in American schools today. What do you think you can do to help stop bullying? Bullying is defined as the use of one’s strength or popularity to injure, threaten, or embarrass another person. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or social. It is not bullying when two students of about the same strength argue or fight. Student bullying is one of the most frequently reported problems at school. Bullying is the number one discipline problem in middle schools. Up to 25% of U.S. students are bullied each year. As many as 160,000 may stay home from school on any given day because they are afraid of being bullied, at least 1 out of 3 teens say they have been seriously threatened online and 60% of teens say they have participated in online bullying. Not only is bullying in general a huge problem in school, but anti-gay bullying specifically is on the rise, and the most tragic consequence of this kind of bullying has been a rash of teen suicides in the last few years. Statistics suggest that students hear anti-gay remarks about once every 14 minutes during the school day on average. Anti-gay bullying is something everyone should be concerned about; the victims are not just students who are actually gay. The abuse is also directed at straight kids who don’t quite fit gender norms. Tomboyish girls and guys who show interest in activities like gymnastics or dance are often called the same names as their gay and lesbian classmates. It’s not only verbal attacks that these students are enduring, but physical ones too. 61% of gay youth report feeling unsafe in their school environment and 1 in 6 gay teens will be physically assaulted so badly that medical attention is needed. Compared to kids bullied for other reasons or not bullied at all, those targeted because they were thought to be gay were much more likely to have considered suicide in the past year, to have been depressed in the past year and to say they don’t feel good about themselves.


Clashing with the rise of anti-gay bullying, acceptance of homosexuality is greater than ever. A 2013 Gallup poll shows that 59% percent of Americans think it’s OK to be gay. Kids can join gay-straight alliance groups at more than 4,000 high schools and more than 150 middle schools nationwide and find advice and support online. Yet according to the Journal of Adolescent Health, about one-third of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender teens (LGBT) report an attempt at suicide. Why are so many still driven to try to take their own life? “Despite recent cultural shifts, kids still get the overwhelming message from society that homosexuality is not acceptable,” says Scott Quasha, PsyD, a professor of school psychology at Brooklyn College. It’s not uncommon to hear politicians and preachers talk down about LGBT people as they debate gay civil rights. Homosexuality is compared to incest, brutality, even violent crime. “This trickles down into the schools, where bullying occurs,” says Dr. Quasha. “A gay child is an easy target for classmates looking to make trouble.” Federico García Lorca, the subject of the opera Ainadamar, was suspected of having been executed during the Spanish Civil War due partly he did not hide that he was gay. This kind of discrimination still exists today and even though homosexuality in America in general is more tolerated, students are being threatened and bullied every day in their schools because of their sexual orientation. According to research, teachers and school leaders need to promote comfortable and safe environments. “While family and peer support have important positive effects for gay youth and reduce feelings of suicide and depression, you cannot ‘support away’ these toxic effects of bullying,” Brian Mustanski, an associate professor in the department of medical social sciences at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine said. “Schools and communities need to put in place policies and practices that make schools and neighborhoods safe for all kids”.


A C TI V E L EARNIN G 1. After the high number of suicides of bullied gay youth in the recent years, in September 2010, syndicated columnist and author, Dan Savage created a YouTube video with his partner to inspire hope for youth facing harassment. He created ItGetsBetter. org and the website became a place for people to submit videos so that young people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or

It’s become much more acceptable to come “out of the closet” and let the world know that you are gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. Here’s a very small list of some public figures throughout the centuries who have done so, sometimes standing up to bullies and facing great struggles because of their bravery. Clay Aiken, musician

Adam Lambert, musician

Alvin Ailey, dancer

Don Lemon, journalist

Alexander the Great, king

Jane Lynch, actor

Pedro Almodóvar, filmmaker

Luke Macfarlane, actor

Gillian Anderson, actor

Rachel Maddow, journalist

Babydaddy, musician

Rita Mae Brown, writer

Josephine Baker, entertainer

Ricky Martin, musician

Lance Bass, musician

Ian McKellen, actor

Nate Berkus, designer

Kate McKinnon, comedienne

Leonard Bernstein, composer

Michelangelo, artist

Matt Bomer, actor

Wentworth Miller, actor

Anne Burrell, chef

Amanda Moore, supermodel

Carmen Carrera, model

Martina Navratilova, athlete

Sam Champion, weather anchor

Rosie O’Donnell, comedienne

Mary Cheney, personality

Frank Ocean, rapper

Margaret Cho, comedienne

Suze Orman, financier

Tabatha Coffey, hair stylist

Jim Parsons, actor

3. Talk to your classmates about creating a gay-straight alliance

Chris Colfer, actor

Cole Porter, composer

Jason Collins, athlete

Zachary Quinto, actor

Anderson Cooper, journalist

Lisa Raymond, athlete

your friends about why it’s not OK to bully LGBT students.

Orlando Cruz, athlete

Robert Reed, actor

Wilson Cruz, actor

Sally Ride, astronaut


Merce Cunningham, dancer

Thomas Roberts, journalist

transgender (LGBT) can see how love and happiness can be a reality in their future. Watch a few of these videos on YouTube (





classmates how they make you feel. Does your opinion about students who may be gay or lesbian change after seeing the videos? Do the videos help you to understand what they (or you) are going through?

2. What is something that you can do to help prevent anti-gay bullying? What can your school do? What is your school already doing to help LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) students? Do they have a school policy against LGBT bullying? Talk to your school counselor about making a policy to fight LGBT bullying. For an example of how to make a policy or ideas on how to make your school safe, see the article Safe at School: Addressing the School Environment and LGBT Safety through Policy and Legislation:

groups or a support group for these students. Create more awareness of LGBT students’ plight by making anti bullying posters, or talking to

The Trevor Project is the leading national organization

focused on crisis and suicide prevention efforts among lesbian,

Tom Daley, athlete

Maurice Sendak, writer

gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBT) youth. The

Matt Dallas, actor

Brian Sims, politician

lifeline is available anytime, day or night, at: 866-488-7386 or

David Daniels, opera singer

Stephen Sondheim, musician


Ellen DeGeneres, comedienne

Gertrude Stein, writer

Vicky Galindo, athlete

Andrew Sullivan, journalist

The Trevor Project is determined to end suicide among LGBT youth

Federico García Lorca, writer

Wanda Sykes, comedienne

by providing life-saving and life-affirming resources including our

Sara Gilbert, actress

Shaun T., personal trainer

nationwide, 24/7 crisis intervention lifeline, digital community and

Allen Ginsberg, poet

George Takei, actor

advocacy/educational programs that create a safe, supportive

Jonathan Groff, actor

Lily Tomlin, actor

and positive environment for everyone. More information at:

