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RESEARCH JOURNAL OLIVIA CLIFTON 201024838 5344 WORDS


CONTENTS KEY WORDS

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INTRODUCTION

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CURRENT AFFAIRS OVERVIEW

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PESTEL ANALYSIS

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PHASE 1

9-22

PHASE 2

23-46

TREND CARTOGRAM

47-48

CONCLUSION AND REFLECTION

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REFERENCES

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FIGURES LIST

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CARTOGRAM FIGURES LIST

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KEY WORDS Zeitgeist; The word ‘zeitgeist’ directly translates, from German, to “time spirit”. This relates to the study of trends, as a zeitgeist is the defining mood of a particular era. Mega Trend; Mega trends are global, constant forces of growth that impact all aspects of PESTEL in a business. These trends cannot be manipulated but can be influenced, as they help in defining our future world (Efrat, 2010). An example of a current megatrend is the need to customise and adapt goods and services to a consumer’s personal life, desires and beliefs. Macro Trend; A macro trend is a large cultural shift in consumer interest lasting 5-10 years. “Macro trends track the progress of emerging global phenomena” (Sinha, 2010), which aids a business’s decisions and direction. Social media is an important macro trend; this will never disappear but it may reach its peak in the future. Micro Trend; Micro trends typically last 3-5 years and influence specific sectors rather than a global society. Fad; A fad is an extremely short-lived trend that is difficult to predict (Posner, 2015). Fads will last up to a year, possibly less. An example of a fashion fad is the sports-style popper edge joggers. These look great on some people and can be styled many ways; however, the fad will not last for a long time due to its uniqueness and impracticality. 3


INTRODUCTION Trends and forecasting is one of the most important responsibilities in the fashion industry. Being able to predict trends and their longevity is a necessity for brands that want to develop relevant products and marketing strategies (Kim et al., 2013). To be able to forecast successfully, it is vital to analyse existing social, technological, cultural and economic impacts. Although trickle-down theories are still apparent, Kim et al (2011) describe how the theories of fashion leadership depend on the median age of society and there is no prominent model. For example, if society is filled with younger class role models, fashion trends will trickle-up from subcultures.

“THE PUBLIC NO LONGER DETERMINES TRENDS, BUT REACT TO TRENDS THAT EMERGE FROM SUBCULTURES� (VINKEN, 2005, P61-76)

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This reflective journal documents my research and progress in the trends and forecasting module. The journal is divided into 2 segments. Phase 1 includes weeks 1-5 of Semester 1 where I participated in group work, alongside my personal exploration. Phase 2 illustrates the development of my trend cartogram in weeks 6-11. A reflective journal is a great assistance in a learning process. Critical reflection allows us to manage our “emotional responses” and “challenge our initial assumptions” during a project (Bassot, 2016).

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The younger consumer is in significantly more debt than older consumers. This leads to less disposable income and the unlikely want to spend. Therefore, the older consumer is a boosted target market.

The UK’s inflation rate is its highest for more than five years, driven up by increases in transport and food prices. This surge in prices will have an effect on consumer behaviour due to the possibility of products growing in shelf price.

The Harvey Weinstein accusations are the current main focus in the media. Not only has this caused an outrage in the celebrity realm, but has also encouraged average women to come forward with their sexual harassment ordeals. The hashtag #metoo has been immensely successful.

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Glamour Magazine’s bold move of concentrating on digital copies, highlights the emerging technological era. Glamour’s target audience are more likely to read online, therefore they are appealing to more potential consumers.

The dismissing of transgender model, Munroe Bergdorf, was extremely controversial. L’Oréal made a smart decision in their new campaign celebrating diversity; however, this is argued to be hypercritical after their recent actions.

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PESTEL ANALYSIS This PESTEL analysis brings together all of the aspects that might drive future trends. The PESTEL also makes it simple to study the macro environment, making sure we are responsive to the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal situation at any time (Posner, 2015). My use of PESTEL has helped to produce themes from looking at the news.

POLITICAL Theresa May and Brexit, Donald Trump VS Kim Jon Un, The Modern Neo- Nazis, Doubt of the Government ECONOMICAL Inflation rising, The fall of retail sales, The mounting debt for young people, The effect of Brexit on the economy SOCIAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

The #metoo movement, LGBTQ community, Freedom of speech through social media, Beauty brands becoming more diverse

Surge in atmospheric CO2, Climate Change and uncertainty, Increased awareness for animal rights

TECHNOLOGICAL

LEGAL

Blogger’s and Vlogger’s are here to stay, The iPhone 8, 360 Interactive videos, Responsive technology (Amazon Alexa)

The abuse of wealth and power in industry, ‘Fake News’ and the need for transparency

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PHASE 1

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MIND MAP WEEK 2

To begin Phase 1, we were put into small groups and began to brainstorm ideas. With a large piece of paper, permanent marker and post-it notes, we created a large mind map of important current matters. Mind maps are extremely useful as they allow an individual to visually manage information and permits that individual to drive the future of the project (Buzan, 2006). By using the post-it notes, it was easy to link certain issues with others. To improve this exercise, next time we would write the themes on the paper with no arrows. This would allow us to freely move the post-it notes when they had multiple connecting themes.

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WEEK 3 FINALISING OUR THEMES After extensive research of current affairs to find the most predominant zeitgeist, we developed the 3 themes below;

THE FUTURE OF THE BRITISH ECONOMY

EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH THE MEDIA

CUSTOMISING TECHNOLOGY TO MEET CONSUMER NEEDS

In order to trace the trends back to their origin, a PESTEL analysis is extremely helpful. All organisations are influenced by diverse environmental factors (Analoui and Karami, 2003) and PESTEL brings these elements together. 11


THE FUTURE OF THE BRITISH ECONOMY

P E S

Brexit, distrust of the government, instability of parliament

Economy with both large public and private sectors, inflation increasing, young people in debt and mortgage crisis, the unemployment rate of 4.3% is slowly decreasing (Office for National Statistics, 2017)

Education costs, transparency due to social media, the debate around migration, the ageing population

T

Slower technological advancement compared to the US, positive digital attitudes lead to more opportunity for UK businesses

E

New environmental watchdog once Britain leaves the UK, air pollution in big cities

L

Continual rise of minimum wage, limitations on the selling of tobacco

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THE FUTURE OF THE BRITISH ECONOMY TRENDS

MEGA

MACRO

A megatrend provoking the British economy is the shift in global economic control. With China’s economy slowing down (Lopez, 2017), opportunities for smaller countries arise. This is an ongoing trend that will influence both businesses and

Uncertainty is a macro-trend concerning economics and politics. The public unease and distrust in the government, creates an ambiguous zeitgeist. This could lead to consumers limiting their expenditure (Euromonitor International, 2012).

