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B A T H O L I V E R H E S S I A N : S T U D I O 4. 2

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CONTENTS 1_ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2_INTRODUCTION 3_SITE 9_BRIEF 11 _ D E S I G N O B J E C T I V E S 15 _ P R E C E D E N T 20 _ P R O P O S A L 40 _ L A N D S C A P I N G 41 _ M A T E R I A L I T Y 44 _ S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y 45 _ C O N S T R U C T I O N 46 _ S T R U C T U R E 48 _ D E T A I L D E S I G N 53 _ L I G H T I N G + A C O U S T I C 57 _ E N V I R O N M E N T A L 60 _ F I R E 61 _ A C C E S S 62 _ C D M 63 _ P R O C E S S 75 _ P O S T C R I T

ARNOLFINI BATH

O L I V E R H E S S I A N : S T U D I O 4. 2


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I have received a large amount of help and tutoring from a range of very experienced individuals through the course of this project that I would like to acknowledge and thank.

ARCHITECTURAL

DESIGN

DANIEL WONG MARTIN GLEDHILL TOBY LEWIS

ENVIRONMENTA L

DESIGN

DOUG

STRUCTURAL

DESIGN

STEVE FISHER GAVIN KNOWLES

LANDSCAPE DESIGN

TAMASIN SCOTT

REGULATORY

COMPLIANCE

FACADE

DESIGN

ARNOLFINI BATH

KING

KING

MOMENTUM CONSULTI NG ENGINEERS

INTEGRAL

STRUCTURAL GRANT

DESIGN

ASSOCIATES OCULUS

JOHN MULLEN TOM PEARSON MATT WILLIAMS

SHAW

ARUP

FACADES

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INTRODUCTION There has been much debate over the future of Bath, this is obviously difficult in Architectural terms as the beauty of Bath remains in its consistent Georgian Architecture. In reality however the majority of development in the past 100 years outside the city centre has failed to lived up to this standard. Being strictly controlled by the UNESCO trust makes the future of Bath seem very clear. Large areas of Bath have been flagged for much needed development to try and expand the quality of the old city centre. Part of this proposal is to try and emphasize the East-West axis across bath that follows some of the major features of Bath, such as Great Pultney Street and the Baths both old and new. Highlighted in this development proposal is the desire to begin celebrating Bath’s riverside in a way that hasn’t been done in recent history. PROPOSED AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT

E A S T - W E ST A X I S

ARNOLFINI BATH

CELEBRATING THE RIVERSIDE

My proposal plays on these specific themes of Bath’s future by providing a destination for the East-West route as well as celebrating the riverside. My intention is for this to act as a catalyst in the redevelopment of the South Quays and Green Park area.

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SITE

HISTORY There are 4 existing buildings currently on the proposed site. The continuous street facade used to house the Newark Works machine shops. These buildings retain Georgian facades that provide a much needed buffer from the busy Lower Bristol Road and are partially listed. I am therefore proposing to retain the buildings fronting Lower Bristol Road, with the exception of a portion of the East building as the rear has been replaced with a modern structure that will be removed to open up the access at the East of the site. The Foundry building and Boiler room is am also proposing be removed from the site as they are of no real architectural merit.

ARNOLFINI BATH

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SITE

PHOTOS The Site sits in a relatively industrial area where the building used to back the river as it was a means of transport they are therefore by the most part built up to the very edge of the river. This is something i had to consider as making use of the South bank of the river was going to be difficult as it would be in the shade most of the time. I also wanted to ensure that the south edge of my scheme would not be overshadowed by the existing buildings. 1

2

3

4

6

4 3

1 2

5

5

6

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AERIAL PHOTOS

ARNOLFINI BATH

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CONTEXT I chose the site on Lower Bristol Road primarily for its potential to celebrate the Riverside, which i feel is an opportunity that has been missed along the majority of Bath’s riverside. It is also a rare section of the riverside that provides views to a green space. The future proposals for Bath highlight the Quays and Green Park as sites for development. The Dyson site has the potential to be a much needed destination for the East-West Axis of the city that is composed of Great Pultney street and the Holburne Museum across Pultney Bridge and through the Spas. Green Park station has been selected as a potential site for a new cultural quarter. It was this that ultimately led to me choosing where to place the footbridge in my design, as i wanted to emphasize a link between the new Arnolfini and this quarter. The site and its context have primarily driven the scheme development as I feel the site plays an important role in the masterplan of the area. By allowing a public footpath across the site and over the proposed footbridge it allows much easier access to the city centre to a large area of Residential housing behind the Railway line.

ARNOLFINI BATH

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SUN

PATH

ANALYSIS

These shading studies allowed me to understand how shaded the site would be by the existing buildings and whether the space behind would be a comfortable space. These images show the average shading at the displayed times across the year.

9.00

12.00

ARNOLFINI BATH

18.00

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ACCESS & MOVEMENT ANALYSIS

The existing access to the site is very limited with vehicle access only available at the north-west corner and very limited pedestrian access from Lower Bristol Road. There is potential for access to be gained through the existing car park on the south-east corner of the site. Lower Bristol Road is a major traffic route through to Bristol and remains busy at most times of the day. The pavement along the existing facade rarely ranges wider the 1000mm and an uncomfortable stretch to walk past due to the dominant facade of the old machine shops. From the river the site is visible clearly from the towpath that acts as a pedestrian and cycleway. There is also a road that runs round Green Park that has a steady flow of car traffic. The routes through to the site from town are not direct at this point however with new developments this may improve. The train station is within easy walking distance making it a realistic destination for tourists. If the cultural quarter is developed at Green Park Station there will be a strong link through the proposed footbridge to this. The link to Oldfield park is limited by the railway crossing points which approach the site on both sides. A pedestrian crossing would be required if providing access into existing buildings on Lower Bristol Road.

