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MO DER NIS T CUI SIN E

6 路 Kitchen Manual


MODER NIST CUISINE The Art and Science of Cooking

Nathan Myhrvold with Chris Young and Maxime Bilet

Photography by

Ryan Matthevv Smith and Nathan Myhrvold


Modernist Cuisine The Art and Science of Cooking

Volume 6

Kitchen Manual

The Cooking Lab


CopyrightŠ 2011 by The Cooking Lab, LLC All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. All trademarks used are property of their respective owners. The Cooking Lab 3150 139th Ave SE Bellevue, WA 98005 www.modernistcuisine.com ISBN: 978-0-9827610-0-7 First edition, 2011 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available upon request Printed in China


Best Bets for Extracts ............................................................ 27 House Bitters ................................ ............. ............................ 27 Fines Herbs Extract ................................ ............................... 27 Best Bets for Infused Fats ................ ............. ........................ 28 Shellfish Butter ...................................................................... 29 Sous Vide Lemon Herb Oil .................................................. 29 Spiced Chili Oil ..................................................................... 29 Molasses Butter ................... ................ ................. .................. 29 Curry Oil ......................................................................... ....... 30 Crab Oil .................................................................................. 30 Malaysian Aromatic Oil.. ...................................................... 30 Additives to Preserve the Color and Flavor ofFreshJuice .... ................. ....................... ............... ............ .. . 31 Meyer Lemonade ................................................................... 31 Melon Water ........................................................................... 31 Pen Shell Clam, Pluot, Myoga, Scallop Mochi ................... 32 So us Vide Berry Juice ............................................................ 32 Strawberry Consomme ......................................................... 32 Green Asparagus and Morels with Asparagus Jus ............. 33 Strawberry Gazpacho .............. .............................................. 33 Best Bets for Jus .......................................................... ........... 34 Jus de Ia Presse ....................................................................... 34 Root VegetableJus ................................................................. 36 So us Vide Vegetable Jus ................................................... .. ... 36 Clam Juice ............................................. ................................. 36 Lamb Garlic Jus in aJar ........ .............. .................................. 37 MushroomJus ........................................................................ 37 Sous Vide Mussel Juice ................................................... ...... 37 Toasted OatJus ......... ............................................................. 38 Banyuls Glaze ... ..................... .. .......................... ..... ............... 38 Tagine Base ..................... .............. ........... .............................. 39 Squash Glaze ..................... ............................... ........ .............. 39 Sous Vide PrawnJus ....................................... ............... .. ...... 39 So us Vide Rare Beef Jus ....................................................... .40 Sous Vide BeefJuice ....................................................... .... .. -40 Centrifuged Carotene Butter .............................................. .40 Tomato Water ................... .......................... ........................... -40 Centrifuged Pea Juice ........................................................... 41 Centrifuged Roasted-Hazelnut Oil ..................................... 41 Banana Yogurt ................................ ....................................... 41 Best Bets for Consomme.. .................................................... -42 Oyster Consomme .... .......................... ................................... 42 C larifying a Consomme ...... ..................................... ............. 43 Apple Cider Consomme ........................................................ 43 Spring Garlic Consomme .................................................... .44 Bagna Cauda Consomme ................... ...... .. ............... ..... ....... 44 Pistachio Consomme ........................................................ .... 44 Pot-au-Feu Consomme ...... ................................................... 45 Oxtail Consomme ............... .................................................. 46 Red Coleslaw .......................................................................... 46 How to Distill with a Rotavap ............................................. .47 Buddha's Hand Vodka ............... ............................................ 47 Vacuum-Concentrated Apple and Cabbage Juice ............. .47 Mock Turtle Soup .................................................................. 48 Indies Spice Blend ................................................................. 48 Quatre Epices ......................................................................... 48 Chili Tomato Spice Blend .................................................... -49

ABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 8: COOKING IN MODERN OVENS

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How to Make Bacon and Eggs in a Combi Oven ................. 2 Cantonese Fried Rice .............................................................. 2 How to Roast a Chicken in a Combi Oven ............. .. ........... . 3 Combi Oven Roast Chicken .. ....... .......................................... 3 Combi Oven Rib Eye ............................................................... 4 Roast Pigeon Crown ................................................................ 4 Combi Oven-Steamed Broccoli ............................................ 5

CHAPTER 10: THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

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Best Bets for Stocks ................................................................. 6 Best Bets for Stock Aromatics ................................................ 8 Spiced Shellfish Stock ............................................................. 9 Paella Stock ............... ............................ .......... ......................... 9 Triple Dungeness Crab and Pork Stock Infusion ............... lO Brown Beef Stock ...................... ............ .. .............................. 10 Brown Veal Stock.. ................................................................. 11 Pressure-Cooked White Chicken Stock ............................. 11 Onion Stock ........................................................................... 11 How to Make Stock Sous Vide ............ ................................. 12 Sous Vide Fish Stock ............................................................. 12 Sous Vide Vegetable Stock.......................... ............... ........... l3 Best Bets for Broths ............................................................... 14 Borscht Broth ......................................................................... 14 Hon Dashi ......... ..................................................................... 15 Ham Broth .............................................................. ................ 16 Oxtail Pho Broth ................................................................... 16 Duck Broth with Vanilla and Bay LeaÂŁ.. .............................. 16 Laksa Broth ............................................................................ 17 Bouillabaisse Broth ................... ........................... ................. 17 Bacon Dashi .............................................................. ... .......... 18 Tom Yum Broth ..................................................................... 18 Cured Ham Broth ........................ .............. ............................ 18 Baked Potato Broth ............................................................... 19 Goulash Broth ............ ............................... ................... .......... 19 Mushroom Broth ................................................................... 19 Best Bets for Infused Liquids ...................... ...... ................... 20 Seasoning with Salt and Other Flavor Enhancers ............. 21 Sous Vide Ponzu ........................ ............. ... ......... ........... ........ 22 Best Bets for Lowering pH .......... ......................................... 22 Typical Acid Concentrations ............................................... 23 Seaweed Vinegar .................................................................... 23 Elder Flower Vinegar ............................................................ 23 Passion Fruit-White Soy Sauce Vinaigrette ....................... 23 Constructed Red Wine Glaze ...................... .... .................... 24 Best Bets for Adding Flavor with Alcohol .......................... 24 Clove Oil ..................................... .............................. ............. 25 Cinnamon-Scented PeaJuice .................. .... ......................... 25 Condrieu Butter ..................................... ................................ 25 Glazed Carrot ........................................................................ 25 Marinated Spaghetti Squash .............. .................................. 26 How to Wash Citrus Oil... ............................... .......... ........... . 26 Extracting Flavor with Alcohol... ......................................... 26 Brown Butter Fumet.. ............................................................ 26 Hazelnut Oil Extract ......... ...................... .. .............. .. ............ 26

Page references of the form 4-381 refer to volume 4, page 381. Selected component recipes from the plated-dish recipes in volume 5 have been reprinted here. Each appears in the chapter for which it is most relevant.

MODERNIST CUIS I NE

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Memphis Rub .. ......................... ......... ..................................... 49 Kansas Rub ............................................................................. 49 Chaat Masala ........................................... .. ..... .......... .............. 50 Sweet Spice Blend .................................................................. 50 Passion Fruit Granita ............ ................................................ 50 Fish Spice Mix ........................................................................ 51 Pain d'Epices Powder ......... ....... ................... ......................... 51 Citrus Spice ............................................................................ 52 Licorice Powder ..................................................................... 52 Ras el Hanout ......................................................................... 52 Exotic Spice Mixture ............................................................. 53 Pacojet Pea Soup .................................................................... 53 Mozzarella Powder .................................................... ,........... 53 Frozen Cheddar-Cheese Powder ......................................... 53 How to Mill a Creamy Nut Butter ....................................... 54 Frozen Creme-Fralche and Pine-Nut Cream ..................... 54 Sour Rhubarb Sorbet.. ............................... ............................ 54 Romesco Sauce ...................................................... ,. ......... ..... 54 Best Bets for Vegetable and Fruit Purees ............................ 55 Broccoli and Hazelnut-Oil Puree ........................................ 56 Creamed Watercress ........................................................... ... 56 Pistachio Puree ...................................................................... 57 Black Truffle Concentrate ...... .............................................. 57 Celery Root Mousseline ....................................................... 57 Best Bets for Freeze-Drying ................................................. 58 How to Use a Spray Dryer .................................................... 59 Spray-Dried Buttermilk ........................................................ 59 Spray-Dried Blood Orange Juice .......................................... 59 Prefreezing Temperatures for Freeze-Dried Foods ........... 59 Freeze-Dried Beef Gravy Granules ..................................... 60 Salted, Freeze-Dried Lobster ............................................... 60 Ramen Vegetables .................................................................. 61 Ramen Stock Powder ............................................................ 61 How to Carbonate Fruit with Dry Ice ................................. 62 Strawberry Milk Shake ..................................... .................... 62 Orange Soda .......... .... ......................................... ...... .............. 62 Carbonated Golden Raisins ................................................. 63 Shigoku Oyster with Fizzy Grapes, Fresh Wasabi, and Miso Powder ................................................................... 63

CHAPTER 11: MEAT AND SEAFOOD

64

Best Bets for Tartares ............................................................ 64 Hanger Steak Tartare ............................. .................... ........... 65 Beef and Oyster Tartare ........................................................ 65 Scallop Tartare ....................................................................... 66 Salmon Tartare Cornets ....................................................... 67 Best Bets for Cooking Tender Meats Sous Vide ................. 68 Rack of Lamb .................................. ................................. ...... 68 Pork Tenderloin with Juniper ............................................... 69 Venison Loin Rossini .................................... ........................ 69 Rib Eye with Cherry Mustard Marmalade and Porcini .... 70 Sous Vide Rabbit Loin ...................... .. .................... .... .......... 70 Best Bets for Cooking Tender Red Poultry Sous Vide ...... 71 Best Bets for Cooking Tender White Poultry Sous Vide .. 71 Poulet au Feu d 'Enfer. ........................................................... 72 Pigeon with Shellfish Butter ............................ .................... 72 Quail with Apple-Vinegar Emulsion and Water Chestnuts ... 73 Best Bets for Cooking Fish Sous Vide .... ............................. 74

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Ling Cod with Bergamot-Infused Milk ......... ..................... 75 Escolar with Red Wine Butter .............................................. 75 Turbot with Onion and Marrow Broth ............................... 76 Black Cod ............................................................................... 76 Steelhead Trout Confit with Fennel Salad ......................... 77 So us Vide Monkfish Pave ....... .. ............................................ 77 So us Vide Snapper ................................................................. 78 So us Vide Salmon .................................................................. 78 Skate Pave with Bread Crust ................................................ 78 Best Bets for Cooking Tender Shellfish Sous Vide ............ 79 Sous Vide Mussels ................................................................. 79 19th-Century-Style Lobster with Sherry and Cocoa ........ 80 Shrimp Cocktail ................................ .................................... 80 Oyster Escabeche .................................................................. 81 Steamed Live Spot Prawn ..................................................... 81 Poached Lobster Tail ............................................................ 81 Best Bets for Cooking Tough Poultry ................................. 82 Sous Vide Duck Confit Pave ................................................ 82 Sous Vide Guinea Hen ...... ...................................... .............. 83 Best Bets for Cooking Tough Shellfish ............................... 83 Sous Vide Braised Snails ....................................................... 83 Squid Sicilian Lifeguard-Style ............................................. 84 Abalone and Foie Gras Shabu-Shabu with Yuba and Enoki .. 84 Razor Clam with Sauce Verte .......................................... ..... 85 Sous Vide Octopus ................................................................ 85 Best Bets for Cooking Tough Cuts ...................................... 86 Suckling Pig Shoulder with Shallot and Orange Sauce ..... 87 Crispy Duck Tongues ................... ................................... ...... 87 Beef Shank Rillette ................................................................ 87 Sous Vide Pork Belly ............................................... .............. 88 Braised Lamb Shoulder ......................................................... 88 Beef Brisket ......................................... ................ ... ................ 88 Pork Ribs .. ............. ....... ...... .. ............. ....................... .. .. .......... 88 Pulled Pork Shoulder ............................................................ 89 Braised Veal Foreshank............................................. ....... ..... 89 American Wagyu BeefCheek ............................................... 89 Rare Flatiron Steak ............................................................... 89 Braised Short Ribs ................................................................. 90 Sous Vide Veal Tongue .................. ....................................... 90 Beef Short Ribs ...................................................................... 90 Glazed Oxtail ......... ................. .............. ...... ..................... ...... 90 How to Pressure -Cook Tough Cuts for Quick Results ..... 91 Sous Vide and Pressure-Cooked Veal Breast with Bulbous Vegetables ....................................................... 91 Pressure-Cooked Carnitas ................................................... 92 Microwaved Tilapia with Scallions and Ginger ................. 92 How to Puff the Skin on a Pork Roast.. ............................... 93 Ultracrisp Chicken Crown ................ ...................... .. ........... 93 Pork Loin Roast .................................................... .. ............... 94 Puffed Cockscomb ................................................................ 94 Monkfish with Constructed Skin ...... .................................. 95 Puffed Salmon Skin Pillows ................................................. 95 Puffed Chicken Feet .......... ........................................ ............ 95 Best Bets for Cooking Tough Offal Sous Vide ................... 96 Best Bets for Cooking Tender Organ Meats Sous Vide ..... 96 Sous Vide Foie Gras .............................................................. 96 Ankimo Torchon ................................................................... 97 Sweetbreads with Sour Mango Powder and Shiitake ........ 97

VOLUME 6 路K ITCHEN MANUAL


Foie Gras and Button Mushroom Tart.. .............................. 98 So us Vide Pigeon Offal ......................................................... 98 Foie Gras Soup with Bomba Rice and Sea Lettuce ............ 99 Sous Vide Veal Sweetbreads ................................................. 99 Crispy Sweetbreads ............................................................. 100 Best Bets for Brines ............................................................. 101 Best Bets for Wet Cures ...................................................... 102 Best Bets for Dry Rubs ........................................................ 102 Best Bets for Brining ....................................... .......... .......... 103 Best Bets for Curing ............................................................ 103 Foie Gras Torchon ............................................................... 104 Foie Gras Parfait .................................................................. 104 Bacon Chip ........................................................................... 104 Shaved Foie Gras ................................................................. 105 Duck Leg Confit with Pommes Sarladaises ...................... 10S Confit Cure Mix .................................................................. 106 Miso-Cured Black Cod ....................................................... 106 Grapefruit-Cured Salmon ................................................... 107 House-Cured Bacon ................ ....... ........ ................ .. ........... 107 Microwaved Beef] erky ....................................................... 108 Crispy Beef Strands ................................. ............................ 108 Crispy Beef and Shallot Salad .................. .......................... 108 Juniper Brine ........................................... ........ .. ...... ............. 109 So us Vide Duck Ham .......................................................... 109 Foie Gras and Hazelnut Ganache ...................................... 109 Fluke Cured in Kombu .................. ........... ...................... .... 110 Blackstrap Molasses Country Ham ................................... 110 Cured Beef Tenderloin "Bresaola Style" ........................... 111 Sea Urchin Bottarga ............................................................ 111 Salted Halibut .............................................................. ........ 112 Halibut Brandade ................................................................ 112 Seafood Paper ...................................................................... 113 Bacon Chips with Butterscotch, Apple, and Thyme ....... 113 Kalbi Flank Steak ................................................................ 114 Lutefisk ................................................................................. 114 Yakitori ................................................................................. 115 Tuna Ribbons with Ginger Marinade ............................ ... 116 Fluke Ceviche ................................................ .... .................. 117 Chicken Tikka Mas ala ........................................................ 118 Gong Bao Chicken ............................................................... 119 Beet Juice-Fed Oysters ....................................................... 119 Best Bets for Smoking Meats ..................................... ......... 120 Russian Smoked Salmon ..................................................... 121 Beef Cheek Pastrami ........................................................... 121 Hay-Smoked Chicken Crown ............................................. 122 Smoked Pork Cheek .............................. .............. ................ 122 Heather-Smoked Sturgeon ................................................. 122 Smoked Octopus .................................................................. 123 Best Bets for Burgers .................. ......................... ................ 123 Best Bets for Coarse-Ground Sausages ............................. 124 Farce Royale .... ....................................... ........................... ... 126 Toulousain Garlic Sausage ................................................. 126 Green Garlic and Pork Sausage .......................................... 127 Best Bets for Emulsion-Style Sausages .............................. 128 Italian Sausage .......................................................... ......... .. 130 Frankfurter ....... .. .......... ...... ........ .. ....................... ............ .. ... 130 Boudin Blanc .............................................................. .......... 131 Best Bets for Fermented Sausages ..................................... 132

Saucisson Sec .................................................................... ... 134 Fermented Shrimp Sheets ................. ................. ................ 134 Fast-Cured Pepperoni ......................................................... 135 Coarse Fat-Gel Sausage ..................... ................................. 136 Emulsified Sausage with Fat Gel ....................................... 136 Low-Fat Chicken Sausage ................. ..... .. ........................... 136 Rare Beef Sausage .......................... ...... ..... ...... ....... .. ............ 137 Fried Chicken Sausage ........................................................ 137

CHAPTER 12: PLANT FOODS

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Best Bets for Cooking Fruits Sous Vide Until Tender. .... 138 So us Vide Baby Beet Salad ................................................. 138 Sous Vide Glazed Pearl Onion ................................... ........ 138 Best Bets for Cooking Vegetables Sous Vide Until Tender ......................................................................... 139 So us Vide Turnip .................................... ............... .............. 139 Glazed White Carrot ........................................................... 139 Braised Turnips with Saffron ............................................. 140 Glazed Pearl Onion ............................................................. 140 Potato Salad ................................................... ........ ........... ... 140 Fresh Bean Salad ......................... ......................................... 141 Sweet-and-Sour Cipolline Onion ................ ........ ............ .. 141 Carrot and Dill Fricassee ................. ..................... ........ .... .. 141 Sous Vide Lentils ................................................................. 142 Sous Vide Green Asparagus ............................................... 142 Sous Vide Artichoke ............................................................ 142 Best Bets for Cooking Vegetables So us Vide with Fat Until Tender ................................ ...... ........................ ........... 143 Chestnut Confit ....... .... ... .................................................. ... 143 Salsify Fondant ........ ...................... ....... .. ....... .... .... ....... ....... 143 Sweet Potato Fondant ......................................................... 144 Lobster Mushroom Confit ................................................. 144 Best Bets for Cooking Fruits or Vegetables So us Vide for Purees .............................................................................. 144 Salted Caramel Apple Puree .............................................. 145 Tamarind Paste ............................................ .................. ...... 145 Date Puree ............................................................................ 14S Best Bets for Cooking Fruits Sous Vide in Sugar Syrup Until Tender ......................................................................... 146 Pink Grapefruit Confit ....................................................... 146 Best Bets for Warming Vegetables So us Vide ................... 147 Red Wine Cabbage ........ ....................... .......................... ..... 147 Best Bets for Potato Purees ................................................ 148 Potato Puree ......................................................................... 148 Best Bets for Pressure-Cooking Plant Foods ................... 149 Baked Beans ......................................................................... 149 Pressure-Cooked Tarbais Beans ........................................ 149 Caramelized Carrot Soup ................................................... 1SO Autoclaved Onion Soup ...................................................... 1SO Potato Puree ......................................................................... 151 Crispy Boiled Peanuts ......................................................... 151 Pressure-Cooked Sesame Seeds ............... ......................... 151 Best Bets for Risotto ........................................................... 152 Steamed Sticky Rice ............. ............................................... 152 Risotto Milanese ................................................................. 153 Paella Rice ............................................................................ 153 So us Vide Clam and Oat Risotto ....................................... 154 Pressure-Cooked Vegetable Risotto ................................. 154

MODERNIST CUISINE

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Braised Pine Nuts with Winter Squash ............................. 155 Ragout of Grains ................................... .............. ................ . 156 Root Vegetable Risotto ....................................................... 156 Best Bets for Microwaving Vegetables .............................. 157 Microwave-Fried Parsley ..................... .. ............................. 157 Tomato Powder ................ ....................... ................ ............. 157 Artichoke and Potato Chaat.. .................... ......................... 158 Sichuan Bok Choy ....................... .. ................ .. .................... 158 Best Bets for Naked Frying ............ .. .................................. 159 Toasted Garlic Chips .......................... ............ .............. ....... 159 Deep-Fried Brussels Sprouts .............................................. 159 Pommes Pont-Neuf .......... ..................... .......... .................. .. 160 Pectinase-Steeped Fries ......................... .. ............... ............ 160 Stir-Fried Fiddlehead Ferns ............................... ................ 160 Starch-Infused Fries ............................................................ 161 Ultrasonic Fries ................................................................... 161 Starch-Infused Ultrasonic Fries ........................................ 161 Best Bets for Fried Fruit and Vegetable Chips ................ . 162 Watermelon Chips .. ................................. .... ........................ 162 Restructured Potato Chips ................................................. 162 Best Bets for Batters ......................................... ................... 163 Spot Prawn and Lotus Root Tempura with Smoked White Soy Sauce ........................................... 164 Fried Pickles ....................... ............... ... ................................ 164 Crispy Halibut Cheek ......................................................... 165 The Colonel 's Fried Chicken ............................................. 165 Modernist Fried Chicken ................ .. ........................... .. .... 166 Oyster Beignet ......... .. .......................... ............ ...... .............. 166 Breading ..................................... .......................................... 167 Crispy Okra ................ .......................................................... 167 Cromesquis .............................................. .. .............. .. ......... . 168 Fried Green Tomatoes .......... .... ............ .. ............... .. ........... 168 Corn Croquetta ................. ........ .......................................... 169 Pork Trotter Beignet ........................................................... 169 Onion Rings ......................... .. .............................................. 170 Razor Clam "Takoyaki" ...................................................... 171 Crispy Corn Pudd ing .......................................................... 172 Salting, Pickling, and Fermenting .............. .. ............. ........ 173 Preserved Pear in Mustard Oil... ........................................ 173 Preserved Lemons ............................................................... 174 Pickled Garlic .................................................... ................... 174 Pickled Tapioca Pearl. ........ .. ............................................... 174 Kimchi ...... .. ................................ .......................................... 175 Watermelon Rind Kimchi ................................................... 175 N u kazuke ............................ ............................. ..................... 175 Sous Vide Cucumber Pickles ............................................. 176 Garlic Confit ........................................................................ 176 Aromatic Alsatian Mus tard ................................................ 176 Sauerkraut .................................... ... ..................................... 177 Braised Sauerkraut .................................. .. .......................... 177 Pickled Figs ................................. ......................................... 177 Compressed Dill-Pickled Vegetables ................................ 178 Pickled Jerusalem Artichokes ............................................ 178 Pickled Ramps ............................... ................ ...................... 178 Pickled Lemon ..................................................................... 179 Pickled Celery Root ............................................................ 179 Tomato Confit ................ .. ................................................... 179 Pickled Bing Cherry ............... .. ......... .................................. 180

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Green Papaya Pickle ........ .................................................... 180 Pickled Butternut Squash .............................. ..................... 180 Crispy Do sa .............................................. ............................ 181 Yuzu and Kumquat Marmalade ......................................... 181 Enzyme-Treated Pink Grapefruit ...................................... 182 Best Bets for Preservation .................................................. 182 Best Bets for Heat-Treated Fruit ........................................ 183 Best Bets for Smoked Plant Foods ..................................... 183 Smoked Potatoes with VinJaune Sabayon ........................ 184 Smoked Potato Confit ......................................................... 184 Best Bets for Dehydration ................................................... 185 Garlic Nougatine .............. ................... ............ .. .................. 185 Formulas for Dehydrating Produce ...... ............................. 186 Green Pea Wafer .................................................................. 186 Crystallized Rose Petals ..................................................... 187 Spinach Paper .................. ..................................................... 187 Mandarin Leather ......................................................... ....... 187 Pineapple Glass ................................................ ... .......... ....... 187 Best Bets for Freeze-Drying Plant Foods ......................... 188 Onion Sable .......................................................................... 188 Seared Strawberry ............. ................... ............................... 189 Caesar Salad ......................................................................... 189 Freeze-Dried Onion Powder .............................................. 189 Shrimp and Grits ................................................................ . 190 Best Bets for Pasta Doughs ................................................. 191 Herb-Embedded Pasta Vei1 ............................................ .... 191 Spaghetti Carbonara ......................................... ............... ... 192 Mac and Cheese ................... ................................................ 192 Pad Thai ................................................ ........... .................... 193 Pasta Marinara ........... .. ....... .......................................... ....... 193 Cocoa Tajarin ......... ... ............ ........... .................................... 194 Ramen Noodles ................. .... ............................ .................. 194 Buckwheat Dough ................................ ............. .................. 194 Semolina Pasta ... ............................................ .. .................... 195 Best Bets for Compressing or Impregnating Produce ..... 195 Smoked Lettuce ................ ................. ............................. ..... 195 Curry- Impregnated Apple .............. .... ................... ............. 196 Compressed Muscat Grapes ............................................... 196 Compressed Melon Terrine ................................................ 196 Waterme lon Meat ....... .............................. ... ....................... . 197 Vegetable Coals ........................ ........................... ................. 197 Pulled Mushroom ............................................ .................... 197 Squid-Ink Bean-Sprout Risotto .................................... ..... 198 Frozen White "Truffle" ................................. .. ................... 198 Clay Potatoes ....................................................................... 199 Fossilized Salsify Branch .................................................... 199

CHAPTER 13:THICKENERS

200

Best Bets for Thickening w ith Natural Starch ................ 200 Pregelatinized Starch Paste ............................................... 200 Best Bets for Thickening with Modified Starch .............. 201 Avocado Puree ................ ..................................................... 201 Modernist Bechamel ........................................................... 202 Jerusalem Artichoke Pudding ............................................ 202 Steamed Cod with Cod Roe Veloute.. ............................... 203 Smoked Pepper Puree ............ .. ........................................ .. .203 Caramelized Creme Fraiche ............................................... 203 Pomegranate and GarumJus ............................................. 204

VOLUME 6 路 KITCHEN MANUAL


Turkey Wing ........................................................................ 204 Thanksgiving Turkey Gravy ............................................. 204 Heather-Smoked Sturgeon Rillettes ................................. 205 Crispy Goat's Milk Ricotta Dumpling .............................. 205 Marcon a Almond Butter Paste ........................................... 205 Malt Vinegar Powder ......................................................... 206 Bacon Powder Squares ....................................................... 206 Parmesan Nuggets ...................................................... ........ 206 Spiced Ash ........................................................................... 206 Vanilla Olive Oil Powder ................................................... 207 Cashew Halvah ................................................................... 207 Almond Polenta .................................................................. 207 Edible Earth ......................................................... ................ 208 Corn Pebbles ....................................................................... 209 Best Bets for Thickening Hot Liquids .............................. 210 Best Bets for Thickening Cold Liquids ............................. 211 Ham Consomme with Melon Beads .................................. 211 Tomato Whey Broth ............................................................ 212 Truffle Jus ..................... ............... ........... ..... ........................ 212 Beef Tenderloin with Jus de Roti.. ...... .. .............. .. ............. 212 Olive Oil Spread ..................................................... ............. 213 White Grape Syrup ...................................... ........................ 213 XO Sauce .............................................................................. 213 Caramelized Coconut Cream ............................................. 214 Pressure-Cooked Polenta with Strawberry Marinara ..... 214 Creamed Spinach ........................... ............................ .. .. ...... 215 Warm Potato and Pistachio Pes to Salad ........................... 215 Aged Rare Beef Jus .............................................................. 216 Shiitake Marmalade ..................... ................ ....................... 216 Maple Vinegar Gas trique .................................................... 216 Mushroom Ketchup ............................................................ 217 Apricot and Jasmine Puree ................................................. 217 Seaweed Tapenade ............................................................... 218 Tamarind Puree ................................................ ................... 218 South Carolina Barbecue Sauce ......................................... 219 Kentucky Barbecue Sauce .................................................. 219 North Carolina (Lexington-Style) Barbecue Sauce ................................. .............. .............. .. ..... 219 House Barbecue Sauce ........................................................ 220 Kansas City Barbec ue Sauce ....................... .. ..................... 220 Memphis Barbecue Sauce ..................... .... ............ .............. 221 North Carolina (Eastern Region) Barbecue Sauce .................................................................... 221 East Texas Barbecue Sauce ..................................... ............ 221 Mughal Curry Sauce ................................ ............................ 222 Pea Vine Salad ............. ......................................................... 222 Muslim Curry Sauce ............................................................ 223 Green Mango and Cashew Salad ....................................... 223 Goan Curry Sauce .............................................................. 224 Kerala Curry Sauce ............................................................. 224 Masala Curry Sauce .................................................. .. ......... 225 Red-Eye Gravy ........................................................... .......... 225 Best Bets for Making Milks and Creams .......................... 226 Low-Fat "Cream" ..................................... ............................ 226 Instant Creme Fraiche ........................................................ 227 Herbed Cheese Spread ........................................................ 227 Soy Milk ................................................................................ 227 Toasted Rice Milk ............................................................... 228

Toasted Almond Milk ......................................................... 228 Horchata (Chufa Milk) ........... ............................................ 228 Lemon Strips ........................................................................ 228 Best Bets for Edible Films .................................................. 229 Crispy Cream Cheese ................. ......................................... 229 Spiced Honey Glass ..................................................... :.... ... 230 Dried Cherry and Hazelnut Nougatine ............................ 230 Edible Wrappers ............................... ................................ ... 230 Onion Arlette .............................. ......................................... 231 BBQCaramels ..................................................................... 231

CHAPTER 14: GELS

232

Best Bets for Cooking Whole Eggs .................................... 232 Liquid Center Duck Egg ..................................................... 232 Egg Blossom ......................................................................... 232 Deviled Eggs ........................................................................ 233 Custard Textures ............... .................................................. 233 Best Bets for Pickled and Preserved Eggs ........................ 234 Century Egg ........................................................................ 234 Pickled Quail Eggs ............................................................. 234 Best Bets for Separated Egg Gels ....................................... 235 Cauliflower Creme Anglaise ................................ .............. 235 Eggs Benedict .............................................................. ......... 236 Miso-Cured Egg Sheets ...................................................... 236 Parmesan Creme Briilee ..................................................... 237 Sauce Allemande ................................................................. 237 Egg Salad Sandwich ... .................................... ..................... 238 Best Bets for Blended Egg Gels .......................................... 239 Boudin Noir Custard ......................... ........... ....................... 239 French Scrambled Eggs ...................................................... 240 Ham and Cheese Omelet.. ................................................. 240 Asparagus Royale ... ...... ....... ................ ........... ................ ..... 241 Dashimaki Tamago ............................................................. 241 Pressure-Cooked Egg Toast ............................................... 241 Chawanmushi ...................................................................... 242 Boudin Noir Bread Pudding .................................... .. ......... 242 Chorizo French Toast ......................................................... 243 Olive Marmalade ......................................... ........................ 243 Omelet Base ......................................................................... 243 Best Bets for Smoking Dairy and Eggs ............................. 244 Smoked Egg Creme Caramel... .......................................... 244 Pecorino with Truffle Honey on Cedar ........................... 244 Best Bets for Protein Curds ................................................ 245 Cocoa Nib Curd .................................................................. 246 Goat Cheese Dumplings .................................................... 246 Silken Tofu .......................................................................... 246 Fresh Cheese Curds ............................................................ .247 Modernist Burrata ................... ............................................ 247 Goat Milk Ricotta ............................................................... 248 Firm Tofu ............................ ............... ................................. 248 Mozzarella Balloons ........... .................................... .. .......... 249 Green Pea Yuba ................................................................... 249 Milk Skin with Grilled Salsify and Truffle Puree ........... 250 Best Bets for Gelling with Transglutaminase (Activa) ... 252 Sour Cream Spaetzle ............ ............................................... 252 Salmon Custard ................................................................... 253 Edamame Sheets, King Crab, Cinnamon Dashi .............. 254 Flourless Gnocchi.. .............................................................. 254

MODERNI ST CUI SINE

ix


Deep-Fried Custard .................. ........................................... 255 Burmese Chickpea Tofu Laksa .......................................... 255 Corn Bread ................................ ........................................... 256 Corn Custard ............ ....... ....... ............................................. 256 Peanut "Tofu" ................. ...................... ................................ 257 Idiazabal Gnocchi.. ... ........................................................... 258 Everything Bagel Broth ...................................................... 258 Dill Spheres ..................................... ..................................... 259 Squid Ink Fluid Gel... ................................... ....................... 259 Best Bets for Cold Gels ...................................................... 260 Salt Gel ................................................................................. 261 Two-Meter Parmesan Spaghetto ....................................... 262 Long Island Iced Tea Gel Shot ........................................... 262 Spiced Walnut Vinegar Gel ................................................ 262 Cauliflower Panna Cotta .................... ......... ....... ................ 263 Knot Foie ............................................................................. 264 Madeira Gelee .............. ....................................................... 264 Chili Pearls ............... ........................... ................... .............. 265 Guinness "Pate de Fruit" .................................................... 265 Olive Oil Noodles ............................................................... 266 Sea Urchin Tofu, Tokyo Negi, Sesame, Ponzu ................ 266 Olive Oil GummyWorms ................................................... 267 Sherry Gel Cube .................................................................. 267 Sunny-Side Up "Eggs" ........................................................ 268 Best Bets for Firm Coating Gels ........................................ 269 Foie Gras Parfait Spheres .................................................... 270 Halibut Cheek Gel Base ............................... ....................... 270 Foie Gras Cherries .......... .......... ..... ...... ..... ........... .. ..... .. ....... 270 Crimini in Amber .................... ............................................ 271 Salmon Poached in Licorice ............................................... 272 Foie Gras Torchon with Beet and Hibiscus Glaze ........... 272 Halibut in Verbena Bubble ........................ .. ....................... 273 Best Bets for Hot Gels .. ........................ ............................... 274 Agar Carbonara ................................................................... 275 Gruyere Custard .................................................................. 275 Shellfish Custard ............................... ...................... ............ 276 Bone Marrow Custard ......................................................... 276 Boeuf en Gelee ..................................................................... 277 Fruit and Vegetable Acidities ............................................. 278 Best Bets for Hot Fruit Gels .................. ............................. 279 Hot Orange Gel ..... .... ............ .............................................. 279 Hot Banana Gel ......... ................ .................................. ....... 280 Hot Green Apple Gel... ....................................................... 280 Hot Quince Gel.. ................................................................. 280 Quinoa and Idiazabal with Bonito Stock Veil .................. 281 Dungeness Crab and Apple Roulade ................................. 281 Best Bets for Methylcellulose Gels .................................... 282 Properties and Applications of Cellulose Gums .............. 282 Instant Tofu Noodles ................... .... ........................ ........... 283 Potato Beignets with Caviar ............................................... 283 Sweet Pea Clusters ................. ...................... .......... .. ........... 284 Mackerel with Spicy Tomato Skin ................ .................... 284 Best Bets for Fluid Gels ...................................................... 285 Passion Fruit Brown Butter Fluid Gel... ............................ 286 Hot and Cold Tea ................................................................. 286 Passion FruitJelly ................................................................ 287 Popcorn Pudding ................................................................. 287 Lemon Egg-Yolk Fluid Gel .......... ....................................... 287 Parmesan "Polenta" ......................... .................................... 288 Onion Fluid Gel .......................................... ......................... 288