Bob Harper, personal trainer

Esera Tuaolo, athlete

Neil Patrick Harris, actor

Jesse Tyler Ferguson, actor

Jennifer Higdon, composer

Michael Urie, actor

Langston Hughes, writer

Junior Vasquez, musician

Cheyenne Jackson, actor

Johnny Weir, athlete

Elton John, musician

Walt Whitman, writer

Orlando Jordan, athlete

Oscar Wilde, playwright

Billie Jean King, athlete

Tennessee Williams, playwright

Isis King, model

Chely Wright, musician

T.R. Knight, actor

Darren Young, athlete

Sources cited: - - - - -,_lesbian_or_bisexual_people - iles/Biegel_LGBT.pdf -


FLAMENCO: R H Y T H M O F A NATION Flamenco is a form of Spanish folk music and dance from the region of Andalusia in southern Spain. It originated in the 18th century and supposedly started among the gypsies in that region. Later in the 18th century, flamenco became popular among the mainstream Andalusian society, and gets some of its roots from this culture. It includes cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance) and palmas (hand claps). Flamenco is often associated with the Romani people of Spain and many famous flamenco artists are of this ethnicity. Flamenco has recently become internationally popular, and now there are more flamenco academies in Japan than in Spain! When flamenco began, there was no musical accompaniment, only a stick that was rhythmically tapped on the ground. The subjects of the early songs were about the hard lives of the gypsies like lost love, imprisonment and death. Flamenco music was influenced from the beginning by Hindi and Arabic music through the gypsies. Most historians agree that gypsies originated in India. It appears that the gypsies may have migrated to the Persian countries in the 5th century where they had an excellent reputation as musicians, entertainers, and metalworkers. After passing through Egypt they made their way to Europe, first to Greece and the Balkans in the 1200s and then Eastern and Western Europe in the following centuries. Extensions of vowels, melismas (one syllable sung over many different notes), expressions of deep feelings, and the priority of emotions over lyrics, all stem from characteristics of Hindi and Arabic music. Expressions such as ay, layli, layla, lolailo, lereli, and lerele were common among traditional flamenco songs which may have come from the Arabic language. Flamenco music was sung without accompaniment in the first part of the 18th century. During the 19th century, guitar was used, and then the guitar became a solo instrument. Since the beginning of the 18th century, most flamenco performers have been professionals.

Flamenco occurs in four settings - in the juerga (an informal, spontaneous gathering, rather like a jazz “ jam session”), in small-scale cabaret, in concert venues and in the theatre, or through a zambra or spontaneous celebration. The compás (rhythm or meter in Spanish) is the key to flamenco music. If there is no guitarist available, the compás is rendered through hand clapping (palmas) or by hitting a table with the knuckles. Flamenco music uses simple walking rhythms or 12-beat rhythms. A good example of a 12 beat pattern in a song is “America” from West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein. There are four styles of flamenco. El Baile Flamenco is known for its emotional intensity, erect upright stance, expressive use of the arms and rhythmic stamping of the feet. In Flamenco Puro, the dance is always performed solo, and is improvised rather than choreographed. Classical Flamenco is the style most frequently performed by Spanish flamenco dance companies and it is danced largely in a proud and upright way. There is little movement of the hips, the body is tightly held and the arms are long, like a ballet dancer. In fact many of the dancers in these companies have trained in ballet as well as flamenco. Flamenco has been highly influenced by classical ballet and in some cases the two dance forms have been joined in the early part of the 20th century. Flamenco Nuevo is a recent style of flamenco in which dances are choreographed and are influenced by other styles. The dancers wear much simpler costumes and rarely use props.


1. Listen to some clips of Flamenco music. What do you hear in the music? Does it sound like other music that you have heard before?

2. After watching the clips above, how are flamenco dance moves different than those used in ballet or hip-hop?

3. Clap along to the rhythm of the 12-beat pattern while you list to “America” from West Side Story. This type of rhythm is common in flamenco music: Photo: Gilles Larrain, Wikipedia


THE TROUSER ROLE: AN O P ERATI C TRA D ITION Out onto the stage walks a young, slim, attractive man. He saunters seductively to the female lead and grabs her around the waist; their eyes lock in a loving gaze. The couple is entrancing and you lose yourself in their passion. Then you hear the man sing and you wonder why the voice sounds so high, so pretty. You look closer and you realize that it’s not a man at all. The singer is a woman playing a man! It’s a standard operatic convention known as the trouser role. In the opera Ainadamar, the main character, Federico García Lorca is played by a woman. Composing the role specifically for a woman rather than a man happened almost accidentally. In a 2006 in terview with National Public Radio, Golijov recalled hearing an audition tape by mezzo-soprano Kelly O’Connor, who would eventually be cast as Lorca in the opera’s world premiere, saying, “When I heard that I thought maybe she could be Lorca. And then I looked at her picture... I say well... she looks exactly like Lorca and I just grabbed the phone (to call librettist David Henry Hwang) and I said, David, how about if we have Lorca sung by a woman? She sounds like what I think Lorca would have sounded, but she looks like him. And David said okay. So that’s how it went.” Performing en travesti (literally, “in disguise”) is an operatic tradition dating back to the earliest days of opera. The trouser role, also known as the synonymic “breech” or “pants” role, is simply a male role performed by a woman. In many seventeenth and eighteenth century operas, most heroic male roles were written for high voices, but were sung by male castrati, or men who underwent a surgical procedure to stop their voice from changing when they were a boy. This practice started as women weren’t allowed to sing in church at the time and the castrati’s high voice enabled a higher range of pitches in the all-male chorus. This practice was also important in the early development of Italian opera. At the height of their popularity, castrati were among the most famous and highly paid men in Europe, the rock stars of their day. They were champion vocal athletes who could jump up to high notes and sing intricate high-speed vocal passages. By 1830 however, the practice of using castrati had virtually disappeared from the stage as castrati were no longer the superstars they had been a century earlier. Still, the surgical procedure was outlawed in 1861


As the castrati performers disappeared, women began to sing their heroic male roles. In fact, some female singers specialized in these roles. The coming of the romantic tenor as opera’s “leading man” reduced the number of trouser roles, but some composers still chose to honor the tradition as late as 1890. From the dawn of opera, women were sometimes cast as boys or young men. Outside Italy, these parts were mostly confined to pre-adult characters. Some very important trouser roles appear in French, English, Russian, Czech and German operas, especially those of composer Richard Strauss, who’s operas premiered in the early 1900s. Aside from a few roles in recent operas such as Ainadamar (Lorca), and the title role in Joseph Merrick: The Elephant Man, trouser roles are not seen frequently in contemporary opera. The trouser role has been used famously on Broadway in the title role of Peter Pan. For the most part, opera composers today do not use a female to sing a male role. Today, trouser roles are being recast as men who sing as countertenors. Countertenors train their voices using falsetto, which creates a high pitched sound in the range of a female singer. Still, casting directors are left with the problem that if you cast a woman in a pants role, you have an actor that looks like a woman, but sounds like a boy. Contrarily, a man cast in pants role would look like a man, but sound like a woman (as a countertenor). Since most of the trouser roles are boys, this dilemma still is a tough choice, and not a very clear one.

A C TI V E L EARNIN G 1. Farinelli was the most famous castrato that ever lived. Born Carlo Broschi (1705-1785), he was treated much like we treat rock stars today. Research his most famous roles, and who has played them in more modern times.

2. Make a vocal range map: research the average range of notes each voice part (ie. soprano, contralto, etc.) can sing. Draw a picture of a piano keyboard, writing the letter of the note on each key. Mark the picture with arrows for each voice part. Where do the ranges overlap?

