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DESIGN STUDIO MAR.2013

AIR

TAM ON ON 551318


CONTENT 1.0 Case for Innovation 1.1 Introduction...................................................................05 1.2 Architecture As Discourse....................................... 15 1.3 Computational Architecture........................................27 1.4 Parametric Modelling...............................................41 1.5 Algorithmic Explorations..............................................53 1.6 Conclusion & Learning Outcomes..........................57


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1.1 INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Something about me Hello there, My name is On On Tam. My major is architecture and I’m currently in my second year second semester. I come from a lovely city Macau in China. There are old Portugal buildings around and it is beautiful. Macau is known as the “Asian Les Vegas“ therefore there are lots of big casinos and hotels in recent years. But most of them are very formal and regular. As I knew, the local architecture firms are mostly using 3ds Max, Maya and SketchUp for 3D simulation. My knowledge of digital architecture is mostly come from the subject Virtual Environments. Once I read a news about 3D printing technology, I am impressed. It said a man’s cheek is seriously damaged and had a hole after surgery. His cheek bone and tongue are revealed. The doctors then used computing technology to set a metal frame inside his month and printed him a skin that can stick to the frame by magnet force. So the man has his normal life back and can hold a wedding with his wife. That was the first time I knew the 3D printing has application in medical realm.


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North, West, South, East Elevations, Boat House

Ground Floor Plan, Boat House

First Floor Plan, Boat House


PREVIOUS WORK

Roof Floor Plan, Boat House

During Study in Melbourne University, I have taken 3 studios in the past semesters which are the Virtual Environments, Architecture Studio: Water and Site Tectonic. The studio water taught me to analyze and apply the master architect-Rem Koolhass’s design principles and rules in designing a boathouse at the Yarra Park. As I am not skillful with digital tools. I presented the plans ,sections and elevation in two dimensions at the end of the course.

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Site Model, Site Tectonic


PREVIOUS WORK

Contour Plan, Site Tectonic

Site Section, Site Tectonic In the subject Site Tectonic, it taught a lot interesting ideas about shaping the site for construction and landscape design. Throughout the course, digital techniques were as a tool to manipulate the landscape in simulation. 3ds Max, AutoCad and Rhino were introduced.

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Prototype, Virtual Environments


PREVIOUS WORK

Prototype, Virtual Environments

The Virtual Environments is my first in touch with a digital toolRhino. At first I needed to analysis a natural process and abstracted a basic form from it. Then with the help of Rhino, My lantern design was finished. The use of Rhino in the Virtual Environments and Site Tectonic are quite different. One concerns the form and pattern while the others is making a site model and shaping it. But both are helpful in fabrication. Like fabricated the lantern in paper and a site model in card board.

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1.2 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

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An architectural project is an investment And architect is like an investment advisor Figuring the best choice out for the clients To every client, he/she has different expectation and desire to an investment. Some want a low risk and medium reward investment while some want high reward whatever how risky it will be. Efficient portfolio is ‘[a] portfolio that provides the greatest expected return for a given level of risk, or equivalently, the lowest risk for a given expected return, also called optimal portfolio.’1 There is always an efficient portfolio for every client. What an investment advisor responsible is to figure out the efficient portfolio or the one most similar to. As an architect, he/she are always finding the best choice for every project. Each project is unique by site condition, limited budget and needs of the patron, etc. A best choice is the result of balancing different aspects to meet the patron’s requirements. Here, the best choice means more than referring to the optimum design of the building. As it is always consisted of a lot compromising issues, sometimes the optimum design is not fit enough for making the best choice. Therefore, a good architecture is not only about the brilliant design, but also expresses the patron’s fulfillment to the architect. Fortunately, under certain constraints, there are still lots of spectacular architectures on the planet. It shows architecture has its own social identity and is a valuable investment.