X

Confit Egg Yolk Puree ......................................................... 288 Umami Seasoning Fluid Gel .............................................. 289 Fizzy Grape Fluid Gel ......................................................... 289 Best Bets for Spherification ................................................ 290 Carbonated Mojito Spheres ................... ... .... ............. ......... 291 Melon Caviar ........................................................................ 291 "Poached" Egg .................. ....................... ............................ 292 Tomato Spheres with Basil Oil... ........................................ 292 Gruyere Spheres ................................................................... 293 Caper Droplets ......... ............................................ ....... ......... 293 Mussels in Mussel Juice Spheres ........................................ 294 Liquid Pimento Olive ............ .................. ....................... ..... 294 Prosciutto and Melon "Raw Egg" ...................................... 295

CHAPTER 15: EMULSIONS

296

Ultrastable Beurre Blanc .................................................... 296 Poached Lobster .................................................................. 296 Beet Flexicurd ....................... ............................................... 296 Sea Urchin Butter .. ............. ............................. .................... 297 Oyster Butter Emulsion .................. .................................... 297 Black Butter Emulsion ........................................................ 297 Broiled Tuna Belly with Montpellier Butter .................... 298 Blood Pudding Custard ...................................................... 298 Best Bets for Constructed Cheeses ................................... 299 Constructed Veal Cream ................................................... 300 The American Cheese Slice .................................. ............ 300 Cheese in a Tube ................................................................. 300 Cheesy Whip ...... .............. .................................................... 301 Cheddar Soup ...................................................................... 301 Remoulade Sauce ................................................................. 302 White Coleslaw ......................... ........................................... 302 Sea Urchin Tartar Sauce ..................................................... 303 Basic Mayonnaise ................................................................ 303 Hot Egg Mayonnaise ........................................................... 303 Soft-Boiled Egg and Garlic Emulsion ............................... 304 So us Vide Lemon Curd .................................... .................. 304 Bacon Jam ......... ................. ....... ................................. .......... 304 Deep-Fried Hollandaise ..................................................... 305 Sous Vide Instant Hollandaise ........................................... 305 Black Olive Puree ....................... ...................................... ...306 Thickened Oil ...................................................................... 306 Invincible Vinaigrette .... .......... ........................................... 306 Spot Prawns with Foie Gras Nage ..................................... 307 Eggless Citrus Curd ............................................................ 307 Mustard Vinaigrette ............................................................ 308 Sauce VinJaune ................................................................... 308 Eggless Mayonnaise ........ ........... ......................................... 309 Spice Mix Emulsion ......... ............. ....................................... 309 Olive Oil "Margarine" ......................................................... 309 Pistachio Gelato ............................................ .................. .... 310 Hazelnut "Cream" ...... ......................................................... 310 Jus Gras ................................. ................................................ 310 Chilled Chicken-Noodle Soup ........................................... 311 Ginger Cola ........... ................. ............. ...... ............. ............. . 311

CHAPTER 16: FOAMS

312

Best Bets for Airs, Bubbles, and Froths ................ ........ .. ... 312 Citrus Air .. .............. ........................................... ...... ............. 312 Oysters with Mignonette Air ............................................. 313 Parsley Foam ........................................................................ 313

VOLUME 6 路KITCHEN MANUAL


Kanpachi Sashimi with Citrus Foam ................................ 313 Geoduck with Seawater Foam ............................................ 314 Edible Soap Bar with Honey Bubbles ................................ 314 Saffron Honey Foam ........................................................... 314 Lychee and Lime Soda ........................................................ 315 Tomato Vinegar Foam ........................................................ 315 Cappuccino Foam ................................................................ 315 Best Bets for Light Foams ................................................... 316 Horchata Foam .................................................................... 316 Whipped Cheese ........................ .. ............ ....... .......... ........... 317 Blood Orange Foam ............................................................ 317 Milk Foam ............................................................................ 317 Lemon Verbena and Peach Froth ....................................... 318 Corn Foam .......... .................... .. .................. ... .... .................. 318 Blood Orange Sabayon ...................... .................................. 318 So us Vide Sole with Bergamot Sabayon ............................ 319 Coconut-Lobster Emulsion .................................. .............. 319 Mushroom and Bacon Cappuccino ................................... 320 Poached Apple with Pecorino Foam ............ ....... .. ............ 320 Grapefruit and Black Pepper .............................................. 321 Best Bets for Thick, Fine-Textured Foams ....................... 322 Chocolate Chantilly ....................... ..................................... 322 Instant Swiss Meringue .................................................. .... 323 Eggplant Foam .... ............ ....... .... ........... ............................... 324 Baked Potato Foam ............................................................. 324 Hot Butter Foam .................................................................. 324 Coconut Chutney Foam ........................................ .............. 325 Suet Mousseline (Thick) .................................................... 325 Dairy-Free Whipped Cream ............................................... 326 Cauliflower Foam ................................................................ 326 Fried Egg Foam .................................................................... 326 Horseradish Foam ........................ ....................................... 327 Oysters with Cava Foam ................................... ...... ............ 327 Barbecued Eel with Whipped Caramel... .......................... 327 Uni with Whipped Tofu and Tapioca ................................ 328 Chestnut Cream ................................................................... 328 Whipped Butter ............. .. ...................................... .... .......... 329 Yogurt Foam and Sweet Potato Chips ............................... 329 Best Bets for Set Foams ....................................................... 330 Passion Fruit Marshmallow with Chorizo Powder .......... 332 Cryopoached Green Tea Sour ............................................ 332 Whipped Yogurt Crisps ...................................................... 333 Green Tea Cake ................................................................... 333 Microwaved Pistachio Sponge Cake ................................. 333 Hot Apricot Marshmallow ................................................. 334 Hamburger Bun ................................................................... 334 Beet Meringue ......................... ..... ......................... .. ............ 335 Steamed Blancmange ........................................................ .. 335 Chestnut Puffs ................. .................................................... 336 Buttermilk Biscuits ............................................................. 336 Rye Bread .............................................................................. 337 Moroccan Batbout Flatbread ........ ...... ............................... 338 Siphoned Souffle a Ia Lorraine ........................................... 338 Green Olive Meringue ........................................................ 339 Soy Sauce Cloud .................................................................. 339 Freeze-Dried Carrot Foam ..................... ................ ........... 340 Gruyere Souffle .................................................................. 340 Zucchini Blossom Beignets ................................................ 341 Pate a Choux ........................................................................ 341 Best Bets for Puffed Snacks .. .............................................. 342

Pommes Soufflees ............................................................... 342 Tapioca Starch Cracker ............ .. ................................... .... .. 343 Black Sesame Rice Crisps ................................................... 343 Rice Crisp ............................................................................. 343 Puffed Chickpeas .................................. ............................. 344 Puffed Crab Cracker ........................................................... 344 Cheese Puffs ........................................................................ 344 Soccarat Tuile ...................................................................... 345 Candied Puffed Oats ........................................................... 345 Scallop Mochi ...................................................................... 345 Gremolata Crisp ................................................................. 346 Aerated Mango Sorbet ........................................................ 347 Edible Prune Coals .............................................................. 347 Aerated Foie Gras ............................................................... 348 Aerated Gruyere ......................... .. ...... ................. ............... 348 Aerated Coffee Ice Cream .................................................. 349 Aerated Chocolate ............................................................... 349

CHAPTER18:COFFEE

350

Coffee Butter ............................................ ............................ 350 Stable Latte Foam .............. ... ................ .. ............................. 350

REFERENCE TABLES

MODERNIST CUISINE

352

Converting Temperature ..................... ......... ...................... 352 Converting Grams to Volume for Common Ingredients ... 354 Converting Weights ............................................................ 354 Common Conversion Factors .. ...... .................................... 356 Converting Volume Measures ............................................ 357 Water Content of Typical Foods ........................................ 358 Fat Content of Typical Foods ........ ..................................... 361 Volumetric Equivalents for Amounts of Typical Foods .... 362

xi


HOW TO MAKE BACON AND EGGS IN A COMBI OVEN FOR THE BACON:

FOR THE EGGS:

CD Assemble two sheet trays and two sili cone mats for each batch

CD Butter several10 em I 4 in baking rings and place them on a very flat baking sheet lin ed with a sil icon mat. Alternatively, use the Rational baking tray designed for cooking eggs (see page 2·166).

of bacon.

0

Sl ice the bacon to lYz mm I% in thick. Partially freezing the bacon before slicing may make this step easier and more precise.

® Arrange the sliced bacon on the trays in an even layer. Place a second silicon mat on top of the bacon and top it with a second baking sheet to hold the sl ices flat.

0

Cook in a combi oven at160 ' C I 320 ' Fand 0% humidity until the bacon is brown and crisp, 20-30 min. If you prefer really dry bacon, remove the top tray and silicon mat, reduce the heat to 79 ' C I 174 ' F, and then dehydrate for another 20 - 30 min. The exact cooking time depends on the moisture content of the bacon. A sugar-based bacon cure browns quicker and needs a lower temperature.

0

Place one egg wh ite in each buttered ring, reserving yolks.

® Cook the egg whites in a preheated combi oven at 79 •c I 174 ' Fand 90% humidity for15 min.

0

Reduce the oven temperature to 63 ' C I 145 ' F. You may need to leave the door open a bit to cool the oven down. Check oven temperature (via temperature probe or by pressing the temperature-control button) to verify that it is at the proper temperature before going on to the next step.

® Place a single egg yolk in the center of each egg white and cook for25 min. ® Unmold the "fried " eggs and serve.

CANTONESE FRIED RICE

Yields 1.2 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Chicken fat, rendered,

56g

7%

see page 3·116

PROCEDURE

CD Preheat oven to 245 ' C I 0

Shiitake mushroom, thinly sliced Chinese sausage, thinly sliced

80g

10%

80g

10%

jasmine rice, cooked and cooled

800g

100%

Garlic chives, cut into 5 em I 2 in lengths Scallions, white only, fine julienne

80g

10%

40g

5%

Red Thai chili, seeded and cut in fine julienne

2g

0.25%

English peas, shucked and blanched (frozen peas work)

80g

10%

Duck egg, beaten

160g (four eggs)

475 ' F.

Add fat to nonstick roasting pan, and let heat.

® Add mushrooms, followed by sausage, and oven-fry until mushrooms soften and sausages blister, about 5 min.

0

Add, stir to evenly distribute other ingredients into rice.

® Oven-fryfor3 min. ® Add, stir to distribute evenly, and oven-fry for about30 s.

0

Fold into rice and oven-fry for about 2 min.

® Remove rice mixture from oven, leaving heat on. 20%

® Make a well in the middle of the fried rice. @ Return rice mixture to 245 •c I 475 ' Foven to heat. @ Add egg, and allow to cook until just coagu lated, about 1Yz min. @ Remove fried rice from oven.

White soy sauce

32 g

4%

@ Comb in e liquids and stir into fried rice evenly to season. @ Check season ing and serve.

Dark soy sauce

24g

3%

Mushroom soy sauce

12g

1.5%

Toasted sesame oil

1.5g

0.4%

from page 2·176

Note that this recipe can be made in a CVap oven ju st as well. Be sure to vent heat from the oven in step 4, and wait until the temperature stabi li zes, about 5-10 min.

2

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


HOW TO ROAST A CHICKEN IN A COMBI OVEN CD Make b rin es. Whisk together 200 g of water with 16 g of sa lt until

0

disso lved to make 8% brin e. Repeat with 200 g of water and 10 g of salt to make a 5% brin e. Rese rve.

0

Separate th e skin from the meat . W ea ring gloves, work your fingers under the sk in to detach it from the surface of the meat over the entire body of the chicke n. Be very careful not to tear the sk in.

® Inj ect the breast meat with an 8% sa lt brine.

0

Fill t he syringe with brine eq ual to 10% of the weight of the bird. For a 1 kg bird, for examp le, use 100 g of brine.

® Hang the chi cken by its legs in th e refrigerator for 48 h. Th e brine will diffuse fully, and the skin will dry out. just before cook ing, inj ect the breast aga in, this tim e with the 5% salt brine. Use an amount of brin e eq ual to 5% of the weight of th e bird.

Remove from the oven, and hang at room temperature for 45 min. Resting will help the meat reta in its juices when it is cut (for details, see page 3·84).

® Brush chi cke n eve nl y with clarified butter or neutral frying oil. ® Cook at 296 "C I 565 "Fand 0% humidity until t he skin is brown and cri sp, abo ut7min. @ As an altern at ive to air-drying in a refrigerato r for three days, put th e chi cke n in a blast chill er for 2-4 h on the chi ll (not freeze) settin g. The air-dry ing step ca n also be omitted-the first cook ing step may take a bit longer, and the skin will not be quite as crispy, but it will still be much crispier than when roasted conve nti onal ly. @ Holding the core temperature of the bird at 55 - 60 "C I 130-140 "Ffor about 2 h effect ive ly pa ste urizes the meat. For more on pasteurization times fo r poultry, see page 1·181.

® Cook at 64 "C I 147 "Fand 0% humidity until the co re temperature of the breast meat is 60 "C I 140 "F, about 4 h. Cook the bird hanging in th e oven above a drip tray.

COMBI OVEN ROAST CHICKEN

Yields 650 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Whole chicken

2.0 kg

100%

Water

200g

10%

Salt

16g

0.8%

Water Salt

200g lOg

10% 0.5%

Frying oil or clarified unsalted butter

as need ed

from page 2·178

PROGRAM STAGE

TEMPERATURE

HUMIDITY

COMMAND

CD Preheat oven to 62 "C I 144 "F 2

62 "Cil 44 "F

0%

0

300 "CI 575 "F

0%

0

® Remove chicken, and let rest 45 min .

3 4

Roast to core temp erature of 60 "C I 140 "F, about 3 h. Brush chicken with oil.

® When oven has reached temperature, place chicken in oven, and sea r fo r 7 min.

COOK IN G IN MODERN OVENS


COMBI OVEN RIB EYE INGREDIENT

Yields900g

QUANTITY

SCALING

Beef rib eye, bone in

900g

100%

Unsalted butter, melted

as need e d

Salt

to taste

PROCEDURE

CD Brush rib eye w ith butter. 0

Place meat on perforated rack, and begin program.

® After stage 5, brush with more butter. from page 2·180

PROGRAM TEMP

HUMIDITY COMMAND

55 ' C I 131 ' F

100%

@) Preheat the oven to 54 ' C I 131 ' Fin steam mode

55 ' C I 131 ' F

100%

® Steam until co re temperature reaches 54 'C I 129 ' F, about 1 h.

3

55 ' C I 131 ' F

0%

4

58 ' CI136 ' F

0%

® Dry for 5 min . 0 Dry for 5 min.

5

61 ' CI 142 ' F

0%

STAGE 2

This cooki ng program uses 25 min of drying to prepare the surface for searing. During the drying steps, the tempe rature is in creased, but the humidity is decreased so that the wet-bulb temperature does not exceed the cook ing temperature. The temperature is increased in stages to give the oven time to get rid of the extra humidity. The temperatures at left are for what we judge to b e a medium-rare steak. The temperatures can be adjusted for other levels of doneness by using the table below.

® Dry for15 min. ® Remove steak from oven.

6 7

300 ' C I 575 ' F

0%

@ Preheat oven until it reaches temperature, about 10 min.

8

300 ' C I 575 ' F

0%

@ Searfor 2 min. @ Turn a nd sea r another 2 min .

MEDIUM RARE

MEDIUM

51 ' C I 124 ' Fwith 100% humidity to co re of 50 ' C I 122 ' F

55 ' C I 131 ' F with 100% humidity to core of 54 ' C I 129 ' F

60 ' C I 140 ' F with 100% humidity to core of 58 ' C I 136 ' F

2

51 ' C I 124 ' Fwith 0% humidity for 5 min

55 ' C I 131 ' F with 0 % humidity for 5 min

60 ' C I 140 ' F with 0% humidity for 5 min

3

53 ' C I 127 ' Fwith 0% humidity for 5 min

58 ' C I 136 ' Fwith 0% humidity for 5 min

63 ' C I 145 ' Fwith 0% humidity for 5 min

4

56 ' C 1 133 ' Fwith 0% humidity for15 min

61 ' CI 142 ' F with 0% humidity for15 min

66 ' C 1 151 ' F with 0 % humidityfor15 min

STAGE RARE

ROAST PIGEON CROWN

Yields800g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pigeon crown

600g

100%

CD Remove skin in one piece, making sure to remove skin around arm a nd shoulder.

farce royale

200g

27%

0 see page 126

Activa RM or GS

Cut out shape from still- co ld skin to fit over crown, using actual crown as template.

® Dust farce sheet with Activa, and place over crown. @) Pull skin over crown.

as needed

® Wrap crown tightly in plastic wrap, and vacuum seal.

® Pl ace on small baking sheet in vacuum machine, and pull full vacuum to collapse a ny residual air pockets.

0 Duck fat

as ne e ded

Salt

to taste

Refrigerate for 6 h to a llow e nzyme to bind proteins.

® Sear prepa red pigeo n crown in dry, hot nonstick pan, rotating and applying pressure to brown evenly, a bout 5 min. ® Brush with duck fat, and season with salt. @ Bake in 65 ' C I 150 ' F oven for40 min. @ Carve breasts off crown, and cut into slices 1 em I :Y, in thick.

Toasted oat jus, warmed

200 g

27%

@ Serve with jus.

see page38

from page 5·132

4

VOlUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAl


COMBI OVEN-STEAMED BROCCOLI INGREDIENT Rice vinegar

Yields 1.5 kg

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100g

10%

CD Whisk together to make pick ling brine. 0

® Reserve.

Sherry vinegar

100g

10%

Water

64g

6.4%

Sugar

28g

2.8%

Salt

3g

0.3%

Broccoli stems, peeled and thinly sli ced

40g

4%

Shallots, thinly sliced

28g

2 .8%

® Cool comp letely.

Currants

18g

1.8%

0

Broccoli florets

1 kg

100%

® Arrange florets in one layer in combi oven steam basket. ® Steam at 90 •c I 195 " F and 100% humidity for 8 min, or until desired texture is achieved.

Broccoli, small florets

200g

20%

@ Toss smal l florets in oil, and place on baking sheet.

Frying oil

50g

5%

@ Oven fry in combi oven at 270 •c I 520 " F and 0 % humidity for 4 min.

Salt

to taste

@ Season steamed and fried broccoli.

Pickling brine, from above

to taste

@ Strain reserved pickled mixture, reserving brine.

Toasted pumpkin seeds

50g

5%

Chili oil

30g

3%

100 g

10%

Bring to simmer.

0 Combine. ® Pour warm brine over broccoli-stem mixture to pickle. Reserve.

@ Drain.

@ Toss steamed and fried broccoli with pickles, brine, pumpkin seeds, and ch ili oil.

seepage29

Salted lardo, frozen a nd very thinly sliced

@ Drape over warm broccoli mix, a nd serve.

from page 2·181

COOKING IN MODERN OVENS


STOCKS 0 Weigh cold water. Scale all other ingredients relative to the water weight. For every 1 kg of water, for example, use 200 g of chicken wings and 750 g of ground chicken meat for chicken stock. Although the amount of water used is the biggest factor in the yield, the moisture of the ingredients used, the cooking time, and the cooking method all affect the yield.

VARIATION: WHITE STOCK 0 Follow steps1 and 2 at left. 0 Blanch bones. Cover the bones in cold water, and bring to a boil.

0

Mix vegetables and aromatics. See Best Bets for Stock Aromatics on page 8 for our recommendations.

0

0

Add stock ingredients and water. See the Best Bets for Stocks table below for our recommendations. You can use more or less water than indicated depending on the purpose of your stock.

0 Follow steps 3-5 at left.

Sweat stock ingredients and aromatics in fat. See the Best Bets for Stocks table below for recommended ingredients.

Cook. The table lists suggested cooking methods, times, and temperatures. If pressure-cooking, set the pressure shown on the gauge to 1 bar I 15 psi. Vacuum seal ingredients before cooking so us vide.

0

Rest until pressure cooker has depressurized, about 20 min. Strain.

Best Bets for Stocks Stock

Fat

(scaling)

Bone

(scaling)

Meat

(scaling)

Liquid

(scaling)

chicken, duck,

frying oil

8%

wings

40%

ground chicken

75%

water

100%

suet

5%

calf's foot, split

20%

ground beef

80%

water

100%

or pigeon beef

red wine 10% (for brown stock only) veal

frying oil

5%

veal knuckle

50%

ground veal

25%

water Madeira

15%

lamb

frying oil

5%

lamb shoulder and neck

35%

ground lamb

100%

water

100%

pork

frying oil

7.5%

pork ribs

50%

ground pork

50%

water

100%

white port (dry)

8%

water

100%

dry vermouth

15%

n/a

water

100%

n/a

water

100%

white wine

10%

water

100%

Shaoxing wine

5%

shellfish

clarified unsalted butter

5%

vegetable

vegetable oil 5%

fish

olive oil

Chinese banquet

Chinese

10%

lobster, shrimp, or crab shells and heads

65%

squid or scallop 20% meat (optional)

n/a fish bones

100%

pork ribs

20%

cured ham,

10%

100%

duck wings

20%

chicken wings

15%

chicken carcass

30%

ground pork

40%

water

100%

chicken carcass

24%

ground pork

8%

water

100%

chicken feet

6%

shoulder

pork trotter

12%

water

100%

coconut water

40%

thinly sliced

everyday Japanese

Thai

chicken wings

20%

pork ribs

12%

ground pork

from page 2路296

6

VOLUME 6 路KITCHEN MANUAL

35%


VARIATION: SHEllFISH STOCK

VARIATION: RICH BROWN STOCK

CD

Fol low steps 1 and 2 in Stocks, previous page.

CD Weigh water.

0

Saute she llfi sh, aromatics, and tomato paste in fat on stove top . See the table below for recomme nded ingredients.

0

Roast meat, bones, and vegetables. Cook at 190 oc I 375 属F for the tim e indi cated in the table at left. Add tomato paste if desired.

速 Deglaze roast ing pan. Use wine or water.

速 Follow steps 3- 5 in Stocks.

0

Combine aromatics with roasted ingredients.

速 Follow steps 3-5 in Stocks, previous page.

Preparation (brown stock only)

(h)

Cook

(h)

(oc)

(oF)

roast meat and bones

Yz

pressure-cook

1Yz

n/ a

n/ a

roast meat and bones

1

pressure-cook

2Yz

n/ a

n/ a

roast meat

}4

pressure-cook

2Yz

n/ a

n/ a

roast meat

1

pressure-cook

1Yz

n/ a

n/ a

roast meat a nd bones

1

pressure-cook

2

n/ a

n/ a

fry she lls with tomato paste until golden brown

10

cook so us vide

}4

88

190

sa ute sliced vegetables until golden brown

1

cook so us vide

3

85

185

ro ast bones

20

cook so us vide

Jl/4

88

190

pressure-cook

2

n/ a

n/ a

pressure-cook

11/4

n/a

n/a

coo k so us vide

11/4

90

194

pressure-cook

lYz

n/a

n/a

min

min

THE MODERN I ST KI TC HEN

7


Best Bets for Stock Aromatics Stock

Vegetable

(sca ling)* Herb

vegetable

onion

33%

carrot lee k

poultry

meat, beef

game, lamb

shellfish

fish

Chinese banquet

0 .75%

25%

bay leaf

8%

thym e

tomato, peeled a nd seeded

8%

chive

1.00%

celery

5%

mushroom

5%

parsley

0 .50 %

onion

6%

carrot

5%

(scaling)*

black peppercorns

0 .1%

0 .01 %

coriand e r seed

0 .2%

0 .10%

sta r a nise

0 .2%

bl ack peppercorns

0 .1%

ga rlic

1%

leek

5%

onion

10%

thyme

0.8%

sta r a nise

0 .05%

carrot

10%

rose mary

0 .15%

garlic

1%

celery

2%

tomato paste (for brown stock)

5%

onion

7%

bay leaf

0.01 %

star anise

1.5%

carrot

7%

thym e

1.00%

garli c

2%

celery

2%

sage

0.20%

black peppe rcorns

0 .2%

carrot

5%

pa rsley

0 .25%

fenn e l see d

0 .01 %

onion

5%

thym e

0 .10%

saffron

0.005%

leek

2%

bas il

0.20%

fennel

2%

garlic

2%

button mushroom

2%

tomato paste (for brown stock)

5%

carrot

33 %

n/ a

onion

26%

coriand e r seed

0 .3%

leek

13%

star anise

0.2%

fennel

13%

tomato paste (for brown stock)

5%

sca llion

0 .2%

ginger

0.4%

white peppercorns

0.01 %

cinnamon sticks

0.05%

n/ a

Chinese everyday

scallion

1.2%

n/ a

ginger

1%

japanese

onion

3.5 %

n/ a

ginge r

0.4%

carrot

3.5%

garlic

0.75%

scallion

1%

kombu

0 .1%

bonito flakes

5%

scallion

1%

cilantro stalks

0 .20%

ginger

0.4%

1%

Thai basil

0.30%

garlic

0.5%

4%

makrud lime leaf

0.40%

Thai

cabbage fried shallot from page 2路298

8

(sca ling)* Spice

parsl ey

*(set weight of water to 700%)

VOlU M E 6 路K I TC HEN MA NU Al


SPICED SHELLFISH STOCK INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Chicken wings, chopped 500g

Yields 800g SCALING

PROCEDURE

33% 33%

CD Roasttogeth e r in 230 oc I 450 °Foven until uniformly

0

Ground pork

500g

Dungeness crab (whole)

1.5 kg (about three medium)

100%

Grapeseed oil

150g

10%

Coconut oil

25g

1.7%

go lden brown, about 25 min, a nd reserve . Crush crab she ll s and meat into sma ll er pieces.

® Fry in bottom of pressure cooker in oi ls until go lden, about8 min. @ Remove crab pieces from oi l, and reserve crab pieces and imbued oil.

Leeks, thinly sliced

250g

17%

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

200g

13.5%

®Fry prepared vegetables together with reserved crab oil in pressure cooker until golden.

Green onions, thinly sliced

150g

10%

0

10%

® Add tomato paste. Continue frying unti l mixture is amber and cooked tomato flavor deve lops, about 3 min .

Shallots, thinly sliced

150g

Tomato paste

50g

3.5%

Water

1.5 kg

100%

Carrot juice

100g (from 250 g carrots)

7%

Shaoxing wine

82.5g

5.5%

Star anise

1.8g

0.12%

® Combine, and place in sachet.

Black peppercorns

0.8g

0.05%

Grains of paradise

0.6g

0.04%

Coriander seeds

0.4 g

0.03%

@ Combine reserved pork a nd chicken mixture, vegetabl e mixture, a nd crab pieces in pressure cooker.

Cardamom pod

0.3g

0.02%

® Deglaze pressure cooker.

@ Add sachet, and press ure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 1 h. @Strain, and refrigerate unti l use.

from page 5·186

PAELLA STOCK

Yields 750 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Rabbit trimmings

350 g

CD Brown in 190 oc I 375 °Foven until golden, about

Rabbit carcass

335 g

35% 34%

0

Yellow onions, thinly sliced

125g

12%

Grapeseed o il

100g

10%

Tomatoes, peeled and seeded

100g

10%

Carrots, thinly sliced

75g

7.5%

Leeks, thinly sliced

60g

6%

Fennel, thinly sliced

55g

5.5%

Piquillo peppers, thinly sliced

40g

4%

Pimenton de Ia Vera (sweet)

6g

0.6%

Thyme

2.25g

0.2%

Wate r

1 kg

White chicken stock

550 g

100% 55%

see page 11

25 min. Sweat onions unti l trans luce nt, about 5 min.

® Add to onions, and saute vegeta ble mixture until go lden, about 7 min.

@ Combine in press ure cooker with brown e d rabbit pieces and vegetab le mixture . ® Pressure-cook at gauge press ure of1 bar 1 15 psi for1 h. ® Cool.

0

Strain through fine sieve.

® Refrigerate until use . from page 5·240

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

9


TRIPLE DUNGENESS CRAB AND PORK STOCK INFUSION INGREDIENT

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Dungeness crab, chopped 1.35 kg

135%

0

Panfry until golden brown, about 15 min.

Chicken wings, finely chopped

100%

0

Remove from pan, and reserve.

QUANTITY 1 kg

Ground pork

650g

65%

Grapeseed oil

315 g

31.5%

Yields850 g

Scallions, thinly sliced

400g

40%

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

280g

28%

Leeks, thinly sliced

280g

28%

Fennel, thinly sliced

246g

24.6%

Shallots, thinly sliced

135 g

13.5%

Tomato paste

50g

5%

@ Add to vegetables, and continue to saute until mixture is golden brown, about 4 min.

® Add to pan used for meat, and saute vegetables until lightly browned.

Sake

lOg

1%

® Deglaze pan of vegetable mixture with sake.

Water

1 kg

100%

® Add water and reserved browned crab, chicken, and pork mixture.

0

Pressure-coo k mixture at gauge pressure ofl bar 1 15 psi forl h.

® Cool, and then strain through fine sieve, yielding about 850 g of stock. Star anise, lightly crushed

lg

0.1%

® Bring stock to boil, and remove from heat.

Cinnamon stick

0.4g

0 .04%

@ Add spices, and steep for 1 min.

Black peppercorns

0.3g

0.03%

@ Strain through fine sieve.

Sugar

3g

0.3%

@ Whisk sugar into stock infusion until dissolved. @ Cool, vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·254

BROWN BEEF STOCK

Yields 650 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Beef chuck, finely ground

200 g

40%

0 0

Vacuum seal. Cook so us vide in 90 ' C 1 194 ' F bath until juices are released, about 1 h.

® Strain, reservingjuice; discard meat. @ Cool beef juice, and reserve. Oxtail, thinly sliced on a band saw

500g

100%

® Roast oxtail with suet in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foven until oxtail is brown, about 30 min.

Rendered beef suet

75 g

15%

0

Water

500g

100%

® Combine in pressure cooker with beef juice and oxtail.

Red wine (full-bodied)

lOOg

10%

® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 2 1/> h. @ Strain.

® Discard excess fat .

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

50g

10%

Yellow onions, peeled and thinly sliced

50g

10%

Celery, peeled and thinly sliced

20g

4%

Leeks, whites only, thinly sliced

20g

4%

Cool and reserve.

@ Cool.

Red port (dry)

20g

4%

Parsley leaves

lOg

2%

Thyme

1g

0.2%

Bay leaf

0.5g

0.1%

@ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 2·301

10

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


BROWN VEAL STOCK

Yields 650 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Veal knuckle and neck bones, sawed into 5 em I 2 in pieces, if possible

SOOg

50%

CD Cover with water.

Neutral oil

7Sg

0

Bring to boil, skimming often.

® Drain, discarding water.

0

7.5%

Coat bones with oil.

® Roast in 190 ' C I 375 ' F oven until golden brown, about 30 min. ® Reserve bones, and discard excess oil. Veal trimmings, finely ground

SOOg

50%

0

Neutral oil

SOg

5%

® Roast in 190 ' C I 375 ' F oven until evenly brown, about 20 min.

Unsalted butter

1Sg

1.5%

@ Melt butter in pressure cooker.

Sweet onions, peeled and thinly sliced

SOg

5%

@ Add vegetables to pressure cooker.

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

25g

2.5%

@ Cook uncovere d, stirring frequently, until moisture has evaporated and vegetables are tender, about 7 min.

Leek, thinly sliced

25g

2.5%

Tomato confit

40g

4%

Combine on nonstick baking sheet.

® Strain, and reserve meat.

@ Add to pressure cooker, and increase heat to high.

see page 179

@ Saute vegetables and con fit uncovered, stirring constantly until brown, about 4 min.

Water

1 kg

100%

@ Add to pressure cooker with bones and meat.

Vodka

20g

2%

@ Pressure-coo k mixture at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 2Y, h.

Parsley leaves

3g

0.3%

@ Cool.

Black peppercorns, crushed

1g

0.1%

@ Strain . @ Vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

from page 2·300

PRESSURE-COOKED WHITE CHICKEN STOCK INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Chicken wing meat and bones, chopped

350g

70 %

Water

SOOg

Yields400 g

PROCEDURE

CD Cover with cold water. 0

Bring to boil, and then drain chicken immediate ly. Alternatively, for brown stock, roast wings and bones, and fry ground chicken until golden brown.

Chicken thigh meat, finely ground 350g

70%

® Combine with blanched chicken in pressure cooker.

Sweet onions, peeled and thinly sliced

SOg

10%

0

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

25g

5%

® Stra in through fine sieve.

Leeks, thinly sliced

25g

5%

® Cool.

Garlic, thinly sliced

Sg

1%

0

Parsley leaves and stems

1g

0 .2%

Black peppercorns

O.Sg

0.1 %

100%

Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for1Y2 h.

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 2·301 Yields 650 g

ONION STOCK INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 400 g Clarified unsalted butter Water Vermouth (dry)

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Saute onions over medium-high heat, stirring

50 g

12.5%

SOOg

125%

30g

7.5%

frequently until golden, about 15 min.

0

Simmer with sauteed onions for1 h.

® Strain.

0

Cool, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·264

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

11


HOW TO MAKE STOCK SOUS VIDE 0

CD Prepare ingredients. Grind meat finely, and slice vegetables thinly. Use ratios recommended in the table of Best Bets for Stocks on page 6. Roast bones.

0

Cavitate in ultrasonic cleaning bath for 30 min (optional). If the ultrasonic bath has a temperature setting, put it at the highest degree available, typically 60 oc I 140 °F,

® Refrigerate for 12 h, and then strain.

Vacuum seal ingredients together.

® Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for 3 h.

® Vacuum seal again, and refrigerate or freeze until needed.

SOUS VIDE FISH STOCK

Yields 1.5 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fish bones, cleaned and rinsed

2 kg

133%

CD Panfry bones until golden.

Neutral oil

50g

3%

Vermouth

350g

23%

0

Deglaze bones.

White wine (dry)

200g

13%

® Cool mixture completely, and reserve.

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

500g

33%

0

Onions, peeled and thinly sliced

400g

27%

® Combine, and cook until soft.

Fennel, thinly sliced

200g

13%

® Cool completely.

13%

Prepare vegetables as noted.

Leeks, thinly sliced

200g

Garlic cloves, thinly sliced

30 g

2%

Neutral oil

20g

1.5%

Water

1.5 kg

100%

Coriander seeds

5g

0.3%

® Vacuum seal.

Star anise

2.5g

0.17%

® Cook so us vide in 80 oc I 176 °F bath for 1Y, h.

0

Combine with bones and vegetables.

@ Strain. @ Cool. @ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use. from page 2·303

12

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


SOUS VIDE VEGETABLE STOCK

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

100%

CD Prepare vegetables as noted.

Onions, peeled and thinly sliced

280g

56%

® Comb in e .

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

200 g

40%

0

Celery, peeled and thinly sliced

100g

20%

® Transfer to ultrasonic cleaning bath, and cavitate for 30 min to improve extraction. If unavailable, proceed with remaining steps.

Leeks, whites only, thinly sliced

lOOg

20%

® Vacuum seal.

Button mushrooms, thinly sliced

SOg

10%

Tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and chopped

SOg

10%

Chives

lOg

2%

Parsley

lOg

2%

Coriander seeds

l.Sg

0.3%

Black peppercorns

1g

0.2%

Thyme

1g

0.2%

Bay leaf

O.Sg

0.1%

Star anise

0.5g

0.1%

Cook so us vid e in 85 oc / 185 °F bath for 3 h.

