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AIR

DESIGN STUDIO MAR.2013

TAM ON ON


ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR ABPL 30048 2013 SEM1 STUDENT NAME: TAM ON ON TUTOR NAME: MICHAEL WU & ZAK


CONTENT 1.0 Case for Innovation 1.1 Introduction...................................................................05 1.2 Architecture As Discourse....................................... 15 1.3 Computational Architecture........................................27 1.4 Parametric Modelling...............................................41 1.5 Algorithmic Explorations..............................................53 1.6 Conclusion & Learning Outcomes..........................57

2.0 Design Approach 2.1 Design Focus..................................................................61 2.2 Case Study 1.0.......................................................... 69 2.3 Case Study 2.0.......................................................... ....79 2.4 Technique: Development.........................................87 2.5 Technique: Prototypes..................................................93 2.6 Technique Proposal ...............................................115 2.7 Algorithmic Sketches ...................................................119 2.8 Learning Objectives & Outcomes ........................123

3.0 Project Proposal 3.1 Design Concept...........................................................129 3.2 Tectonic Elements................................................. 165 3.3 Final Model...................................................................169 3.4 Algorithmic Sketches.............................................173 3.5 Learning Objective & Outcomes................................185


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

1.0 Case for Innovation


1.1 INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Something about me Hello there, My name is On On Tam. My major is architecture and I’m currently in my second year second semester. I come from a lovely city Macau in China. There are old Portugal buildings around and it is beautiful. Macau is known as the “Asian Les Vegas“ therefore there are lots of big casinos and hotels in recent years. But most of them are very formal and regular. As I knew, the local architecture firms are mostly using 3ds Max, Maya and SketchUp for 3D simulation. My knowledge of digital architecture is mostly come from the subject Virtual Environments. Once I read a news about 3D printing technology, I am impressed. It said a man’s cheek is seriously damaged and had a hole after surgery. His cheek bone and tongue are revealed. The doctors then used computing technology to set a metal frame inside his month and printed him a skin that can stick to the frame by magnet force. So the man has his normal life back and can hold a wedding with his wife. That was the first time I knew the 3D printing has application in medical realm.


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

North, West, South, East Elevations, Boat House

Ground Floor Plan, Boat House

First Floor Plan, Boat House


PREVIOUS WORK

Roof Floor Plan, Boat House

During Study in Melbourne University, I have taken 3 studios in the past semesters which are the Virtual Environments, Architecture Studio: Water and Site Tectonic. The studio water taught me to analyze and apply the master architect-Rem Koolhass’s design principles and rules in designing a boathouse at the Yarra Park. As I am not skillful with digital tools. I presented the plans ,sections and elevation in two dimensions at the end of the course.

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Site Model, Site Tectonic


PREVIOUS WORK

Contour Plan, Site Tectonic

Site Section, Site Tectonic In the subject Site Tectonic, it taught a lot interesting ideas about shaping the site for construction and landscape design. Throughout the course, digital techniques were as a tool to manipulate the landscape in simulation. 3ds Max, AutoCad and Rhino were introduced.

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Prototype, Virtual Environments


PREVIOUS WORK

Prototype, Virtual Environments

The Virtual Environments is my first in touch with a digital toolRhino. At first I needed to analysis a natural process and abstracted a basic form from it. Then with the help of Rhino, My lantern design was finished. The use of Rhino in the Virtual Environments and Site Tectonic are quite different. One concerns the form and pattern while the others is making a site model and shaping it. But both are helpful in fabrication. Like fabricated the lantern in paper and a site model in card board.

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR

1.0 Case for Innovation


1.2 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

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An architectural project is an investment And architect is like an investment advisor Figuring the best choice out for the clients To every client, he/she has different expectation and desire to an investment. Some want a low risk and medium reward investment while some want high reward whatever how risky it will be. Efficient portfolio is ‘[a] portfolio that provides the greatest expected return for a given level of risk, or equivalently, the lowest risk for a given expected return, also called optimal portfolio.’1 There is always an efficient portfolio for every client. What an investment advisor responsible is to figure out the efficient portfolio or the one most similar to. As an architect, he/she are always finding the best choice for every project. Each project is unique by site condition, limited budget and needs of the patron, etc. A best choice is the result of balancing different aspects to meet the patron’s requirements. Here, the best choice means more than referring to the optimum design of the building. As it is always consisted of a lot compromising issues, sometimes the optimum design is not fit enough for making the best choice. Therefore, a good architecture is not only about the brilliant design, but also expresses the patron’s fulfillment to the architect. Fortunately, under certain constraints, there are still lots of spectacular architectures on the planet. It shows architecture has its own social identity and is a valuable investment.

‘[Architecture] exists because a client allows it to exist’2

‘Architecture can scarcely exist without patronage’3


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

The efficient portfolio is a set of architectural solutions in Mother Nature

In our society, people are always saying efficiency. To an investor, efficiency is making the most money in the shortest time; To a student, efficiency is learning the most in the shortest time. Time is always a parameter for efficiency. So, there are questions raised out: what is efficiency in architecture? How can architect finish the optimum design in relatively short time?

A form finder? A form maker? Or a form maker in the form giving environments? Space, structure and form are important architectural concepts. In the architectural history, architects have been investigating these concepts with different principles. The common one is designing complex forms. Time consumption on creation is massive even with help of computing. However, in our nature, there are lots of spectacular forms existed. Every single element in the earth, including we people, is surviving after a long time challenges in evolution process. � The perfection and variety of natural forms is the result of the relentless experimentation of evolution�4 .As the natural forms have already been tested and designed for thousand years, million years or even longer, if it is used as the origin in the design process, designers can save at least a thousand year time. Therefore, my proposition is architect should get inspiration from the nature as a basis for investigating architectural solutions because it is time efficiency and helps approaching to the optimum design.