MICRO

FAD

A micro trend that is emerging in 2017, is the awareness of pollution in the production process, and efforts to maintain an ethical business. Stott (2017) describe how brands are already providing alternative resolutions to pollution issues, in order to satisfy customers.

An interesting fad to discuss is the increased political engagement among young adults. Warren (2017) debates that although social media is filled with political opinions, people are still failing to show up at voting stations. Therefore, if this increased engagement is correct, it would affect the British economy in terms of stability and trust of the government.

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CUSTOMISING TECHNOLOGY TO MEET CONSUMER NEEDS

P E S T E L

The possibility of Brexit affecting large production in the UK, smaller businesses becoming more successful

Inflation leading to the rise of product prices, big brands such as Apple and Samsung abolishing smaller businesses, consumer confidence rises to four-month high in September (Reuters, 2017)

The ability to share liberally on social media, ageing population weary about technology

360 interactive videos, responsive technology, ‘paying with your face’, e-commerce

The consumer interest in protecting the environment may place restrictions on production processes

Privacy is an ongoing legal issue in the realm of technology, copyright issues are a problem among business trying to be original

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CUSTOMISING TECHNOLOGY TO MEET CONSUMER NEEDS TRENDS

MEGA

MACRO

Technological progress as a whole is an emerging mega trend in society. With technology having no boundaries, businesses are able to create personalised experiences for customers. The technological adoption lifestyle, as explained by Haddad (2002), shows that customers will eventually accept technology and embrace the changes.

An ageing population is a macro trend that many forecasters are predicting. “The improvement in healthcare and lifestyles means the population is getting older� (Office for National Statistics, 2017). This affects technology because it opens up a new target market. Where the older generation used to shun technology, they are now embracing devices that help with day-to-day life.

MICRO

FAD

Trend One (2017) explain how verbal communications with technology is a micro trend. Siri and Amazon Alexa, are prime examples of the ability to successfully communicate with technology. However, many consumers are still unsure.

A technological fad apparent in 2017 is the ability to use animated emoji to send messages. This has recently been advertised by Apple, and although it is a fun commodity, it will not flourish in the sophisticated customisation business.

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EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH THE MEDIA

P

2nd female prime minister, sexual allegations within the government, Donald Trump’s backwards views

E

Discrimination in the work place, the number of unemployed women is decreasing

S

#metoo, the public becoming more accepting and positive towards feminism

T

Social media makes an easy platform to share empowering views, global feminist business can promote to a huge audience online

E L

Overpopulation and exploitation of women in third world countries

A law has been passed allowing Saudi women to drive, the anti-abortion laws in Ireland are extremely controversial

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EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH THE MEDIA TRENDS MEGA

MACRO

It is arguable that feminism in itself is a mega-trend. It has been relevant for many years and with increased awareness due to social media, I predict it will continue to grow.

A macro trend that effects not only young women, but also men, is the unreliable future for ‘millennials’. With increasing tuition fees and debt, the future becomes cynical and may increase carefulness when making purchasing decisions (Ramaswamy and Mamakumari, 2013).

MICRO

FAD

Rejected femininity is a macro trend, in retaliation to female empowerment. The idea of women being ‘ladylike’ is becoming out-dated and women are expressing this in different ways. A specific gesture is not shaving body hair, which is becoming standard.

In my opinion I think that ‘feminist statement t-shirts’ are a fashion fad that has evolved from the woman empowerment trend. Although the t-shirts declare an important message, once the late majority have adopted the styles, it will lose it’s original meaning. It is also arguable that brands are using the feminist motive to create profit, not because they support feminism (Oliva, 2017).

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WEEK 4 CREATING THE PRESENTATION

By week 4 we had accumulated our research and needed to integrate it into a presentation for the following week. For each theme we made a simple mind map highlighting the current trends. By visualising each theme separately, it was easy to show the audience of our presentation the inspiration behind our ideas. Furthermore, alongside each zeitgeist we included news headings and images. This allowed us to explain each subject in depth, whilst visually interesting the audience. Before we presented, we met to practice our timing and delivery. This is essential to ensure we did not run out of time and that we were correctly explaining our concepts.

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WEEK 5

PRESENTATION FEEDBACK

After presenting our work, we were pleased with our presenting skills and our exhibition of themes. It was enlightening to get constructive feedback, not only from our lecturer, but from our peers. We were commended for the layout of our presentation and the clear research; however, there was a few points to improve. An important piece of feedback was to view things from an outsiders’ point of view. This is because, to be a successful forecaster, it is essential to be unbiased and view matters from all perspectives. This directly applies to our theme ‘Empowering Women Through The Media’. Some women are being ill-treated; however, it is imperative to emphasise that men face difficulties too, which is often ignored in the media.

Furthermore, it is critical to show that there are two sides to every topic. In terms of the economy, a lot of young people are facing debt; however, not every young person is struggling, therefore it is unfair to tarnish everyone under one category. Our presentation and the opportunity to watch others, has made it easier to decide on a theme for my personal research. This is because it has highlighted the strongest concepts and the prospect of growing into trends.