‘[Architecture] exists because a client allows it to exist’2

‘Architecture can scarcely exist without patronage’3


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

The efficient portfolio is a set of architectural solutions in Mother Nature

In our society, people are always saying efficiency. To an investor, efficiency is making the most money in the shortest time; To a student, efficiency is learning the most in the shortest time. Time is always a parameter for efficiency. So, there are questions raised out: what is efficiency in architecture? How can architect finish the optimum design in relatively short time?

A form finder? A form maker? Or a form maker in the form giving environments? Space, structure and form are important architectural concepts. In the architectural history, architects have been investigating these concepts with different principles. The common one is designing complex forms. Time consumption on creation is massive even with help of computing. However, in our nature, there are lots of spectacular forms existed. Every single element in the earth, including we people, is surviving after a long time challenges in evolution process. � The perfection and variety of natural forms is the result of the relentless experimentation of evolution�4 .As the natural forms have already been tested and designed for thousand years, million years or even longer, if it is used as the origin in the design process, designers can save at least a thousand year time. Therefore, my proposition is architect should get inspiration from the nature as a basis for investigating architectural solutions because it is time efficiency and helps approaching to the optimum design.

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HighDesert House,Kendrick Bangs Kellogg,California,2004 8

Modernism- Organic Architecture ‘All perfectly beautiful forms must be composed of curves; Since there is hardly any common natural form in which it is possible to discover a straight line’5 -John Ruskin Organic architecture is the expression of passion for life and nature. It concerns the biological forms and processes in the nature. ‘Emphasizing beauty and harmony, its free-flowing curves and expressive forms are sympathetic to the human body, mind and spirit. In a well designed organic building, we feel better and freer.’6


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

‘Organic architecture should constantly remind us not to take mother nature for granted –work with her and allow her to guide your life. Inhibit her, and humanity will be the loser.’7 -Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

Something about Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

Kellogg Falls in love with designing with nature since he is impressed by Frank Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water. Kellogg likes to invent forms to meet different requirements of each project, instead of using conventional forms and structure. He exploded the use of concrete to create the house on the hillock, a difficult site. He thinks every site is a challenge to what is ordinary. He also thinks organic architecture should emphasize the potential and environmental fulfillment of individual experiences. 8

‘Form and Function are one’ High Desert House, California, 2004 By Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

In the Califonia’s Mojace desert, the High Dessert House sits on a large rock outcrop. The house is consisted of columns with gently curved canopy roofs on top, sitting on a platform. The spaces between these canopies is glass to bring the sunlight into the house. The house is earthquake proof and those columns with roof are part of the passive solar heating and cooling system. During the day the concrete columns absorb the solar heat and keep the house cold inside while at night the heat radiates into the house and make the house warm in the cold desert. On the top view of the house, it looks like a prehistoric bird rising out of the hot desert landscape. The color, texture and the form of the house are consistent with the surrounding environments. 8 ‘[T]here are no rules in organic architecture—it develops a new style every time you employ it’ -Ken Kellogg

Architectural Solutions

‘Form and function are one’ is a brilliant application in the High Desert House. The innovative columns are the structural members. The arrangement of columns and its roof are unconventionally for purposes. The column design is the solution to this specific site condition. The High Desert House provides a comfort living environment for the patron with organic form.

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Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Something about Tokin Liu

‘Using lessons in nature to inspire pioneering construction techniques. Our preoccupation with nature informs the design process, whether through biomimicry or by using the elements nature generously gives us for free.’ -Tokin Liu

A Biomimetic Building

‘The Island of Light’- Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center Tokin Liu, Taiwan The aim of this public architecture is to connect the culture and nature The architecture mainly comprises of two parts: 1.An inclined base containing all the operational accommodation as the form of hill 2.A lightweight roof canopy in the form of a forest of tree-like columns, which provides shading. The design approach is to provide a comfortable conditions rationally for the users in a low energy way.