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HighDesert House,Kendrick Bangs Kellogg,California,2004 8

Modernism- Organic Architecture ‘All perfectly beautiful forms must be composed of curves; Since there is hardly any common natural form in which it is possible to discover a straight line’5 -John Ruskin Organic architecture is the expression of passion for life and nature. It concerns the biological forms and processes in the nature. ‘Emphasizing beauty and harmony, its free-flowing curves and expressive forms are sympathetic to the human body, mind and spirit. In a well designed organic building, we feel better and freer.’6


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

‘Organic architecture should constantly remind us not to take mother nature for granted –work with her and allow her to guide your life. Inhibit her, and humanity will be the loser.’7 -Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

Something about Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

Kellogg Falls in love with designing with nature since he is impressed by Frank Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water. Kellogg likes to invent forms to meet different requirements of each project, instead of using conventional forms and structure. He exploded the use of concrete to create the house on the hillock, a difficult site. He thinks every site is a challenge to what is ordinary. He also thinks organic architecture should emphasize the potential and environmental fulfillment of individual experiences. 8

‘Form and Function are one’ High Desert House, California, 2004 By Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

In the Califonia’s Mojace desert, the High Dessert House sits on a large rock outcrop. The house is consisted of columns with gently curved canopy roofs on top, sitting on a platform. The spaces between these canopies is glass to bring the sunlight into the house. The house is earthquake proof and those columns with roof are part of the passive solar heating and cooling system. During the day the concrete columns absorb the solar heat and keep the house cold inside while at night the heat radiates into the house and make the house warm in the cold desert. On the top view of the house, it looks like a prehistoric bird rising out of the hot desert landscape. The color, texture and the form of the house are consistent with the surrounding environments. 8 ‘[T]here are no rules in organic architecture—it develops a new style every time you employ it’ -Ken Kellogg

Architectural Solutions

‘Form and function are one’ is a brilliant application in the High Desert House. The innovative columns are the structural members. The arrangement of columns and its roof are unconventionally for purposes. The column design is the solution to this specific site condition. The High Desert House provides a comfort living environment for the patron with organic form.

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Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Something about Tokin Liu

‘Using lessons in nature to inspire pioneering construction techniques. Our preoccupation with nature informs the design process, whether through biomimicry or by using the elements nature generously gives us for free.’ -Tokin Liu

A Biomimetic Building

‘The Island of Light’- Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center Tokin Liu, Taiwan The aim of this public architecture is to connect the culture and nature The architecture mainly comprises of two parts: 1.An inclined base containing all the operational accommodation as the form of hill 2.A lightweight roof canopy in the form of a forest of tree-like columns, which provides shading. The design approach is to provide a comfortable conditions rationally for the users in a low energy way.


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

How to create a comfortable environment? 1.Additional cooling can be circulated through the structure, by using high-efficiency heat exchanger, to avoid the use of air-conditioner. 2.In order to tolerate various climate conditions, the canopies of tree structure are using the shell lace system of perforated steel sheet. 3.The tree structures are covering of ETFE pillows that can block the sun, wind and rain. 4.Natural ventilation by using rooftop wind –catchers and vents coupled with lowlevel vents, to ensure the flow of fresh air through the space. 5.Light up the tree-like structure ,by luminaires within, at night to create a glowing symbol. 6.The roof harvests rainwater to provide the majority of the building’s water needs It is a biomimetic approach to emphasizing functional demands and combines these with richly cultural backgrounds to the natural environments of Taiwan. 11

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Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Two architects are both using nature elements and concerning about individual experiences. The Island of Light engages to the ecosystem and creates a sustainable environment through new materials and technologies. Use natural form and process in designing is saving materials and resources that is efficiency and environmental-friendly . It also allows innovative and creative thinking and inspires architectural solution to fix problems. So inspiring from the nature is an efficient way in architecture. In addition, natural form is encouraging people break the conventional thinking and explore in the nature, focus on the practicality and functionality, combing with nature beauty. It is easier to convince patrons to take the risk and accept an unique design.


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Engagement with nature is beneficial to the Gateway Project in the design approach:

Firstly, the gateway project is looking for innovative design to represent welcoming for Wynham city, giving visitors a memorable impression. It will indirectly result in a good impact on Wynham city’s economy. As mentioned before, the efficient portfolio in architecture is relating to nature. Therefore, the efficient portfolio for the gateway project should also relates to the nature. Secondly,the gateway project requires an eyecatching design. Through those precedents, it shows architects get unexpected design ideas from nature and it always accompanies with natural beauty. I personally believe that engaging with nature can totally fulfill the Gateway Project with a stunning design.

However, there is a concern about using natural elements. As know, the structure of natural forms and process are very complex. In architecture, do the architects be capable to investigate and design the organic substances? Is it possible to be build in the real world?

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Note Reference 1. Campbell R. Harvey, 'Efficient portfolio', Campbell R. Harvey's Hypertextual Finance Glossary, (2011), <http://people.duke.edu/~charvey/Classes/wpg/bfglose.htm> [accessed 1 April 2013] 2. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 107 3. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 107 4. Tsui, Eugene (1999). Evolutionary Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) pp.10 5. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.29 6. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.8 7. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.201 8. Hess, Alan & Weintraub, Alan (2006). Organic Architecture: The Other Modernism (Utah: Gibbs Smith, Publisher) pp.255-269 9. Tonkin Liu, (2011) <http://www.tonkinliu.co.uk/ [accessed 1 April 2013] 10. Tonkin Liu, (2011) <http://www.tonkinliu.co.uk/practice/profile/> [accessed 1 April 2013] 11. Pawlyn, Michael (2011). Biomimicry in Architecture (London: RIBA) pp.110 Feuerstein, Gunther(2002). Biomorphic Architecture (Londonn: Edition Axel Menges) Gans, Deborah & Kuz, Zehra (2003). The Organic Approach To Architecture (England: Wiley-Academy, a division of John Wiley & Sons Ltd). Tsui, Eugene (1999). Evolutionary Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

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1.0 Case for Innovation


1.3 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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Computational architecture It’s time for dreams coming true It’s time for perfection approaches It’s time for breakthrough in architecture The trend from form making to form finding The investigation of a structure externally to internally While architects are improving architectural design, good helper is brought out No matter form making, form finding or any other design methods, a good design costs more than one day. Computing in architecture, as a tool, does save people a lot time in processing a project. But more importantly, computing perfects architecture future development. When architects eager to develop fluid dynamic forms and prepare to discard static forms, computing allows them to simulate conceptual ideas in 3 dimensions environment. One may say within human creativity and imagination, hand drawings are still workable. However, digital tools help architects chasing after multiple solutions to a design rather than one. Then they can pick a best-fit design from multiple optimum design solutions. Convention design method: Searching the solution space for the solution to a problem New design method: Searching a solution to the problem 1 A concept-algorithm is introduced in the design analysis. The definition of Algorithm is “made up a finite set of rules or operations that are unambiguous and simple to follow”2 .In a simple way, its function here is to apply rational boundary constraints(like site conditions & orientation, etc.) to restrict the possible design outcomes. So the architects can find out different solutions efficiently.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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Genetic Algorithms Ecamples14


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

An efficient technique- Genetic Algorithms â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Genetic algorithms are a class of highly parallel, evolutionary, adaptive search proceduresâ&#x20AC;ŚThey are described as highly parallel because they search using populations of potential solutions rather than searching randomly or adjusting a single potential solution.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;3 Among kinds of algorithms, I found the genetic algorithms is interesting. It is related to investigate DNA structure at the first place. DNA structure varies through gene crossover and mutation and that will cause changes biological growth and form. But more importantly, this algorithms is beneficial and efficient. As using it to search for solutions, instead of searching randomly, it will search for potential solutions out of a specific population. Those figures besides is about an experiment. People were using genetic algorithms to select and develop successful solutions that may susses to create artificial life . Those figures are showing the possible structure may exist. Directly show the solutions.