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PHASE 2

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WEEK 6 THEORIES LEARNT IN LECTURE 6 ROGERS DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS

Rogers Diffusion of Innovations describes the longevity of a trend, and who adopts it at what moment. Firstly, the innovators are eager to try ideas and have to be confident with uncertainty surrounding new innovations (Rogers, 1983). The early adopters are the people in society that are trusted and followed by the majority. They are not too advanced compared to mainstream society, therefore pose as trend role models (Rogers, 1983). The categories that cover the most of the diffusion model, are the early and late majorities. The early majority adopt new ideas with slight consideration; however, their social nature allows them to follow the early adopters with “deliberate willingness” (Rogers, 1983, pp.249). The late majority are sceptical concerning new trends and adopt innovations after the average individual. Finally, the laggards present no direction and typically adopt a trend after it has terminated (Rogers, 1983). This model helps with my trends and forecasting research, as it is easier to understand the life-span of an innovation and who the main influencers are.

INNOVATION AND DIRSUPTION

DISRUPTION DISRUPTION

The figure shown to the left is the innovation and disruption model. It displays a continuous process of a trend cycle. Watson (2017) explains that when a trend is nearing its end of life, there is an opportunity for another trend to form. This is shown in the disruption stage. This helped my understanding of how trends last for a long time, and how to keep trends alive in the future.

S-CURVE OF INNOVATIONS The s-curve of innovations, is similar to Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations model. It shows the measure of adopters, and the time scale in which the trend was adopted. Brannon (2010) describes that fashion curves are helpful in determining the difference between fads (short trends) and classics (long trends).

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CHOOSING A THEME In order to start my trend cartogram, it was necessary to select a concrete trend that I could research further and develop. When considering what theme to choose, it is important to observe which area has the most potential development. The future of the British economy is a solid topic as it is extremely relevant to current issues and fashion production. However, such a broad theme would be problematic to generate into a lifestyle trend. Furthermore, our group theme “customising technology to meet consumer needs� does not engage me to participate in further elaboration. Nevertheless, some aspects of this theme would integrate into my chosen topic, due to the significance of technology as a mega trend. integrate into my chosen topic, due to the significance of technology as a mega trend. Empowering women as a trend, hugely interested me as it is something that is directly related to my life and future. This would be fascinating to explore further and develop into a certain lifestyle, by choosing a specific type of woman and her attitudes.

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To advance my ideas, in the seminar of week 7 I created a mind map to pinpoint a name for my trend. After looking at helpful websites, such as LSN Global, I decided to revolve my trend around the autonomous woman. The collection of images below presents the target market for my trend. I believe it to be a 20-35-year-old woman, who has graduated from university and is in a professional career. She enjoys going out with friends and lives in a city environment.

‘autonomous woman’.

WEEK 7 26


WHO IS SHE? INDEPENDANT EDUCATED PROFESSIONAL STRONG-MINDED FEMINIST SOPHISTICATED WITTY DETERMINED LUXURY

SOCIAL CHIC

HARD WORKING

To summarise the personality of the ‘autonomous woman’, these adjectives are the most appropriate.

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DEFINE: FEMINIST The Oxford Dictionary (2017) defines feminist simply as “A person who supports feminism.” However, when exploring deeper into this term, it symbolises much more. Over the years, feminism and the stigma surrounded it has changed. Although many people still view feminists as intimidating and eccentric, feminism is widely discussed in the media. As Reader (2012) describes, the main “issues” have been dealt with; however, 21st century feminists fight for equality in areas that have been forgotten. Feminist is a label that 2017 women are proud to hold and will continue to speak their minds to gain complete fairness.

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A TREND CARTOGRAM WHAT IS IT? A trend cartogram is a visual aid that is used commonly when visualising the inspiration behind trends and its future. As Gaimster (2015) describes, a cartogram organises complex, geographical data and presents it in a formal, yet simplistic, illustrative approach. TREND INNOVATORS The first step when fashioning a new trend, is to identify the innovators. Innovators are accountable for the “development of an innovation” or the foundation of a “new idea” (Raymond, 2010, p.18). Innovators are arguably the most important aspect of a new trend, as they derive the inspiration for the trend impacts and futures. TREND DRIVERS Trend drivers are easily determined by conducting a PESTEL analysis on the world around us. As Higham (2009, p.77) explains, trends are always driven by “environmental and individual changes” and consumers react to this in a positive, or negative manner. TREND IMPACTS Trend impacts are the lifestyles and products that the innovators are currently engaging in. These routines have not yet been adapted by the majority, who Brannon (2010, p.52) describes as “fashion followers”. TREND CONSEQUENCES Trend consequences incorporate new movements developed from the drivers. This may include products inspired by relevant changes in culture and society.

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PLANNING MY CARTOGRAM

Week 7’s seminar inspired me to create a mini-cartogram. This was extremely helpful as it allowed me to arrange my ideas under the cartogram subheadings for the first time. It was beneficial to visualise my ideas with images; this helps my development of the trend. Under the PESTEL analysis for trend drivers, I have noted that I need to add statistics and quotes. On reflection, I have recognised that this will help in capturing the zeitgeist and offer evidence of my research. Furthermore, I need to pinpoint certain people for my innovators, to capture the character of my trend.

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WHO ARE THE INNOVATORS? When pinpointing trend innovators, it is important that you select individuals that are instigating the trend (Raymond, 2010). These are people who do not try to follow a trend, instead their lifestyles and individuality forms an upcoming movement.

The first innovator that I have chosen to display on my trend cartogram, is women’s right activist Opal Tometi. As a proud Nigerian-American woman, Tometi is one of the pioneering women that founded the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Tometi is one of three founders, and her work concentrated on the social media campaign and community awareness (Opal Tometi, 2016). I believe she is a relevant innovator for the ‘autonomous woman’ trend, due to her emotional attachment to issues in black culture and her desire to do something about it. It is also important that Tometi utilised social media in her campaign. This relates to the technological awareness shown by women in my trend and the confidence to express personal views online.

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The next innovator featured on my cartogram is feminist journalist, Reina Gattuso. With an academic background, Reina writes column pieces concerning sex and social movements (Reina Gattuso, 2017). Although Gattuso doesn’t share the professional aesthetic in my trend, her empowering written pieces would inform and inspire others about 2017 feminist issues. Gattuso’s work has been featured in popular magazines and websites such as Teen Vogue, therefore, her target audience is teenage girls that need educating on women’s rights and concerns.

