National Olympic Committee of Ukraine
Kyiv 路 2007
This book has been designed to promote the educational values spread through the history of Olympic Games, appearance and development of the Olympic movement, fundamental principles and significance of Olympism both for individuals and society. The book tells about Olympic kinds of sport and achievements of the athletes at the Olympic Games at the world and national level. It is addressed to teachers of secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasia and, of course, for all those interested in Olympic sports.
AUTHORS: Maria BULATOVA
— Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor, National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sport; President of Olympic Academy of Ukraine
— Ph. D., Associated Professor, National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sport
The edition of this book is based on the materials of the IOC Commission on Culture and Olympic Education, Archives of the Olympic Museum (Lausanne, Switzerland), the International Pierre de Coubertin Committee (CIPC) the International Olympic Academy, Hellenic Olympic Committee
Published by: National Olympic Committee of Ukraine
© M. Bulatova, V. Tomashevsky, 2007 © National Olympic Committee of Ukraine, 2007
PREFACE My young friend, This Olympic guidebook will take you through the roads of the Olympic history and will present to you the outstanding Olympians of the world. Turning the pages of this guidebook, you will discover the entire Olympic history, â€” from the Olympiads of Ancient Greece to the latest Olympic Games. You will learn where, how and when the Olympic Games came about, how the winners were honored, why the Olympics were suspended, and how Pierre de Coubertin breathed new life into the Olympic Games. You will find out the meaning of the fundamental Olympic principles and ideas, the nature of the Games' flag and emblem. In this guidebook you will find the proof that the Olympic history tells about not only sporting achievements; it is also about the victory of moral ideals: humanity, justice, equality, and good faith. The history of the Olympic movement is full of the names of outstanding athletes who have brought fame to their countries and presented good examples to follow. Copy their strength, fearlessness, enthusiasm, and will to win. Love of sport brings peoples of the world together, so I hope you will also contribute to the development of the Olympic ideals. The fascinating world of Olympics is calling on you! Enter this world with sincere heart and an open soul! Serhiy Bubka National Olympic Committee of Ukraine President
FOREWORD The ideals underlying the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece are extremely important for humanity. Not only did these ideals help the revival of the Olympic Games, but they also made the Olympic movement a noble and popular phenomenon involving all the continents and nations that have succeeded in turning Olympic sports into a festivity of peace, friendship and progress, a harmony of body and spirit, and the splendor of wisdom and justice. Many organizations are involved in dissemination of knowledge of the Olympism and the Olympic Games. Internationally, these include the IOC Committee on Culture and Olympic Education; the International Olympic Academy located in Olympia, the venue of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece; and the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland, initiated by IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch. At the national level, it is the Commission on Culture and Education of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine and the Olympic Academy of Ukraine. These organizations are actively involved in the popularization of Olympic sports and of the Olympism ideas, as well as in the promotion of the Olympic education among the population of our country. This book has been created in accordance with the recommendations of the International Olympic Committee and the International Olympic Academy with regard to the development of the Olympic education for young people of all nations, the recommendations seeking to encourage youth to develop their talents and capabilities, to instill in them an optimistic outlook for the future, and to support their quest for a healthy life. That said, the above recommendations 4
formulated about 15 years ago in a popular manual have merely served as the basis for the assorted and condensed information that you will get, my young friend, when you look through this work, 'Your First Olympic Guidebook". You have a unique opportunity to discover the origin of the Olympic Games and their organization in ancient Greece, to discover Olympia, the legends and myths of those times, to learn about the magnitude, loftiness and challenges of the modern Olympic movement, as well as to have an account of the achievements of Ukrainian athletes at the most important sport forums of every four-year period (Olympiad), the Olympic Games. Moreover, you will be able to improve your knowledge on your own by answering the follow-up questions and completing the tests offered here. It is very important that you practice sports actively and regularly, â€” in your backyard, in a park, in your sport club or at school. You will certainly get the feeling of joy and vigor out of such physical activities, even if you do not progress to the Olympic sports summit. You will stand out as a person with a strong will, honesty and trustworthiness. You will be accustomed to fair play in a team sport, and you will learn to respect competitors and accept referees' decisions. You will be handsome, attractive, and healthy. And all of the above will help you achieve success in life. Maria Bulatova Olympic Academy of Ukraine President
ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES
Wrestling bout in honor of Zeus
In ancient times, about 3,000 years ago, when wild tribes were roaming over most of the territories known as Europe today, an unusual state blossomed in the south of the Balkan peninsular and at the adjacent islands, Hellas, populated by a free and talented nation, the Hellenics. The previous tribal system gave way to city-states, with their own political system, economic structure, culture, education, and upbringing of children. The most significant element of culture of the ancient Greeks was agonistics; a principle of competitiveness. This principle was used in different areas of life: in labor, culture and sport, where winners were identified in open and fair competitions. 7
Young boxers. Fresco, 1550 BC
Acrobatic games with a bull. Painting on a palace wall
Competitions made it possible for an individual to display self-esteem, to rely on one's physical strength and to believe in the loftiest values of life. Competition winners were seen as the reflection of a deity, since Greek gods had human features. For the ancient Greeks, bodily perfection, physical and spiritual strength were the fundamental principles that could also be demonstrated in sports arenas.
Origin The Olympic Games were born in Ancient Greece back in the 8th century BC and were conducted regularly for over 1,000 years. The birth of the Olympic Games is typically linked directly to the legendary names of the Greek hero Heracles, king Pelops, king of Sparta Lycurgus, and Hellenic king Iphitus.
The Olympic Games are believed to have started in Ancient Greece in 776 BC, when the name of the first Olympic winner was officially documented as Coroebus of Ellis, a baker. The Ancient Greek Games were held once every four years in honor of Zeus. All the competitions and contests were held in the ancient Greek settlement of Olympia located in the north-western part of the Peloponnesus peninsular, in the south of Hellas. A gymnasium, a palaestra, a stadium, a hippodrome, and a guest house were built on the territory of Olympia, suitable for staging grandiose sporting events.
Mockup of Zeus Temple. Olympia
The contemporary view of the stadium in Olympia
The ancient Olympic stadium seated 40,000 spectators. As the biggest of all Greek religious festivals, the Olympic Games attracted participants and guests from all Greek city-states and colonies on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Sacred truce, "Ekexipea", had been maintained throughout the Games. No military conflicts or hostilities were permitted in the region where the Olympic Games were hosted. As a rule, participants and attendees of the Olympic Games were guaranteed the right of free passage through alien territories.
Participants of the Olympic Games Free Greeks were eligible to compete in the Games; those men and youth not been in violation of the law. Except for the Priestess of the temple Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fertility, all women were excluded from the Olympic stadium. Instead, the Games in honor of the goddess Hera were held for women in Olympia. These Games were conducted a month before or after the Olympic Games. The program of the Heraia Games included one event only, â€” a 160-meter foot-race. Unmarried women were the only eligible participants. 10
Olympic Game winners, Olympionics, were awarded a wreath of olive branches cut in the sacred grove of Altis. Olympionics became heroes in their native cities. They were experienced in for eternal glory not only in their home town, but also throughout the Ancient Greek world. The Game participants competed enthusiastically and, most importantly, honestly. In addition to Coroebus, the names of several other great champions were preserved for posterity. For example, the legendary Milon of Kroton, the disciple of the great Pythagoras, won seven top awards, all in wrestling. It is hard to believe, but this athlete wrestled in the Olympic Games for 28 years! Olympionic An example of an entire dynasty of Olympionics is the family of Diagoras from the island of Rhodes: Diagoras, his sons and later on his grandsons competed in the Olympic Games for over 80 years! They participated in twenty Games and won nine Olympic wreathes for their sun-drenched island!
There is an interesting legend about this family. Kallipateira, daughter of the same Diagoras that you just read about above, was keen to witness her son's Olympic glory. She sneaked into the spectators' stand disguised as a coach. After her son's victory, the happy mother forgot everything and rushed to the pitch. It was then that her secret had been discovered. Taking into consideration the glorious record of her family, referees did not punish the ambitious Mom. To prevent a repeat of this incident the referees decreed that athletes, coaches and spectators arrive naked for the Games. 11
The most famous of all heroes of the ancient Olympics was Leonidas, also of Rhodes. This extraordinary athlete won 12 Olympic victories in a running career spanning 26 years! Athletes found cheating and broking rules of the Games were fined. With this money, bronze statues of Zeus were erected with the cheaterâ€™s name inscribed on the base. These statues known as the Zanes were placed along the passageway leading to the stadium as reminders to the athletes going for competitions of examples not to follow. The success of the ancient Olympic Games can be accounted for, in part, by the love of Greeks for competition, their respect for the beauty of a human body, and their pursuit of a harmonious balance of mind, body and soul in their lives. During the times of Alexander the Great and the Roman Empire the sensationalism, commercialization and ever growing athletes' demands for more prizes had altered the system of values and the religious significance of the Games. The Olympic Games were abolished in 393 AD by the emperor Theodosius I, a convert to Christianity. All the sports buildings in Olympia were razed to the ground by the order of Theodosius II in 426 AD. Earthquakes and floods completed the destruction, and, little by little, the site disappeared under the earth and vanished from memory.