POETIC INS P IRATION Both Golijov’s opera Ainadamar and Lorca’s play Mariana Pineda being with the line “Ay! Qué día tan triste en Granada, que a las piedras hacía llorar” (Oh! What a sad day in Granada, that the stones did mourn). The line come from a popular Spanish children’s poem about Mariana Pineda. Learn more about the Spanish heroine on page 24. What does this poem mean? Hear a recording of this song at Mariana Pineda


Marianita solita en su cuarto

Little Mariana all alone in her bedroom,

la bandera se puso a bordar

set about to embroider the flag

la cogieron con ella en los brazos

they caught her with it in her arms

su delito no pudo ocultar.

she could not hide her crime.

¡Oh, traidora cómo me engañaste

Oh, traitor, how did you deceive me

¡Oh, traidora no fuiste leal

Oh, traitor, you were not loyal

que el registro que en tu casa hubo,

the evidence that was in your house,

varias muertes tendrá que costar.

will have cost several deaths

Yo os pido por Dios, realistas,

I ask you in God’s name, Realists,

si en algo puedo conseguir,

if I may accomplish something,

que a mis hijos les den empleo

that my children find employment

y a mí que me dejen morir.

and that they let me die.

Marianita ya la llevan presa

Little Mariana is now being hauled away

y la gente llorando atrás

and the people crying behind

y los hijos llorando decían:

and her crying children said:

Vuelve a casa querida mamá.

Come back home dear mom.

Marianita sola en el cadalso

Little Mariana alone on the gallows

en la muerte se puso a pensar

began to think about death

y los mismos realistas decían:

and the very same Realists said:

¡Quién pudiera darte libertad!

Who could give you freedom!

Ay! Qué día tan triste en Granada,

Oh, what a sad day in Granada

que a las piedras hacía llorar

that would make even the stones cry

al ver que Marianita se muere

upon seeing Little Mariana die

en cadalso por no declarar.

on the gallows for she refused to confess

AINADAMAR: S Y NO P SIS Ainadamar is an Arabic word meaning “fountain of tears” and is a natural spring located in the hills above the city of Granada, the site where the poet and playwright Federico García Lorca was executed in 1936. Ainadamar tells the story of the playwright’s life and death through the eyes of his muse, actress Margarita Xirgu. When the Spanish Civil War began, Xirgu was on tour in South America and she spent the rest of her life there in voluntary exile. Told in three images of flashbacks by Xirgu, the opera utilizes flamenco-accented orchestra sounds as Xirgu, who had a close working relationship with Lorca, reflects on her meetings with Lorca and his final execution for his progressive political ideals. The opera revisits themes from his most famous play, Mariana Pineda, premiered in 1927, a historic drama about a 19th century Spanish folk heroine who was executed, similarly, for her political ideals. Margarita Xirgu played the title character in this play. The opera begins in the 1960s, with an 81 year old Xirgu about to go onstage for what will be her last performance of Mariana Pineda.



Uruguay, April 1969: Preparing for a performance, a group of young actresses sing the opening balada of Lorca’s play, Mariana Pineda. Margarita Xirgu looks back forty years to the premiere of Mariana Pineda, as she tries to convey the brilliance of this young author to her student, Nuria. She has a flashback of her meeting with Lorca in a bar in Madrid where he describes his play to her for the first time. It was inspired by a statue of Mariana Pineda that he saw as a child in Granada. Mariana was martyred for sewing a revolutionary flag and refusing to reveal the identity of the revolutionary leaders, including her lover, who deserted her as she then struggled to die with dignity. Margarita compares the eerie foreshadowing of the fate of Mariana and Federico’s subsequent execution. Ramón Ruiz Alonso, the Falangist who executed Lorca, interrupts the flashback. Over the state radio we hear the Falangists extinguish the beginnings of the revolution.

The actresses sing the balada from Mariana Pineda again. Margarita is taken back to the summer of 1936, the last time she saw Lorca. The Spanish Civil War has begun and the revolutionaries are in danger. Margarita begs Lorca to come with her theater company to Cuba, but he refuses and stays in Granada to write new plays and poetry. The news of Lorca’s murder is an early warning to the world. Margarita imagines Ruiz Alonso arresting Lorca and leading him, a bullfighter, and teacher to Ainadmar, the fountain of tears, and making them confess their sins and then shooting them all.

T H IR D I M A G E : M A R G A R I TA The play starts one more time as Margarita is dying and the actresses sing the balada once again. She tells Nuria that an actor only lives for a moment but that the voice of the people will never die. The Spanish fascist head of state and military ruler, Francisco Franco, has never permitted Margarita Xirgu, the image of freedom, to come back to Spain, but Margarita has kept the plays of Lorca alive in Latin America while they were forbidden in Spain. Lorca’s spirit enters the room to comfort Margarita and they walk toward delirium. Margarita dies as her courage and humanity are passed on to Nuria and the young actresses as they walk onto stage. Margarita sings the final lines to Mariana Pineda “I am the fountain from which you drink.” The performance can now begin.


O S VA L D O G O L I J O V: AINA D A M AR C AST FINAL DRESS REHEARSAL — WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 2014 AT 6:15 P.M. AT THE ACADEMY OF MUSIC English Libretto, David Henry Hwang © 2005. Reprinted with permission of Mr. Hwang and the Steven Barclay Agency. Words underlined in the libretto are def ined in the glossary in the back of the guide. M A RGA RI TA X I RG U (m ar- g ar- EE - t a SHEER- g o o).......................... M aría Hin ojo s a M o nt e n e gro, so p rano FED ERI CO GA RCÍ A LO RC A (fe d - e r- EE - co g ar- CEE - ah LOR- ka)................. M arin a Pard o, m ez zo -so p rano N U RI A ( NOO - re e - ah).......................................................................................S arah S h afe r, so p rano RU I Z A LO NSO (ro o - EE Z ah - LON -zo)............................................................... A lf re d o Teje d a, cant a o r 1ST SO LO N I ÑA ...............................................................................................Justine Aronson, soprano 2N D SO LO N IÑA ..............................................................................................Kell y Ann Bixby, soprano JOSE TRIPALDI.............................................................................................................Patrick Guet ti, b ass M AESTRO.................................................................................................Andrew B ogard, b ass-b aritone TORERO....................................................................................................................John Viscardi, tenor CO N D U CTO R.............................................................................................................Corrado Rovaris STAG E D I RECTO R..........................................................................................................Luis d e Ta vira SCEN I C D ESI G N ER....................................................................................................Philip p e A m an d COST U M E D ESI G N.........................................................................................To lit a & M aría Figu e ro a L I G H T I N G D ESI G N...................................................................................................Philip p e A m an d VI D EO D ESI G N.........................................................................................................J ulián d e Ta vira CH O REO G R A PH ER.......................................................................................................St e ll a A rauzo CH O RUS M AST ER.....................................................................................................Elizab et h B ra d en Co-production from the Fundación Ópera de Oviedo, Festival Internacional de Música y Danza de Granada y Festival Internacional de Musica de Santander