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

How to create a comfortable environment? 1.Additional cooling can be circulated through the structure, by using high-efficiency heat exchanger, to avoid the use of air-conditioner. 2.In order to tolerate various climate conditions, the canopies of tree structure are using the shell lace system of perforated steel sheet. 3.The tree structures are covering of ETFE pillows that can block the sun, wind and rain. 4.Natural ventilation by using rooftop wind –catchers and vents coupled with lowlevel vents, to ensure the flow of fresh air through the space. 5.Light up the tree-like structure ,by luminaires within, at night to create a glowing symbol. 6.The roof harvests rainwater to provide the majority of the building’s water needs It is a biomimetic approach to emphasizing functional demands and combines these with richly cultural backgrounds to the natural environments of Taiwan. 11

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Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Two architects are both using nature elements and concerning about individual experiences. The Island of Light engages to the ecosystem and creates a sustainable environment through new materials and technologies. Use natural form and process in designing is saving materials and resources that is efficiency and environmental-friendly . It also allows innovative and creative thinking and inspires architectural solution to fix problems. So inspiring from the nature is an efficient way in architecture. In addition, natural form is encouraging people break the conventional thinking and explore in the nature, focus on the practicality and functionality, combing with nature beauty. It is easier to convince patrons to take the risk and accept an unique design.


ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

Illustration ,‘The Island of Light’ 9

Engagement with nature is beneficial to the Gateway Project in the design approach:

Firstly, the gateway project is looking for innovative design to represent welcoming for Wynham city, giving visitors a memorable impression. It will indirectly result in a good impact on Wynham city’s economy. As mentioned before, the efficient portfolio in architecture is relating to nature. Therefore, the efficient portfolio for the gateway project should also relates to the nature. Secondly,the gateway project requires an eyecatching design. Through those precedents, it shows architects get unexpected design ideas from nature and it always accompanies with natural beauty. I personally believe that engaging with nature can totally fulfill the Gateway Project with a stunning design.

However, there is a concern about using natural elements. As know, the structure of natural forms and process are very complex. In architecture, do the architects be capable to investigate and design the organic substances? Is it possible to be build in the real world?

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Note Reference 1. Campbell R. Harvey, 'Efficient portfolio', Campbell R. Harvey's Hypertextual Finance Glossary, (2011), <http://people.duke.edu/~charvey/Classes/wpg/bfglose.htm> [accessed 1 April 2013] 2. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 107 3. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 107 4. Tsui, Eugene (1999). Evolutionary Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) pp.10 5. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.29 6. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.8 7. Pearson, David (2001). New Organic Architecture: The Breaking Wave (London: Gaia Books Limited) pp.201 8. Hess, Alan & Weintraub, Alan (2006). Organic Architecture: The Other Modernism (Utah: Gibbs Smith, Publisher) pp.255-269 9. Tonkin Liu, (2011) <http://www.tonkinliu.co.uk/ [accessed 1 April 2013] 10. Tonkin Liu, (2011) <http://www.tonkinliu.co.uk/practice/profile/> [accessed 1 April 2013] 11. Pawlyn, Michael (2011). Biomimicry in Architecture (London: RIBA) pp.110 Feuerstein, Gunther(2002). Biomorphic Architecture (Londonn: Edition Axel Menges) Gans, Deborah & Kuz, Zehra (2003). The Organic Approach To Architecture (England: Wiley-Academy, a division of John Wiley & Sons Ltd). Tsui, Eugene (1999). Evolutionary Architecture (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

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1.3 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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Computational architecture It’s time for dreams coming true It’s time for perfection approaches It’s time for breakthrough in architecture The trend from form making to form finding The investigation of a structure externally to internally While architects are improving architectural design, good helper is brought out No matter form making, form finding or any other design methods, a good design costs more than one day. Computing in architecture, as a tool, does save people a lot time in processing a project. But more importantly, computing perfects architecture future development. When architects eager to develop fluid dynamic forms and prepare to discard static forms, computing allows them to simulate conceptual ideas in 3 dimensions environment. One may say within human creativity and imagination, hand drawings are still workable. However, digital tools help architects chasing after multiple solutions to a design rather than one. Then they can pick a best-fit design from multiple optimum design solutions. Convention design method: Searching the solution space for the solution to a problem New design method: Searching a solution to the problem 1 A concept-algorithm is introduced in the design analysis. The definition of Algorithm is “made up a finite set of rules or operations that are unambiguous and simple to follow”2 .In a simple way, its function here is to apply rational boundary constraints(like site conditions & orientation, etc.) to restrict the possible design outcomes. So the architects can find out different solutions efficiently.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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Genetic Algorithms Ecamples14