Ancient Olympia today 12
The Program of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece The Games of the first Olympiad took one day and the program included just one event. With the growing popularity and success of the Games in Ancient Greece, the competition program was gradually expanded. In the subsequent Games the program included pankration (a combination of wrestling with fist fighting), pentathlon (consisting of long jump, discus throw, stadion race, javelin throw, and wrestling), several other running events of various distances, pugilism and other events. The Games lasted five days. Periodically, new events were added to the Games program as follows: 776 BC: the stadion race (192 meters); 724 BC: the diaulos (two-stadia) race; 720 BC: the 8â€”24 stadia race; 708 BC: wrestling, pentathlon; 688 BC: boxing; 680 BC: quadriga chariot racing (four horses); 648 BC: pankration, horse race; 632 BC: youth competitions (boysâ€™ foot-race and wrestling); 520 BC: race in armour; 408 BC: two-horse chariot race.
Pentathletes: a jumper, a javelin and a discus thrower
Pankration, a combination of wrestling and boxing
Athletes in a running race
Other Games of Ancient Greece The most important competition in Ancient Greece were the Olympic Games held in Olympia in honor of Zeus. Yet there were other popular all-Greek competitions held as well. Information about the Nemean, Pythian and Isthmian Games in ancient times, is available. The Nemean Games, as well as the Olympic Games, were held in honor of Zeus. For the first time the Games were held in Nemea in 573 BC and once every two years thereafter. Winners were awarded wreathes of ivy or celery. The Pythian Games were staged in Delphi, in honor of Apollo. The name of the Games refer to the victory of Apollo over the snake Python. Winners were awarded apples first and later wreathes of laurel. The Isthmian Games were organized in honor of Poseidon, god of the seas. These Games were first held in 572 BC in a pine wood on the Isthmian isthmus, and once every two years thereafter. Winners were awarded pine wreathes.
Look at the picture. Recollect what wreathes were awarded to winners of the Games in Ancient Greece. Match the number of each wreath with the name of the appropriate Games.
... Nemean Games
... Olympic Games
... Pythian Games ... Isthmian Games
Legends and Myths of Ancient Greece According to the 10th Olympian Ode of the ancient Greek poet Pindar, the birth of the Olympic Games is connected with the name of Heracles. In 1253 BC, king of Hellas Augeas who owned huge herds of cattle ordered Heracles to clean his stables in one day. Heracles said he would, but only if Augeas paid him one-tenth of his herds. The king agreed, as he was certain the job could not be done in just one day. Heracles broke down two opposite sides of the wall around the stables and rerouted the waters of the Alpheos and the Kladeos rivers through this gap. The rivers cleaned the manure from the stables in one day. Heracles then restored the wall and came for his reward. But Augeas refused to pay, and Heracles had to return to Tiryns. In a few years Heracles, having finished his service for Eurystheus, came back to Hellas, defeated Augeas in a batHeracles cleaning the Aegean stables watched by Athena tle, and killed the king with a lethal arrow. After this victory, Heracles formed an army, made sacrifices to the Olympic gods, and established the Olympic Games, which had been held since then once every four years on a sacred plain surrounded by olive trees planted by Heracles himself. *
There is another legend of the birth of the Olympic Games. The cities of Ancient Greece had always been at war with one another. After an epidemic of plague, king of Hellas Iphitus turned to the Delphi oracle for prophecy. The oracle replied that Iphitos had to refrain from waging wars, strengthen ties with the Hellenic cities, and organize festivities and competitions as a token of peace. This is how the idea of Olympic Games had come about. Since Hellas typically made wars with Sparta, Iphitus 16
also invited the king of Sparta Lycurgus to take heed of the advice and participate in the Olympic Games. *
As another legend goes, the founder of the Games is Pelops. King Oenomaus of Pisa had a very beautiful daughter Hippodamia. The king had been informed of a prophecy that he was going to die from the hand of his son-in-law. Oenomaus challenged each of the suitors for a chariot race under the guarantee that any young man who won the chariot race could have Hippodamia as a wife. If the pretender lost, he would be slain by Oenomaus. One of the suitors was prince of Lydia Pelops, son of the Asia Minor king Tantalus. King of Lydia pelops agreed to Oenomaus's terms, who allowed him to have a head start. Pelops kept the advantage for almost the whole of the race. But his lead was shrinking, because Oenomaus had the fastest horses in Greece, a gift from Ares, the god of war. Oenomaus was closing the gap and was almost level. Pelops turned his head and saw Oenomaus raise his spear for the kill. At that very moment Oenomaus's chariot fell apart and he was thrown to his death. After the wedding, Pelops decided to institute an Olympic festival to be held every four years to celebrate his victory. This is believed to have happened in 884 BC.
Pelops and Hippodamia in a chariot 17
One more fascinating legend is about Prometheus, the theomachist and people's protector, who stole fire from the Olympus, brought it down in the reeds, and gave it to mortals for their use. According to the myths, Zeus ordered Hephaestus to chain Prometheus to a rock in the Caucasus and pierced his chest with a spear. A huge eagle swooped to this rock every morning and dabbed the Titan's liver. Prometheus was saved by Heracles. Historic data, rather than myths, prove that there had existed the cult of Prometheus in some Hellas cities and that Prometheuses races with burning torches had been held there in his honor.
The figure of this son of Titan has remained, until today, the brightest image of the Greek methodology. The expression 'Prometheus fire' signifies striving for a lofty goal and to fight evil. With the same idea in mind, could it be that the ancient people set the Olympic fire some 3,000 years ago in the grove of Altis?
Take a look at the map of the ancient Olympia. Find the following buildings on the map: 1 — gymnasium, 2 — palaestra (wrestling area), 3 — Zeus temple, 4 — guest house, 5 — stadium, 6 — Southern gallery, and 7 — Echas gallery.
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
Test your knowledge of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. 1
11. Where and when had the Olympic Games been introduced? 12. With what myths and with names of what heroes is the establishment of the Olympic Games related? 13. In what year had the first Olympic Games been held? 14. In honor of which God had the ancient Olympic Games been held? 15. How often had the Olympic Games been held in Ancient Greece? 16. Where had the competitions been staged? 17. Name the sport facilities where the ancient Olympic competitions had been held. 18. Who took part in the ancient Olympic Games? 19. What were the Olympic Games winners called? 10. What to you know about the Games in honor of the goddess Hera? 11. What are the Zanes? 12. What had been the prize awarded to Olympic champions? 13. What did they call the sacred truce established during the ancient Olympic Games? 14. How can you explain the success of the ancient Olympic Games? 15. What was on the program of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece? 16. What sports did the athletes compete in? 17. What do you know about the other games in Ancient Greece? Tell us about them. 18. When were the Olympic Games stopped?
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES
The Opening Ceremony of the Games of the 1st Olympiad in Athens (1896)
The Olympic Games of Ancient Greece had a significant impact on the world culture. Naturally, there were attempts at various times to restore this tradition. Ever since the 15th century AD, prominent statesmen and cultural figures of Italy, the British Empire, Germany, Sweden, Greece and North America insisted that the Olympic Games should be brought back to life. However, all of these attempts failed. It was the outstanding French educator and humanist of the 19th century Baron Pierre de Coubertin who followed through and succeeded in implementing the idea of the revival of the Olympic tradition. Fascinated 21
Baron Pierre de Coubertin
with the idea of immortalizing France through education and development of the spiritual and physical qualities of the French people, Pierre de Coubertin turned to sport, not only as a means of physical development of individuals, but also as a factor of strengthening peace and understanding among nations. The closest and most similar to Coubertin's position on the role of sports in society proved to be the ideas of the old Greeks that were put into practice during the Olympic Games.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin launched his campaign to restore the Olympic Games in 1887. He managed to involve many outstanding people at that time, including our compatriot, General Oleksiy Butovskyi. These efforts of Pierre de Coubertin came to fruition in the triumphal Congress, which approved the decision to organize the Olympic Games.
