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2015 thesis

OLIVIA THALL

desert light an anza-borrego visitor’s center


©2015 Olivia Thall ALL RIGHTS RESERVED II


Anza-Borrego Visitor’s Center

A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture and Design

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture by by Olivia Thall June 2015 San Diego, CA III


Anza-Borrego Visitor’s Center

A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture and Design

by Olivia Thall

Approved by: Undergraduate Chair:

Leonard Zegarski

Date

Studio Instructor:

James Enos

Date

IV


Dedicated to my homies who will hike out into the desert with me to sleep under the stars.

V


TABLE OF CONTENTS

img 000: bench at existing Visitor’s Center VI


1.

INTRO PROBLEM STATEMENT CRITICAL POSITION THESIS STATEMENT

8

2.

THESIS ESSAY RATIONAL FOR STUDY SCOPE OF STUDY SUMMARY OF STUDY

14

3.

RESEARCH METHODS SUMMATION OF AR501 CASE STUDIES PROGRAMMING CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

22

4.

RESULTS / DESIGN SUMMATION OF AR502 PROCESS FEEDBACK / EVALUATIONS STATEMENT OF LEARNING / RE-ASSESSMENT

46

5.

CONCLUSION SUMMATION OF AR503 FEEDBACK / EVALUATIONS STATEMENT OF LEARNING

66

VII

6.

APPENDICES WORKS CITED LIST OF IMAGES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

78


img 001: current ranger offices 8


1

introduction problem statement critical position thesis statement 9


CHAPTER1 early research & discoveries

Introduction Have you even found yourself away from the city, immersed in total darkness? When we are out in nature the progression from sunrise, to sunset, to nightfall has an emotional and physical effect on us and in isolation, can make or break our survival. In the Western world, history has denoted darkness as the presence of shadows, evil, and foreboding, leaving an inherent fear in our psyche that can be described as black-and-white dualism 1. However, when we visualize as artists, darkness is merely the absence of light, and we only draw where light is not present. The polarity between representing light and dark is the initial inspiration for this thesis. This then becomes an architectural tool to form space as it is manipulated through form and material, and located at a geographic location. In this case, that location is the Anza-Borrego desert as a result of the dramatic natural light patterns and accessibility from San Diego to visit.

Intention In order to envision this project as more than just an object, rather a place-maker for people, it needs to be captured through a humanistic lens. Our primitive instincts shaped the spaces we lived in as early humans, centered around essential needs of keeping warm, as well as nourishment and social life. Interest in ancient place-making begins to merge with light and darkness when we think about how we first lived. Studying these ancient concepts can guide the design process for overall site connectivity, which is a primary goal of Desert Light. As a place-maker, the secondary goal for the project is to promote public experience and learning rather than private interests. img 002: Jacek Ostrowski’s 1824 10


Development & Approach The thesis idea begins with inquiry into how we see light physically, and as a consequence of the fundamental seduction we feel from certain representations. The respective precedents such as ancient work in Chaco Canyon, NM, to the modern day gallery where artists like James Turrell and Maria Nordman aim to provoke our emotions provide a background of real-world manifestations. Knowledge gained from these instances is then applied to a specific place in the world (Anza-Borrego),to zoom in on a smaller scale. From here, the wealth of the project grows from what is discovered in the desert, and how it was chosen regarding the sun and vistas. An understanding of this part of the desert influences the development of a building through programmatic analysis, tectonics, and circulation. To fulfill the place-making capabilities, the typology moves toward a public visitor’s center, as it is one of the only types of buildings that fully encompass where it is. img 003: Untitled by Mark Rothko 11


PROBLEM a loss of public space.

In the context of the Southern California deserts in the last century, a luxury lifestyle escape from the big cities have been tailored for the upper-class of society. As a result, throughout modern history the most prominent and beautiful architecture there is rarely available for the public to enjoy, such as the Kaufmann House pictured to the right. Additionally, a minimal emphasis has been put forth in design to respect the delicate natural state of the desert and the cultural sitefactors that lay inherently in the soil. img 004: Kaufmann House by Richard Neutra

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CRITICAL POSITION reaching out to the land.

img 005: landscape along nature trail

THESIS STATEMENT

Vast, cloak-like shadows cast by the Anza-Borrego sun can be absorbed and integrated into a building design, creating open air spaces that harness light and retain a symbiotic relationship to the present context. As a visitor’s center, Desert Light can then forge a strong connection to the regional context and becomes a placemaker for the area by incorporating programmatic functions that service the public desert culture and state park employees.

betterment from typology & program

This thesis proposes an extension to the current Borrego Springs Visitor’s Center that can manipulate the natural desert light and shadow. Framing the far-reaching landscape surrounding the building will create a site-driven regional condition with experiential qualities. By providing space for provincial art exhibits, night sky observation, state park administration, and hiker bathing facilities; this typology will further respect the land and culture found in Anza-Borrego. The form and materiality of the structure will be designed to fit into its site conditions through ground connection, material parallels, and a deep understanding of the territory. 13


img 006: view from the west toward borrego springs 14


2

rationale scope of study summary of study 15


RATIONALE benefit Anza-Borrego

img 007: entering Desert Light 16


When proposing a thesis exploration about the event of natural light and shadow, the vast landscape of Borrego Springs speaks for itself. For adventure enthusiasts, travelers, or anyone interested in wildlife, it is the perfect place to explore. Designing a new visitor’s center to encompass the art and natural beauty of this region in the desert not only frames the background for an experiential architectural response, but also benefits the tourists, park rangers, and curators who can interface here on a daily basis. The existing conditions on the site include a few mundane buildings with offices for Anza-Borrego park rangers, a public bathroom, a small nature trail that leads to an overlook of the adjacent valley, and a subterranean seasonal nature exhibit. Desert Light provides a facility upgrade for those that currently work and visit there, as well as more civic amenities to bring guest traffic to the area. In addition, creating a recreational space for the public helps defeat the modern standard of luxury desert escapes that only upper class society can participate in. 17


light & shadow primitive place

SCOPE OF STUDY There are two different stages in approaching research to aid the conception of this thesis. The first leg relates to concepts of light and dark and how it has shaped the work of successful art and architecture. After evaluating the relevance of the subject, the second phase focuses on creating a place for the project to exist through analysis of primitive place types, before diving into the contextual investigation of Anza-Borrego.