® Cool, and refrigerate forl2 h.

0

Strain.

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 2·303

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

13


BROTH Best Bets for Broths

CD Select a broth from the table. 0 Prepare and scale the liquid, meat, vegetables, and aromatics. Weights in the table are proportional to the liquid scaled to 100%. For example, to make dashi, for every 100 g of water used, add 5.2 g of bonito flakes and 2.5 g of kombu.

Broth

Stock

(scaling) Meat

(scaling)

pot-au-feu

white beef stock*

100%

oxtail, chopped

30%

vegetable stock*

50%

short rib meat, ground

20%

madeira

4%

water madeira fino sherry

100% 25% 19%

prosciutto, thinly sliced ham, thinly sliced Ibe rico ham, thinly sliced

62.5% 25% 25%

venison, ground, roasted pigeon wings, roasted pheasant trimmings, blanched

50% 12% 10%

ham broth

® Pressure-cook (set to 1 bar / 15 psi), or vacuum seal and cook so us vide. Recommended cooking methods, temperatures, and times are given in the table.

game broth

brown chicken stock*

100%

gin

10%

red wine

10%

capon broth

white chicken stock* wh ite wine (dry)

100% 25%

capon meat, ground

30%

salt cod broth

water

100%

salt cod skins, soaked for 12 h in cold water

20%

dashi

water

100%

bonito flakes

5.2%

pho broth

water

100%

beef knuckles, roasted

44%

Chinese ginger soy fish broth

Chinese fish stock** Shaoxing wine light soy sauce

100% 1.5% 1.5%

n/ a

n/ a

"Marm ite broth" adapted from Heston Blumenthal

red wine water

750%** 100%

n/ a

n/a

*(see page 6)

**(reduced to 250%)

@ Sieve.

When making dashi, the bonito flakes are added only after the kombu has been cooked so us vide.

from page 2·304

BORSCHT BROTH INGREDIENT

vields4oog

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red beet juice

200g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together.

Water

110g

55%

0 Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for 30 min.

White fish stock

90g

45%

® Pass through fine sieve.

see page 6

Rhubarb juice

16g

8%

Red wine vinegar Caraway seeds, finely ground

8g to taste

4%

Salt

to taste

from page 5·235

14

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl

@ Warm borscht broth, and season.


Cook Vegetable

(sca ling)

Aromatic

carrot

10%

clove

0.01%

turnip, thinly sliced

10%

bay leaf

0.05%

onion, thinly sliced

8%

shallot, thinly sliced

25%

black pepper

2.50%

garlic, thinly sliced

12.5%

sherry vinegar

to taste

whole onion

5%

juniper berries,

0.2%

carrot, thinly sliced

5%

crushed

celery, thinly sliced

2%

sage, thinly sliced

0.1%

shallot, thinly sliced

15%

Parmesan, grated

10%

cinnamon extract

3%

Method

(h)

(ac)

(oF)

pressure-cook

2

n/ a

n/ a

pressure-cook

1'/2

n/ a

n/a

next page

pressure-cook

1

n/a

n/ a

72

cook so us vide

2

88

192

cook so us vide

3

90

196

cook so us vide

1

60

140

below, 241

pressure-cook

1'/2

n/ a

n/ a

16

cook so us vide

35 min

80

176

cook sous vide

45 min

80

176

See page

(see page 27) onion, thinly sliced

20%

garlic, thinly sliced

10%

kombu

2.5%

sage, thinly sliced

0.15%

thyme

0.2%

n/a

whole onion, charred

24%

black pepper

0.04%

ginger, charred

5%

star anise

0.02%

cinnamon

0 .02%

allspice

0.01%

scallion

3%

Szechuan pepper

0.05%

ginger

2%

rice vinegar

to taste

chili

0.05%

honey

to taste

leek, thinly sliced

1,000% 500%

black pepper Marmite

to taste

carrot, thinly sliced onion, thinly sliced

1,000%

sherry vinegar

to taste

HON DASHI

to taste

ADAPTED FROM YOSHIHIRO MURATA

Yields360 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

475g

100%

Rishiri kombu, or best quality seaweed available (brown kelp)

12g

2.5%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 60 oc I 140 °F bath for1 h. ® Cool, and refrigerate for 2 h. @ Strain .

Bonito flakes (katsuobushi)

25g

5.3%

® Heat broth to 85 oc I 185 °F. ® Add bonito flakes, and steep forlO s.

0

The kombu flavor can be increased by extending the refrigerator time from 2 h to as long as 12 h. The longer the time, the stronger the flavor.

Strain.

® Cool. ® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until needed. from page 2·306

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

15


HAM BROTH

Any cured meat can be used here instead of ham.

Yields 535 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

100%

CD Pre pare ingredients as noted.

Prosciutto e nds, thinly sli ced

250 g

50%

0

Cooked white ham, thinly sliced

100 g

20 %

® Press ure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for1Y2 h.

jam6n Ibe ri co, thinly sliced

100 g

20 %

@ Strain.

Madeira

100 g

20%

® Coo l comp lete ly.

Shallots, thinly sliced

100 g

20%

® Measure 500 g.

Fino sherry

75 g

15%

Garlic, thinly sliced

50 g

10%

Bl ac k peppercorns, crushed

10 g

2%

Ha m broth, from a bove

500g

100%

0

160 Bloom gelatin

4g

0.8%

® Heat broth just e no ugh to dissolve gelatin .

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.75g

0.15%

Salt

to taste

® Season and coo l.

Sherry vinegar

to taste

@ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until needed.

Comb in e in pressure cooker.

Disperse ge lat in and gum in cold broth.

fro m page 2·306

OXTAil PHO BROTH

The sachet is a pouch made of cheesecloth that keeps th e spice mixture together in mu ch th e same way that a tea bag holds tea leaves. The broth ca n be made without th e sachet, but then you will have to filter out the loose spice mi x to get a perfectly cl ea r broth.

Yi e lds 4.75 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black pe ppe rcorns

2g

0.04%

CD Co mbin e.

Cinnamon stick

1g

0.02%

0

Star anise, ground

1g

0.02%

® Place in sachet made of cheesecloth.

Toast spice mix.

Allspice

0.5 g

0.01 %

Water

5 kg

100%

@ Combine in pressure cooker.

Beef knuckles, blanched

2.2 kg

44%

® Add sachet.

White onions, whole, unpeeled, and charred

1.2 kg

24%

® Press ure-cook broth at 1 bar I 15 ps i fo r 3 h.

Oxtail, jointed and seared

900g

18%

0

Ginger, halved and charred

250g

5%

Disca rd sachet.

Fish sauce

to taste

® Season and coo l.

Salt

to taste

® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until needed.

Sugar

to taste

from page 2·307

DUCK BROTH WITH VANillA AND BAY lEAF SCALING

PROCEDURE

Duck meat, finely ground 400g

400%

CD Brown together lightly in press ure cooker,

Duck wings, chopped

100 g

100%

Duck fat

30g

30%

Shallots, thinly sliced

125 g

125%

Leeks, thinly sliced

75g

75%

White port (dry)

150 g

150%

White wine

150g

150%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Water

700g

700%

Vanilla bean seeds

1.5g

1.5%

Bay leaf

0 .5g

0.5%

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Yields500 g

about10 min.

0

Add to duck parts, and cook until translu ce nt.

® Add to du ck parts, and reduce to 225 g. @ Place with duck redu ction in pressure cooker, and press ure -cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for1V2 h. ® Stra in through fine sieve.

from page 5·110

16

VOlUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUA l

® Seaso n a nd serve broth, or cool a nd refrige rate until use.


LAKSA BROTH

Yields500 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100g

2B%

40g

11%

0 0

30g

B.3%

® Measure 2B g of paste, reserving the rest.

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Onions, peeled and chopped Lemongrass, finely minced Cand lenuts, roasted and grated Shrimp paste

20g

5.5%

Dried chili

5g

1.4%

Galangal, peeled and chopped

5g

1.4%

Turmeric (fresh), peeled and chopped

0.7 g

0.2%

0

Prepare ingredients as noted. Blend together in food processor.

Saute until go ld en and very fragrant, about3 min.

Laksa paste, from above

2Bg

7.B%

Neutral o il

20g

5.5%

White fish stock

360g

100 %

® Transfer paste to large pot, and w hi sk in stock and cream.

100g

2B%

® Simmer broth for 5 min.

see page 6

Caramelized cocon ut cream

Laksa is one of the great dishes of the Peranakan culture that merges Chinese and Malay traditions. Many fee l that the best laksa is found in the food-hawking centers of Singapore.

see page214

Fish sauce

to taste

0

Lime juice

to taste

® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until needed .

Season and coo l.

from page 2·307

BOUILLABAISSE BROTH

Yields 750 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and diced

120 g

13%

0

Prepare vegetab les as noted.

® Comb in e.

White onions, thinly sliced

115g

13%

Fennel, thinly sliced

100g

11%

Shallots, thinly sliced

B5g

9.5%

Leeks, thinly sliced

BOg

9%

Carrots, thinly sliced

75g

B%

Olive oil

50g

5.5%

Garlic, thinly slice d

25g

3%

Tomato co n fit, pureed (or tomato paste)

60g

7%

® Cook over low heat until tender and go ld e n, about25 min.

0

Add, and in c rease heat to medium high .

® Saute until browned, abo ut 5 min, a nd reserve.

see page 179

Fish bon es and head

BOOg

B9%

® Coat bones in o il.

Neutral oil

75g

B%

0

Water

900g

100%

White wine (dry)

200g

22%

® Combine with vegetable mixture and fish parts.

Bake in 1BO ' C I 325 ' Foven until golden, about45 min.

® Cool.

Pastis

50g

5.5%

@ Vacuum sea l.

Thyme

3g

0.33%

Black peppercorns, crushed

1g

0.1%

@ Cook so us vide in BO' C I 175 ' F bath for1 '/l h.

Bay leaf

0.6g

0 .06%

Saffron threads

0.3g

0.003%

Blood orange juice

17 g

2%

@ Season. @ Cool. @ Vacuum seal, a nd refrigerate until need e d.

@ Strain. @ Cool. @ Skim fat from surface.

13g

1.4%

Blood orange zest, finely grated

1g

0.1%

Salt

to taste

Red miso paste

fro m page 2·30B

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

17


BACON

The quality of the bacon used determines the quality of the final dashi.

DASHIINSPIRED BY DAVID CHANG

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Water

1 kg

100%

Kombu

25g

2.5% 25%

0 0 0 0

Bacon, thinly sliced

250g

Yields 800 g

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 60 'C/ 140 ' F bath forl h. Strain out kombu. Vacuum seal with kombu-infused water.

Sake (dry), flamed off

30g

3%

® Cook so us vide in 85 ' C / 185 ' F bath forl h 30 min.

Mirin

lOg

1%

0 Combine.

Soy sauce

lOg

1%

® Adjust seasoning as needed.

Sake

6g

0.6%

Sugar

1.4 g

0.14%

® Strain out bacon.

from page 2·308

TOM YUM BROTH

Yields 750 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Shallots, chopped

160g

32%

Lemongrass, bruised and sliced thinly

78g

15.6%

Palm sugar

60g

12%

0 0 0 0

Tamarind paste

60 g

12%

Garlic, chopped

50 g

10%

Ginger, peeled and cut into coin shapes

45 g

9%

Cilantro stems, washed and chopped

40 g

8%

Galangal, peeled and chopped

40 g

8%

Belacan shrimp paste

10 g

2%

Makrud (kaffir) lime leaf, bruised

8g

1.6%

Bird's Thai chili, chopped

5g

1%

Neutral oil

as needed

Shrimp stock (or vegetable stock)

500 g

Prepare ingredients as noted . Combine in blender. Puree. Measure 100 g of paste.

® Saute paste until dry and very fragrant, about 5 min . 100%

® Whisk into sauteed paste in large pot, and bring to simmer.

see page 6

Palm sugar

20g

4%

0 Season.

Fish sauce

7g

1.4%

® Cool.

Salt

2g

0.4%

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until needed.

Lime juice

to taste

from page 2·309

CURED HAM BROTH INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields3sog

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced SOg

16.7%

0

Saute onions and leeks in oil until translucent.

Olive oil

8 .3%

0

Add to onion and leek mixture, and saute for 5 min.

0 0

Combine with sauteed mixture.

25 g

Leeks, thinly sliced

21 g

7%

Dry-cured ham, thinly sliced

SOg

16.7%

Garlic, thinly sliced

5.5 g

1.8%

Brown pork stock

300g

100%

Salt

1.2g

0.4%

Thyme

0.3g

0.1%

see page 6

Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi forl h.

® Strain through fine sieve, and cool. ® Season, and serve or refrigerate until use.

from page 5·84

18

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


BAKED POTATO BROTH

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potato skins

100g

100%

Frying oil

20g

20%

0 0

Coat skins with oil. Bake in 95 oc / 200 °Foven for 7 h, until golden a nd completely desiccated.

® Cool. Russet potatoes, peeled and thinly sliced

75g

75%

Clarified unsalted butter

15g

15%

Potato juice, d ecanted from starch residue

300g (from 700 g of potatoes)

300%

Water

300g

300%

Salt

to taste

@ Pa nfry over me dium-high heat until deep golden, about 15 min on eac h side. ® Cool. ® Vacuum seal with coo ked potato skins and slices.

0

Cooksous vide in 80 oc / 176 °F bath for1Y, h.

® Strain. ® Season and cool. @ Vacuum seal, a nd refrigerate until needed.

from page 2·309

GOULASH BROTH

Yields1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato confit

100g

17%

0

Pan fry con fit with oil, stirring constantly to prevent burning, until dark, a bout10 min.

Grapeseed oil

50g

8.5%

Red bell pepper juice

20% 120g (from 300 g red bell peppers)

0

Degla ze pan .

see page179

® Scrape away and discard any bits on bottom of pan. @ Measure 250 g of mi xture, and reserve. ® Cook onions slowly in suet until deep amber and dry, about 45 min. If pan becomes too dry, add small amount of water to preve nt onions from becoming too dark.

Red onions, thinly sliced

600g

100%

Rendered suet

100g

17%

Brown beef stock

800g

133%

Caraway seeds, toasted

3.5g

0.6%

0

Black peppercorns, toasted

3g

0.5%

® Cook so us vide in 85 oc / 185 °F bath for 2Yz h.

Sweet paprika

2g

0.3%

Hot paprika

1.25g

0.2%

Black cumin seeds, toasted

0.5g

0.08% 0.08%

see page 10

® Combine all ingredients with both reserved tomato con fit mixture and reduced onions. Vacuum seal.

® Strain through fin e sieve.

Cumin seeds, toasted

0 .5g

Sherry vinegar

45g

7.5%

Sugar

6g

1%

Salt

to taste

@ Clarify with centrifuge at 27,500g for 1 h. @ Refrigerate until chilled. @ Measure 25 g offat from surface of broth; reserve fat and broth separately. @ Season broth.

from page 5·56

MUSHROOM BROTH

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, thinly sliced

37g

25%

0

Saute until golden, about15 min.

Olive oil

8.5g

6%

Water

250g

180%

0

Crimini mushrooms, thinly sliced

140g

100%

Pressure-cook with sha ll ots at gauge pressure of 1.4 bar / 21 psi for 45 min.

® Stra in and cool.

from page 5·14

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

19


INFUSING FLAVOR INTO A LIQUID @ Combine ingredient with cold liquid. Quantities in the table Best Bets for Infused liquids below are proportional to the weight of the liquid. For example, to infuse rice vinegar with lemongrass, add 10 g of crushed lemongrass for every100 g of vinegar. 0 Vacuum seal (optional), and cook. Recommended cooking methods, temperatures, and times are given in the table. Sieve.

Best Bets for Infused Liquids (oC)

Infusion (of) (h)

cook sous vide

85

185

2

infuse sous vide

3

37

12

2%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

Chinese broth

3%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

cinnamon dashi

Ingredient

(scaling)*

Method

cured bacon, thinly sliced

30%

black pepper, crushed

0.50%

chili, dried cinnamon, finely crushed

Example use bacon water

coffee, ground

7%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

beef jus

ginger, thinly sliced

120%

blend, infuse

3

37

12

Chinese broth

juniper, crushed

7%

cook so us vide

70

148

15 min

game broth

lemon zest, grated

10%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

broth for pasta

lemongrass, thinly sliced

50%

cook so us vide

85

185

20 min

Thai or Vietnamese broth

lemon verbena

30%

infuse sous vide

3

37

12

lemon verbena sponge

licorice root, grated

5%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

broth for foie gras

mushroom, dried

6%

cook so us vide

60

140

20 min

mushroom cappuccino

nutmeg, grated

0.2%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

Parmesan cheese, grated

80%

cook so us vide

85

185

12

prosciutto, thinly sliced

30%

cook so us vide

80

176

2

prosciutto water

1.5%

infuse so us vide

3

37

24

tomato vinegar

star anise, crushed

3%

infuse so us vide

3

37

12

tarragon

20%

infuse sous vide

3

37

12

beurre blanc, fish broth

tea, black

3%

ultrasonic bath

85

185

Smin

bergamot sabayon

tea, green

2%

infuse sous vide

3

37

12

tea, white

4%

cook so us vide

70

158

7min

paprika, finely ground

2%

infuse sous vide

3

37

3

goulash

young pine buds

8%

boil and refrigerate

3

37

12

citrus seafood broth

vanilla

1.5%

infuse so us vide

3

37

24

broth for foie gras

20

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%)

VOLUME 6 路KITCHEN MANUAL

248

318 320

Parmesan water

saffron threads

from page 2路310

See page

315

319

5路109


Seasoning with Salt and Other Flavor Enhancers When cooks judge the flavor balance and seasoning of a dish, salt is typically checked first. Get the salt level wrong, and diners will quickly be distracted from their enjoyment of the food. Table salt enhances our perception of flavor, and so do nucleotides and monosodium glutamate (MSG), which are savory salts that trigger different taste receptors than salt does. You can enhance flavor in many ways

besides sprinkling salt crystals over your food: anchovies, dried scallops, and shrimp paste all layer on tastes of the sea and the shore. Ingredients such as bacons, hams, and cheeses carry hints of the country, barnyard, and sometimes smoke. Soy sauce, fish sauce, miso, and natto are all fermented seasoning agents, and each has a certain tanginess and vegetal quality.

Salts

Taste

Aroma

(sca ling)*

Note

salt

defines salty

none

0.5%-2.0%

most useful flavor enhancer in the kitchen; most people find 0.75-1% best for savory foods

monosodium glutamate

defines umami (also called savory)

none

0.1%-2.0%

found naturally in all high-protein foods; some people find >1% harsh and metallic-tasting

5'

savory

none

0.02%

found naturally in most foods; boosts existing savory flavors

aged cheese

salty, sharp, acidic, strongly savory

varies greatly

3%-10%

hard cheeses like Parmesan contain both salt and glutamate

anchovy

salty and oily

fishy; roasted scent when cooked

0.2%-0.8%

used as a seasoning since the time of Imperial Rome

bacon

salty

smoky, fried, meaty

3%-15%

can quickly overwhelm a dish

capers (salt-packed)

salty, slightly bitter and astringent

mustard oil, hint of thyme

2%

add at the last moment; high heat degrades aromas

cured meats

salty, strongly savory, slightly sweet

varies greatly; often nutty, fruity, and floral

5%-15%

use with moderation; combination of salt, sugar, fat, and Maillard flavors with smoke aromas is powerful

dried scallops

slightly sweet

pungent, slightly fishy, cured

3%-5%

used primarily in Asian cooking adds depth and savory flavor; tastes better than it smells; a favorite in ancient Rome

ribonucleotides Seasonings

fish sauce

salty, strongly savory, slightly sweet

pungent, slightly fishy

2%-10%

garlic

pungent, slightly sweet, enhances savory

sulfurous

1%-7%

when garlic is crushed and raw or lightly cooked, its allicin compounds trigger pain and temperature receptors in the mouth, thereby enhancing flavors

Marmite or Vegemite

salty, strongly savory

yeasty, meaty, malted

0.3%-1.5%

adds meat-like flavors to vegetarian dishes

miso, red

slightly sweet, savory

strong, roasted, hint of cocoa

1%-8%

mild, caramel, toasty

1%-8%

includes all three primary salts listed above; pungency varies with degree offermentation

miso, white natto

salty, savory

pungent, fermented, roasted, cheesy

1%

shallots

pungent, slightly sweet, enhances savory

sulfurous

5%-30 %

similar to garlic but does not cause onion breath because sulfurous compounds do not enter bloodstream

shrimp paste

salty, slightly sweet, savory

pungent, slightly fishy, cured

1%-3 %

used primarily in Southeast Asian cooking

soy, dark

salty, slightly sweet, mildly astringent

strong, fermented , roasted, molasses

2%-5%

tastes and aromas vary greatly among styles and brands

mellow, slightly sweet, floral

2%-5%

soy, white tomato

sweet, acidic, savory

fruity, musky, sometimes floral

5%-9%

rich source of sugars, acids, and salts when ripe; enhances roasted aromas when browned with meats

Worcestershire sauce

salty, sweet, savory, acidic, slightly spicy

fermented , roasted, molasses, spicy, vinegary

2%-5%

has many applications; underused as a seasoning; a distant relative of Roman fish sauce (gorum)

from page 2路312

*(set weight affaod being seasoned to 100%)

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

21


sous VIDE PONZU

ADAPTED FROM KYLE CONNAUGHTON

Yields 1.95 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yuzu

120g (about four whole)

17%

CD Grate zest, and juice flesh.

Sudachi (optional)

35g

Mirin

700g

5% 100%

0 Combine in pan, and simmer until reduced to about 80% of original volume.

Sake

65g

9.5%

Kombu (Rishiri if available)

15g

2%

® Toast over open flame on all sides.

Tamari soy sauce

550g

79%

0

Red rice vinegar (yusen)

525g

75%

Shoyusoysauce(usu-kuchi shoyu)

llOg

16%

Bonito flakes (katsuobushi)

lOg

Combine with citrus zest and juice, kombu, and reduced mirin-sake mixture.

As it does for vegetable stocks, putting a broth in an ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes improves flavor extraction. This should be done after the so us vide cooking step.

® Vacuum seal.

® Refrigerate for 3 weeks. 1.4%

(j) Strain.

® Use immediately, or vacuum seal and refrigerate until needed . from page 2·313

Best Bets for Lowering pH Ingredient

Typical pH Flavor profile

Example uses

cider vinegar

2.4

sharp, apple

salad dressing, marinade, coagulation

malt vinegar

2.4

bittersweet, hops, caramel

sauce, marinade

red wine vinegar

2.4

currant, tannic

dressing

rice vinegar

2.8

sweet, subtle, toasty

salad dressing, marinade, coagulation

sherry vinegar

3.4

sweet, oak, cherry, earthy

salad dressing, finishing meat sauce

white wine vinegar

2.8

clean, bright, green grape

salad dressing, fish broth, butter sauce

3.7

floral, light citrus, coffee

finishing sauces, seasoning seafood dishes

Vinegar (pH 2.4-3.4)

Citrus (pH 1.8-3.9) grapefruit juice lemon juice

2.3

bright, perfumed

dressing, sauce, balancing oil

lime juice

1.8-2

sharp, coconut, pine

sour broth, finishing fruit and vegetable water

orange juice

3.9

sweet, neroli

mellows other acids

Pure acids (diluted 1:10 with water; pH 2.4-2.9) wine sauce, dressing

acetic acid (vinegar)

2.9

pungent

ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

2.9

crisp

color preservative

citric acid (citrus)

2.4

sharp, citrus

fruity sauce for fish

lactic acid (dairy)

2.6

buttermilk, sour cream

dairy applications, enhancing fermented flavors for quick kim chi and sauerkraut

malic acid (apple, cherry)

2.4

tangy with Iight fruit notes

finishing glaze, sauce, raw fruit sauce, and water

tartaric acid (grape)

2.4

heavy acidity, light flavor

reduction, wine sauce, fruit sauce

red currant

3.1

tannic, bitter, berry

glaze or sauce for red meat, game

rhubarb juice

3.4

astringent, herbal, mellows when cooked sauce or broth for fish, foie gras

tamarind paste

3.7

sour, caramel, pungent

Tart fruit (pH 2.5-4.2)

tomato juice

4.2

earthy, complex, vegetable

vegetable broth, dressing

verjus

2.7

tannic, grape must

finishing sauce (best used raw)

gooseberry juice

2.6

bitter, sour, floral

dressing for shellfish and oysters

from page 2·314

22

sauce, sweets, dressing, broth

VO LU ME 6 ·K I TC HE N MA NUA L


Typical Acid Concentrations Acid type

For seasoning (pH 5.5-6.5)

For souring (pH 4.0-4.5)

For vinaigrettes (pH 3.0-3.8)

For pickles (pH 2.3-3.0) 5%-10%

kitchen acids

0.2%-0.5%

1%-3%

3%-6%

citrus jui ce

1%-3%

5%-15%

10%-100%

65%-100%

astrin ge nt fruit

3%-10%

10%-5 0%

10%-60%

65%-100%

vinegar

1%-5%

25%-75%

30%-100%

50 %-100%

from page 2·315

Kitchen acid s in clude ascorbic, acetic, citri c, lactic, malic, and tartaric acids. Note that the wide ranges in this table are due to variations in the ini tia l pH and in the buffering capaci ty of the food.

SEAWEED VINEGAR

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cider vinegar

200g

100%

@ Combine.

Muscovado suga r

26g

13%

0

Bring to simm e r.

Pa lm sugar

16g

8%

Coriander seeds, toasted and crushed

2g

1%

® Stir mixture un ti l sugar is dissolved, a nd rese rve warm.

Kombu, shre dd ed, soaked for45 min in warm water, and dra ined

30g

15%

0

Combine, and add to vinegar mixture.

ja panese flavor comb in ations often inclu de multiple variatio ns o n the umami fl avor theme. In this recipe, different soy sauces and kombu provide um a mi notes, wh ich are balanced by the bright yuzu c itrus flavors.

® Vacuum sea l a nd steep at room temperature forl2 h.

Ginger, grated

3g

1.5%

® Strain.

Whiskey

lO g

5%

0

Salt

to taste

Whisk into strain ed vin egar.

® Season.

from page 2·315

ELDER FLOWER VINEGAR

Yields700g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White wine vinegar

500g

100%

Elder blossoms, thoroughly washed

170g

34%

0 0

Ma lt vinegar

lOO g

20%

0

Ri ce vinegar

lOO g

20%

® Use to dress sa lads or as cond im en t for raw she llfish.

Sugar

65g

13%

Ma lic aci d

2g

0.4%

INGREDIENT

Whisk together. Vacuum sea l.

® In fuse refrigerated for at least 1 wee k. St rain.

from page 2·315

PASSION FRUIT-WHITE SOY SAUCE VINAIGRETTE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0 0

Passion fruit juice

55 g

100%

White soy sauce

10.5 g

19%

Lim e juice

7g

13%

ja la peno, brunoise

3g

5.5%

Malic acid

1g

1.8%

Yie lds 70 g

Many foods have compou nd s in them that wi ll react with any ac id yo u add, which tends to neutralize the ac id. Chem ists ca ll this property buffering. A food w ith a high buffering capacity requires more acid to be added to reach a given leve l of final acidity th an one with a low buffering ca pac ity. Because this capaci ty varies from food to food, it is ha rd to give precise numbers on how mu ch acid to add. A pH mete r is the best way to achi eve consistency.

Mix together until malic acid is fully dissolved. Refrigerate until use.

from page 5·183

THE MOD ERNI ST KI TC HEN

23


CONSTRUCTED RED WINE GLAZE

Yields 65 g

INGREDIENT Blackberries (fresh)

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

lOOg

100%

0

Blueberries (fresh)

50g

50%

®Cook so us vide in 65 oc I 149 °F bath for1 h.

Vacuum seal.

®Cool and puree.

0 Pass through fine sieve. Verjuice (store-bought)

50% 2.0%

50g Kalamata olive brine (from store-bought olives) 2 g Tannin powder(Obipektin brand Enocianin-A) 1.5 g

Tartaric acid

1.5% 1.0%

1g 0.5g 0.25g 0.2g

Fructose Oak chips, grated Ma lic acid Unsalted butter, cold

0.5% 0.25% 0.2% 5%

5g to taste

Salt

®B lend well with 50 g of berry puree. ®Vacuum seal, and refrigerate.

0

Warm wine glaze, and whisk in cold butter unti l fully emulsified . Check salt and acidity; add salt if needed.

from page 5·221

Best Bets for Adding Flavor with Alcohol Broth

Sauce

Ingredient

(scaling)*

(scaling)*

Characteristic aromas

Alcohol content

Example uses

aquavit

2%-7%

10%-3 0 %

caraway, fennel

high

finishing raw, cold items

Armagnac

1%-5%

10%-30 %

smoke, oak

high

glaze, sauce, adding body and subtle flavors

347

beer orale

10%-20%

15%-40%

malt, barley, bitter

low

meat sauce, glaze, adding grain flavors and bitterness

42

Cognac

2%-6%

10%-30%

smoke, oak, tobacco

high

glaze, sauce, adding body and subtle flavors

109

gin

1%-5%

10%-3 0 %

juniper, pine, cassia

high

marinade and game sauce, adding 109 spice

Madeira

5%-10%

20%

pepper, plum

low to moderate

sauce with dairy or mushrooms, adding sweetness and fruit flavors

past is

1%-5%

1%-5%

anise, licorice, sugar

moderate

seafood broth, soup

port, red

10%-20%

15%-40%

cherry, berry, oak

low to moderate

broth and sauce

212

port, white

15%-40%

15%-100%

pear, sour grape

low to moderate

broth, sauce, adding sweetness

16

sake

5%-16%

25%-75%

light pepper, honeydew

low

fish broth, adding sweetness and a 5·197 little spice

Shaoxing

3%-15%

10%-30 %

sweet rice, floral

low to moderate

pork, fish sauce, adding acidity and sweetness

5·167

sherry, dry

3%-8%

15%- 40%

almond, hazelnut

low to moderate

shellfish broth, adding body and tannins

5·31

5%-20%

cherry, currant

moderate

glaze broth, adding sweetness and complexity

sherry, sweet 5%-10%

See page

vermouth

5%-20%

15%- 40%

chamomile, cardamom

moderate to high

fish broth, sauce, enhancing flavors 5·233

vin jaune

2%-20%

25%-74%

walnut, almond, melon

low to moderate

broth, sauce, adding acidity and body

5·113

whiskey

7%-10%

20%-60%

smoke, leather, vanilla, char, peat

high

glaze, adding sweet and smoky flavors

5·66

wine, red

7%-15%

25%-100%

tannin, berry, oak

low to moderate

glaze, meat sauce, adding complexity and fruit flavors

34

wine, white

7%-15%

25%-100%

apple, pear, floral

low to moderate

broth and sauce, adding acidity and complexity

76

from page 2·317

24

*(set weight ofbroth or sauce to 700%)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


CLOVE OIL

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Grapeseed oil

100g

100%

<D Combine and reserve.

Clove essential oil

O.Sg

0.5%

from page 5·52

CINNAMON-SCENTED PEAJUICE

Yields210 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet peas, frozen and juiced

200g

100%

Cinnamon essential oil (optional)

O.OSg

0.025%

<D Whisk together. 0 Centrifuge at 27,500g for1 0 Strain.

Lime juice

to taste

@) Season broth.

Salt

to taste

® Refrigerate until use.

h.

from page 5·275

CONDRIEU BUTTER

Yields340 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Condrieu wine

750g

500%

<D Vacuum reduce to 150 g, and reserve. 0 Saute until tender, about10 min.

Shallots, thinly sliced

60g

40%

Clarified unsalted butter

so g

33%

Lychee juice (fresh)

100g

67%

0

Deglaze shallots.

@) Remove from heat. ® Strain. Condrieu reduction, from above

150g

100%

® Whisk into deglazed shallots.

Unsalted butter, cold and cubed

75g

50%

0

Osmanthus vinegar

1Sg

10%

® Season.

Orange blossom essential oil

O.OSg

0.03%

Rose essential oil

O.OSg

0.03%

Salt

to taste

Warm Condrieu butter base, and blend in cold butter until fully emulsified.

from page 5·172

GLAZED CARROT

Yields120 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Young carrots (preferably 100 g Thumbelina), peeled

100%

Carotene butter (or regular butter)

20g

20%

<D Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 80 "C I 176 "F bath for 40 min . 0 Cool, remove carrots from bag, and reserve.

Mandarin juice

48g

48%

Valencia orange juice

4Sg

45%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

see page 40

Honey

Sg

5%

Mandarin essential oil

0.1 g

0.1%

Salt

to taste

@) Vacuum reduce (or reduce over heat) to glaze, about 7min.

® Season glaze. ® Stir in carrots and warm through.

from page 5·186

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

25


MARINATED SPAGHETTI SQUASH

YieldslSO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Spaghetti squash

130g

100%

CD Steam until tender, abo ut 15 min. 0

Shred strands while sti ll hot.

®Coo l and reserve refrigerated. Orange juice

24g

18.5%

0

Honey vinegar

11 g

8.5%

® Marinate squash in dressingforlO min.

Extra virgin olive oil

8g

6.2%

Sichuan peppercorns, coarsely ground

2g

1.5%

Orange zest, finely grated O.Sg

0.4%

Acetaldehyde

0.015 g

0.01%

Salt

to taste

Combine to make dressing.

from page 5·149

HOW TO WASH CITRUS OIL

EXTRACTING FLAVOR WITH ALCOHOL

CD Combine the ingredients in a separatory funnel with the stopcock

CD Select and prepare ingred ient. The table Best Bets for Extracts on the next

closed. Use 10 parts essent ial oil, 40 parts distilled water, and 50 parts pure alcoho l (either ethanol or Everclear), or use a high-proof vodka that has been run through a water filter a few times in place of both the water and the ethano l.

0

Stopper the funnel and shake until the mixture becomes cloudy.

® Let stand undisturbed until the mixture separates. The oil rises to the top. When the liquid is clear-after a day or even a week of restingthe essence is ready. Longer time will yield a more intense extraction .

0

Remove the stopper, open the stopcock, and drain the flavored water through a coffee filter. The filter will remove any waxes and impuriti es. Close the stopcock just before the oil starts to emerge.

page suggests a number of good options.

0

Vacuum seal ingredient with neutral vodka . Quantities indicated in the table are proportional to the weight of the vodka. For examp le, use 25 g of chili for everylOO gofalcohol.

® Infu se. Recommended infusing temperatures and times are listed in the table. Some preparations benefit from cooking; for others, infusion at refrigerator temperatures does a better job of capturing their delicate flavors.

0

Sieve. Res eal, and refrigerate until needed.

® Add recommended concentration of alcoho l extract to broth or sauce. For examp le add 4 g of brown butter extract for every 100 g of broth or sauce. Adding more than 5% will make the alcoho l flavor perceptible.

BROWN BUTTER FUMET

YieldslSO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown fish stock

200g

100%

CD Simmer together until reduced to 200 g.

lSOg

75%

Vermouth (dry)

SOg

25%

Rice vinegar

lOg

5%

Brown butter extract

8g

4%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.3g

0.15%

Salt

to taste

see page 6

Sake

@ Cool.

® Whiskin.

see page 4-213

0

Season and se rve, or refrigerate until use.

from page 5·158

HAZELNUT OIL EXTRACT

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Roasted hazelnut oil

300g

100%

CD Combine in separatory funnel.