Instagram blogger, Katie Vigos, is featured in my list of innovators due to her ‘cool’ attitude towards women’s entitlements. Vigos shares a variety of images on her Instagram, ranging from endearing family photos to powerful activist quotes. Desreumaux (2017) explains that Instagram is becoming huge and “influencer democratisation” is a macro-trend that is changing the way brands advertise and how social media is used. Similar to Tometi, the use of social media is vital to Vigos as it is what initiated her popularity. 32


The last person I believe is an innovator of the ‘autonomous woman’ trend, is Instagram sensation Alyson Walsh (thatsnotmyage). With over 25,000 followers, Walsh promotes mature beauty and fashion. It is enlightening to see an older woman using Instagram, as the social media platform is usually bursting with young models posing in bikinis. Walsh keeps a consistent aesthetic throughout her page, displaying she is fashion conscience and has a professional attitude towards her work. A significant brand that is currently creating remarkable products, is ethical brand ‘Birdsong’. Birdsong is an innovator on my cartogram because they produce ethical womenswear that is made by groups of skilled women. A tagline on their website describes, “no sweatshops, no photoshop” (Birdsong, 2017), which is an empowering message about their ethics and outlooks. A lot of high-end retailers do not focus on the ethics behind their products, therefore, I think Birdsong are innovators in changing the way fashion businesses run.

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WEEK 8 WHAT ARE THE DRIVERS? Trend drivers influence the innovators and are the ongoing issues in society that over time will increasingly concern more people (Raymond, 2010). After my extensive research, I have already created multiple PESTEL analysis’s that encompass the zeitgeist of the time. In terms of the ‘autonomous woman’, it is important to include a mixture of positive and negative drivers, as it is essential to have a balance to dispel any predominant anger towards society. The negative drivers that I have highlighted in my cartogram include; • Sexual Harassment Issues • Workplace Inequality • Backwards Abortion Laws in Ireland I believe that these issues are gradually effecting the majority of women as social media helps to bring matters to light. Creating anger is important as it gives women an incentive to change; however, too much and it can be damaging and end in women becoming resenting. Positive drivers influencing the ‘autonomous woman’ include; • Girls in Education • Improving Women’s Rights in Strict Countries • The Increase of Working Women • Success of Feminism in the Arts. The positive drivers illustrate the current change that is happening, therefore, displaying that women are not completely suffering. These optimistic changes, and the reaction to them, will eventually influence others to empower women and feel empowered.

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PEER FEEDBACK After the insightful lecture from forecaster, Nikki Gorrie, I participated in a group seminar. This seminar was extremely beneficial as I gained productive feedback from my peers. It was also helpful as I had the opportunity to asses my peers’ work, which gave me an insight into the different approaches everyone has taken. During the seminar, we were all given post-it notes to write constructive feedback on our peers’ journals. Some of the feedback I was given was; to include more images and conduct PESTEL analysis on my trend. Nearing the end of the seminar, I had a captivating discussion with Nikki concerning my trend innovators. She helped me pin-point the direction I wanted my trend to go and gave me some brands to research.

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WEEK 9 WHAT ARE THE IMPACTS? The trend impacts aim to show how the trend is already manifested into society, across a multitude of sectors. Designer fashion brand, Dior, has shown a clear understanding of the trend to empower women. By producing slogan t-shirts including phrases such as, “we should all be feminists�, it sets groundwork for high-street stores to follow and show to a broader audience. In comparison to designers, smaller individual brands are showcasing the acknowledgement of female empowerment. By creating quirky products, that are not typically seen in high-street stores, consumers are becoming more interested in using minor businesses. It is important that advertisement is becoming un-censored, as it abolishes destructive attitudes towards important issues. An example of this on my cartogram, is the sanitary product brand Bodyform. The brand has produced the first televised advert showing a red-coloured blood, instead of the unrealistic, censored blue. It is significant that periods are becoming more acknowledged in society, by both men and women.

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Ethical product backgrounds and emphasising workers’ rights is a feature that brand’s want to boast. Although this is not seen in many stores, certain brands are embracing society’s shift to ethical consciousness and the trend innovators are appreciating and utilising these commodities. There are many feminist authors and there has been for a long time; however, books embracing the comical side to feminism is enlightening for innovators, as it strays from the serious stereotype. “Feminist Baby” is a book that contains amusing comics, displaying a ‘child’s viewpoint’ on current social issues. As well as entertaining for adults, this can influence the newer generation from a young age.

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PEER FEEDBACK After another thought-provoking seminar, I was able to gain feedback from my peer and Nikki Gorri. Firstly, my peer read through my journal and looked at my cartogram. She said she liked my layout and use of images, which is progress from last week’s seminar. To further improve, she told me to finish my trend impacts section of my cartogram as it was not complete. Nikki Gorri gave me some beneficial guidance also. Nikki explained to me that the trend consequences are the effects of the trend drivers, which clarified my thought process and allowed me to focus on the correct articles.

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WEEK 10 WHAT CONSEQUENCES DOES THIS LEAD TO? The consequences in my trend cartogram, are the things adopted by the Late Majority. The Late Majority are usually sceptical and adopt innovations and trends after most of the people in their social group have done so (Rogers, 2010). The consequences are also an outcome from the trend drivers. High-street brands producing slogan, feminist t-shirts are a direct consequence of 2017 feminism and targets woman empowerment to a young market. The designs have trickled-down from designer brands and their cheap prices make the garments available to everyone. The increased social media presence of feminist views, encourages a younger audience to understand the importance of gender equality. As well as being fashionable, the t-shirts allow a consumer to make a statement.