imgs 008: Shadow Game by Tulp; shadow becoming the object

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Concepts of Light & Darkness

we experience light, as seen in James Turrell’s Space that Sees. Each humans visual field Aside from the black-and-white dualism exists where their eyes respond to changes in conception we might inherently be influenced brightness and motion, to the extent of their by, light and dark exists in our perception of vertical peripheral vision. When we focus on everything because humans are visual thinkany type of visual task our foveal vision has a ers. According to Ulrike and Christoph Brandi, limit on what we perceive, as determined in a “There is no light without shadow. The inter30 degree cone (Egan 1983). Brightness, glare action of these two unequal brothers has been and sparkle also change the limits of what we described in ways as different as the notion can physically see in some cases. This inforthat shadows are ‘holes in the light’ through mation is relevant because in this spectrum of to the opposite that they are the remaining thought exists a place to create visual illusion. representatives on earth of the cosmic darkness, otherwise torn apart by light.” Because With “light though illusion” as a design tactic, transparency has become such a key feature in space can appear differently than it tangibly architecture today, they then ask, “Do we gain exists in the present dimension. Through sucshadows or lose them? How can architectural cess of this experience programs can expand shadows be explained when looking back at and extend past their present existence. For history? What role to they play in contempoexample, in Maria Nordman’s installation built rary architecture?” (Brandi 2002). In the case in 1972 she plays on depth perception by ilof Desert Light, shadow becomes integral to luminating precisely. “She constructed a long the indoor and outdoor spaces shaped by the room, painted it black, and allowed a small architectural form, so that the shadow turns sliver of natural light to enter the space from into an object itself (Casati 2002). the north. The lower part of the room was ‘voidal black,’ while horizontal planes of white Lighting has potential to distort human perlight could be perceived above” (Clark 2011). ception and can be manipulated to the point This is a good modern example of using light where depth and distance become a gentle as a space shaper, which is essentially the goal illusion. Visual perception is influenced by how of formatting light to change our visual per19

img 009: Maria Nordman installation

ception. It is not solely a study in illusion for the sake of illusion, but to create spaces that didn’t exist through techniques like bifurcation as Turrell expressed in his work.


Permeating Site When our civilization first began constructing architecture, we used things that were there already, such as gorges and caves that provided head cover or the sun’s warmth. We forged “primitive place types” that inherently connected us to site. “The most ancient types of place are those which are to do with the fundamental aspects of life: keeping warm and dry, moving from location to location, acquiring and keeping food [...] It is the concept of place that links architecture to life” (Unwin 1997). For example, a hearth, or place of fire, signified the first human place. “Through history the architectural role of the hearth as an identifier of place of human occupation has been to do with how it’s sphere of light and warmth has been defined, contained, and controlled” (Unwin 1997). Thinking of the hearth and using small cues in nature to define our places becomes extremely relevant in defining a location for Desert Light. The typology of a visitor’s center centered away from town amenities means that these natural cues are essential in site choice. The context of Anza-Borrego as an ancient place that remains practically untouched in some regions means that the designed building must feel like a hearth poetically burned into the land.

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img 010: current context adjacent to visitor parking

SUMMARY OF STUDY breathing in the context

This research is important in this point in time because many buildings still neglect the potential of superior lighting experience through site connection. It is a decisive approach that moves us further in architecture toward more site-specific design that truly belongs in its environment. The main problem to be addressed pertains to the site location of the building feeding off its context, as well as addressing regional needs related to artistic and ecological presence, as well as light pollution. Methodology for this study is a considerate mix between research of tectonic lighting principles such as luminance, density, and direction as well as finding the right situation for experiential light quality in society. It addresses environmental issues through passive use of light and acceptable air quality indoors and outdoors, and begins to breathe in the atmosphere passing through its fenestrations.

21

By undertaking this subject, a design is born that belongs to its location alone. This mission aims to improve the quality of human environments while responding sensitively to the requirement of natural systems on the site, not just for the sake of beauty and sculpture. The site in AnzaBorrego, is rich with desert ecology, and to do anything but preserve it would be against the inherent goals outlined in pre-design. Understanding this connection between building and nature is paramount to the success of the final building design.


img 011: chaco canyon ruins, NM 22


3

ar501 summary case studies programming experiential criteria contextual analysis 23


THE FIRST QUARTER summary from ar501

Beginning with the intent to study a phenomenological condition of architecture, a shift occurred during the post-research phase once the site for the project was selected. This led the study to focus more specifically on light quality resulting from the natural environment, and can be expressed through emotion as well as performance. Through an understanding of existing successes, a resulting application to a geographic place that speaks towards Southern California space could reveal itself.

img 012: interior corridor from Roden Crater

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img 013: interior night quality of silo 468

CASE STUDIES learning from past examples

The first task at hand was to observe current works that utilize light as an essential driver toward the design, and chronologically occurred before selecting a site. Criteria for these cases would need to vary in technology as well as time and location, so a range of character could potentially consume the thesis. The era in which these project took place effected the technology utilized, and influenced the level of technology in the final representations. In addition, each case echoes their site in different ways that respect their culture and ecology, whether it be urban or rural in context.

25


000ft² summer sun, cold winters, ack of water, limited building

nd lunar calendar through site orientation ns

ient light in the daytime ceremonial space for a small subsistant

lunarlunar markings markings at rising

of the structure also dictate how light is pace design with masonry techniques ahead case study #1

C H A Crooms O CAN ON 0’s of individual onY multiple stories

equinox

The first case study dates back to 1000 AD in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The small earthen village was inventively situated in the landscape to passively utilize daylight to warm and cool the interior spaces. Here, the Anasazi Native Americans built one of the first free-standing structures in the U.S. and clearly had a definitive understanding of the desert’s light cycles. It provides living and ceremonial space for a small subsistent community, and acts as a prime example of early pre-planned design with masonry techniques ahead of its time.

minor standstill

major standstill

fig 001: lunar markings delineated by sun paths

26


summer 23.6º spring&fall 0º

winter -23.6º

lunar cycles

fig 002: “Sun Daggers” reflect seasonal sun onto rock drawings

img 014: interior passage-way through residences

img 015: plan view of the ancient city

The south-facing town responds to solar and lunar calendar through southern orientation, walls with high thermal mass and small, appropriately-placed windows. In addition, their “sun daggers” responds to daily sun rituals using figural beams of light to form transient light in the daytime. 27


case study #2

RODEN CRATER

fig 003: graphite section drawing through the crater 28


img 016: aerial view of Roden Crater

The second case study focused on Roden Crater, a massive earth-work designed by artist James Turrell in 1978, and construction is still in progress. It Connects to Chaco Canyon with orientation based on light response, and a lunar observance that is framed in the individual spaces along the crater’s tunnels. The project creates a “power of place” in geologic time, and respects humanity’s long relationship with celestial phenomena (Turrell). View points are positioned along the crater to observe the night sky through the year. Custom tube lighting was used in the tunnel to create a depth of space, and echoes Turrell’s interpretation of the crater’s massive presence.

img 017: celestial opening in “South Space” 29


img 018: Grasshopper generated patterns

case study #3

SILO 468

img 019: LEDs installed inside the silo

The next study directed toward a more active lighting system, but still embraced its site in an innovative and thoughtful way. Located in Helsinki, Finland, this renovated silo reclaims rural land to promote a future urban neighborhood that celebrates the natural daylight in a place where it is often scarce. While passively perforated the exterior, LED bulbs mimic climate patterns and shift in response throughout the day/season using Grasshopper environmental plug-ins. The factors it responds to include wind velocity, sun and moon clarity, and never repeats twice. The light patterns “dance like water� over the facade, in hopes to inspire a community to centrally gather. 30


fall/spring sun 6.3am-8.5pm

summer sun 4am-11pm

winter sun 9am-4pm

fig 004: environmental factors effecting LED light data

31


case study #4

GLASGOW SCHOOL img 020: urban rendering

fig 005: graphite section drawing of the existing structure (left) and the Seona Reid building (right) 32


img 021: view towards the sky from the main stair

The final case studied was the Seona Reid Building at the Glasgow School of Art, designed by Steven Holl. Integrating simple massing studies Holl creates “driven voids of light� through the structure that allows daylight to enter in-between spaces. With use of translucent materials, there is a strong contrast with the pre-war context surrounding, made up mostly of brick. The light volumes represent activity during the daytime, and LED bulbs represent inactivity in the night when students are out of their classes. A series of vertical light shafts also promote ventilation to in-between rooms and circulation space, such as the main stairwell pictured above. This example takes in to account the physical and psychological needs inherent in the educational programming, and orients task spaces toward the best natural light.