With great power comes with great responsibility

By using the genetic algorithms, the genetic model of nature can be applied for architectural form. This new resource of forms indeed provides architects more inspirations. To analysis the external and internal of a biological structure, certain study and knowledge is needed. Ever since there are new knowledge or technology in other professional realms, there are always have influences on architecture,like computing. Computing has contribution in architecture and its related professions, the role of architects is heavier and more complex.

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Beijing National Aquatics5


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Water Cube-Beijing National Aquatics PTW architects,Peking China,2008 The exciting factor about the Water Cube design is the structure of the building. It is the structure of assuming the form of water bubbleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s molecular structure is in a continues array. Every bubbles of the building is various and the building skin is made of inflated ETFE cushions. The building is so massive and innovative that preparation before construction is complicated. This precedent can totally reflect how computing has great contribution in architecture and fabrication. First of all, without computing technology the molecular structure will not be able to apply. It shows the biological model is suitable for applying in architectural form. Moreover, nowadays architects are sure to use a specific forms, they are seeking for the solution instead of thinking how to make it workable. Secondly, because it is a big scale building and every bubbles structure is various, the design of structural steel beam has about 22000 variations. In order to determine the design method, people use software to bring from 22000 down to 3 sets of choice. Moreover, the structural analysis and design were written respectively in the Visual Basic 6.0 and Strand 7 Finite Element Software. To allow process documentations, all files were translated into 3D cad model. It only took 25 minutes to finish. It is hard to imagine doing file translation of every single structure members manually which in total at least 22000 steel beams.5 Computing helps a project from design to construction. It makes design concepts harder and the process easier. It also means details are basically all done in computer. Ever since there is unclear things about at site construction, people can just print out a part drawings from the 3D model for guideline.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Beijing National Aquatics5


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

ICD Research Pavilion

ICD/ ITKE Research Pavilion ICD/ ITKE University of Stuttgart, Germany,August 2011 The pavilion is a temporary, bionic research pavilion that made of wood. The project investigated the biological principles of the sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plate skeleton morphology to be transferred as architectural form, by using computer-based design, simulation methods and computer-controlled manufacturing methods. On the basis of the complex geometries of the sea urchin and computer-based analysis, they found a new lightweight potential principle- 3 plate edges always meet together at just one point. Even the considerable size pavilion was only built with thin sheets of plywood which is only 6.5mm.6 With the success of this research, it shows the way of designers thinking is changed. In this project, there are architects and engineers. The origin of the project was started at explored the bionic principles and further developed until construction finished. Architects and engineers work together to control every detail in the project.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

ICD Research Pavilion

Once again, with the success of this project, it shows the use of natural forms have contribution in architecture, no matter in architectural design or structural design. The natural forms and structures are precise because it may be humanly impossible to create. In this project, the researchers used computer-controlled methods to manufacture the plates which the pavilion is constructed of. With this technique, construct a building is like buying furniture from Ikea. With clear guide, people can construct one by themselves. It is amazing that computing give a great power to architects and engineers to control the outcome directly. Also, it ensures the accuracy of the outcome and manufactures new forms in the built world. To conclude, computing in architecture creates a new platform of designing and brings it to the real world. It gives hope for people to find a solution rationally, to build the impossibly-built building. As the gateway project is looking for innovative design, computing is beneficial to the gateway project and potentially brings out a legendary design. Concern of computing architecture Computing has global influences. Designing methods, material use and manufacturing have tendency to globalization. It is wondered in the future, will architecture become mass production ?

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Note Reference 1. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 19-20 2. Definition of "algorithm" in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 3. Frazer, John (1995). An Evolutionary Architecture (London: Architectural Association) pp.58 &98 4. Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 – 62 5.’Beijing National Aquatics Center’, 1-12 <http://bim.arch.gatech.edu/app/download.asp?path=/data/ partners/498&file=beijing.pdf> [accessed 1 April 2013] 6. ArchDaily, "ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart", (18 Jan 2012), <<http:// www.archdaily.com/200685>/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

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1.0 Case for Innovation


1.4 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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Parametric Modelling to architecture: Liberation or Stranglehold Parametric modeling is a digital process that is described by a finite set of parameters. The parametric scripting Grasshopper is written for convenience in computing. Every time there are variations of the parametric model, the related parameters will be self-adjusted. The parametric scripting makes points have connectivity and relationships between them. That results in an architectural framework in the design process. In my concerns, one of the advantages of parametric modeling is through the digital fabrication and manufacturing techniques, architects are engaging with the physical environment, rather than only in visual simulation. A parametric model, is not only the blueprint of the design, but also the blueprint of fabrication. So before preparing the documents for fabrication, designers allow to have numerous experiments with the design. It means the parameters of the model is assisting the fabrication process . It also means the construction process is also associated with the act of making architecture. When the relationship of designers and outcomes are closer, aesthetics and user experience are concerned. In a parametric model, fabrication details are determined, including structure and materials. The digital design process is precise and accurate so that the construction time and cost of the project can be estimated quite easily. Due to capitalism, clients have influences on the final outcome of the design work. So, parametric modeling has its negative impact on designing. 1


PARAMETRIC MODELLING

However, parametric model has mathematical attributes. It can transfer the complex geometry to simple geometric level for easier study and observation. It is beneficial for explore like internal biological structure. Also, parametric model is good for create very smooth and dynamic forms. Therefore, parametric modeling is also changing the way of architects thinking as mentioned before. And it is a positive impacts on designing. To conclude, there are paradoxes in the contribution of parametric modeling. Although it is good for creative thinking in designing process, design creativity may be strangled due to capitalism. And it may also lead to mass production in architecture because it may reduce the cost of building. With the prevalence of digital fabrication, in the future the cost may be more reasonable for budgeting and custom production may be prevalent too. In addition, the disadvantage of parametric modeling is the architects need to be skillful at using the software. Without understanding the principles behind of software, digital tools become a restriction on designing. Despite software are tried to be user friendly, the programmers do not have as much as examination or experience as the real users. The following two percednets are very interesting designs. It shows despite capitalism has negeative impact on creative design, still there are convincing architectural designs to make patrons willing to invest an unique architecture because architecture has different levels of value to everyone. To the gareway project, the design has significant meaning to the Wynham city. Parametric modeling as a tool is a wise option in contribute to the natural exploration for the gateway dsign.