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BRIEF After choosing to design an Arts orientated venue/exhibition space, I visited the Arnolfini in Bristol as it seemed like a project of a similar scale and nature to what I had in mind. I discovered that the Arnolfini described itself as an Arts Centre as it is an institution that tries to cater to all the disciplines within the Arts. They market themselves at a young bristolian Arts scene. This is something that Bath doesn’t cater for, young people often grown up in Bath and leave when they are old enough to leave home or only remain in Bath if they are at University. I therefore decided to propose that the Arnolfini would be my hypothetical client and I would design a new venue for their ambitions in Bath. By choosing Arnolfini Bath as my brief it also made it easy to convey what my intentions were as a brief to those who knew of the original Arnolfini.

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BRIEF

DEVELOPMENT

ROOM

SCHEDULE

• • • • • •

Primary Gallery Space Secondary Gallery Spaces Double Height Gallery Small Exhibition/ Jewellery exhibition spaces Dark Studio Light Studio

• • • •

Foyer Reception Bar Restaurant/Cafe

• • • •

Book Store Library Reading Spaces Working Spaces

• • • • •

Meeting rooms Auditorium Projector Room Control Room Teaching Space

• • • •

Kitchen Toilets Food Store Bar Store

• • • • • •

Plant Air Handling Unit Rainwater Storage Storage Art Storage Delivery

OFFICES • Director • Curators • Development • Education • Finance • Fundraising • Communication • Marketing • • • •

Fire First Aid Kitchenette Security

BUDGET Cost/ Square metre - approximately £3500 Gross Floor Area - approximately 4500 square metres Approximate construction cost = £15.75 million Due to the complexity of the groundworks involved being at the riverside an additional 5% added. Landscaping Area x £500 sqm 10% contingency. Construction Budget

3500 X 4500 = 15,750,000 + 78750 + 1,250,000 + 1,700,000 = £19,487,500

ARNOLFINI BATH

PRELIMINARIES

CONSULTANTS

STATUTORY FEES

Additional 12% = £2,338,500

Architect Project Manager Quantity Surveyor CDMC Structural Engineer MEP Engineer Landscape Architect Fire Engineer Acoustic Engineer Lighting Designer Facade Engineer Archaeological Consultant

Planning Application Fees Building Control Fees + Inspection

OVERHEADS+PROFIT Additional 10% = £1,948,750 TOTAL = £23,774,750

Consultant and Statutory Fees can be budgeted at 16% of overall cost. = £3,803,960 TOTAL PROJECT C O S T = £27,578,710

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ATMOSPHERE PRECEDENT

After establishing the building type for my brief I wanted to define the kind of Arts centre it would be and the atmosphere it could provide. I looked to examples of other venues that conveyed to me the kind of ambience i wanted. I wanted there to be a feeling of community as well as a venue for young people in Bath. The Young Vic has been successful at becoming a venue not just for the theatre but as a place people meet and enjoy the busy atmosphere of the bar in the centre of the building.

THE YOUNG VIC

WESTBOURNE STUDIOS

DE

YOUNG

MUSEUM

Westbourne studios also provides a space for creative people to come together and work, perform or socialise. Looking at these precedents informed some of my early designs where i explored a introverted plan and animating a central space with the social areas.

THE YOUNG VIC

ARNOLFINI BATH

WESTBOURNE STUDIOS

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ATMOSPHERE

READING SPACE

The reading and library space was something I was really excited about introducing to the scheme as it was a space I wish there was in Bath. I wanted to create a place that would allow people to come and read or research Arts literature in a relaxed environment, somewhere people want to spend time and can be in a comfortable and peaceful environment. There was something about the old traditional library that I wanted to provide that evokes a feeling of curiosity, mystery and getting lost in a stack of books. But also providing a place with a view over the river to Green Park and somewhere you can sit in the sunlight.

THE

READING

ROOM - BRITISH

LIBRARY

ARNOLFINI BATH

SEATTLE

LIBRARY

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ART I had visited a series of Art museum while away in San Francisco including the new Herzog + De Meuron De Young Museum and Mario Botta’s MOMA museum. Some of the exhibits I saw there inspired my brief, especially the work of Martin Puryear and Maya Lin. Combined with the motives of the existing Arnolfini I decided I wanted to try and cater to a full range of art exhibitions. This meant providing space that could cater for a range of scales as well as installation artwork, paintings and sculptures. The Arnolfini have consistently changing exhibitions however I would propose that the Arnolfini Bath would have a slightly lower turnover of exhibitions which would allow for more complicated installations to remain on display for a more cost effective period of time. I discovered that the original intentions of the Arnolfini were to exhibit Jewellery as a part of their portfolio. This is something I found intriguing

BARNETT NEWMAN

OLAFUR ELIASON

BANKSY

ARNOLFINI BATH

MARTIN PURYEAR

MAYA LIN

BARBERA HEPWORTH

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ART The benefit of designing an Art museum is i believe as an Architect it is one of the few places that people can enter a state of reflection and often appreciate the architecture as much as the exhibited work.

“Exhibitions can push the radical, experimental solutions because they are not permanent. I think that is why very often exhibitions are an interesting “laboratory” for architecture. It is not by coincidence that pavilions and exhibition designs were the contexts for a lot of inventions in architecture, because it is not the rigid thing of a permanent structure, but an ephemeral structure where an architect can really play, and can experiment”.

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ARCHITECTURAL COURTYARDS

PRECEDENT

Early in the project when I was exploring spatial themes I tried to remember examples from precedents and sketch out how, as Architectural features or designs operated. This was useful as an exercise to help me understand how spaces might work in reality. B R I T I S H M U S E U M: I remembered the library room having the stairs wrapped round it while it sat in the large courtyard. i was exploring the effect of vertical circulation on a courtyard.

READING

CASA DE RETIRO E S P R I T U A L: The circulation moving up the interior of a courtyard but on the outside of the courtyard space. D A R W I N S T U D Y C E N T R E: An atmospheric reading and working area created by wrapping bookshelves and level changes. RENZO PIANO B U I L D I N G W O R K S H O P: The tiering and visual connection combined with timber and light creates an atmosphere I wanted to replicate.