Pierre de Coubertin and his dream For more than 100 years, the five-ring symbol of the Olympic Games encourages athletes throughout the world to push for new achievements in sport. Since 1896, when the first modern Olympic Games were restarted in Athens, Greece, the Olympics have been the most popular and most respectable competition on Earth. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Games, sought for an active involvement of youth in sports. Together with his comrades-in-arms, he promoted sporting competitions on the basis of ideals that have now come to be recognized as Olympism. Laying the ground for the restoration of 22
General Oleksiy Dmytrovych Butovskyi
the Olympic Games in modern times, Pierre de Coubertin tapped into the history of organizing and conducting the Games in ancient Greece. He believed that the time-honored traditions should be used as a source of inspiration and to serve for the benefit of the contemporary world. In June 1894, Coubertin organized an International Congress in Paris to revive the Olympic Games. Seventy nine delegates representing 49 sport organizations from 12 countries supported unanimously the decision to stage the Games in Athens in 1896. The Congress also formed the International Olympic Committee, with Demetrius Vikelas of Greece as its President and Pierre de Coubertin as the IOC Secretary. During the Congress, the IOC approved the Olympic Charter, the principal governing instrument of the Olympic movement. The Games were supported by the Greek government, which allocated funds to construct the Olympic stadium in Athens on the ruins of antique foundations. The Games of the 1st Olympiad were declared open by the king of Greece on 6 April 1896. 245 athletes from 14 nations came to Athens to compete in nine sports.
The founders of the International Olympic Committee 23
The start of the 100 m running. Athens, 1896
The start of the cycling race. Athens, 1896
Spiridon Louis of Greece, first modern marathon winner. The Athens Games of the 1st Olympiad, 1896
The IOC session held in Paris in 1922 approved a resolution to hold competitions named 'International sports week for the 8th Olympiad'. This date is considered the date of the launch of Winter Olympic Games. The first official Winter Olympics took place in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Participating in the Games were 258 athletes from 16 countries. Winter Olympic Games are held every four years. Since 1994, Winter and Summer Olympic Games are organized alternately, with a two-year interval.
A 70-m jumper in flight. Chamonix, 1924
Bobsleigh race. Chamonix, 1924 25
Symbols The Olympic symbols include the Olympic rings, the Olympic flag, the Olympic motto, the Olympic emblem, the Olympic fire, and the Olympic torch.
Olympic rings The symbol of the Olympic Games is the five Olympic rings. These rings symbolize the ideals and the goal of the Olympic movement which have inspired several generations for more than a century. You can see them everywhere in The Olympic rings the cities that host the Olympic Games. You will also see the rings in the streets, in window shops and in TV commercials produced by sponsors of the Olympic Games. The Olympic rings in blue, yellow, black, green and red are intertwined from left to right. The top three rings are blue, black and red. The bottom two rings are yellow and green. Together, the figure is a right trapeze. The Olympic rings symbolize tolerance and friendship of all participants of the Games from the five continents of the planet.
Olympic motto The special motto of the Olympic Games are the three words: Citius 路 Altius 路 Fortius. These Latin words mean 'Faster', 'Higher' 'Stronger'. This Olympic motto reminds all participants of the Olympic movement standing for improvement and harmony of body, mind and soul in the spirit of Olympism. This motto is said to have been created by Pierre de Coubertin. In fact, however, these words belong to the French priest Henry Didon. That wise man, was one of the first to understan the positive impact of sport on the human soul, particularly of young people. During the opening of competitions at his college, he made an attempt to define in words the essence of a fair contest: citius 路 altius 路 fortius. 26
Olympic emblem The Olympic emblem is described in detail in the Olympic Charter, the governing instrument of the Olympic movement. Its principle element is the five rings in combination with several other elements. For instance, the emblem of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) is in the form of the Olympic rings against the white background and the motto Citius · Altius · Fortius.
The IOC emblem
Olympic flag The Olympic flag represents the five colored rings, — blue, black, red, yellow, and green, — on the white space. It is hoisted in the Olympic city on a high flag post of the Olympic stadium, alongside the national flags of all nations participating in the Olympic Games.
The Olympic flag
The Olympic flame is the fire lit in Olympia under the aegis of the IOC. It is then carried by relay to the host city of the Olympic Games and ends the trek in the huge caldron at the Olympic stadium.
Olympic torch relay Every four years, the sacred flame starts its way from Olympia in Greece to the host city of the Olympic Games. Once the Olympic fire is started, a torch is lit with this flame in the proximity of the original Olympic stadium. Then it is carried through the whole world, from one country to another, in a relay by ordinary people, like you and me. When the torch is passed from one runner to another, it seems to carry with it the feeling of peace and friendship. The ultimate destination of the torch is the Olympic stadium where 27
the Opening Ceremony is sheduled. Thousands of spectators watch the last runner use the torch to set the huge Olympic flame going, which will be blazing for the duration of the Games.
The Olympic flame lighting ceremony in Olympia
Olympic champion Maryna Tkachenko carrying the Olympic torch. Kyiv, 2004 28
The Olympic cauldron during the 1988 Seoul Olympics Opening Ceremony
The Olympic Games ceremonies The important components of the ceremonies of opening, closing the Games, and of the Olympic medal award ceremony are described in the Olympic Charter of the International Olympic Committee. The Opening Ceremony includes the parade of athletes from of all the participating nations, hoisting the Olympic flag, lighting the sacred flame, and taking the Olympic oath by athletes and referees. In the teams' parade, Greece is traditionally the first to enter the stadium in recognition of its status as the birthplace of the ancient Olympics and a country that hosted the first modern Olympic Games. The team of the home nation that plays host to the Olympic Games are last to enter. The Opening Ceremony. Athens, 2004
Award ceremony. Athens, 2004
The gold medal. The Athens Olympic Games, 1896
The Award ceremony. Medals (gold, silver and bronze) and diplomas are awarded to athletes who came first, second and third. The award ceremony also includes playing the national anthem of the winner's home country, and hoisting the national flags of those athletes that won the gold, silver and bronze medals. The Closing ceremony takes place at the main stadium after all of the events are concluded. It includes extinguishing the Olympic flame and lowering the Olympic flag from the flag pole, followed by the athletes' march, but this time as members of one Olympic family rather than representatives of individual nations.
The Closing Ceremony. The St. Moritz Olympic Games, 1928 30
The Opening Ceremony. The Games of the XXVIIth Olympiad, Sydney, 2000
Taking the Olympic oath During the Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games, the flag bearers from each of the participating nations form a semicircle in front of the spectators' stand. Then an athlete from the host nation comes up to the flag pole, takes hold of an edge of the Olympic flag, raises his right hand, and takes the Olympic oath in the Antwrep, 1920. Victor Boin, a fencer name of all other competitors to from Belgium, the first Olympic respect the rules and compete in the athlete to take the Olympic oath. spirit of sportsmanship. One of the referees also makes the same undertaking on behalf of all the judges and officials to respect the athletes and to provide objective refereeing.
The Olympic oath: "In the name of all competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams". 31
Olympism Pierre de Coubertin realized the significance and the need to create the symbolism and the ceremonies that would implementation of Olympism. He drew the five rings that came to light for the first time at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp, Belgium; he contracted a poet to write the Olympic anthem, and thought through the special ceremony to open and close the Games. He defined the principal values of the Olympic sports in his Ode to Sport, for which he was awarded the gold Olympic medal at an art contest in the 'Literature' nomination in 1912. The totality of ideals and values underlying the Olympic Games is known collectively as Olympism. Pierre de Coubertin and his associates have formulated the principal objectives of the Olympic movement: to promote the development of the physical and moral qualities that serve as the basis of sport; to bring up youth through the means of sport in the spirit of better mutual understanding and friendship, assisting thereby in building up a new and fairer world; to promote the Olympic principles throughout the world to create an international good will; to assemble, once every four years, athletes of the world to celebrate the great sport festivals â€” the Olympic Games. *
The outstanding swimmers Aleksandr Popov and Matthew Biondi shaking hands as a token of friendship and mutual understanding. 32
The fundamental values of Olympism: the balanced development of the body, will and mind; marriage of sport to culture and education; embracing the way of life that based on joy found through effort; respect for the universal fundamental ethical principles; harmonious development of man; assistance in establishment of a peaceful society; respect for human dignity; building up a new and better world through upbringing the youth through competing in sport; practicing sport without any discrimination; and mutual understanding in the spirit of friendship and fair play. Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy found in effort, the educational value of good example and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles". Olympism is promoted and Olympic ideals are introduced in the life of the young people by the International Olympic Academy and by over 130 national Olympic Academies providing Olympic education. The Olympic Academy of Ukraine was established on 20 September 1991. Its branches are actively operating in the regions of Ukraine. The goal of the Academy is to develop and strengthen the Olympic movement in Ukraine, to enrich people spiritually, to exchange the values of the national culture, and to promote the ideas and principles of Olympism.
