THE BEST MEDICAL MARIJUANA RESOURCEÂ IN OKLAHOMA WWW.THEOKLAHOMACHRONIC.COM
Seed to sale: Women CEOs
THE DANK DUCHESS WORLD FAMOUS HASHMAKER
THE SKIES OVER KIAMICHI CANNABIS AND PTSD
The Oklahoma Chronic Magazine
STAFF Therin Miller || Chief Operations Officer
Kayla Johnson || Editor Instagram: @ladyofhousej
Veronica Castillo || Writer
Melissa Hall || Canna Critic
Dr. Pepper Hernandez || Writer Instagram: @dr.pepperhernandez
Rachel Klubeck || Cannabis Attorney / Writer
Chef Buz Deliere || Canna Chef Instagram: @medibles_ok
Chynna Pearson || Writer Instagram: @chynnathewriter
Terrisha Harris || Graphic Designer Instagram: @smoke_tree_cannabis
Philip Rodriguez || Writer Instagram: @wheretosmokeokc
NATURE'S KEY by Carisa Rowe
WHY NUTRIENTS MATTER FOR HOME GROWS By Veronica Castillo
FROM THE CHRONIC TEAM
If you're reading this, then congratulations, you've made it to level eleven of 2020! There has been no shortage of insanity throughout the last eleven months, from the pandemic to the stress of the election, and the usual stressors of life that haven't gone away. As the year rolls into the holiday season, however, I encourage you to take a step back from it all, and take a breath. Whether that breath contains cannabis is up to you, but if nothing else, take this time of year to take a break however you can. Enjoy a day of food and family at home (since the trip to grandma's house is quite unlikely, unfortunately), more than once if you want to. It's your November! As always, the team here at the Chronic appreciates our readers, and we hope you all have a safe and happy Thanksgiving, no matter what your plans may be.
By Chynna Pearson
CANNABIS AND PTSD By Veronica Castillo
PATIENTS OR PATIENCE
by Carisa Rowe
MONTHLY RECIPE - CHEF BUZ Pot-head Pita and Pumpkin Hummus
SEED TO SALE: WOMEN CEOS By Melissa Hall
WORLD OF CANNABINOIDS AND TERPENES
WHERE TO SMOKE IN OKLAHOMA Thankful edition
Be safe and be well! Have a story? Please let us know at firstname.lastname@example.org!
MONTHLY CANNABIS REVIEW Blackberry Dream in pumpkin bread
THE DANK DUCHESS By Melissa Hall
NATURE'S KEY: How One Key is Unlocking the Corridors to Wellness By Carisa Rowe
Roughly halfway through our interview, I asked Nathan Richter of Nature’s Key Edibles what the subtitle to this article would read. He was taken aback so I encouraged him to summarize their mission in four words or so. His face lit up as he proudly replied “Wellness in all we do.” Nathan and I had already been chatting for quite some time. My favorite part of wearing so many hats in this industry is to ask my peers what brought them to cannabis. Resoundingly, the answer is trauma. Some people know that’s what brought them here. Some people are still journeying, unaware that they are trying to heal but there is no denying: cannabis heals. Whether you are treating a nerve damage from an injury in the Coast Guard, bone cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, cannabis is key. See where they got the name? Nathan wasn’t always a cannabis patient. He’s a veteran, with ten years’ service in the United States Army. Nathan’s service story is his to tell but suffice to say, like so many, he returned with trauma. He was willing to try cannabis but explains that the first time he smoked flower, he felt nothing.
He didn’t feel “high” or more relaxed or alert or anything. He figured cannabis simply didn’t work for him. Nathan’s trauma, humming quietly in the background, was beginning to spill out of his psyche and into his interactions with the world. His sleep quality was deteriorating and his physicians weren’t finding the right combination of treatments to get him back to health. That’s when Nathan looked, originally, to CBD. Aware of the hype around CBD and comfortable with the legality of it in regards to his veteran status, Nathan began using it to treat his PTSD symptoms and general fatigue. Along his wellness journey, he came to work with Lynn Key, the original founder of Nature’s Key, a CBD wellness company founded in 2018. Nathan and Lynn developed a vision to approach cannabis wellness from a 360-degree perspective. Aware of the benefits of the entourage effect, they began to research and work with processors to develop cannabinoid blends with a purpose, adding beneficial terpenes into their recipes to potentiate the healing effect of each dose. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
As the CBD business developed, the natural progression was to enter medical cannabis. At the encouragement of his brother, Lucas, Nathan spoke with his physicians and applied for his medical marijuana license. He was determined to maximize the benefit of his cannabinoid therapy in order to achieve a better degree of wellness. Finding the aroma and inconvenience of smoking flower to be a less than ideal match for his medicating purposes and, additionally, understanding the metabolic processes of eating THC versus smoking, Nathan wanted to continue ingesting cannabis. One of the perks to a well-made edible is consistency and consistency was a big draw for Nathan. One of the primary resolutions to Nathan’s health was achieving restful sleep. When smoking flower, Nathan could fall asleep more easily but had trouble staying so. Within a few hours, the harrows of unrest would pop open his eyes and once awake, there was no returning to the Land of Nod, even if he utilized cannabis again. Nature’s Key was already delivering consistent-dose CBD gummies, thanks in part to the readily available CBD sources they could access for product development. That’s when they set to work to develop symptom-specific treatments, including recipes for sleep or wakefulness. Nature’s Key wanted to be confident in their medical cannabis products delivering as reliable an experience as possible. In that pursuit, they located Dr. Luz Tono, an Oklahoma physician familiar with cannabis therapy, and brought her on board as Medical Director. Rounding out the team is Dr. Junella Chin, a physician based in New York. Both medical providers have worked toward unlocking the many corridors of cannabis healing by identifying the benefits of individual cannabinoids and locating a balanced combination of terpenes intended to maximize those benefits. Say what, now?
For the uninitiated, cannabinoids are chemical compounds produced in cannabis plants such as marijuana and hemp. The most familiar cannabinoids are THC and CBD, or colloquially, the one that gets you “high” and the one that old folks will admit they use. These cannabinoids bind with CB1 and CB2 receptors in your endocannabinoid system (look that one up, I have a word count limit) to help regulate all sorts of functions in your earthly body such as your central nervous system, vascular network, and immune system. The scent-rich, flavorful notes in your favorite varietal are brought to you by terpenes, sugar alcohols that can enhance the medical benefits of cannabinoids. What you might not realize is that cannabimimetic (cannabis mimicking) compounds called phytocannabinoids are present
in many familiar foods such as black pepper and cacao, sunflowers, Echinacea, and many other teas you brew at home. These phytocannabinoids generate a muted wellness response in the body when we are seeking relief. Drink Echinacea tea to boost the immune system. Eat dark chocolate to feel more amorous. You can help your body if you will tune in to its call for wellness. Your cravings are signals from your nervous system, your GI tract, and your very muscles and bones to nourish your body for peak performance. Your body is crying out for you to achieve balance and the pursuit of that is enriched by correcting your endocannabinoid system with smart medicine. Nature’s Key realized that these terpene-rich phytocannabinoids held some piece of the wellness puzzle and Drs. Tono and Chin continually work to identify how terpenes can enhance individual cannabinoids, the way terpenes and flavonoids make the difference in a quality chocolate bar or a well-blended tea. The pursuit of wellness became a passion for Nature’s Key, leaving Nathan to chuckle when I asked him how people receive his exuberance for this medicine, “Passion will drive you and people will look at you like you’re mad and that does more for the reputation of medicine and the plant than any naysayer could ever do to destroy it.” Nathan is proud to represent cannabis. He’s a trial lawyer and an honored veteran. He had a normal childhood, was a drum major, and pursued the American Dream. As a natural leader, he served on committees and boards and often found himself in leadership roles. Eventually, and under the onion-like layers of trauma, Nathan burned out by the expectations he’d placed on himself and felt like he was losing himself in the process. Cannabis helped shift his internal monologue from a conversation on the past and about shortcomings to a mindset that was about who he is and who he is becoming. In cannabis endeavors, Nathan still leads. He’s proud to stand up front and tell his story in order to help people understand how cannabis came to help him. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
“It’s amazing how peaceful it is to be content,” encourages Nathan. “You can still be busy. You can still be a trailblazer,” while setting healthy boundaries and personal expectations and while instituting self-respect and wellness measures such as a reliable schedule, healthy diet, and the correct medical therapies. Nathan explains that we spend so much time wrapped up in what we do as an identifier for ourselves. We introduce ourselves by our jobs and expertise. We rely on being busy and being in demand to tell the world who we are so that we can avoid identifying our authentic selves. Nathan (and coincidentally I) believe that cannabis helps people see who they truly are. It allows patients to get in touch with their core self so they can process trauma and overcome the challenges presented by it. Sounds too good to be true, right? “Just smoke this reefer, man, it’ll open your world.” We’re all familiar with the stoner trope. The Cheech and Chong characters; Shaggy and Scooby. The Dude. What if those caricatures weren’t so far off? What if the key to wellness and contentment is as simple as this plant? The cannabis narrative, across Oklahoma’s industry, is healing. It must reason, then, that cannabis – sometimes the only uniting factor in such a diverse and new industry – is, in fact, medicine. Every patient can attest to its benefits. Every passionate grower exclaims the virtues of a balanced garden and how it leads to better health. Processors are energized to unlock the full chemical benefits of the medicine. Dispensaries are ecstatic to help patients find the perfect varietal for their particular ailment. The team at Nature’s Key is no different. Their blends and recipes have been developed with these commitments in mind: quality, consistency, and wellness. The company sources clean ingredients, from local companies when possible. The lab has achieved extraordinary consistency, arriving at a dosage measurement within 3% on each individual dose of their medical gummies, which happen to be vegan. In addition to medical gummies, Nature’s Key has developed medicated treats such as brownies, cereal bars, and artisan chocolate bars. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
It was really important to them to ensure that every patient could count on their products to stimulate a reliable endocannabinoid response so that patients could begin to effectively treat their illnesses. The last thing a patient wants, for example, is to eat a gummy that has a strong, unpleasant effect. Just like taking pain medication that makes you sick, cannabis products that contain contaminants or improper mixing or storing methods can result in an undesirable experience including nausea or headaches. Nature’s Key’s disciplined approach to sourcing distillate is matched by their rigor in food handling, resulting in a medicine that patients can depend on to treat individual disorders.