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

An efficient technique- Genetic Algorithms â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Genetic algorithms are a class of highly parallel, evolutionary, adaptive search proceduresâ&#x20AC;ŚThey are described as highly parallel because they search using populations of potential solutions rather than searching randomly or adjusting a single potential solution.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;3 Among kinds of algorithms, I found the genetic algorithms is interesting. It is related to investigate DNA structure at the first place. DNA structure varies through gene crossover and mutation and that will cause changes biological growth and form. But more importantly, this algorithms is beneficial and efficient. As using it to search for solutions, instead of searching randomly, it will search for potential solutions out of a specific population. Those figures besides is about an experiment. People were using genetic algorithms to select and develop successful solutions that may susses to create artificial life . Those figures are showing the possible structure may exist. Directly show the solutions.

With great power comes with great responsibility

By using the genetic algorithms, the genetic model of nature can be applied for architectural form. This new resource of forms indeed provides architects more inspirations. To analysis the external and internal of a biological structure, certain study and knowledge is needed. Ever since there are new knowledge or technology in other professional realms, there are always have influences on architecture,like computing. Computing has contribution in architecture and its related professions, the role of architects is heavier and more complex.

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Water Cube-Beijing National Aquatics PTW architects,Peking China,2008 The exciting factor about the Water Cube design is the structure of the building. It is the structure of assuming the form of water bubbleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s molecular structure is in a continues array. Every bubbles of the building is various and the building skin is made of inflated ETFE cushions. The building is so massive and innovative that preparation before construction is complicated. This precedent can totally reflect how computing has great contribution in architecture and fabrication. First of all, without computing technology the molecular structure will not be able to apply. It shows the biological model is suitable for applying in architectural form. Moreover, nowadays architects are sure to use a specific forms, they are seeking for the solution instead of thinking how to make it workable. Secondly, because it is a big scale building and every bubbles structure is various, the design of structural steel beam has about 22000 variations. In order to determine the design method, people use software to bring from 22000 down to 3 sets of choice. Moreover, the structural analysis and design were written respectively in the Visual Basic 6.0 and Strand 7 Finite Element Software. To allow process documentations, all files were translated into 3D cad model. It only took 25 minutes to finish. It is hard to imagine doing file translation of every single structure members manually which in total at least 22000 steel beams.5 Computing helps a project from design to construction. It makes design concepts harder and the process easier. It also means details are basically all done in computer. Ever since there is unclear things about at site construction, people can just print out a part drawings from the 3D model for guideline.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Beijing National Aquatics5


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ICD Research Pavilion

ICD/ ITKE Research Pavilion ICD/ ITKE University of Stuttgart, Germany,August 2011 The pavilion is a temporary, bionic research pavilion that made of wood. The project investigated the biological principles of the sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plate skeleton morphology to be transferred as architectural form, by using computer-based design, simulation methods and computer-controlled manufacturing methods. On the basis of the complex geometries of the sea urchin and computer-based analysis, they found a new lightweight potential principle- 3 plate edges always meet together at just one point. Even the considerable size pavilion was only built with thin sheets of plywood which is only 6.5mm.6 With the success of this research, it shows the way of designers thinking is changed. In this project, there are architects and engineers. The origin of the project was started at explored the bionic principles and further developed until construction finished. Architects and engineers work together to control every detail in the project.


COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

ICD Research Pavilion

Once again, with the success of this project, it shows the use of natural forms have contribution in architecture, no matter in architectural design or structural design. The natural forms and structures are precise because it may be humanly impossible to create. In this project, the researchers used computer-controlled methods to manufacture the plates which the pavilion is constructed of. With this technique, construct a building is like buying furniture from Ikea. With clear guide, people can construct one by themselves. It is amazing that computing give a great power to architects and engineers to control the outcome directly. Also, it ensures the accuracy of the outcome and manufactures new forms in the built world. To conclude, computing in architecture creates a new platform of designing and brings it to the real world. It gives hope for people to find a solution rationally, to build the impossibly-built building. As the gateway project is looking for innovative design, computing is beneficial to the gateway project and potentially brings out a legendary design. Concern of computing architecture Computing has global influences. Designing methods, material use and manufacturing have tendency to globalization. It is wondered in the future, will architecture become mass production ?

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Note Reference 1. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 19-20 2. Definition of "algorithm" in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 3. Frazer, John (1995). An Evolutionary Architecture (London: Architectural Association) pp.58 &98 4. Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 – 62 5.’Beijing National Aquatics Center’, 1-12 <http://bim.arch.gatech.edu/app/download.asp?path=/data/ partners/498&file=beijing.pdf> [accessed 1 April 2013] 6. ArchDaily, "ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart", (18 Jan 2012), <<http:// www.archdaily.com/200685>/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

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1.4 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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Parametric Modelling to architecture: Liberation or Stranglehold Parametric modeling is a digital process that is described by a finite set of parameters. The parametric scripting Grasshopper is written for convenience in computing. Every time there are variations of the parametric model, the related parameters will be self-adjusted. The parametric scripting makes points have connectivity and relationships between them. That results in an architectural framework in the design process. In my concerns, one of the advantages of parametric modeling is through the digital fabrication and manufacturing techniques, architects are engaging with the physical environment, rather than only in visual simulation. A parametric model, is not only the blueprint of the design, but also the blueprint of fabrication. So before preparing the documents for fabrication, designers allow to have numerous experiments with the design. It means the parameters of the model is assisting the fabrication process . It also means the construction process is also associated with the act of making architecture. When the relationship of designers and outcomes are closer, aesthetics and user experience are concerned. In a parametric model, fabrication details are determined, including structure and materials. The digital design process is precise and accurate so that the construction time and cost of the project can be estimated quite easily. Due to capitalism, clients have influences on the final outcome of the design work. So, parametric modeling has its negative impact on designing. 1


PARAMETRIC MODELLING

However, parametric model has mathematical attributes. It can transfer the complex geometry to simple geometric level for easier study and observation. It is beneficial for explore like internal biological structure. Also, parametric model is good for create very smooth and dynamic forms. Therefore, parametric modeling is also changing the way of architects thinking as mentioned before. And it is a positive impacts on designing. To conclude, there are paradoxes in the contribution of parametric modeling. Although it is good for creative thinking in designing process, design creativity may be strangled due to capitalism. And it may also lead to mass production in architecture because it may reduce the cost of building. With the prevalence of digital fabrication, in the future the cost may be more reasonable for budgeting and custom production may be prevalent too. In addition, the disadvantage of parametric modeling is the architects need to be skillful at using the software. Without understanding the principles behind of software, digital tools become a restriction on designing. Despite software are tried to be user friendly, the programmers do not have as much as examination or experience as the real users. The following two percednets are very interesting designs. It shows despite capitalism has negeative impact on creative design, still there are convincing architectural designs to make patrons willing to invest an unique architecture because architecture has different levels of value to everyone. To the gareway project, the design has significant meaning to the Wynham city. Parametric modeling as a tool is a wise option in contribute to the natural exploration for the gateway dsign.