The emblem of the Olympic Academy of Ukraine 33
The Olympic Museum The idea of setting up an Olympic museum belongs to Pierre de Coubertin. The seventh IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch managed to put this idea into practice. The Olympic Museum is built of white marble to remind us of the Greek origin of the Olympic Games. For the purpose of preserving the natural beauty of the environment, two of its five storeys have been built underground. The Olympic museum was formally unveiled on 23 June 1993 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the modern Olympic Movement, and this event became a tribute to its organizers, particularly of Pierre de Coubertin, and to the athletes of the five continents who have been brought together by the Olympic idea. All the exhibits in the Olympic Museum are displayed in keeping with the principle of combining sport and culture.
The Olympic Museum. Lausanne, Switzerland 34
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) The IOC is the supreme governing body of the Olympic movement, the standing international non-government not-for-profit organization that owns all the rights for the Olympic Games. Its headquarters is located in Lausanne, Switzerland. The International Olympic Committee promotes Olympism throughout the world. In order to disseminate the Olympic principles, the IOC: cooperates with the competent public or private organizations and authorities in the endeavor to place sport at the service of humanity; acts against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement; encourages and supports the promotion of ethics in sport; dedicates its efforts ensuring that the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned; leads the fight against doping in sport; encourages and supports measures protecting the health of athletes; opposes any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes; seeks to hold the Olympic Games in an atmosphere that encourages and supports a responsible concern for environmental issues; encourages and supports the activities of the International Olympic Academy; supports other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.
The IOC Headquarters. Lausanne, Switzerland 35
IOC Presidents :
The IOC has been managed for over 100 years by eight Presidents. They are Demetrius Vikelas of Greece; Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France; Henri de Baillet-Latour of Belgium; Juhannes Sigfrid Edstrom of Sweden; Avery Brundage of the USA; Lord Killanin of Dublin and Spittal, Great Britain; Juan Antonio Samaranch of Spain; and Jacques Rogge of Belgium.
Pierre de Coubertin (1896—1925)
Henri de BailletLatour (1925—1942)
Juhannes Sigfrid Edstrom (1946—1952)
Avery Brundage (1952—1972)
Michael Morris Killanin (1972—1980)
Juan Antonio Samaranch (1980—2001)
Jacques Rogge (since 2001)
Demetrius Vikelas (1894—1896)
Each of the IOC Presidents left their own bright and individual trace in the history of the modern Olympic sport and had an impact on its development and authority in the world. For our country, though, the most important have been Juan Antonio Samaranch and Jacques Rogge, who were IOC Presidents during the years when Ukraine gained independence. They have visited our country many times and 36
provided significant assistance to develop the Olympic Movement and promote Ukraine's successes and achievements among members of the Olympic community. Their visits have become historic and pivotal events not only in the history of the local Olympic Movement in Ukraine, but also for the social and political life of our state.
IOC President Jacques Rogge, Doctor Honoris Cause of the National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sports. Kyiv, 2006
Maria Bulatova, President of the Olympic Academy of Ukraine, with the IOC Honorary President Juan Antonio Samaranch. Lausanne, 2005
IOC Honorary President Juan Antonio Samaranch awards the Olympic Order to Prime Minister of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych. Kyiv, 2007
IOC Honorary President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Serhiy Bubka, President of the NOC of Ukraine. Kyiv, 2007
President of NOC of Ukraine Serhiy Bubka welcomes IOC President Jacques Rogge. Kyiv, 2006 37
Olympic torches The first Games where the Olympic Flame was lit during the Opening Ceremony at the stadium were the Amsterdam Games in 1928. Yet the historians of the Olympic Movement have found no proof that the flame, as the tradition requires, was carried by relay from Olympia.
The first Olympics to have started the tradition of bringing the sacred flame from Olympia to the host city by a torch relay were the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936. Since then, the opening ceremonies of the Games have been extended to include a fascinating scene, â€” lighting the flame in the cauldron of the Olympic stadium from a torch brought by relay all the way from the original site in Greece.
Los Angeles, 1984
Imagine that the 2020 Olympic Games will be hosted by Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. Design and draw the torch of those Olympic Games. 39
Mascotland Every country hosting the Olympic Games tries to select a special mascot that would have something to tell about the culture and traditions of the host nation. More often than not, it is a small animal, which symbolizes the national traces and special features of the home country. The first Olympic mascots was introduced at the 1968 Winter
The Names of Olympiadsâ€™ Mascots
The Red Jaguar (Mexico City 1968, Mexico)
Sam, the Eagle (Los Angeles 1984, USA
Hodori, the tiger (Seoul 1988, Republic of Korea)
Syd the platypus, Olly the kookaburra, and Millie the echidna (Sydney 2000, Australia) 40
Waldi, the dachshund (Munich 1972, Germany)
Amik, the beaver (Montreal 1976, Canada)
Cobi, the mountain shepherd dog with the human shape (Barcelona 1992, Spain)
Athena and Phevos (Athens 2004, Greece)
Misha, the bear cub (Moscow 1980, USSR)
Izzy, a computer generated animated model (Atlanta 1996, USA)
Fuwa (Beibei the Fish, Jingjing the Panda, Huanhuan the Olympic Flame, Yingying the Tibetan Antelope, and Nini the Swallow) (Beijing 2008, China)
Olympic Games in Grenoble ("Schuss" the Alpine skier) and at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games in Mexico City (a red jaguar), although those were unofficial mascots. The first mascot officially recognized by the IOC was a doggie named Waldi (Munich, 1972). Winter Olympic Gamesâ€™ Mascots
Schuss the Alpine skier (Grenoble 1968, France)
Schneemandl (the Snowman) (Innsbruck 1976, Austria)
Roni the Raccoon (Lake Placid 1980, USA)
Hidy and Howdy the Welcome Polar bears (Calgary 1988, Canada)
Magique, animated Savoyard star (Albertville 1992, France)
Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki the Snowlets, baby owls (Nagano 1998, Japan)
Powder, the Hare, Copper the Coyote, and Coal the Bear (Salt Lake City 2002, USA)
Vucko, the Wolf (Sarajevo 1984, Yugoslavia)
Haakon and Kristin, Norwegian child folk characters (Lillehammer 1994, Norway)
Neve, the Snowball and Gliz the Ice Cube (Torino 2006, Italy) 41
New Olympic legends The modern Olympic Games have gradually developed their own legends and their legendary heroes. *
The following story is not so funny. It occurred during the marathon race at London Olympics in 1908. The Italian long-distance runner Dorando Pietri was the first to run onto the track of the Stadium. It seemed the victory was his for the taking, with the finish line just a few steps away. All of a sudden, Pietri fell down exhausted. He made several attempts to get up unsuccessfully. The stadium went wild. Way behind, his competitors were huffing and puffing to catch up, and the soon-to-be champion was lying a couple of meters from the finish â€Ś and from the gold medal. Several compassionate spectators could not bear the sight and rushed to help the Italian athlete. Surprisingly, some referees followed suit. Helped by these people, Pietri crossed the finish line. The US team lodged a protest, and the gold medal was awarded to John Hayes, which seems natural and reasonableâ€Ś although very vexing! But Dorando Pietri did not go without a prize. For his sporting courage, Queen Alexandra personally awarded him a gold-plated silver cup.