Margarita Xirgu rushes

off stage to change costume

during a performance as

Mariana Pineda


AINADAMAR M EET T H E ARTISTS The Catalan soprano, María Hinojosa Montenegro, made her debut at the age of sixteen interpreting main roles of more than twenty zarzuelas and was nominated as Best Musical Actress in Spain. She has recorded several contemporary operas such as Primary Colors by Agustí Charles, Anna Cruse by Eduard Resina, RMSonce and The Game of Life by Francesc Martí. Upcoming productions include Rodelinda by Handel in Santiago, Tito Manlio by Vivaldi with Accademia Byzantine at Krakow’s festival and Wien, Vivaldi and Handel arias at Beaux Arts in Brussels, Concertgebouw of Brugge, Champs-Elysées in Paris and Theater an der Wien. The role of Margartia Xirgu in Golijov’s Ainadamar marks Ms. Montenegro’s Opera Philadelphia debut. Visit her online at Mezzo-soprano Marina Pardo is well versed in both early and contemporary music alike. She has performed Purcell’s Dido & Aeneas (Sorceress), L’ incoronazione di Poppea by Monteverdi (Nerone) and Handel’s Giulio Cesare (Sesto/Cornelia). She has recorded for the label K617, which distributes Harmonia Mundi. She has appeared in numerous productions such as Le nozze di Figaro (Cherubino), Die Walküre (Grimgerde), Carmen (Mercédès), and La traviata (Flora). Marina Pardo has also carved a niche among the leading performers of zarzuela, singing over twenty roles. As Ms. Pardo specializes in performing pants roles, where a woman plays the role of a male character, the role of Federico García Lorca in Ainadamar suits her well. Check out to learn more about Marina. Soprano Sarah Shafer made her Opera Philadelphia’s debut as Papagena in The Magic Flute last April and returns to sing Nuria in Ainadamar. She recently made her professional operatic debut as Barbarina in The Marriage of Figaro at the Glyndebourne Festival. Other roles for this coming season include her American debut with Opera Memphis singing Adina in L’elisir d’amore. A graduate of Curtis Opera Theatre, she boasts many credits to her name that include over fifteen productions and a variety of roles including Giulietta in I Capuleti e i Montecchi, Elizabeth Zimmer in Henze’s Elegy for Young Lovers, Ilia in Idomeneo, Rosina in Il barbiere di Siviglia, Sofia in Il Signor Bruschino, and Mélisande in Impressions of Pelléas. Visit the soprano’s website at Alfredo Tejada, flamenco singer, is from Granada, Spain. His gypsy mother was a “cantaora” performing in “El Jaleo”. After 4 years of musical studies, the guitarist Luis Millan discovered Mr. Tejado and introduced him to the flamenco circles of Granada, after which he won a few awards in different Andalusian competitions. Mr. Tejada worked in the cave of Rocio del Sacro Monte in Granada. Golijov’s Ainadamar marks Mr. Tejada’s Opera Philadelphia debut. See Alfredo in performance on his YouTube channel:

The Antonio Gades Company has been one of the great pillars of Spanish dance and flamenco since its inception. Based legendary choreographer Antonio Gades’ repertoire, the Company boasts a private school based on Antonio Gades’ teachings. Today the company, under the artistic direction of Stella Quaternary, brings several generations of artists who continue the Gades style of dance which is defined and refined in the traditions and culture of the Spanish people. Gades made the Spanish dance a universal style with a wide expressive power that takes you to all corners of the world without words. The Antonio Gades Company performs throughout Spain and has taken the Spanish public art cities and capitals of Russia, China, Japan, England, USA, France, Italy and Turkey. The show attracts and caters to all audiences regardless of age, nationality or cultural level. Learn more at


SOUND DESIGN: ON T H E O P ERA STA G E s o u n d d e • s i g n (sahoon d dih-zah yn ) n . the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio elements. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art, post-production, and video game. Sound design might not seem to have anything to do with opera, an art form that revels in an acoustic, unamplified celebration of the human voice and musical instruments. Opera singers train their voices to soar out over an orchestra. Their high notes, low notes, loud notes and soft notes all need to be heard perfectly in the auditorium without the use of a microphone. Singers train for years and years to perfect this ability. Well, at least that’s the case for most operas! Composer Osvaldo Golijov’s Ainadamar is different. Our singers use microphones in this opera, but not because they can’t be heard without microphones. Golijov wanted to add special audio effects to the singers’ voices and there are moments in the opera where the human voice joins with sound effects or is changed through sound design. He also uses sound effects to heighten the drama in unexpected ways. Ainadamar begins with an element of sound design. In the Water and Horse Prelude, we hear the sound of deep water. It’s the fountain where Lorca was killed. This sound effect was prerecorded and is part of an audio package of sound effects we hear throughout the opera. Then we hear distant trumpets and a trombone, wailing in a flamenco-like blaze. The trumpet’s call is modified through sound design to appear even further way, as if it’s crying like the soul of Spain itself. As the reverb and delay of the trumpets slowly fade away, we hear a horse racing towards us. The measured panting of the horse and his rhythmically-defined gallop sounds like Lorca’s heart beating for all of Spain. The horse gallops through the country, then on cobblestone, until the orchestra finally joins him in an explosion of percussion. The sounds join together to become a flamenco dance. Another bracing use of sound design in Ainadamar is when we first hear the voice of Ramon Ruiz Alonzo, an historical figure who arrested and executed Lorca. For this character, Golijov assigns the part not to an opera singer, but to a flamenco singer. Lorca loved the flamenco tradition, and perhaps no other musical style is as operatic as flamenco. The extreme emotion of flamenco, combined with the fascist message of Ruiz Alonso, adds to the drama of the scene. While his voice is not altered through electronic means, Golijov’s unconventional choice of a flamenco singer is as much a part of the opera’s sound design as the digitally changed elements are.


Later in the opera we hear a speaking voice coming from a loudspeaker. It’s the official voice of Radio Falange, the fascist political party which was ultimately taken over by the dictator General Francis Franco. The pre-recorded messages are shrill, distorted and oppressive. They’re meant to show how all-consuming the government had become. The message is also dramatic, “Whoever is not with us is against us. We’ll exterminate the seeds of the revolution, even in the wombs of their mothers. Long live death!” In some cases, Golijov uses amplification of the singer’s voice for expressive effect. We hear things that we could never hear if Margarita’s voice were not amplified. For example, in Margarita’s “Quiero arrancarme los ojos”, (I want to tear out my eyes), and in her death scene, we can hear the singer’s expressive sobs and emotional breathing to dramatic effect. Finally, one of the most dramatic and creative moments of the score is the use of gunshots at Lorca’s execution. In liner notes to the 2006 DG recording of the opera, Golijov recounts, “I thought: for the murder of Lorca … let’s start with just one gunshot! So I traced in a library of sounds a gunshot from the 1930s, and we hear that gunshot, and we hear the shell falling to the ground. And then I thought: let’s do a whole, entire piece based on this sound, where one gunshot becomes thousands and thousands of gunshots that killed thousands of people... then it becomes this semiflamenco dance of bullets. And on top of it we hear a heart-breaking lament (for the death of Lorca)...on top of the gunshots, (symbolizing)...the flamenco voice of pain.” All of these sound effects, in combination with the use of flamenco music, create one of the most unique operatic and theatrical experiences ever. Golijov uses sound design to capture the heart of a poet, the oppression of a fascist government, and the mourning of the loss of a nation’s soul.


1. On YouTube find two examples of sound effects used a popular movie which add to the dramatic impact of the scene.

PLOT THE ACTION IN AINA D A M AR Directions: Fill in the required information for each section below in numerical order. Use the information that appears with each section to help you proceed. It’s okay to write through the gray diagonal line in two of the sections.

2. As the story continues, the Rising Actions introduce complications and problems for the main characters. These difficulties create suspense!

3. The Climax of the story is when the reader is most interested in how the story will end. The suspense is at its peak, but the outcome is not yet known.