Without passionate entrepreneurs like the folks at Nature’s Key, using cannabis therapy for medical treatment can sometimes feel like trying to hit a dart board with a blindfold on. The choices are limitless and the information available is peer-sourced, meaning patients rely on expensive trial and error or the experiences of others to determine which varietals and products might work for their ailments. Nature’s Key offers medical cannabis products that are tailored for specific benefits. Take their “Oklahoma Sunrise” gummies, for example. These vegan CBD gummies are intended to help heighten focus and provide lasting energy. I am on my third day taking these gummies and, keeping in mind that I am a natural skeptic, I do feel more focused and reasonably more energetic.
I can say that it isn’t a placebo effect because I am pulled in many directions currently and I have been able to keep up the last two days with about half the coffee and none of the jitters. Nature’s Key might look like any other edibles company, clamoring for your purchase at your local dispensary. Any other edibles company, they are not. Nature’s Key is a wellness company operating in the cannabis space. They want to see their patients using cannabis to heal emotional and psychological trauma because they understand that those pains increase the physical illnesses that so many patients are eager to relieve. Nathan’s journey included remedying his sleep with THC and melatonin gummies but his real healing came in being rested enough to confront the PTSD that was draining his energy. Dealing with too much all the time, being hyper aware and simultaneously unfocused, staying irritable and unable to mood regulate – all played into the weight of PTSD on his shoulders, literally manifesting pain and inflammation throughout his body. When Nathan began focusing his cannabis treatments on unpacking and healing the wounds of his trauma, he began to rest easier and enjoy life more. Nature’s Key recognizes that we must put wellness in our work. The ethic of the company is to reach for more whole health through the pursuit of knowledge and consideration: of self and of others. Putting wellness in their work means quality ingredients, reliable practices, and transparency – a very important ethic at Nature’s Key. Clean medicine and honest testing and reporting are the first steps they take to destigmatize cannabis. Holding themselves to the highest standard sets them apart as a role models in the cannabis industry. Pursuing wellness has been the key to health and happiness. And... As Nathan says, “it’s amazing how peaceful it is to be content.”
Homegrown Cannabis: Why nutrients matter By Veronica Castillo
Before getting into nutrients, I want to point out 5 important things to know about growing Cannabis at home, because it takes more than green thumb to produce Cannabis: 1- You must understand Cannabis, at the foundation, the basics, the 101. 2- You must have an understanding about the costs associated with growing Cannabis at home. 3- You must research the various grow methods and select the best one for you and the space that Cannabis is being grown in. 4- You must understand lighting, electricity, and nutrients. 5- You must understand and be able to identify plant nutrients and pests. The Cannabis plant is fairly easy to grow, but producing bulky, high-quality buds isn’t so simple. There are a lot of strains out there now, and understanding how to cultivate them into big, high-yielding plants requires some cultivation knowledge. The list above covers five need to know items, but there is so much more to learn about growing Cannabis. This piece won’t cover everything but the hope is that you leave the pages, feeling more informed about the importance of nutrients for Cannabis plants.
Cannabis Growth & Cultivation Methods Cannabis can be grown in different ways so before the seed comes, the method used to grow the seed must be decided on. Before starting the grow process, remember to research whether indoor or outdoor will be best. It’s important to pick a method that is best suited to your skill level, budget, and space. Soil Soil grow is the most common and traditional grow medium for Cannabis plants. Cannabis in soil is similar to growing fruits and vegetables so, soil growing may be the most intuitive option for a beginner with little cultivation experience. Hydroponics There are some cultivators, usually with advanced growing skillsets, that may choose to grow their Cannabis using methods not associated with soil- like hydroponics. Hydroponic growing is a form of growing plants using oxygen, a water-based system, and nutrient filled solution. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
This method of growing doesn’t use soil; it requires the plant to have direct access to the nutrient filled solution. Any water not consumed by the root (remember- this is waterbased system) is recycled through the system for consumption at a later time. Coco coir Coco coir is said to be a very productive growing medium for Cannabis that provides the experience of growing in soil, with some hydroponics benefits. This could mean fewer bugs and faster growth. It’s made of grinded coconut husks and works well as a medium for growing many plants and is really good for the environment. Compost Compost fertilizer is popular. Compost is an organic fertilizer created from the controlled decomposition of organic, solid, or semi-solid material. This medium can be used indoor and outdoor and, it’s important to note that growers must make sure the compost is ripe and free from fungi, fruit flies or parasites.
Cannabis Nutrients and Their Importance No matter the grow medium and method, Cannabis requires nutrients and so they must be provided. Just like humans, vitamins, minerals, and nutrients are needed to grow and survive. Nitrogen: an inert gas crucial for the development of chlorophyll, and an essential building block of amino acids. Phosphorus: essential for all life and required for photosynthesis, flowering, and root development. This nutrient is used in both growth and bloom stages and aids in the production of ATP as well as phospholipids, which form cell membranes. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
Potassium: an alkali metal, used in the plumbing of Cannabis plants. This means the liquid moving inside. This metal also regulates the opening and closing of the leaf stomata –managing CO2 uptake. Calcium: strengthens cell walls.Sulfur: helps spread chlorophyll and increases growth. Magnesium: assists in nutrient utilization and promotes light absorption. Plants like humans need nutrients to thrive, and macronutrients aren’t all that’s needed. Plant Cannabis needs micronutrients to thrive as well: Boron: directly involved in plant growth as it's essential for cell division. The nutrient is crucial during reproduction, especially during flowering. Chlorine: helps keep Cannabis leaves firm and strong and also assists in photosynthesis. Copper: plays the role of an activator. It activates key enzymes that catalyze and speed up chemical reaction. Iron: involved in the production of chlorophyll, which gives plants their green. Plants need iron to form enzymes, produce energy, and reduce nitrate and sulfate levels. Manganese: contributes to essential survival processes and helps to fight diseases. Molybdenum: forms part of two enzymes that convert nitrate into nitrite, and nitrite into ammonia to synthesize amino acids. Zinc: said to build enzymes, proteins, and growth hormones. Zinc is also crucial in internode elongation.
Popular Cannabis Nutrient Providers It’s important to note that just about all growers recommend NOT growing your Cannabis plants with Miracle Gro. It is a Monsanto product and the fertilizer is petroleum based. Instead, here are a few providers to look into: Dutchpro: offering products designed to streamline the growing process. Dutchpro only requires 4 bottles of nutrients at a time. They create recipes to help achieve heavier, denser, and bigger fruits than ever before. Their products do this by providing plants with more energy and sugars to create more terpenes and better results. Advanced Nutrients: offering products containing proprietary blends of quality micro- and macro-nutrients, amino acids, hormones, expensive chelates, plant growth regulators, vitamins, enzymes, yeast, yeast extracts, organics, carbohydrates, microbes, beneficial bacteria, and beneficial fungi. All Advanced Nutrients products are backed by an unprecedented 100% guarantee.
Lotus Nutrients: scientifically developed by Northern California growers with decades of medicinal plant cultivation experience. Lotus was specifically formulated for medicinal plants and comprised of 14 unique raw, natural ingredients including 11 essential macro and micro elements as well as raw materials including seaweed plant extract, humalite, and plant protein hydrolysate.
Hear from a Cannabis Cultivator 1st Lady of the West Coast is the first black woman to own an exclusive line of strains. Prior to launching her company, Herb of Life Cultivation, 1st Lady grew her Cannabis at home and so, I wanted to get her take on the importance of nutrients for the home growers out there: â€œI was taught through reading the book: Marijuana Horticulture the Indoor/Outdoor Medical Growers, that nutrients are the elements that allow the plants to live. You can get nutrients from natural nature or from sources that carry liquid or powder nutrients. Nutrients will help the plant reach its full potential. It's like humans with water, fruits, and vegetables; they are good for us and feed us nutrients. Cannabis plants need nutrients in that same way. It's important to use natural and/or organic nutrients- nothing that has toxins in it.â€?
Final thoughts Cannabis is medicine and in order to grow healthy, strong, dense, and dank- the plant must have what it needs to thrive. Nutrients are critical for the health of the plant just like they are critical to human life. Nutrients help living organisms grow.