Dorando Pietri drama 42
The Ukrainian athlete Viktor Chukarin is one of three gymnasts in sport history who was two-time Olympic all-round championship. He achieved this feat in Helsinki in 1952 and in Melbourne in 1956. But it was a long and dramatic road for Viktor Chukarin to meet with this success. Viktor, the Master of Sports and a graduate of the Kyiv Physical Culture Vocational School, went to the front line from the first days of the war. Soon his artillery unit had been encircled by the German troops. Viktor Chukarin was captured Viktor Chukarin by the enemies and spent almost four years in the concentration camps. What could have been more awful than that? But fate took pity on the athlete and saved him for future victories in sport. Back home Viktor's Mom would not recognize him had it not been for a scar from his far away childhood. He could not do even two push-ups on the parallel bars. Sport was out of the questionâ€Ś But an outstanding person is unique in that he can prove wrong the notion of the impossible. Having won seven gold medals (the second best result in the history of Olympic sport), Viktor Chukarin was the trailblazer of the Ukrainian gymnastics on the Olympic arena: at the Games of the Olympiads in Melbourne (in 1956) and Tokyo (in 1964), ten Ukrainian gymnasts stood on the Olympic winners' stand, including the outstanding Larissa Latynina (19 medals, of which 9 golds), Boris Shakhlin (13 medals, of which 7 golds), and Polina Astakhova (10 medals, of which 5 golds). *
One of the highlights of the Games was of the Olympiad in Tokyo (1964). The showdown of the super heavyweights in weightlifting. All eyes were focused on the Russian athlete Yuriy Vlasov, holder of numerous world records in his weight category and winner of the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome. Not only was Yuriy Vlasov certain of his victory, but he was planning to win gold with new world records. But the outcome came as a shock, and not only for the spectators but for the sport specialists as well. 43
In the final stage of the competition, Yuriy set two world records, in jerk and snatch, having outscored Leonid Zhabotinskiy and the famous U.S. athletes Norbert Schemansky and Gary Gubner. But in the final exercise, the jerk, Leonid Zhabotinskiy beat Vlasov tactically. In his last attempt, Zhabotinskiy lifted the record weight that was enough for him to win the gold in jerk and in the two-lift total. This had been the first incident in the Olympic sport history when an athlete who set two world records in the finals failed to win the gold.
The detractors thought Zhabotinskiy's victory was a fluke, but he proved them wrong and maintained his leadership position in world weightlifting, having subsequently set 17 world records, won many World Championships, and clinching the top spot at the next Games of the Olympiad in Mexico City. *
It is common knowledge that an efficient preparation in yachting requires expensive equipment and training centers in the appropriate climatic and geographical zones. Accordingly, it should come as no surprise that most outstanding athletes in this sport come from France, Australia, the United States, Great Britain, Norway, and Denmark. But this was not taken for granted by Valentyn Mankin, the Ukrainian athlete born in the village of Briukhovychi in the Zhytomyr Region. He was training on the Dnipro River near Kyiv and in the almost-Spartan conditions of the Black Sea sports facilities. Yet his intellect, unbelievable capacity for work, and skillful hands helped Valentyn Mankin on his way to the highest achievements in sport envied by all the yachting community. He is a three-time Olympic champion in three classes of vessels: he came first in the Finn class in Mexico City Valentyn Mankin 44
in 1968, in the Tempest class in Munich in 1972, and in the Star class in Moscow in 1980. Altogether, with a silver medal won at the 1976 Montreal Olympics, Valentyn Mankin has four Olympic medals, a feat equaled by only three other yachtsmen throughout the history of the Games of the Olympiads. *
In the second half of 1960s, there were no equals in the world for the USSR rowing team composed of the Ukrainian athletes Yuriy Filatov, Yuriy Stetsenko and Volodymyr Morozov. The fourth crew member was a Muscovite with From right to left: Yuriy Filatov, Yuriy a Ukrainian last name, Valeriy Stetsenko, Volodymyr Morozov and Didenko. They had put in a huge Valeriy Didenko amount of work preparing for the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. At last, came the long-awaited final race. Our team took up the lead from the start increasing the gap from the field. However, within sight of the finish line, their boat spun out of control and turned sideways. Afterwards it was found that the rudder cable had snapped. Years of hard work came to nothing and ended in bitter frustration. But our rowers, being true sportsmen, carried on and ended up on the top spot of the medal stand four years later at the Olympic Games in Munich. *
The biggest sport achievement of the 19th century is widely believed to be the stunning long jump record set by Robert Beamon at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. He leapt 8 m 90 cm; 55 cm better than the previous world record. This record had stood unbeaten for over 20 years and it was only in the early 1990's when it was bettered 45
by 5 cm by Michael Powell. Regretfully, we rarely remember the other, no less phenomenal, track and fields records. For example, the Ukrainian athlete Yuriy Sedykh won his second gold medal in the shot put at the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, setting a world record of 81 m 80 cm. Then, in 1986, he bettered his record by almost 4 meters (86 m 74 cm). This record survived until now, more than 20 years after that feat, no one came even close to that result of the Ukrainian athlete. The same fate is likely to happen to the extraordinary achievement of another Ukrainian athlete, the Olympic champion and 35-time world record holder Serhiy Bubka. His last pole vault world record of 6 m 14 cm dates back to more than 15 years. And in all of this time not a single athlete in the world has managed to scale as high as 6-meter level. *
Historically, the best results in the most popular track events, 100 and 200 meters men sprint events, have been demonstrated consistently by athletes African-American descent, mostly those from the USA team, who objectively have a better speed and speed-and-strength disposition than representatives of other races. One can name just a few incidents in the modern Olympic history when one of the above events was won by Europeans (for instance, Armin Hary of Germany in the 100 meters dash 46
and Livio Berrutti of Italy in the 200 meters at the 1960 Rome Olympics, or Konstantinos Kenteris of Greece in the 200 meters at the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000). But what would rules be without exceptions? One of such exceptions was the perfect success of the Ukrainian runner Valeriy Borzov in the 1972 Munich Olympics where he won both gold medals in the 100 and Valeriy Borzov 200 meters. His victories have proved that the best formula of success is the talent of an athlete and his coach, and a well-thought-out preparation system. *
22 years following the stunning victories of Valeriy Borzov, the feasibility of this formula was confirmed at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games by the Ukrainian boxer Volodymyr Klichko, who triumphed in the most prestigious heavyweight category. Before Volodymyr Klichko, for many years Olympic champions in this weight category (with a single exception of Franco De Piccoli in Rome in 1960) had invariably been the famous boxers African-American descent, Americans (H. Edward Sanders, Thomas Rademacher, Joseph Frazier, George Forman, Tyrell Biggs), Cubans (Teofilo Stevenson, Roberto Mendez) and one Canadian (Lennox Lewis).
After the Olympic victory, just as his famous predecessors, Volodymyr Klichko turned professional and went on to achieve new success in professional boxing. 47
TEST PRACTICE: READ, IMAGINE, PLAY...
How can you organize mini-Olympic Games with a torch relay in your school?
1. Organize a qualifying competition of runners who will carry the torch. 2. Draw up a plan of the torch relay. 3. Identify the key markers of along the way of the relay â€” houses, blocks, as well as hills, trees etc. 4. Indicate with arrows the direction of the relay and the location of the transfer of the torch from one runner to another. 5. Check out your itinerary. The Layout Plan of your itinerary.
Count up the events that occurred during the latest Olympic Games and glorified Ukraine.
Olympic days at school Tasks For a successful preparation and conduct of a mini-Olympic Games at school, it is necessary: 1. to involve as many students as possible in sport activities; 2. to concentrate the efforts on perfecting one's skills, so as to perform better than today; 3. to invite instructors and teachers of various subjects; 4. to comply with the fair play rules, to seek collaboration and mutual understanding; 5. to stimulate interest and encourage participation of all those who wish to compete in the school competitions.
Organization The school organizing committee is to: 1. develop the schedule and submit it to the attention of students, teachers, and parents; 2. invite guests; 3. plan the opening, closing and award ceremonies of the mini-Games; 4. create prizes and diplomas.
Competition Encourage everyone to participate. 1. A race with objects to jump over, climb under or run around; 2. A 50-meter hurdles race, with four hurdles, each 40 cm high. Place them with an interval of around four student's steps between them; 3. Long jump, any style; 4. Mini-marathon, about 600 and 1,000 meters, around the school building; 49
5. Javelin throw: the length of the throw to be measured from the point of throw to the first contact of the javelin with ground surface. Attention: do not sharpen the javelin tip, take precautionary measures and ensure safety of participants and spectators; 6. Discus throw: use a ball, a ring, or any round-shaped object; 7. Swimming: 50-meters; 8. Darts: use darts with rubber tips, target 5 meters from the throw line; 9. For students with less sporting talents, organize a tug-of-war entertainment.
At a physical culture class you could: prepare for improvement of your competitive performance; train and hone your skills for the competitions to be organized during your Olympic Day; organize the Olympic relay around the school building that will lead to the lighting of the Olympic flame during the opening ceremony; study the effect of physical exercise on your body; study the factors strengthening your health: eating; personal hygiene, clean drinking water, and simple first aid measures; learn folk dances of different nations and perform them in the opening ceremony of the Olympic Day at school; organize a "Referees' Club" to prepare referees in each athletic event during the Olympic Day; organize a Fair Play program, with the appropriate code of conduct and prizes; invite famous athletes to tell the Olympic Day participants about their achievements and plans.
At foreign language and literature classes you could: draft invitations for the opening ceremony of your Olympic Day; describe the sporting traditions or legends of different nations around the world; 50
write a newspaper article about the Olympic Day; learn the most frequently used expressions in foreign languages; write or tell a story about the Olympic Games or about a famous athlete from your region; organize the reading of poetry or prose on Olympic and sporting subjects dedicated to your Olympic Day.