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Along with the increased awareness of sexism and female issues, comes the over-sensitive audience. In the table on my cartogram, it shows that females are more likely to be offended by TV broadcasts, and it is a statistic that is growing (Ofcom, 2017). Although it is progressive that women are standing up for themselves, it could be damaging due to the political correctness that is being demanded. Women’s only social clubs are another consequence formed due to the increasing notion of ‘togetherness’. I describe the expression ‘togetherness’ as women joining due to shared views, opinions and hobbies. The Athena Network is an important organisation that focuses on connecting business women all over the UK. Women’s clubs were popular throughout the 20th century and it is promising that they are becoming popular again.

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Consequences of unequal pay is an important issue of 2017. Celebrating women CEO’s is seen throughout the media, with huge companies, such as PepsiCo, having a female director. This urges all women to succeed in business and that professional businesspeople are not always men. Alongside this is the social campaigns raising awareness for ‘Equal Pay Day’. The #OutOfOffice movement empowered women to stand up for their rights, together with increasing knowledge with the hashtag on social media. It is also important that UK universities are accepting more women than men. This is in response to women that are restricted education and the UK obviously have no gender preference any longer. However, it is not all positive, as girls in third world countries are continuously struggling to get educated and further action is required.

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Women moving to cities is another consequence of the social media age and commercial empowerment. Rural areas do not offer many opportunities for modern-day careers and women are realising this. Furthermore, the lack of broadband phone signal is impacting younger generation’s opinions towards rural areas. This shows that connectivity is an important factor when deciding where to live. 42


WEEK 10 WHAT IS THE FUTURE FOR THE ‘AUTONOMOUS’ WOMAN? Identifying the future of a trend is vital to gain insight into how the trend will affect culture and the society on a long-term basis (Raymond, 2010).

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FEMALE TECHNOLOGY A trend that I have predicted after analysing my cartogram and considering my research, is the market for female technology. It is apparent that many technological advances have been suited to gender-neutral needs. For example, the Amazon Alexa fits into a family home and can be used by anyone; however, female-only products are yet to take over the market. After giant steps in disseminating real images of the period, it would be interesting to see what further development in the technological world could contribute. Although period tracking applications are widely available, tech-driven inventions such as the ‘LOONCUP’ could provide a more ethical insight into the menstrual cycle.

“BIG TECH GIANTS LARGELY IGNORED WOMEN AS A CONSUMER TECHNOLOGY MARKET”

(J. WALTER THOMPSON, 2017, PP.34) 44


UNCENSORED EMPOWERMENT Censorship on social media accounts is still very out-of-date. Male, topless nudity can be freely shown on the internet; however, topless women are concealed. Certain groups of women embrace nudity and believe it is empowering, but privacy issues on sites such as Instagram, limit women from expressing themselves in the name of art. It is clear that this trend is apparent amongst the mass-market, as many women choose not to wear a bra. The visibility of a nipple is becoming a fashion statement. It is clear that these changes in women will lead to nudity sanctions being lifted, as people recognise that nudity is not always sexually motivated. 45


THE FUTURE IS FEMALE Due to social media taking over modern society, it will absolutely impact future generations. The ability to share opinions, read live news stories and easily learn about the world around us, makes it easy for women’s empowerment to be embraced by girls at a young age. I forecast that all-girls clubs at primary schools will embrace the importance of equality and make girls proud to be a woman. Furthermore, these same girls will grow into the ‘autonomous woman’, with a solid education and confidence in the business world. This confidence is due to the social changes, making it normal for women to be the boss.

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TREND CARTOGRAM

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INNOVATORS

DRIVERS

IMPACTS

CONSEQUENCES

FUTURES

High-street brands imitating the slogan tee Backwards Legislation

Viral Evangelism

Dior Fall 2017 Slogan Tee’s Decrease in female unemployment

The 2017 Feminist

Small brands and individuals producing quirky products

Female Technology Increased public sensitivity

Un-censored Empowerment

Women’s Only social clubs

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Inequal pay creates resenentment towards businesses

A celebration of women in business

Testimonial Advertisements Hisotrical change in UK education Ageless Grace

“An estimated 214 million women in developing countries have an unmet need for family planning” UNFPA, 2012

Ethics and Ethos

Ethical Production & Workers Rights

The media spreads the positive changes in women’s rights

Literature for all ages and lifestyle

The Future Is Female

#OutOfOffice for Equal Pay Day

Moving to cities for more opportunity

TREND CARTOGRAM

OLIVIA CLIFTON 201024838


CONCLUSION Throughout my social research, I have discovered that there is a changing opinion towards feminism and female empowerment. Where people, mostly men, looked down on feminism and formed negative stereotypes of activists, there is currently an optimistic stigma around the women’s rights movement. It will be interesting to monitor my forecasted trends to see how they develop and in what way.

REFLECTION When reflecting on my progress in the Trends and Forecasting module in Semester 1, I am pleased with my understanding and production of trend cartogram. At the beginning of the module, I was extremely wary of how I was going to predict trends; however, after my research and constant feedback, I am confident in creating a fascinating cartogram. To improve, I would like to conduct primary research and interview the target market of my developing trend. This would produce original information that could highlight consumer demands and social opinions. Overall, I have enjoyed this module and believe my research journal shows a journey of improvement and education.