VERTICAL GALLERY

G U G G E N H E I M , N Y: Void in centre of museum that galleries revolve from was a concept I was considering. T A T E M O D E R N: Large architectural space for installation work that links with rest of building.

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ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENT

The precedents I studied changed as the project developed however I started with the Atmospheric precedents and then the spaces that had been created in museums I enjoyed. I had recently visited the De Young Museum in San Francisco and though the spaces and light was something I wanted to aspire to. This led to early developments in carving up a deep plan building with light wells.

DE

YOUNG

KIASMA

MUSEUM

MUSEUM

ARNOLFINI BATH

KIASMA

MUSEUM

LABAN

CENTRE

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ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENT

As I started researching structure in the developing geometries in the building I began looking at a new set of precedents with relation to the curves I was exploring is my design. The Richard Meier Church in Italy was my initial precedent as a beautiful light filled space using double curves in a similar manner. I assumed the only way to create these shapes was in concrete however after tutorial discussions I realised that this was not the case and looked into timber construction as a means to create the riverside curves I wanted. I also started considering the cladding or skin of the building; I used the Renzo Piano building as a key precedent for structure and cladding.

RICHARD MEIER CHURCH

STRATA HOTEL

NEW

CALEDONIA CULTURAL CENTRE

TOUR

SAN FIN

C H 2, M E L B O U R N E

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NATURAL

LIGHT

PRECEDENT

Light is obviously a very important theme in any kind of Gallery as there are often specific lighting conditions required for certain exhibits. With consideration for the range of exhibits I want to encourage in the building I felt that allowing a maximum amount of even north light into the building was the most desirable environment to start with. I would then use shading or artificial lighting to tune the lighting requirements. I visited and researched large amount of museums and the lighting systems provided. It was on this research that I established that curved walls distributed reflected light very well as well as north or sky lighting being the preferred source. LEGION OF

HONOUR

MUSEUM

LEGION OF

HONOUR

MUSEUM

HERNING CENTRE

I imagined a very different lighting requirement for the reading areas as it was a space I wanted to feel you could escape with a book and have the option to be bathed in warm light. Although direct light is not always preferable or practical when considering books the continuation of the active shading on the south facade allows for changing conditions behind the louvers.

KIMBELL

ART

MUSEUM

KIMBELL

ART

MUSEUM

ARNOLFINI BATH

MUSEUM + GALLERY, TENERIFE

KIASMA

MUSEUM

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SHADING

PRECEDENT

Due to the large amount of south facing glazing it was crucial that there be an active shading system covering the facade to control light levels and heat gain into the building. As these were going to be the primary ingredient of the elevation I looked into similar projects and the options for timber louvers. The repetition of timber also fitted in well with the almost industrial nature of the building and it surroundings. I decided to use horizontal louvers that would span 3m and therefore need aluminium support. I felt the expression of this support gave a nice contrast to the existing timber as well.

ROLLS ROYCE FACTORY

MILLENIUM

MILLENIUM

P O I N T, B I R M I N G H A M

ARNOLFINI BATH

MILLENIUM

P O I N T, B I R M I N G H A M

P O I N T, B I R M I N G H A M

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P R O PO S A L

RIVER

SHELTER

STREET

CITY VISTAS

COMMUNIT

Y

RESIDENTIAL

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LOWER GROUND

8.

23.

8.

1. Cold room 2. Bar Store 3. Kitchen Store 4. Kitchen 5. Male Toilets 6. Plant 7. Exhibition 8. Meeting room/exhibition space 9. Exhibition 10. Dark Studio 11. Female Toilets 12. Auditorium 13. Projection Room 14. Office 15. Kitchenette 16. Staff entrance 17. Art delivery/Store 18. Goods lift 19. Patio seating 20. Lawn 21. Stone path 22. Car Park 23. Ramp

8.

4. 1. 5. 2.

9.

7.

3. 6.

10.

11.

15. 14.

14. 6.

14.

14. 16.

14.

19. 14. 12. 20. 20.

13.

14. 21.

17. 22.

14.

14.

18.

20. 23

ARNOLFINI BATH

.

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UPPER GROUND 1. Terrace 2. Cafe 3. Bar 4. Foyer 5. Bridge 6. Ramp 7. Entrance 8. Control room 9. Auditorium 10. Projection room 11. Reception 12. Book store 13. Exhibition space

5.

6. 7. 4.

1.

2.

3.

11. 7.

12.

6.

. 8.

1.

9. 13. 13.

10.

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FIRST FLOOR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4.

2.

Void Cafe Library / Reading area River balcony Exhibition space

4.

3. 3.

1.

5. 5.

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SECOND FLOOR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

5.

Void Reading/Viewing balcony Library Work space River balcony Exhibition space

4. 2. 1.

3.

3. 6.

1.

6.

ARNOLFINI BATH

6.

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SITE

ARNOLFINI BATH

PLAN

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SITE MODEL

FINAL CRIT

To allow the critics to understand the setting and scale of the proposal I presented this Site model at 1:500 with a simplified massing model on the site.

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MODEL

FINAL CRIT I presented this model for the final crit as I had started developing it to explore the structure of the building. Although not completely accurate to the final design, the principles were the same. I also started to resolve the changes in the structure as the shell comes over the bar and cafe area, where the louvers become integrated with the curve as opposed to being on an independent screen.

ARNOLFINI BATH

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SITE SECTION

ARNOLFINI BATH

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NORTH ELEVATION

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SOUTH COURTYARD

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READING AREA

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GALLERY

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CIRCULATION GALLERY

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RAMP TO BRIDGE

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VIEW FROM RIVERBANK

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VIEW FROM GREEN

ARNOLFINI BATH

PARK

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NIGHT VIEW

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BAR SECTION I felt an additional section would be helpful in understanding how the section changes in this area of the building. The louvers move onto the curved wall and the walls are glazed. This is an area i would continue to develop and possibly break down further. I believe there is an excess of glazing and although this is creates a lovely atmosphere the heat loss would be significant. I considered integrated sections of insulated glazing so the light was still diffusing through the louvers but the views and heat would be more restricted.