At history and geography classes you could: locate the geographical position and the customs of the Olympic states. Represent a country, which you have profiled in class, in the opening ceremony of the Olympic Day; mark the Olympic Games host cities on the map; study the Olympic sport traditions in Ukraine and compare them to those of other countries; prepare a presentation on the subject of Olympics or on a controversial topic (such as commercialization, fair play, doping, politics, ethics etc.).
At drawing and handicraft classes you could: draw posters for the Olympic Day; design medals, prizes and diplomas for the Olympic Day; prepare flags of different countries for the opening ceremony of the Olympic day; prepare a sample of the mascot and of the symbols of the Olympic Day; organize an exhibition of paintings, sculptures and/or hand-made articles of sport.
At music classes you could: learn the anthems and folk songs of other countries to be performed at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Day; select the music to be played back during the Olympic Day. 51
QUESTIONS AND TASKS
Recollect what you know about modern Olympic Games.
11. When and where were the first modern Games held? 12. How many nations participated in the first modern Games and in the 2004 Olympic Games? 13. How often are Olympic Games organized? 14. When and where were the first Winter Olympic Games held? 15. How many nations participated in the first Winter Olympic Games? 16. How many modern Games of the Olympiad and Winter Olympic Games have been organized? 17. State what you know about the Olympic symbols. 18. What are the Olympic Games Ceremonies consist of? 19. How do Award Ceremonies organized? 10. What elements does the Opening Ceremony include? 11. What elements does the Closing Ceremony include? 12. What Olympic mascots do you know and when did the first mascot appear at the Olympic Games? 13. What is the Olympic Flame? 14. How is the Olympic torch relay organized? 15. Who has the right to carry the torch with the Olympic Flame? 16. What do you know about the Olympic oath? Read it aloud. 17. Who is the founder of the modern Olympic Games? What do you know about him? 18. Tell us about the biggest dream of Pierre de Coubertin. 52
19. Where was the decision made to revive the Olympic Games? 20. When and for what work was Pierre de Coubertin awarded a Olympic gold medal? 21. What are the tasks set by the Olympic Movement? 22. What is your meaning of the notion of Olympism? 23. What do you know about the organization heading the Olympic Movement? 24. What are the principal areas of the IOC activities? 25. How many Presidents have run activities of the IOC? 26. Name the IOC Presidents. 27. Name the IOC Presidents who had the biggest impact on the development of the Olympic sports in Ukraine. 28. How is the International Olympic Committee promoting Olympism throughout the world? 29. What is the name of the principal legal document of the Olympic Movement?
THE GAMES THAT CONQUERED THE WORLD
This is more than merely sport! The Games of the Olympiad and the Winter Olympic Games are important sport festivals in modern world. They are a grandiose bright feast of a global magnitude where, irrespective of the tough competition and bitter sporting rivalries, friendship and solidarity reign supreme. The Games keep billions of viewers glued to their TV sets and help raise huge funds from the host countries, numerous sponsors and partners for sport development. In every country on Earth, winning an Olympic medal is seen as the unbeatable peak of athlete's achievements in sport. Why have the Olympic Games gained so much popularity in modern world? Probably because the Olympic Games are founded on a set of ideals and principles to be committed by organizers and participants of the 55
Games of the Olympiads
Winter Olympic Games
Olympic Games. These ideals, known collectively as Olympism, are promoted not only by athletes and officials, but also by many educators, businessmen and organizations, which support these principles. The are promulgated in the Olympic Charter, the principal document of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The history of the Olympic Games includes 25 Games of the Olympiad and 20 Winter Olympic Games. There were no Olympic Games organized in 1916, 1940 and 1944 due to the two world wars. The nearest Games of the XXIXth Olympiad are to be staged in Beijing in 2008, and the next Winter Olympics will be held in Vancouver, Canada.
International Sport Federations Every Olympic sport is administered by an International Sport Federation (IF) at the world level. IFs set the rules and monitor compliance in their respective sports disciplines. Each of the IFs is autonomous and independent. The IOC accords the right of organizing competitions in their respective sports included in the program of the Games of the Olympiad to 28 IFs, and to 7 IFs in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. The first international sport federations had been organized as early as in the 19th century, prior to the creation of the IOC, for instance, International Gymnastics Federation (in 1881), International Skating Union and International Rowing Societies Union (in 1892). 57
The International Sport Federations: ensure the development of their respective sports in the world; assist in achieving the goal promulgated by the Olympic Charter; establish criteria of selecting participants of the Olympic Games; supervise the technical control and administration of their sports at the Olympic Games; and provide technical assistance to the Olympic Solidarity Programs.
National Olympic Committees Each nation participating in the Olympic Games has its National Olympic Committee (NOC). Every NOC develops and supports the Olympic Movement in its respective country as follows: promotes the fundamental principles of Olympism at a national level through education, the national Olympic academy activities, cultural programs etc.; encourages the development of sport on all levels; prevents all forms of cheating, discrimination and violence in sport; prevents any use of substances or procedures banned by the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA); and represents its country at the Olympic Games. National Olympic Committees have formed five continental associations: Association of European Olympic Committees (EOC); Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA); Olympic Council of Asia (OCA); Pan American Sport Organization â€” for North and South America (PASO); and Oceania National Olympic Committees (ONOC). 58
The most significant sport events organized by these associations are the Regional Games that had been proposed by Pierre de Coubertin and derive from the history of the Ancient Olympic Games. It is known from history that in addition to the Games in Olympia, Pan-Hellenic Games had also included several regional Games: the Isthmian Games, the Nemean Games and the Pythian Games. The emblem of the
202 NOCs fielded their teams at the 2004 Olympic Association of European Olympic Games in Athens: 48 teams represented Europe, Committees 45 came from Asia, 42 from America, 53 from Africa, and 14 from Australia and Oceania.
Olympic Solidarity The aim of Olympic Solidarity is to organize assistance to NOCs recognized by the IOC, in particular those which have the greatest need of it. The assistance in the form of specific programs developed by the IOC in cooperation with the National Olympic Committees, such as: NOCs preparation for and participation in the Olympic games; Olympic scholarships for athletes and coaches; support of team sports; youth development; preparation for regional and continental Games; the development of the national systems of athletes' preparation; development of sports medicine, environment protection, and mass sport; organization of cultural, educational, and academic events in the area of Olympic sports.
Olympic Solidarity emblem 59
Sports in the Games of the Olympiads To date, the Olympic program includes 37 sports and over 300 events. Women participate in 34 sports and in 124 events.
OLYMPIC SPORTS Aquatic sports swimming, diving, synchronized swimming rowing, canoeing, kayaking, yachting Track and field running, heel-and-toe walk, hurdles, steeplechase, marathon, relay, long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault, discus throw, hammer throw, javelin throw, shot put, decathlon (men), heptathlon (women) Weightlifting and combat sports boxing, freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, weightlifting, judo, taekwondo, fencing Cycling road race, track race, mountainbike Equestrian Triathlon (swimming + cycling + running) Games badminton, baseball (men), basketball, water polo, volleyball, handball, softball (women), tennis, table tennis, football, field hockey Gymnastics gymnastics, modern rhythmic gymnastics, trampoline Modern pentathlon Archery, range shooting, trap shooting
Sports in the Winter Olympic Games In those countries of the world where low temperatures turn water into ice and rain into snow people most often go in for such winter sports as skating, skiing and tobogganing. The first Olympic Games with these winter sports in the program were organized in Chamonix, France in 1924. Since then, Winter Olympics are held every four years. Currently, the Winter Olympics program is made up of 82 events in 15 sports: biathlon, bobsled, ice hockey, luge, speed skating, short track, figure skating, skiing (Cross country skiing and Alpine skiing), ski jumping, Nordic combination, snowboarding, freestyle, skeleton, and curling. Bobsled Two-man and four-man bob race through the ice track Luge Single or two-seater luge (toboggan) runs down the icy track Skeleton (a speed luge run down the track head first) Skating Figure skating (singles, pairs, dancing) Short track Speed skating Skiing Ski jumping Alpine skiing Cross country skiing Biathlon (ski race and shooting in the upright and prone positions) Nordic combination (ski jump and ski race) Curling (skittles on ice) Freestyle (mogul and ski aerobics) Snowboarding (downhill race on a special snow board) Ice hockey 61
Outstanding achievements in sport The names of the best athletes that had stunning victories have gone down in history of the Olympic Games. However, even among this best athletes' golden list the names stand out of the athletes whose outstanding results belong to the hall of fame of the Olympic sport and who are the pride of their home countries and of the entire Olympic Movement. Larissa Latynina of Ukraine broke the record of 18 Olympic medals during her sporting career in gymnastics, including 9 gold medals. Jesse Owens of the USA sprinted his way into the Olympic history by winning four gold medals in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin (in the 100 meters and 200 meters, in the 4 x 100 m relay, and in the long jump). On 25 May 1935, he set five world records within one hour, the record in the long jump then lasting for a quarter of a century. Bjorn Daehlie of Norway dominated cross country skiing in the 1990s, wining a record 12 Olympic awards, eight gold medals and 4 silver medals in 1992â€”1998. Serhiy Bubka of Ukraine, the 1988 Olympic pole vault champion, set 35 world records and six-time world champion. He has been awarded the Olympic Order and received the Best Athlete's Award in 1997. Yana Klochkova of Ukraine, four-time Olympic champion in swimming (Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004) and many-time winner of World Swimming Championships. She is the first swimmer in the world to have won two distances of 200 meters and 400 meters individual medley in two consecutive Olympics.