300g

100%

see page 41 (or store-bought)

Vodka

0

Shake vigorously for 2 min.

® Allow oil and alcohol to separate overnight.

0

Decant alcohol from bottom offunnel.

® Use haze lnut oil-infused alcohol to season broths or sauces without adding fat. from page 2·321

26

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


Best Bets for Extracts Infuse

nl

(h)

Example concentration** Example use

Ingredient

(scaling)*

(OC)

bay leaf, fresh

1%

60

140

4

5%

fish sauce, broth

46

brown butter, melted

100%

65

149

5

4%

vegetable broth

42,297

65

149

3

4%

popcorn broth

24

2%

Sichuan-style broth

4

3%-4%

meat sauce fish sauce, broth

butter, melted

100%

chili (dry), crushed

25%

cinnamon stick, crushed

5%

refrigerate 60

140

so

122

citrus zest, finely grated

27%

coffee bean, ground

20%

corianderseed,crushed

20%

60

fennel seed

5%

ginger, thinly sliced roasted hazelnut oil nutmeg, grated

7%

3

3%

12

3%

meat sauce, red-eye gravy

140

3

5%

seafood sauce

3

37

24

3%-4%

pork broth, Parmesan jus

25%

60

140

4

3%

Chinese broth

100%

65

149

3

8%

root vegetable broth

refrigerate

24

2%-3%

guinea fowl consomme

refrigerate

rosemary

10%

refrigerate

24

1.5%-2.5%

lamb broth, lamb jus

saffron threads

1%

refrigerate

24

0.6%

cream sauce

star anise, crushed

5%

4

4%

oxtail consomme

thyme leaf

10%

4

3%-4%

beurre blanc

vanilla bean, split

5%

24

3%

sauce or broth of foie gras or lean fish

from page 2·326

60

140

60

140

refrigerate

*(set weight of vodka to 700%)

See page

14

5·101

46

**(set weight ofbroth or sauce to 700%)

HOUSE BITTERS

Yields500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Vodka

500g

100%

Kumquat, thinly sliced

40g

8%

CD Combine. 0 Seal in glass bottle with airtight lid.

Burdock root

12g

2.4%

® Shake bottle twice a week for 4 wk.

2.4%

0 Pour mixture through fine sieve into sterilized bottle.

Vanilla beans, halved

12g

Orange zest

lOg

2%

Gentian flowers

6g

1.2%

Cinnamon

5g

1%

Cloves

3g

0.6%

Heather tips

2g

0.4%

Anise seeds

1.5g

0.3%

from page 2·327

FINES HERBS EXTRACT

YieldslOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Vodka

lOOg

100%

Chervil, thinly sliced

33g

33%

CD Combine and vacuum seal. 0 Refrigerate for 24 h to steep.

Chives

33 g

33%

® Strain through fine filter.

Parsley leaves, whole

33 g

33%

0 Add 2%-5% of extract to season broth or sauce, or

15g

15%

Tarragon, crushed

reseal and refrigerate until use.

from page 2·327

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

27


INFUSING FLAVOR INTO A FAT @ Wash and dry all produce thoroughly to prevent contamination of the fat. 0 Vacuum seal ingredient with fat. The table Best Bets for Infused Fats below lists many good combinations. Quantities are proportional to the weight of the fat. When making coffee butter, for example, add 55 g of coffee beans for every 100 g of butter.

0 Place food in bag into an ultrasonic bath for15 min to 1 h (optional).

庐 Cook so us vide to infuse the fat. Recommended temperatures and times are given in the table.

庐 Sieve, and then refrigerate. Do not sieve truffle or other infusions in which the flavorful flecks are desirable.

Ultrasonic treatment enhances extraction and should be done while the food is still hot. Use the same bath temperature used for infusion or the highest setting possible. Or use a so us vide bath that has ultrasonic capability to do the infusion.

This recipe works with crab, crawfish, shrimp, prawn, and lobster of all varieties. It is a culinary classic that dates to traditional French cuisine.

Best Bets for Infused Fats Cook so us vide, or infuse cold Ingredient

(scaling)*

Fat

cured ham, thinly sliced

40%

peanut oil

70

158

8

dried chili, crushed

3%

sunflower oil

70

158

24

poach fish , season sauteed broccoli

cocoa nib, crushed

40%

sunflower oil

65

149

6

garnish sashimi

coffee beans, whole

55%

unsalted butter

70

158

12

garnish sea urchin, shellfish, lemon risotto

350

garlic, thinly sliced

50%

olive oil

90

194

4

garnish pizza, roasted potatoes

5 路211

fresh ginger, thinly sliced

45%

sunflower oil

Example use

puree until smooth 70

158

3

75%

olive oil

90

194

20 min

serve warm, blend into ham broth, garnish grilled peaches or watermelon

langoustine (or other shellfish) shell, crushed to a fine paste and roasted

125%

unsalted butter

88

154

5

poach shellfish, blend into shellfish sauces

thyme leaves

20%

grapeseed oil

55

131

45min

season cooked fish and shellfish, finish lemon risotto

lemon zest, finely grated

45%

grapeseed oil

60

140

2

garnish salads and fish

makrud (kaffir) lime leaf, sliced

15%

grapeseed oil

3

37

24

drizzle over grilled fish, brush on pork cutlets

fresh mint, thinly sliced

16%

olive oil

80

176

1

mix into vinaigrette

molasses adapted from Michel Bras

50%

unsalted butter

80

176

20 min

fry sweetbreads or foie gras

dry porcini

50%

refrigerate for 4 d after cooking 70

158

1

blend into game broth

1

drizzle over roast lamb

rosemary

10%

olive oil

80

176

rose petal, untreated

80%

sweet apricot oil

55

131

1',4

make salad dressing, beurre blanc for fish

truffle, minced

30%

unsalted butter

55

131

1

garnish poached scallops or artichokes

from page 2-329

28

ultrasonic bath

next page

garnish steamed fish

lberico ham fat, thinly sliced

sunflower oil

See page

add to XO sauce, season fresh melon

15 min

*(set weight offat to 700%)

VOLUME 6 路 KITCHEN MANUAL

next page

next page

next page


SHELLFISH BUTTER

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Crustacean heads, bodies, and shells, finely crushed or ground

500 g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 88 oc I 190 °F bath fo r 5 h.

Clarified unsalted butter

400 g

80 %

® Remove from bag, a nd coo l at room temperature .

0

Refrigerate for 12 h.

® Heat mixture to me lt. ® Strain; discard heads.

0

Deca nt butter.

® Vacuum sea l, and refrige rate until use. from page 2·329 Yi e lds400g

SOUS VIDE LEMON HERB OIL INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Grapeseed oil

400g

100%

CD Combine.

Lemongrass, thinly sliced

BOg

20%

0

Lemon thyme leaves

50 g

12.5%

® Cook so us vide in 60 oc l 140 °F bath for 1V2 h.

Lemon balm leaves

20g

5%

0

Makrud (kaffir) lime leaves

20g

5%

® Strain.

Vacuum sea l. Chill and refrigerate for 12 h.

® Refrigerate until use. from page 2·330

SPICED CHILl OIL

ADAPTED FROM JEAN -GEORGES VONGERICHTEN

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Grapeseed oil or other neutral oil

1 kg

100%

Chipotle chilies, thinly sliced

180 g

18%

CD Vacuum sea l together. 0 Cook so us vide in 70 oc I 158 °F bath for 24 h.

Coriander seeds, toasted and crushed

30 g

3%

® Cool and refrigerate for12 h.

Mace, crushed

30 g

3%

@ Strain.

Dry red chilies, crushed

30 g

3%

® Vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

Star anise, crushed

30 g

3%

Cinnamon sticks, toasted and crushed

20 g

2%

Fennel seeds, toasted and crushed

12g

1.2%

Yields1 kg

from page 2·330

MOLASSES BUTTER

ADAPTED FROM MICHEL BRAS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Unsalted butter, melted

200g

200%

CD Blend together.

Molasses

100g

100%

0

Yields200 g

Transfer mixture to mason jar, and seal.

® Place sea led mason jar in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for 30 min.

0

Remove jar from bath, and take off lid. ® Rest in jar at room temperatu re for 30 min to allow butte r and molasses to separate. ® Pour butter into sealable container, and discard molasses.

0

Se al, and refrigerate infused butterfor4 d.

® Decant butter, and refrigerate for use. from page 2·331

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

29


CURRY OIL

ADAPTED FROM THOMAS KELLER

Yields 1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Coriander seeds, toasted and crushed

90g

9%

CD Toast separate ly in sma ll pans until just fragrant. 0

Cinnamon stick, crushed 35 g

3.5%

Canolaoil or other neutral oil

1 kg

100%

Chaat masala

140 g

Remove from heat.

® Blend fully with toasted sp ices. @) Vacuum seal.

14%

see page 50

Cayenne pepper

30g

3%

Mace

15g

1.5%

® Cook so us vide in 90 ' C I 194 ' F bath for 1 h. ® Refrigerate for12 h.

0

Strain.

® Repackage, and refrigerate until use. from page 2·331

CRAB OIL

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Frying oil Crab shell and liver

SCALING

PROCEDURE

400g

200%

CD Deep-fry crab parts in 175 ' C I 350 ' Foil for 1 h to

200g

100%

infuse.

0

Stra in through fine sieve.

® Cool, and reserve in dry place. from page 5·190

MALAYSIAN AROMATIC OIL INGREDIENT

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Grapeseed oil

350g

100%

CD Combine, and simmer until oil is deep red and heavily

Tomatoes, peeled and seeded

140g

40%

saturated with a rom atics, about 45 min . @ Cool.

Red shallots, thinly sli ced 75g

21.5%

® Vacuum seal.

Sweet onions, sliced

65g

19%

@) Refrigerate for12 h to finish infusion.

Sichuan chilies, seeded and crushed

40g

11.5%

® Strain through fine sieve.

Garlic, pounded to paste lOg

3%

Shrimp paste (be lacan)

lOg

3%

Ginger, grated

7.5 g

2%

Redbird's eye chili, thinly sliced

2.5 g

0 .7%

from page 5·168

30

Yields500 g

QUANTITY

VOlUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAl


Additives to Preserve the Color and Flavor of Fresh Juice Function

Ingredient

(scaling)

Note

inhibits browning, preserves color

ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

0.1%-0.3%

works best with citric acid

citric acid

0.5%-2.0%

these fruit acids interfere with browning enzymes directly and by lowering pH; they work best in conjunction with ascorbic acid

honey

10% or more

high concentratio ns have preservative effects

sodium benzoate

0.05%-0.1 %

use only for foods with a pH :5 4.5; maximum permitted quantity is 0.1 %; slows both browning and bacterial a nd fungal growth

sodium metabisulfite (Campden tablets)

0.01%-0.05%

most effective at 0.03%; unpleasant flavor above 0.05%

fresh juice

5%-10%

add just-squeezed juice before serving to produce fresh volatile aromatics that refres h the flavor in some juices

essential oil

0.001%-1%

add a few drops of the appropriate citrus esse ntial oil just before serving to replenish natural oils from the peel and restore fresh flavor

alpha tocopherol (vitamin E)

0.025%0.05%

antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E help protect aromas from the ravages of oxidation

malic acid tartaric acid oxalic acid

restores or preserves flavor

from page 2·339

MEYER LEMONADE

Yields325g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Meyer lemon juice

300g

100%

0 0

Fructose

30g

10%

Citric acid

1.5g

0.5%

® Whisk into clarified juice until dissolved and reserve.

Gum arabic

5g

1.7%

0

Water

2g

1%

® Add 1.5 g of emulsion to sweetened juice.

l emo n essential oil

0.12g (seven drops)

0.04%

Centrifuge at 27,500g for1 h. Decant juice and strain through fine sieve.

Blend together until fully emuls ified.

® Hand-blend until smooth.

0

Strain through fine sieve.

Always add the essential oil just before serving. The acidity of the juice will destroy the essence. This is why the best quality citrus oils are made by removing the peel before co ld pressing so there is no chance for the acid ic fruit juice to damage the peel oil.

® Chill before serving. from page 2·340 Yields100 g

MELON WATER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Melon juice

lOOg (from 200 g of melon)

100%

0 0

Whisk together and season to taste. Centrifuge at 27,500g forl h.

® Decant only clear juice.

Fructose

5g

5%

lime juice

2.5g

2.5%

Tartaric acid

0.5g

0.5%

Salt

to taste

0

Vacuum seal, a nd refrige rate until use.

The flavor of melon is created by enzymatic reactions duringjuicing. The fresh flavor can be reinvigorated by adding a small amount of fresh melon juice to the batch just before to serving.

from page 2·340

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

31


PEN SHELL CLAM, PLUOT, MYOGA, SCALLOP MOCHI INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Pluots (or red plums)

400g

200%

Yields 650 g

PROCEDURE

CD Juice. 0

Clarify juice using preferred method.

® Measure 200 g. Malic acid

2g

White soy sauce

to taste

Pen shell clams, shucked

200g

Scallop mochi see page345

60 g (four pieces, 15 g each)

Freeze-dried scallop powder (optional, see page 58)

28g

Frying oil

as needed

Ginger oil see page 20

20g

Salt

to taste

Dinosaur Pluot (or red plum), thinly sliced

20g

Myoga, fine julienne

12g

1%

0

Season juice.

® Refrigerate. 100%

® Measure and refrigerate.

0

Measure and reserve indi vidually.

14%

10%

® Dust pen shell clams w ith scallop powder, if using, and then sear in oil over high heat for1 min. ® Season, and allow to rest at room temperature. @ Deep-fry scallop mochi in 190 oc I 375 °F oil until puffed, about 2 min, and then optionally, season w ith scallop powder.

10%

@ Toss pluot and myoga with small amount of seasoned pluot juice. @ Arrange pen shell clams and pluot slices on each plate.

6%

@ Garnish with scallop mochi. @ Pour additional pluot juice at table.

from page 5·202

SOUS VIDE BERRY JUICE

This process works equally well for blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries.

Yields 50 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Blackberries (fresh)

100g

100%

CD Comb in e.

Sugar

7g

7%

0

Iso malt

5g

5%

® Cook so us vid e in 65 oc

0

Vacuum seal sweetened berry mixture.

I 149 oF bath for1 h.

Remove from bag, and cool at room temperature.

® Stra in through fine sieve; discard pulp. ® Chill before serving. from page 2·340

STRAWBERRY CONSOMME QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Strawberry juice

250g (from about 400g strawberries)

100%

0

Centrifuge at 27,500gfor1 h.

Fructose

15.5 g

6%

0

Season, and refrigerate until use.

Malic acid

1.25 g

0.5%

from page 5·278

32

Yields 265 g

INGREDIENT

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


GREEN ASPARAGUS AND MORELS WITH ASPARAGUS JUS

Yi e lds 650 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM JEAN- GEORGES VONGERICHTEN INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pencil gree n aspa ragus, unp ee led

200g

80%

0

juice w ith Champ ion -style juicer.

0

Measure 50 g for recipe.

Asparagus juice, from above

SOg

20%

® Whisk asco rbi c acid imm ediately into fresh juice to prevent browning.

Ascorbic acid

0.4g

0.16% (0.8%)*

® Refrigerate. ® Saute for 3 min on a ll sid es until just tende r and go ld en.

0

Vacuum sea l.

jumbo gree n aspa ragus, stalks peeled

250g (e ight stalks)

100%

Clarified unsa lted butter see page 4·213

25g

10%

jumbo green aspa ragus, stalks peeled

250 g (e ight sta lks)

100%

® Vacuum seal.

Clarified unsalted butter

25g

10%

® Cook so us vid e in 85 oc / 185 oF bath for 12 min, imm ed iate ly remove from bag, and reserve.

Morels, thoroughly was hed

120g

48%

@ Meanwh il e, sweat together for 5 min un til te nd er and just cooked through.

Unsalted butter

SOg

20%

Shallot, fin e ly minced

30 g

12%

Vin jaune (o r Fino she rry)

25g

10%

Heavy cream

lSg

6%

Instant holl anda ise

BOg

32%

0

Remove from heat, and reserve.

@ Add to morels, and cook for 3 min. @ Warm to 65 oc

see page305

I 149 °F.

@ Dispense from sip ho n, and fo ld in to morels. @ Set aside, and keep wa rm. SOg

20%

Unsalted butter

lOg

4%

Lim e juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Flaky sea salt

to taste

Asparagus puree

@ Warm prepared asparagus juice over medium heat.

see page 55

@ W hi sk in puree. @ W hi sk in to warm thickened jus until fu ll y em ul sifi ed. @ Season jus. @ Reheat reserved asparagus sta lks. ® Season. @ Place two so us vide cooked stalks and two pan fr ied sta lks in center. @ Ga rni sh w ith warm morels a nd b lossoms.

Chive blossoms (or finely minced chives) 10 g

4%

from page 2·341

*(% oftotal weight ofasparagus juice)

@ Pour jus aro und plates at table.

STRAWBERRY GAZPACHO

Yields850 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Strawberri es, sli ced

560g

100%

CD Prepare ingredients as noted, blanching on io ns if

Cucumb er, peeled, seeded, a nd sli ced

140g

25%

needed, to remove sulfurous notes .

0

Red bell pepper, steamed forlO min, llSg peeled, a nd thinly sli ced

20.5%

Sweet onions, thi nl y sli ced

115g

20.5%

Extra virgin olive o il

50g

9%

Wh ite balsamic vi nega r

20 g

3.5%

Balsamic vinegar

13g

2 .5%

Garlic clove, crushed

2g

0.5%

Strawberry consomme

65g

12%

Lime juice

15g

2.7%

Wh ite balsam ic vinegar

4g

0.7%

Malic acid

2g

0.4%

Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

® Macerate in refrigeratorfor12 h.

0

Blend to fine puree.

® Pass gazpacho through fine sieve.

® Add to gazpacho.

0

see page 32

Vacuum sea l together.

Serve, or vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

Preparing gazpacho in advance? Create Ia minute flavor with this trick from Heston Blumenthal. At the last minute, juice a sma ll amount of the principle ingred ient-whether red cabbage, tomatoes, or strawberries-then add it to the existing gazpac ho. Enzymes already present in the so up attack components of the added juice and rapidly regenerate some of the aromas lost over time. The fresh flavor comes right back.

a

from page 5·278

THE MO DER NI ST KITCHEN

33


MAKING JUS Best Bets for Jus Recipe

liquid

beef juice

not applicable

beef jus

brown beef stock

100%

red wine

30%

chicken juice brown chicken jus

mushroom jus

(scaling)

not applicable

Protein

(scaling) Aromatic

(scaling)

ground beef

100%

not applicable

ground beef

35%

carrot, thinly sliced

12%

oxtail, jointed

15%

onion, thinly sliced

10%

ground chicken

100%

not applicable

brown chicken stock

100%

ground chicken wing

15%

shallot, thinly sliced

20%

chicken juice (from above)

40%

chicken foot

8%

dried morel

5.0%

fino sherry

20%

mushroom stock

100%

not applicable

thyme

0.1%

crimini mushroom, thinly sliced

75%

fino sherry

20%

shallot, thinly sliced

20%

white port

10%

white miso

7.0%

tamari

1%

thyme

0.1%

mussel jus

white wine

10%

mussels

100%

shallot

10%

bay leaf

0.01%

pork and Banyuls roasting jus

brown pork stock

100%

ground pork shoulder

75%

sweet onion, thinly sliced

8%

Banyuls wine

25%

ground pork trotter skin and meat

10%

carrot, thinly sliced

7%

rare beef jus

water

5%

beef, cubed

100%

not applicable

rare salmon jus

water

5%

salmon fillet, cubed

100%

not applicable

shellfish jus

shellfish stock

40%

shellfish heads

100%

tarragon extract

1.5%

white wine

38%

white pepper

to taste

vegetable jus

vermouth

13%

onion juice, clarified

100%

carrot juice, clarified

80%

celery juice, clarified

55%

leek juice, clarified

30%

not applicable

not applicab le

from page 2·344

JUS DE LA PRESSE

INSPIRED BY ALAIN DUCASSE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Lobster heads

600g 100% (about four heads)

Clarified unsalted butter

60g

SCALING

10%

PROCEDURE

CD

Saute until shells are golden and very aromatic, about 10 min.

0

Baste constantly with butter to cook through .

® Place heads in basket of wine press.

0

Extract juices by crushing shells complete ly with wine press.

White wine (dry)

200g

33%

® Combine with extracted lobster juices.

Lobster stock

120g

20%

® Reduce lobster juice by half.

see page 6

Cognac

30g

5%

Lobster roe

80g

13%

Unsalted butter

80g

13%

O live oil

35 g

6%

Lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

0

Blend with warm reduction until fully emulsified.

® Season.

from page 2·347

34

VO LUME 6 ·K ITCHE N MAN UAL

Yields350 g


Method

Cook

CD Select a recipe from Best Bets for jus.

(bar)

0 If cooking so us vide, vacuum seal the liquids, proteins, and

(psi)

cook so us vide pressure cook

90

194

90

194

15

cook so us vide brown meat and bones, pressure cook

(oC) (oF)

(h)

See page

Jl/2 Jl/2

40

aromatics together. Otherwise combine ingredients in a pressure cooker. Quantities are proportional to whichever ingredient (usually the protein or the stock) is set to 100%. For example, use 38 g of wine and 13 g of vermouth for every 100 g of heads when making shellfish jus. 庐 Cook. Recommended cooking methods, temperatures, and times are indicated in the table. Pressures given are gauge pressures.

15

0 pressure cook

100 212

cook so us vide

brown meat and bones, pressure cook

25 min

15

15

37

Press, strain, or sieve.

庐 Season. For seasoning options, see Best Bets for Lowering pH on page 22, Seasoning with Salt and Other Flavor Enhancers on page 21, and Best Bets for Adding Flavor with Alcohol on page24.

4 min 294

Jl/2

5路17

4

40

cook so us vide

53

127

cook so us vide

so

122

cook so us vide

88

190

Jl/2

cook so us vide

85

185

3

5路161

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

35


ROOT VEGETABLE JUS

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salmon belly, trimmed

200g

200%

0 0

Vacuum seal. Cook so us vide in 43 •c I 109 ' F bath forl h.

® Strain through fine sieve, and measure 100 g of salmon juice. @ Refrigerate. Turnip juice

270g (from400g turnips)

270%

Rutabaga juice

115g (from 300 g rutabagas)

115%

Celery root juice

75% 75 g (from 150 g ce lery root)

Sweet onion juice

SOg 50% (from 120 g onions)

Leek juice

30g (from 90 g leeks)

30%

Parsnip juice

15g (from 65 g pars nips)

15%

Strained salmon juice, from above

lOOg

100%

® Stir into vegetable juice reduction.

Cold-smoked butter

70g

70%

@ Blend in smoked butter until fully emulsified.

® Vacuum seal together. ®Cook so us vide in 85 •c I 185 ' F bath for 3 h.

see page244

0

Strain through fine sieve.

® Redu ce to 200 g.

@ Season with lim e jui ce a nd salt.

Lime juice

to taste

Sa lt

to taste

from page 5·163

SOUS VIDE VEGETABLE JUS

Yields 750 g SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yellow onions, thinly sliced 400g

100%

0

Prepare vegetables as noted .

Carrot, peeled and thinly sliced

270g

67.5%

0

Combine, and vacuum seal.

Water

160g

40%

@ Strain through fine sieve, and cool.

Celery, peeled and thin ly sliced

120g

30%

Leek, white only, thinly sliced

120g (from 275 g peeled lee ks)

30%

Unsalted butter, cubed

45g

11%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

® Cook so us vide in 85 ·c I 185 ' F bath for 3 h.

® To serve, heat stock to 85 ' C I 185 ' F. ® Blend in butter until fully emu lsified.

Lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

0

Season.

from page 2·347

CLAM JUICE

Yields 175 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Clams, rinsed and soaked to remove sand

475g

100%

0

Combine.

0

Vacuum seal.

Shallots, minced

lOg

2%

Thym e

0.3g

0.06%

® Steam or boil for 3 min until clams have just released their juices.

Bay leaf

0 .1 g

0.02%

@ Cool. ® Strain juices and reserve. Solids can a lso be reserved for another use.

from page 5·230

36

VO LU ME 6 ·K I TC HEN MAN UAL


LAMB GARLIC JUS IN AJAR

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lamb trim, ground

1 kg

100%

Frying oil

90g

9%

0 0

Carrots, peeled and thinly sl iced

300g

30%

® Prepare vegetables as noted.

Shallots, thinly sliced

200g

20%

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

150g

15%

Fennel, thinly sliced

125 g

12.5%

0

Pan fry ground lamb until go ld en. Reserve meat and 10 g of rendered fat. Saute together in saucepan with reserved lamb fat, until tender.

Garlic, peeled and thinly sliced 50 g

5%

Red bell pepper, thinly sliced

SOg

5%

Tomato paste

25 g

2.5%

® Add to vegetab les, and increase heat to high.

Star anise, crushed

3g

0 .3%

® Stir mixture continuous ly until golden brown and fragrant, about 3 min.

Water

SOOg

50%

0

White wine

200g

20%

® Remove from heat.

Thyme

Sg

0.5%

® Divide mixture equally between two mason jars.

Bay leaf

2g

0.2%

@ Seal jars, and place on rack in pressure cooker.

Deglaze pot, and stir in browned meat.

@ Fill cooker with water to cover bottom 2.5 em I 1 in of jars. @ Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 1'/2 h.

@ Remove jars from cooker, remove lids, and cool jus to room temperature. Lemon juice

to taste

@ Strain stock.

Salt

to taste

@ Reduce strained stock until thickened, about 12 min, and season .

from page 2·348

MUSHROOM JUS

Yields270 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Crimini mushrooms, thinly sliced

150g

60%

0

Saute mushrooms and shal lots together in butter until deep golden brown, about 12 min.

0

Combine with cooked mushroom mixture in pressure cooker.

Shallots, thinly sliced

40g

16%

Clarified unsalted butter

25g

10%

Mushroom stock

200g

80%

see page 6

® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for 25 min .

Fino sherry

40g

16%

White port (dry)

20g

8%

0

Strain through fine sieve, and discard solids.

® Measure 250 g of mushroom jus.

Mushroom jus, from above

250g

100%

® Blend together until dissolved.

White miso

14g

5.6%

0

Tamari soy sauce

2g

0.8%

Thyme

2g

0.8%

Konjacgum

0.75g

0.3%

Salt

to taste

Sherry vinegar

to taste

Strain.

® Season.

from page 2·348

SOUS VIDE MUSSEL JUICE

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mussels, rinsed thoroughly with beards removed

1 kg

100%

0 0

Vacuum sea l in one even layer. Steam for 4 min.

® Shock in ice-water bath.

0

Shuck, and reserve meat for another use.

® Strain rendered mussel juices from bag and shells. ® Vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

Mussel juice is classically used to accentuate the flavor of seafood broths and sauces. This so us vide method extracts the juices from the mussels without overcooking them so the meat can be used as a garn ish for cooked fish (see page 5·151). Inspect mussels carefu ll y and discard any dead or sandy she llfi sh. These can spoil the juice.

from page 2·346

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

37


TOASTED OAT JUS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields250g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Roast in 175 oc I

Pigeon carcass

650g

87%

Pigeon wings

200g

27%

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 300g

40%

0

Grapeseed oil

45g

6%

® Add garlic, and saute for 5 min.

Garlic, thinly sliced

lOg

1.3%

Brown pigeon stock

750g

100%

see page 6

0

350 oF oven until golden, about 35 min.

Saute onions until translucent.

Combine with roasted carcass, wings, and onion mixture.

® Bring mixture to simmer.

Red wine (dry)

300g

40%

Rendered foie gras fat

65g

8.7%

Cognac

50g

6.7%

Steel-cut oats, rinsed to remove surface starch

30g

4%

Sherry vinegar

20g

2.7%

Sugar

13g

1.7%

Black peppercorns

2g

0.25%

Reduced oat jus, from above

250g

100%

® Skim surface.

0

Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar 1 15 psi for1 Y2 h.

® Strain, and reduce to 250 g.

® Combine. @ Simmer for 25 min.

Pancetta

25g

10%

@ Season.

Cognac

7.5 g

3%

® Strain through fine sieve, and serve or refrigerate until use.

Sherry vinegar

5g

2%

Salt

2.5g

1%

Black peppercorns

0.25g

0.1%

from page 5·133

BANYULS GLAZE

Yields300 g

PROCEDURE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Ground pork

2.25 kg

100%

CD Coat meats with oil.

Pork trotter, bone in, finely ground

500g

22%

0

Frying oil

225g

10%

Sweet onions, peeled and thinly sliced

500g

22%

Carrots peeled, thinly sliced

450g

20%

Water

1.2 kg

50%

Brown pork stock

400g

18%

Banyuls wine (or other semisweet red wine)

350g

16%

Bay leaf(fresh)

4.5g

0.2%

Roast in 190 oc I 375 °F oven until golden brown, stirring frequently to ensure even browning.

® Remove browned meat from pan, reserving fat.

0

Sweat vegetables in pressure cooker with reserved fat until tender.

® Deglaze vegetables.

see page 6

® Add with browned meat to vegetables in cooker.

0

Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1.4 bar I 21 psi for 1Y2 h.

® Cool and strain. ® Reduce to glaze. Banyuls vinegar (or other 50 g semisweet red vinegar)

2%

Unsalted butter

50 g

2%

Salt

to taste

@ Blend in butter and vinegar until fully emulsified. @ Season.

from page 5·19

38

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


TAGINE BASE INGREDIENT

Yields150 g QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced lOOg

100%

CD Saute onions until translucent.

Neutral oil

25g

25%

Brown chicken stock

325g

325%

see page6

0

Add to onions, and bring mixture to simmer.

® Reduce by half, about 20 min.

Ginger juice

21 g

21 %

Water

lOg

10%

Garlic, thinly sliced

9g

9%

Lemon juice

9g

9%

Clear honey

5g

5%

Salt

3.5 g

3.5%

Cinnamon, freshly ground lg

1%

Preserved lemon peel, brunoise

8.5%

8.5g

0

Whisk into reduction and adjust seasoning.

® Serve or cool, vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

see page 174

Pickled fig, small dice see page177

6g

6%

Saffron threads

lg

1%

from page 5·137

SQUASH GLAZE

Yields150 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Butternut squash juice

lOOg (from 400 g squash)

17%

CD Combine.

Sweet onion juice

lOOg (from200g onions)

17%

Carrot juice

50g (from 200 g carrots)

8.5%

White veal stock

600g

100%

0

lOOg

17%

® Reduce to 150 g.

7g

1.2%

Unsalted butter, cubed

25g

4%

Extra virgin olive oil

15g

2.5%

Lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

0

seepage6

Shank cookingjuices see page 276

Tomato confit

Bring to simmer, and remove from heat.

® Strain through fine sieve to clarify.

Combine with strained vegetable juice, and blend until smooth.

see page 179

® Blend in butter and oil until fully emulsified.

0

Season glaze.

from page 5·63

SOUS VIDE PRAWN JUS

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Prawn heads

400g

100%

Shellfish stock

160g

40%

CD Combine. 0 Grind coarsely in food processor.

80 g

20%

see page 6

Vermouth (dry)

® Vacuum seal.

0

Cook so us vide in 88 ' C I 190 ' F bath for1Y2 h.

® Strain through fine sieve. Tarragon extract

6g

1.5%

@ Whiskin.

see page27

Salt

to taste

Wh ite pepper

to taste

0

Season .

from page 2·347

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

39


SOUS VIDE RARE BEEF JUS Rare beef jus created this way can be used for many purposes. Tougher meats may req uire more tim e to re lease their juice.

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Beef (prefera bly a tough cut)

1 kg

100%

CD Cut in to 1 em I y, in cubes.

Brom e la in powder (optional, NOW brand)

2g

0.2%

0

PROCEDURE Comb in e meat and bromelain (optio na l)

® Cook so us vid e in 53 "C I 128 "F bath for 4 h.

0

Strain rendered juices through fin e sieve, and measure 300 g of juice.

Water

50g

Salt

to taste

® Season.

Sherry vinegar

to taste

0

5%

® Comb in e w ith juice. Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate. Do not reheat above 53 "C I 127 "F, or jus will coagulate.

from page 2·349

SOUS VIDE BEEF JUICE This process ca n be a ppl ie d to a ll typ es of meats. Using th e resulting juice, a lth o ugh more costly than water, is a more fl avorfu l a lte rn ative t ha n using water to ma ke broths and sa uces.

Yie lds300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Ground lea n beef

1 kg

100%

PROCEDURE

CD Vacuum sea l. 0

Cook so us vide in 90 "C I 194 "F bath for1'/2 h.

® Strain juice, and discard meat.

0

Cool juice complete ly.

® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until us e. fro m page 2·349

CENTRIFUGED CAROTENE BUTTER

Yields 1.4 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Carrot juice

2.2 kg (from 3.5 kg of carrots)

100%

CD Brin g 1.4 kg of carrot jui ce to simmer.

1.4 kg

64%

see page 2·336

Unsalted butter, cubed

0

Blend in butter, and simmer for 30 min.

® Bl e nd in remaining 800 g of carrot juice.

0

Divid e mixture eq ua ll y (check weight) amo ng centrifuge bottles.

® Centrifuge bottles at 27,500g for 1 h. ® Refrigerate bottles until butterfat has so lidifi ed, about 2 h.

0

Pi erce co ngealed b utterfat on top of each bottle.

® Pour out clarified carrot juice, a nd set as id e for a noth er use. ® Warm bottles in wate r bath, o r mi crowave to melt butter. @ Decan t clear, melted butter, a nd disca rd accumu lated so lids from bottoms of bottles. @ Vacuum seal a nd refrige rate until use. from page 2·365

TOMATO WATER

Vacuum filters, wine filters, a nd e nzyme clarification a re good a lte rn atives to ce ntrifug ing when making tomato water.

Yield s 1.2 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Tomatoes, pee led, seeded, a nd choppe d

2 kg

100%

CD

Process with Champion-styl e juicer.

0

Measure eve nly among ce ntrifuge bottles.

® Centrifu ge at27,500g for 1 h, a nd decant. Salt

to taste

from page 2·366

40

PROCEDURE

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

0

Season juice, an d refrigerate until use.


CENTRIFUGED PEA JUICE

Yields 325 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Frozen sweet peas, thawed Water

700g 70g

100% 10%

0 0

Blend to fine puree. Divide evenly among centrifuge bottles, ensuring filled bottles are of equal weight.

® Centrifuge bottles at27,500g for1 h. @ Decant juice, and filter, to obtain about 325 g. ® Skim off and reserve layer of surface fat, about 50 g. from page 2·367

CENTRIFUGED ROASTED-HAZELNUT OIL

Yields150 g

INSPIRED BY NILS NOREN AND DAVE ARNOLD

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Hazelnuts

400g

100%

0 0

Roast in 160 oc I 325 °Foven for 25 min. Transfer while warm to food processor.

® Blend to form smooth butter. Sugar

40g

10%

@ Comb ine, and bring to boil to make syrup

Water

40g

10%

® Remove from heat. ® Blend syrup with hazelnut butter.

0

Divide mixture evenly among centrifuge bottles.

The sugar syrup dramatically improves the yield of the product by helping to force a cleaner separation between the layers. It also sweetens the result, however. Use plain water to boost yield without adding sweetness.