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LANDSCAPING When it came to landscaping the interior courtyard I looked into ways that might incorporate or compliment the curve of the building as trying to resist the curve was unsuccessful. I decided to divide the area radially to highlight the routes linking the existing buildings and my scheme. I broke this down into hard landscaping, turf and planting. I negotiated the void between the auditorium and the existing buildings by making up the mass with planting and trees. To develop this theme and deal with the blank walls of the auditorium i flanked it with planters allowing climbers to wrap the auditorium volume. To complete this I have suggested a green roof so the auditorium appears to be in a green glove. The West hardlandscaping is intended to provide a spill out space from the cafe and bar as it is south facing, it also provides a direct route from the communal foyer to the Arnolfini Bar. The East hard landscape provides a route for staff to their entrance at ground level. The riverside was obviously an important boundary to landscape. I decided to soften the river bank by fastening reed planters to the river wall, these can grow to 3m allowing the tops to overgrow the river edge. This allows the lighting and views from ground level to catch the flowering area of the reeds. The ramp has been pulled away from the building to allow light down the gap as well as the boards being slightly spaced to allow enough light through for the reeds to grow.

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MATERIAL PRECEDENT

I wanted to keep a relatively limited palette for the scheme, from looking over the architectural precedents I had collected I chose to limit the external materials to Timber, Weathered Steel and Glass while on the interior limiting it to white rendered walls, exposed concrete floors, timber structure and details in brass.

NEW CALEDONIA CULTRURAL CENTRE

WEATHERED

S T E E L, P O L I S H E D C O N C R E T E

KIASMA MUSEUM

BRASS

ARNOLFINI BATH

WEATHERED

STEEL

BRASS

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MATERIALS TIMBER

I looked into what timber would be appropriate to use in my design as it will be used as the primary building material. I wanted the primary timber, used for structure and cladding, to be a light colour to suit the muted tones of the interior. However I wanted to use a contrasting tone to highlight certain aspects of the scheme, such as the ramp handrails and the south elevation. The most sustainable timbers I found to suit my requirements were Larch for the primary timber and Western Red Cedar.

DOUGLAS FIR LARCH OAK

LARCH

WESTERN RED CEDAR NEW

WESTERN RED CEDAR NEW

LARCH + OAK

I would like for the colour in these to keep as much as possible so both would need to be treated. This would also hopefully lengthen the life cycle of the timber.

WESTERN RED CEDAR AGED

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MATERIALS METALS

Due to the industrial nature of the site I wanted to use a material that worked aesthetically well with timber but brought a degree of roughness to what feels like a delicate construction atop a concrete plinth. I therefore decided to clad the concrete plinth in weathered steel for its changing aesthetic and reflection of changing conditions. The rust colour also compliments the dark brick used in some of the surrounding old industrial buildings.

POLISHED BRASS

WEATHERED STEEL

WEATHERED STEEL

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SUSTAINABILITY MATERIALS

EUROPEAN LARCH

S.I.P.S. P A N E L S:

Used for the cladding system and sourced from Uk sustainable forest to keep embodied energy low.

All unglazed roof and wall panels including fire walls will be SIPS panels manufactured off site and delivered Just-In-Time to site for assembly.

The larch acting as a rain screen would be treated to prolong the lifetime and colouring of the cladding. The European larch is also suitable for use in the Glulam column and beam construction WESTERN

RED CEDAR

Used for the ramp and louver system, it can be sourced sustainably from the UK although less durable than the North American counterpart. Although the wood would be treated to prolong life the silvering with age would add to the aesthetic qualities of the design.

ARNOLFINI BATH

Each SIP is engineered from two layers of OSB3 (timber from sustainable sources) injected with CFC and HCFC ODP zero polyurethane core. They will be marked according to the drawings for easy assembly on site. This level of pre fabrication should allow the building to be weatherproofed quickly with minimal wastage, and reduced raw timber requirements. SIPS panels at 150mm thick also provide a U-Value of 17w/(m2k) thereby reducing heat loss within the building. I have also detailed an additional 50mm layer of insulation to prevent and cold bridging across internal studs.

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CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

Once I had established that I could use the floor as a diaphragm between shear walls as the overriding structural strategy and therefore a moment resisting frame was unnecessary, I discussed with the Structural Engineer the benefits of bringing the glulam columns onto site in one piece against fragmenting the lengths.

1. D E M O L I T I O N

2. G R O U N D W O R K S

3. C O N C R E T E

PLINTH

The conclusion was that the difficulty of joining the columns on site outweighed the transportation issues to site. * The columns would therefore need to be propped with scaffold while the 1st and second floor were poured until the diaphragm was completely spanning between shear walls before removing the support and filling in the holes in the floor plate.

4. G L U L A M

COLUMNS*

7. R O O F P A N E L S + Z I N C F I N I S H

5. C O N C R E T E F L O O R S + S H E A R W A L L S

6. S.I.P.S. P A N E L S + S H A D I N G C O L U M N S

8. G L A Z I N G + C L A D D I N G

9. R A M P + B R I D G E

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STRUCTURE OVERVIEW

The structural strategy used in this scheme is a timber framed structure sitting on a concrete plinth. The stability comes from the concrete floor spanning between shear walls as a diaphragm. The principle column line stands on the arc at 6m centres. The largest span is 9.5m across the gallery level. The beams supporting the concrete floor across this length are glulam beams with flitch plates with a depth of roughly 600mm. The column weight is distributed directly into dividing walls at lower ground level.

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STRUCTURE DETAIL

ARNOLFINI BATH

Timber flitch frame that sits on a concrete plinth.