img 022: natural and tube light in printing studio 33


INITIAL PROGRAMMING defining program & user needs

Lighting and programming go hand in hand when it comes to a “whole building design” approach. Architect Don Prowler describes this approach as “intended to create a successful high-performance building [...] to achieve this goal, we must apply the integrated design approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. The challenge of ‘whole building’ design is to understand that all building systems are interdependent” (Cherry 2009). Each program created has different requirements that are influenced by who is going to occupy it and use it daily, what they are doing, where it is in relation to the rest of the uses, where it is in the structure, and why it matters. Philosophy behind programming stems from similar questions and goes more specifically into different arguments relating back to who the user is. At the end of the day, architecture is for people. Slowly it is becoming a part of more than people but as an effort to give back to the earth, so the two must go hand in hand. A symbiotic relationship needs to be established between the people in buildings and the environment around it, whether they blur together hazily or have a direct visual separation.

cactus garden

classrooms

communal resting

entrance plaza

event plaza

museum gallery(s)

offices

The first step in programming this building, once typology is selected, is to organize the light qualities based on functions. The most simple way to delineate the difference between task and experiential spaces is through direct vs. diffused lighting. Denoting these spaces is to chart all of the intended uses for an Anza-Borrego visitor’s center and what type of light they require is important to programmatic growth. The next phase of programming is to organize the functional relationships between the spaces. Initial decisions take towards an inward facing approach, where a large event plaza lies centrally while galleries, classrooms, and offices face into it. Scale was also implied at this level to achieve a sense of size to occupy the landscape. 34

observation decks phone booth staff break/br

storage

supply shop


CHART PROGRAM

desert visitor’s center: borrego springs state park basic requirements

outdoor space

program

indoor space

[3A]program analysis light requirements

event plaza

open plan shade seating w/ surfaces

flexible

cactus garden

pathways wayfinding

adequate sun exposure to plantlife

entrance plaza

meeting space lobby w/ reception information

museum gallery(s)

open individual plans interpretive exhibit: regional environment storage

highlight exhibit elements

supply shop

essiental hiking + camping supplies water + snacks

even distribution plentiful natural daylight

observation decks

wildlife + mountain viewing astronomy lookout

enhance viewpoints

communal resting

ceremonial seating

flexible

classrooms

nature talks: child + adult seating

even distribution plentiful natural daylight

offices

anza-borrego foundation staff park rangers

staff break/br phone booth

kitchen + seating covered seating

flexible

storage

ranger equipment maintenance

able to have daytime darkness

wayfinding seating

lookout patio

flexible

fig 006: program organization chart(above) and sclae diagram (left) 35


EXPERIENTIAL CRITERIA embyos of spatial feeling

The expanse of the desert valley where the site is located provides a massive visual scale that is impossible not to feel. At the same time, there is a visceral progression of shadows that are cast from elements anywhere from a large ocotillo to the rectilinear buildings in town. This provides a basis for the experience an architecture here can create; a veneration of shadows cast by the sun and a reflection of the massive scale from the valley to the mountains. On site, the following poetry is written about being in that place.

img 023: abstracted spaces from simon ungers and dj atelier

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fig 007: echoes the expansive valley through repetition

ORIGINAL POETRY watching the distant peak’s shadow she crawls across the brush like heavy a cloak splitting all in its leaden path the line of light and dark lays clearly on the land the vast expanse of sun declines. she creeps toward the valley’s end, up the opposing peaks meeting the sky, a boundless blush the air turns cold, the desert grows dark a memory of the fierce daylight remains. standing in space the warmth of sun bleeds through sporatically glistening like a desert jewel walking away each path feels different but familiar. the bleeding sun dissapears moon shines where she once bathed stars glisten above, reflecting on this space absorbing the earth around it. 37


As a result of the harsh but delicate landscape around the site, the surrounding environment is fully embraced and directly venerated conceptually. The character of the desert is preserved in in lighting conditions, open space, and color. The neighboring mountains have a plentiful ecology, where large animals such as big horn sheep, mountain lions, jackrabbits and coyotes roam unfettered. The site was chosen in its specific parcel so as to not encroach on any state park land, as it needs to be protected from too much development. Desert plants shape the landscape design, as there are hundreds of indigenous cacti and spring flowers. Cultural character is kept by using non-invasive materials such as reclaimed wood, locally cast concrete mixes, and regional stone, and supports the community lighting initiative.

sustainable intent

CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

img 024: power lines 1 mile from the site

Building a project in the Anza-Borrego desert has some inherent issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, it is isolated from industry centers where materials are plentiful, so sourcing is an important factor. The site is accessible for trucks, and local salvaged wood can be supplied from Julian and Cuyamaca to the east, and other small suppliers in Palm Springs. Otherwise, most of the materials need to come from the closest cities, San Diego and Los Angeles. Additionally, weather fluctuates annually from severe heat in the late summer and cool (50 degree average) winters, so the indoor and outdoor conditions should accommodate the extremes. 38


split mtn. caves

wind caves

mud caves

palm canyon oasis fig 008: Anza-Borrego vacinity diagram

hellhole canyon

indianhead mtn. 39

font’s point


SITE SELECTION a local search for light phenomena

The process of site selection began with looking toward rural areas Southern California. In terms of creating a light-driven piece of architecture to act as a visitor’s center, an open area with minimal built obstruction and some sort of regional phenomena was required to base a site-specific design from. The most prevalent source of phenomena related to light in this part of the state lies in the night sky, but natural daylight can also be a precious resource during the winter months where sun can be scarce. After researching different varying ecologies in close proximity to San Diego that have the best astrological views, the conclusion was made that the desert landscape qualified well for the given design requirements. Looking around the 600,000 acres of Anza-Borrego State park, (the closest desert region) Borrego Springs stands out because it is the only desert community in San Diego County, acts as a central node for significant hiking trails through Anza-Borrego, and has a small existing visitor’s center that can greatly improve. It is also a registered Dark Sky community, meaning there is little to no light pollution coming from any buildings, acting as an important constraint for site-specific design.