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Nordpark Cable Railways, Zaha Hadid, Innsbruck, Austria,2004-2007


PARAMATRIC MODELLING

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Buildings with no capacity to change can only become slums or ancient monuments2

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003


PARAMATRIC MODELLING


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Nordpark Cable Railways Zaha Hadid, Innsbruck, Austria,2004-2007 The building is comprised of four new stations and a cable-stayed suspension bridge. Use the fluid language of natural ice formations and two contrasting elements “Shell & Shadow” generate each station’s spatial quality and describes the movement and circulation within the building, as the natural process is abstracted and described by architectural language. Use the fluid language-ice formations enables the shell structures to adjust to various parameters whilst maintaining a coherent formal logic; New production methods guaranteed a very precise and automatic translation of the computer generated design into the built structure;3

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003 The Kun Sthaus is located in the historical neighborhood, the new biomorphic design seems symbolic for transformation from tradition to future architecture. The biomorph construction maximize the span distance up to 60 meters in width, just like a floating bubble of air. Its outer skin is a media facade which can be changed electronically. BIX is a matrix of 930 fluorescent lamps integrated into the eastern Plexiglas facade of the Kunsthaus. Films and animations can be displayed on the building skin. Thus the original architectural concept of the skin was radically redefined transforming the facade into a "communicative display skin".The Kun Sthaus facade as a display constitutes an extraordinary medium for presenting art and related informations. 4 Parametric architecture is believed to be the mainstream in the future. From these two precedents, we see different differences from the traditional buildings. The Friendly Alien is strongly contrasted to the surrounding built environments. From regular form to nowadays fluid and smooth form, architecture is also in the process of evolution.


PARAMATRIC MODELLING

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003

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Note Reference

1.Anderson, Jonathon and Ming Tang (2011) Form follows parameters: Paramatric modeling for fabrication

and manufacturing processes, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Archi-

tectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 91-100 <<http://

cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?caadria2011_009>>

2.Zaha Hadid Architects, 'Nordpark Cable Railway', ‘Arcspace.com’, (2008), <http://www.arcspace.com/fea-

tures/zaha-hadid-architects/nordpark-cable-railway/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

3.Spacelab Cook-Fournier, 'Kunsthaus Graz', ‘Arcspace.com’,(2004), <http://www.arcspace.com/features/

spacelab-cook-fournier/kunsthaus-graz/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

4.Cook Robotham Architectural Bureau,'Kunsthaus Graz', ‘CRAB-studio’, <http://www.crab-studio.com/graz-

kunsthaus/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

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1.0 Case for Innovation


1.5 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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Algorithmic Explorations Explorations with the Grasshopper, I usually start with watching the online videos and follow it to do once and mark notes. Beyond that, I will try to use Grasshopper to do some easy commends in Rhino which I knew before. But it is so much harder in Grasshopper, like extrude the curve. In Grasshopper, I like to play with the number slider because it always show me some surprising and complex forms. Like the figures shown here. Sometimes, it shapes the size, or sometimes the size and structure will change together. After 4 weeks exploratons in Grasshopper, I found the most important thing is to understand the commends and the principles behind.


ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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1.0 Case for Innovation


1.6 CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION & LEARNING OUTCOMES

Conclusion In summary, architecture can treat as a business. In the business world efficiency is important. In architecture, efficiency is also existed. Therefore, I proposed the design approach of the gateway project should have interaction with the nature because the application of nature is efficient with natural beauty. It will bring out architectural solutions to fulfill the gateway project. Also, with the help of digital tools,like parametric modelling and computing, it will also beneficial to the gateway project in seeking for innovative design with computer-controlled fabrication, ensure the outcome of the gateway is fully satisfied.

Learning Outcomes Architectural computing is not only a technique, it linked to many other realms and make it complicated. As a technique, it is a outcome of scientific application. It is not hard to understand because it is rational and bases on principles. As digital architecture is popular recently. As a student, understand the principles and the use of software is part of the architectural study, that can realize and know what is going on in the architecture. After finished doing all these researches and explored in the Grasshopper,I have a clear idea of the importance and functionality of digital technology. If I could redo my previous studios, the design approach needed to be more rational and convincing. Also, the representation drawings could do better in order to draw a clear illustration for others to understand the design.

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2.0 Design Approach


2.1 DESIGN FOCUS

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ZA11 Pavilion-CLJO2

MORNING LINE-RITCHIE,ARANDA/LASCH & ARUP AGU CANOPY-CADILLAC,ETAL.

CENTER FOR IDEAS-MINIFIE VAN SCHAIK VOLTADOM-SKYLAR TIBBITS

ICD RESEARCH PAVILION-ICD

SPANISH PAVILION- FOA

FALLEN STAR-AA DLAB


DESIGN FOCUS

Learning From Precedents

- Benefits from use of parametric design techniques that geometry generation and fabrication are under fully controlled -Exploring the formation rules found in nature in order to devise an architectural installation -Structure & material efficiency approached by application of biological structure -To create dynamic spatial experiences challenging perception and temporality. -Architectural attraction -Interaction with users -Simulation & reflection of nature in built environments

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Mind Map

Site Attributes -Rural Area: Natural Resources & Reservation -Built Environment: Highway -Traffic Flow & High Speed Movement

Rural Environment Protection

Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Impact on Environment Interaction Between Human & Nature

Biomimicry:Nature As A Solution

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Background of Wyndham City -Goals of Future Development: Growth, Diversity & Change -Local Community Full of Enthusiasm About Art & Gathering

Progressive


DESIGN FOCUS

Material Decay Gate Way Design Project -Innovation & Iconic -Long Distribution -Arrival Experience -Relationship Between Sculpture & Landscape

Proposed Site Location The way to Wyndham City

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Site-A

Gateway As A Living Creature

Fitness Criteria -Interruption : An Act of Delaying Or Interrupting The Continuity -Tendency: Expression Of High Speed & Movement -Fluid: Unique Characteristic Of Natural Form -Impression: Memorable Visual Experience