THE SKIES OVER KIAMICHI By Chynna Pearson
The marijuana industry is booming all over the country. Everyday there is news of something happening, be it good or bad, that has to do with marijuana. The growth Oklahoma made in our two years of medical legality has been insane. Part of that growth has to do with the many, many grows that exist all over our Sooner state. When it comes to the different types of grows here, the idea of having a wholly organic grow is what some may strive for. Others seem lean toward using assistants and fancy fertilizer more than natural supplies. It is actually more common for growers to use unnatural assistants when it comes to growing their plants. Both types of grows produce wonderful and potent flower that produce the desired effects. There are people, however, that have biases on what is considered the most natural way but it’s possible to do either and produce beautifully colored and flavored types of flower.
Now, I will remind you all that, yes, natural and organic can be used as buzz words to convince people of the greatness that their product can be. It’s always important to do your own research and you are free to draw your own conclusions about such; always keep an open mind when you hear something you may not recognize right away. That is the best way to navigate through the world of marijuana, and the world in general. This past month Chronic was invited to visit a grow near Clayton, Oklahoma. It’s an honor to tell you all about Kiamichi Skies, the grow is one of the best, nature filled areas I’ve ever seen. It is run by a man named James Paul Grayson who lives on the property with his wife and two dogs. Grayson used to work in the software business for over 40 years before retiring and starting Kiamichi Skies. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
He had worked for and owned over 3 different companies, one of which he was the CEO of for 14 years. When it became time to fully retire, he sold his companies and began his third attempt at retiring... It lasted 6 years before he ended up owning the grow. Grayson bought the area that became for Kiamichi Skies in 2012, in 2018 marijuana had become medically legal and he applied to become a grow as soon as he could. Since he originally moved to this secluded area to retire, during that time he decided to try becoming self-sufficient and live off the land. The area itself was already very fertile and had fruit trees overflowing with That self-sufficiency actually helped him turn his area into a fully functioning grow. Infact, another of Grayson’s past hobbies have helped the development of Kiamichi Skies; he, for a time, liked to ride horses around his many acres but now his many horses roam around and provide the grow site with fertilizer. But what really helps out with his business is his background in software, Grayson has a very forward thinking mindset that allows him to take risks and allows room for growth around potential mistakes. He likes the saying “move fast and break things”, the motto from Facebook, because failure is the best way to learn. Because of this way of thinking each harvest has gotten better and better, the only place to go from here is up. As someone who has only lived in Oklahoma for my years of college, (Go Pokes!) it was pretty incredible to travel to an area I've never had a chance to travel to. Traveling south, I drove into the Clayton area to visit Kiamichi Skies. Grayson got their company name from the mountain range that runs by the grow. He originally had a small observatory on his property with the same name. On this property he has a two story house, a cabin, the grow site with a converted horse barn for production, large freezers, lots of solar panels, and a food truck they use as a kitchen for edibles. The area all around it is beautiful, it looks like a very relaxing area to live and work in; it can easily be imagined as a California vineyard style AirBnB. Grayson’s grow is hidden from the causal drive by viewing by a flood of trees. Even the turn into it is a little bit hidden making it seem like a secret passage into a wonderland. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
The aura as soon as you walk in seems very mystical, you can feel a magic in the air. It is the perfect secret weed filled getaway. The whole property is about 106 acres, it is filled with wildlife and a creek that runs all the way into Hugo Lake giving the grow access to fresh water. They use reverse osmosis water on all of their flower and it is processed on site as well. When you arrive, you can see the main living area and cabin with a large wooden fence running near it. Behind that wooden fence is where they plant the seeds. They use a live soil made from the natural fertilizer they get from their horses. Each plant gets the full sun during their growing season that lasts from around April through
October due to the moderate climate in the area. The process they go with is very hands on and very organic. They refrain from using additives and when it comes to pests, they use a spray derived from flowers and order predatory bugs like ladybugs, assassin bugs, and praying mantisâ€™ to come in and eat the ones that are causing the harm. During the times they have harvested they have started to change up their process. Grayson detailed how they now do the maricuring technique in order to get the absolute most out of all their plants; to do this they cut off the big buds at the top and the smaller buds grow longer to get bigger and more rejuvenated. This process can be done two to three times per plant. This way they also get more buds that are sellable as is and can use more of the smaller buds for concentrates and edibles. Kiamichi Skies has been drying different techniques since they began, another different technique is drying technique, once the flowers are cut they are sent into the big freezers on site for a few days. After this they are brought in and placed in a freeze dryer for around 24 hours. The freeze drying technique assists in sublimation and saves a lot of time. Freezing the plant keeps all the trichomes on the plant intact even if they fall off. The plants end up coming out looking fresh and still very colorful, they are actually so nicely dried and cooled the process of trimming can be reduced to just running your hands over the bud and gently cleaning it; no need for scissors at all while the buds still feel nice and not crunchy. The flower is also cured for the appropriate amount of time inside the barn loft, they really utilize every possible space on their site. The plants he grows are similar strains at a time, the one I got to see the most was Tropaya, a beautiful light green strain with a nice smell to it. Each harvest is based in quality rather than quantity so they use every part of the plant that they can. Part of that ideal goes into their solventless process of making concentrates and edibles. I was lucky enough to see some of their live rosin creation process first hand. One of his employees was kind enough to press out some concentrate while the whole process was explained to me.
To begin the process they place around 10 pounds of the clean and frozen flower into a number of filter bags that each have different size filters. After the bag is full they place it into a container and pour ice water into it to help separate the particles and they end up with just a film on top of the water that is then scooped out and placed unto parchment paper. Once that substance is dry, you get a usable and saleable bubble hash. Bubble hash looks like a very sandy material that, when touched, becomes sticky as it can easily melt onto your hand. From the bubble hash then can then fold up the parchment and have it pressed to create live rosin. The parchment wrapped bubble hash can be pressed up to 3 times and the last press is then used for edibles.
They also make THCa pucks and the process for that type of concentrate takes around a week to finish and it is very hands on work. Their THCa has been tested at close to 99% THC, it is extremely concentrated and looks like white chalky chunks of powdered sugar. I was very impressed by their dedication to keeping the process simple even if it was a very rigorous and full body job to do. The only other concentrate process I had seen be pressed were industrial and in extremely large batches, to see a more personal process was amazing and it seems like their product benefits from that. With all of their products being created on site in smaller batches, Kiamichi Skies still provides an amazing amount of variety in their products, all made with their solventless concentrates. They provide edibles like fudge and honey in little bear shaped bottles, and more than four different types of concentrates. When Grayson showed me their different products it was evident that he was truly proud of his creations. They have lotion, salve, hand sanitizer, and even some lube. They also have some micro dose mints that are 5 milligrams each. They have received rave reviews for the mints; they are rapid onset and are incredible for many of the common medical problems that THC helps. Grayson spoke of a woman buying them for her child to calm their seizures. Some people forget how helpful THC can be but, I am immediately reminded when I hear stories like that.
Another product they sell are some of their seeds, they grow mother plants in a small indoor room within the converted barn. They are still coming out with new products and packages, the new one that seems like such a steal is the Dabberâ€™s Delight. This package is a half gram live rosin dab pen, a half gram sample of bubble hash and a quarter gram of diamonds, THCa, and live rosin. As someone who is never sure what type of concentrate to buy, being able to buy them all to try them is truly a dream come true. As Iâ€™ve mentioned before, everything is done on site. The labels are placed on the tubes and containers there and the flower is prepackaged there as well (they also add Bovida packs to their larger containers!). When I had my tour I could see how much they valued the experience the customer had when it came to their products.
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Grayson is constantly trying to improve the quality of his flower because he always thought, “Why not be natural?” When it comes to food many people already feel like adding things into it isn’t the best idea so I can see this line of thinking. He is dedicated to what he calls “craft cannabis.” To him, this is where the company is philosophically based. The idea of the entire process being completely by hand, even the machines are pretty manual, makes it so much more personal and gratifying. It is incredibly impressive. Since Grayson is technologically minded he considers himself naturally curious and this makes it easy for him to look into news ways to do something and to experience trial and error. The pursuit that Grayson is on is ultimately to show more people that it is entirely possible to grow your flower as organically as possible. There will always be a natural solution to a natural problem. With the recent issue that has arisen in the industry with people selling faulty products with flower that failed testing, it is possible people are beginning to turn even more toward products that come from a more natural and trustworthy base.
When you buy a product that is meant to help your medical ailments it would be nice to know the product itself won’t make you sick. I wouldn’t be surprised if they were to be considered one of the most unique grows in the state. I encourage you all to check out their website and check out their products. I had the pleasure of trying out many of their products and I can definitely agree that it has “a difference you can taste and feel.”
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In 1970, the federal government declared cannabis (marijuana) more dangerous than cocaine, meth, oxycodone, and fentanyl. A plant with 5000 years of healing proof- was placed on Schedule I. According to the government, schedule I drugs have the highest potential for abuse and the potential to create psychological and/or physical dependence. Schedule I
Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse: · Heroin · Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), · Marijuana (cannabis), · 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), · Methaqualone· Peyote Schedule II
Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence.