img 025: Ricardo Breceda corten steel sculpture in Borrego Springs 40


LOCAL HISTORY & CULTURE The town of Borrego Springs sits in the northern regions of Anza-Borrego desert, nestled between vast neighboring mountain ranges. There are two ways to arrive, both being rural winding roads that navigate through the mountains. Borrego Springs is located in a large valley where it is viewed from a bird’s eye view at a high elevation. Seeing the town from this angle is different than arriving in other cities where the highway runs through it, because you immediately see it in its entirety, not at a street-level. Borrego Springs has a relatively recent history, unless one accounts for its rich Native American roots. “Anza-Borrego has a long human history, a story that began thousands of years ago with the Kumeyaay and Cahuilla people. But it was not until the late seventeen hundreds that the first Europeans began to walk across this land. In 1774 Jaun Bautista de Anza journeyed through the present day Borrego Valley on his quest to find an inland route to Spanish settlements on the California coast [...] The first homesteaders began to arrive in the Borrego Valley around 1910. The valley was isolated, hemmed in by rugged mountains on three sides. Going to town for supplies meant at least a five-day round-trip to Brawley, or the long climb up Grapevine Canyon and on to Ramona. But slowly, a little community began to develop (Brigandi). Art has also been ingrained in the culture of Anza-Borrego, most prominently the 130 corten steel sculptures by Ricardo Breceda scattered across Borrego Springs. A gallery is an important piece to Desert Shadow, showcasing other provincial artists such as Eric Merrel, Ron Hurst, students and graduates from the Borrego Art Institute, and many others. Ancient rock art from the Kumeyaay can also be viewed in the gallery setting, as well as in their original locations across the desert. 41

In recent history Borrego Springs has existed in a shadow behind Palm Springs, commonly known as a luxury resort town that functions as a vacation escape from Los Angeles. Generally the Southern California desert has been a part of the dream that captivated the country - making it big in the west. Since the movie industry began in Hollywood, there has always been an image of this climate that represented affluence and success, and people have flocked to it in the pursuit. However, the reality of the situation is that there are no real water sources and anything used must be imported from elsewhere, which is inefficient and damaged the delicate state of the desert as a biological ecosystem.


20°

10°

N

360°

350°

340°

30°

330° 320°

40°

NE 50°

NW 310°

60°

300° 290°

70°

E

80°

280°

90°

270°

100°

260°

110°

250°

120°

a dark sky community

REGULATIONS

W

240°

130°

SE

230° 140°

220° 150°

160°

170° 180°

S

Borrego Springs is a dark-sky town, and is recognized by the International Dark Sky Association whose motto is, “light what you need, when you need it”. By containing light at night, there is less light pollution up in the sky, making stars and planets especially visible. The association provides descript criteria to follow, and becomes critical to a light-driven piece of architecture under that provision.

SW

210° 190°

200°

fig 009: warped panorama + visible constellation map

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cactus garden

classrooms

summer sunrise

summer solar noon communal resting PALM CANYON DRIVE

entrance plaza

summer sunset winter sunrise

S22

winter solar noon event plaza

winter sunset museum gallery(s)

offices

observation decks phone booth

fig 010: warped panorama + built context collage fig 011: (top right) sun path diagram in plan

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staff break/br The site where the current “visitor’s center” is located marks the beginning of Anza-Borrego state park and the end of Borrego Springs into the Los Coyotes mountains, separating from the next town to the east. Because the site is on the state parkstorage land, the client becomes the California Department of Parks and Recreation in conjunction with the Anza-Borrego foundation, supply shop who often work side by side. For this to become a legitimate visitor’s center that the client would dually envision, awareness and education are a must in programmatic involvement.


VACINITY DIAGRAMS adjacent context analysis

S22

PALM CANYON DRIVE

PALM CANYON DRIVE

Ranchita S22

Ranchita

BO

YAQUI PASS

RR

BO

YAQUI PASS

RR

EG

O

VA L

LE

YR

EG

O

VA LL

EY

RO AD

S3

OA D

access

points of interest

Desert Light site S22

PALM CANYON DRIVE

S22 BO YAQUI PASS

RR

amenities

EG

O

VA L

LE

YR

OA D

img 026: Borrego Springs aerial photo from 1960

S3

44


1� = 2 miles

topography + hiking

60

0

200

0 180 700

S22

1

0 170 00 6 1

300 PALM CANYON DRIVE

400

S22

200

0

10

S3

fig 012: Borrego Springs vacinity data 45


 7’ height clearance  2’9” min. for parking space barriers and drive lane ends  Max slope of 1:15 or 6.67%  Concrete floor surface or similar material allowed  Sloped for drainage toward entrance 1C: Code + Zoning Analysis  Must be Type I, II, or IV construction CODES fig 013: code analysis charts  Allowable Use and Occupancy  Floor Areas (ft²), Max Stories A2: 15,500, 3 Occupancy Type Function in Program A3: 15,500, 3 Café and Bar B: 37,500,A2 5 M: 21,500, 4 A3 Art Gallery S2: 39,000, 4 Bath House U: 19,000,B4 Civic Administration Offices  Occupancy Separation Requirements: A+B = 1 hr. and A+M = 1 hr. S2 Food Storage  Sprinklers Required: A,B, M Open Parking Lot  Type of Construction: IIA (Concrete and Steel, fire-retardant interior partitions)

M

Hiking Supply Shop

U

Retaining Walls (on Bath House structure)

 Occupancy Load Factor Chart Space Function Special Uses

Load Factor

ft²

Max Occupancy (# of people) 113

a. U occupancy 30 net 3400  may not exceed 3,000ft² Baths gross Lot 890 18 b. Open 50 Parking Offices gross 3230 33  7’100 height clearance  2’9” and drive lane ends Kitchen 200min. grossfor parking space barriers 600 3  Max slope of 1:15 or 6.67% Café 30 net 925 31  Concrete floor surface or similar material allowed Supply Shop 30 gross 1100 37  Sloped for drainage toward entrance  Must be Type I, II, or IV construction 46  Allowable Floor Areas (ft²), Max Stories  Zoning + Site Specific regulations A2: 15,500, 3State Park territory: must serve the park in function and environmental/  Anza-Borrego Gallery


B

Civic Administration Offices

S2 M

Food Storage Open Parking Lot Hiking Supply Shop

U

Retaining Walls (on Bath House structure)

 Special Uses a. U occupancy  may not exceed 3,000ft² b. Open Parking Lot  7’ height clearance  2’9” min. for parking space barriers and drive lane ends  Max slope of 1:15 or 6.67%  Concrete floor surface or similar material allowed  Sloped for drainage toward entrance  Must be Type I, II, or IV construction  Allowable Floor Areas (ft²), Max Stories A2: 15,500, 3 A3: 15,500, 3 B: 37,500, 5 M: 21,500, 4 S2: 39,000, 4 U: 19,000, 4  Occupancy Separation Requirements: A+B = 1 hr. and A+M = 1 hr.  Sprinklers Required: A,B, M  Type of Construction: IIA (Concrete and Steel, fire-retardant interior partitions)

 Occupancy Load Factor Chart Space Function

Load Factor

47

ft²

Max Occupancy (# of people)


fig 014: exterior perspective of southern elevation 48


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ar502 summary design process schematic package 1 feedback/evaluation 49


THE SECOND QUARTER summary from AR502

To prepare for the building design in the first weeks of AR502, the initial research and intentions needed to be re-investigated. The “why� behind the tectonic moves urgently wanted to correlate with dense knowledge of Anza-Borrego and Borrego Springs as a location, as well as the experiential and programmatic needs addressed. Ar501 was all about visiting the site and investigating what it demanded, and now it was time to begin further massing it out. Ordering principles were required to start, and took shape through arranging spatial programming for effective circulation and what kind of natural light each space required.