® Centrifuge at 27,500g for1 h.

® Decant oil on top, and refrigerate until use. from page 2·367

BANANA YOGURT

Yields150 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Bananas, unpeeled

500g

500%

0 0

Cook so us vide in 88

oc I 190 °F bath for12 min.

Peel, puree, and measure 100 g.

® Centrifuge 400 g of puree at 27,500g for1 h. @ Decant juice, and reserve 40 g. Banana puree, from above

100 g

100%

Banana juice, from above

40 g

40%

Creme fraiche

30 g

30%

Salt

to taste

® Puree until smooth .

Adding 0.2% of Pectin ex Smash XXL enzyme to fruit and vegetable purees and juices before centrifuging can both speed the separation process and increase the yield by up to a factor of two-see page 43.

® Season yogurt.

0

Refrigerate until use.

from page 5·98

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

41


Best Bets for Consomme Recipe

Liquid

(sc aling) Flavoring

(scaling) Aromatics

bacon consomme

white pork stock

100%

50%

lager

8%

bacon, thinly sliced

brown butter

white chicken stock

100%

brown butter extract

consomme

butternut squash juice

20%

see page 4·213

vodka

5%

water

100%

chocolate water

5%

dark chocolate (80% cocoa) 24%

adapted from Sam Mason consomme madrilene

(scaling)

sweet onions, thinly sliced 25.0% bl ack pepper

3.5%

mapl e syrup

5.0%

star anise

0 .3%

saffron

0.1 %

cocoa nib

10.5%

cocoa powder

10.0%

white chicken stock

100%

ground chicken , browned

30%

coriander seed

0 .5%

tomato water

100%

tomato, peeled and seeded

15%

star anise

0.1 %

kimchi , pureed

6%

fish sauce

to taste

lime juice

to taste

lime juice

0.01 %

see page 40 kimchi consomme

vermouth

5%

ramen stock

100%

Parmesan water

water

100%

pea consomme

pea juice

100%

Parmesan cheese, grated

100%

cinnamon essential oil

to taste

(optional) rhubarb water

shellfish consomme

rhubarb juice

100%

shellfish stock

100%

white soy sauce

12%

lime juice

2.5%

fructose

to taste

30%

onion, thinly sliced

4%

crab knuckles

20%

carrot, thinly sliced

4%

shrimp shells

12%

tomato paste

1%

lobster bodies

from page 2·374

OYSTER CONSOMME INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields300 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0

Saute prepared vegetables together until fragrant and scallions are translucent, about 7 min.

Add to scallion mixture, and mix together.

Clarified unsalted butter

95 g

95%

Scallions, thinly sliced

20 g

20%

Ginger, peeled and thinly 11 g sliced

11 %

Galan gal, peeled and thinly sliced

9g

9%

White vegetable stock

425g

425%

0

100g

100%

0

see page 6

Roasted coconut juice (store-bought) Clam juice

® Reduce to 300 g, about 15 min.

150g

150%

110g

110%

Strain.

® Cool.

see page 36

Sake (dry)

lemongrass, thinly sliced 20g

20%

Cilantro leaves and stems Sg Makrud (kaffir) lime leaf 2g

5%

® Add to strained liquid.

2%

0

Oyster juice

SOg

50%

® Strain infused liquid, and season.

lime juice

to taste

® Clarify with vacuum filter.

Salt

to taste

@ Refrigerate until use.

Steep in refrigerator for 2 h.

from page 5·206

42

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


Cook Method

(OC)

(oF)

(h)

Clarify

cook so us vide

88

190

2

freeze filtration

CLARIFYING A CONSOMME CD Select a recipe. See the table at left for suggestions. 0

cook so us vide

80

176

cook on stove top

90

194

cook sous vide

80

176

infuse so us vide

refrigerated

cook so us vide

88

190

vacuum filtration

10min

® Cook (if applicable). Recommended cooking methods, temperatures, and times are indicated in the table. If cooking so us vide, vacuum seal all ingredients together.

centrifugation

methylcellulose fining

24

agar filtration

1h

freeze filtration

Combine the liquids, flavoring agents, and aromatics. Quantities given in the table are proportional to the weight of the principal liquid. For example, use 8 g of lager for every 100 g of stock when making bacon consomme.

0

Clarify. See Strategies for Filtering Liquids and Clarifying Consommes on page 2·352 for more details on the clarification methods suggested in the table; alternative strategies may work as well.

® Season. For season ing options, see Best Bets for Lowering pH on page 22, Seasoning with Salt and Other Flavor Enhancers on page 21, and Best Bets for Adding Flavor with Alcohol on page 24.

centrifugation

n/ a

Buon Vi no wine filter or Buchner

n/ a

funnel with Whatman 597 paper fry shells, cool,

88

190

centrifuge

cook so us vide

APPLE CIDER CONSOMME

Yields 850 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sugar

40g

8%

CD Cook over high heat; allow caramel to become dark.

Water

20g

4%

White miso paste

lOg

2%

Water

40g

8%

0

Deglaze caramel.

®Wh isk until dissolved. @Cool. ®Comb in e with caramel water.

Apple cider

SOOg

100%

Green apple juice

250g

50%

® Vacuum seal.

Cider vinegar

lOg

2%

0

Malic acid

6g

1.2%

®Stra in.

Salt

6g

1.2%

Thyme leaves

6g

1.2%

Pectinex Smash XXL (Novozymes)

1.6g

0.32% (0.2%)*

Refrigerate for4 h to in fuse.

®Wh isk into juice.

@ Pour into tal l, clear container, and refrigerate for 24 h to clarify. @ Decant clarified liquid without disturbing solids settled at bottom. @Check seasoning. @Serve with grilled mackerel or raw foie gras dressed in walnut oil.

from page 2·377

*(%oftotal combined weightafapple cider, green apple juice, and cider vinegar)

During the clarification process, the enzyme will force solids to the bottom of the container. See page 2-352 for more clarification methods.

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

43


SPRING GARLIC CONSOMME

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Carrots, thinly sliced

BOg

40%

CD Saute together until onions are translucent.

White onions, thinly sliced BOg

40%

Unsalted butter

25 g

12.5%

Duck meat, ground

350g

175%

0

Water

200g

100%

® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar / 15 psi forl h.

Black peppercorns

0.2g

0.1%

0

Combine with carrots and onions. Strain through fine sieve.

® Centrifuge at 27,500g forl h. ® Strain, measure 100 g of consomme, and reserve. Green garlic spears

200g

100%

0

Blanch for 3 min.

® Puree. ® Centrifuge at 27,500g forl h. @ Measure 20 g of resulting clear juice, a nd whisk into co nsomme. Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Season a nd serve, or vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·B6

BAGNA CAUDA CONSOMME

Yields200 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Garlic cloves, green BOg removed and thinly sliced

52%

CD Saute ga rlic in o il until go ld en, and reserve.

52%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Grapeseed oil

BOg

Sweet onions, sliced

75g

4B%

Unsalted butter

50 g

32%

Olive oil

25g

16%

Clam juice

155 g

100%

see page 36

0

Saute onions in butter and oil until translucent.

® Add reserved garlic and remaining ingredi ents to onions, and simm er for 20 min. @ Cool.

Water

155 g

100%

White wine (dry)

50g

32%

Garlicconfit

27g

17.5%

Anchovy, chopped

25g

16%

Chives, minced

2g

1.3%

Thyme, minced

lg

0.6%

® Process in centrifuge at 27,500g forl h, or use alternative clarification method. ® Refrigerate until use. Serve hot or cold.

see page 176

from page 5·230

PISTACHIO CONSOMME

YieldsBog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw pistachios, shelled

lOOg

100%

CD Combine.

Sugar

15g

15%

0

Roast in 190 oc I 375 °Foven until very dark and sugar has caramelized, about 20 min.

Grapeseed oil

lOg

10%

Water

300g

100%

® Puree with roasted pistachios until smooth .

Pistachio oil

20g

20%

0

Vacuum seal.

® Refrigerate for12 h. ® Centrifuge at 27,500g forl h.

0 Salt

to taste

Decant clear liquid through fine sieve, and discard remaining so lid s.

® Season. ® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until needed.

from page 2-376

44

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl

The rema inin g nut so lid s in the centrifu ge bottles are not used for anyth ing in this recipe or these volumes, but they're a delicious snack for the c hef.


POT-AU-FEU CONSOMME

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Oxtail

300g

40%

Ground beef shank

750 g

100%

CD Cut through center of bone and joints to release marrow. 0 Coat oxtai l and ground beef shank with o il.

Neutral oil

75 g

10%

® Roast in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foven, stirring often to ensure even browning, until go ld en brown, about15 min.

Sweet onions, cut in half

280 g

37.3%

0

Turnips, peeled and thinly 200 g sliced

26.6%

® Sear onions, cut side down, until dark brown.

Leeks, thinly sliced

170g

22.6%

Celery root, peeled and thinly sliced

100g

13.3%

Prepare vegetables as noted.

® Sweat vegetables and garli c in suet until tender.

Garlic head, halved

70g

9.3%

Rendered beef suet

50g

6.6%

White beef stock

800g

106.6%

350g (from about 550 g carrots)

46.6%

180g (from about 650 g parsnips)

24%

Black peppercorns

l.lg

0.15%

@ Add to consomme.

Cloves, whole

1g

0.13%

@ Infuse at room temperature to desired flavor, a bout 5- 7 min.

Allspice berries

0.55g

0.07%

Salt

to taste

Sherry vinegar

to taste

see page 6

Carrot juice

Parsnip juice

0 Combine with roasted meats and vegetables. ® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for 2 h. ® Strain, discarding so lid s. @) Clari fy liquid with preferred method.

@ Reduce to 200 g.

@ Season.

from page 5·52

TH E MOD ERNIS T KITC HEN

45


OXTAIL CONSOMME

INSPIRED BY DAVID BOULEY

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Spanish onions, peeled and halved

500g (two large onions)

25%

50g

2.5%

Water

Yields 2.5 kg

PROCEDURE

CD Sear cut side down until

light golden, about 8 min.

@ Cool. ® Vacuum seal with seared onions.

0

Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 ° F bath for 7 h.

® Transfer mixture from bag to bowl, and cool. ® Strain, discarding onion solids. (!) Measure 250 g of onion jus, and reserve. Oxtail, jointed

1.5 kg

75%

Neutral oil

30g

1.5%

Brown beef stock

2 kg

100%

® Brown oxtail over high heat on all sides until golden, about15 min.

see pagelO

® Combine with browned oxtail in pressure cooker. @ Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 2 h.

Onion jus, from above

250g

12.5%

Gin

250g

12.5%

Veal marrow

250g

12.5%

Button mushrooms, thinly sliced

150g

7.5%

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

lOOg

5%

Celery stalk, peeled and thinly sliced

30g

1.5%

Oxtail broth, from above

2 kg

100%

@ Mix 200 g of broth with super methylcellulose.

Ground beef

300g

15%

@ Whisk into ground beef to make paste.

Super methylcellulose SGA 150 (Dow brand)

2g

0.1%

@ Mix paste into remaining oxtail broth for conso mme .

@ Strain, discarding solids. @ Measure 2 kg of oxtail broth.

@ Simmer consomme on low until clarified, about 45 min . @ Strain. @ Season.

to taste

Bay leaf extract see page 27

Lovage leaves, fine julienne

to taste

Salt

to taste

Star anise extract

to taste

For photos of the steps involving methylcellulose, see page 2·359.

see page 27

from page 2·376

RED COLESLAW

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green apple juice, clarified

400g

267%

CD Combine.

Red cabbage juice, clarified

400g

267%

Red wine vinegar

400g

267%

Honey

30g

7.5%

Black peppercorns, finely crushed

0.4g

0 .1%

0

Salt

to taste

Red cabbage, julienne

150g

100%

Pickled mustard seeds

lOg

6.5%

Vacuum concentrate, using vacuum reduction equipment, to 150 g, about 2 h.

® Season juice reduction.

0

Mix with juice reduction, and serve imme diately.

see page 3-348

from page 5·72

46

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


HOW TO DISTILL WITH A ROTAVAP 0

Place the zest-vodka mixture in the evaporation flask of a rotary evaporator.

0

Set the target vacuum to 50 mbar I 38 torr and the bath temperature to 35 ' C I 95 ' F. Set the condenser chilling water temperature to 1 ' C I 34 ' F if you are using a helical condenser. If you are using a cold-trap-style condenser, fill it with ice water, and prepare a salt brine (see page 2·260). You may have to use a higher bath temperature if the rate of d istillation is too slow.

Boiling Point vs Vacuum Pressure To set your rotary evaporator, choose a temperature appropriate for the boiling point of the solvent or material you want to distill, and then adjust vacuum pressure accordingly. Boiling point

® Distill. The time required depends the size of the batch and many other factors. Check the condensation coil periodically; if the condensation line rises more than three-quarters of the way up the coil, or if you can smell what is being distilled, too many volatiles are escaping. There are several ways to correct this problem. You can decrease the condenser chilling water temperature, increase the flow, or do both. Or you can decrease the bath temperature, but in that case, you must also decrease the vacuum . Release the vacuum when distillation is complete.

0

Separate the oil from the solvent. Pipette the thin layer of oil floating on top of the receiving flask into a separatory funnel. Allow the oil to separate overnight, or use a centrifuge (see page 2·360) to separate the components more quickly.

nl

(mbar)

(torr)

(mbar)

(torr)

20

68

23

17

58

44

30

86

42

32

102

77

40

104

72

54

167

125

so

122

120

90

289

217

60

140

194

145

463

347

Because we start this recipe with vodka and end up diluting the result to 40% (80 proof) alcohol, no concentration of alcohol occurs. We are simply using alcohol as a solvent for the citrus essential oils.

® Drain any solvent from the funnel , and then drain the essential oils into a separate vessel. ® Keep the essential oil refrigerated in an airtight container.

Ethanol

Water

(OC)

BUDDHNSHANDVODKA

One can also extract citrus essential oil mechanically, instead of distilling it. Commercially, this is done by pressing; the result is called a pressed essential oil. You can make your own by homogenizing citrus zest and alcohol as in step 1 (preferably by treating the mixture in an ultrasonic bath). Then use a centrifuge to separate the oil. It will have a different aromatic quality than the oil produced by distillation. Yields 1.5 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Vodka

1.5 kg

100%

0

Buddha's hand citron zest

400 g

27%

Blend together for 3 min . Optionally, infuse in so us vide bag or jar placed in an ultrasonic bath for 1 h (see page 2·302).

0

Place liquid in rotary vacuum distiller for 3 h with vacuum pressure at 50 mbar I 38 torr and bath temperature at 35 ' C I 95 ' F. Set condenser chilling water to 1 oc I 34 °F.

® Distill . Distilled water

0

as needed

Dilute distillate to 40% alcohol. Use hydrometer to measure ethanol concentration.

from page 2·389

VACUUM-CONCENTRATED APPLE AND CABBAGE JUICE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green apple juice, centrifuged

400g

267%

@ Combine.

Red cabbage juice, centrifuged

400g

267%

0

400g

267%

Red wine vinegar

Yields180 g

Set bath temperature to 50 °CI 122 ' F, condenserchillingwaterto 5 oc l 41 ' Fand target pressure to 50 mbar I 38 torr.

® Distill.

0 juice concentrate, from above

150g

100%

Honey

30g

7.5%

Black peppercorns, finely crushed

0.4g

0.27%

Salt

to taste

Reserve concentrated source liquid.

® Season. Because we discard the solvent, the concentration can be done by using a vacuum evaporator instead of a rotary evaporator.

from page 2·389

THE MODERNI ST KITCHEN

47


MOCK TURTLE SOUP

Yields 4 kg (about 90 servings)

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown b eef stock

1 kg

200%

CD Gently warm stock until no lon ge r ge ll ed but still coo l.

Cherry tomatoes, quartere d

120g

24%

Mushroom jus

290g

58%

see page 10

0

® Co mbin e, a nd mi x with infuse d sto ck. Vacuum sea l, and freeze.

see page37

0

Fino sherry

165g

32%

White soy sauce

133 g

26%

Add c herry tomatoes, a nd infus e at ro o m tempe rature fo r 20 min. Strain, and reserve infu sed stock. When froze n, remove from bag, and place on perforated tray lin e d with double layer of cheesecloth.

® Refrigerate, w hil e freeze-fi ltering for 72 h (see page 2·370). ® Vacuum seal filtered stock, a nd freeze.

0

Transfer froze n stock to food processor; pulse until coarse ly crus hed.

® Drain crushed, frozen stock over fine sieve lin ed w ith double layer of cheesecloth . ® Co ll ect thawed, concentrated stock, and discard remaining ice. ® Transfer concentrated stock to Genevac Rocket bottles, and reduce by ha lf at 8 mbar I 6 to rr, heating temperature of 50 "C I 122 "F, and co nd enser at 1 "C I 34 "F. @ Reserve 500 g of reduced stock. Freeze-concentrated stock, from above

500g

100%

Gelatin, 160 Bloom

60g

12%

Gold leaf sheets

as needed

@ Comb in e, and vacuum sea l. @ Cook in 60 "C I 140 "F bath until a ll ge latin dissolves, about 5 min. @ Transfer to depositing fu nn el, a nd dispense 6 g in to each pocketwatch sili cone mold. @ Refrigerate, and a ll ow to set comp lete ly, about 4 h. @ Remove ge ll ed stock from molds, and place flat side down on corner of gold leaf sheet. Use tweezers to ge ntly fold go ld leaf over top of each gell ed stock portion; use fine brush to tuck gold leaf under bottom edges. @ Refrigerate until needed. @ To serve, place eac h stock portion in bottom of teacup; pour 40 g of hot water over stock. Stir until ge ll ed stock dissolves.

from page 2·394

INDIES SPICE BLEND Most Indi an recipes start w ith toasting sp ices in a dry frying pan to develop the flavor. A better way to toast spices is to put them in a sha ll ow pan in a comb i oven or convection oven at 170 "C I 338 "F until fragrant. This avoids sco rch in g th e spi ces.

To make the van ill a seed-pod scrap ings, sp lit a van ill a bean lengthwise w ith a kn ife then scrape the seeds and the residue surround ing them from the seed pod.

ADAPTED FROM OLIVIER ROELLINGER

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Coriander seeds

2.1 g

28%

CD Comb in e and toast in fryi ng pan until fragrant . 0

Black peppercorns

1.7g

22.7%

Caraway seeds

1.5g

20%

Remove from heat, and cool.

Cinnamon stick, grated

1g

13.3%

Mace

1g

13.3%

Sichuan peppercorns

1g

13.3%

Star anise

0.4g

5.3%

Clove

0.2g

2.7%

Turmeric powder

7.5g

100%

Orange peel, grated

2.5g

33.3%

® Combine in coffee grind er w it h toasted sp ice blend.

Vanilla seeds and pulp

l.Sg

20%

0

6.7%

® Store in airtight container until needed.

0.5g

Cayen ne pepper

Grind to fine powder.

from page 2-403

QUATRE EPICES

Yields420 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black peppercorns

200g

100%

CD Toast sp ices in dry ski ll et until fragrant.

Cinnamon, grou nd

100 g

50%

0

Nutmeg

80g

40%

Comb in e in coffee grind er and grin d to fine powder.

Cloves

40g

20%

® Store in a irtight container until needed.

from page 2·403

48

Yields20 g

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHE N MA NU AL


CHILl TOMATO SPICE BLEND

Yields 70 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Freeze-dried tomatoes

30g

100%

CD Grind together to fine powder.

25 g

83%

see page 188

0

Freeze-dried piquillo pepper

Store in airtight conta in er until needed.

see page 188

Coriander seeds, toasted and ground 5g

16.7%

Sweet paprika powder

16.7%

5g

Controne hot pepper, finely ground

2g

6 .7%

Hot-smoked paprika powder

1g

3.3%

Saffron threads

1g

3.3%

Fennel seeds, toasted and ground

0.6g

2%

Ajowan seeds, toasted and ground

0.5g

1.7%

from page 2-403

MEMPHIS RUB INGREDIENT

Yields 32.5 g QUANTITY

Sweet Hungarian paprika 12 .5g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Grind finely, and sieve.

Salt

7.5g

60%

Garlic powder

3g

24%

Chili powder (McCormick brand)

2.5 g

20% 20%

Onion powder

2.5 g

Sweet paprika

2.5 g

20%

Black peppercorns

2g

16%

For our friends who think barbecuing is throwing a piece of meat on a flaming-hot grill: it's not. That's grilling. Barbecuing is done low a nd slow, with lots of smoke (see Smoking, page 2路132). In some places, you'd be laughed out of town or worse for suggesting otherwise.

from page 5路68

KANSAS RUB

Yields 60 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown sugar

50g

100%

CD Grind finely, and sieve.

Salt

4g

8%

Black pepper, ground

3.5 g

7%

Chili powder (McCormick brand)

2.5 g

5%

Sweet paprika

2.5 g

5%

Garlic powder

1.5g

3%

Onion powder

1g

2%

Red chili, minced

1g

2%

Dry rubs are usually put on 12 hours before cooking. However, we also use them as a spice mix added at the end.

from page 5路68

THE MODERNIST KITCHE N

49


CHAAT MASALA

Yields 70 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Coriander seeds

19g

76%

CD Combine, and roast in 175 •c /

Cumin seeds

15g

60%

Ajowan

3g

12%

Black peppercorns

3g

12%

Dried chilies

1g

4%

Salt

25g

100%

Dried green mango powder (amchoor)

8g

32%

Dry pomegranate seeds (anardana)

4g

16%

350 •F oven until

golden, about 7 min.

0

Combine roasted spice mix with remaining ingredients.

® Grind mixture to powder. @) Pass through fine sieve, and vacuum seal and refrigerate until use .

from page 5·282

SWEET SPICE BLEND

Yields25g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Star anise, toasted and ground

lOg

100%

CD Mix together. 0 Vacuum seal and reserve until use .

Dried ginger, ground

4g

40%

Vanilla bean seeds and pulp

4g

40%

Black pepper, ground

3g

30%

Cinnamon, toasted and ground

3g

30%

Nutmeg, ground

1.5 g

15%

from page 5·212

PASSION FRUIT GRAN ITA

Yieldsl80 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Passion fruit juice

150 g

100%

Sugar

20g

13.5%

CD Combine. 0 Transfer to Pacojet beaker, and freeze. Alternatively,

lime juice

lOg

6.5%

Salt

1.5g

1%

freeze mixture in container, and break it up with fork into flakes periodically as it freezes. Reserve frozen. ® Pacotize once to serve.

from page 5·177

50

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


FISH SPICE MIX

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Hazelnuts, peeled, roasted, and coarsely ground

24g

100%

Sesame seeds, toasted

22g

CD Prepare ingredients as noted. 0 Combine in food processor or mortar. 0 Grind to coarse powder.

92%

Coriander seeds, toasted 6g

25%

White poppy seeds, toasted

5g

22%

Dried ginger, ground

2g

8.5%

Salt

1.6g

6.5%

Dried chamomile, ground 1.2 g

0.5%

0

This spice mixture is incredibly versatile. We highly recommend it for sole, turbot, or any similar fish simply panfried in butter.

Vacuum seal to preserve aroma.

庐 Refrigerate until use.

from page 5路154

PAIN D'EPICES POWDER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields300 g SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cinnamon stick

8g

3.3%

CD Toast spices together in 170 oc I 340 of oven.

Star anise

3.2g

1.3%

0

Grind spices to fine powder.

Cloves

2.5g

1%

Aniseeds

2g

0.8%

Coriander seeds

2g

0.8%

Spray-dried honey powder (store-bought)

240g

100%

0

Blend into toasted spice powder.

Salt

12g

5%

Ginger powder

3g

1.3%

Nutmeg, grated

3g

1.3%

Mace blade

1.5 g

0 .6%

Orange zest, grated

1.2 g

0.5%

from page 5路22

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

51


CITRUS SPICE

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Orange zest, finely grated

100% 11 g (from two oranges)

Lemon zest, finely grated

B2% 9g (from two le mons)

Lime zest, finely grated

3g (from two lim es)

PROCEDURE

SCALING

CD Combine. 0

Spread on si licone baking mat.

® Dehydrate at SO oc I 120 oF until completely dried, abo ut 35 min .

27%

Licorice root, finely ground

3g

27%

@) Combine with dried zest and grind to fine powder.

Vanilla seeds and pulp

l.Sg

13.6%

® Vacuum sea l and refrigerate until use.

Coffee beans, roasted and finely ground

1g

9%

Coriander seeds, deeply toasted and finely ground

1g

9%

Mint leaves, freeze-dried

1g (20 leaves)

9%

see page 188

Yields30 g

from page 2-404

LICORICE POWDER

ADAPTED FROM MICHEL BRAS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black olives, pitted

400g

250%

CD Arrange on nonstick baking sheet in one even laye r. 0

Yields280 g

Dehydrate in BO oc I 175 °F oven for 8-12 h until co mpl etely dried.

® Measure 160 g of dried olives. @) Grind together to fine powder (N-Zorbit M will prevent powder from turning into paste), and reserve.

Dried black olives, from above

160g

100%

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

20g

12.5%

Almond powder (meal)

80g

50%

® Mix together, an d spread on nonstick ba king sheet.

Demerara sugar

lOg

6.25%

® Bake in 135 oc I 275 °F oven until light golden, about 35 min, and cool. 0 Blend into olive powder. ® Stir into powder.

Licorice root, finely ground

5g

3.1%

Salt

5g

3.1%

Tonka beans, finely ground

1g

0.625%

from page 2·405 Yields155 g

RAS EL HANOUT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ginger powder

40g

100%

Turmeric powder

30g

75%

CD Dry-bl end together. 0 Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until us e.

Black peppercorns, finely ground

2Sg

62.5%

Coriander seeds, finely ground, toasted

15g

37.5%

Grains of paradise, finely ground, toasted

12g

30%

Cinnamon stick, finely ground

5.5g

13.75%

Star anise, finely ground, toasted

5.Sg

13.75%

Dried chili, finely ground

5.4g

13.5%

Dried rosebuds, finely ground

Sg

12 .5%

Allspice, finely ground

4g

10%

Cubeb pepper, finely ground, toasted 3.6g

9%

Clove, finely ground

2g

5%

Nutmeg, finely ground

2g

5%

from page 2-405

52

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


EXOTIC SPICE MIXTURE

Yi e lds 90 g

INSPIRED BY OLIVIER ROELLINGER

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sesame seeds

SOg

100%

0 Combine, and toast in frying pan until go ld en.

Cumin seeds

8.2g

16.4%

0

Cool comp lete ly, and rese rve.

Sumac

18 g

36%

® Grind togethe r in spice grind e r.

Ajowan seeds

6.5g

13%

@ Add sesa me and cumin blend, a nd grind to fine powder.

Dried oregano

2.9 g

5.8%

® Store in a irti ght conta in er until needed.

Cardamom seeds

2g

4%

Ground cinnamon

2g

4%

Nutmeg, freshly ground

l. Sg

3%

from page 2-405 Yields 660 g

PACOJET PEA SOUP INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green peas, frozen

300 g

100%

0 Combine a nd transfer to Pacojet beaker.

Heavy cream

200g

67%

0

Pea juice

150g (from 500 g of peas)

50%

® Pacot ize once.

see page 41 (o r white vegetable stock, page 6)

Freeze to at least -20 oc I -4 °F.

@ Optionally, freeze and Pacot ize once more for smoother texture.

This soup is best served when at or below 60 °C I 140 °F, so that it reta ins its sweetness. At higher temperatures, the peas will taste cooked and less sweet.

® Transfer soup to pot, and warm until just melted and velvety. Salt

6g

2%

Mint leaves, fine julie nn e

3g

1%

® Season.

from page 2-410

Yields450 g

MOZZARELLA POWDER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Buffalo mozzare ll a

250g

100%

0 Cut into 2.5 em I 1 in cubes.

Buffalo mozzare lla brin e

100 g

40%

0

40%

® Blend whey mixture with mozza re ll a cub es until smooth.

Glucose syrup DE 40

100 g

Dissol ve glu cose into whey.

@ Tra nsfe r mixture to Pacoj et beaker and freeze to at least -20 oc I -4 °F. ® Pacotize once without venting. ® Serve powder imm ed iate ly, or store frozen for up to 1 h. from page 2-411 Yields400g

FROZEN CHEDDAR-CHEESE POWDER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water, cold

250g

100%

0 Combine.

Agar

2g

0.8%

0

Bring to boil, and hold for 1 min to fully hydrate.

® Blend over ice-water bath to create fluid ge l. Sodium citrate

8g

3.2%

@ Disperse into fluid ge l.

60%

® In corporate slowly into simmering mixture until fu ll y melted.

1%

0 Transfer mixture to Pacojet beaker, and freeze to -30 oc I ® Pacotize once, a nd refreeze to -60 oc I -76 °F. ® Pacotize agai n once more to make very fine powder.

® Bring mixture to simmer. Cheddar cheese, finely grated 150 g Salt

2.5 g

-22 °F.

@ Serve immed iate ly or store frozen for up to 1 h. from page 2-411

THE MODERNIST KITC HEN

53


HOW TO Mill A CREAMY NUT BUTTER 0 0

Place the nuts in the feed funnel of the mill. Any tree nuts or peanuts will work. Run nuts through the machine. Repeat as many times as necessary to achieve the desired texture, tightening the collar for each success ive pass. In using our machine, we have found that four passes yields a silky-smooth butter.

FROZEN CREME-FRAJCHE AND PINE-NUT CREAM INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0 0 0 0

Water

500g

500%

Glucose syrup DE 40

135 g

135%

Creme fraiche

lOOg

100%

Pine-nut butter

lOOg

100%

Skim milk powder

79 g

79%

lsomalt

60g

60%

Salt

lOg

10%

Sugar

lOg

10%

Guargum

2g

2%

Yieldsl kg

Blend together. Place in Pacojet beaker, and freeze to at least -20 oc I -4 °F. Pacotize once. Serve frozen cream immediately, or freeze.

see above

from page 2·411

SOUR RHUBARB SORBET

Yields 780 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Rhubarb, thinly sliced

500g

100%

0

Vacuum seal.

Glucose syrup DE 40

130g

26%

Cook so us vide in 90 oc I 194 °F bath for 2 h.

Sugar

30 g

6%

Rhubarb juice

200g (from 350 g rhubarb)

40%

0 0 0

Blend with cooked rhubarb.

® Adjust acidity to taste . ® Freeze in Pacojet container. Alternatively, churn in ice cream machine, and store in freezer.

9g White balsamic vinegar (or other semisweet white vinegar)

1.8%

Malic acid

0.6%

3g

Pass through fine sieve.

0

To serve, Pacotize or temper churned sorbet.

from page 5·279

ROMESCO SAUCE

Yields 950 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

150g

60%

Smoked Hungarian paprika peppers, dried

20g

8%

Olive oil

250 g

100%

0 0 0 0

Pine nuts, toasted

250g

100%

Hazelnuts, peeled and toasted

150g

60%

Piquillo peppers (store-bought in jar, seeded)

150g

60% 36%

Red wine vinegar

90g

Garlic cloves, blanched

19.5g

7.8%

Paprika

9.5g

3.8%

Pomegranate molasses (store-bought)

8g

3.2%

Salt

to taste

Soak peppers at room temperature for 2 h. Remove peppers from water, and blend into paste. Press through fine sieve. Combine with paste.

® Process mixture 3- 4 times through colloid mill, using increasingly fine settings until desired texture is achieved.

® Season.

from page 2-419

54

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


MAKING A SMOOTH PUREE 0 Prepare the vegetables by cutting into evenly shaped, small pieces, as indicated in th e tabl e below.

0 Cook as indicated . Suggested methods, temperatures, and times are

® Combine vegetable with th e liquid or seasoning indicated in th e table. Set the weight of the produce to 100%. For exampl e, use 12 g of butter for every 100 g of mushrooms.

0

listed in the table.

Puree by using the tool indicated, and pass through a fine sieve. Optionall y, process with rotor-stator homogenizer, ultra high pressure homogenizer, or ultrasonic homogenizer for finer texture. For large quantities, a colloid mill is an ideal tool.

Best Bets for Vegetable and Fruit Purees Cook Ingredient

Prep

Method

(of)

(oC)

194

apple

peeled, quartered

so us vide

90

asparagus

thinly sliced

saute

high heat

(m in)

Liquid

(scaling)*

2h h 10

vegetab le stock 25% unsalted butter

15%

vegetable stock 50%

artichoke

hearts, thinly sl iced so us vide

80

176

45

beet

peeled, thinly sliced

sous vide

80

176

1h

broccoli

stems, peeled and sliced

saute

medium heat

12

neutral oil

3%

florets, sliced

boil

high heat

4

hazelnut oil

10%

peeled, thinly sliced

sa ute

medium-low heat 30

carrot juice

50%

cauliflower

florets, sli ced

saute

medium-low heat 1h h

corn

kernels

so us vide

85

olive oi l

5%

cooked beet juice

50%

Tool

See page

commercial blender

5·17

commercial blender

33

commercial blender commercial blender

unsalted butter 15%

carrot

celery root jerusalem artichoke

commercial blender

next page

commercial blender

150

commercial blender

5·281

commercial blender

5·101

unsalted butter 15% 34%

commercial

57

carotene butter 15%

peeled, thin ly sliced

so us vide

thinly sliced

saute

185 194

90

1h

lY2 h

vegetable stock 50% unsalted butter

15%

corn juice

25%

skim milk

unsalted butter 15% 45

medium heat

who le milk

25%

blender commercial blender

unsalted butter 15%

commercial blender

next

35

who le milk

194

7

water

to cover

Pacojet

194

45

unsalted butter

25%

commercial blender

pea juice

50%

Pacojet

53

heavy cream

10% food mill or ricer

144, 148, 151

saute

medium-

onion

peeled

oven roast

175

345

parsley

leaves

so us vide

90

parsnip

peeled, thinly sliced

sous vide

90

pea

who le

freeze and thaw

n/ a

peeled, thinly sliced

sous vid e

100

shallot

peeled, thinly sliced

saute

medium heat

spinach

leaves

blanch

90

winter squash

peeled, thinly sliced

so us vide

90

high heat

from page 2-425

57

50% water unsalted butter 12%

thin ly sliced

potato

commercia l blender

30

mushroom

12.5%

unsalted butter

50%

heavy cream

30%

30

unsalted butter

25%

194

7

water

15%

194

45

212

35

commercia l blender Pacojet commercia l blender

5·60

*(set weight ofprepared vegetable to 700%)

THE MODE RNI ST KI TC HE N

55


BROCCOLI AND HAZELNUT-OIL PUREE

INSPIRED BY JACQUES MAXIMIN

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Broccoli florets

300g

100%

0 0

Broccoli stalks, peeled and sliced

220g

73%

Neutral oil

lOg

3%

Roasted hazelnut oil (Walnut oil or other nut oils can also be used for this recipe)

30 g

10%

Salt

to taste

Yields400g

Blanch florets in 2% saline water for 3 min. Rinse in ice wate r.

® Saute stalks unti l golden and tender, about 4 min. Cool.

@ Combine with florets and stalks. ® Puree in blender on high power until smooth. ® Transfer puree to beaker.

0

Process with rotor-stator homogeni zer at 4,000 rpm until extremely silky, about 3 min.