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THE END

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REFERENCES Analoui, F., and Karami, A. 2003. Strategic Management and Medium Enterprises. London: Thomson Learning. Bassot, B. 2016. The Reflective Journal: Second Edition. London: Palgrave. Birdsong. 2017. About. [Online]. [Accessed December 5th 2017]. Available from: https://birdsong.london/ about/ Brannon, E. 2010. Fashion Forecasting: Third Edition. London: Fairchild Books. Buzan, T. 2006. Mind Mapping. Essex: BBC Active. Desreumaux, G. 2017. 6 Social Marketing Macro Trends to Watch. [Online]. [Accessed December 5th 2017]. Available from: http://wersm.com/6-social-marketing-trends-watch/ Efrat. 2010. World’s Top Global Mega Trends To 2020 and Implications to Business, Society and Cultures. [Online]. [Accessed November 12th 2017]. Available from: https://www.frost.com/sublib/display-report.do?id=M65B-01-00-00-00 Euromonitor International. 2012. 10 Global Macro Trends for The Next 5 Years. [Online]. [Accessed November 12th 2017]. Available from: https://blog.euromonitor.com/2012/11/10-global-macro-trends-for-thenext-five-years.html Gaimster, J. 2015. Visual Methods in Fashion. London and New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. Haddad, C. J. 2002. Managing Technological Change: A Strategic Partnership Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Higham, W. 2009. The next big thing: Spotting and forecasting consumer trends for profit. London and Philadelphia: Kogan Publishing. J.W Thompson. 2017. Future 100. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017]. Available from: https://www. jwtintelligence.com/trend-reports/the-future-100-2018/ Kim, E., Fiore, A., and Kim, H. 2013. Fashion Trends: Analysis and Forecasting. London and New York: Berg. Lopez, L. 2017. China is about to take the entire global economy for a wild ride. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://uk.businessinsider.com/china-will-bring-volatility-to-markets-2017-11 Ofcom. 2017. UK audience attitudes towards broadcast media: A summary of findings. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0015/104118/UK-audience-attitudes-towards-broadcast-media-2017.pdf Office for National Statistics. 2017. Overview of the UK Population: July 2017. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/articles/overviewoftheukpopulation/july2017 51


Office for National Statistics. 2017. Unemployment rate (aged 16 and over, seasonally adjusted). [Online]. [Accessed November 20th 2017]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peoplenotinwork/unemployment/timeseries/mgsx/lms Oliva, S. 2017. The new feminism choose fashion to communicate. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.vogue.it/en/fashion/trends/2017/02/21/the-new-feminism-choose-fashion-to-communicate/ Opal Tometi. 2016. Bio. [Online]. [Accessed December 5th 2017]. Available from: http://opaltometi.com/ meet-opal-tometi/ Oxford Dictionary. 2017. Feminist. [Online]. [Accessed December 5th 2017]. Available from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/feminist Posner, H. 2015. Marketing Fashion: Strategy, Branding and Promotion. Second Edition. London: Laurence King Publishing. Ramaswamy, V. S., and Manakumari, S. 2013. Marketing Management. New Dheli: McGraw Hill Education (India). Raymond, M. 2010. The Trend Forecasters Handbook. London: Laurence King Publishing. Reader, K. 2012. Feminism today: the fight has changed, the stereotypes remain, and the cause will never die. [Online]. [Accessed November 25th 2017]. Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/ voices/comment/feminism-today-the-fight-has-changed-the-stereotypes-remain-and-the-causewill-never-die-8364343.html Reuters. 2017. Brexit deters some international staff from London tech firms – survey. [Online]. [Accessed November 25th 2017]. Available from: https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-tech/brexit-deters-some-international-staff-from-londontech-firms-survey-idUKKBN1DG0J7 Rogers, E.M. 1983. Diffusion of Innovations: 3rd edition. New York: The Free Press. Rogers, E. M. 2010. Diffusion of Innovations: 4th edition. New York: The Free Press. Sinha, K. 2010. New Trends and their Impact on Business and Society. Journal of Creative Communications. 3(3), pp. 305-317. Stott, R. 2017. Pollution Apparel. [Online]. [Accessed November 20th 2017]. Available from: https://www. lsnglobal.com/micro-trends/article/21716/pollution-apparel Trend One. 2017. Trends 2017. [Online]. [Accessed November 20th 2017]. Available from: https://www. trendone.com/en/trend-universe/trends-2018/trends-2017.html Vinken, B. 2005. Fashion Zeitgeist: Trends and Cycles in the Fashion System. Oxford: Berg. [Online]. [Accessed November 20th 2017]. Available from: http://0-dx.doi.org.wam.leeds.ac.uk/10.2752/9780857854094/FASHZEIT0006 Watson, C. 2017. The Trend Cartogram. DESN2365 Trends and Forecasting. 2nd November, University of Leeds.

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FIGURES LIST Figure 1 Pinterest. No Date. The future is female. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https:// www.pinterest.co.uk/denydesigns/the-future-is-female/ Figure 2 Kind, P. 2013. The Future Next Exit. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www. jamendo.com/album/118138/the-future-next-exit Figure 3 Vogue. 2017. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from:http://www.vogue.com.au/fashion/ street+style/galleries/11+street+style+trends+to+get+you+through+the+cold+winter,41757 Research Mind Map [All headlines are screenshots from news websites; BBC NEWS, The Guardian, Sky News, The Huffington Post, The New York Times and The Independent] Figure 4 Pinterest. 2016. Brexit. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest. co.uk/pin/374995106456032990/ Figure 5 BBC. 2017. Inflation in the UK. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/business-41649498 Figure 6 The New York Times. 2017. Harvey Weinstein. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/05/us/harvey-weinstein-harassment-allegations.html Figure 7 Pinterest. 2017. Fenty Beauty. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www. pinterest.co.uk/pin/425519864783937582/ Figure 8 BBC. 2017. Glamour Magazine. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-41527740 Figure 9 Ngyab. 2017. Munroe Bergdorf. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.ngyab.com/2017/09/sacking-loreals-first-transgender-model-munroe-bergdorf-shows-white-people-indeed-racist-photos/ Figure 10 News Week. 2017. Donald Trump. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.newsweek.com/how-donald-trump-ruined-opening-mississippi-civil-rights-museum-actual-civil-742968 53