fig 015: first graphite sketch of the bath house interior 50


The design process was accomplished through diagramming, sketching, and 3d computer modeling, as well as making study models. The program then found a harmonious arrangement, while exterior form was generated to reflect the topography and sun movement in a faceted manner. To inject the soul to the building that the previous juries had difficulty feeling, a series of drawing were done to envision the spaces and really took the project to a more ceremonial place, giving it a sense of temperature and emotion. Material research was also conducted along with structural understanding in order to reach out to the land and feel connected in color, opacity, translucency, and texture. The plans were developed during the same time, dictating the utility of the spaces along with scale refinement. 51


june

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

W december

N h bat tail re

gal

lery in

adm

S

E

DESIGN PROCESS fig 016: parti in south elevation

“unique by transformation of repetitive” (Unwin 2010)

june

The parti of the design was a mirrored reaction to Indianhead Mountain to the north. The roof of the form slopes away from the downward topography as a reflection of what was. The entire building needed to face south for day-lighting and ventilation purposes, as well as having a inward relationship on the north elevation with the mountain’s slope. 52

h

bat

l

gal

ler

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard admin


december

b

il reta

ery

in adm

1. separate spaces further

museum bath 1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard retail observation admin administration observation museum supply shop bath house

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard admin observation museum supply shop bath house

2. individualize needs + circulation

2. split individual needs + circulation

2. split individual needs + circulation

3. develop slopes + voids

3. develop initial slopes + voids

fig 017: (opposite) annual sun paths & program scale fig 018: formative massing diagrams

The design took shape after initial program clustering in ar501 through a massing study preformed around a u-shaped courtyard. This orientation was chosen because every interior condition needed to interact with natural light and the spectacular desert vistas. 53

3. develop initial slopes + voids

4. articulate ground relationship


3. develop initial slopes + voids

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

4. articulate ground relationship

4. articulate ground relationship

5. facet roof for sun orientation

4. articulate ground relationship

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

utility

private

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

6. cover eating space +massing parkingdiagrams fig 019: formative 7. simplify courtyard grade fig 020: re-programming spaces; massing diagrams

public

outdoor

supply shop

covered parking

park administration offices

loading dock

MPR/classroom

storage

back of house kitchen

cafe/front of house bath house reception

lobby

lockerooms/showers

main gallery

communal bath

upper night gallery

54

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

mueum

6. cover eating space + parking

breezeway entrance roof deck/overlook courtyard/event plaza


fig 021: 1:40 folded massing study model fig 022: 1:20 folded massing study model

55


in

ery

adm

gall

rtyard grade

pace + parking

for sun orientation

nd relationship

slopes + voids

eeds + circulation

unds g courtyard

e

process: nsformation titive�

56

fig 023:exploded axonometric; structure + circulation


proposed building

fig 024: 1:600 cnc routed MDF site model; motel context pictured above

Following the massing process, an exploded diagram (figure 30) of the building was created to show circulation paths, exiting, structure, and fenestration. A site model was also made to remain part of the final representations in the third quarter. This model in figure 31 and 32 illustrates the topography surrounding the valley where Desert Light is located, as well as the main streets including Palm Canyon Drive, the S22, and a new access road to the proposed visitor’s center.

57


58

bath house:south

fig 025: (both pages) graphite spatial drawing series

22

bath house:north

gallery stair lower gallery: west


ir

59

lower gallery: west

lower gallery: east

upper gallery

the natural light and shadow in b vision. to venerate its natual beau sponse. the process to generate erasure; subtracting the light from studies, the perspective linework and values for each of the select


fig 026a: summer sun study model fig 026b: study model of bath house

60


fig 027a: winter sun study model fig 027b: study model of upper gallery

61


SCHEMATIC DESIGN graphic representations

1:130

fig 028:site plan (first attempt)

62


1/64” = 1’0” fig 029:ground floor plan + basement plan

63


office

office

office

office

office

office storage

-3.5’

hiking shop

-3.5’

classroom/ mpr

group office

break

meeting

patio

floor 1 3/32” = 1’ 0”

20 longitudinal section 3/32” = 1’ 0”

fig 030: longitudinal section

The goals for the first iteration of final drawings were to show the simple form and structure developed out of the massing process, and to integrate interior/exterior light experience. The materials were also introduced, including concrete, Corten steel, glass, wood, and rammed earth. These were then further developed in chapter 5 when the final renderings were completed. The section in figure 41 also introduces the night sky into the landscape, illustrating the connection in the architecture from the ground to the sky. These drawings are all improved on in chapter 5, but the first attempts were paramount to producing the highest potential of work. 64


sandstone finish floor

passive ventilation: night flushing

finish floor ventilated air space vertical pipe for vent fan radion barrier

locally-sourced birch flooring

jul.sunrise

underground stormwater retention

slab-on-grade foundation w/ turn down footings wall section 1/8” = 1’ 0”

jul. sunset

dec.sunrise

encorporate hellhole canyon landscape

ocotillo

environmental systems jul. s.noon

perforated corten steel roof panels

transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels 1 1/2’ fixed concrete beam

dec. s.noon

jul.sunrise

underground stormwater retention

clerestory ventilation jul. sunset

dec.sunrise

encorporate hellhole canyon landscape

dec. sunset

clear glass mezzanine railing concrete slab flooring indigo bush

fabric photovoltaics: self-reliant energy sour

fig 032: (below-left)environmental impact diagram

rainfall average: 6.14”/year average temperature: 72º

california suncup

peppergrass

fig 031: (above) southern elevation

building systems working towards sustainability

ocotillo

indigo bush

23

south elevation 1/32” = 1’ 0”

litracon light-transmitting CMUs

california suncup

dec. sunset

peppergrass

fabric photovoltaics: self-reliant energy source

65

environmental systems

olivia thall ar501


1” 10’

20’

30’

MATERIALS perforated corten steel roof panels

perforated corten steel roof panels

transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels

litracon light-transmitting CMUs

litracon light-transmitting CMUs rammed earth walls

cast-in-place concrete

clear glass mezzanine railing

large-aggregate outdoor stone

retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system

transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels

ventilated air space vertical pipe for vent fan radion barrier slab-on-grade foundation w/ turn down footings

fig 033: material call-outs and gallery wall section

wall section 1/4” = 1’ 0”

66


latitudinal section fig 034: latitudinal night section 67

1/1/64” = 1’ 0”


img 035: southern view of final model 68


5

summary of ar 503 feedback/evaluations statement of learning 69


THE THIRD QUARTER summary from AR503

The final presentation from the second quarter prosed some questions to address in the third quarter of the year. It was clear that the graphite sketch studies needed to be represented either in the model or in accurate rendering engines. The overall concept of being site specific in the desert seemed clear to the final jury, but the representations had to live up to it. The best features that got across that translate into the final presentation are the site context, the program, and the material application. This quarter was all about refining the building design in tandem with drawings to show it in context. Some of the changes that occurred included access and spatial refinement. fig036: exterior rendering from the southeast 70