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NOTES Reference 1. Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary,’Matthew Ritchie with Aranda/Lasch and Arup AGU-The Morning Line’,’TBA21’,< http://www.tba21.org/augarten_activities /49?category=archive&locale=de>[accessed 8 April 2013] 2. Archdaily, ‘Ceramica Cumella:Shaping Ideas’,’archdaily.com’<http://www. archdaily.com/279576/ceramica-cumella-shaping-ideas/>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 3. SJET,’Voltadom: MIT 2011’,’sjet.us’< http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html >>[accessed 8 April 2013] 4. Design Playgrounds,’Canopy by United Visual Artists’,’designplaygrounds. com’<http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visualartists/>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 5. ‘Sucker Punch,’Fallen Star@AA DLAB’,’suckerpunchdaily.com’<http://www. suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/08/16/fallen-star-aa-dlab/>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 6. Minifie Van Schaik Architects,’Center For Ideas’, ‘mvsarchitects.com’,< http:// www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:victorian_college_of_the_ arts>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 7. De Zeen Magazine, ‘ICD/ITE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart ’’dezeen.com’<http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-theuniversity-of-stuttgart/>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 8. Design Playgrounds, ‘CLJ02:ZA11 Pavilion’,’desginplaygrounds.com’< http:// designplaygrounds.com/deviants/clj02-za11-pavilion/ >[accessed 8 April 2013]

69


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

71


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Fitness Criteria -Interruption : An Act of Delaying Or Interrupting The Continuity -Tendency: Expression Of High Speed & Movement -Fluid : Unique Characteristic Of Natural Form -Impression: Memorable Visual Experience


CASE STUDY 1.0

SPANISH PAVILION PROJECT Spanish Pavilion LOCATION Nagoya, Japan ARCHITECT FOA YEAR 2005 -Lattice consisted of six different pieces, based on an orthogonal grid, and encoded with a color -Lattice a traditional architectural element in Spain that reflect the fusion btw Christian and Islamic architecture -Recovery of the traditional ceramic lattice from Mediterranean architecture in order to achieve traditional spaces and shadow in the building -Fabrication processes – extruding, casting, pressing and revolving -The idea of creating a ceramic facade symbolizes the Spanish approach to Japan. -6 colours of tiles are the variation of the red and yellow of the national flag, reflecting the colors of wine, roses, and the blood of the bullfights, sun and sand. Colors universally associated with Spain

Spanish Pavilion - An Interesting Parametric Precedent As Starting Point The lattice consisted of 6 different tiles and based in a hexagonal grid. It also produces a continuously varying pattern of geometry and color. Moreover, the colorful ceramic tiles attract people’s attention easily and as a symbol in associated with the culture of Spain. The characteristics of this building are related to our group’s fitness criteria. Therefore, this project is so meaningful that will be helpful in the first exploration in Grasshopper, also in forming the parametric approach for the Gateway project.

73


Technique 6

Technique 5

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

DESIGN STUDIO AIR Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3 Variable 4


CASE STUDY 1.0 Variable 5

Variable 6

Variable 7

75


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Technique 9

Technique 8

Technique 7

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4


CASE STUDY 1.0 Variable 5

Variable 6

Variable 7

77


DESIGN STUDIO AIR 1

2

3

4


CASE STUDY 1.0 Matrix- Similarity & Contrast Linear Changes -Techniques 1-5: Series of changes in lattice -Techniques 6: Changes in height and density

Meshes -Techniques 7-9: Contrast the hexagonal foundation grid and height, sharpness and smoothness

Outcome

Interruption

Tendency

Fluid Impression (4-the highest; 1- the lowest)

1 2

4

3

4

4

3

4

1

3

3 4

1

1

3

2

2

2

2

1

Final Version- Outcome 1

-Regularity v.s. Irregularity : Hexagon v.s. Smooth Extrusion -Extrusion looks like bubble -Its distribution & height satisfies interruption & tendency -Although hexagon is not fluid, it is a natural form Architectural Application: May be applicable as shading panel and decorative building skin

79


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

81


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

PROJECT Portrait Building LOCATION Old Carlton Brewery Site, Melbourne, VIC, Australia ARCHITECT ARM DEVELOPER Grocon YEAR 2010 -New development on the site of the old Carlton Brewery -The buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facade is the face of indigenous leader and artist William Barak -As symbolic representation of Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indigenous culture and history -The image of William Barak a homage to the First Australians, and recognition of the complementary history. -Intention to pay respect to both Barak and the Wurundjeri people as the traditional owners of Melbourne and the greater Melbourne region over many thousands of years -A strong and lasting contribution to the site and the city.


CASE STUDY 2.0

Patina

PROJECT De Young Museum LOCATION Golden Gate Park,San Francisco, USA ARCHITECT Herzog & de Meuron YEAR 1895 -The abstract texture of a forest canopy was created from high-contrast digital images and then mapped onto the building surfaces -The entire exterior is clad in 163,118 sq ft of copper, which is expected to eventually oxidize and take on a greenish tone and a distinct texture to echo the nearby eucalyptus trees -Beyond momentary fluctuations in light and atmosphere, the cladding has also begun registering long-term effects of time and the elementsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;turning the copper brown, black, and eventually, green -The architects wanted a material that would be sensitive to and actually express the fact of change, also intentionally attacked the metal to exploit its inherent tendencies -The mature patina, which may take a decade to develop, will not acquire a uniform Statue of Liberty cast, but multiple shades of green dappled with browns and black that blend with the surrounding trees -In exposing the forces of nature as a key player, the architects not only defer to the beauty of the site but also respond to the history of the de Young and the long-standing controversy over the museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s presence

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CASE STUDY 2.0 Reversed Engineering Study -By combing two projectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; grasshopper definitions, there are variables and effects shown in the digital model. The variables are the radius & height of circles and the image. In the final outcomes, the changes become regular as the diagrams shown.

Similarity & Differences To The Original Projects Similarity: -Dramatic changes associate with the image itself -Circles in different sizes & heights set on the surface Differences: A thorough look at every circle, it becomes a cone

Development of the technique

-To judge the outcomes of this technique with the four fitness criteria in case study 1.0. Quality Achieved: -Tendency: By using the image sampler, the change is under controlled to create desirable trend. -Fluid: Circular geometry Quality Not Achieved: -Interruption & Impression: In the next step of developing the technique, qualities of interruption and impression should be brought in. A stronger stereoscopic outcome may help to strengthen these.