3. Climax

2. Rising Actions

4. Falling Action

4. Falling Action appears at the ending of the story. Suspense has been eliminated and these events show characters’ lives returning to normal.

1. The Exposition

1. The Exposition appears at the beginning of the story. It introduces us to the setting, characters and background information.


5. Resolution

5. The Resolution is the final solution to the problem or conflict. In stories with happy endings it’s called the denouement. Tragic endings are called catastrophe.

SEQUENCE OF THE STOR Y The sequence of a story or play is very important for understanding the content. The sequence of events explains how things happen and when they happen. After reading the libretto, place the following events in order. Re-number the events from one to ten in the order that they occur in the opera. As the opera in divided into “images” rather than “acts,” write the image in which you find that event.

______ 1. Margarita begs Lorca to come to with her to Cuba after the Spanish Civil War begins. .

Image ___

______ 2. Margarita has a flashback of meeting Lorca in a bar in Madrid.

Image ___

______ 3. The play starts again as Margarita is dying and the balada is repeated.

Image ___

______ 4. Lorca, a bullfighter, and a teacher are executed by Ruiz Alonso.

Image ___

______ 5. Margarita compares the eerie foreshadowing of the fate of Mariana Pineda and Lorca.

Image ___

______ 6. Margarita tells Nuria that an actor only lives for a moment but the nation’s voice will never die. ______ 7. Lorca describes his play, Mariana Pineda, to Margarita for the first time. ______ 8. Ramon Ruiz Alonso interrupts Margarita’s flashback and calls for the head of Lorca.

Image ___

______ 9. As Margarita dies, Lorca’s spirit comes to her and together they walk toward the light.

Image ___

______ 10. Margarita sings the final lines of Mariana Pineda “I am the fountain from which you drink.”

Image ___

Image ___ Image ___

A C TI V E L EARNIN G What is the most important event in the opera? Pick what you feel is the most important event from the ten moments above. Discuss why you feel this scene is important with your classmates. How could you cause a change in this scene and affect the rest of the story’s plot? Discuss this new view of the opera with your classmates or write a new ending to the opera. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Use additional paper if necessary.)


MAKE YOUR OWN S Y NO P SIS A synopsis is a concise summary or brief statement of events. In

1. In a small group, examine the main characters of Ainad-

writing a synopsis, the main points or ideas are written and the

amar. How did the actions of the characters move the plot for-

supporting details are left out. To do this successfully, we must

ward? What were the most important things which happened?

make judgments on what are the most important facts or details. Often you are asked after a day of school, “How was your

2. Make a word bank of the main characters. List important ad-

day?” or “What did you learn today?” You know how to answer

jectives which describe their character traits. Then list the verbs

these questions because you know what the important things you

or action words which highlight their actions.

did were.






















_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Use additional paper if necessary.)


L O R C A A N A LY S I S : E L NI Ñ O M U D O Lorca’s writings are known for themes of nature and the country-

Tex t o f Po e m :


El niño busca su voz.

The little boy was looking for his voice.

(La tenía el rey de los grillos.)

(The king of the crickets had it.)

En una gota de agua

In a drop of water

buscaba su voz el niño.

the little boy was looking for his voice.

draws conclusions. The major difference in reading poetry is the

No la quiero para hablar;

I do not want it for speaking with;

attention paid to the meaning of the words, the expressive quali-

me haré con ella un anillo

I will make a ring of it

ties of sound and rhythm, and the precise language and grammar

que llevará mi silencio

so that he may wear my silence

choices made by the author. Let’s use the following questions to

en su dedo pequeñito.

on his little finger

En una gota de agua

In a drop of water

1. What does the title (The Little Mute Boy) suggest?

buscaba su voz el niño.

the little boy was looking for his voice.

2. After you have read the poem once, write an immediate

(La voz cautiva, a lo lejos,

(The captive voice, far away,

se ponía un traje de grillo.

put on a cricket’s clothes.)

side, and colorful if somewhat challenging imagery. Read Lorca’s poem, El Niño Mudo (The Little Mute Boy) to the left and analyze its meaning. Analyzing poems is like analyzing stories. The reader observes the details of the author’s use of language, makes connections, and

help interpret this “children’s story-like” poem:

response to the poem: what do you think it means?

3. Write what each line of the poem means in your own words. 4. Why are the verses written in a pattern of 4 lines, 4 lines, 2 lines, 2 lines?

5. Why does the speaker in the poem shift from third person

13. How does the information that you read about Lorca’s life connect to the meaning of the poem?

point of view (someone looking in from the outside) to first person

14. Now that you have done some further analysis of the poem,

(from the perspective of the main character) and then back to

write again about the author’s meaning.


6. The main characters in the poem are the little boy and the king of the crickets. Why would Federico García Lorca use a cricket as a character in a poem about a mute boy?

7. What are the words that deal with sound in the poem? 8. What figurative language devices does the poet use (metaphors)?

H AI K U : Now that you have completed a close reading of the poem, can you write one of your own using a different poetic form? Let’s try a HAIKU!! Haiku poetry, a Japanese poetic form, uses ideas from nature just as Federico García Lorca did in “The Little Mute Boy”. The format of a Haiku is as follows:

9. Are certain words meant to be symbolic (to represent some-

5 syllables

thing else)?

7 syllables

10. Notice the active words (verbs) in the poem and write them down. Why does Lorca use them?

5 syllables On a separate piece of paper, write an original Haiku poem that expresses your thoughts on a specific theme from nature.

11. Notice the use of parenthesis on the second line of the poem and in the last two lines. Why do you think the author


used them?

Often, volumes of poetry contain graphic designs or illustrations

12. Why does the little boy want to make a ring of his voice instead of using it to speak with?


to reflect the meaning of a poem. Can you draw a picture or design on a piece of paper to represent the meaning of the poem “The Little Mute Boy”?

DIAMOND P OE M S Diamond poems, also called diamantes, are a fun exercise to include in your poetry unit or do anytime! They can be used to integrate poetry into almost any teaching theme -- for example, students might write weather diamond poems, my community diamond poems, or favorite sports diamond poems. The diamond poem format could be a tool students use to express feelings about math too -- their love of math or their fear of it. The diamond poem’s format is simple, but it challenges students to expand their vocabulary and learn about the parts of speech. Diamond poems are seven-line poems that take on the shape of a diamond because of the way they are created. For purposes of this lesson, the first line and the last line of the poem are the same word: • Line 1 of a diamond poem is the poem’s subject; it is usually a single word -- a noun. • Line 2 is made up of two adjectives, which describe the subject in Line 1. (How does it look or feel? How does it make you feel?) • Line 3 is made up of three participles -- verbs that end in the -ing suffix that convey actions related to the subject of the poem. • Line 4 has four nouns related to the subject of the poem in Line 1. • Line 5 comprises three more participles. • Line 6 is made up of two more adjectives. • Line 7 is the subject (as in Line 1) repeated. Example: tornado forceful, powerful whipping, churning, whirling thunderstorm, whirlwind, funnel, cyclone, destroying, wrecking, killing violent, uncontrollable tornado

A C TI V E L EARNIN G 1. Create your own diamond poem about a subject of your choosing. 2. Create a diamond poem either individually or as a class about a topic from Ainadamar,

i.e. the Spanish Civil War, Federico García Lorca, or Flamenco. _____________________________ ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________ _____________________________