Figure 11 Writers Own. Figure 12 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/500462577325704827/ Figure 13 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/5488830777019453/ Figure 14 Articles Web. 2012. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from:http://www.articlesweb.org/business/business-education/key-issues-in-paying-off-student-loans Figure 15 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/475763148110176484/ Figure 16 Parker, B. 2015. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.popsugar. com/tech/Funny-Screenshots-Old-People-Using-Facebook-Incorrectly-37119097 Figure 17 Fastforward. 2014. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://fastforwardorg.wordpress.com/2014/09/02/the-truth-about-plain-packaging/ Figure 18 Levendi, K. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.oceanfinance.co.uk/blog/rent-and-mortgage-arrears-what-they-mean-and-what-you-can-do-0-6557-0. htm Figure 19 Lee, A. 2017. Face Payment? This is happening! [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.refoxrelocation.com/expat-tips/face-payment/ Figure 20 Crozier, R. 2015. Mobile security threat ‘overstated’: Verizon. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.itnews.com.au/news/mobile-security-threat-overstated-verizon-402716 Figure 21 The Asian Entrepreneur Authors & Contributors. 2015. Strategies for eCommerce in 2015. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.asianentrepreneur.org/strategies-for-ecommerce-in-2015/ Figure 22 Technical.ly. 2013. 1 in 3 Elderly Americans use social media. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://technical.ly/philly/2013/04/16/1-in-3-elderly-americans-use-social-media/ Figure 23 Montejo, E. 2016. What Amazon Alexa Can Do & How to Get It. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.techlicious.com/guide/what-can-amazon-alexa-do-and-how-to-get-it/ 54


Figure 24 26. 2016. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://26.org.uk/ news-views/26-noticeboard/wanted-social-media-superstar Figure 25 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/110830840806553857/ Figure 26 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/245375879678666468/ Figure 27 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/564709240762725266/ Figure 28 Dahlen, D. 2017. Kirill and Alan Fisher. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http:// www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/15-men-on-why-they-joined-the-womens-march-on-washington_ us_5880ee4be4b070d8cad0f70f Figure 29 Milano, A. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://twitter.com/ Alyssa_Milano?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor Figure 30 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/AQOCBZxGxf462rufira_U37doUM_EPYndTVSa3aGzyps9NUEbDt8AL4/ Figure 31 Writes own. Figure 32 Writers own. Figure 33 LaMorte, W. 2016. Not Tile. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/BehavioralChangeTheories/BehavioralChangeTheories4.html Figure 34 Writers own. Figure 35 Investaura. 2017. The diffusion of innovation. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.business-planning-for-managers.com/main-courses/forecasting/the-diffusion-of-innovation/ Figure 36 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/416301559286960979/

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Figure 37 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/344455071480059601/ Figure 38 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/539587599089725111/ Figure 39 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/69524387979584663/ Figure 40 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/442056519652480063/ Figure 41 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/305541155961806099/ Figure 42 ICF. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://coachfederation.org/ blog/index.php/8442/ Figure 43 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/558516791266580247/ Figure 44 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/louiejuca/same-shit-different-century/?lp=true Figure 45 Writers own. Figure 46 Villesen, K. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.information.dk/udland/2017/06/intet-radikalt Figure 47 Yan, C. 2015. Reina Gattuso. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.thecrimson.com/image/2014/9/18/reina-gattuso/ Figure 48 Vigos, K. 2017. Empowered birth project. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https:// www.indiegogo.com/projects/empowered-birth-project-film-inspirational Figure 49 Walsh, A. 2015. Summer Essentials. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http:// thatsnotmyage.com/style-inspiration/summer-style-essentials/

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Figure 50 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/185773553362189625/ Figure 51 Vogue. 2016. Dior S/S 2017. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.vogue. com/fashion-shows/spring-2017-ready-to-wear/christian-dior Figure 52 O’Connor, K. 2014. Not Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.afroretro.com/afroretro/2014/12/3/ethical-fashion-myth-or-buzz-word-or-reality Figure 53 Missguided. 2017. White Feminist Slogan Crop T-Shirt. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.missguided.co.uk/white-feminist-slogan-crop-t-shirt-10048839 Figure 54 Magnetic. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.magneticnaildesign.com/en/blog?start=10 Figure 55 Women’s Equality. 2017. Out of Office. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http:// www.womensequality.org.uk/outofoffice Figure 56 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/252201647863286967/ Figure 57 Hensely, L. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.flare.com/ career/period-days/ Figure 58 Macey, A. 2017. Spot On. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.brit.co/7menstrual-apps-thatll-make-tracking-your-period-a-breeze/ Figure 59 LOONCUP. 2015. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://techcrunch. com/2015/10/08/looncup/ Figure 60 Esco, L. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: http://www.listal.com/ viewimage/14785154h Figure 61 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 9th December 2017] Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/explore/girl-empowerment/?lp=true

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CARTOGRAM FIGURES LIST Figure 1 Blogher. 2017. Opal Tometi. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.blogher. com/opal-tometi Figure 2 Baker, B. 2017. Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, Opal Tometi. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.politico.com/magazine/politico50/2015/alicia-garza-patrisse-cullors-opal-tometi Figure 3 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/358458451578261192/ Figure 4 Gattuso, R. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://twitter.com/ reinagattuso Figure 5 Huffington Post. 2015. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www. huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/harvard-class-day-come-out_n_7454016 Figure 6 Vigos, K. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.instagram. com/p/BZu8ml8n6WE/?taken-by=katievigos Figure 7 Vigos, K. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.instagram. com/p/BXRckIaAYoL/?taken-by=katievigos Figure 8 Walsh, A. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/BbZUcwAFdfG/?taken-by=thatsnotmyage Figure 9 Walsh, A. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/Bas-l24lWpE/?taken-by=thatsnotmyage Figure 10 Birdsong. 2017. About. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://birdsong.london/ about/ Figure 11 Birdsong. 2017. About. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://birdsong.london/ about/

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Figure 12 Rainn. 2016. Perpetrators of Sexual Violence: Statistics. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.rainn.org/statistics/perpetrators-sexual-violence Figure 13 New York Times. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www. nytimes.com/2017/10/05/us/harvey-weinstein-harassment-allegations.html Figure 14 The Guardian. 2017. Weinstein has done what Trump couldn’t: unite feminists. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/nov/16/weinstein-trump-feminists-sexual-harassment Figure 15 Alyssa Milano. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://twitter. com/Alyssa_Milano?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor Figure 16 The Guardian. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/17/still-short-changed-women-earning-78-of-a-mans-average-wage Figure 17 Office for National Statistics. 2017. Female Unemployment Rate (aged 16 and over). [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peoplenotinwork/unemployment/timeseries/mgsz/lms Figure 18 BBC. 2017. Predictions worsen on how long it will take to close gap. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-41844875 Figure 19 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/224335625170253696/ Figure 20 BBC. 2017. The country’s abortion laws are some of the strictest in Europe. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-41452712 Figure 21 Lammy, D., and Latham, P. 2017. Helping the world’s poorest girls go to school is a moral imperative for Britain. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/ helping-the-world-s-poorest-girls-into-school-is-a-moral-imperative-for-britain-5lrfwbxnn Figure 22 Kraychyk, G. 2017. The Handmaid’s Tale. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/handmaids-tale-inspires-a-fashion-collab-a-costume-exhibition-1000383 Figure 23 The Guardian. 2017. The Handmaid’s Tale tops book charts after TV series UK debut. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/may/29/thehandmaids-tale-tops-book-charts-after-tv-series-uk-debut