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Nordpark Cable Railways, Zaha Hadid, Innsbruck, Austria,2004-2007


PARAMATRIC MODELLING

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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Buildings with no capacity to change can only become slums or ancient monuments2

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003


PARAMATRIC MODELLING


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Nordpark Cable Railways Zaha Hadid, Innsbruck, Austria,2004-2007 The building is comprised of four new stations and a cable-stayed suspension bridge. Use the fluid language of natural ice formations and two contrasting elements “Shell & Shadow” generate each station’s spatial quality and describes the movement and circulation within the building, as the natural process is abstracted and described by architectural language. Use the fluid language-ice formations enables the shell structures to adjust to various parameters whilst maintaining a coherent formal logic; New production methods guaranteed a very precise and automatic translation of the computer generated design into the built structure;3

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003 The Kun Sthaus is located in the historical neighborhood, the new biomorphic design seems symbolic for transformation from tradition to future architecture. The biomorph construction maximize the span distance up to 60 meters in width, just like a floating bubble of air. Its outer skin is a media facade which can be changed electronically. BIX is a matrix of 930 fluorescent lamps integrated into the eastern Plexiglas facade of the Kunsthaus. Films and animations can be displayed on the building skin. Thus the original architectural concept of the skin was radically redefined transforming the facade into a "communicative display skin".The Kun Sthaus facade as a display constitutes an extraordinary medium for presenting art and related informations. 4 Parametric architecture is believed to be the mainstream in the future. From these two precedents, we see different differences from the traditional buildings. The Friendly Alien is strongly contrasted to the surrounding built environments. From regular form to nowadays fluid and smooth form, architecture is also in the process of evolution.


PARAMATRIC MODELLING

Friendly Alien-Kun Sthau Peter Cook & Colin Fournier, Graz, Austria, 2003

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Note Reference

1.Anderson, Jonathon and Ming Tang (2011) Form follows parameters: Paramatric modeling for fabrication

and manufacturing processes, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Archi-

tectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 91-100 <<http://

cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?caadria2011_009>>

2.Zaha Hadid Architects, 'Nordpark Cable Railway', ‘Arcspace.com’, (2008), <http://www.arcspace.com/fea-

tures/zaha-hadid-architects/nordpark-cable-railway/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

3.Spacelab Cook-Fournier, 'Kunsthaus Graz', ‘Arcspace.com’,(2004), <http://www.arcspace.com/features/

spacelab-cook-fournier/kunsthaus-graz/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

4.Cook Robotham Architectural Bureau,'Kunsthaus Graz', ‘CRAB-studio’, <http://www.crab-studio.com/graz-

kunsthaus/> [accessed 1 April 2013]

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1.5 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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Algorithmic Explorations Explorations with the Grasshopper, I usually start with watching the online videos and follow it to do once and mark notes. Beyond that, I will try to use Grasshopper to do some easy commends in Rhino which I knew before. But it is so much harder in Grasshopper, like extrude the curve. In Grasshopper, I like to play with the number slider because it always show me some surprising and complex forms. Like the figures shown here. Sometimes, it shapes the size, or sometimes the size and structure will change together. After 4 weeks exploratons in Grasshopper, I found the most important thing is to understand the commends and the principles behind.


ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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1.6 CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION & LEARNING OUTCOMES

Conclusion In summary, architecture can treat as a business. In the business world efficiency is important. In architecture, efficiency is also existed. Therefore, I proposed the design approach of the gateway project should have interaction with the nature because the application of nature is efficient with natural beauty. It will bring out architectural solutions to fulfill the gateway project. Also, with the help of digital tools,like parametric modelling and computing, it will also beneficial to the gateway project in seeking for innovative design with computer-controlled fabrication, ensure the outcome of the gateway is fully satisfied.

Learning Outcomes Architectural computing is not only a technique, it linked to many other realms and make it complicated. As a technique, it is a outcome of scientific application. It is not hard to understand because it is rational and bases on principles. As digital architecture is popular recently. As a student, understand the principles and the use of software is part of the architectural study, that can realize and know what is going on in the architecture. After finished doing all these researches and explored in the Grasshopper,I have a clear idea of the importance and functionality of digital technology. If I could redo my previous studios, the design approach needed to be more rational and convincing. Also, the representation drawings could do better in order to draw a clear illustration for others to understand the design.

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