OPERA J EO PAR D Y Jeopardy is one of the most popular game shows in television network history. Contestants are given clues in answer form, but have to phrase their responses like a question. For example, the correct response to the first block would be “What is Dafne?” How well can you do on the other questions? Search the articles in the book to find the correct responses! Teachers have a copy of the answers in their teacher guide. Opera Then

Academy of

and Now


Opera Terms

García Lorca


Spanish Civil War

Flamenco originated in

Famous opera The first opera written

house that the

a solo song sung

Lorca’s mother’s

Academy was

in an opera


designed after

Word meaning “fountain of tears”

King of Spain

the 18th century

right before the

with this group

Spanish Civil

of people who

War begins

have roots in India


President when

operas were

the Academy

based on these

was built

Country in which

The first opera

ballet played

presented in the

a large role in

Academy on



Opera move-

The year an

ment to make

elevator was

opera about

installed at the

common people


New operas that often reflected pride in a country’s people, history, and folklore

person who rehearses and leads the orchestra a group of musicians who play together on various musical instruments a piece of instrumental music played at the beginning of an opera

Victorian symbol

words that are

for “welcome,”

sung like natural

seen on the

speech - the


18th century ver-


sion of rap

an important

Lorca’s muse, a

influence from

Catalan actress,

his childhood

through who

that he used in

eyes the story of

his poetry

the opera is told

the Spanish composer that led Lorca to Spanish folklore

military coup

inspired some

against the

of the music for

Second Spanish



his first book

which the title

of poems was

role is played by


Margarita Xirgu

unique rhythm

ments that

pattern in

helped General

flamenco music -

Franco take over

in “America” from


West Side Story

The city where

Style of flamenco

surrendered to

expressive arms

General Franco

and rhythmic

female voice

famous play

in this Cuban

musical styles

Academy stage


flamenco music

to whom she

1889 on the


that is key to

tells Lorca’s story

and popular

this at the

rhythm or meter

that has erect

Lorca to join her

about WWI

Spanish term for

upright stance,

Lorca’s most

people attended


army finally

highest pitched


early on with the

the republican

was held in

duced by Opera

used in flamenco

acting student,

The sport that

1870, 1600

type of govern-

musical accompaniment

Margarita Xirgu’s

An American

Xirgu wants


On February 5,

the church

musical style that

opera with jazz

The opera pro-

landowners and He began a

Lorca’s play in

U.S. city

who began an uprising against

the dance and

the year that

Lorca visited this

the social revolutionaries

in 1939

feet stamping

political group

style of flamenco

that wants a

in which the

return to the

dance is always

ultra catholic

an improvised



The location

Margarita sings

the political

type of classical

lowest pitched

where Lorca

these final lines

movement that

dance that influ-

male voice

was killed by the

of Mariana

became the

ences flamenco



Fascist party



Propaganda is a form of marketing that was used heavily in the Spanish Civil War by the both the Fascists and the opposition.

Transfer 1: You know and trust me, sports figure or actor.

The campaigns were made up of brightly colored posters that were

Goal: belief in the quality or integrity of the product or idea due

littered throughout Spain’s business districts in Spain and became

to faith in the personality selling it.

part of the visual landscape during the war. “Every space must be used to incite the spirit in its fight against the enemy,” stated an article in the newspaper ABC on October 30, 1936. The British writer Christopher Caudwell wrote home from Barcelona in December of 1936: “On almost every building there are party posters: posters against Fascism, posters about the defense of Madrid, posters appealing for recruits to the militia...and even posters for the emancipation of women and against venereal disease.” Propaganda is used in commercial media and by political groups to sell everything from soap to political candidates, to opera tickets. When a manufacturer or a politician begins to sell a product or an idea, a campaign is started. Advertising is a big business. Tens of millions of dollars each year to sell their product. In fact, a 30-second commercial to be played during the 2014 Super Bowl will cost $4 million! Campaigns use billboards, jingles, and ads on television, radio, and in newspapers to convince the public that their product, is

Transfer 2: I’m beautiful and you will be, too, if you.... Goal: convince public that physical attractiveness can be bought. Transfer-testimonial: any combination of the above. Plain folks: average Joe, next-door neighbor, friend. Goal: middle-class viewer identifies with and trusts in the advertiser. These techniques are used on you every day. Are you wise enough to recognize the techniques being used to try to convince you? A critical thinker knows how to get the facts and base decisions on them. Some will seek information about a product from the magazine Consumer Reports; some will turn to major news programs for background information on politicians and their beliefs. It is a critical thinking skill to remain an independent thinker in the fast-paced media world of political and commercial propaganda.


trustworthy. If you purchase their product or vote for their candidate, you beleived their claim. Here are some of the methods used most frequently to convince others to do what the advertiser wants: Emotional Words: best, greatest, new, improved, fantastic. Goal: gain public attention. Name Repetition: “Drink Cherry Ale soda. Cherry Ale is refreshing. Cherry Ale is sweet. Cherry Ale is cool. Cherry Ale is caffeine free and a great way to beat the heat.” Goal: name recognition of brand name “Cherry Ale.”

1. Use these techniques to create a poster for a new product line focused on your age group (or an advertisement for Ainadamar).

a. Think of commercials which gain your attention--how could you use their methods to sell your idea? In which shows or publications would you advertise your product?

b. Work with other students who have different strengths. One can illustrate while someone else can write the copy. Another student could coordinate the project. If you have a great idea, let us know!

2. Use the internet to find Spanish Civil War propaganda posters, or check out the activities section on page 41. How do

Bandwagon: Everyone is doing it, so it must be good!

they compare to the images from posters from wars that America

Goal: to get the buyer to feel personally validated by membership

fought? Do you see some of the techniques mentioned above

in a group, the primary benefit to be obtained by supporting the

used in these posters?

product or candidate. The key word is “everybody” or “everyone.” Testimonial: Documentation showing stated claims as true. Stars will sell or endorse a product or candidate. Goal: belief in the product’s or idea’s trustworthiness.


Sources Cited

LORCA IN HIS OWN H AN D Federico García Lorca had many talents in poetry, music, and art. Below and are some of his sketches. Salvador Dalí was a great friend and collaborator of Lorca’s. Pick one of the sketches below and describe it in 50 words. How does it relate to its title? What feeling does it invoke? Is it good or bad and why?

Top left: Self Portrait of the Poet in New York

Top right: Sailor

Lower left: Music and mask

Middle right: Salvador Dalí Bottom right: Signature


S U P P L E M E N TA L A C TI V ITIES Looking to find other ways to get ready for Ainadamar with your friends or family? Here’s a list of great books, activities, museums to visit, music resources, and creative and fun art projects.


• • • • •

The Collected Poems: A Bilingual Edition by Federico García Lorca In Search of Duende by Federico García Lorca Romancero gitano by Federico García Lorca Three Tragedies by Federico García Lorca Sketches of Spain by Federico García Lorca

• • •

Federico García Lorca by David Johnston Federico García Lorca by Ian Gibson The Civil War in Spain by Robert Goldston

A C TI V ITIES : History:

The Spanish Civil War was littered with posters and propaganda from both sides, trying to persuade the masses to join each side. Complete the propaganda lesson on page 39 and view historic posters at this link:

Create student tableaus (students freeze in positions for a particular scene from the show) like a frozen event in time. One person reads the paragraph that describes the scene in the tableau. All other students absorb the words and the visual.