Using shear walls and concrete floors as diaphragm to brace structure

SIPS panel system adds additional bracing as well as wall and roof insulation

Zinc roof wraps structure with skylights in between structural grid

Additional layer of insulation to prevent any cold bridging across internal SIPS supports.

Vertical batons secure waterproof membrane as well as the rain screen cladding.

Cantilevered ramp anchored to internal walls in concrete plinth and supported on pad foundation.

Timber batons used for acoustic suspended ceiling as well as recessing ambient lighting and spotlight stacking.

Spacing needs to be ample to allow heat from occupants to reach exposed thermal mass above.

Ventilation distributed through vertical vents in internal wall that represent the positioning of internal columns.

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B

C

E

D

A

CONSTRUCTION SECTION

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DETAIL

B 2. 3.

4. 1.

2.

3.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

7.

A

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

6.

5.

Double glazing Timber louver with aluminium support Omnideck poured concrete floor system with void formers Aluminium facade rail Insulated translucent panel Plasterboard Recessed light and Track spotlight Timber flitch rail Mechanically opened window

EXTERNAL WALLS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2x (150x500) glulam column with 20mm steel flitch 20mm plasterboard 25mm structural ply, for supporting art work 50x200 stud SIPS panel: 25mm ply, vapour barrier, 150 rigid foam insulation, 25mm ply, timber studs. 50mm insulation Waterproof membrane Vertical batons Rain screen fixing

10. Timber rain screen

6. 7.

1. 9. 8. 9. 8.

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CLADDING DETAIL

While developing the North elevation I developed the detailing of the timber cladding to give the elevation some depth and texture. *See elevation development.

C

B 1.

2. 1. 2. 3.

3.

4. 5. 4.

Omnideck poured concrete floor system with void formers 50mm polishable scree Trapezoidal profile glulam beam Extract duct Suspended Acoustic layer and lighting tracks

5.

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DETAIL

D

1. 2. 3.

6.

4.

ROOF

1. Zinc roof flashing 2. 50mm ventilated cavity 3. SIPS panel:25mm ply, vapour barrier, 150 rigid foam insulation, 25mm ply, timber studs. 4. Glulam Beam 5. Velux automatic rooflight 6. Zinc guttering 7. 20mm plasterboard 8. Recessed tube light with Erco spotlight track 9. Brass ventilation grill 10. Ventilation duct 11. 100mm insulation 12. Walk-in gutter

5.

9.

3.

7. 12.

8.

10. 11.

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INTERNAL WALL DETAIL

E

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2. 1.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

20mm plasterboard 25mm structural ply Glulam beam 100mm insulation Glulam flitch column Ducting Brass ventilation grill 25mm structural ply 20mm plasterboard

I wanted to reflect the position of the internal columns and mirror the expression of the columns along the external wall by placing vertical ventilation grills. This would bring a sense of symmetry to the curved galleries. This also allows for the distribution of fresh air at high level.

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ARTIFICIAL LIGHT PRECEDENT

I was unsure about the systems used to provide flexible lighting solutions within an exhibition. I visited the museums in San Francisco and researched the ERCO website to come to the understanding that the most flexible system is the track system which is often mounted with Spotlights that in turn have flexible lenses. I then looked into how this could be integrated with ambient lighting like the De Young Museum where the track is recessed along with a tube light. This enables the lighting strategy to appear consistent across the building.

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LIGHTING

GALLERY+GENERAL After visiting the De Young Museum I decided to adopt the same artificial lighting strategy in my building. At this stage the Structure was steel framed with termodeck slabs, however as the structural/environmental and acoustic strategy developed so did the lighting. However i have decided to retain this strategy for the top floor on the slanted roof where hot air can be vented through the skylight.

1. 2.

3.

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• • 1. 2. 3. • • • •

20mm polished scree 300m Omnideck concrete floor 100mm glass mineral wool insulation Duct Glulam beam 20mm plasterboard ceiling Erco Track Recessed Tube light Erco Stella spotlight

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LIGHTING+ACOUSTIC GALLERY DETAIL

My initial proposal was to follow the De Young precedent for the lighting across my building. However with the development of the environmental strategy I wanted to expose the concrete soffit to allow the heat from occupants and lighting to be absorbed into the thermal mass. The added benefit of recessing the ambient lighting with the track is the additional acoustic surfaces that are provided. I continued to develop the lighting strategy with acoustic and environmental considerations until i settled on this suspended timber screen proposal.

• 20mm polished scree • 300mm Omnideck concrete floor • 450mm depth timber flitch beam • Suspended acoustic barrier • Erco track, Stella Spotlight & Tube light

• Drop Rod • 50x50mm nailing plate • 50x50 larch baton • 15x50 larch louvers

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LIGHTING EXTERIOR

I have designed the exterior lighting so as to not only highlight the building and its architectural features in the evenings but also so that the public route remains a hospitable space in the evenings. The facade lighting is ERCO Paratec wallwashers to emphasize the changing profile of the cladding batons. There are low level uplighters that highlight the railings of the bridge and ramp at intervals. I am also proposing ERCO Grasshopper spotlights to wash the ramp structure and tops of the reeds from the river edge.

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ENVIRONMENTAL

SUMMER

STRATEGY

B U I L D I N G T Y P E: Due to the building being a relatively low occupancy typology the heat loading will on average be low. The areas of high loading will be the Audistorium and Plant room, and to a certain extent the offices. The previous 2 would need to be mechanically cooled however I have endeavoured to design the rest of the environmental strategy to be low energy.

HEATED AIR COOLED AIR DUCT HEAT

TO THERMAL MASS

THERMAL ENCLOSURE HEATED

SPACE

P A S S I V E:

SUN THERMAL MASS

THERMAL

M A S S:

EXTRACT

Exposed concrete floor and soffit allows building to absorb excess heat during the day.

INTAKE HEAT

HEAT

PUMP

In summer the building could be NIGHT COOLED to allow maximum heat capacity the following day.