Two weeks before the last presentation of the year our studio practiced presenting, while giving each other constructive feedback. After talking about the initial research following into the final scheme, the utility vs. experiences seemed to be a common theme that the group received. One thing to improve was outlining the need for this visitor’s center and how people would be drawn to it. Talking about light and dark as “an ancient dichotomy� came off redundant, so the explanation for presenting was reduced to focus more on the final product. The transitions from one subject to another also needed improvement, and my personal reasoning and passion was not quite convincing enough. To improve this, the subject of the personal and spiritual connection to the desert while observing the night sky was added to the introduction, as well as the life-long journey to understand why we are seduced by this context. 71


1” 100’

200’

300’

northern hellhole canyon

S22

southern hellhole canyon southern hellhole canyon

fig 037: final site plan 72


SITE PLANNING dirt planter (hard) plants (soft) concrete rocks seating

In terms of the site, the surrounding trails were not originally shown. On the west side at the outer entrance of the bath house, the dirt trail head leading to the Hellhole Canyon waterfall meets the concrete slab connecting to the supply shop. On the east side, the trail from the existing visitor’s center graze the south elevation of the structure and enter into the courtyard beside potted gardens.

dirt planter (hard) plants (soft) concrete rocks seating

fig 038:landscape plan diagram (not to scale) 73

In addition, the landscape design was developed further in the courtyard and along the trails in close proximity to the building. The design is based on a 2’ x 6’ grid, where the grid spaces consist of either concrete, rocks, seating, or a planter. The circulation across the courtyard is illustrated first on the grid, and the elements move in-between to maximize group space and southern views. Plants consist of various succulents like agave, large to medium ocotillo, and regional shrubbery that blooms into color during the spring in tandem with the wildflowers throughout the canyon.


MATERIALS hapticity and temperature

The haptic sensibilities of material are tied directly to the Hellhole Canyon surroundings. They also play on temperature, where shadows are cool and direct sunlight is warm. Cooler materials include concrete and glass, while rammed earth and wood are warm. Where these change are influenced not only by structure, but the personal interface in the spaces. For example, from flooring from the showers to the bath house is made up of wood for bare feet, opposed to the concrete in the courtyard to retain heat in the hotter months. Where people directly interface with a wall, such as in the offices or supply shop, rammed earth provides a haptic textural experience, as well as visual allure.

fig039: west elevation 74


1” 65’

130’

195’

fig040: front elevation (south)

fig041: east elevation 75


fig042: café perspective

INTERIORS Originally the café was enclosed with large picture windows out the mountainside. The problem was a lack of view to the southern vista, so the wall was removed to create an indoor/outdoor condition. The café’s juice bar still needed some security, so it was surrounded with glazing and glass-roll up doors for customers to approach the counter. 76


fig043: bath house perspective

The bath house represents the end of a long journey, whether it be from a day of hiking or after a long drive and a gallery event. The folding roof panels follow the sun throughout the day, creating an openair condition above while bathing. The interior walls are made up of striated concrete for another haptic quality. The bath itself has a step for seating along the perimeter, and is lined with white tiles. 77


8:00 am

1:00 pm

5:00 pm

fig044: stairwell daylight progression (December) 78


fig045: lobby entry perspective

79


fig046: lower gallery perspective

80


fig047: upper gallery perspective

81


floor 1

boiler

bath house

basement storage

2

-4’

freezer

café

1

juice bar

loading dock

gallery storage

day gallery

1

kitchen

outdoor storage lobby

gallery enterance

bath reception

M

front desk

-2’

parking event plaza

F

+3.5’

entrance plaza retail storage

storage

-3.5’

hiking supply

classroom/ mpr

-3.5’

group offices hiker’s enterance

break

meeting

admin. patio

2

1”

FLOOR PLANS

60’ 82

120’

180’


floor 2

day gallery

night gallery

observation deck

fig048: floors 1-2, and basement 83


SECTIONS

1” 60’

120’

180’

fig049: longitudinal section 1 84


fig050: latitudinal section 2 at night 85


fig051: final model of bath house

BATH HOUSE SECTION To provide passive light and ventilation, folding roof panels situate above the bath following the form’s south-facing angle. Attached to steel tracks, the panels fold up and down throughout the day following the sun’s direct path. The visitor’s bathing are not blinded by harsh rays, but still have a view of the sky above, , as well as the night sky once the sun goes down. The panels are made of a durable biodegradable polycarbonate, and can also employ the same fabric photovoltaics that cover the parking. 86


fig052: perspective section through bath house

87


FINAL MODEL

fig053: southern courtyard view 88


fig054: (upper) south-east view of offices fig055: (lower) south-west view of hikers entrance to bath house

FEEDBACK/EVALUATIONS The final jury presentation was all or nothing. Desert Light was either going to seem unresolved or be well understood, and was luckily the latter. The five-man jury enjoyed the representations and explanation overall, as they were intended to be fun, personal, and informative. The graphite sketches in figure 033 were even compared to drawings by Louis Kahn at one point, which was the highest praise received. Another juror also mentioned that the final design accomplished what was initially intended in AR501, in terms of exploring light in the desert context. However, some of the planning issues were still apparent, such as the parking being visible from the courtyard as well as having the retail shop be the center of the event space, giving it a suburban undertone. The model was also critiqued as not having enough contrast, being all white. These are issues that could be well resolved taking this building into further phases of design, as the comments were just and understandable. 89


fig056: western view of showers and bath house pathway

90


fig058: lobby entrance

fig059: roof to lower gallery and stairwell

fig057: southern view of the upper gallery and courtyard

91


STATEMENT OF LEARNING The central objectives outlined in the beginning of AR503 were met through developing solutions to existing issues and furthering the quality of representation. Cracks in the complete story were filled with diagrams that explained the formative process, and helped gain an understanding as the designer into how to explain decision making. Starting with an eager need to examine light, the learning really took place in contextual research and figuring out what place-making really means. Having an ample amount of time meant the planning stages were tweaked over and over, and arrived at a greater outcome than ever before. In terms of practical traits, design skills in the computer and hand work were further developed from the past four years studying architecture, such as producing beautiful sketches and a higher nature of rendering. img 027: presenting Desert Light 92


formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

desert light

longitudinal section

a: s o u t h e a s t e x t e r i o r

an Anza-Borrego Visitor’s Center

The haptic sensibilities of material are tied directly to Hellhole Canyon ‘s biological surroundings. Also playing on temperature, material is cool in the shadows and warm in direct sunlight. Cooler materials include concrete and glass, while rammed earth and wood are warm. Where these change are influenced not only by structure, but the personal interface in the spaces. For example, from flooring from the showers to the bath house is made up of wood for bare feet, opposed to the concrete in the courtyard to retain heat in the hotter months. Where people directly interface with a wall, such as in the offices or supply shop, rammed earth provides a haptic textural experience, as well as visual allure.

60

0

june

problem.

december

60

0

In the context of the Southern California deserts in the last century, gall ery escape from the big cities have been tailored for a luxury bathlifestyle retail n of society. As a result, throughout modern history the upper-class admi the most prominent and beautiful architecture there is rarely available for the public to enjoy. Additionally, a minimal emphasis has been put forth in design to respect the delicate natural state of the desert and the cultural site-factors that lay inherently in the soil.

S22

200

200

0 170 00 16

position. Vast, cloak-like shadows cast by the Anza-Borrego sun can be absorbed and integrated into a building design, creating open air 1. program surrounds spaces thatcourtyard harness light and retain a symbiotic relationship to the south-facing admin present context. As a visitor’s center, the building can then forge observation museum a strong connection to the regional context and becomes a placesupply shop house makerbathfor the area by incorporating programmatic functions that service the public desert culture and state park employees.