85


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


NOTES

REFERENCE 1. Arch Record, ’De Young Museum’,’archrecord.construction.com’<http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/portfolio/archives/0511deYoung.asp>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 2. Urban Art Project,’Portrait Building’,’urbanartprojects.wordpress.com’< http://urbanartprojects.wordpress.com/2010/09/16/portrait-building-arm-architects/>>[accessed 8 April 2013]

87


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

89


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Technique 5

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4

Variable 5


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT Variable 6

Variable 7

Variable 8

Variable 9

Variable 10

91


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Final Version

Base Geometry


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

Case Study 2.0 Technique

Morph Box

93


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

95


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

MATERIALISATION RELATED TO BIOMIMICRY Relationship Between Gateway Project & Biomimicry : -Gateway as a living creature

Expression As A Metaphor: -Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts

Why Photosynthesis is essential to the Gateway Design -Photosynthesis produce oxygen-which is important to all living creatures in the world -Symbolize the importance of Wyndham City by rela ng to the fundamental and important natural process-Photosynthesis

Material Representation of Photosynthesis: -Visual eďŹ&#x20AC;ects created by material to let people realize the changes in nature

Learning From Precedent PROJECT Prada Tower LOCATION San Francisco, USA ARCHITECT OMA YEAR 2000 -The facade is made out of stainless steel panels that are perforated with about 10,000 round holes -The presence of daylight: The facade wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t block out all light but filters and distributes it through various translucent materials inside the space: polycarbonate, colored resin, exclusively developed porous-transparent polyurethane panels etc. - A range of infill materials for apertures in the stainless steel skin -Ultra clear glass plugs, 32mm thick clear, low-iron glass that is flush to the interior face of the plate and projects externally

97


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

Proposed Use Of Material To Represent Photosynthesis: -Concept:During photosynthesis, green light from the sun is mainly rejected,therefore, most of the vegeta on are always green. -Applica on: When sunlight projects on the gateway, the infill glass material will reflect green color to the driveway, as a metaphor that photosynthesis is occurring and different light reflec on can also indicate the levels of photosynthesis according to the sunlight in different periods in one day

Material Experiment

- Lighting experiments on glasses

Precedent

-The striking colors & bold simplicity of the project welcoming vistors into the neighbourhood

Summary

The experiment and precedent show material- glass can reflect colorful light on the other object. In the gateway project, colorful lights will be beneficial in connecting with the nature in site and attract people’s attention.

99


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

Unroll Digital Model For Fabrication In order to unroll our digital model successfully, we found the unroll script from ACADIA 2011 design competition. The winner lantern is similar to our digital model, consisted of circular geometry. In the figure beside, we can see the joint connection which have 4 small joints in one object

101


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

Failure In Fabricate Prototype After we succeeded unrolling the model, we started making the prototype with cardboard. Due to lack of supporting structure in our digital model, the fabrication was difficult. We cut the unroll strip and stuck it to be a cone with glue. As there were no connection between cones, we need to use pin to plug holes and transparent plastic thread connecting them into bunches. Each brunches contains 50 objects. But after we made about 6 brunches, we found they were too soft to be supported.

103


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Figures Of The Easy Version Model & Unroll Strips


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

Second Fabrication As the structural problem was not solved yet, we decide to fabricate a smaller physical model, which deduced the UV values, to illustrate the effect created by our original parametric model for this stage.

105


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Physical Model


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

107


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Construction Detail-Learning Precedents

PROJECT Rmit Design Hub LOCATION Melbourne, Australia ARCHITECT SGA YEAR 2012 -The connection of the metal plate


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

PROJECT National Botanic Garden of WalesLOCATION Carmarthenshire,Wales,UK ARCHITECT Samuel Pepys Cockerell YEAR 2000 -The massive scale of span and ground connection

109


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Detailed Models


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

111


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Detail Drawings & Model Span Structure-Front View

Metal (External Layer)

GreenGlass(InternalLayer Joint between Metal

Span Structure-Plan View


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

Connec on between the circular elements

r)

Underground Connec on

113


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


NOTES

REFERENCE 1. OMA,’Prada’s West Coast Epicenter’,’oma.eu’<http://oma.eu/projects/2000/prada-san-francisco>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 2. World of Color Awards,’”Papa” The Striking Colors & Bold Simplicity of This Project Welcome Visitors nto the Neighborhood’,’worldofcolorawards.com’< http://worldofcolorawards.com/category/color-forecasting >>[accessed 8 April 2013] 3. Sean Godesll Architects,’RMIT Design Hub’,’seangodsell.com’<http://www.seangodsell.com/rmit-design-hub>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 4. Grasshopper, ‘Acadia 2011 Lightning Competition Winner1/2’,’grasshopper3d. com’<http://www.grasshopper3d.com/photo/saunders-fc-light-webboard-01?commentI d=2985220%3AComment%3A570243&xg_source=activity>>[accessed 8 April 2013] 5. Habitables,’Great Glasshouse National Botanic Garden of WalesFOoster+Partners’,’habitables.co.uk’< http://www.habitables.co.uk/architecture/greatglasshouse-national-botanic-garden-of-wales-foster-partners >>[accessed 8 April 2013]

115


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

117


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Non-Achievements In Grasshopper Technique -Cones are all separated to each other and have no stable structure

Solution In Later Development -Create sub-structure or improve the technique to make the cones have intersection or connection


TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

Fulfillment To Gateway Design -Satisfy fitness criteria: Interruption, Tendency, Fluid Shape and Impression -In a big scale that the design will be across site A&C -The sunlight will not be fully blocked because many holes remained on cones even the design is similar to a tunnel. -Use of color to connect the people, site and nature

119


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.7 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

121


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

123


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

2.0 Design Approach


2.8 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

125


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Proposed Geometry, Use Of Color & Form Generation

Feedback

-Lack of design logic -Incomplete and unclear design concepts -Fail to represent and connect photosynthesis to the gateway design and others -Weak grasshopper technique that fail to fabricate the physical model

Proposed Improvement

-Rethinking geometry and photosynthesis in order to form a more convincing parametric approach -Better use of geometry,material(especially in light reflection) & solar panels to present the idea of photosynthesis -Rational form generation & redo the digital model


LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

BUT -Still lack of direct effect in gateway design that people will not realize the message of photosynthesis and connection to the nature For the next stage,

Our group will use photosynthesis as starting point, research more about natural process in vegetation and material decay, to investigate how to connect the natural changes to the people and gateway. Also, architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impacts on environment too.

127


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

3.0 Project Proposal


3.1 DESIGN CONCEPT

129


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Materiality- Light Reflection

Conceptual Design For Gateway Project

Diagram of Proposed Ideas About Tree System & Photosynthesis


DESIGN CONCEPT

Refined Agenda Fitness Criteria For Gateway Design -Interruption -Tendency -Fluid -Impression Matrix of Case Study 1- Spanish Pavilion

The idea of Photosynthesis is used to stress the interaction between human and nature, by expressing in the design and materiality as a metaphor.

Extended Ideas: Strengthen the effect of Photosynthesis in physical aspects and introduce the concept of tree system.

Finalized Ideas: Tree trunk structure & peeling tree bark.

Tree Bark & Trunk Structure in Nature

Interesting Contradiction- Tree Trunk & Peeling Tree Bark

The strength and shape of tree trunk are very impressive and energetic. But the emotion of peeling tree bark is depressive and blue. Contradictively, the trunk represents growth while peeling tree bark represents decay. To the gateway project, this contradiction is valued to be a time flying proof and give a emotion for the site.