Music and Video:

• • •

Ainadamar CD: Dawn Upshaw | Kelly O’Connor | Robert Spano | DG Blood Wedding DVD : Flameco version of Lorca’s play bythe Antonio Gades The Context of Music: The Spanish Civil War

Practice clapping these different flamenco rhythms with accents on bolded beats: There are three types of 12-beat rhythms, which vary in their layouts, or use of accentuations: soleá, seguiriya and bulería. 1. Peteneras and Guajiras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. 2. The seguiriya, liviana , serrana, toná liviana, cabales: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3. See the link in the Wikipedia article to hear different syncopations:


• • •


Go to the Philadelphia Museum of Art and look at their collection for the Spanish Civil War, including Pablo Picasso’s famous painting of Guernica. Look at García Lorca’s drawings at and google images of his paintings. Compare and contrast his style of art with other artists at the time. Create your own drawing in the style of Lorca.

CAREERS IN THE ARTS It takes a lot more people to put on an opera than just the singers on the stage. All of the people who have the jobs below work together to help the opera come to life. If you’re interested in a job in the arts, here are just some of the jobs that could help you have a career in the arts!-


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Accompanist Actor/Actress Advertising Director Announcer Architect Architectural Model Builder Artist Artistic Director Art Festival Coordinator Art Teacher Arts Administrator Arts Consultant Arts Ed. Curriculum Writer Audio Engineer (recording) Band Director Book Designer Book Illuminator Box Office Director Business Manager Casting Director Choir Director Choreographer Cinematographer Clothing Designer Comedian Commercial Artist Composer Computer Graphics Design Concert Singer Conductor Contract Specialist Copyright Specialist

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Costume Buyer Costume & Mask Designer Creative Consultant Critic Cutter (costumes) Dancer Dialect Coach Dramaturg Draper (costumes) Dresser (theater) Extra (background actor) Fashion Designer First Hand (seamstress) Fundraiser (Development) Furniture Designer Graphic Designer House Manager (theater) Illustrator (fashion, book, etc.) Instrumentalist Librettist Lighting Designer Makeup Artist Manager (arts organizations) Master Electrician (stage) Model Builder Mold Maker Music Contractor Music Copyist & Transcriber Music Editor Music Librarian Music Teacher Musician

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Musicologist Orchestrator Painter Photographer Producer (theater, TV, movies) Proofreader (music) Props Buyer Props Designer Public Relations Specialist Publicist Publisher Scene Painter Scenic Designer Sculptor Set Decorator Set Dresser Shop Foreman (stage) Singer Special Effects Coordinator Stage Carpenter Stage Director Stage Hand Stage Manager Stitcher (costumes) Stunt Coordinator Theater Director Ticketing Agent TV Camera Operator Videographer Vocalist Wardrobe Mistress Wigmaker

A C TI V E L EARNIN G Which of the careers listed above are interesting to you? Where do you think you could go to learn more about it? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


GLOSSARY O F TER M S A C T ( A K T ) N . One of the main divisions of a play or opera a c c u s e d ( u h - k y oozd) adj. charged with a crime,

E l e c t r a (ih-l ek- truh) n . Classical Mythology: the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra who provoked her brother Orestes to kill Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus.

ag o n y ( ag- u h - n ee) n . extreme pain; intense physical or

e m e r g e (ih-m urj) v. to come forth into view or notice, as from concealment or obscurity.

A LLE G RO ( U H - LEG-ROH) ADV. musical term for fast and

cially some future event or events.

wrongdoing, fault.

mental suffering. lively.

a m i d s t ( u h - m i d st) prep. in the middle of; surrounded by;


A ND A N T E (AHN-DAHN-TEY) ADV. a musical term meaning

in moderate slow time.

A n t i g o n e ( a n - tig-uh-n ee) n . Classical Mythology: a daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta who refuse to comply with her uncle, King Creon, by performing funeral rites over her brother, Polynices, and was sentenced to be immured (v. to enclose within walls) alive in a cave. A N T A G ONIS T ( AN-TAG-O-NIST ) N . an adversary or op-

ponent of the main character or protagonist in an opera, play, or other drama. A RI A ( A HR - EE- U H ) N . an operatic song for one voice. B A R ( BA H R ) N . a division of music, marked by two bar lines, containing a set number of beats

e n v i s i o n (en-vi zh -uhn) v. to picture mentally, espee x e c u t e (ek-si-kyoot) v. to murder; assassinate. e x h o r t (ig-zawrt) v. to urge, advise, or caution earnestly. e x t e r m i n at e (ik -stur-muh-ney t) v. to get rid of by

destroying; destroy totally.

Fa l a n g e (fah-l ah n -he) n . the official state political party in Spain from 1936 until disbandment in 1977. f a s c i s t (fash -is t) n . a person who believes in a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, taking over all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing support for one’s country and often racism. f at e (fey t) n . something that unavoidably happens to a

person; fortune; lot.

f l at (fl at) adj. a half-step lower than the corresponding note or key of natural pitch.

B A RI T ONE ( B A R - I- TO HN) N . the range of the male voice

f o r t e (fawr- tey) a dv. a musical term meaning loudly.

B A SS ( B E YS ) N . the lowest male singing voice.

for very loud.

between tenor and bass

BE A T ( B EET ) N . the basic pulse of a piece of music

f o r t i s s i m o (f o r -tee-see-mo h) adv. a musical term

i m m e n s e (ih-m en s) adj. vast; huge; very great.

Ca d a l s o ( C A - D AL-SO ) n . a Spanish dialect spoken in the

Ha m l e t (ham-l i t) n . The protagonist of the William Shakespeare tragedy, Hamlet.

c h o r d ( k aw r d ) n . a group of notes played at the same time

La d y Ma c b e t h (l ey-dee muhk -b eth ) n . Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeare’s Macbeth (c.1603–1607). She is the wife to the play’s protagonist, Macbeth, a Scottish nobleman. After pushing him into committing regicide (the killing of a king), she becomes Queen of Scotland, but later suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime. She dies off-stage in the last act, an apparent suicide.

town of Cadalso. in harmony.

c h o r u s ( k aw r - uh s ) n . 1. a group of singers. 2. a piece of

music for these.

c h r o n o l o g i c a l (kron -o-loj-i-kuhl ) adj. a method of arrangement that puts events in order of occurrence. c o n f e s s i o n ( kuhn -fe sh-uhn ) n . acknowledgment;

avowal; admission.

c o n t r a l t o ( k u h n - t ral - toh) n . the lowest female

singing voice.

d e s t r u c t i o n ( dih-str uhk-s huhn ) n . the act of reducing (an object) to useless fragments, a useless form, or remains, as by rending, burning, or dissolving; injure beyond repair or renewal; demolish; ruin; annihilate. d r ap e ( d r e yp ) v. to cover or hang with cloth or other fabric, especially in graceful folds.


k e y (kee) n . the basic note of the main scale used in a piece of music. In the key of G, for example, G is the fundamental note; the music often returns to it and comes to rest on it. l a m e n t (luh-ment) n . a formal expression of sorrow or

mourning , especially in verse or song; an elegy or dirge.

l a r g o (lahr -goh) adv. & adj. a musical term meaning

in slow time and dignified style.

l i b r e tt o (li-bret -o h) n . the words of an opera or other

long musical.


m a j o r (me y -jer) adj. music in a major key uses a major scale, in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then another tone (for example, A, B, C). It often has a cheerful, strong sound. m a n g l e (mang-guhl ) v. to injure severely, disfigure, or mutilate by cutting, slashing, or crushing. m a s s a c r e ( mas-uh-ker) v. to kill unnecessarily and


m i n o r ( mahy -n er) adj. Music in a minor key uses a minor scale, in which the first three notes are the key note followed by intervals of a tone and then a semitone ( for example A, B, C). It often has a sad, melancholic sound. m o c k ( mA Hk) v. to attack or treat with ridicule, hate. m o u r n i n g (maw r -n in g) n . expression of sorrow for a person’s death, especially by the wearing of black clothes or a black armband, the hanging of flags at half-mast, etc.