These drugs are also considered dangerous: · Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin) · Cocaine · Methamphetamine · Methadone · Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) · Meperidine (Demerol) · Oxycodone (OxyContin) · Fentanyl · Dexedrine · Adderall · Ritalin Disability Stats- US
In the United States, 61 million adults have a medical condition/diagnosis that meets the definition of disabled. From a different view, 1 in 4 people, in the United States, has a disability. Of these figures, 19.1% experience mental health conditions/diagnoses. 19.1% represents 11.4 million people. Of the 61 million adults that have a disability, the unemployment rate was 8% in 2018, more than twice the rate of those with no disability-3.7%. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
PTSD- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD, is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault. PTSD can be associated with all people, all ethnicities, nationality or culture, and any age. Here are some statistics: · 67% of people exposed to mass violence have been shown to develop PTSD- at a higher rate than those exposed to natural disasters or other types of traumatic events. · 8 million adults have a PTSD diagnoses10 in every 100 women and 4 in every 100 men. · An estimated 5.0% of adolescents had PTSD, and an estimated 1.5% had severe impairment. · There are 18.8 million veterans in the United States (thank you for your service. · About 11 to 20 out of every 100 veterans (or between 11 and 20%) who served in operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom have PTSD in a given year. · About 12 out of every 100 Gulf War Veterans (or 12%) have PTSD in a given year. · About 15 out of every 100 Vietnam veterans (15%) diagnosed with PTSD when the most recent study of them (the National Vietnam Veteran Readjustment Study) was conducted in the late 1980’s. · It’s believed that 30% of Vietnam veterans have had PTSD in their lifetime. · Of the 18.8 million veterans in the U.S, 326,000 are unemployed (reported by the United Department of Labor). The benefits of cannabis for mental health and PTSD
Cannabis remains on the federal government/DEA’s Schedule I list, therefore, there has been $0 funding for cannabis related research until recent years (much of the research conducted by states). CannaCon reports: The treatment of PTSD requires the increase of serotonin levels. Cannabis is known to induce the creation of serotonin in the brain. It also helps in dealing with some of the symptoms associated with PTSD, including insomnia and recurrent nightmares.
Psychology Today reports: Research published on Science Daily also looked at symptom reduction in patients with PTSD. As a result of taking medical marijuana, participants reported a decrease in reexperiencing the trauma, less avoidance of situations that reminded them of the trauma, and a decline in hyper-arousal. The U.S National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health reports: In a study by Bonn-Miller et al, marijuana use positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and, according to self-reports, cannabis was used with intent to cope with these PTSD symptoms. In a 2014 study published in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, the effectiveness of medical marijuana in reducing symptoms of PTSD was examined. The results found that patients with PTSD experienced a 75% decrease in their symptoms upon using medical cannabis.
Dr. George Greer, one of the researchers of the above-mentioned study stated the following: "Many PTSD patients report symptom reduction with cannabis, and a clinical trial needs to be done to see what proportion and what kind of PTSD patients benefit, with either cannabis or the main active ingredients of cannabis.” Hear from Veterans and Civilians that Treat Their PTSD w/ Cannabis
Anonymous Person (1) Are you Veteran or Civilian, if veteran, what branch of the military did you serve? “I am a veteran of the United States Air Force.”
I'd wake up in a panic every night. Or, sometimes I would get triggered and didn't have something to pull me back into reality. Cannabis has helped me with all of this.” What would you like to say to the FDA/DEA regarding cannabis as medicine? “Cannabis is one of the best medications out there. It helps treat so many different medical conditions, both physical and mental. It also has fewer side effects, and doesn't have the addictive qualities of many big pharmaceutical medications. I think that it should be legalized at the federal level and regulated, and that it should be available to medical patients in all 50 states.” Veteran Affairs and Cannabis
How long have you been diagnosed with PTSD? “I was diagnosed with PTSD 3 years ago (2016).” How long have you been treating with cannabis? “I started treating with cannabis CBD 14 months ago. Cannabis has helped me with sleep/insomnia and lowering my stress levels so that I can handle situations that would otherwise cause panic attacks.” Anonymous Person (2) Are you Veteran or Civilian, if Veteran, what branch of the military did you serve? “I’m a Civilian.” Please describe how cannabis helps you? “I was able to stop taking 2 psychiatric medications for PTSD, when I started using cannabis. t relaxes me and allows me to sleep without too much anxiety. My mind and body calm down. I used to have to sleep with multiple lights on,
Many states in the U.S. have approved the use of marijuana for medical and/or recreational use. Because federal law classifies cannabis as a Schedule I Controlled Substance, it makes it illegal in the eyes of the federal government, therefore, veterans cannot discuss treatment of their medical conditions with their VA doctors/physicians.
Because federal law classifies cannabis as a Schedule I Controlled Substance, it makes it illegal in the eyes of the federal government, therefore, veterans cannot discuss treatment of their medical conditions with their VA doctors/physicians. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs is required to follow all federal laws including those regarding cannabis. As long as the government classifies marijuana as Schedule I, VA health care providers may not recommend it or assist Veterans to obtain it. Active and Upcoming Studies for Cannabis and PTSD
· Sue Sisley, MD, Internist and Telemedicine Physician designed and aimed an FDAapproved phase 2 study of cannabis for PTSD in U.S. military veterans. · The Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR) at UC San Diego will be conducting a study on: The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Regulating Meal Time Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa: Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics. · The Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute (ADAI), a multidisciplinary research center at the University of Washington’s Health Sciences Administration has received funding to conduct studies on the long- and short-term effect of marijuana use. Steps That Government Can Take to Legalize the Medicinal Use of Cannabis
Canada and Uruguay are two countries that have legalized medicinal and recreational cannabis. Canada’s program can be a great guide to the United States. Canada’s model includes some of the following:
"Even medicinal cannabis is held hostage."
· Under the Cannabis Act, Canadian provinces have the ability to ban recreational use. Residents of provinces that ban recreational use can still order cannabis online from a government-run website. That removes the act of illegal purchases. · Canada’s model is an example of modest taxes on cannabis. The government imposes an excise tax of 10% or $1 per gram, whichever is higher, and gives provinces 75% of the revenue. · The Canadian government seals conviction records for cannabis consumers who were charged for crimes that have since become legal, without fees and waiting periods. America is called and/or referred to as the greatest country; however, plant cannabis, even medicinal cannabis is held hostage. Because cannabis is illegal at the federal level- even as medicine, many of our active military, veterans, federal employees, civilians, doctors, lawyers, etc. are unable to treat with cannabis, without the action and/or fear of losing their jobs. In many places, doctors and nurses can lose their licenses for even discussing. Other countries and many states in America, have shown the extreme benefit of legalizing cannabis. The small cases where cannabis has caused harm is because of a black market that exists, because people have to go that route for medication that works. This should not be the way that residents of the United Stated should live- with restrictive laws and plant medicine being on a higher schedule than cocaine.
PATIENTS OR PATIENCE By Carisa Rowe
I’m a patient. I am a women’s health patient. I am a behavioral health patient. I’m a rheumatology patient. Chances are, if you’re reading this, you are a patient also. Chances are you sought answers to your health for YEARS. I know I did. Even if you aren’t a patient, you know patients. You love and work with people every day who are navigating their health alongside everyone else, minute to minute sometimes. I’m a medical marijuana patient. Chances are, if you’re reading this, you are a patient also. I only have two-thousand words for this article or I would gladly unpack 36 years of reasons I finally reached for cannabis relief. I could write five times that much about the three years since I have been using cannabis. The main reason I started using “medical marijuana” was to save my life. Literally. Vaporizing cannabis saved my life on January 17th, two years ago. I was driving to my predetermined death and figured “fuck it, might as well be stoned for this.” Ten minutes later, on my way to my final destination, I just turned left. Literally. I was headed north and turned westward: home, the desire to die delayed. I spent the rest of my drive, a “thinkin’ tradition” passed down from hippie parents with travelling bones and poor navigational skills, focusing on what had triggered the OFF switch on my suicide.
I’d seen cannabis help several people and I had embraced that it soothed my patience and irritability. I’d been more or less using cannabis daily for a few months and I knew that I was calmer and I was down for that. I was raised around weed. Every adult I knew smoked “the ganja” openly. I don’t even remember a time in my childhood when there weren’t exchanges of labor or money between adults for a bag of stinky grass. Cannabis was normal to me and I was never of the mindset that it was a drug, outside of the fact that it was illegal and all the stoners I knew – the older adults and then the teens and twenty somethings I grew up with – seemed dumb. They were always off on some weedbased adventure or in some pot-soaked trouble and they reeked. It just wasn’t for me… until it was. So there I was, using cannabis to unpack decades of mental health issues before I even realized what I was doing. Plain and simple: cannabis heals. People keep saying it because it is simply true. There are peer-reviewed scientific research articles dating back to the very childhood that acquainted me with illegal “heheweed” proving that the human endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system benefits from the introduction of cannabinoids such as CBD, CBN, CBG, and even THC. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
In one such article from 1998, scientists clearly identified the reparative benefit of THC on CB1 receptors, as expressed through the central nervous system, including retinal neurons to heal eye damage. Yes, the same THC known for causing the psychotropic “high” associated with your stereotypical stoner. That article demonstrated scientific understanding of the positive effects of other cannabinoids on the human immune system as expressed through CB2 receptors, receptors which do not affect the central nervous system and therefore process cannabinoids without a “high”. In layman’s terms, THC repairs your mind’s bridges and your body’s electrical pathways while other cannabinoids reduce inflammation and coordinate with your immune system to inhibit and repair autoimmune and trauma-related disease. Remind me again why we have denied our bodies a vital nutrient for over a century? I often explain cannabis therapy with a convoluted message that leads many to more questions than answers. The reason for that is because cannabis is complicated. Well, only in the fact that healing is complicated. The reason I, and you, and most people, struggled to be healthy for so long is because we continued to attack our health from single angles, as if there were one simple solution. We focus on diagnosis and symptom management in health care. We focus on weight loss as wellness. We ignore behavioral health until we reach crisis. We overlook true self-care and self-love and instead we selfenable and self-indulge, justifying it all the same. Exactly as your digestive tract, vascular system, and central nervous system regulate their respective body functions, your endocannabinoid system is responsible for coordinating those efforts. Think of cannabis as the best project manager you’ve ever worked with. Cannabinoids, from cannabis, act as a cheerleaders and support systems for the biologic functions you are already familiar with. Cannabis has been clearly demonstrated to repair vascular disease, treat bone disease, can regulate blood sugar, and fight cancer. These studies are readily and freely available at the tip of a Google Scholar search. Fair warning, you might get lost in an information spiral and I want to help you focus your efforts so you can have a few good facts about cannabis beyond the stoner stereotype.