® Season and drizzle with more hazelnut oil if desired. ® Warm through or refrigerate until use.

from page 2-426

CREAMED WATERCRESS

Yields 700 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Watercress, large branch es removed

450 g

150%

0 0

Cook so us vid e in 90 oc 1 194 °F bath for 7 min. Shock in ice water, and then remove from bag.

® Puree. @ Pass through fine sieve. ® Measure 30 0 g of puree for rec ipe, and reserve. 42%

® Dry-blend gellan and sodium citrate, and disperse in water.

Low-acy l gellan (Kelcogel 7g F, CP Kelco brand)

2.3% (7.2%)*

0

Sodium citrate

2g

0.7% (0.35%)*

® Refrigerate gel stock until set.

Watercress puree, from above

300 g

100%

@ Comb in e with gel stock.

Glucose syrup DE 40

60g

20%

Water

125g

Vacuum seal solution.

® Hydrate so us vide in 85 oc

I

185 oF bath for 5 min.

@ Puree.

White onion, thinly sli ced 51 g and blanched

17%

Water

21 g

7%

Olive oil

51 g

17%

@ Combine with puree.

Maltod extrin DE 19

27g

9%

@ Pour into Pacojet b ea ker.

Egg white

24g

8%

@ Freeze to at least - 20 oc I - 4 °F.

Garlic, thinly sliced and blanched once

20g

7%

@ To serve, Pacotize once and serve cold as garnish for roast beef, or warm and use as sauce for roasted fish.

Capers

15g

5%

Salt

9g

3%

from page 2-426

56

*(%oftotal combined weight ofthe puree and subsequent ingredients)

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


PISTACHIO PUREE INGREDIENT

ADAPTED FROM ALEX STUPAK

QUANTITY

Sicilian pistachios, she ll ed 200 g

Yields445 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Soak pistachios in waterfo r1 2 h, refrigerate d.

Water

125 g

62.5%

Pistachio oil

75 g

37.5%

Glucose syrup DE40

40g

20%

Salt

4g

2%

N-Zorbit M (Nation a l Starch brand)

2.5 g

1.25%

0

(0.6%)*

® Vacuum seal and refrigerate until use.

0

Puree together pistachios and soak ing water, oil, and glucose .

® Pass through fine sieve. @) Season with sa lt.

A colloid mill works superbly for making pi stac hi o puree, as shown on page 54. A blender or Pacojet also works.

Whisk into puree to thi cken .

*(%oftotal combined weight offirstfouringredients)

fro m page 2-427

Yields325g

BLACK TRUFFLE CONCENTRATE SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black winter truffles, scrubbe d lOOg thoroughly a nd thinly sliced

100%

CD Comb in e and p uree in blender or with rotor-

Brown chicke n jus

25%

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT

stator homoge ni zer.

25g

0

see page34

Vacuum sea l puree.

® Cook so us vid e in 80 •c I 176 "F bath for1 h.

Red wine (dry)

15g

15%

Po rtobe llo mushroom gills

lOg

10%

Tawny port (med ium dry)

lOg

10%

@) Transfer sea led puree to ultrasonic bath if ava il ab le (see page 2·415), and process for 30 min . If bath is un avai lab le, proceed w ith re ma ining steps.

0

Refrigerate sea led p uree for late r use, or prepare to serve.

® To serve, warm sealed puree in 80 •c I 176 "F bath for10 min.

0 Black truffle oil (store-bought) 7 g Champagne vin egar

to taste

Salt

to taste

Th is puree is quite ex pe nsive an d a small a moun t can go a lon g way. Use it sparin gly as a seaso ning for sauces and dressings. To make a more d ilu ted puree that can be served as a garn ish, use more li q uid, and then thicken with a fluid ge l (see page 4 ·176) or blend into a mushroom puree (see page 5·216). European summer and autumn truffles, Oregon truffles, and Austral ian truffles are all acceptab le substitutes.

Remove from bag, a nd blend until co mpl ete ly smooth.

® Season, and serve imm ed iately.

3.5%

from page 2-427

YieldsSOO g

CELERY ROOT MOUSSELINE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sugar

30g

10%

CD Heat to 190 •c I 375 "Fto make carame l. 0 Coo l comp lete ly.

Ce le ry roots, pee led and thinly sli ced

300g

100%

Skim milk

100g

33%

® Com bin e, and bring to simmer.

Unsa lte d butte r

45g

15%

0

® Break into sma ll pieces. @) Vacuum seal w ith carame l.

0

Cook so us vid e in 90 •c I 195 •F bath for1Y2 h. Add celery roots, and puree to fine cons istency.

® Pass through fin e sieve. Roasted peanut oil

30g

Salt

to taste

10%

® Season puree. @ Serve or coo l and refrigerate until use .

from page 2-427

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

57


FREEZE-DRYING CD Prepare the ingredients. Cut the food into bite-size pieces or thin slices

temperature of the food is within 1 oc I 2 °Fof the shelf temperature. Because of the physics of freeze-drying, the core temperature of the food may fall at first. This is not unusual. But if the core temperature of the food fai ls to increase within a few hours, increase the shelf temperature by 5 oc I 10 °Fto supp ly more energy.

to greatly reduce drying times. Arrange the food in a single layer on conductive trays that fit in your dryer. Aerate liquids and purees before freezing or grind them into sma ll pieces after freezing.

0

Prefreeze the food to be low the critical temperature. See the table Prefreezing Temperatures for Freeze-Dried Foods on the next page for suggested temperatures. Faster freezing will yield better texture but will slow sub limati on . Some foods have criti ca l temperatures so low that liquid nitrogen or a laboratory freezer is needed to reach them.

® In crease the she lf temperature to 5 °CI 40 °F. When the core temperature of the food exceeds 0 oc I 32 °F, preliminary drying is comp lete. ® Begin secondary drying. Set the condenser to the co ld est temperature ava il able and increase the shelf temperature to the temperature recommended in the table on the next page, or 20-60 oc I 70-140 °F (as warm as the food will tolerate without damage). When the core temperature of the food reaches the shelf temperature, freeze-drying is complete.

® Set the freeze dryer temperatures. Set the shelf temperature to 20 oc I 36 °Fabove the critica l temperature of the prefrozen food. Set the condenser to 20 oc I 36 oF below the critica l temperature.

0

Freeze-dry the food. Insert a fine temperature probe into the core of the frozen food. Engage the vacuum pump, and run it until the core

Best Bets for Freeze-Drying Drying temperatures Primary Dimension

Shelf

Secondary

Condenser

Shelf

(in)

(oc)

(oF)

(oc)

(oF)

(oc)

(oF)

(h)

Example use

'Ya

- 20

-4

- 45

- 49

30

86

8

grind to a fine powder, and use to form a meaty crust on steaks and hamburgers

raw, pounded paper-thin

- 20

-4

-45

- 49

30

86

4

break into "carpaccio chips," and dust with olive oil, grated Parmesan, and arugula powder

eggs

cooked, peeled

-35

- 31

-60

- 76

60

140

12

Astronaut Ramen

fruits

sliced

0.1

'A2

-40

-40

- 65

- 85

30

86

4

pureed

1

:Ys

enjoy whole; use in cereal or as a garn ish or seasoning

Ingredient

Prep

(em)

beef

raw, sliced

1

beef tenderloin

sliced or quartered

chunks

2

:y..

ice cream

sliced

2.5

1

lettuce and tender greens

leaves

whole

lobster

raw, whole, shelled

noodles

cooked

0.1

pork belly

cooked or raw, thinly sliced

0.5

'A2 y..

pork shoulder cooked tender, shredded scallops

raw, pureed

8 64 - 30

- 22

-55

- 67

40

104

96

sold commercially as astronaut ice cream

-25

-13

- 50

- 58

40

104

12

Caesar Salad (see page 189)

-10

14

- 35

- 31

20

68

120

reconstitute in melted butter; grind to a powder, and use as a seasoning

- 15

5

- 40

- 40

70

158

12

Astronaut Ramen

- 20

-4

- 45

- 49

30

86

6

- 20

-4

- 45

- 49

30

86

12

- 10

14

- 35

- 31

20

68

whole stocks, broths, cubed and sauces ground vegetables

2

3,4

1

'Ya

-15

- 40

- 40

70

158

8

grind to a fine powder, and use as a seasoning

48

break into panko-like slivers, and use as a breading or garnish

36

instant bouillon, breading; use to enrich soups and sauces

8 - 25

fine julienne

5

-13

- 50

- 58

40

minced

104

4 4

sliced

0.1

mushroom caps

whole

pureed

1

'A2

4 24

:Ys

8

from page 2-451

58

Total drying time

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

Astronaut Ramen, breading, onion tart, instant potato flakes


HOW TO USE A SPRAY DRYER CD Prepare the liquid . Add a bulking agent and any flavoring as needed. Place the liquid into the intake system of the spray dryer.

0

Set the temperature of the liquid spray. Use the dial at the top of the machine to set the spray or inlet-control temperature. We have found 70 oc 1160 °F to be a good starting point for kitchen-scale machines.

®Set the air temperature or outlet temperature. The control is at the base of the machine. Start at 50 oc I 120 °F.

@ Begin spray-dry ing. The powder will collect in a receptacle at the bottom of the machine. If the liquid is too wet and sticky, or if it clumps, increase the amount of bulking agent, and set the inlet and outlet temperatures 5-10 °CI 10-20 °F higher.

Evaporative coo ling keeps the juice much cooler as it dries than the outlet temperature would suggest.

SPRAY-DRIED BUTTERMILK

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Buttermilk

2 kg

100%

Dextrose DE 36

20g

1%

Microcrystalline cellulose (Avice I CG 200, FMC Biopolymer brand) Lactic acid

20g

1%

CD Blend together thoroughly. 0 Set spray dryer's inlet temperature to 90 oc 1 194 °F. The out let temperature should read about 57 oc I 135 °F. ® Spray-dry at full pressure until liquid is fully processed, about 2 h. @ Store powder in airtight container.

0 .4g

0.04%

from page 2-443

SPRAY-DRIED BLOOD ORANGE JUICE

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Blood orange juice, clarified

2 kg

100%

Maltodextrin DE 9

100g

5%

Citric acid

20g

1%

CD Blend together thoroughly. 0 Set spray dryer's inlet temperature to 100 oc I 212 °F. The outlet temperature shou ld read approximately 65 oc I 149 °F. ® Spray-dry at full pressure until liquid is fully processed, about 2 h. @ Al low spray-dried juice to cool completely. If powder clumps, grind in coffee grinder, and try adding more maltodextrin and using higher drying temperature for the next batch. ® Store powder in an airtight container.

from page 2·443

Prefreezing Temperatures for Freeze-Dried Foods Freeze to below (oc)

Ingredient

(of)

fruit

- 45

- 49

eggs

-40

-40

ice cream

- 35

-31

-30

- 22

meat

-25

- 13

pastas, grains, and legumes

- 20

-4

stocks, broths, and sauces

-20

-4

seafood

- 15

5

vegetables

-

When freeze-drying liquids such as stocks, grind the frozen liquid before spreading it out as a thin layer for much faster drying. A Pacojet does a good job on the grinding.

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

59


FREEZE-DRIED BEEF GRAVY GRANULES

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef shank, ground

1.2 kg

160%

CD Panfry; brown until dark.

Neutral oil

100g

13.3%

0

Remove beeffrom pan, and reserve.

® Measure 50 g of rendered suet an d reserve. Carrots, thinly sliced

150g

20%

@) Prepare vegetab les as noted.

Button mushrooms, thinly sliced

100g

13.3%

® Brown vegetables together in suet until deep amber.

Leeks, thinly sliced

100g

13.3%

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

100g

13.3%

Turnips, thinly sliced

100g

13.3%

Garlic heads, split

7Sg

10%

Rendered suet, from above

SOg

6.7%

Redwine

150g

20%

Brandy

SOg

6.7%

® Deglaze vegetables. 0 Add browned beef.

White beef stock

1 kg

133%

® Transfer beef and vegetable mixture to pressure cooker.

see page 6

® Add stock, and pressure-cook at 1 bar I 15 psi for1 h. @ Strain through fine sieve. @ Pour strained stock into centrifuge bottles. @ Centrifuge at 27,500g for 1 h, and strain through fine sieve. @ Measure 750 g of stock, and cool.

Centrifuged beef stock, from above

750 g

100%

@ Disperse gelatin into cold stock, and warm to dissolve ge latin .

160 Bloom ge latin

7.5 g

1%

@ Pour stock into 30.5 em by 20 em I 12 in by Bin hotel pan, and freeze completely. @ Wrap frozen stock sheet in cheesecloth . @ Place perforated hotel pan (30.5 em by 20 em I 12 in by 8 in) onto another hotel pan that is same size but deeper. @ Lay wrapped frozen stock sheet flat on perforated pan; a llow thawing stock to drip down into deeper pan below it. @ Freeze-dry clarified broth for 12 h, by using table on page 58.

For rehydration: Freeze-dried beef gravy granules

12g

1.6%

Ultra-Sperse A

8g

1.1%

Salt

2g

0.3%

Water, boiling

120g

16%

@ Mix together.

@ Whisk into dry blend. @ Divide gravy into four servings.

from page 2-454

SALTED, FREEZE-DRIED lOBSTER

Yields20 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

100g

167%

CD Mix until dissolved.

Salt

7g

12%

Lobster tail

60g

100%

0

Brine, refrigerated , for12 h. Cook so us vide in 57 •c I 135 •F bath for 20 min.

® Freeze dry for12 h, by using the table on page 58. @) To use as seasoning, grate the dried lobster over food. from page 2-454

60

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


RAMEN VEGETABLES

Yields 50 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Mirin

205g

205%

0

Water

205g

205%

@Cool.

Soy sauce

105g

105%

® Strain; discard liquid .

Bamboo shoots

100g

100%

0

Sugar

50g

50%

® Freeze-dry by us ing the table on page 58.

Carrots, fine julienne

lOOg

100%

PROCEDURE Comb ine, vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 80 ' C I 176 ' F bath for 2 h.

Sl ice bamboo shoots 1 mm I y,. in thin.

® Blanch for 30 s.

0

Shock in ice-water bath .

® Freeze-dry as above. Young ginger, minced

40g

® Vacuum seal a nd cook so us vide in 90 'C I 194 ' F bath for1 h.

40%

@ Freeze-dry as above. Hon-shimeji mushrooms, tops

100g

100%

Scallions, greens only, fine ju lienne

100g

100%

@ Freeze-dry as above.

from page 2·455

RAMEN STOCK POWDER

Yields 38 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

japanese stock

300g

100%

0 0

250g

83%

Scallions, whites only, thinly sliced

lOg

3.3%

Kombu

6g

2%

see page 6

Chinese everyday stock see page 6

Smithfield ham, thinly sliced

6g

2%

Garlic, finely minced

5g

1.7%

Dried scallop (store-bought)

4g

1.3%

Bonito flakes (katsuobush i)

2g

0.7%

White soy sauce

to taste

Combine and vacuum seal. Cook so us vide in 60 ' C I 140 ' F bath for 1 h.

® Strain.

0

Heat broth to 85 ' C I 185 ' F.

For more on how to assemble these components to make Astronaut Ramen, see page 5·247.

® Add to simmering broth. ® Steep for10 s.

0

Strain.

® Season. ® Freeze-dry by us ing the table on page 58. @ Grind into powder. from page 2·455

THE MODERNIST KITCHEN

61


HOW TO CARBONATE FRUIT WITH DRY ICE 0

CD Put a layer of crushed dry ice in the bottom of a plastic, sealable container. Remember to use all safety procedures when handling dry ice.

0

Place an insulating layer of paper towels or a clean, dry tea towel on the ice layer. This protects the fruit from the extreme temperature of the dry ice.

Seal container. The lid may pop off a coup le of times due to a buildup of air pressure. That's fine. Just put the lid back on.

® Let the fruit carbonate. This will take only 30 min for smal l fruits like grapes and overnight for larger, who le fruits like app les and oranges. Longer carbonation times require refrigeration .

® Put the cold fruit on the insulating layer. Let the dry ice and fruit settle a few minutes so that the "s team " pushes out the oxygen in the container.

STRAWBERRY MILK SHAKE

Yields 1.2 kg

ADAPTED FROM JUAN MARl ARZAK

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Strawberries, washed and trimmed

1 kg

167%

CD Arrange in one layer, and dust w ith fr"uctose. 0 Freeze.

Fructose

400g

67%

® Thaw at room temperature.

0

Puree.

® Strain through fine sieve and reserve 600 g of strawberry juice. Skim milk

600g

100%

® Disperse powders in milk.

Sweet whey powder

12g

2%

0

(7% )*

® Cool.

Bring to simmer, and remove from heat.

Locust bean gum (Tic Gums brand)

1.2 g

0 .2%

Strawberry juice, from above

600g

100%

® Blend cooled milk into reserved juice.

Dry ice

100g

16.7%

@ Crush dry ice in blender to fine powder.

(0.7%)*

® Divide even ly among four glasses. @ Pour 200 g of mi lk shake into each glass. Wait 10 s; milk shakes wi ll bubb le over. ® Serve alongside our Mushroom Swiss Burger (see page 5·11).

*(% ofthe total weight ofthe strawberry juice and milk)

from page 2·473

ORANGE SODA

Yields340 g

SCALING

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Navel orange juice see page 2-352

100% 300 g (from 700 g of oranges)

Fructose

30g

10%

PROCEDURE

CD Centrifuge at 27,500g for1 h. 0

Strain through fine sieve .

® Combine with juice, and reserve.

Phosphoric acid

2g

0.67%

Gum arabic

5g

1.67%

0

Water

2g

0.67%

Orange essential oil

0.12g (about seven drops)

0.04%

® Add 1.5 g of emulsion to sweetened juice, and refrigerate remain ing emulsion for later use.

Blend together until smooth.

® Hand-blend juice until smooth.

0

Strain through fine sieve.

® Transfer to soda siphon, and charge w ith two carbon dioxide cartridges . ® Refrigerate soda in siphons for at least 2 h before serving. from page 2-472

62

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

For other methods of clarifying juice, see page 2·352.


CARBONATED GOLDEN RAISINS

YieldslOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Verjuice (store-bought)

125 g

250%

Golden raisins

SO g

100%

0 0

Water

lOg

20%

Combine. Refrigerate for 2 h to hydrate.

® Transfer to carbonating siphon, and charge with three carbon dioxide cartridges forlY2 h before serving.

from page 5·159

SHIGOKU OYSTER WITH FIZZY GRAPES, FRESH WASABI, AND MISO POWDER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shiro miso

lSOg

125%

0 0

Shigoku oysters (or Kumamoto)

120g (12 oysters)

100%

Yields300 g

Dehydrate at 45 ·c I 113 •Fforl2 h. Grind to fine powder, and reserve.

® Shuck, reservingjuice. @ Clean thoroughly. ® Refrigerate oysters. ® Strain juice, and measure 40 g.

Muscat grapes

120g

100%

0

Blanch for 10 s.

® Shock in ice water. ® Peel, and halve through stem end. Verjuice (store-bought)

SOg

42%

@ Combine.

Rice wine vinegar

Sg

4%

@ Pour over peeled grapes.

Salt

lg

0 .8%

@ Place grapes and juice into siphon . @ Charge with two cartridges of carbon dioxide for at least 5 h before serv ice, and refrigerate.

Wasabi (fresh)

8g

6%

@ Grate finely, and reserve.

Oyster juice, from above

40g

33%

@ Combine.

Verjuice

30 g

25%

@ Blend until smooth.

Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand)

0.7g

0.58%

@ Remove carbonated grapes from siphon, and place sy, pieces at bottom of each bowl.

(7%)*

@ Top each bowl with one shucked oyster. @ Garnish with miso powder and wasabi. @ Whip foam until frothy with handheld foaming wand. @ Dress bowls with oyster-Verjuice foam. from page 5·200

*(% oftotal weight ofoysterjuice and sour grape juice)

T HE M ODER NI ST KI TCH EN

63


Best Bets for Tartares Meat

Recipe

Texture

Seasoning

Note

beef

traditional French steak tartare

coarse

raw shallot, raw egg yolk, ketchup, capers, parsley, mustard, Worcestershire, Tabasco sauce

the classic tartare

Syrian kafta nayyeh

fine

mint, hot mustard, allspice, raw onion, olive oil

Ethiopian kitfo

fine

chili powder, niter kibbeh

traditionally served with injera or kocho

Wylie Dufresne's hanger steak tartare

coarse

Bearnaise ice cream, scallion, pickled Asian pear, amaro

hanger steak is tenderized so us vide (see page 2路244)

lamb

Lebanese kibbeh

fine

bulgur wheat, raw garlic, cinnamon young lamb is best

langoustine

Pierre Gagnaire's langoustine and poppy seed tartare

fine

green mango, thyme nougatine

mackerel

horse mackerel (aji) tartare with ginger

moderately coarse

young ginger, shiso, sansho pepper

musk ox

Rene Redzepi 's musk ox tartare with oxalis and tarragon cream

fine paste

oxalis, juniper, tarragon

oyster

David Kinch's oyster and beef tartare

fine

mustard, horseradish, hot sauce

salmon

salmon tartare with citrus

coarse

makrud lime, sesame oil, chili, yuzu

do not add citrus until just before serving; otherwise, it will cook surface of fish

scallop

Alain Passard 's scallop and truffle tartare

small cubes

truffle, artichoke, hazelnut oil, lemon, tarragon

sear quickly over high heat before chopping to develop sweetness

Heston Blumenthal's scallop and white chocolate tartare

fine

preserved lemon, white chocolate, caviar

tuna belly

Nobu Matsuhisa's toro and caviar tartare

fine paste

soy sauce, caviar

tuna loin

Hawaiian poke

medium cubes

ogo, candlenut, sweet onion, toasted-sesame oil

venison

cured venison tartare with coffee

small cubes

blackberry, fennel, coffee, smoked salt

from page 3路63

64

VOLUME 6 路KITCHEN MANUAL

use only extremely fresh langoustines

musk ox is dry-aged for 48 days


HANGER STEAK TARTARE

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cha mpagne vinegar

500g

125%

CD Co mbin e, and red uce until syrupy.

White wine

400g

100%

0 Strain.

Shallots, di ced

290g

72.5 %

0

Tarragon stems

five ste ms

Yields 650 g (four portions)

Measure 45 g, and reserve.

W ater

260g

65%

@) Comb in e in sma ll pot.

Sugar

140 g

35 %

® Heat while whisk ing until sugar has dissolved comp lete ly.

Glucose

60g

15%

® Remove from heat, and coo l syrup slightly.

Egg yolks

625g

155%

0 Temper w ith warm sy rup.

Bearnaise redu ctio n, from above

45g

11.25%

Salt

Sg

1.25%

@ Freeze in Pacojet co ntain ers, or churn in ice cream maker.

Hange r steak

400g

100%

@ Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 50 •c / 122 •F bath for 3 h.

Extra-virgin olive oil

6g

1.5%

4g

1%

@ Season steak tartare.

3g

0.8%

@ Pacotize ice cream, if using Pacoj et.

l.S g

0.4%

@ Spoon steak onto plates, and garn ish with spoonful of ice crea m.

0 .75g

0.2 %

® Hand-blend. ® Add to egg mixture, to taste. @ Blend mixture.

@ Coo l quickly in ice -water bath, and refrigerate. @ Sear one sid e of stea k. @ Coo l complete ly, and dice finely. Salt Tarrago n, minced Tabasco sauce Black pepper from page 3·65

BEEF AND OYSTER TARTARE

ADAPTED FROM DAVID KINCH

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

American Wagyu beef bavette or rib eye

400g

100%

CD Trim offfat.

Pemaquid oysters

BOg

20%

Yields 680 g (fourto eight portions)

0 Dice finely.

0

Shuck, reserving jui ces.

@) Kee p refrigerated. Ketchup (Heinz brand)

60g

15%

® Combine.

Extra-virgin olive oil

40g

10%

® Adjust ketchup mi xtu re to taste .

Orleans mustard

18 g

4.5%

Hot sauce (Crystal brand) 8g

2%

Worcestersh ire sauce

1.25%

Sg

Lemon juice

3g

0.75%

Whipping cream

120 g

30%

Cream cheese (Ph iladelphia brand)

100 g

25%

® Soften with paddle mixer until silky.

Ho rseradish root, finely grated

40g

10%

@ Fo ld in to cream cheese.

Rice vinegar

to taste

@ Season wh ipped horse radi sh cream carefull y to taste; chill.

Lime juice

to taste

@ Mince raw oysters, and comb in e with reserved oyster juices.

Salt

to taste

@ Fold oysters into diced raw beef, and seaso n with ketchup mi xture as desired.

0 Whiptostiffpeaks. ® Refrigerate.

@ Fold crea m cheese mi xture ca refu lly into cold whipped cream.

@ Pl ace spoonful of beef and oyster tartare on each plate, and garnish with spoon fu l of horseradish cream. from page 3·66

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

65


SCALLOP TARTARE

INSPIRED BY ALAIN PASSARO

Yields300g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mayonnaise (Kewpie or other good quality brand)

30 g

15%

CD Whisk to form truffle mayonnaise.

Black truffle concentrate see page 57

20g

10%

Black truffle, minced

lOg

5%

Lime juice

3g

1.5% 1.5%

Roasted-hazelnut oil

3g

Lime zest

lg

0.5%

Sea scallop (sushi quality), minced

200g

100%

Fuji apple, peeled and minced

40g

20%

Chives, minced

0.75g

0.4%

Lime juice

to taste

® Season scallop mixture generously.

Salt

to taste

@) Ch ill.

Brioche, frozen and sliced 2 mm I X6 in thick

lOg

5%

Freeze-dried scallop powder see page 58

8g

4%

Clarified unsalted butter

25 g

12.5%

0

Fold into truffle mayonnaise.

® Dust brioche slices with powder.

@ Pan fry brioche until gold en.

0

Drain on paper towels.

® Cut into desired shapes . Chive blossoms

as desired

® Spoon scallop tartare into serving bowls. @ Garnish with brioche and chive blossoms.

from page 3·67

66

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


SALMON TARTARE CORNETS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

ADAPTED FROM THOMAS KELLER

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Combine and reserve.

Yields 400 g (24 cornets)

For the cornets: All-purpose flour

65g

4.5%

Sugar

20g

13.5%

Salt

4g

2.5%

Unsalted butter, softened 115g but still cool to touch

77%

Egg whites, co ld

60%

90g

0

Whisk until comp lete ly smooth and texture resembles mayonnaise.

® Beat egg whites into flour mixture until smooth. @) Whisk in softened butter by thirds until batter is creamy. ® Place circular stencil, 10 em I 4 in. in diameter, on sili cone mat. ® Spread some batter evenly inside stenc il.

0 Black sesame seeds

20 g

13.5%

Lift stencil off sheet, and repeat process to make 24 circl es.

® Sprinkle over each batter circl e. ® Bake in 205 oc

I

400 °F oven until batter is set and rippling, 4-6 min.

@ Transfer sheet with circl es to open oven door to keep warm. @ Flip one circle over, sesame seed side down; place an 11.5 em I 4Y2 in cornet mold (s ize #35) at bottom of circle . @ If you are right-handed, place pointed end of mold to your left and op en end to your right. Tip of mold shou ld touch lower left edge of circl e. Reverse if left-handed. @ Fold bottom of circle up and around mold. @ Roll carefu lly upward and to left to wrap circle tightly around mold. Leave circle wrapped around its mold. @ Repeat cornet molding process for remaining circles . @ Arrange cornets seam side down and leaning against each other. @ Bake in 205 oc

I

400 oF oven until gold en brown, another 3- 4 min, to set seams.

@ Take out of oven, and coo l slightly for 30 s. Remove from molds. @ Store in airtight container for 48 h maximum. For the salmon tartare: Salmon fillet, preferably belly

150g

100%

Shallot, finely minced

7g

4.5%

@ Add to minced salmon.

Chives, finely minced

5g

3.5%

@ Fold in to comb in e.

Extra-virgin olive oil

2g

1.5%

@ Adjust for seasoning, if necessary.

Kosher salt

2g

1.5%

@ Cover salmon tartare, and refrigerate for at lea st 30 min.

Lemon zest

1.6 g

1%

White pepper, freshly ground

to taste

@ Remove skin and pin bones. @ Mince finely.

For the red-o nion cream: Red onion, finely minced

9g

6%

@ Rinse onion in strainer under co ld water, and dry.

Creme fraiche

115g

77%

@ Whisk until soft peaks form .

Salt

to taste

@ Season.

White pepper, freshly ground

to taste

@ Transfer onion cream to pastry bag.

Chive tips, 2Y2 em 11 in long

24 tips

@ Fold onions in.

@ Refrigerate for at least 1 h to firm up. ® Pipe onion cream into each cornet. @ Spoon 3 g of salmon tartare over cream. @ Garn ish with single chive tip .

from page 3·68

ME AT AND SEAFOOD

67


TENDER MEATS SOUS VIDE 0

CD Select a n ingred ient and target temperature. The table below provid es final co re temperatures for many popular tender cuts; our preferences are highli gh ted in bold.

Cook so us vide until th e co re temperature of the meat reac hes the target. Use a digital probe th ermomete r, as described on page 2·243.

0 Set so us vide bath to 1 "CI 1.8 "F above the target temperature se lected.

® Optio nall y, sear the meat by using whichever method yo u prefer. For options, see page 2·270.

® Vacuum seal the meat with any flavorings, fats, or liqu ids desired.

®

Seaso n as des ired.

Best Bets for Cooking Tender Meats So us Vide Core temperature for doneness Rare

Medium rare

Pink

Medium

Ingredient beef, filet mignon

50

122

53

127

56

133

62

144

beef, flank

54

129

56

133

59

138

62

144

beef, hanger

51

124

54

129

58

136

60

140

beef loin (rib eye)

54

129

56

133

58

136

60

140

beef, strip steak

52

126

54

129

58

136

62

144

lamb, leg

54

129

57

135

60

140

65

149

lamb loin (rack)

54

129

57

135

59

138

62

144

veal loin

52

126

54

129

56

133

60

140

venison loin

50

122

53

127

58

136

60

140

Note

See page

c ut thinly against the g ra in for maximum tenderness, or us e ka lbi marinade

144

5·5 dry aged is id ea l

287 68

hi g h e nzy mat ic activity ca n ca use mushin ess; cook ing to a hotte r-th a n- co re temperature is recommended; use the sa me te mp e ratures for simi lar game

69

94

pork loin

n/ a

58

136

60

140

62

144

pork tenderloin

n/ a

56

133

59

138

61

142

64

147

see page 3-48 for specifi c c uts

89

cook in 72 "C I 162 "F bath to co re temperatures to prevent mushiness

70

pork, shoulder blade

n/ a

58

136

60

140

rabbit loin

n/ a

56

133

59

138

62

144

suckling pig loin

n/ a

56

133

58

136

60

140

from page 3·96

69

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

RACK OF LAMB

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Rack of lamb, eight ribs, frenched to loi n

600g

100%

CD Wrap rosemary sprigs aro un d bone to prevent them from being pressed into meat.

Rosemary sp rigs

lOg lOOg

1.75%

Olive oil Ne utral oil

as needed

Salt

to taste

16.5%

0 Vacuum seal rack with oil. ® Cook lamb so us vide in 62 "C/ 144 "F bath to core temperature of 57 "C / 135 "F, abo ut40 min, and then rest at room temperature for10 min . 0 Sear lamb, fat side dow n, until go ld e n. Sl ice between ribs into individual chops. ® Season with salt.

from page 529

68

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


PORK TENDERLOIN WITH JUNIPER

Yields500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork tenderloin, tendon and silverskin removed

500 g

100%

0 0

juniper brine see page 109

200 g

40%

® Drain, and refrigerate for 24 h.

Vacu um seal together. Refrigerate for12 h.

Water, cold

100 g

20%

0

160 Bloom gelatin

10 g

2% (7%)*

® Reserve.

Leeks

300 g

60%

Disperse gelatin in water, and warm until fully dissolved.

® Peel away first layer, and discard.

0

Pee l away next four layers, and cut into large sheets.

® Vacuum sea l leek sheets with gelatin mixture. ® Steam for 4 min, shock in ice-water bath, and pat dry. ActivaRM

5g

1%

@ Arrange sheets on plastic wrap to make single large sheet, overlapp ing sheets every 1cm /% in. @ Dust sheets even ly with Activa . @ Roll brined pork in leek sheets, twisting ends of plastic w rap tightly to form ro ll. @ Vacuum seal. @ Refrigerate for 12 h to ensure le ek wrapper adheres to pork. @ Cook pork tenderloin so us vide in 60 oc / 140 °F bath to core temperature of 59 about 50 min .

oc /

138 °F,

@ Slice to desired thickness, and serve with mushroom jus or red-eye gravy (see pages 37 or 225).

*(%oftotal weight oftenderloin, juniper brine, water, and leeks)

from page 5·36

VENISON LOIN ROSSINI INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

600 g Venison rack (first four ribs on ly), bones frenched Olive oil

45 g

ADAPTED FROM YANNICK ALLENO

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

0

Vacuum sea l together.

0

Cook so us vide in 65

7.5%

200g

33%

149 °F bath to core temperature of 56 oc / 133 °F, about 25 min.

® Let rest at room temperature for 10 min.

0 Duck foie gras, sl iced 2.5cm / 1 in thick

oc /

Reserve.

® Vacuum sea l. ® Cook so us vide in 55

0

oc /

131 °F bath to core temperature of 54 oc / 129 °F, about 20 min.

Hold for further 20 min at temperature to pasteurize (o ptional).

Truffle jus see page 212

150g

25%

® Heat jus until just warmed.

Game broth or brown chi cken stock see page 14 or page 6

100 g

16.5%

® Simmer pasta she ll s in game broth and mushroom ju s until al dente.

Semolina pasta she lls

50g

8.5%

Mushroom jus see page 37

30g

5%

Heavy cream, warmed and whipped

25g

4%

to taste Salt as desired Summer truffle, peeled, thinly sliced and ring cut into 1.25 em I Y2 in circles (optional)

Yields 1.1 kg (fo ur portions)

@ Fold into pasta. @ Slice venison into individual rib chops. @ Cover top of each loin portion with truffle sli ces, if using. @ Slice foie gras into sections 1 em /3/s in thick . @ Season ven ison, foie gras, and pasta. @ Arrange eve nly amo ng plates, and garn ish with truffle jus.

from page 3·98

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

69


RIB EYE WITH CHERRY MUSTARD MARMALADE AND PORCINI ADAPTED FROM ALAIN DUCASSE

Flaky sea salt is a great way to finish a cooked piece of meat or fish. It adds crunchy bursts of saltiness. The only problem is that the salt tends to dissolve into the natural juices by the time the dish reaches the table. Herve This came up with a solution: toss the salt crystals with oil or fat. A thin layer of oil then separates the flakes from the cookingjuices and prevents the salt from dissolving.

Yields 1 kg (four portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef rib eye, bone in, 5 em I 2 in thick

800g

100%

0 0

Unsalted butter

40g

5%

Shallots, finely minced

50g

6%

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 54 oc 1 129 ° F bath to core temperature of 53 oc I 127 °F, about 1]4 h.

® Sear surfaces with blowtorch. Fennel, finely minced

25g

3%

Neutral oil

12.5 g

1.5%

Pickled cherry brine

150g

19%

Red wine vinegar

50g

6%

Red wine (Pi not Nair)

40g

5%

Quatre epices

0.5g

0.05%

Black peppercorns, crushed

0.4 g

0.05%

Juniper berries, finely ground

0.4 g

0.05%

Coriander seeds, finely ground

0.15g

0.02%

Pickled cherries, finely minced

lOOg

12.5%

Grain mustard

40g

5%

Morello cherry puree

35 g

see page 180

@ Sweat until shallots are tender but not browned.