P RO T A G ONIS T (P ROH -TA G-UH -NIST) N . the leading

character in an opera, play, story, etc.

p u n c t u r e d (puh n gk-ch erd) ADJ. pierced or perfo-

rated, as with a pointed instrument or object.

R e v o l u t i o n (RE V-uh-l oo-shun) n . an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. Sa l o m e (suh-l oh -mee) n . the Daughter of Herodias (c. AD 14 – between 62 and 71), is known from the New Testament. Christian traditions show her as a likeness of dangerous female seductiveness, notably in regard to the dance mentioned in the New Testament, which is thought to have had an erotic element to it, and in some later versions it has further been known as the Dance of the Seven Veils. SC A LE (SKEYL) N . a series of notes arranged in descending or ascending order of pitch.

m u l t i t u d e s (muhl- t i- toods ) n . a great number of

SEMI T ONE (SEM-EE - TO H N) N . a half step or half tone, an

n at u r a l (nach-er -uhl ) adj. a note that is neither flat-

SH A R P ( # ) (SH AH RP ) N . any note a semitone higher than another note. Also, slightly too high in pitch.

people gathered together. tened nor sharpened.

o c tav e (ok- t iv) n . a note that sounds twice as high in pitch as another is an octave above the other note, and has the same letter naming it. o m e n ( o h-muhn ) n . anything perceived or happening that

is believed to portend a good or evil event or circumstance in the future; portent. o m n i p o t e n t (o m-nip-uh- t uhn t ) adj. almighty or

infinite in power, as God.

o p e r a (op-er -uh) n . a play in which the words are sung to

musical accompaniment.

Op h e l i a (Oh-fe e l-yuh) n . daughter of Polonius, sister to Laertes, and rejected lover of Hamlet in Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet. o p u s ( oh-puhs ) n . a musical compostion numbered as one of a composer’s works (usually in order of publication). o r c h e s t r a (aw r-kuh-s t ruh) n . a large body of people

playing various musical instruments, including stringed and wind instruments. OVER T URE (OH -VER -C HER ) N . an orchestral composition forming a prelude to an opera or ballet. P I A NISSIMO (PEE-UH-NEES -EE-MOH) adv. a musical

term meaning very softly.

interval midway between two whole tones.

SO P R A NO (SU H -PRAN-OH ) N . the highest female or boy’s

singing voice.

S T A G E (STEYJ) N . a platform on which an opera, play, etc. are performed for an audience. S T A G IN G (STEY-JIN G) N . the presentation or production

on the stage.

s u b m e r g e d (suhb -m urjd) adj. under the surface of water or any other enveloping medium; inundated. SYM P HONY (SIM-F UH -NEE) N . a long elaborate musical composition (usually in several parts) for a full orchestra. SYNO P SIS (SI-NOP-SIS) N . a summary, a brief general


t e n f o l d (ten -f o hld) adj. ten times as great or as much. T ENOR ( TEN -ER ) N . the highest male singing voice. t o l l e d (tohld) v. to cause (a large bell) to sound with

single strokes slowly and regularly repeated, as for calling a congregation to church, or especially for announcing a death.

T ONE (TOH N) N . 1. an interval equal to two semitones. 2. the sound quality of an instrument or voice.tragic (traj-ik) adj.

extremely mournful, melancholy, or pathetic.

t r a n s f o r m s (trans-faw rm s) v. to change in form,

P I A NO (PEE-AN-OH) adv. a musical term meaning softly.

appearance, or structure.

P LO T ( P LOT) N . the sequence of events in an opera, story,

t r a u m at i z e d (trou-muh-tah yzd ) n . having had an

p r o l e ta r i a n (pro h-li-ta ir -ee-uhn ) n . pertaining to or belonging to the class of those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.

v a n i s h (va n-ish) v. to disappear from sight, especially

novel, etc.

P RES T O (PRES - TO H) ADV. a musical term meaning very fast.


experience that produces psychological injury or pain.

quickly; become invisible.

VERISMO (VUH -RI Z-M OH ) N . realism in opera. v e t e r a n (vet-er -uhn) n . a person who has had long

service or experience in an occupation, office, or the like.

THE S CH O O L DI S TRICT O F PHIL A DELPHI A S CH O O L REF O R M C O M M I S S I O N Joseph A. Dworetzky, member

Feather Houston, member

Wendell E. Pritchett, member Sylvia P. Simms, member

William R. Hite, Jr., Ed.D Superintendent of Schools

Penny Nixon Chief Academic Officer

Dennis W. Creedon, Ed.D. Deputy Chief, Academic Enrichment & Support

Sounds of Learning™ was established by a

generous grant from The Annenberg Foundation. Dedicated funding for the Sounds of Learning™ program has been provided by:

Corrado Rovaris, John P. Mulroney Music Director

Michael Bolton, Vice President of Community Programs

Programs Department ©2014

1420 Locust Street, Suite 210

Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. 19102

Tel: 215.893.5927

Universal Health Services


Michael Bolton Vice President of Community Programs

Hamilton Family Foundation Wells Fargo Foundation

$10,000 to $19,999

The ARAMARK Charitable Fund The Hirsig Family Fund of the Philadelphia Foundation


Opera Philadelphia Community

$20,000 to $49,999

Eugene Garfield Foundation

David B. Devan, General Director & President

Written and produced by:

Fax: 215.893.7801

Adrienne Bishop Community Programs Assistant

Morgan Stanley Foundation

Special thanks to:

$5,000 to $9,999

Dr. Dennis W. Creedon Creator, Sounds of Learning™ Curriculum Consultant

Alpin J. & Alpin W. Cameron Memorial Trust Ethel Sergeant Clark Smith Memorial Fund GlaxoSmithKline

Dr. Daniel Darigan Curriculum Consultant

Citizens Bank

$1,000 to $4,999

Mary Beth Hegeman Consultant

Mutual Fire Foundation

Nancy Werner Consultant

The McLean Contributionship

Louis N. Cassett Foundation

David Kelly Consultant Deutsche Grammophon Maureen Lynch Operations Manager Academy of Music

Opera Philadelphia is supported by major grants from The William Penn Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, and The Lenfest Foundation. Additional support is provided by the Independence Foundation and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. Opera Philadelphia receives state arts funding support through a grant from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.


Cornell Wood Head Usher Academy of Music Academy of Music Ushers Karma Communications Design Concept and Cover Design Kalnin Graphics Printing

o p e r ap h i l a . o r g

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