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Figure 24 New York Times. 2017. Saudi Arabia Agree to Let Women Drive. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/26/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-women-drive.html Figure 25 Robers, D. 2017. Female empowerment is the most effective carbon mitigation strategy. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/9/26/16356524/the-population-question Figure 26 Womens Wear Daily. 2017. Dior Fall 2017. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://wwd.com/fashion-news/fashion-scoops/jennifer-lawrence-gets-makeover-dior-fall-2017-campaign-10854598/ Figure 27 McCartney, C. 2016. Slogan Tee. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http:// www.papermag.com/feminist-icon-chimamanda-ngozi-adichie-sat-front-row-at-dior-for-area-2025562524.html Figure 28 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/443886107003221296/ Figure 29 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/307159637077109790/ Figure 30 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/558657528770069635 Figure 31 BBC. 2017. Bodyform. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/uk-41666280 Figure 32 The Drum. 2017. Draw A Line. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.thedrum.com/creative-works/project/j-walter-thompson-london-un-women-drawaline Figure 33 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/3588874674306190/ Figure 34 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/Decodecodee/coffee/ Figure 35 Killelia, G. 2016. The Confidence Effect: Every Woman’s Guide to the Attitude That Attracts Success. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Effect-Attitude-Attracts-Success-ebook/dp/B01019D3UI

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Figure 36 Hinderaker, J. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.powerlineblog.com/archives/2017/11/for-christmas-feminist-baby.php Figure 37 Topshop. 2017. Self Lovin Slogan T-shirt. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http:// www.topshop.com/en/tsuk/product/we-love-432/slogan-tshirts-6710491/self-lovin-slogan-t-shirt6941451?bi=20&ps=20 Figure 38 Missguided. 2017. Girls do it better slogan t-shirt. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.missguided.co.uk/white-graphic-girls-do-it-better-slogan-tshirt-10056566?istCompanyId=dd1d2f6c-ac6e-490e-a0ff-19cccd3bab7d&istItemId=wtwimwlmtt&istBid=tzim&utm_ id=402_975570_219900871351_c&gclid=CjwKCAiA07PRBRBJEiwAS20SIAC3kK30MIgqBEnb Figure 39 Ofcom. 2017. Audiences Attitudes. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https:// www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/104118/UK-audience-attitudes-towards-broadcast-media-2017.pdf Figure 40 BBC. 2017. Are we more easily offended than ever before? [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/2yVVC8RjGhtk03kjzDNfkS6/are-we-moreeasily-offended-than-ever-before Figure 41 YouGov. 2017. Inside the mind-set: men and women. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://yougov.co.uk/news/2017/08/18/inside-mindset-men-and-women-attitudes-towards-equ/ Figure 42 The Athena Network. No Date. No title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https:// www.wowbromley.co.uk/listings/the-athena-network Figure 43 Goodspiration. 2017. No title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://goodspire. com/this-dance-crew-of-women-over-40-has-all-of-the-right-moves/ Figure 44 Zarya, V. 2017. Women CEO’s. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://fortune. com/2017/06/07/fortune-women-ceos/ Figure 45 Career Guide. 2017. Indra Nooyi. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www. careerguide.com/blog/career-story-indra-nooyi Figure 46 The Guardian. 2017. University Gender Gap. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/aug/28/university-gender-gap-at-record-high-as30000-more-women-accepted Figure 47 Veloso, J. 2017. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.hercampus.com/life/academics/15-things-not-say-graduating-senior 61


Figure 48 Metro. 2017. Out of Office. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://metro. co.uk/2017/11/10/women-are-putting-on-their-out-of-office-on-to-mark-equal-pay-day-7069969/ Figure 49 Kemp, N. 2017. Out of Office. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/womens-equality-party-launch-equal-pay-campaign/1449592 Figure 50 The Guardian. 2016. Female Flaneur Women Reclaim Streets. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/jul/29/female-flaneur-women-reclaim-streets Figure 51 Anon. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://i.pinimg. com/736x/3c/39/1c/3c391cb2f528a8c19c239ffe32c761e0--senior-portraits-girl-senior-girl-poses.jpg Figure 52 Menstrual Cup Reviews. 2015. LOONCUP. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from:https://menstrualcupreviews.net/looncup-wearable-tech-for-your-vagina/ Figure 53 Flex. 2016. Flex. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.producthunt.com/ posts/flex-5 Figure 54 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/AXgj26mT8a2jEdzkV3AXbKYFsKce0McCKDYG2KE34lW3in-GvqskqzY/ Figure 55 Hollywoodlife. 2015. Kendall Jenner. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: http://hollywoodlife.com/2015/11/04/kendall-jenner-flashes-nipple-instagram-pic-genuine-happiness/ Figure 56 Pinterest. No Date. No Title. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/denydesigns/the-future-is-female/ Figure 57 The Outrage. 2017. The Future Is Female. [Online]. [Accessed 5th December 2017]. Available from: https://www.the-outrage.com/products/the-future-is-female-kids-t-shirt

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Semester 1: Trends and Forecasting Research Journal Grade 2:1  

Research Journal for Trends and Forecasting Module - Year 2 - University of Leeds

Semester 1: Trends and Forecasting Research Journal Grade 2:1  

Research Journal for Trends and Forecasting Module - Year 2 - University of Leeds

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