Larissa Latynina 62
Paavo Nurmi of Finland is a holder of a record total of 12 (nine gold and three silver) medals in the 12 running events in which he competed at the Olympic Games from 1920 to 1928. The events won by Paavo Nurmi include 10,000 m, 1,500 m, 5,000 m, steeplechase; team race and cross country events. Lidia Skoblikova of the USSR, Russia won the record number of gold medals in speed skating at the Winter Olympic Games (1960—1964). At the 1964 Games in Innsbruck she made a clean sweep of gold in all four women speed skating events. Carlton Lewis of the USA won 9 gold and 1 silver medal in four consecutive Games of the Olympiads (1984—1996) in the 100 meters, 200 meters, 4 x 100 meters relay, and four gold medals in a row in the long jump. Mark Spitz, also of the USA, has the record number of Olympic medals (11 medals, of which 9 gold medals) in swimming at the Games of the Olympiad in 1968 and 1972. Borys Shakhlin of Ukraine won 13 Olympic medals (including 7 gold medals) in gymnastics. He came on the top spot of the medal stand at three Games of the 1956—1964 Olympiads.
Borys Shakhlin 63
Problems of the Olympic sport The Olympic Movement is faced with a number of problems and challenges in its development. The most pressing and significant problems for the Olympic sport are doping, refereeing, safety, environment protection, and security. Doping. Doping, or taking performance enhancing drugs, provides a unilateral advantage over those opponents, who do not take doping, which is a gross violation of the philosophy of Olympism that fosters equitable terms for all athletes. The use of doping is dangerous for health and can even threaten an athletes' life. The first case of an Olympic athlete to test positive for doping use and to be disqualified was at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. He lost his bronze medal for alcohol use. Injuries. Injuries sustained in training and during competitions disrupt the sporting career of many prominent athletes, often terminating it and proving futile their selfless efforts in preparation. Nothing can be more important for the Olympic Movement than health and well-being of athletes during all and any competitions.
Injuries in training and during competitions are a major danger for athletes
Bad officiating. Bad decisions of referees in various sport disciplines undermines one of the fundamental principles of Olympism, that of ensuring fairness and equal opportunities for all Games participants. Environment protection. Organizers of the Olympic Games are faced with serious ecological challenges. Construction of sport facilities and 64
other infrastructure objects of the Games, accommodation of the participants and guests, the presence of thousands of tourists on the Olympic sites, transportation and waste utilization create a potential threat to the environment that requires the implementation of preventive measures so as to avoid pollution. Hills of litter, garbage and empty bottles are a common site after the completion of major international competitions. Security. A special challenge for the Olympic Games organizers is the need to ensure security of the Games, their participants, guests and spectators, and counteraction to potential terrorist attacks.
Bad officiating at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City resulted in awarding two sets of gold meals in the pair figure skating event
A mountain of litter after the latest Olympic Games
An episode of stringent security measures and tight control during individual checks at the Games of the XIXth Olympiad in Salt Lake City, USA 65
Participation of women athletes in the Olympic sport Following the Olympic sport traditions of ancient Greece, Pierre de Coubertin strongly opposed the participation of women in the Olympic competitions. However, his views failed to stop women from participating in the Olympic Games. For the first time, women participated in the Games of the Second Olympiad held in 1920 in Paris. The first woman athlete to become a champion of the modern Olympic Games was the British tennis player Charlotte Cooper. With time, the number of women-participants of the Olympic Games have increased dramatically. To date, women compete in more than 40 % of events in the Olympic program. These has been achieved through the focused and concerted efforts of the IOC and the International Federations.
Sport events in the Olympic Games Program Games of the Olympiads Year Total events
Women sport events
% of the total
Winter Olympic Games Total events
Women sport events
% of the total
Technological progress input to the Olympic Games 1936 Berlin
— the first ever Olympic Games television coverage.
— the first full television coverage of the Olympic Games
— news agencies gain access to the Games central computer.
— the first site of the Olympic Games in the web.
— introduction of the first E-commerce system to sell goods with Olympic branding.
— ³ntroduction of the first integrated information support system of the Olympic Games.
Mass Media The mass media are broadcasting the Olympic ideas throughout the whole world. The number of media representatives at the 2004 Games in Athens was 21,500, whereas the number of athletes and officials was 17,000. The mass media proved the biggest single community at those Olympic Games. There operated two press centers in Athens in 2004, an International Radio and Television Center, and 28 separate press centers for specific sports. In terms of significance, the press centers were rated on a par with sport facilities. 67
TEST PRACTICE: READ, IMAGINE, PLAY
Do you know Olympic sports?
What Olympic individual and team sports do you know? Fill out the table. Summer Olympic Sports
Winter Olympic Sports
My unforgettable moment in sport
Tell us about the most fascinating moment in a game that you have seen or in which you have participated. Imagine that you are an athlete who is famous in Ukraine. Tell us about your greatest ambition.
Win an Olympic medal Score a decisive goal Make in onto a team
Beat the closest opponent Set a personal best record Come back to sport after an injury
Fair play in sport Fair play is something bigger than just compliance with rules. Games and competitions are an opportunity to hone, jointly with competitors, your skills. Cheaters are not eligible to compete. Modern fair play requirements in sport are based on self-esteem and love of game. When I play fairly, I: comply with the rules; respect referees and accept their decisions; respect opponents; give everyone equal chances to win; control my actions at all times.
"Fair Play" is a code of conduct in sport The term 'fair play' means 'honest play". "Fair Play" is actually a set of rules to comply with by athletes, coaches, supporters and all those who are related with sport. Different prizes are awarded to athletes Fair Play emblem to encourage chivalrous behavior. One such award is the Pierre de Coubertin Trophy for a Noble Action. Every year this trophy is awarded to an athlete for setting an example of fair play, â€” irrespective of fame, status (amateur or professional) or age. In other words, everyone is eligible to win this award, as long as one's action is in accordance with the fair sport regulations and out of humane "Pierre de Coubertin Trophy for considerations.
a Noble Action" awarded by the decision of the International Fair Play Committee
Fair play for children and youth in modern sport (for teachers and parents) We all believe that practicing sport assists in the development of spiritual and moral values in contemporary world. Indeed, research and observations indicate that sport without education and without ardent striving to encourage and promote fair play and develop one's personality can lead to cheating and violence. However, there are several effective training methodologies promoting ethics and fair play in games and contests. Here are two examples of tasks conducive to moral values development that can be used by coaches, teachers and parents. 1. Identify and resolve moral conflicts through discussion of a concrete situation that has created the conflict. 2. Change roles and assessments, help children to see the world through the eyes of an onlooker.
Look up the drawings symbolizing the problems of the Olympic Movement. Clarify with the teacher what they depict and write captions under the drawings.
economic inequality, environment protection, fair play, sport commercialization, politics, doping
Develop a code of fair play with your class or team mates. In a group of 4-5 students, discuss the rules of conduct that can be included in the code of fair play. Make up a list of five of your top ideals. Share them with your mates and identify from 5 to 10 conduct rules that could form your code of fair play. Write down the code identified collectively in these discussions:
Your loftiest ideals:
Code of fair play:
Produce a fair play diploma to award an athlete or a team that have demonstrated the best compliance with fair play rules or, alternatively, use the diploma as suggested here:
FAIR PLAY AWARD This diploma has been awarded to
for compliance with the following fair play ideals: Respect of rules Respect of referees and their decisions Respect of opponents Equal chances for everyone to compete Keeping self control at all times
Look at the following posters. Discuss the symbols characteristic of every Olympic Games.