EXCHANGER

V E N T I L A T I O N:

-

One sided ventilation is provided by windows on the south facade. Stack effect ventilation is enabled by allowing heated air to rise through the mezzanined floorplates where it can be vented through the skylight. S H A D I N G: The building section is designed to shade the north lights so an even light is distributed down the internal gallery wall.

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ENVIRONMENTAL

WINTER

STRATEGY

A C T I V E: R I V E R S O U R C E: A closed loop heat pump system is implemented to benefit from the stable temperatures of the river bed.

HEATED AIR COOLED AIR DUCT HEAT

In winter the temperature of the riverbed will be higher than the outside air temperature. This heat gain will be passed to the water in the pipe system loop by conduction to prevent changes to the river environment.

FROM THERMAL MASS

SOLAR HEAT FRESH AIR THERMAL ENCLOSURE

SUN

In summer the system will be used to pre- cool the air distributed through the building.

THERMAL MASS

HEAT

HEATED

SPACE

EXTRACT

In winter a heat recovery system can be implemented to recycle the energy emitted from occupants and lighting. This can be used to pre heat the fresh air distributed into the building.

INTAKE HEAT

PUMP

HEAT

EXCHANGER

R E C O V E R Y:

V E N T I L A T I O N:

+

A pressure gradient is created by means of a low energy mechanical ventilation system. Air is introduced on the south side and extracted at high level on the north wall. Ventilation is distributed by 200x450mm ducts independently serving a 9x6m bay. At maximum occupancy of 2ms/ person this should be sufficient air flow for each bay. S H A D I N G: Building envelope is shaded on the south facade by an active louver system, enabling accurate control of light and solar gains.

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ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY

W I N T E R N I G H T: The majority of the activity would be concentrated on pre heating the building before visitors start arriving. This would begin by raising the temperature using the river bed then additional heat supplied from a boiler. SUMMER NIGHT

Any heat absorbed from the previous day would be maintained until morning in the thermal mass.

WINTER NIGHT

S U M M E R N I G H T: To maximise the capacity for storage the thermal mass would be cooled overnight by passing cool air through the ventilation system and windows; expelling heat to the night air.

+

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FIRE

STRATEGY B4: E X T E R N A L F I R E S P R E A D The building sits at its closest 11.5m clear of any adjacent buildings. B 5: F I R E S E R V I C E A C C E S S Fire services have potential vehicle access to the East and West of the site thereby accessing at least 50% of the facade S M O K E: Vehicle Access

ir Exit

The section of the building allows a large volume of smoke to be collected as well as the roof windows being automatically venting when the alarm is triggered.

Fire Sta

Fir

eS

ta

ir E

xit

36

m

* Upon Fire Engineering the fire stair may need to be relocated to this stair to maximise escape options.

18m

Assembly Point *

As my building is an Arts Centre it is defined as an Assembly building by fire regulations. The building poses the greatest risk of fire at lower ground level which is occupied by offices, kitchen and plant rooms. This level is constructed on concrete and compartmentalised to minimise fire spread. B 1: W A R N I N G + E S C A P E There will be a discreet alarm system to notify trained staff members to organise evacuation. In addition to this a vocal announcement will be made to occupants over a public address system. The provision of escape routes has been designed in accordance with B1 table 2. In the case of more than one option there is an exit within 45m at any point or in the case of 1 exit within 18m. Stairs have a minimum width of 1300mm as well as fire protected stairs opening to external space. B 2: F L A M E

Vehicle Access

The majority of building will be served by a water sprinkler system. Due to the potentially valuable content in the galleries the sprinklers in these areas will use a dry sprinkler system. Hand held extinguishers will be provided at lower ground level where heat risk is higher in the case of offices and plant rooms. B 3: S T R U C T U R E The timber frame structure is over engineered to provide a charring factor of 1 hour. The flitch plates would be protected by intumescent paint.

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ACCESS

STATEMENT

CURRENT USE:

TRAFFIC SAFETY:

CIRCULATION:

The site is currently uninhabited; the existing buildings being retained have had since the machine shops closed down housed various professional offices.

Traffic calming measures would need to be installed on the Lower Bristol Road. 2 crossings working in conjunction with traffic lights to allow pedestrians to gain access to the entrance or ramps.

Circulation in the building is flexible with independent vertical circulation for the foyer, book store, bar and galleries. This is to allow the visitor maximum flexibility with facilities.

PROPOSED USE:

EXTERNAL LIGHTING:

I am proposing to demolish the two existing buildings to the rear of the site and erect and Arts Centre to work in conjunction with the new inhabitants of the existing buildings to be of a similar nature.

External lights would primarily be visible to the north elevation in which case all fixtures would be compliant with BS5489 regulations. EXTERNAL SIGNAGE:

CONTEXT: The site sits on a bend in the River Avon and enclosed by the Lower Bristol Road, opposite Green Park.

External signage would be minimal however any signage along the Listed Elevation would be compliant with planning regulations.

CAR PARKING:

SECURITY:

Limited parking spaces will be created in addition to the existing car park to the south-east of the site but primary arrival is encouraged by foot.

Footbridge and linked ramps would be permanently accessible to the public however route through Machine shops would be secured at night as well as all gallery access.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT:

Controlled bar access would be open until later.

The site is located within 5 minutes walk from the Bath Spa train station as well as the newly located bus station.

ENTRANCES:

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS: Primary pedestrian access to the site will be possible from the newly designed footbridge over the river. Access will also be available from the Lower Bristol Road via the communal foyer, Riverside Road or the car park.

PART M COMPLIANT ACCESS SECURED ENTRY BAR SECURED

ENTRY

LIFT STAIR CAR

All entrances have been designed to offer equal opportunity to disabled visitors. Ramp from Lower Bristol Road Is Part M compliant at 1:15 with maximum going of 5m. Ramp from East car park Part M compliant with maximum rise of 1:20. Doors to be automatic, where double layered at entrance, power assisted doors are provided. All entrances will be level, with slip resistant floors.