November is a great month for stoners. We get
I have personally witnessed cannabis
crisp weather, perfect for “long walks” before
tinctures relieve epileptic symptoms and
a rich, savory meal. We’re still riding high from
heard patients discuss the difference in
Croptober, a month of plenty. It’s a great time
recovery with cannabis versus without.
for introspection, something cannabis is also
Cannabis works in epilepsy in a few ways.
great for. Cold autumn nights in a pandemic
Epileptic activity triggers a release of
are the perfect opportunity to have a virtual
endocannabinoids to act as neuroprotective
sesh with friends and create some music via
agents during the episode. THC reduces
Zoom or call your therapist to focus your
seizure activity when administered regularly
energy. Or, say, write an article about all of
by correcting the depletion of forebrain CB1
the diseases that can be benefitted by
receptors and can reduce seizure related
cannabis therapy. That article would fill a set
symptoms when administered immediately
of an encyclopedias bigger than those they
following an event.
used to sell door-to-door before the internet. I would rather you be informed about a few
“Overall, our data indicate that
diseases that are already being observed
cannabinoids induce ICAM 1, thereby
during this month of plenty and bring your
conferring TIMP 1 induction and subsequent
attention to some of the ways cannabis can
decreased cancer cell invasiveness.” (Ramer,
improve your wellness plan.
Bublitz, Freimuth, et.al., 2011., The FASEB
Journal). Oh, my bad. That’s summation of First off in November, we have Diabetic Eye
opinion by ten researches in 2011 that CBD
Disease Month. Diabetic eye disease such as
and THC both play a beneficial role in
retinal neuropathy can be treated with (-)-
ERADICATING LUNG CANCER. The study
tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly referred to as
explains that introduction of cannabidiol, or
THC, as it expresses through CB1 receptors
CBD, can regulate the body’s ability to
present in retinal neurons. THC can improve
inhibit tumor growth at four times the
retinal neuron performance and science has
efficiency of control. November happens to
known this since at least 1998. The same study
be Lung Cancer Awareness Month. There
recognized that CBD reduced retinal
have been ten Novembers of scientific
inflammation by blocking damage created
knowledge that cannabis helps heal cancer
through disease-related cell deterioration.
since that publication.
1998, you all. National Alzheimer’s Disease Month is also in Epiliepsy Awareness Month is a November
November. Alzheimer’s Disease is
feature and for this one, there are thousands
characterized by plaque deposits in the
of patients willing to testify to the medical
brain causing related neuron loss and
benefits of cannabis. A simple search will yield
hundreds of stories of parents moving across the country to seek cannabis treatment for their epileptic children.
These plaques build up outside nerve cells and prevent intercellular communication which results in memory loss, among other symptoms. Researchers have demonstrated that lack of cannabinoids correlates to increased plaque deposits in the brain and have further demonstrated that Alzheimer’s patients receiving placebo did not experience the same rate of positive cognitive effect induced in the cannabis recipients. Sad news: my mom has COPD. Good news, when she gets around to focusing on her health, cannabis can help. You guessed it: November is also National COPD Awareness Month! Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a disease characterized by obstructed bronchial airways. The obstructions are caused by inflammation and that inflammation can be caused by a number of comorbidities. In my mom’s case, it was caused by a lifetime of smoking and COPD is hopefully not a precursor to greater disease. If she were to get serious about breathing easy into her tinsel-haired magic years, she might look to oral administration of
If you are interested in cannabis and how it
cannabis products to reduce cell
can be used as therapy during death, look
inflammation and to maintain a stable
no further than Jerry AlMufleh of Silverleaf
mood while pursuing cigarette
Senior Cannabis. With 25 years in the home
cessation. One spectacular treatment
health, hospice and palliative care industry,
option for COPD that includes cannabis
Jerry knows a thing or two about how to die
integration would be medical marijuana
and how to do it with compassion and
hard candies to soothe the oral fixation
grace. Jerry’s extraordinarily passionate
of quitting while slowly delivering
about his calling and would like to see
immune system-boosting cannabinoids
cannabis therapy legalized so that hospice
to help her body heal the inflammation
practitioners can administer medical
obstructing her airways. Our next subject for November is hard but death and the comfort and care of dying loved ones is important. In honor of National Home Health and Hospice Care Month, I encourage you to have a conversation with your loved ones about how they want to go out. Man… Death is scary. It’s a primary anxiety for so many. So much of our trauma around death, illness, pain, and grieving can be prevented with healthy conversations in anticipation of these things. Have you communicated your wishes and do you know what the people you love want
marijuana during care. Currently, Jerry’s team can point hospice and palliative care patients and family members to research information in order to inform their own decisions regarding cannabis administration. Medical cannabis can ease pain and inflammation, no doubt, but can also calm death-related anxiety and can be used in many adminstrations to ease the suffering associated with end of life body functions. RSO suppositories can ease bowel and abdominal symptoms, oral RSO can induce sedative and euphoric relaxation thusly easing hypertension and
done to maintain their dignity during
reducing pain expression. The palliative
benefits alone are innumerable.
National Marrow Awareness Month falls in November. The registration process to become a marrow donor is simple and the test is as easy as a mouth swab. Patients need all the help they can get finding lifesaving matches. Bone marrow disease can be debilitating and treatment is costly, can be very painful, and include radiation and chemotherapy. In addition to palliative benefits such as nausea suppression, pain relief, and increased appetite, cannabis can actually increase the bodyâ€™s ability to fight marrow disease. Cannabinoids THC and CBD are the main stars here for their ability to reduce inflammatory response and aid in the transportation of oxygen in red blood cells present in bone marrow. Further research indicates that marrow recipients treated with cannabinoid complexes stimulate bone regeneration more effectively than control. Early assay in this study demonstrated that CB1 and CB2 receptors present marrow were consistent with proliferation (the ability of the transplant tissue to thrive) and collagen accumulation (meaning a health biological support for the transplanted tissue). One last thing for November, Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month. In honor of Notorious R.B.G., please consider throwing some love toward pancreatic cancer awareness. This disease got Patrick Swayze, Aretha Franklin, AND Alan Rickman because it is notoriously hard to manage the symptoms of the disease in order to effectively treat it. Cannabis, as mentioned time and time again, can comfort patients in pain and duress so that they can rest enough for medications and treatments to work. Scientific research has repeatedly demonstrated the tumor-inhibiting abilities of cannabis and it is beyond time that patients demand not just access to cannabis but also definitive research into the myriad of cannabinoid benefits on the human endogenous cannabinoid system and how those benefits can increase our overall health. Imagine still having Sally Ride or Steve Jobs or having more music from Dizzy Gillespie. You might think of us as just stoners. We know we are patients. We know we are treating our health with cannabis and creating wellness. We know cannabis heals. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
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POT-HEAD PITA AND PUMPKIN HUMMUS By Chef Buz @medibles_ok
"TWIST ONE UP AND LET’S GET COOKING" Good day and welcome back all my canna chefs out there. I'm really excited because I love this time of year. Don't get me wrong, I love my 80 year round weather, but Thanksgiving is my favorite holiday of the year! Great food, friends, family and a lot of good times, and my favorite way to enjoy the holidaze is with some great canna-infused foods. So this year I chose to do my Pot-Head Pita and Pumpkin Hummus recipe, one of favorite dishes to start the party right. It's a very simple recipe to make and I love making hummus and adding different ingredients to see what it can create. So grab a bag of your favorite herb, twist one up and let’s get Cooking with a Buz!
INGREDIENTS Pot-head Pita 2 bags of pita bread 2 TBSP or so of Canna-olive oil Cinnamon sugar to taste
Pumpkin Hummus 2 cups pumpkin puree 1 cup Tahini 2 (15.5 oz) cans of chickpeas 1/2 cup apple cider vinegar 1 TSP ground cinnamon 1/4 TSP nutmeg 1/2 TSP cayenne pepper 1 TSP paprika 1/2 TSP salt 4 TBSP canna-olive oil If you enjoy this recipe and my others be sure to check out my book Cooking with a Buz Cannabis Recipes for any Occasion, in there I explain proper dosing, how to infuse oils and butter and has my favorite recipes inspired from my travels and experiences. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
DIRECTIONS Pot-head Pita For the pita chip first preheat your oven to 375 degrees and then cut each pita in half and then each half into triangles. Lightly brush with the canna olive oil and sprinkle a little cinnamon sugar on top and place them onto a sheet tray and bake for about 10 minutes.