131


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


DESIGN CONCEPT

Exploration of Digital Techniques For Design Inspiration Green Void2 Architects: LAVA Location: Sydney, Australia Project Year: 2008 Materials: High-tech Nylon & Light Area: 300 square metres Volume: 3000 cubic metres About:

-A digital design derived from nature, related to cells, crystals and soap bubbles. -Using the latest digital fabrication techniques. -Installation used only 40 kg of lightweight material despite the Green Void is enormous.

133


Technique 5

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Matrix Variable 1 Variable 2 Variable 3


DESIGN CONCEPT Variable 4

Variable 5

Variable 6

135


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Matrix

Variable 2

Variable 3

Technique 7

Technique 6

Variable 1

Definition 1-Creation of Mesh (Like Green Void) This section of definition creates the initial mesh, but lacks of flexibility.

Definition 2-Exoskeleton This definition creates base mesh from curves and uses exoskeleton


DESIGN CONCEPT Variable 4

Variable 5

Variable 6

Advantages & Disadvantages of Techniques Advantages: Definition1 -Create interesting shape. -Thickness vary due to the base geometry(circles) Definition 2 -Flexible structure Definition 3 -Smoothen/shape input mesh

Disadvantages: Definition 1 -Lack of flexibility Definition 2 -Thickness/ radius of geometry is stable

In summary, force relaxation seems to be more beneficial between these techniques. Therefore, in the next case study, relaxation is more desirable for application.

Definition 3-Force Relaxation â&#x20AC;&#x153;Relaxâ&#x20AC;&#x153; the input mesh created in the perivous definition & runs a physic simulation.

137


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


DESIGN CONCEPT

Exploration of Digital Techniques For Design Inspiration Qatar National Convention Centre4 Architects: Arata Isozaki &RHWL Location: Doha, Middle East Project Year:2008-2011 Total Gross FLoor Area: 160,000 square metres About

-Iconic & intelligent. -Bent steel plate creates the forms of spanning native Sidra tree structure to support the overhanging roof structure. -Solar panels located on the roof. -LED lighting is controlled by occupancy censors .

139


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Matrix

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4

Variable 5


DESIGN CONCEPT Variable 6

Variable 7

Variable 8

Variable 9

Variable 10

141


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Four Fine Selections

Force Relaxation “Relax“ the input mesh created in the perivous definition & runs a physic simulation.


DESIGN CONCEPT

Advantages & Disadvantages of Techniques The precedent- Qatar national convention centre expresses the impressiveness of tree. In order to reverse studying, these digital models are created from mesh boxes with patterning and the application of force relaxation, from the previous case study. Advantages: -Shape the form manually is available from regular geometry. Disadvantages: -Limitation & failure always occurred during the process of shape editing. -Restricted shape & form -The patterning became messy after applied the force relaxation and shaping. However, the force relaxation is no longer prefect in this case study.

143


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 6

Variable 7

Variable 8

Definition


DESIGN CONCEPT Variable 4

Variable 5

Variable 9

Variable 10

Exploration of Digital Techniques For Design Inspiration In the previous case studies, those techniques are not satisfied. Therefore, the other definition is introduced. Limitation: Broken meshes occurred in the variable 1-5 so that it is limited by 2 dimensional geometry. From variable 6-10, the based geometry was slowly transformed from 2D to 3D. At the same time, notice carefully that the holes were reducing. In variable 10, it became a fine mesh. To sum up, the included angle and distances between two segments are important to this definition. Advantages: -Flexible structure (It is an exoskeleton based script). In the following, a matrix will be done by using this definition to see any interesting outcomes.

145


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Geometric Elements of Trunk

Conclusion drawn from analysis of tree structure

Extended Upward

Twisted

Extended Side


DESIGN CONCEPT

Illustrated Combination

147


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Matrix

Technique 5

Technique 4

Technique 3

Technique 2

Technique 1

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4

Variable 5


DESIGN CONCEPT Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 4

Variable 5

Technique 10

Technique 9

Technique 8

Technique 7

Technique 6

Variable 1

149


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Outcome Selected From The Matrix


DESIGN CONCEPT

Outcome From Technique Exploration In the matrix, there are interesting and deformed outcomes by using the definition and based geometry drawn from analysis. The selected outcome is a good mesh without broken holes. It combined the abstracted geometric trunk form and spreading to different directions. For the next stage, in order to develop the design, investigation of peeling tree bark is important.

151


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Original Mesh

Mesh-After Force Relaxation

Variable 1

Variable 2

Variable 3

Variable 7

Variable 8

Variable 9


DESIGN CONCEPT

Patterning- Inspiration For Peeling Tree Bark As to develop the concept of tree bark, an exploration of patterning is vital that patterning is like a skin of digital model to create different kinds of effect. In the case study of Qatar convention centre, the pattern was applied on a object before force relaxation. But the outcomes turned out not so good. Therefore, the technique was reversed in here. Mesh was â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;relaxedâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; before applied pattern. The patterning effect among these outcomes are more solid and in order. It shows this is a better way for patterning.

Variable 4

Variable 5

Variable 6

Variable 10

Variable 11

Variable 12

153


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Selected Patterns From The Matrix 1.

Box Morphing With A Mesh

2.


DESIGN CONCEPT

Decision Making Two Selected Patterns: 1. : Clear triangular pattern 2. : Dense triangular pattern which contained a feeling of tree shading. Patterning does not really satisfied the concept of tree bark. The created effects can not effectively connected tree trunk and bark well in the digital model. Instead of apply a pattern to seek possible effect, materiality may be more helpful and direct.

155


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Materiality -Corten Steel Introduction of Corten Steel -Double the tensile strength of mild steel. -Weather resistance, paint durability, weldability, workability & reliability.

-Cor-ten begins to rust as ordinary steel without protection & soon a protective surface layer of f textured rust formed, which suppressing corrosion rate. -Unpainted application of Corten are attracting attention as being especially suited for resource s and environmental concerns. -Can be welded using either manual, gas-shield or submerged arc welding.

-Repeated wet-dry cycles are important to the weathering corten steel in the atmosphere in ord form protective rust. Climate of Wyndham City -Moderate weather. -Coastal City. -Significant diversion yearly & daily. -Appropriate humidity for corten steel shown by the rainfall graph.