Disabled access is available at all levels via the central lift core from the foyer. TOILETS: Toilet facilities are all shared at the Lower Ground Level which is accessible from the Bar as well as gallery circulation. MAINTENANCE: Access to the main roof gutter is available and is robust to support secured personnel for gutter maintenance. The timber cladding although it will be treated will fade however due to metal reinforcement should mot warp. Re-treatment may be required to keep colour from fading to grey. In which case a cherry picker lift would need to be used with access available from the riverside ramp. Scaffolding may be needed every 10 years if cladding needs replacing completely. Internal light fixtures are designed to offer maximum flexibility however if change is required a step ladder should be sufficient for maintenance. In exceptions a scissor lift may be needed for double height spaces. The service elevator is large enough to transport any machinery needed between floors.

PARK

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CDM SITE LAYOUT

S I T E R I S K S: D E M O L I T I O N: Demolition of existing buildings will be planned and carried out in a way that prevents danger. R I V E R E D G E:

A Construction & Design Management Co-ordinator will be appointed on site to oversee and maintain initial proposals of CDM. Principle contractor will be responsible for implementation of appropriate training and rules and communication with CDMC.

Hoarding will be placed round site boundary to prevent access from river as well as potential risk of falling into river.

canteen wc’s

T H E F T: Secure perimeter will be set up that can be locked at night to prevent unauthorised access.

crane

D A M A G E: meeting +office

site sto

rage

deliv

eries + site d rop off

Glulam columns are the main concern. To minimise potential damage time between site delivery and erection to be minimised and columns to be stored on raised platform with ventilation space, as well as being covered with waterproofing. H E I G H T: Construction at maximum height of 18m, will be performed by trained workers following standard safety practice.

SECURE SITE

PERIMETER

ACCESS

STORAGE AREA SITE OFFICES+WELFARE CRANE REACH

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C L E A N I N G: Cleaning of glazing on exterior will be possible through the use of cherry picker lift, stored on site. Where access is not available on riverside the lift will be launched from the access ramp. In this case public route will be closed and diverted down opposite ramp. *see maintenance under Access Statement

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GALLERY SPACES My first step into designing an Arts Centre was to try and consider the types of space that I would like to provide for exhibiting different types of art. I started looking into a large vertical gallery and its potential to be used as an architectural feature that supported the exhibition of large scale installations. Inspiration came from the Turbine Hall at the Tate Modern London. I explored the possible intersection with circulation, views, galleries and light. I also started considering spaces to exhibit smaller work like jewellery. I started designing a disorientating space with small but tall rooms with toplight openings.

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INTERIM FIRST

I had developed a basic scheme at the first interim that proposed a raised courtyard plan with two entrances. At this stage however i had assumed the footbridge was remaining where the Wilkinson-Eyre proposal suggested as I had, had trouble finding a foothold on the large site. I was also proposing the rear of the listed Machine shop building be removed leaving only the facade as a screen to the street. The vertical gallery had evolved into the courtyard and the social space was proposed to animate the central space. The main problem however was the buildings relationship with the site and the positioning of public space. The assumptions I made after the crit were: • • • •

ARNOLFINI BATH

Retain the existing building at south of the site. Reconsider the position of the footbridge. Retain the ideas and strategy of the brief. Segmentation of the building needs to be based on more than just the end point of the bridge.

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COURTYARD EVOLUTION

I believe the evolution of the project was orchestrated by my changing interpretation of the courtyard. This initially started with the studies of the vertical gallery as an orientating device that provides a light well as well as an architectural exhibition space. These expanded into a traditional courtyard plan where exhibitions could happen in a potentially outdoor space. As at 1st Interim stage. This altered when considering movement through the courtyard and potentially a public route coming though the building. I looked into the composition of Aalto’s community centre. A major shift in the project was when the courtyard changed in section and I first considered using the courtyard as a light catching feature if the section was curved. The courtyard then began to embrace the river and evolved into a space create by the tension between 2 almost separate buildings. When I couldn’t resolve the relationship between the 2 objects the focus switched back to allowing one object to provide a larger community courtyard embracing the 2 existing site buildings and their functions.

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MODEL

DEVELOPMENT The initial development of the curved courtyard was based upon the principle of catching south light from over the top of the existing buildings. I then considering the practicalities decided that this section would be of more benefit if it was collecting north light for the galleries. This tiering was something I wanted to encourage as I always imagined the bar or reading spaces catching the evening light from down river, possibly from roof gardens.

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MODEL

DEVELOPMENT The concept driving the design went through a change when I tried to clarify it in my own head with this set of studies. I wanted the Arts centre to be embodied by the space created by two architectural objects representing Nature, the river and park, and the other representing the urban grid of Bath. I explored ways that these could interact and create the courtyard and still represent the urban orthogonal and the curve of the river.

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MODEL

DEVELOPMENT The interaction of these two elements became overly complicated geometrically to resolve and ultimately concluded with my focusing on one element and its relationship with the river. The desired views are restricted to the north west of the site at Green Park; however the views up and down stream are also potential vistas. To maximise these views as well as limit views to the car park and bus station to the north east I explored shifting planes of the north wall to create strips of glazing that viewed along the curve rather than out of it.

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INTERIM SECOND

By the second interim I had got some the principles of final design established. The plan was arranged on the radius of a circle whose centre was at the junction of all three existing buildings and location for potential main reception on lower Bristol road. The curve of the building was placed to maximise the bend in the river. The Footbridge was punching through the building and back down a ramp to the Lower Bristol Road foyer, with auditorium and teaching facilities as shared facilities between the buildings. The suggestions at this stage were: • • •

ARNOLFINI BATH

Emphasize the route around the building linking in with the routes under railway line. De-emphasize the route that terminates at Lower Bristol Road Consider fewer divisions in north facade.