Pumpkin Hummus Place all the ingredients EXCEPT the Canna olive oil and start to blend in the food processor while slowly adding the Canna olive oil one tablespoon at a time until smooth. Garnish with a few sprinkles of paprika and cinnamon. Refrigerate until serving.
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Women CEOs collaborate to bring the best to Oklahoma BY MELISSA HALL
They say the Cannabis Industry is a man’s industry, any Woman working in the Cannabis industry can attest to that first hand. But, in Oklahoma and nationwide, there are many Women entrepreneurs that are setting a new standard and redefining the stereotypical role of women in the industry. With Cannabis booming in Oklahoma and across the country and even worldwide, the opportunities for employment for women have increased tremendously. So many women have gone above and beyond and are running their own companies. They are the decision makers, the backbone and heart of their own cannabis grows, processing companies and dispensaries. Without existing hierarchies, decades of that “we’ve always done it this way” mentality, and stuffed shirts at the helm, many people, men and women alike, are recognizing this chance in a lifetime opportunity to create something wonderful. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
For women, the emerging cannabis industry presents a unique opportunity to realize their strengths, build on their passions, and make a living doing something which feels authentic and righteous. From seed to sale, women in cannabis are making huge moves and getting the recognition they rightfully deserve. Connection and collaboration have to be two of the most important things that affect any Cannabis business in many ways from seed to sale. In the Oklahoma Cannabis Market, there are two women CEO’s in the Oklahoma City Area that have been making waves with their collaborative efforts to bring in a World Renowned Processor to teach a small hands on class in Oklahoma City. This collaboration was made possible by Tegridy Market Oklahoma City CEO, Tracy Spanier and the CEO of Fabulous Cannabis Co, Trish.
Trish of Fabulous, is friends with this Internationally known Hash Maker and In conjunction with Tegridy Market and Fabulous Cannabis, Oklahoma City hosted its first “Master Hash Class” with the Dank Duchess.
“The Dank Duchess applies her 17 years of cannabis growing experience, priceless mentorship under Master Hashmaker Frenchy Cannoli, and fierce commitment to her art to fully immerse herself in the global cannabis industry; sharing insights, techniques, and innovations with growers and hashmakers around the world. With dozens of feature length Hashish stories, how-to videos, public appearances, and Hashish education modules to her credit, The Dank Duchess has become an internationally recognized Hashish authority in 5 short years. Initially a cultivator, she has blossomed into a Hashish storyteller, maker, and media personality. Her distinct writing style, crafting intimate scenes that viscerally invoke the sights, smells, and effects of everything she relates, has graced magazines and books; including Weed World UK, Skunk Magazine, Cannabis Now, and anthologies by Ed Rosenthal. horoughly enjoying being in front of the camera, Duchess has appeared on VICELAND’s “Bong Appétit,” (Seasons 1 & 3) as both a Hashmaker and celebrity judge,
and filmed educational and entertainment segments for Greenflower Media. She has filmed hours of free tutorials; amassing on Instagram and YouTube almost 2 million watched minutes about her Hashmaking technique called The Duch Touch. Duchess has served as a judge for prestigious international competitions such as The Monsters Cup, Terp Tower International, and Masters of Rosin in Barcelona and Copa Mexico in Mexico. She currently provides Hashish consultation and education services to small and large farms both in the United States and abroad. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
Duchess recently taught hashmaking in Mexico City and San Miguel de Allende as part of an education tour. She brought “The Duch Touch” back to California in the Spring and her hands-on teaching style has been well received by her inexperienced and professional students alike. Duchess has applied her communication skills to a growing interest in public speaking. She was a featured speaker at the 2019 Sprint Plant Medicine Conference in Vancouver. She also served as a moderator for a panel highlighting the emerging voices of women of color in the psychedelic arena. At the 2019 Emerald Cup, she joined other women growers and producers on the panel titled “Not Your Mama’s Cannabis.”
Constantly filming, her camera takes it all in as her attention to media representation never wanes. Hundreds of images of her high end Hashish have titillated the senses of novices and connoisseurs alike as her discerning standard of aesthetics is always on display. Using social media, she urges people to take control of their personal healing by encouraging them to grow their own weed, make their own hash, and never stop believing in the health, beauty, and wellness that cannabis has to offer. Cannabis is essential to her existence and with her dedication to an All Weed Everything lifestyle she has found a way to integrate it completely into her life. In her words, “My niche is Hashish. And cannabis flower fuels my power.“ Her website tells us. The class was held at Primo labs and was a hands on, one on one opportunity to learn to make hash from The Dutchess herself. The students learned her techniques for making high quality hash resin through a wash and filter process. These classes are taught by the duchess internationally. To give you a little more info on what Hash even is and the process to make it, DutchPassion.com lays it out for us: “Hash is a real treat for most cannabis lovers. Hashish is a cannabis concentrate which delivers a rich intoxicating smell and a blissfully indulgent effect.
Photo credit: Carisa Rowe
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THE WORLD OF CANNABINOIDS AND TERPENES
Written by Dr. Pepper Hernandez, ND, PhD, BCHP, CNHP, CTC
TRANS-NEROLIDOL In the World of Cannabinoids and Terpenes column, we will be talking about terpenes, which are aromatic compounds found in every plant. Specifically in cannabis. We explore the cannabinoids, terpenes, and cultivars. Their effects, and potential healing abilities of each. There are hundreds of different terpenes and cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. While each has its own benefits, together they make up a potent combo. Terpenes and Cannabinoids are the most important determinants of a cannabis plant’s potential, not only its taste or smell but its medicinal properties as well. When they come together in the synergistic effect, know as the outdated term the entourage effect, finding the right cultivar could save your life. I am in hopes this column can help you do just that. So let us get started, and geek out together.
Photo Credit: Sunboldtgrown Grower: Sunboldt Grown Borneol has a strong citrus and what some call metallic-like flavors. It has spicy, earthy notes with a minty, cooling sensation.
Although not the most common terpene or
Much like in some of the commonly found in herbs such as
even one of the “primary terpenes” Borneol is an
mint, rosemary, mugwort, and camphor. As you can imagine,
incredible terpene that deserves a deeper look.
this cooling sensation can improve lung function and ease
Borneol is not easily found in the cannabis plant
breathing and even benefit bronchial symptoms. Borneol has
but should be looked for when making salves or
an aroma and can be used for its calming, sedative effect. It is
topicals, in my opinion. Finding it in
beneficial for combating fatigue or stress as well as recovering
concentrated doses here can be a challenge
from chronic illnesses. “Borneol exhibits both anti-inflammatory
because of its shortage. Growing those high
and anti-nociceptive effects. The systemic administration of
content cultivars is suggested as adding
borneol, all doses, significantly reduced pain behavior caused by
terpenes post-growth is not recommended.
formalin injection in both phases of the formalin test” reported
by the Scientific World Journal, Hindawi.
Borneol amplifies the permeability of the blood/brain barrier, which allows other molecules and compounds to more efficiently bind with certain specialized receptors in the brain as well as the central nervous system. This is why it was so popular and has played a major role in traditional medicines, such as in the early 1600s, in China. Borneol has been known to Chinese physicians for at least 2,000 years as documented and possibly much longer. Commonly referred to as moxa or moxibustion it is used in Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine. This terpene is used to reduce inflammation, topically to help numb pain, and help with many types of anxiety. During moxa, it was used to warm the body and dispel cold, increase circulation, and stimulate the immune. Because it is typically found in high-THC plants, with moderate- to highpsychedelic effects, a small amount goes a long way. It can actually be dangerous ingesting too much. So I would highly advise against adding it back in post-
Photo Credit: Sunboldtgrown Grower: Sunboldt Grown
growth. Let the plant naturally do its magic. All information in this article is for educational purposes only. The information provided is derived from research gathered from external sources. Please check with your Cannabis Educated Primary Health Care Physician or Cannabis Therapy Consultant before beginning any new diet or lifestyle change. Dr. Pepper Hernandez ND, CTC, CNHP is a Naturopathic Nutritionist, Cannabis Therapy Consultant, the Founder, and Education Director of the Cannabis Holistic Institute.
BORNEOLâ€™S POTENTIAL EFFECTS INCLUDE:
ANTI-COAGULANT NEUROPROTECTANT DIGESTION ISSUES INFLAMMATION IMPROVING CIRCULATION DECREASING STRESS AND ANXIETY NATURAL INSECT REPELLENT INHIBITOR OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1
To find out more about her private practice, educational programs, videos and other offerings you can and find her on the massive inter-webs, social platforms or at drpepperhernandez.com.
Go forth, Go Cannabis...