® Add to shallot mixture. ® Reduce to 100 g to form cherry marmalade.

see page 48

0

Whisk into marmalade.

see page180

Pressure-cooked mustard 8 g seeds

4.5% 1%

see page 151

Porcini (fresh)

lOOg

Neutral oil

as needed

® Slice porcini very thinly, and quickly saute until golden and cooked through.

Salt

to taste

® Slice meat to desired thickness.

12.5%

@ Season meat, marmalade, and mushrooms, and arrange on plates. from page 3·97

SOUS VIDE RABBIT LOIN

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Rabbit loins, trimmed and silver skin removed

450 g

100%

0 0

Activa RM orGS

10 g

2.2%

Dust rabbit loins evenly with Activa. Position opposing loins, tapered sides together, to form even cylinders 3 em 1 1]4 in . in diameter.

® Wrap each pair of loins tightly in plastic wrap, and vacuum seal. @ Refrigerate for at least 6 h to allow enzyme to bind loins. Extra virgin olive oil

50g

11%

® Vacuum seal loins with oil. ® Cook so us vide in 57 oc I 135 oF bath to core temperature of 56 oc I 133 °F, about 25 min.

Freeze-dried piquillo pepper powder

lOg

2.2%

see page 188

Salt

to taste

from page 5·242

70

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

0

Dust rabbit loin with piquillo pepper powder, and then slice on bias, 1 em I% in thick.

® Season.


TENDER POUlTRY SOUS VIDE <D Select a n ingred ie nt a nd target temperature. Th e table below provides final core temperatures for ma ny kinds of poultry, both red (top table) a nd white (bottom table). We prefer the temperatures in bold .

0

Set so us vide bath to 1 oc / 1.8 °F above the target core temperature.

® Pasteurize (o ptio nal). Hold at cooki ng temperature for the amo unt of time indi cated in th e table to ach ieve full pasteurization. ® Optionally, sear the meat. See page 2·270 for seari ng methods.

0

Season as des ired.

® Vacuum sea l the poultry w ith a ny flavorings, fats, or liquids.

0

Cook so us vide until the core temperatu re of the meat reaches the target. Use a di gita l probe thermometer, as described o n pages 2·202 a nd 2·243. "T im e to pasteurize" is th e a mount of time to hold after the core reaches the specifie d te mp e rature, if the bath is 1 °C / 1. 8 °Fabove core temperature.

Best Bets for Cooking Tender Red Poultry So us Vide Core temperature for doneness Rare (oF)

(oC)

duck breast

52

126

5 h 15 min

54

129

2 h 17 min

58

goose breast

50

122

n/ a

52

126

5 h 15 min

grouse breast

50

122

n/ a

52

126

ostrich fillet

50

122

n/ a

54

129

52

126

5 h 15 min

54

129

pigeon breast from page 3·99

Hold to pasteurize

Pink Hold to pasteurize Medium rare Hold to pasteurize (oC) (oF) (oF) (oC) (h)

Ingredient

(min)

See page

136

30

5·121

55

151

40

5 h 15 min

58

136

30

2 h 17 min

58

136

30

2 h 17 min

58

136

30

(h)

5·1 25

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

Best Bets for Cooking Tender White Poultry So us Vide Core temperature for doneness Hold to Hold to pasteurize Medium well pasteurize Note (min) (°C) (°F) (min)

Ingredient

Hold to Medium rare (slightly pink) pasteurize Medium 0 (°C) (°F) (min) (°F) ( C)

chicken breast

58

136

30

61

142

13

65

149

chicken "oyster"

61

142

15

65

149

2

68

154

'/2

guinea hen breast

52

126

5 h 15 min

54

129

2 h 17 min

58

136

30

pheasant breast

56

133

35

54

129

2 h 17 min

58

136

30

quail breast

50

122

12 h

52

126

5 h 15 min

54

129

2 h 17 min

turkey breast

54

129

2 h 17 min

56

133

35

58

136

30

from page 3·99

See page 5·113

2 best tenderized with a yog hurt- or e nzy mee nriched marinade

5·135

73 brine

101

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

71


POULET AU FEU D'ENFER

ADAPTED FROM FERNA ND POINT

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken breasts, skin on

500g

100%

Chicken thighs, bone in and skin on

500 g

100%

0 0

Salt

to taste

Yields 1.1 kg (four to eight portions)

Season chi cken pieces. Vacuum seal individu ally.

® Cook breasts so us vide in 60 ' C I 140 ' F bath to co re temperature of 59 ' C I 138 ' F, abo ut 35min. @ Hold for add itional20 min to pasteurize (optional). ® Cook thighs so us vide in 65 ' C I 149 ' F bath for1Y2 h.

Chicken wings, w.hole, finely chopped

250g

50%

Shallots, thinly sliced

100g

20%

Unsalted butter

30g

6%

Garlic, thinly sliced

20g

4%

Brown chicken stock

200g

40%

see page 6

0

Degl aze wings.

® Redu ce liquid by two-thirds until syrupy, aboutlO min.

White wine (dry)

90g

18%

Red wine vinegar

80g

16%

Heavy cream

50g

10%

Black pepper, coarsely ground

to taste

Salt

to taste

200g

® Strain sauce.

@ Season vinegar sa uce.

Clarified unsalted butter as needed Chanterelles, washed thoroughly

® Saute until golden, about 12 min.

@ Heat thin film of butter over high heat in two separate pans. 40 %

@ Saute chanterelles until just cooked through, and season with salt. @ Sear cooked chicken pieces, sk in sid e down only, until sk in is just crisped, about 2 min . @ Slice, and divid e even ly among plates.

Chives, finely minced (or chive blossoms)

30g

6%

@ Garnish with vin egar sauce, chante rell es, and chives.

from page 3·100

PIGEON WITH SHELLFISH BUTTER

ADAPTED FROM ALAIN CHAPEL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pigeon breast roulade

100%

see page 3·254

240 g (two roulades)

0 0

Shellfish butter

80g

33%

® Hold for add itiona12 Y' h to pasteurize (optional).

see page29

Yields 550 g (four portions)

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 55 ' C I 131 ' F bath to core temperature of 54 ' C I 129 ' F, about 25 min.

@ Remove roul ades from bag, and let rest for 5 min. ® Reserve infused shellfish butter in warm place.

Spot prawn tails, peeled

180g (12 tails, 15 g eac h)

75%

0

Oyster mushrooms, small 80g

33%

Unsalted butter

12g

5%

Salt

to taste

Crystallized ginger, small lOg dice

® Vacuum seal tails. Cook so us vide in 50 ' C I 122 ' F bath to co re temperature of 49 ' C I 120 ' F, about 12 min.

® Saute mushrooms until just cooked through.

® Season mushrooms, pigeon, and prawns. 4%

@ Slice each roulad e into six pieces, discard ends, and divide among four plates. @ Garnish eve nly with prawn tails, shellfish butter, mushrooms, and cand ied ginger.

from page 3·100

72

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


QUAIL WITH APPLE-VINEGAR EMULSION AND WATER CHESTNUTS

Yields350 g

ADAPTED FROM CHARLIE TROTTER

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Quail, whole, semiboneless

400g (fo ur whole)

100%

Con fit cure mix

60g

15%

CD Pack cure evenly onto quails. 0 Vacuum seal together. ® Refrigerate for 2 h. 0 Rinse off cu re, and vacuum seal quails indi vidua ll y.

INGREDIENT

seepage lOG

® Cook so us vide in 55 ' C I 131 ' F bath to core temperature of 54 ' C I 129 ' F, about 25 min.

@ Ho ld at 54 ' C I 129 ' Ffor another 2 h 17 min to pasteurize (optiona l). Brown chi cken stock

200g

50%

0 Remove from bags, and a ll ow to rest for 15 min. ® Reduce over high heat to 100 g, and strain.

see page 6

App le cider (fres h)

125g

31%

Apple cider vinegar

50g

12.5%

Shallots, thinly sli ced

so g

12.5%

Unsalted butter

30g

7.5%

Salt

to taste

Che rvil

Sg

1.25%

@ Wh isk into app le-vinegar emu lsion, and reserve warm .

Unsalted butter, cubed

40g

10%

Water chestnuts, peeled, 40 g finely diced, and blanched in boilingwaterfor2 min

10%

@ Saute water chestnuts and p ick led apples in butter until just wa rmed through, about 2 min, to make topping.

30 g

7.5%

Sweet pickled app les, brunoise

® Blend into reduction until fu ll y emu lsified. @ Season.

see page 3·348

@ Season topping.

Salt

to taste

Tarragon, thinly sli ced

2g

0.5%

@ Fold into pickled app le and water chestnut topping, and reserve .

Crisp Coat UC or potato sta rch (Nation a l Starch brand)

100 g

25%

@ Dry blend powders.

Quatre e pi ces

20g

@ Dredge cooked quails, and shake off excess coatin g. 5%

see page 48

Frying oi l

as needed

@ Deep-fry quai ls in 230 ' C I 450 ' Foil for 35 s.

Quatre ep ices

as needed

@ Place in center of plates.

see page48

@ Garnish with apple a nd water chestnut topping, and apple-vin egar emulsion .

@ Dust with add itiona l quatre ep ices, if desired. fro m page 3·101

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

73


FISH AND SHELLFISH SOUS VIDE CD Select an ingredient and target temperature. The table below provides final core temperatures for many kinds offish. We prefer the temperatures in bold.

0 0

0

Optionally, sear the food by using whichever method you prefer. See page 2·270 for searing options.

® Season as desired.

Vacuum seal the fish or shellfish with any flavorings, fats, or liquids. Cook so us vide until the core temperature of the food reaches the target. Use a digital probe thermometer, as described on page 2·243.

The times and temperatures given for "barely cooked" and "tender," and some of the those for "firm," will not pasteurize the fish. See page J.l90 for more food safety information.

Best Bets for Cooking Fish Sous Vide Core temperature for doneness Barely cooked

(°F)

Flaky

Firm

Tender (°C)

(°C)

(°F)

(°C)

(°F)

(°C)

(°F)

black cod

40

104

45

113

48

118

52

126

cod*

38

100

41

112

45

114

49

122

54

129

59

138

112

46

115

so

122

44

111

so

122

54

129

42

108

45

113

so

122

45

ll3

48

118

52

126

38

100

40

108

46

115 122

Ingredient

eel escolar

nl a 38

hake* halibut

nl a 40

halibut cheek hamachi

100 104 nl a

34

93

nl a 41

Note

See page 76

use same temperatures for cooking ling cod

next next 112

use same temperatures for monkfish and cod cheeks

165 5·147

45

ll3

48

118

so

mackerel

40

104

42

108

46

115

48

118

monkfish*

42

108

45

ll3

48

118

so

122

44

lll

48

118

52

126

ll2

43

109

46

115

38

100

42

108

46

115

nl a

45

113

48

118

so

124

5·175

skate

nla

48

118

52

126

54

129

78

snapper

nl a

48

118

50

122

52

126

78

sole

nl a

42

108

45

ll3

so

122

319

nl a

nl a

John Dory

rockfish

nl a

salmon•

38

100 41

sardine

34

93

sea bass

46

115

50

122

54

129

trout

37

99

40

104

46

115

48

118

tuna loin*

38

100

42

108

45

113

48 54

118 129

tuna belly*

38

100

43

109

48

118

so

122

120

52

126

sturgeon*

turbot

nl a

44

111

49

if cooking to less than 46 oc

I 115 oF, brine before cooking

77 78

77

if cooking to 54 °( I 129 °F, brine in 4% saline solution, refrigerated, for 3 h before cooking

from page 3·102

*(Many stocks ofthese species are considered overharvested and are protected in several parts ofthe world. We recommend always checking the status offish before purchasing. For updates and more details, see the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch web site at www.mantereybayaquarium.org/cr/seafoodwatch.aspx. Temperatures in bold are those that we prefer.)

74

284

VO LU ME 6 ·K ITCHE N MAN UAL

76


LING COD WITH BERGAMOT-INFUSED MILK

Yields 700 g (fo ur portions)

ADAPTED FROM MARTIN BERASATEGUJ INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Verjuice (store-bought)

SOg

12.5%

(i) Vacuum sea l together.

Golden raisins

30g

7.5%

0

Cook so us vide in BO ' C I 176 ' F bath for 20 min.

® Cool co mpl ete ly.

0

Drain plumped raisins, and reserve for garnish.

Milk

525g

Heavy cream

25g

6.25%

® Bring to boil, and then remove from heat.

Bergamot zest, thinly sliced

60g

15%

0

® Combine.

130%

Add to hot milk.

® Steep, covered, forlO min, and then stra in. Salt

to taste

Ling cod fillet, skin on

400g

100%

@ Divid e eve nly into four 100 g portions.

Extra-virgin olive oil

BOg

20%

@ Vacuum sea l individuall y, with 20 g of oil each.

® Season in fused milk, and rese rve.

@ Cook so us vide in 41 ' C I 106 ' F bath to core temperature of40 'CI 104 ' F, about 25 min. Salt

to taste

@ Season fish . @ Arrange one portion in each of four bowls. @ Garnish w ith plumped raisins and infused milk.

from page 3·103 If fresh bergamot is unavailable, use bergamot essent ial oil, page 2·310.

ESCOLAR WITH RED WINE BUTTER

ADA PTED FROM ERIC RIPERT

Yields 500 g (fo ur portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yukon Gold potatoes, peel ed and sliced 1 mm I y,, in thick

150 g (one potato)

50%

(i) Deep-fry in 150 ' C I 30 0 ' Foil until crisp and go ld en brown.

Neutral oil

as needed

0

Drain o n paper towels.

® Season chips.

Salt

to taste

Red wine (dry)

100g

33%

® Combine.

Red wine vinegar

45g

15%

® Reduce to 30 g.

Shallot, minced

lOg

3.3%

Tarragon

2g

0.7%

Black peppercorns

1g

0.3%

Thyme

O.Sg

0.17%

Red wine reduction, from above

30g

10%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

O.Sg

0.17%

Unsalted butter

40g

13.3%

® Blend into reduction .

Brown butter

30g

10%

® Strain red wine butter through fine sieve into sma ll saucepa n.

0

0

Reserve.

Blend into reduction until fully em ulsifi ed.

(7.7%)*

see page 4 ·213

Salt

@ Seaso n red wine butter.

to taste

@ Reserve, keeping warm. Escolar fillet Extra-virgin olive oil

300g

100%

@ Cut fillet into four 75 g portions.

BOg

27%

@ Vacuum sea l individu ally with 20 g of o li ve oil each. @ Cook so us vide in 39 ' C I 102' F bath to core temperature of 3B ' C I 100 ' F, about 20 min. @ Season fillets.

Salt

to taste

Shallot, min ced

3g

1%

Tarragon leaves, thinly sliced

lg

0.3%

Black pepper, coarsely ground

to taste

® Drizzle warm red w in e butter around plates.

Sea beans, cut into 5 em I 2 in lengths

4-5 beans

@ Top fis h sli ces with potato crisps and sea beans.

@ Slice, and arra nge in ce nter of serving plates.

from page 3·104

@ Comb in e. @ Garnish center of fish sli ces.

*(%oftotal weight ofred wine reduction)

MEAT AND SE AFOO D

75


TURBOT WITH ONION AND MARROW BROTH

Yields 800 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM DAVID KINCH

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT

White onions, peeled and 1.5 kg halved widthwise

SCALING

PROCEDURE

250 %

CD Place in bottom of deep rectangular baking pan, and cover with foil.

0

Bake in 230

oc l

450 °Foven for1 h.

® Lower oven temperature to 90 oc I 200 °F, and bake for 8 h until most of the juice has rendered and collected in bottom of pan.

0 David Kinch recommends aging very fresh turbot or sole for three to four days to develop flavor and make the flesh more tender. Ask your fishmonger when the fish was caught to make the proper adjustment.

Pass roasted onion juice through fine sieve.

® Measure 250 g. ® Reserve cold . Veal marrow bones, cut into 7.5 em I 3 in lengths

1.5 kg

250 %

0

Bake in 175 oc I 350 °Foven for 30 min to render fat, or rend er another way (see page 3·145).

® Strain through fine sieve, and measure 50 g of rendered marrow fat. Turbot, on bone

600 g

100%

® Cut into four equal portions.

Unsalted butter

40 g

6.5%

@ Vacuum seal individually with 10 g of butter each. @ Cook so us vide in 50 oc I 122 °F bath to core temperature of 49 oc I 120 °F, about 25 min.

Roasted onion juice, from 250 g above

42 %

Propylene glycol alginate 0.2 g (FMC BioPolymer brand)

0.03%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.2 g

@ Blend gums into onion jus until fully dispersed. @ Bring to simmer.

(0.08%)* 0.03%

(0.08%)*

Rendered veal marrow fat, 50 g from above

8.5%

@ Blend into warm onion jus until emulsified.

@ Reserve warm.

Amaranth leaves

lOOg

17%

Olive oil

lOg

1.5%

Salt

to taste

@ Saute leaves until just wilted. @ Season jus, amaranth leaves, and turbot. @ Arrange equally in four shallow bowls.

*(%oftotal weight ofonion jus)

from page 3·105

BLACK COD

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black cod fillet

SOOg

100%

Salt

7g

1.4%

CD Cut fillet into four equal portions. 0 Combine with salt and sugar.

Sugar

3g

0 .6%

® Vacuum seal portions individually, and refrigerate for1 h to cure.

0

Remove cured fish from bags .

® Rinse and pat dry. ® To cook fish with Girardet method, place fish portions in shallow pan and pour wine around to submerge fish, leaving its skin exposed .

Condrieu wine (optional) as needed

0

Place fish under hot broiler and cook until wine reaches 55 and crisped, 6-10 min.

oc 1 131 °F, and skin has darkened

® Remove pan from under broiler and wait for core temperature offish to reach 52 aboutS min.

oc I 125 °F,

® Remove fish from pan and rest for 5 min at room temp. @ Alternatively, vacuum seal fish and cook so us vide in 53 of 52 oc l 125 oF, about 25 min. Condrieu butter

150g

30%

@ Serve with warm butter.

see page25

from page 5·173

76

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

oc I

127 °F bath to core temperature


STEELHEAD TROUT CON FIT WITH FENNEL SALAD

Yields 560 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM TETSUYA WAKUDA

INGREDIENT Steel head tro ut fillet

QUANTITY 400g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Remove sk in. 0

Garlic-infused olive oil see page28

100 g

25%

Thym e essential oil

0.1 g

0.025%

Rosemary esse ntial oil

O.OSg

0 .013%

Divide fillet into four 100 g porti ons, and reserve.

® Whisk together. @) Vacuum seal each fish portion individu all y w ith 15 g of oil. ® Reserve remaining 40 g of garlic oi l for garn ish. @ Refrigerate portions for 2 h to marinate.

0 Fennel b ulb

BOg

Black pepper, finely crush ed

to taste

l emon jui ce

to taste

lemon-sce nted olive o il see page 28

to taste

Salt

to taste

Kombu chips, fin ely chopp ed (store bought)

Bg

Flaky sa lt

to taste

Steelhead trout caviar

30g

20%

Cook so us vide in 43 oc I 109 °F bath to core temperature of42

oc I 10B °F, about 25 min.

® Shave very thin on mandolin e. ® Season fenne l shavings.

2%

@ Place portion offish on each plate. @ Dress each portion w ith fennel sa lad and kombu chips. @ Season w ith flaky sa lt, and drizzle ga rli c oil around plates.

7.5%

@ Garn ish fish eve nl y, and serve.

from page 3·106

SOUS VIDE MONKFISH PAVE

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salt

2Bg

7%

CD Comb in e to make cure.

l emon zest, grated

0.4 g

0 .1%

Monkfish fill et

400g

100%

0

Dust cure eve nly over all surfaces of fillet.

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for 45 min . @) Rinse fill et, and pat dry. Extra virgin olive oil

® Cut cured monkfish into four sq uares of100 g each.

as needed

@ Brush top surface of each sq uare with ol ive o il. Baby zucc hini, sliced 1 mm I Y,G in thick

200g

50%

Extra virgin olive oil

BOg

20%

Spice mix emulsion see page309

100 g

25%

0

l ay zucchini sli ces neatly and in ove rlapp ing fas hi on, on top surface of each sq uare to resemble fish sca les.

® Vacuum sea l each squa re individu ally with 20 g of olive oil. ® Cook m onkfish so us vid e in 4B oc I 119 °F bath to core te mperatu re of 47 oc I 117 °F, abo ut 25 min. @ Pour wa rm em ulsi on arou nd fis h.

from page 5·155

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

77


SOUS VIDE SNAPPER

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sambal badjak (store-bought)

70g

28%

CD Combine. 0 Pass through fine sieve, and reserve .

Kejap man is (store-bought) 15 g

6%

Shaoxingwine

10 g

4%

Snapper, filleted and skinned

250 g

100%

Salt

to taste

0 0

Cut snapper into four 60 g portions. Brush sieved mixture in layer 1 mm I

y,, in thick, onto snapper portions.

® Season. ® Cook snapper portions so us vide in 52 oc I 125 °F bath to core temperature of 51 about 20 min.

Malaysian aromatic oil

25 g

10%

0

oc I 123 °F,

Garnish.

see page 30

Crispy snapper skin

four pieces

see page 5·168

from page 5·169

SOUS VIDE SALMON

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

150g

37.5%

CD Whisk together until sugar is fully dissolved to make brine.

Salt

9g

2.3%

Sugar

5g

1.25%

Salmon fillet (preferably wild king)

400g

100%

Extra virgin olive oil

80g

0 0

Cut fillet into four 100 g portions. Soak in brine for 7 h. For more delicate texture, reduce amount of salt to 5.5 g (1 .35%), and brine for 24 h.

@ Drain. 20%

® Vacuum seal each salmon portion with 30 g of oil. ® Refrigerate for 2 h for brine to permeate salmon.

0 Root vegetable jus, warmed

140g

35%

Cook salmon so us vide in 41 °C I 106 °F bath to core temperature of40 25 min .

oc 1 104 °F, about

® Serve with warm jus.

see page 36

from page 5·162

SKATE PAVE WITH BREAD CRUST SCALING

Yields480 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Skate wings

600g 100% (four 125 g wings)

CD Dust evenly with Act iva, ensuring grain of all wings faces same direction. 0 Stack wings, alternating thick and thin ends, and vacuum seal.

PROCEDURE

Activa RM

as needed

0 0

Refrigerate for at least 6 h for proteins to bond. Remove from bag, and cut into 100 g squares.

® Vacuum seal individually, and refrigerate . White bread, crustless and cut into four slices, 3 mm I Ya in thick

80g

Clarified unsalted butter

as needed

see page 4·213

Salt

13%

® Cut bread slices into squares slightly larger than skate squares, and reserve.

0

Cook skate so us vide in 52 oc 1 126 °F bath to core temperature of 51

to taste

® Sear, bread sides down, in clarified butter until bread is crisp and golden. @ Season.

from page 5·159

78

oc I 124 °F, about 25 min.

® Remove skate portions from bags, pat dry on paper towels, and place slice of bread on each.

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN M ANUAL


VARIATION: Cooking Shellfish Sous Vide CD Select an ingredient and target temperature from the tab le below. 0 Prep as indicated, and then vacuum sea l as in step 2 on page 74. Blanch cockles, clams, mussels, and razor clams by vacuum sea ling them while in the shel l and imm ersing the bag in boiling water for 2 min, and then

shucking. Use a clean bag when vacuum sea ling the shellfish again for cooking. ® Fol low steps 3-5 on page 74.

Best Bets for Cooking Tender Shellfish So us Vide Core temperature for doneness Firm

Tender

Barely cooked

(°C)

(°F)

(min)

Note

See page

133 8

65

149

5

cook in its own juice

36, 5·229

56

133 12

70

158

6

sear quickly after

60 54 50 65 48 60 50 60 54

140 129 122 149 118 140 122 140 129

65 59

149 138

to core

best cooked in butter

to core

best cooked in butter

to core

68 52 65 54

7

80

cook in its own juice 154 7 cook in its own juice 126 7 siphon only 149 5 129 to core 176 4

Ingredient

Prep

(°C)

(°F)

(min)

(oC)

(oF)

cockles or

blanched and shucked*

48

118

10

56

shelled

48

118

15

lobster claws shelled

54 46

129 to core 115 to core

(min)

clams langoustine

cooking

lobster tails

mussels oysters razor clams scallops shrimp

shelled

62 45 shucked blanched and shucked* 45 whole 42 peeled 48 blanched and shucked*

144 10 113 10 113 10 108 to core 118 to core

(prawns)

to core to core

next,

81

to core

10 10 10

below

81 85, 171 next,

81

to core

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

from page 3·103

SOUS VIDE MUSSELS

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Live mussels, rinsed and beards removed

250g

100%

CD Vacuum seal. 0

Cook in boiling water for 3 min.

® Chil l in ice-water bath. @ Shuck, reserving mussels and juice. ® Strain juice, and reserve. Shallots, thinly sliced

70g

28%

® Combin e mussels with reserved juice and remaining ingredients.

Fennel, thinly sliced

50g

20%

0

White wine (dry)

50g

20%

® Cook mussels so us vide in 65 oc / 149 °F bath for12 min.

Pastis (or Ouzo)

5g

2%

® Serve warm with toasted garlic bread .

Preserved lemon zest, minced

2g

1%

0.5g

0.2%

Vacuum seal.

see page 174

Bay leaf from page 5·154

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

79


19TH-CENTURY-STYLE LOBSTER WITH SHERRY AND COCOA

Yields 450 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM OL IVIER ROELLINGER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lobster shells and trimmings

50 g

17%

CD Saute together until golden, about 7 min.

Shallot, minced

50 g

17%

Neutral oil

25 g

B.5%

Shellfish stock

150g

50%

see page6

0

Deglaze pan w ith shells.

® Reduce stock mixture to 90 g, and remove from heat.

Amontillado sherry

75g

25%

Chervil tips

lg

0.3%

@ Wh isk into stock reduction.

Coriander seeds, toasted O.B g

0 .25%

® Cover, and steep forlO min .

Annatto powder

0.5g

0.15%

® Stra in.

Tarragon leaves

0 .3g

0.1%

Vanilla seeds and pulp

0 .2g

0.05%

Unsweetened cocoa powder

0.1 g

0.03%

Unsalted butter, cubed

20g

6 .7%

Lime juice

to taste

Lime zest

to taste to taste

Sherry vinegar

to taste

Lobster tails, shelled

300g (four 75 g tails)

100%

Unsalted butter

BOg

27%

Salt

to taste

Green mango, brunoise from page 5·154

BOg

® Vacuum seal individually with 20 g of butter each. @ Cook so us vide in 51 oc

I 124 oF bath to core temperature of 50 oc l

@ Garnish with mango and sauce.

Yields 280 g (four portions)

INSPIRED BY GRANT ACHATZ

QUANTITY

SCALING

Raspberry gazpacho

300g

100%

see page33

PROCEDURE

CD Disperse gelatin into 75 g of gazpacho. 0

6g

122 °F, about 20 min.

@ Season. 27%

INGREDIENT

160 Bloom gelatin

Warm infused reduction, and blend butter in until fully emu lsified .

® Season sauce, and reserve warm.

Salt

SHRIMP COCKTAIL

0

2%

Bring to boil to fully hydrate, and whisk into remainder of gazpacho base.

® Cast onto nonstick baking sheet, 2 mm I

1/16

in th ick .

@ Freeze completely, and cut into 3.75 em l lY2 in rectangles. Reserve frozen until use . Spot prawn tails, peeled

200g (about B)

67%

® Vacuum seal together, and cook in 60 oc I 140 °F bath for 7 min.

Extra-virgin olive oil

30g

10%

0

Garlic clove, crushed

3g

1%

Tarragon sprigs

2g

0.7%

Celery, peeled, brunoise

6g

2%

® Align two prawns down center of each p late .

Piquillo pepper, brunoise 6g

2%

® Season w ith salt, and garnish with celery, piquillo, o lives, and horseradish as des ired.

Green olives, thinly sliced 6g

2%

@ Lay frozen sheet over prawns and garnish, and allow to thaw and drape over other components of dish, about 5 min, before serving.

Horseradish, fine ly grated to taste Salt from page 3·107)

80

® Cool completely and remove from bag. Reserve refrigerated until use.

to taste

VOLU ME 6 ·K I TC HE N MAN UAL


OYSTER ESCABECHE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Virginica oysters, or similar

12 oysters

Yields 12 pieces

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Shuck and clean oysters well. 0

Vacuum seal oysters, and then poach so us vide in 45 "C I 113 "F bath for 10 min.

® Cool in ice-water bath, and refrigerate. Extra virgin olive oil

45g

100%

@) Combine to make escabeche.

lime juice

24g

53%

Sweet onions, finely minced

12g

27%

® Marinate oysters in esca beche, refrigerated, for 45 min.

White wine vinegar

6g

13%

Bird's eye chil i, thinly sliced

0.8g

1.8%

Bay leaf, julienne

0.2g

0.4%

Salt

to taste

from page 5·206

STEAMED LIVE SPOT PRAWN INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

live spot prawns

12 prawns

SCALING

Yields 12 prawns

PROCEDURE

CD Steam at 90 "C I 195 "Fwith 100% relative humidity for 3 min. Alternat ively, vacuum seal in singl e even layer, and cook so us vide in 45 "C I 114 "F bath for 20 min.

0

Shock in ice-water bath.

® Peel a nd refrigerate until use. from page 5·183

POACHED LOBSTER TAIL

Yields240 g

SCALING

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Lobster tails

240 g (four tails) 100%

Carotene butter or unsalted butter

100 g

42%

see page40

PROCEDURE

CD Vacuum seal together. 0

Cook so us vide in 52 "C 1 125 "F bath to core temperature of 51 "C I 123 "F, abo ut10 min.

® Rest cooked lobster for 2 min, and then sear each side for 10 s to tighten fl es h. @) Cut each ta il into three equal me d a llions, and season.

Salt

to taste

Coconut-lobster, emulsion, warmed

100g

® Season meda llions, and serve with em ulsion. 42 %

see page 319

from page 5·187

M EAT A ND SEA FO OD

81


TOUGH MEATS, POULTRY, AND SHELLFISH Best Bets for Cooking Tough Poultry Pressure-cook Cook so us vide - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - at1 bar /15 psi Tender and juicy (gauge) Ingredient

(°C)

(°F)

(h)

(°C)

chicken leg and thigh

64

147

ll/2

68

62

144

15

chicken wing

62

144

12

72

162

8

duck leg

60

140

48

62

144

18

62

144

12

68

154

8

duck tongue

88

190

5

n/a

guinea hen leg

60

140

4

n/a

154

(h)

(min)

3

15

35

Note

See page 119, 5·113

best cured before cooking

below, 105

25

make sure to debone while still hot

5·81

best marinated in yogurt or other

next

tenderizing solution before cooking pigeon leg

65

149

3

68

154

7

quail leg

60

140

12

68

154

3

turkey leg

62

144

8

65

149

turkey wing

58

136

12

62

144

from page 3·108

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

cure with confit mix 2 h before cooking

5·125, 72

2

inject with 10% by weight of7% brine

3·174

18

brine before cooking

204,103

SOUS VIDE DUCK CONFIT PAVE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields 850 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salt

200g

24.5%

[) Combine.

Allspice berries

lOg

1.2%

0

Thyme

8g

1%

Garlic, thinly sliced

5g

0.6%

Star anise

1.9g

0.23%

Rosemary

lg

0.12%

Bay leaves

0.9g

0.11%

Black pepper

0.8g

0.1%

Coriander seeds

0.8g

0.1%

0 range zest, grated

0.1 g

0.01%

Duck legs, boneless

825g

100%

Grind coarsely to form rub.

® Coat duck legs with rub . @ Cure in refrigerator for 6 h.

Activa RM

8g

1% (7%)*

® Rinse legs, and pat dry on paper towel-lined tray. ® Dust meat side of cured duck legs with Act iva. 0 Pack together, with skin sides facing out, in mold, 10 em by 20 em I 4 in by 8 in, and 5 em I 2 in deep. ® Vacuum seal. ® Cook so us vide in 60 oc I 140 °F bath for 48 h. @ Pan fry duck con fit (or use griddle), skin sides only, until golden and crisp. @ Carve into slices 1.5 em I 3,4 in thick.

from page 5·82

82

*(%oftotal weight ofcured duck legs)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCH EN MANUAL


SOUS VIDE GUINEA HEN

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Live culture Greek-style strained yogurt

50 g

33%

@ Combine.

Garlic, thinly sliced

25 g

16.5%

Guinea hen breasts, boneless and skinless

150 g

100%

Guinea hen thighs, boneless and skinless

150 g

0

Vacuum seal25 g of yogurt mixture with breasts.

® Vacuum seal remaining 25 g of yogurt mixture with thighs. 100%

0

Marinate breasts and thighs, refrigerated, for 5 h.

® Cook thighs so us vide in 62 ·c I 144 "F bath for 5 h. ® Cook breasts sous vide in 55 ·c 1 131 "F bath to core temperature of 54 ·c 1 129 "F, about 30 min. Hold breasts at temperature for12 min to ensure proper pas teurization.

0 Tagine base, warmed

67%

lOOg

Slice guinea hen into pieces 1 em I% in thick.

® Serve with guinea hen.

see page 39

from page 5·137

Best Bets for Cooking Tough Shellfish Pressure-cook at1 bar / 15 psi (gauge)

Cook so us vide Tender braised

Firm

Barely cooked Ingredient

(•c)

(• F)

(min)

(•c)

("F)

(min)

(•c)

(• F)

(h)

(min)

abalone

45

113

15

88

190

8h

100

212

12

35

80

176

3h

85

185

4

25

nl a

octopus

Note

See page next

freezing and thawing before cooking can increase

85

tenderness geoduck

50

122

50

122

snail squid and

30

65

149

7

65

65

149

15

68

154

5

20

10

65

149

5

65

149

4

30

n/ a

the siphon is quite firm; the belly meat is far more tender

15

5·239 apply same temperatures for cooking sea cucumbers

cuttlefish from page 3·108

314

next

(temperatures in bold are those that we prefer) The times and temperatures given for "barely cooked" will not paste urize the food; other timetemperature comb in ations indicated will. See page 1-190 for more food safety information.

SOUS VIDE BRAISED SNAILS

YieldsSSO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White chicken stock

600g

150%

0 0

Burgundy snails (canned), cleaned

400g

100%

Carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

200g

50%

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 180g

45%

Salt

15g

3.75%

Thyme

l.Sg

0.4%

Bay leaf

0.4g

0.1 %

150g

37.5%

see page 11

Montpellier butter (optional)

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 68 •c 1 154 "F bath for 5 h.

® Drain, and reserve juices.

0

Pick out snail meat, and discard vegetables and aromatics.

® Vacuum seal snails with reserved juices, and refrigerate until use. ® To serve, reheat snails in 58 •c I 136 "F bath for about 20 min.

0

Melt in pot over low heat and stir in snails.

see page 298

from page 5·243

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

83


SQUID SICILIAN LIFEGUARD-STYLE

Yields550 g

INSPIRED BY MARIO BATALI

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Garlic, thinly sliced

10 g

5%

CD Co mbin e to make c ure.