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MODEL

DEVELOPMENT I began exploring the section more through modelling to try and enrich the relationship between the floors especially above and below the foyer. By reorganising the lower ground level and opening the floor slab the public realm is reinforced and enlivened. I also began considering the roof and north light options, as well as the potential change in order where the buildings use shifts from exhibition to social and more extravert. I enjoyed exploring breaking down the repetitive order of the section over the bar area however I was unable to find a suitable logic for changing the format in these studies.

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STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

The structure of the scheme went through a series of changes through the design process. Originally I had proposed a moment resisting steel frame structure to prevent the internal spaces having to be divided with bracing. The materiality of the structure changed when I decided to expose the structure, rather than encase the steel frame the aesthetic evolved to be a timber frame building. To enable the spans and heights needed for the structure a glulam flitched frame was the only timber option. I also designed out the need for a moment resistant frame through the development of the plans which enabled shear walls to be placed in the design. The bracing strategy then came from the floor plates spanning between the shear walls as diaphragms.

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ELEVATION DEVELOPMENT

The north elevation being the most visible and arguably important elevation posed a challenge to try and give life to a large, mainly windowless, north facing elevation. Developing the cladding detail along with a lighting strategy was integral to the design of the elevation. I became concerned with the magnitude of the continuous surface and my attempts to increase the transparency to the West had seemed futile. I started on the principle of strips of timber cladding with a shadow gap between batons. These batons would be spanning between vertical batons at 3m centres, so would need steel support to prevent warping. Initially I explored how I could break down the transparency across the elevation by punching holes of varying scale in the wall behind the cladding.

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ELEVATION DEVELOPMENT

I decided the entrance needed to be expressed more clearly as a destination point for the footbridge as well as Green Park. I also started exploring the possibilities of punching holes in the facade as viewports across Bath. Although some of these were relatively successful their relationship with the interior galleries was difficult. The imposition of the entrance as an extension of the concrete plinth and auditorium also needed refining into a more suitable gesture. I began considering a balcony level to break up the facade and also allow another viewing level outside the gallery spaces. The ramp from the entrance proved impossible however I considered keeping the balcony level.

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ELEVATION DEVELOPMENT

It was clear from an early stage that the north elevation facing the river was going to be an important elevation as it is the only elevation visible from public view. Due to the arc plan it is also a large elevation. To tackle to problem of resolving the elevation I modelled and drew it projected on a straight line. The nature of the gallery spaces organised to the East of the plan behind the elevation meant I didn’t want to sacrifice wall space for windows. This was the original motivation behind the offsetting of the walls for lateral views. The early drawings demonstrate my desire to attempt to tier the building away from the entrance space. There was also a realisation that the views would be preferred from the West areas near the bar. I wanted the building to feel wrapped by the surrounding ramp and also felt the building should be read as a horizontal band with a transparency gradient from east to west. To accentuate this horizontal rather than break it with the shifts in the walls, I explored fraying the texture of the cladding to blur the edges of the shifts. For this I looked at the Tour san Fin by Renzo Piano where the structure weaves into the sky.

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POST CRIT PROPOSALS

A U D I T O R I U M: Revise proportions of the auditorium so it can service a wider range of functions rather than just an education/lecture space. Could be used as a more formal performance space if larger and given acoustic consideration. Design also needs to consider access to auditorium for equipment and staging. This could be resolved with a pathway created that links the auditorium and the East car park and widening the entrance to the projector room that could act as a green room/back stage area.

FINAL CRIT PROPOSAL

REVISED

OPTION _2

I think that more could be made of the auditorium as a venue and the lost space on the staff lawn is not needed. The height would need to be increased considerably for it to function properly however and this may have a negative impact on the amount of light entering the building at higher levels. A possibility is to sink the auditorium 1 level however due to the nature of the site and flooding considerations this would be impractical.

REVISED

OPTION _1

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POST CRIT PROPOSALS

B R I D G E: The relationship between and the curve of the facade is a difficult geometry to resolve however I feel my final crit proposal is justified in that it serves both routes round the building while still projecting towards Green Park. EARLY SKETCH OF BRIDGE THROUGH THE BUILDING

I considered different options including taking the bridge through the building, however this would prove impractical. I also considered extending sections of the radius to cater for the movement. I think with more time i would develop this approach as it provides a series of viewing platforms the bridge punches through. The engineering of the cantilevers would provide a challenge however I’m sure this could be resolved.

BRIDGE SPLITTING INTO BUILDING CONCEPT

NORTH FINAL CRIT PROPOSAL

POSSIBLE

REVISION

E L E V A T I O N:

Although the north elevation has undergone a large amount of development it is an area I would like to refine further. I still believe the gallery section is too monotonous to be as beautiful as it should be for the riverside elevation. Something I explored the possibility of earlier in the project was running a balcony at First floor level across the elevation so visitors could exit the galleries to look over the river towards Bath’s centre.

EARLY STUDY WITH BALCONY

RAMP AND

VISUAL OF PROPOSED

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I think the integration of this into the entrance is something that would benefit the design a great deal.

REVISION

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POST

CRIT

DEVELOPMENT

E AST

ELEVATION

The end elevations are an area I would have liked to spend more time on. I wanted to express the structure and section of the building in this elevation. I looked at Steven Holl’s Kiasma Museum where the section of the building changes drastically from one end to another and both are expressed in the elevation. I would like to have spent more time on developing this concept. GALLERY An obvious issue for the gallery space is the hanging of art work on curved walls. While i didn’t want this restriction to restric the architecture I have tried to design a degree of flexibility into the construction by giving the internal surface a temporary stud wall that can be removed and reshaped accoring to the exhibition. I have drawn it as a curved structural ply wall as it compliments the structure, however this is intended to be as flexible as possible.

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POST CRIT PROPOSALS

Given more time I would develop a design for the shared foyer in the existing buildings on Lower Bristol Road. I imagine this as a large foyer serving as an entrance from the Road that also projects some identity of the building use. This could act as a shared foyer for the Media Centre, Architecture Centre and Arnolfini. As the focal point for the radial plan it would be important for this space to have purpose and function as the centre of the three communities.

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Final