WORDS BY PHILIP RODRIGUEZ
As Oklahomans with medical marijuana licenses, I’m sure we’ve caught ourselves taking for granted this great market that we have access to, and all it has to offer. It seems like a cliched and—given how this year has gone—even difficult question to answer, but what are you thankful for this year? By now, the election has come and gone (but the results are surely, like the president’s brain, still up in the air), as have the majority of the leaves on the trees. The Oklahoma Sooners have likely found even more ways to blow leads and cause frustration for thousands of us, and we’re wondering if we can safely visit our relatives for Thanksgiving. In this time where nothing is assured and nothing should be taken for granted, I say we take a moment and go over what we’re thankful for in our local marijuana community. Or you don’t have to play, and I’ll tell you what I like. Cool, still with me? Let’s get thankful.
The Oklahoma Chronic Where would I be without my faithful publication? The Chronic took a chance on me and reached out; they saw that I loved writing about marijuana in an entertaining way, and gave me the best platform I’ve ever had to share my thoughts. Meeting Melissa Hall, our always knowledgeable critic, led to a great opportunity to grow myself as a writer. And even more importantly (it’s gonna get CHEESY, folks), it led to a solid friendship, and someone I could lean on during some of the hardest times for me in the past year. Our writing and graphic design staff have continued to grow both in size and in quality, and the positive changes are easy to see from the inside and out. I’m forever thankful to The Chronic! And besides, Therin said if I didn’t put them first that I’d have to write all of my columns in Comic Sans from now on, so… OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
Live hash rosin A year ago, I was Mr. Joints: find good flower, find a flavored paper that matches or enhances the terp profile, roll and smoke! But between craving something with higher potency, and increasingly fervent and aggressive reminders from my apartment office that my complex is nonsmoking, I started to feel like I needed to expand and possibly upgrade my medicine to something different. Enter live hash rosin, something I literally didn’t know existed until January or February of this year. Maybe not the first hash rosin I ever sampled, but certainly the first one I bought, was Tally Man from Leaf Logic. When I discovered the Boundless Terp Pen, it made hash rosin even more accessible and easy to use. I was a changed man from then on. Hash rosin helped me calm my nerves and my depression during a brutally difficult part of early 2020 (has anyone had a good year this year? Don’t respond if you have, we’re all going to shout you out of the room), and now is my preferred way to medicate. No solvents, high THC, high terps; it hits you in the teeth and puts you to sleep.
If I had to pick a specific strain from a specific processor that made me feel thankful though, it’d have to be the 66 Cookies from the first run of Lost Roots Hash. I was working at a small, familyowned dispensary at the time, and we got in a decent amount of Arley’s first batch. Boy, were we spoiled! The 66 Cookies was almost malty, with a strong vanilla taste and a wave of euphoria that would wash over you almost as soon as you exhaled. I feel like hash rosin is great with strains from the cookie family, because it’s easy to get a buttery and creamy flavor bouquet, that really compliments the vanilla and cinnamon-tasting terpenes. This stuff was proof, and I’m sad I didn’t try and stash a gram somewhere for myself. I’m thankful for hash rosin, because it lowkey saved my life.
Tegridy Market and Native Brothers CBD & Dispensary As I first came on the scene with my newly-acquired medical card, I would basically dip into whatever dispensaries I passed by on my way to just about anything. That led to hunting specific strains on Weedmaps (sometimes it works, sometimes you drive 20 minutes to get dirt), but disappointment and shorted sacks compelled me to find a couple of good places and stick with them. First things first: I’m a certified night owl, and often decide or realize I need more ganja when it’s the wee small hours of the morning. If you look on Weedmaps now, it seems like there’s a dozen new 24 hour dispensaries opening up about every month.
But I remember a time as recently as summer 2019 when it was basically High Society, Native Brothers, and Tegridy. No shame on High Society, but Native Bros and Tegridy quickly became, and absolutely still are, some of my favorite dispensaries to this day. At Tegridy, you can find what has to be the best selection of strictly top-shelf flower in the Oklahoma City metro, a welldecorated and welcoming atmosphere, and fantastic budtenders to help you find just what you’re looking for. I’ve been lucky enough to become friendly with many of the budtenders here, and have spent just as much time chatting it up about what’s new and what’s good as I have snagging edibles, flower, and rosin here.
Hey, have I mentioned hash rosin yet? Tegridy has an excellent selection on hash rosin, so no shade on them whatsoever (maybe a little bit of shade on OK Craft Kings ‘cause I always miss the drops! I kid, I kid). But when I want the most varied selection of quality products in Oklahoma City, and it’s 3am, I know I can always find something new, weird and fantastic at Native Brothers. The budtenders here have such a relaxed demeanor, and have been more visibly patient with me than I think any other budtender group in the city. When I want to end up with a strain of hash rosin I definitely haven’t tried yet, especially from Leaf Logic or Cicada, I know these guys have me covered. Plus I can always talk a bit of football smack with the overnight security guard, who I like to refer to as “Tank.” Just remember to go easy on him if you decide to, because he is a Giants fan after all.
Sure, I need the publication to publish the column, but where I would I be without my readers and my Instagram followers? I just recently hit the one-year mark, and it’s been such a wild ride that I can’t wait to continue with you all. I never could have imagined that this idea I had would be this successful, and it’s so clear that there’s still so much more potential in terms of my room to grow. COVID has taken the wind out of my sails pretty good—at least in terms of feeling safe enough to go out to review more public smoking spots—but I know what I have left in my tank, and what kind of great ideas I’ve got on my brain, and I can’t wait to share them with you stoney homies! Whether you’re a longtime fan, or a brand new reader, I appreciate what you do just reading this to the end. Have a happy Thanksgiving, and smoke a fatty for me! OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
5 SPOOKTACULAR STRAINS TO TRY FOR HALLOWEEN
Jack Skellington Poison Apple Zombie Kush Black Widow Green Goblin
The Oklahoma Chronic Magazine Never Miss an Issue
BY THE NUMBERS AS OF OCTOBER 2020 THERE IS STRENGTH IN NUMBERS
As of October 5th, there are 5,828 growers within our state
We have 1,216licensed processors in the state We currently have 2,003 dispensary licenses with this great state
Transport Laboratory Waste Disposal
We now have 47 Transportation icenses We have 23 licensed labs We have 9 licensed waste disposal faclities
Approved Licenses: 353,796 Patients & 2,516 Caregivers Received Licenses: 373,146 Patient & 3,357 Caregivers OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
MONTHLY CANNABIS REVIEW by Melissa Hall, M.Ed.
Grown by Eclipse Pharms, baked by Chef Schmitz. By Melissa Hall, M.Ed.
Back at it again, the crisp November air always holds the promise of that one special day. When we get together and give Thanks with our friends and families. So, what more fitting for the November review than an extra special Thanksgiving treat. I had the pleasure of asking an up and coming young Culinary Chef if he would create an infused Thanksgiving desert, with the only request being he use Canna-Butter or Canna-Oil so I could share that process with my readers, in addition to the tasty, infused Harvest treat. The up-and-coming young chef that prepared this wonderful infused pumpkin spice streusel bread is Daniel Schmitz. He is the Executive Cannabis Chef of Heartland Gold, an Oklahoma processor. His training includes working under some of OKCs best chefs including David Henry, Melissa Aust, Jeff Patton, Sean Sales and many more. Daniel has taken the art and passion he learned from a traditional restaurant kitchen and has utilized it to create medical marijuana edibles and products for the state of Oklahoma. Daniel has a new line of taffies launching this fall under â€œRevel Roots Cannabisâ€? Check him and his companies out on instagram for updates and new products coming out soon. @cannabischefdan @revelrootscannabis. The flower used for the oil was provided by Eclipse Pharms, Their blackberry dream provided a perfect potency for the oil. Eclipse Pharms is well known throughout the state for producing high quality, consistent meds. Eclipse Pharms has locations in eastern and western Oklahoma to better serve their growing clientele. They are passionate about utilizing superior genetics within lab grade environments.
Cannabis enlightenment is a mission for the entire Eclipse Pharms team. Follow them on Facebook and Instagram @eclipsepharms or check out their website at www.eclipsepharms.com. So many of my readers ask me the best way to infuse their own oil or butter because they prefer it to distillate and homemade infused edibles. After asking many, and trying various ways myself this seems to be the popular way. Chef Schmitz was so kind to share his method of making oil and recipe for the Pumpkin Streusel Bread with everyone.
Cannabis infused coconut oil You will need: naturally refined coconut oil, cannabis flower, soy or Sunflower Lecithin, a mason jar, and small pot. Directions 1. Grind marijuana flower using a grinder finely. There is no set amount but I recommend first time users try less than more. Preheat the oven to 220 degrees Fahrenheit and let it reach temperature. 2. Using a sheet pan covered with oven safe parchment paper, evenly spread ground flower across the pan. Bake for 1 hour or until the flower turns a light brown color. Flower should not burn! 3. Using ⁄ cup of coconut oil and ⁄ cup water place in a mason jar in a warm water bath on the stove. Do not boil, SIMMER. Do this until coconut oil is melted completely. 4. Pour decarbed flower into a mason jar containing coconut oil and water and let simmer for 2-3 hours. Shake jar occasionally. Fat lipids from flowers should attach to coconut oil while the chlorophyll from the flower should dissolve into the water. 5. After simmering, pour oil water mixture into a shallow bowl and let cool at room temperature. Coconut oil should congeal, save coconut oil and discard water. Water should never contain any psychoactive compounds of marijuana. Once coconut oil is congealed use ⁄ tsp lecithin to help emulsify properly and stir till all one consistency and color!