300 PALM CANYON DRIVE

0 170 00 16

south elevation

300

400

400 200

S22

thesis statement.

BOR

REG

O

200

VALL

EY

YAQUI PASS

This thesis proposes an extension to the current Borrego Springs Visitor’s Center that can manipulate the natural desert light and shadow. Framing the far-reaching landscape surrounding the building2. will create a site-driven regional condition with experiential split individual needs + circulation qualities. By providing space for provincial art exhibits, night sky observation, state park administration, and hiker bathing facilities; this typology will further respect the environment. The form and materiality of the structure will be designed to fit into its site conditions through ground connection, material parallels, and understanding of the territory.

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

ROA

D

S3

floor 2 june

study models

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

1:40

3. develop initial slopes + voids

gal

bath

december

lery in

adm

dirt planter (hard) plants (soft)

upper gallery

retail

bath house

site plan

concrete

seating

june

4. articulate ground relationship

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

dirt planter (hard) plants (soft)

bath

december

day gallery

gal

lery

retail

concrete

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

in

adm

rocks

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

seating 5. facet roof form for sun orientation

stairwell

rocks

june

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

bath

december

retail

gal

lery

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

7. simplify courtyard grade

bath

night gallery

gal

retail

lery in

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

arriving: Palm Canyon motel

floor 1

2. split individual needs + circulation

boiler

june

existing: visitor’s center exhibit

december

bath

retail

existing: visitor’s center trail

to new site: trail access

remains: carvings at Miner’s Trail basement storage

bath house

gal

lery

-4’

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

in

adm

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

june

2. split individual needs + circulation

3. develop initial slopes + voids

4. articulate ground relationship freezer

café

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

gal

in

adm

exploded structure formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive”

museum bath 1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard retail observation admin administration observation museum supply shop bath house

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

2. split individual needs + circulation

3. develop slopes + voids

3. develop initial slopes + voids

4. articulate ground relationship

4. articulate ground relationship

5. facet roof for sun orientation

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

3. develop initial slopes + voids

2. split individual needs + circulation

4. articulate ground relationship

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

program utility

utility

private

utility

4. articulate ground relationship

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

c: l o b b y

private

private

transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels

public

public

lobby

gallery enterance

parking event plaza

+3.5’

d g

entrance plaza

e

retail storage

c

b

storage

f

-3.5’

hiking supply

-3.5’

classroom/ mpr

outdoor outdoor outdoor

public

group offices hiker’s enterance

break

meeting

admin. patio

1:20

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

2. split individual needs + circulation bath

front desk

+ materials

-2’

perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels perforated corten steel roof panels litracon light-transmitting CMUs perforated corten steel roof panels litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs litracon light-transmitting CMUs rammedlight-transmitting earth walls litracon CMUs rammed earth walls rammed earth walls rammed earth walls rammed earth walls rammed earth walls rammed earth walls rammed earth walls cast-in-place rammed earthconcrete walls cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete cast-in-place concrete large-aggregate outdoor stone cast-in-place concrete large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone large-aggregate outdoor stone retractable/folding polycarbonate large-aggregate outdoor stone roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system retractable/folding polycarbonate roof system transluscent polycarbonate ceilingroof panels retractable/folding polycarbonate system transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels

a 3. develop initial slopes + voids

june

december

perspective views

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard admin observation museum supply shop bath house

kitchen

outdoor storage

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

2. individualize needs + circulation

ery

retail

loading dock

M

in

bath reception

lery

adm

gall

bath

gallery storage

F

retail

1. separate spaces further june

december

juice bar

day gallery

bath

december

design process

observation deck

3. develop initial slopes + voids

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

adm

first stop: Borrego Springs store

2. split individual needs + circulation

june

formative process: “unique by transformation of repetitive” december

b: c a f é

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

in

adm 6. cover eating space + parking

west elevation

d: b a t h h o u s e

gallery

retail

admin

2. split individual needs + circulation

4. articulate ground relationship

1. program surrounds south-facing courtyard

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

admin observation museum supply shop bath house

6. cover eating space + parking

supply shopsupply shop supply shop

7. simplify courtyard grade

3. develop initial slopes + voids

2. split individual needs + circulation

covered parking covered parking covered parking loading dock loading dock loading dock storage storage storage

park administration offices park administration offices park administration offices MPR/classroom MPR/classroom MPR/classroom back of house kitchen back of house kitchen back of house kitchen

utility

utility

private private

cafe/front of house cafe/front ofcafe/front house of house

mueum mueum bath house bath house bath house mueum lobby lobby reception reception reception lobby lockerooms/showers lockerooms/showers lockerooms/showers main gallerymain gallery main gallery

entrance entrance breezeway breezeway entrance breezeway roof deck/overlook roof deck/overlook roof deck/overlook plaza courtyard/event plaza courtyard/event plaza courtyard/event

east elevation

upper night gallery upper night gallery communal communal bath upperbath night gallery communal bath

3. develop initial slopes + voids

utility

private

public

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

public

public

outdoor outdoor

6. cover eating space + parking

outdoor

7. simplify courtyard grade

3. develop initial slopes + voids

4. articulate ground relationship 4. articulate ground relationship

4. articulate ground relationship

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

5. facet roof form for sun orientation

supply shopsupply shop

covered parkingcovered parking covered parking loading dock loading dock loading dock storage storage

storage

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

administration offices 5. facet roof form for sun orientation park administration park administration officespark offices 5. facet roof form for sun orientation MPR/classroomMPR/classroom MPR/classroom back of house kitchen backkitchen of house kitchen back of house

drawing series bath house:north

bath house:south

supply shop

cafe/front of house cafe/front ofcafe/front house of house breezeway entrance bath house breezewaybreezeway entrance entrance mueum mueum bath housebath house mueum roof deck/overlook reception lobby roof deck/overlook roof deck/overlook reception reception lobby lobby courtyard/event plaza lockerooms/showers main gallery courtyard/event plaza courtyard/event plaza lockerooms/showers lockerooms/showers main gallerymain gallery upper night gallery bath communal bathcommunal upper nightupper gallerynight gallery communal bath gallery stair

lower gallery: west

lower gallery: east

latitudinal section

upper gallery

e: l o w e r g a l l e r y

f: u p p e r g a l l e r y

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

6. cover eating space + parking 7. simplify courtyard grade

gallery wall section

bath house section

perforated corten steel roof panels

transluscent polycarbonate ceiling panels 1 1/2’ fixed concrete beam litracon light-transmitting CMUs

To provide passive light and ventilation, folding roof panels situate above the bath following the form’s south-facing angle. Attached to steel tracks, the panels fold up and down throughout the day following the sun’s direct path. The visitor’s bathing are not blinded by harsh rays, but still have a view of the sky above, , as well as the night sky once the sun goes down. The panels are made of a durable biodegradable polycarbonate, and can also employ the same fabric photovoltaics that cover the parking.