Corrosion Rate in Coastal Area

Wyndham City Climate

Temperature- Monthly


DESIGN CONCEPT

fineWeathering Corten Steel Plates3

avings

der to

9am •C 3pm •C 9am km/h 3am km/h

Mean Monthly Rainfall

Temperature- 9am&3pm

157


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Corten Steel Application & Color Changes Corten Steel Application on Architecture

Parish Church of Santa Monica1 Architect: Vicens & Ramos Location: Rivas-Vaciamadrid, Madrid, Spain Project Year:2002-2008 Material: Corten Steel

Local Corten Application3 Amplitudes: -1200 mm in corten steel -2011 Toorak Village Sculpture Exhibition


DESIGN CONCEPT Color Variations In Different Periods of Time3 2 years

1.5 months

0.5 months

0.5 years

22 years

5 years

40 years

Material Selection

Corten steel is a good material and proved to be applicable in Wyndham city. More importantly, the color changes caused by corten decay express the peeling process nicely. Therefore, rather to have patterning, direct material decay is relatively value for creating on site effects.

Corten Steel Samples by Lump Sculpture Studio

Speed-up Weathering Corten Plates

Raw Corten Plate During Fabrication

159


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Design Concept

Tree Trunk -Strong & Variable Structure -Growth Interesting Contrast: Contradiction Tree Bark -Peeling off by time -Decay

Relation To Human & Nature -Damages caused by human in nature

Gateway Project

Vegetation in rural area lives with freed

Proposed Digital Design

The proposed gateway des connecting rural area and tions there are. For example concept is to create a hum sues. It is illustrating decayin by time. People should rea


DESIGN CONCEPT

Rural Area -Natural habitat -Vegetation & animal kingdom

t & Wyndham City

om

Site Attribute -Connection of rural area & metropolitan Melbourne -Highway(Urbanization) -Natural landscape aridity

Transiting Point

Design Concept -Human-made sculpture

Metropolitan Area -Concrete city -Vegetation as decoration/ part of designing/ planning

Transition -Artificial Tree Sculpture: Material decay, accompanying with stillness & coldness, indicates the emotion of vegetation. -Tree-like sculpture is necessary to bring out the idea of treasure by the non-growth human-made product that copying from nature

Vegetation in metropolitan area are mostly manipulated by human

sign is defined as a transiting point of behavior restriction of other creatures. The site is metropolitan Melbourne and Wyndham city. Nearer metropolitan area the more restrice, vegetation is normally seen as decoration or streetsque planning in cities. The design man-made tree-related sculpture to attract people attentions about environmental isng and dying emotion by a stop growing tree with surface substance-corten keep losing alize and understand this sadness and learn to treasure.

161


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


NOTES

REFERENCE 1. ArchDaily, ’Parish Church of Santa Monica’,’archdaily.com’<<http://www.archdaily.com/26101/parish-church-of-santa-monica-vicens-ramos/ >>[accessed 8 June 2013] 2. Lava, ’Green Void’,’lava.net’<<http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/ >>[accessed 8 June 2013] 3. Lump Sculpture Studio, ’Amplitudes’,’lump.com.au’<<http://lump.com.au/sculptures/7/amplitudes/37741/ >>[accessed 8 June 2013] 4. RHWL Architects,’Qatar National Convention Center’,’rhwl.com’< <http://www. rhwl.com/projects/qatar-national-convention-center/ >>[accessed 8 June 2013]

163


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

3.0 Project Proposal


3.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

165


DESIGN STUDIO AIR 1. Sculpture Fabrication

Illustrated the rib structure -Internal rib structure welded with pre-fabricated corten plate -Plate Thickness: 1.6mm -Radius: 20 cm

2. Concrete Footing

35 cm 50 cm 35 cm -Central part footing of the sculpture -Concrete panel dimensions: 150*150 cm - Footing & Pins: Fixed the sculpture on the ground

-Edge footings of the sculpture -Strip footing - Footing & Pins: Fixed the sculpture on the ground


TECTONIC ELEMENTS Construction Process Digital Model

On Site Installation

2.

Concrete Footing

Manufacturing

Sculpture

1.

Technique: Weld -(Semi)/ circular corten steel plate with internal rib steel structure -Corten steel is good self-supporting

167


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

3.0 Project Proposal


3.3 FINAL MODEL

169


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Improvement Through Prototype Process

S,

1.

1. The First Prototype

2.

2. Final Physical Model

Matrix of Thickness Changes(By T-Spline Rh S. :The selected thickness for second time f


FINAL MODEL

ino Plug-in) fabrication

Spray Process

Process -Fabrication Method: 3D printing.

-After the first prototype was fabricated, we felt it is too weak and thin. So, we made digital models of different thicknesses in order to pick out a better one for the final model. -The effect of second prototype(final physical model) is expressing strength better than the first prototype. -In order to illustrate the property of corten better, we sprayed these prototypes mixed with iron-red & earth colors.

171


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

3.0 Project Proposal


3.4 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

173


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Site Plan

Location: Through site analysis, the sculpture is located on site B, near the gas station and buildings to gai


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

8m

Dimensions Volume: 8 m * 9 m * 4 m

9m n attentions from the people easily.

This sculpture is in a medium scale ,like a normal tree,& sited near the highway. Its eye-catching attributes are the spreading structure and the picturesque landscape created by corten decay. The substances will flow down to the ground by time and creates a vivid color contrast on site with the highway, walking track & grass lawn.

175


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Back View

Front View

Bottom View

Right View

Left View Top View


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Perspective

177


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Materiality:

Illustration of Color Changing Effects 0.5 months

1.5 months

5 years

0.5 y

22 years


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

years

2 years

40 years

179


DESIGN STUDIO AIR Animation

Link: Animation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFNhUJj-uEw&feature=youtu.be Shadow: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWDwktgV9I4&feature=youtu.be


181


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

On Site Illustration

Phy


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

ysical Model(Different Perspectives)

183


DESIGN STUDIO AIR

3.0 Project Proposal


3.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

185


DESIGN STUDIO AIR


LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

Feedback From The Crit.

-Plant real tree with chemical sustances to commence reactions and effects. -Biomimicry: mathematical relationship in nature(L-system) -Abstraction and separated from tree form -Tunnel will attract more attentions -Bigger scale and locate in the middle of the site to gain attentions -More development about corten steel

Learning Objectives & Outcomes

Through the gateway project, my knowledge of computational design is enhanced through research and discussion. Like the part A architecture discourse made me know more ideas and concepts of architecture. Working on a design project, there are always many unknown real world issues to deal with. For examples, the construction, structure, material use, physical fabrication, etc. The most memorable thing is to create a parametric model by using grasshopper. Seem most of the time in this studio is worrying about digital model and looking for solution. In this process, I noticed using grasshopper can create lots of amazing parametric models. But sometime it is confusing to feel that design concept may be restricted by techniques.

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