Infused Pumpkin Spice Streusel Bread You will need: For Bread ⁄ cups white cake flour, 1tsp baking powder, ⁄ tsp baking soda, ⁄ tsp ground cinnamon, ⁄ tsp ground ginger ,clove, and nutmeg (each) , ⁄ cup canned pumpkin, 1 cup sugar, ⁄ cup whole milk, 2 eggs, 4 Tbsp infused coconut oil, and 1 tsp vanilla bean paste. For Streusel- 5 Tbsp melted butter, ⁄ cup cane sugar, ⁄ cup light brown sugar, ⁄ tsp ground cinnamon, ⁄ tsp ground clove, ginger, and nutmeg (each), ⁄ cup flour, and ⁄ cup chopped pecans. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
Directions 1. Create infused coconut oil. For StreuselMelt 5 tbsp of unsalted butter on low heat in a pot or skillet, add chopped pecans to butter and stir remove from heat immediately. 2. Place remaining streusel ingredients in mixing bowl and mix thoroughly to ensure complete and even mixture. Pour melted butter and pecans into the bowl of streusel ingredients, using a spoon mix well until mixture becomes crumbly but not dry. Place the container in the fridge uncovered until needed. 3. For Bread- Crack the 2 eggs into a bowl and break yolks then add milk, canned pumpkin, vanilla bean paste, and melted infused coconut oil into the bowl. Mix well and let come to room temperature. 4. Place remaining dry ingredients into a separate mixing bowl and mix well. Then pour a container of wet ingredients into a dry ingredients bowl and mix well using a rubber spatula. Make sure to scrape bottoms and sides of the bowl to ensure there is no raw flour or spices not mixed in. After mixing the batter should become orange and thick. Leave no lumps, batter must be mixed until smooth. 5. Remove streusel from fridge and bring to room temperature9) Place parchment paper into a loaf style pan, spray parchment with nonstick spray. 6. Pour half the bowl of bread batter into a loaf pan. Smooth out tops. Proceed to crumble ⁄ of the streusel over the bread batter. Once complete pour remaining batter over streusel then cover newly poured batter with remaining streusel. This should create 2 layers of bread with 2 layers of streusel. Bake at 350 Degrees Fahrenheit for 1 hour or until a toothpick can be inserted and removed cleanly with little to no crumb or batter on the toothpick. 7. Remove from the pan and let cool. Cut and Enjoy once cooled. Bread can be reheated by slice once cooled.
After she spent four long days in the Hash Lab, I was able to catch up with the one and only Dank Duchess, who was in Oklahoma City to teach a Hash Class at Primo Labs for a quick mini interview. The class was in collaboration with Fabulous Cannabis Co. and Tegridy Market. I’ve been a huge fan and avid reader of cannabis publications since way before legalization of medical marijuana was even thought to be had in Oklahoma. I remember reading about these adventures one of the contributors would write about in Weed World magazine. I thought she was the coolest writer ever.
That writer is now the Managing Editor of Skunk Magazine and an Internationally known Hashish Maker, the Duchess herself. I arrived for our interview at a local office where she was sitting with a student eating her Keto Paleo friendly salad. Her huge, straight beaming smile hit me as soon as I entered. I must say, This woman has an energy about her that is incomparable to anything I’ve ever came across. Warm, friendly yet statured and elegant. I assume this is where “The Duchess” namesake comes from. She could surely match any Duchess with the way she carries herself. “How are you, Baby?” She asks me as I sit beside her on the couch and she gives me a side hug while carefully placing her salad out of the way.” I wanted to know what made her The Dank Duchess. We all know her Niche is Hashish and Cannabis flower fuels her power. As this is her motto. | 70 OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
But, I wanted to know how she got to be one of the Worlds best Women Hash Makers exactly. “Do you know how famous you are?” I ask as she pecks at her salad. Her humility showed as she started talking about how people knew her but never accepting that she was famous. “Why hash?” I had to follow up with. She smiled and said, “Hash found me.” She proceeded to tell me about her move from Miami, Florida to Oakland, CA and her attempts to enter the cannabis industry with little success. This is after she snagged her Bachelors Degree from Howard University, I may add. She had an encounter with a French Man that would change everything.
“This little man with a strong French accent was yelling at me, she laughed” After She thought hash was actually chocolates. She did her best Frenchy Cannoli imitation and it is damn good by the way. “In late 2013, , I attended Oaksterdam University to get a better feel of the cannabis industry. Then, in early 2014, over the course of a two week internship, I learned CO2 concentrate production in Seattle. Working in a lab was intriguing, but I just couldn’t get over how dreary the weather was. So we settled on California, and in Oakland to be exact, as their laws would allow me to grow many more plants than other municipalities. I had no intention of becoming a full-time farmer, however. Translating our acquired knowledge to a full-fledged career seemed risky. Finding a “job” was also proving fruitless, but I remained buoyed. Less than 2 months after having moved across the country, a fortuitous meeting with Hash Master Frenchy Cannoli led to an invitation to write about Hashish for Weed World Magazine. Citing my need to truly understand the process, Frenchy poured his 40 years of experience into teaching me how to make powerful medicine to positively change people’s lives. OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
Creating Hashish from the wondrous Cannabis plant is my latest artistic endeavor. I put all of my love, care, and intensity into each hash creation. I learn from everyone I meet; even the BHO lovers look forward to innovating new methods to produce the best medicine. Within this cannabis community, with our very diverse backgrounds, our opportunities for growth through collaboration are endless. What an exciting time to be alive, full of vigor, and in the mix” (Dankdut!) Frenchy Cannoli is a World Revered Hash Maker, After she boldly asked him to have a cup of coffee with her, it was then that she found this out. The rest was history, as soon after she became his first student and he asked her if she wanted to write for Weed World Magazine.
“Of course I wanted to write for Weed World Magazine.” She said as she got her rolling tray out. “Frenchy told me, You have to make hash to learn about hash to write about hash.” She laughed. She spoke of travels to Spain, and made it sound like her go to second home destination. “You must travel, you must get out there, go to the cups!” She focused on her tray. Then I really noticed this tray, it lit up, charged your phone and synchronized music and lights, and you could see through it. Yes, a rolling tray. From Spain, from a dear friend of hers, Blue Ice Icesolatet. I’m gonna get me one of those! Those trips to Spain Quickly made her a contender in the male dominated processing field. She also went on to finish her landscaping Masters Degree “it didn’t quite work out, but after this time she was more well known and he brand had taken off! In just a Relatively short time, her brand had taken off as it continues to do today. She teaches classes around the world on Hash Making, she still creates every chance she gets. She is a farmer, a Hash Maker, an intellectual, a brilliant writer. ( who makes this more intimidating for me.) And the list goes on and on. By this time she has got a perfectly rolled joint spun up and she carefully got out her chillum. If you haven’t heard of a chillum. Here’s the best description by Duchess herself: “Ever since the fine gentlemen at La Asociación Kalada introduced me to smoking the chillum back in September 2016, I have been in love. Though the chillum pipe is the oldest tool known for smoking cannabis, OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
it is only recently that it’s use has been revived and it is beginning to be appreciated here in the United States. Cannabis helps and cannabis heals, but my absolute favorite aspect of consuming cannabis is the knitting of social fabric between people within the chillum circle. I have developed my own chillum ceremony which aims to infuse the participants with a sense of intimate belonging and increase knowledge of self. Within the ceremony there is a component of breath work, meditation, and mindfulness. For newbie and veteran smokers alike, smoking the chillum is unlike any other experience. Using the highest grade of cannabis flower, I mix in my own organic Hashish to add massive fuel to the fire. People often relate a feeling of chest and mind expansion. Inner conversation is quieted as effort is put into timing inhales and exhales to get maximum effect of the thick, blue smoke.”
And what an experience it was! I’m totally investing in one!!And what an experience it was! I’m totally investing in one!!
After a couple more joints and some small talk, I knew I had to let this brilliant mind rest as she flew out the next morning for Oakland.
The Duchess is someone that makes an impact on everyone she meets, her knowledge is incomprehensible to most and her teaching skills are outstanding. Her Oklahoma Hash students let me know. The Duchess has plans to return to teach more classes and do more collaborations soon. Thank you to Fabulous Cannabis and Tegridy Market for offering a Master Class like this and bringing such an awesome Woman in the Industry to Oklahoma. “Her niche is Hashish, and cannabis flower fuels her power.” There is no doubt about that.
MAGAZINES RANK NO. 1 AT INFLUENCING CONSUMERS TO START A SEARCH ONLINE – HIGHER THAN NEWER MEDIA OPTIONS. (SOURCE: BIGRESEARCH SIMULTANEOUS MEDIA USAGE STUDY)
WE CAN'T SPEAK FOR THE OTHER GUYS BUT IT'S MORE THAN AN AD WITH US.
THEOKLAHOMACHRONIC@OUTLOOK.COM OKLAHOMA CHRONIC
If you're reading this, then congratulations, you've made it to level eleven of 2020! There has been no shortage of insanity throughout the...
Published on Nov 6, 2020
If you're reading this, then congratulations, you've made it to level eleven of 2020! There has been no shortage of insanity throughout the...