clear glass mezzanine railing concrete slab flooring

concrete finish floor ventilated air space vertical pipe for vent fan radion barrier

g: s t a i r w e l l 8:00 am

g: 12:00 pm

g: 5:00 pm

slab-on-grade foundation w/ turn down footings

fig060: final boards for printing 93


fig 061: south-west view of final model 94


6

works cited list of images list of figures acknowledgments 95


WORKS CITED essay references

1. “Casa Rinconada, Chaco Canyon, Great House, Kiva, Shadows of Chaco Canyon, Book, Novel, Anasazi, New Mexico, Southwest.” Singing Rock Publishing, 2012. Web. 07 Nov. 2014. 2. Clark, Robin, and Michael Auping. Phenomenal: California Light, Space, Surface. Berkeley, CA: U of California, 2011. Print. 3. Descottes, Hervé, and Cecilia E. Ramos. Architectural Lighting Designing with Light and Space. New ¬York: Princeton Architectural, 2011. Print. 4. Egan, M. David. Concepts in Architectural Lighting. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983. Print. 5. The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1918. p. 329. 6. Gennaro, R. 1995. Consciousness and Self-consciousness: A Defense of the Higher Order Thought Theory of Consciousness. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 7. Philip, J., 1997. Contemporary American Architects : Volume III, Italy: Taschen. 8. Rosenthal, D. 1986. “Two concepts of consciousness.” Philosophical Studies, 49: 329–59. 9. Russell, Sage. The Architecture of Light: Architectural Lighting Design Concepts and Techniques: A Textbook of Procedures and Practices for the Architect, Interior Designer and Lighting Designer. La Jolla, CA: Conceptnine Print Media, 2008. Print.

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LIST OF IMAGES outside sources 002: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/34/4e/29/344e299fc5684b149759ae4d18ac78de.jpg 003: http://s3.amazonaws.com/pace-production/images/artworks/3489/normal/17277_ROTHKO.jpg?1348260772 004: http://www.midcenturyhome.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/kaufmann-house-richard-neutra.jpg 007: John Grana - Borrego Springs Desert Road via Google Earth 008: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/0e/c2/a2/0ec2a20aacda87a8a061b1e9248387b1.jpg 009: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/14/1e/83/141e8345c8203fb82fdb0214b4ef51e6.jpg 011: http://parkerlab.bio.uci.edu/nonscientific_adventures/Chaco%20Canyon.htm 012: http://www.stilemetadesign.it/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Roden-Crater.8.jpg 013: http://www.countdown-blog.pld-c.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Silo-Helsinki-2.png 014: http://parkerlab.bio.uci.edu/nonscientific_adventures/Chaco%20Canyon.htm 015: http://socks-studio.com/img/blog/chaco-01a.jpg 016: http://purple.fr/filestorage/magazines/27/articles/105/COLE_RODEN_PFM16_RVB_0001.jpg 017: http://payload229.cargocollective.com/1/9/290260/6887080/James-Turrell-Roden-Crater-East-Portal-2010-Photograph-by-Florian-Holzherr_905.jpg 018: https://protein-publisher-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/medium_silo468_screens_02-640x480.png 019: http://www.creativeapplications.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/silo468_photos_01.jpg 020: http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2010/09/Steven-Holl-Glasgow-School-of-Art-5.jpg 021: http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2014/03/steven-holl-reid-building-4.jpg 022: http://www.designboom.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/steven-holl-glasgow-school-of-art-video-designboom-04.jpg 023: http://dromik.tumblr.com/post/53280812291/simon-ungers-light-works-museum-2005-2009-3 http://www.designboom.com/architecture/dl-atelier-outdoor-orchestra-stage-full-moon-china-04-24-2014/ 025: http://www.desertusa.com/borrego/art-photos/IMG_4460.jpg 026: http://www.borregospringschamber.com/borregohistory/images/bprrego-springs-1960-small.jpg 027: Christian Menna - Olivia Presenting

10 11 12 16 18 19 22-23 24 25 27 27 29 29 30 30 32 33 33 36 40 44 90

original photography 000: bench at existing Visitor’s Center 001: current ranger offices 005: landscape along nature trail 006: view from the west toward borrego springs 010: current context adjacent to visitor parking 024: power lines 1 mile from the site

VI 8-9 13 14 21 38

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LIST OF FIGURES original diagrams and drawings 001: lunar markings delineated by sun paths (Chaco Canyon case study) 002: “Sun Daggers� reflect seasonal sun onto rock drawings (Chaco Canyon case study) 003: graphite section drawing through Roden Crater 004: environmental factors effecting LED light data (Silo 468 case study) 005: graphite section drawing of the existing structure and the Seona Reid building (Holl case study) 006: program organization chart and sclae diagram 007: image echoes the expansive valley through repetition (experiential criteria) 008: Anza-Borrego vacinity diagram 009: warped panorama + visible constellation map 010: warped panorama + built context collage 011: sun path diagram in plan 012: Borrego Springs vacinity data 013: code analysis chart 014: exterior perspective of southern elevation 015: first graphite sketch of the bath house interior 016: parti in south elevation 017: annual sun paths with program scale 018: formative massing diagrams 019: formative massing diagrams (2) 020: re-programming spaces; massing diagrams 021: 1:40 folded massing study model 022: 1:20 folded massing study model 023: exploded axonometric; structure and circulation 024: 1:600 cnc routed MDF site model 025: graphite spatial drawing series 026: (a) summer sun study model; (b) study model of bath house 027: (a) winter sun study model; (b) study model of upper gallery 028: site plan (first attempt) 029: ground floor plan + basement plan (first attempt) 030: longitudinal section (first attempt) 031: southern elevation (first attempt) 032: environmental impact diagram 033: material call-outs and gallery wall section (first attempt) 034: latitudinal night section (first attempt) 035: photo of final model 036: exterior rendering from the southeast 037: site plan 038: landscape plan diagram 039: west elevation 040: south elevation

26 27 28 31 32 35 37 39 42 43 43 44-45 46 48-49 50 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 57 58-59 60 61 62 63 64 65 65 66 67 68-69 70 72 73 74 75

041: east elevation 042: cafĂŠ perspective 043: bath house perspective 044: stairwell daylight progression (December) 045: lobby entry perspective 046: lower gallery perspective 047: upper gallery perspective 048: floors 1-2, and basement plans 049: longitudinal section 1 050: latitudinal section 2 at night 051: final model of bath house 052: perspective section through bath house 053: final model: southern courtyard view 054: final model: south-east view of offices 055: final model: south-west view of hikers entrance to bath house 056: final model: western view of showers and bath house pathway 057: final model: southern view of the upper gallery and courtyard 058: final model: lobby entrance 059: final model: roof to lower gallery and stairwell 060: final boards for printing 061: final model: south-west view

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To my family, thank you for your unbelievable support towards the development of my creative spirit through the years. I wouldn’t have found my drive without you. To Tyler, thank you for putting up with the ungodly hours and occasional meltdowns required to complete this book. You are my aweinspiring rock. To my teacher James Enos, thank you for your interest and candor toward my thesis this year. It would not have concluded as it did without your deliberate guidance and encouragement. To my studio group, thank you for keeping the close-knit environment we had this year. You provided assistance, consolation, incentive, and fun on a constant basis. 99


©2015 Olivia Thall ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Desert Light Thesis  
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