Saint Louis, 1904
St. Moritz, 1928
Lake Placid, 1932
Los Angeles, 1932
Cortina d'Ampezzo, 1956
Squaw Valley, 1960
St. Moritz, 1948
Grenoble, 1968 75
Lake Placid, 1980
Los Angeles, 1984
Salt Lake City, 2002
Imagine that Kyiv is playing host to the 2020 Olympic Games. Try to develop and draw a poster of the 2020 Olympic Games.
On this map, indicate the Olympic host cities. Mark the host cities of the Games of the Olympiads with a sun ( ), and the host cities of the Winter Olympic Games with a snowflake ( ).
QUESTIONS AND TASKS 11. Why are Olympic Games so popular in modern world? 12. What principles are implemented in Olympic sport? 13. What do you know about International Sport Federations and their activities? 14. What is the role of National Olympic Committees? 15. Name the five continental associations. What association does Ukraine belong to? 16. How many NOCs took part in the 2004 Olympic Games? 17. What function does Olympic Solidarity perform? 18. How many sport events are included in the program of the modern Games of the Olympiads? 19. Name the sport events included in the program of the modern Games of the Olympiad. 10. When were the first Winter Olympic Games staged? 11. How many sport events are included in the modern program of the Winter Olympic Games? 12. Name the sport events included in the modern program of Winter Olympic Games. 13. Name the outstanding athletes of the modern age and describe their achievements. 14. How many Games of Olympiads have been organized in the modern period of sport development? 15. How many Winter Olympic Games have been organized in the modern period of sport development? 16. What is the trend in the number of participating nations and in the number of athletes participants of the Olympic Games? 17. Why were the Olympic Games cancelled in some periods? 18. What problems exist in modern Olympic sport? 80
19. What measures are the IOC taking in the fight against doping by athletes? 20. What actions are taken against an athlete who tests positive for doping? 21. At what Olympic Games was the first athlete disqualified for doping? 22. For taking what substance was the Olympic Games participant disqualified for the first time? 23. Give examples of the IOC is struggle for environmental protection? 24. What is the name of the trophy awarded in Olympic sport to encourage athletes' chivalrous conduct? 25. What is the impact of technological progress on the Olympic Games? 26. When did television cover the Olympic Games for the first time? 27. Which year saw full TV coverage of the Olympic Games? 28. What tragedy took place during the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich? 29. What security measures are applied during the Olympic Games? 30. When did women participate in modern Olympic Games for the first time? 31. Give the name of the woman athlete who had been the first modern Olympic champion?
The Olympic delegation of Ukraine. Sydney, 2000
Olympic sport of Ukraine had for many years been a component part of the Olympic Movement of the former Soviet Union. In 1952â€”1988, Ukrainian athletes participated in the Olympic Games as members of the USSR Olympic teams, and in 1992 they were part of the United team of the Commonwealth of Independent States (former USSR). The stars of world class sport include a cohort of sons and daughters of Ukraine who glorified its talented people and discovered new, previously unknown, spiritual and physical abilities of humans. Our athletes have traditionally proved their mettle competing in various events of the Olympic program. Their power of will and perseverance have been the foundation of excellent performance. It is worth mentioning Olympic champions of various Games Larisa Latynina, Borys Shakhlin, Leonid Zhabotynskyi, Valeriy Borzov, Oleksiy Barkalov and many others. After Ukraine gained independence, the outstanding achievements of Ukraine's athletes in the Olympic arena have helped the reinforcement of the international image of this country. 83
The NOC of Ukraine was established on 22 December 1990. This was extremely important for Ukrainian sport on the way to independent accession to the international arena and to membership in the global Olympic family. Valeriy Borzov, two-time Olympic champion, was elected the first NOC President. On 9 March 1992, the IOC Executive Board recognized the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine in the status of a provisional IOC member. NOC of Ukraine Emblem On 24 September 1993, the 101st IOC Session approved a historical decision for our country and its sport to accord full membership to the NOC of Ukraine. With the approval of this decision, Ukraine has become a full-fledged member of the Olympic community. Since then, the NOC of Ukraine Presidents have been well-known statesmen and sport officials.
IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch (in the center) awards the text of the IOC decision on Ukraine NOC recognition to Valeriy Borzov, Ukraine NOC President 84
Presidents of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine:
Valeriy Borzov (1990—1998)
Ivan Fedorenko (1998—2002)
Viktor Yanukovych (2002—2005)
Serhiy Bubka (since 2005)
Ukraine NOC President Serhiy Bubka conducting an Olympic lesson
In 1952—2004, Ukrainian athletes won 219 gold, 159 silver and 161 bronze medals at the Games of the Olympiads and in the Winter Olympic Games. Below is a list of those Ukrainian athletes who have won two or more Olympic gold medals:
Gymnastics Larisa Latynina — 9, Borys Shakhlin — 7, Viktor Chukarin — 7, Polina Astakhova — 5, Maria Gorokhovska — 2, Nina Bocharova — 2, Tetiana Gutsu — 2, Lilia Podkopaeva — 2, Rustam Sharipov — 2, Tetiana Lysenko — 2
Yuriy Filatov — 2 Oleksandr Shaparenko — 2
Yachting Valentyn Mankin — 3
Volleyball Yuriy Poyarkov — 2
Modern pentathlon Pavlo Ledniov — 2
Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling
Sergiy Beloglazov — 2, Oleksandr Kolchynskyi — 2
Yana Klochkova — 4
Track and Field
Oleksiy Barkalov — 2
Olga Bryzgina — 3, Valeriy Borzov — 2, Volodymyr Holubnychyi — 2, Yuriy Sedykh — 2, Liudmyla Zgygalova — 2
Rowing and canoeing Serhiy Chukhray — 3, Volodymyr Morozov — 2 Serhiy Petrenko — 2
Leonid Zhabotynskyi — 2
Handball Larysa Karlova — 2, Zinaida Turchyna — 2, Margaryta Nikolaeva — 2, Liudmyla Bobrus — 2, Tetiana Makarets — 2, Natalia Sherstiuk — 2
In 1994, the team of Ukraine participated for the first time in the Lillehammer Winter Olympic Games. Ukrainian athletes have won five medals at the Winter Olympic Games of 1994—2006: one gold medal, one silver medal, and three bronze medals. The first start of the team of Ukraine at the Games of the Olympiad was in 1996 in Atlanta. Altogether, Ukrainian athletes have won 69 Olympic medals in 1996— 2004, of which 21 were gold medals. 86
Photos of Ukrainian athletes â€” winners of two or more gold Olympic medals
Valeriy Borzov 87
Olympic champions of independent Ukraine
Yevhen Braslavets and Ihor Matvienko
QUESTIONS AND TASKS 11. During which years did Ukrainian athletes compete in the Olympic Games for the USSR team? 12. When did Ukrainian athletes take part in the Olympic Games as members of the United team of the Commonwealth of Independent States? 13. How many medals (gold, silver, bronze) did Ukrainian athletes win at the Games of Olympiads in 1954—2004? 14. Give the names of Ukrainian athletes who won two or more gold Olympic Games. 15. When did independent Ukraine field its first team at the Winter Olympic Games? 16. Name the first Ukrainian woman athlete to have won an Olympic medal for independent Ukraine at the 1994 Olympic Games. 17. How many medals did the athletes of independent Ukraine win at the Winter Olympic Games in 1994—2006? 18. In what sport events did Ukrainian athletes win Olympic medals in 1994—2006? 19. When did the team of independent Ukraine take part in its first Games of the Olympiad? 10. Name the athletes who won gold Olympic medals for Ukraine in the Games of the Olympiads (1996—2004)? 11. What is the emblem of the NOC of Ukraine? Describe it. 12. When was the NOC of Ukraine formed? 13. Name the Presidents of the NOC of Ukraine. 14. What is the mascot of the Olympic team of Ukraine?
PREFACE by Serhiy Bubka, NOC of Ukraine President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FOREWORD by Maria Bulatova, Olympic Academy of Ukraine President . . . 4
ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES QUESTIONS AND TASKS
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MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES
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TEST PRACTICE: READ, IMAGINE, PLAY... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 QUESTIONS AND TASKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
THE GAMES THAT CONQUERED THE WORLD
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TEST PRACTICE: READ, IMAGINE, PLAY... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 QUESTIONS AND TASKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
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QUESTIONS AND TASKS
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Edition for educational purposes Maria BULATOVA Volodymyr TOMASHEVSKY
YOUR FIRST OLYMPIC GUIDEBOOK
Your First Olympic Guidebook