Salt

4g

2%

Le mon zest

3g

1.5%

Squid tubes, cut vertically to make sheets and surface membranes peele d

200 g

100%

Extra-virgin olive oil

lOg

5%

Tomato co nfit, pureed

75g

37.5%

0

Spread cure over surface of sq uid sheets.

® Vacuum seal, a nd refrigerate forl5 min.

0

see page 179

Brush off cure, a nd cut sheets into thin strips.

® Vacuum sea l strips with oil, a nd reserve. ® Combine, and heat until just warmed through.

0

Reserve tomato con fit mixture.

Israe li couscous, boiled in 2% brin e until al dente, a nd then coo le d

60g

30%

Pine nuts, toasted

18 g

9%

Dry currants

15g

7.5%

Caper berries, thinly sliced

lO g

5%

Tomato water

150g

75%

® Season tomato water ge nerous ly.

® Cook sq uid st rips so us vide in 65 oc

I 149 oF bath for 4 min.

see page 40

Red wine vinegar

to taste

Salt

to taste

Scallions, whites only, fine julienne

JOg

15%

@ Spoon reserved warm tomato con fit mixture into bottom of bowls.

Chili o il

20g

10%

@ Top with squid strips, and garn ish w ith sca lli ons and ch ili oi l.

see page29

@ Pour seasoned tomato water around each portion .

from page 3·113

ABALONE AND FOIE GRAS SHABU-SHABU WITH YUBA AND ENOKI

Yields 900 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Abalone

120 g

100%

CD Steam at 100 oc I 212 °F forl2 h. Alternative ly, vacuum sea l and cook so us vide in 90 oc I 194 °F bath fo rl 6 h.

0 Raw foie gras

120 g

100%

Reserve.

® Cut into sl ices 3 mm I

0

Ya in thick.

Refrigerate.

120g

100%

Enoki mushroom

60g

50%

® Cut from stem into individual mushrooms.

Pea vines

BOg

66.6%

0

250%

® Sweat onio ns unti l very tender, about 30 min .

Soy yuba

® Measure and reserve.

see page249

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 300 g Re nd e red foie gras fat

70 g

58%

Hon dashi

350 g

292 %

see page 15

Select tender leaves and tips, and refrigerate.

® Deglaze o ni ons, and simmer for 30 min to make shabu shabu broth. @ Strain. @ Centrifuge at 27,500g for 1 h. @ Cool a nd refrigerate.

Soy sauce

120g

100%

@ Combine to make tosazu (dipp ing sauce).

Mirin

50g

41. 7%

@ Refrigerate.

Agave syrup

24g

20%

Ri ce vinegar

20g

17%

Foie gras fat or unsalted butter

BOg

66.7%

@ Bring broth to boi l, and maintain at simmer in shabu shabu pot over portable gas or e lectric stove. @ Warm tosazu (dipping sa uce), and blend in fo ie gras fat to form loose e mulsi o n. ® Serve emu lsion on sid e, and invite guests to dip raw ingred ients into warm broth for desired doneness and then briefly into tosazu. ® Broth is shared among diners after raw ingredients have been eaten.

from page 5·203

84

VO LUM E 6 ·KITC HE N MAN UAL


RAZOR CLAM WITH SAUCE VERTE

INSPIRED BY AL I CE WATERS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ramp bulbs (or scallion whites)

lOOg

20%

CD Vacuum seal.

0

Yields 550 g (eight portions)

Cook in boiling water until tender, about 5 min.

® Coo l in so us vide bag placed in ice-water bath.

0

Drain and reserve.

Ramp gree ns (or scallion greens)

150g

30%

® Blanch greens indi vidua lly in boiling water until te nd e r.

Chives

5g

1%

0

Chervi l

4g

0.8% 0.7%

® Shock in ice water.

Basil

3.5 g

Mint

2 .2g

0.4%

Caper berries

28g

5.5%

Olive oil

25g

5%

Dijon mustard

lOg

2%

White wine vinegar

lO g

2%

Salt

to taste

Marcon a a lm o nds, toasted

so g

10%

Pat dry, a nd reserve.

® Puree with bu lbs and blanched greens unt il smooth, to make sauce verte.

® Season sauce verte, and reserve in refrigerator. @ Pul se in food processor to crumb-size particles, and reserve.

Razor clams

SOOg

100%

@ Vacuum sea l together.

White wine (dry)

40g

8%

@ Steam or boil at 100 oc

Borage blossoms (option al)

as needed

I 212 oFfor 3 min .

@ Chill, in bag, in ice-water bath. @ Remove from bag, and strain clam cook ing juices through fine sieve lined with coffee filter, reservingjuices . @ Remove clams fro m she ll s. @ Clean meat, and vacuum sea l w ith reserved juices. @ Cook sous vide in 60 oc l 140 °F bath for 10 min . @ Chi ll so us vide bag in ice-wate r bath . @ To serve, drain, reserving clams and juice separately. @ Sli ce clams thinly. ® W hi sk some reserved jui ce into sa uce verte, to taste. @ Garn ish clams w ith sauce verte and a lm ond crumbs.

from page 3·112

SOUS VIDE OCTOPUS

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Octopus legs

SOOg (eight legs)

100%

CD Blanch for 30 s to remove slime. 0 Coo l in ice-water bath. ® Vacuum sea l individually.

0

Coo k so us vide in 85 oc

I 185 °F bath for 4 h.

® Coo l in bag, in ice-water bath. ® Peel sk in off four octopus legs, leaving sk in s on remaining fo ur legs. Extra virgin ol ive oi l

50g

10%

0

Vacuum sea l peeled octopus legs with 25 g of o il.

® Reserve remaining 25 g of oil. Salt

to taste

® Warm pee led octopus in bag, in 60 °Ci l40 °F bath, forl5 min. @ Brush reserved o il o nto skins of unpeeled octopus legs. @ Grill unpeeled octopus legs on gridd le or over coals until deeply charred, about 2 min. Season a ll legs w ith sa lt.

from page 5·194

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

85


COOKING TOUGH CUTS CD Se lect an ingredient and target temperature from the table below.

0

0

® Serve immediately, or chil l, and then refrigerate until needed. Reheat in a bath set to the cooking temperature.

If cooking so us vide, set a water bath to the temperature indicated for the desired texture. If pressure cooking, set the gauge pressure to 1 bar I 15 psi, and cook for the time indicated, and then skip to step 5.

® Vacuum sea l the food together with any flavorings, fats, or liquids.

Cook so us vide for the time indicated.

® Optionally, sear the food . See see page 2·270 for searing methods.

0

Season as des ired.

Best Bets for Cooking Tough Cuts Pressurek t1b 1 Cook so us vide ar --------------------------------------------------- - coo a 15 psi (gauge) Very flaky Firm, steak-like Tender, yielding Tender, flaky (h)

remove connective tissue

145 72

70

158

48 48 36 36 48 48 5 24

88

190 5

88 88

190 7 190 6

70 88 85

158 24 190 5 185 5

70 60 40

70

158 18

88

190 8

50

for firm texture, cure with pink brine before cooking

5·101

140 72

65

149 36

84

183

4

60

many individual muscles can be treated like tender cuts

89

35

122 88 169

(• F)

beef cheek

58 56

136 133

72 72

62 58

beef brisket

58

136

72

beef flatiron

52

flank steak

(•c)

(• F)

144 72 136 72

68 60

60

140 72

63

126 24

55

131

50 50

122 3 122 2

55 55

n/ a

58 56

136 48 133 48

60 62 62

62 55 62 131 12 62 131 12 55 140 100 65 144 48 85 144 48 65

pork belly

60

140 72

65

149 36

pork shoulder or fresh ham

54

129

48

60

lamb shoulder

60 50

12

144 131 144 144 131 149 185 149

72

pork cheek, fat cap on

n/a

65

149 38

68

154

48

85

185 5

pork ribs

n/a

60

140 48

65

149

48

pork trotter and hock

n/ a

n/ a

75 85

167 7 185 12

120

suckling pig shoulder and leg

n/ a

60

140 36

65

149 24

80

176

60

rabbit shoulder

n/ a

60

140 4

66

151

1

85

185 1

129 to core 62

144 5

68

154

24

85

185

veal breast

veal shank from page 3·1 09

86

54

n/ a

See page

176 12 190 7

(•c)

lamb shank

Note

80 88

(h)

oxtail

(min)

154 36 140 72

(• F)

beef hanger steak

(h)

(• F)

(•C)

beef short rib, bone in

(h)

(•c)

Ingredient

n/a

8

texture is best when carved just before serving

5·55 5·42

use the fattier, thick end of the brisket called the nose

88

remove central muscle sheath, then apply Activa

5-49

coat meat with 5.0% olive oil and 0.1% thyme to prevent stronger lamb notes from developing

5·49 5·89 88

hotter-than-core cooking may be required for younge r an im als

6

75

for steak-l ike texture, use individual breast muscles; remove fat and sinew

3·216

62 144 72 85 185 8 140 72 (temperatures in bold are those that we prefer)

90

cook veal shanks whole

5·60

60

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SUCKLING PIG SHOULDER WITH SHALLOT AND ORANGE SAUCE

Yields 750 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM JOAN ROCA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Suckling pig shoulders

500g (one shoulder)

100%

CD Vacuum seal individually. 0 Cook so us vide in 65 ' C I 149 ' F bath for 24 h.

12%

Extra-virgin olive oil

60g

Sugar

20g

4%

0

Brown pork stock

150g

30%

® Deglaze caramel.

Orange juice, freshly squeezed and strained

150g

30%

Shallots, peeled and halved

400g (about eight small ha lves)

80%

Red wine vinegar

lOg

2%

Cloves, finely ground

to taste

see page 6

Cook in small pot until dark caramel forms .

® Reduce to 150 g.

Salt

to taste

Frying oil

as needed

® Add to orange sauce.

0

Simmer until tender, about 30 min .

® Season orange sauce and shallots.

® De bone warm pork shoulders, leaving skins on and keeping structures intact. @ Fry, skin side down only, in thin film of oil, until skin is crisp, about 4 min.

Elderflowers

eight small tufts

@ Cut each shoulder in half. @ Distribute among four plates. @ Garnish with shallots, orange sauce, and elderflower tufts.

Flaky sea salt from page 3·110)

to taste

@ Season pork shoulder and shallots.

CRISPY DUCK TONGUES

Yields 65 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

250g

167%

CD Vacuum seal. 0 Cook so us vide in 88 ' C 1 190 ' F bath for 5 h. 0 Remove from bag, and pull out central bone from each tongue while warm .

Duck tongues

150 g

100%

Salt

5g

3%

Frying oil

as needed

® Dehydrate tongues in 50 ' C 1 120 ' Foven until completely dry, about 2 h. ® Heat oil for duck tongues to 205 ' C I 400 ' F. ® Deep-fry duck tongues until crispy and puffed, about 1 min.

0

Drain on paper towels, and season with salt.

from page 5·84

BEEF SHANK RILLETTE

Yields 365 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef shank, boneless

200g

100%

White beef stock, cold

125 g

62.5%

CD Cook so us vide in 85 ' C I 185 ' F bath for 5 h. 0 Cool quickly in ice-water bath. Shred meat. 0 Disperse agar and gelatin into stock.

160 Bloom gelatin

1.5g

0.75%

Agar

1.15g

see page 6

® Boil for 3 min to fully hydrate. (7.2%)*

0 .58%

® Refrigerate until firmly set. ® Puree until fluid.

(0.7%)*

Rendered beef suet

40g

20%

0

Heat fat until liquid is warm, but not hot.

® Blend into stock fluid gel until fully emulsified.

® Fold in shredded meat . Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 5·52

@ Season meat mixture generously, and vacuum seal. @ Reheat in 50 ' C I 122 ' F bath for 20 min, or refrigerate until use .

*(%oftotal weightofbeefstock and beefsuet)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

87


SOUS VIDE PORK BELLY

Yields 1.6 kg

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole pork belly, on bone 2.4 kg

100%

CD Inject brine in amount equal to 10% of pork belly weight.

Pink brine

10%

0

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY 480g

see page lOl

Vacuum sea l in remaining brine for 3d.

® Drain brine from bag, and reseal pork belly.

0

Refrigerate for 2 d before cooking to diffuse sa lt through meat.

® Remove meat from bag, and drain. Water

800g

33%

® Vacuum sea l pork belly with water.

0

Cook so us vide in 62 •c I 144 ' F bath for 40 h.

® Chill in ice-water bath until firm. ® Remove belly from bag, and discard gell ed cooking juices. @ Carve belly from ribs, and remove skin. Discard bon es and skin. @ Portion belly in to square blocks of 150 g each. @ Vacuum seal each portion individual ly.

@ Refrigerate . Frying oil

@ To serve, reheat bagged pork belly portions in 62 •c I 144 ' F bath, abo ut 15 min.

as needed

@ Remove pork be ll y portions from bag, and sear, fat side on ly, until go ld en, about 2 min. from page 5·102

BRAISED LAMB SHOULDER

Yieldssoog

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lamb shoulder, boneless SOOg

100%

Brown lamb stock

100g

20%

CD Vacuum seal. 0 Cook so us vide in 56 •c I 133 ' F bath for 48 h.

Rendered duck fat

50g

10%

Garlic, thinly sliced

9g

1.8%

Thyme

0.4g

0.08%

Salt

to taste

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

see page 6

® Slice or shred as desired, or coo l bagged shoulder in ice-water bath and refrigerate until use.

0

Season.

from page 5·83

BEEF BRISKET

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef brisket

700g

100%

CD Smoke at 65 •c I 149 ' F with 65% relative humidity (wet-bulb temperature should be 55 •c I 131 ' F) for 7 h.

0

Vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 63 •c I 146 ' F bath for 72 h.

0

Trim off extra fat.

® Slice meat to serve. Kansas City barbecue sauce

100g

14%

® Brush on sli ced meat.

see page220

from page 5·79

PORK RIBS

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork spare ribs, membrane removed

1.2 kg

100%

CD Smoke at 65 ' CI149 ' F with 60% relative humidity (wet-bulb temperature 55 ' C I 131 ' F) for7 h. 0

Vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 60 •c I 140 ' F bath for 48 h. Dry rub, from above

30g

2.5%

0

Rub onto ribs just before serv ing.

® Flash with blowtorch, or brown lightly if desired.

from page 5·78

88

VO LU ME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


PULLED PORK SHOULDER

Yields500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork sho uld er, skin on, boneless

300g

100%

CD Smoke at 65 'C 1 149 ' Fw ith 60% relative humidi ty (wet-bu lb temperature at 55 'CI 131 ' F) for 7 h.

0

Vacuum sea l.

® Cook so us vide in 65 ' C I 150 ' F bath for 72 h.

0 Barbecue sauce

300g

100%

Pull meat apart with two forks, a nd discard pieces offat.

® Mix into p ull ed meat.

see page 4·49

from page 5·78

BRAISED VEAL FORESHANK INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Veal fores ha nk

1 kg (o ne w ho le) 100%

Water

125 g

12.5%

Yields500 g

PROCEDURE

CD Vacuum sea l togethe r. 0

Coo k so us vid e in 62 ' C I 144 ' F bath for 72 h.

® Remove foreshank fro m bag, and coo l in ice-wate r bath for 30 min .

0

Div ide foreshank into four e qual portions, rese rving cook ing jui ces and bones separate ly.

® Vacuum sea l meat portions indi vidu a lly, and refrige rate. ® Refri gerate cooki ng jui ces for making glaze, and reserve bones for making custa rd. Squash glaze

100 g

12.5%

see page 39

Flaky sea sa lt

0 Reheat meat portions in 62 ' C I 144 ' F bath for 25 min. ® Brush with glaze, a nd seaso n w ith sea sa lt.

to taste

from page 5·62

AMERICAN WAGYU BEEF CHEEK

vields450g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Wagyu beef cheeks, trimmed of sinew a nd silve rsk in

500g

100%

CD Vacuum sea l together. 0 Coo k so us vid e in 62 ' C I 144 ' F bath for 72 h.

Goulash broth,

75 g

15%

Neutral o il

25 g

5%

Goulash broth,

400 g

80%

see page19

see page 19

® Reduce to 75 g to make glaze, and reserve warm.

0

Remove beef cheeks from bag a nd cut into sli ces 1 em I

V2 in th ick.

® Brush sli ces with wa rm glaze . Flaky sa lt

® Season a nd serve.

to taste

fro m page 5·57

RARE FLATIRON STEAK

Yi e lds 500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Flatiron stea k

500g

100%

Activa RM or GS

as needed

PROCEDURE

CD Butterfly steak to remove tendon . 0

Dust eac h piece evenly with thin layer of Act iva.

® Fo ld steak closed.

0

Vacuum seal together.

® Refrigerate for at least 6 h to e nsure bo nding. ® Cook so us vid e in 55 ' C I 131 ' F bath for12 h. Ne utra l oil

as needed

Salt

to taste

0

Sear stea k until just go ld en, abo ut 30 s. Slice into portions 1 em I% in thi ck, a nd season with sa lt.

from page 5·50

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

89


BRAISED SHORT RIBS

Yields 1.2 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Short ribs, four-bone plate with ribs 10-12.5 em I 4-5 in long

3 kg

100%

G) Remove fat cap and silversk in coverin g ribs.

White beef stock

225 g

0

Vacuum sea l ribs with beef stock.

® Cook so us vide at 60 oc I 140 °F, for 72 h. 7.5%

see page 6

@ Chill vacuum-sealed ribs quickly in ice-wate r bath. ® Remove ribs from bag, strain juices, and reserve. ® Pee l meat from bones, and set on plates.

0

Trim gristle from meat, and cut meat into even block-shaped portions (abo ut 10 blocks).

® Vacuum sea l, and re heat braised short ribs in 60 oc I 140 oF bath for 30 min. Salt

® Remove short ribs from bags, and flash briefly wit h blowtorch to sear surface until go ld en, about 30 s.

to taste

@ Season. from page 5-44

SOUS VIDE VEAL TONGUE

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Veal tongues

SSOg

100%

G) Blanch for 2 min.

Water

100g

18%

® Combine with tongues, and vacuum seal.

Cider vinegar

0

Drain and coo l.

45g

8%

@ Cook so us vide in 70 oc I 158 °F bath for 24 h.

Carrot, peeled and thinly 20g sliced

4%

® Remove tongues and cooking liquid from bag, reserving both.

lOg

2%

0

Sweet onion, thinly sliced lOg

2%

® Strain.

Salt

1.3%

Garlic, thinly sliced

7g

® Peel tongues and sli ce thinly lengthwise . Reduce cooking liquid until sy rupy, about 10 min.

® Add sliced tongues to pan and warm through . @ Season with additional sa lt to taste.

from page 5·50

BEEF SHORT RIBS

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef short ribs

1.2 kg

100%

G) Smoke at 65 oc

0

I 149 °F with 65% relative humidity (wet-bu lb temperature 55 oc 1 131 °F) for 7 h.

Vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 60 oc 1 140 °F bath for 72 h. @ Slide bones out while meat is warm. ® Slice meat to serve. East Texas barbecue sauce, from above

lOOg

8%

® Brush on sliced meat.

from page 5·79

GLAZED OXTAIL INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Oxtail, cut between joints 300 g Brown beef jus see page 34

75 g

Yields 325g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

G) Vacuum seal.

25%

0

Cook so us vide in 60 oc

I 140 oF bath for 100 h.

® Remove oxtail and juices from bag. @ Dislodge pi eces of meat from bones and gristle, and refrigerate meat. ® Strain cooking juices. ® Reduce juice to thick glaze. Glaze will thin when combined with oxtail pieces.

0

Cool glaze.

® Vacuum seal oxtail pieces with glaze . ® Reh eat in 50 oc

I 122 °F bath for 20 min, or refrigerate until use.

from page 5·50

90

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAl


HOW TO Pressure-Cook Tough Cuts for Quick Results CD Add 0 .5-1 em I Y. - Y2 in of water to the pressure cooker. 0 Add the meat and any season ings . ® Heat to a gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi, a nd then lower heat slowl y until

® Cook for 20 min to make the meat firm but tender; for as long as 60 min to make it flaky. Whole muscles or large portions will take longer to cook. ® Coo l the pressure cooker under co ld running water.

0

hissing steam no longer leaves the pot. @ Vent steam for1-2 min.

Lift the meat from the jus. Reduce the cookingjui ces to serve alongside the meat or for later use.

SOUS VIDE AND PRESSURE-COOKED VEAL BREAST WITH BULBOUS VEGETABLES

Yields1 kg

INSPIRED BY GRAY KUNZ INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Veal breast, sinew and excess fat trimmed

1 kg

100%

CD Rub veal with oil, and sear both sides in nonstick pan until golden .

Neutral oil

as needed

0

White wine (dry)

475g

47.5%

Apple cider (fresh)

300g

30%

White peppercorns, crushed

9g

0.9%

Bay leaf

0.2g

0 .02%

® Drain vea l, and reserve in warm place with 50 g of cooking liquid.

Clove

0.2g

0.02%

® Reserve rema inin g cooking liquid for vegetab les.

Deglaze, and then transfer to pressure cooker.

® Add to veal-wine mixture. @ Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for 1Y. h.

Cumin seeds

0.1g

0.01%

Veal breast, central muscle, fat a nd sinew removed

500g

50%

0

47.5%

® Cook vegetables in oil in bottom of pressure cooker until go ld en.

Meanwhile, cook so us vide in 55 °CI 131 °F bath to core temperature of 54 °CI 129 °F, about 1y, h.

® Allow to rest forlO min at room temperature.

White cabbage, quartered 475 g Sweet onions, quartered

275 g

27.5%

@ Deglaze with reserved cooking liquid .

Leeks, greens removed and halved

175 g

17.5%

@ Pressure-cook for 7 min.

Shallots, skin on

135 g

13.5%

@ Peel sk ins from cooked vegetables, and reserve warm.

Garlic cloves, with skin

65g

6.5%

Vegetable oil

as needed

Unsalted butter

20 g

@ Remove vegetables, and stra in cook in g liquid to form sauce.

Neutral oil

as needed

Black pepper, finely ground

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Reduce strained sauce to glaze. @ Season, and reserve warm.

2%

@ Briefly heat cooked vegetables with butter until gla zed, about 2 min. @ Brown both pieces of veal over high heat for 30 son each side. @ Season meat and vegetables. @ Slice meats as desired, and divide among plates. @ Pour sauce around.

from page 3·111

ME AT AND SE AFOO D

91


PRESSURE-COOKED CARNITAS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Pork shoulder, boneless, 1 kg cut into 2 ern I :y.l in cubes

Yields 800 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Remove all tendons and sinew. 0

Fi ll pressure cooker with 6 mm I

Y..

in water. Add meat.

® Bring to pressure. When steam emerges, depress valve stern for 2 m in to vent fully.

0

Cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 20 min, for tender but firm texture; or 40 min, for flaky texture. Allow pressure cookerto cool forlO min before lifting rneatfrorn cook ingjuices.

® Coarsely shred meat, if desired; set aside. Pork cookingjuices, from 200g above

20 %

® Reduce cooking juices until slightly syrupy.

Achiote paste

15g

1.5%

0

Ancho chili powder

5g

0 .5%

Chipotle chili powder

5g

0.5%

Neutral frying oil

as needed

Combine, and stir into reduced juices to make sauce.

® Deep-fry shredded meat in 180 oc I 355 °Foil until golden brown, about 1 min . ® Remove three-quarters of meat, straining out oil. Reserve . @ Continue to fry remaining meat until very dark and crisp, about 5 min. @ Combine all meat with sauce.

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Season.

from page 3·114

MICROWAVED TILAPIA WITH SCALLIONS AND GINGER ADAPTED INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Til apia, cleaned and gutted

800g (one whole)

100%

CD Combine on microwave-safe plate.

Scallion whites, thinly sliced

150 g

19%

Shaoxing rice wine

5g

0 .6%

Ginger, peeled and thinly sliced

2.5 g

0 .3%

Scallion greens, julienne

lOg

1.3%

Ginger, peeled and julienne

3g

0.38%

Cilantro leaves

lg

0 .1%

Peanut oil

50g

6.3%

0

25g

3%

Toasted sesame oil

2g

0.25%

Cover tightly w ith plastic wrap.

® Microwave at 600 W for 6 min.

0

Remove scallions and ginger.

® Mound on top of cooked fish to garnish.

® Heat to 190 °C I 375 °F.

0 Soy sauce

FROM MRS. ZH

Drizz le hot oil over garnished fish.

® Combine. ® Pour over fish evenly. @ Lift fillets from bones, and serve with sauce and garnish.

from page 3·115

92

VO LUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

u

Yields550 g


HOW TO Puff the Skin on a Pork Roast 0 0

Remove the pork skin from the roast by cutting close to the meat. Cook the pork sk in. Vacuum seal skin w ith water, and cook so us vide in a 95 •c I 203 •F bath for12 h or pressure-cook for 60 min at a gauge pressure of1.4 bar I 20.3 psi to comp lete the transition to a gelatin.

® Lay the sk in flat w ith the side toward the meat facing up, and gently scrape away the fat.

0

® Deep-fry the roast in 200 •c I 390 •F oi l. Cook just long enough for the crumbl ed pork skin to puff into a golden, cr ispy crust, abo ut 30 s.

@ Season, sli ce, and serve the meat.

Dehydrate the prepared skin on a baking sheet in a 115 •c I 240 • F oven until the skin becomes rigid .

® Use a food processor to chop the dried sk in into sma ll pieces. Use sieves to remove fragments much larger or sma ll er than 3 mm I Ys in across. Store the crumbled skin in an airtight conta in er with a sil ica gel desiccant. Use the too-big or too-small pieces for other purposes . ® Truss the meat, and cook it. Bind the frenched and trimm ed pork loin with acetate to form a tight cylind er. Cook the roast so us vide to the preferred doneness; we recommend a core temperature of60 •cl 140 • F.

0

@ Roll the roast in the crumbl ed, dried sk in to form an even coat ing. Allow 1 min before frying to ensure the sk in pieces stay adhered to surface of meat during fry ing.

Plunge the cooked meat in liquid nitrogen for 30 s to freeze a th in surface layer (option al). You ca n also ladle nitrogen over the meat. Th is step helps prevent the pork fl es h from overcooking in the fryer.

Yields 800 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Pork skin, from roast

1 kg

100%

Water

250g

25%

Rack of pork, skinless, frenched

1 four-rib roast

Ultra-Sperse M (or tapioca starch)

as needed

Water

100 g

10%

® Dip the meat in warm water for 3 s. The surface wi ll become tacky.

Methocel K100M (Dow brand)

0.5g

0.05%

® Coat the meat with a pregelatinized starch such as Ultrasperse M. Shake off any excess.

Fry ing oil

as needed

Salt

to taste

@ Disperse the Methocel into boiling water. Coo l Methocel so lution completely, and whip to stiff peaks. Dip the roast in foam to even ly coat entire surface. For more on making this foam, see page 5·17.

from page 3·1 26 This approach works best for meats with a thick skin that otherwise would be too hard to eat.

ULTRACRISP CHICKEN CROWN

Yields500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole chicken sk in, removed in one piece

200 g

20%

0

Lay flat, feather side down, on silicone mat.

Salt

2g

0.2%

0

Dust evenly over skin .

® Refrigerate uncovered for 12 h to dehydrate. Chicken sk in pieces, chopped

250 g

25%

0

Activa GS

5g

0.5 %

® Process three times; pack firmly and freeze thoroughly after each cycle.

Salt

2.5 g

0.25%

® Alternatively, puree in food processor, and pass through fine sieve.

0 Skin, from above

280g

28%

Activa GS

3g

0.3 %

Chicken crown

1 kg

100%

Combine, pack tightly into Pacojet, and freeze.

Spread onto dehydrated chicke n skin in even layer 2.5 mm I

Ys in th ick.

® Dust Activa GS aro und perimeter of skin . ® Place sk in over chi cken crown, and tuck in all edges. Vacuum sea l. @ Refrigerate for 30 min to ensure all air pockets between skin and meat are removed. @ Refrigerate uncovered for at least 5 h before assemb ly.

Liquid nit rogen

as needed

Neutral frying oil

as needed

® Cook chicken crown in convection oven at 65 •c I 149 •F to core temperature of 60 •c 140 • F, about 40 min. ® Lower temperature to 60 · c @ Heat oil to 200 · c

I

I

I

140 °F, and hold for 1 h.

390 • F.

@ Dip cooked chi cken crown in liquid nitrogen for 30 s, preferably w ith w ire hook. @ Deep-fry in hot oil for 45 s. @ Repeat dipping in liquid nitrogen and deep-frying until crown is golden and very crispy, about three cycles. Salt

to taste

@ Carve chicken from crown, and season w ith sa lt.

from page 3·134

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

93


PORK LOIN ROAST

Yields 900 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Kosher sa lt

250g

17%

0

Mix together thoroughly.

Pa in d'epices powder see page 51

lOOg

7%

Rack of pork loin (first eight ribs from shoulder) with fat cap and skin

1.5 kg

100%

0

Roll pork loin in sp iced sa lt w ithout letting salt touch ends of loin.

Gelatinized pork skin, dried and finely minced see page 93

300 g

20 %

Crisp Coat UC (National Starch brand)

60 g

4%

Water

200g

13%

® Bring water to simmer, and mix in methylcellulose with hand blender.

Methocel E4M (Dow brand)

Sg

0 .3%

0

® Wrap in plastic wrap, and cure in refrigerator for 48 h.

0

Remove skin and fat, and refrigerate.

® Measure and reserve individually.

Ho ld at simmer for 2 min while blending contin uou sly.

® Cool, and vacuum sea l.

Liquid nitrogen (optional) as needed

® Refrigerate for12 h to allow methylcellu lose to hydrate. @ Cook pork loin so us vide in 61 oc / 142 °F bath to core temperature of 60 oc / 140 °F, about 1Yz h; longer for full pork lo in. @ Whip methylcellulose solution with elect ric whisk or mixer until st iff peaks form. @ Transfer so lution to conta in er large eno ugh to accommodate whole pork loin. @ D ip cooked pork loin in liquid nitrogen for 30 s, and th en in warm water for 5 s. (This step is opt ion al. See page 3·126.) @ Sift thin layer of starch over pork loin, and shake off excess. @ Ro ll meat in whipped methylcellulose, and then in minced pork skin.

Frying oi l

@ Deep-fry in 185 oc / 365 oF oil until just puffed and gold en, about 30 s.

as needed

@ Rest meat for 3 m in. @ Slice roast between each bone and serve. from page 5·23

PUFFED COCKSCOMB INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

YieldslOO g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0 0

Cockscombs

lOOg

100%

White chicken stock see page 11

SOg

50%

Vacuum seal together. Cook in 85 oc / 185 °F bath for 2 h to gelatin ize skins.

® Cool.

0

Remove from bag.

® Dehydrate at 50 oc / 120 °F unti l cockscombs are half the ir original weight, about 2 h. Frying oil

as needed

Salt

to taste

® Deep-fry cockscombs in 190 oc / 375 °F oil until sl ightly puffed, very crispy, and no longer bubbling, aboutS min.

0

Drain on paper towels.

® Season.

from page 3·133

94

VO LUME 6 ·K I TCHEN MANUAL


MONKFISH WITH CONSTRUCTED SKIN

ADAPTED FROM ANDON I LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cod skins, washed and desalted

1 kg

250%

0 0

Yields420 g

Cover with water, and bring to boil. Simmer until reduced to one-quarter of original volume.

® Strain.

0

Reduce broth by half, until it is very thick.

® Measure 150 g of reduction, and reserve. Water

1.5 kg

375%

® Hydrate gelatin in cold water for 5 min.

160 Bloom gelatin

2g

0.5%

0

Squeeze out excess moisture in gelatin, and then mix into warm reduction until fully dissolved.

® Spread on nonstick surface in layer1 mm I

1\2 in thick.

® Dry at room temperature until dry film has formed, about 1 d. Vodka

2.5 g

0.63%

Edible silver powder

0.5g

0.13%

@) Mix together.

@ Paint onto film with brush. @ Dry film at room temperature for 3 h. ® Cut into 5 em I 2 in squares. @ Reserve in airtight conta in er.

Monkfish fillet, trimmed and cut into 5 em I 2 in cubes

400g

100%

@ Vacuum sea l together. @ Cook so us vide in 48 oc I 118 °F bath to core temperature of 47 oc I 117 °F, about 20 min.

Extra-virgin olive oil

30 g

7.5%

Salt

15g

4%

@ Season monkfish. @ Lay piece of film "s kin " on top of each monkfish cube.

from page 3·132

PUFFED SALMON SKIN PILLOWS

Yields 35 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salmon skin (one intact piece)

25g

100%

0 0

Vacuum sea l. Cook so us vide in 85

oc I 185 °F bath for 3 h.

® Remove from bag to cool.

0 ActivaGS Water, 10-25 oc I 50-77 °F

Trim, and cut into at least 24 squares, each measuring 3.5 em llV2 in.

5g

20%

® Whisk together.

5g

20%

® Brush mixture on 3 mm I

0

Ys in edge of each sa lmon skin square.

Sandwich two squares together to seal.

® Repeat to make total of at least 12 sandwiched squares. ® Vacuum seal without overlapping. @) Refrigerate for at least 6 h. Frying oil

as needed

@ Deep-fry salmon sk in pillows in 175 oc I 350 •Fo il until gold en and puffed, about 8 min.

Salt

to taste

@ Drain, and season with salt.

from page 5·163

PUFFED CHICKEN FEET

Yields 80 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken feet

500g

100%

Water

100g

20%

0 0

Salt

2g

0.4%

® Drain.

0

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 90 °CI 194 °F bath for12 h.

Remove bones using scalpel and tweezers.

® Dehydrate atll5 oc I 240 °F for 3 h. Frying oil

as needed

® Deep-fry chicken feet in 190 •c I 375 °F oil until puffed, 30-45 s.

0

Puffed chicken feet are the chicken equiva lent of a puffed pork skin or puffed snack (see page 342). Feet work well because of their high gelatin content.

Drain on paper towels.

from page 3·133

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

95


OFFAL SOUS VIDE CD Pre pare the meat. Many organ meats require an ini tial preparati on step,

Estim ated coo kin g tim es are give n in so me cases; in oth ers, "to co re" indicates that co ok ing should co ntinue un t il th e co re temp erature of t he fo od reaches th e reco mm en ded temperature.

such as bl anchin g or soa king in water or a marinade.

0

Vac uum sea l. M ost offal recip es require no oth er in gredients.

@) Sea r (optional).

® Cook so us vid e to th e desired doneness. Th e tabl es below list recommended temp eratures; t hose printed in bold are our favori tes .

® Chill and set (fo r meat serve d co ld).

Best Bets for Cooking Tough Offal Sous Vide Braised texture

Tend er, juicy

See page

(' C)

(' F)

(h)

(' C)

(' F)

(h)

beef and veal tongue

68

154

12

67

153

48

duck tongue

70

158

8

88

190

5

rem ove ce ntral bon e w hil e still ho t

87

cure b efo re cookin g

5·125

bl anch and p ee l b efo re coo kin g

94

chicken gizzard

n/a

60

140

12

veal heart

n/ a

80

176

5

honeycomb tripe

n/ a

88

190

2

n/ a

85

185

2

cockscomb

Note

5·49

(times in bold are those we prefer)

from page 3·146

Best Bets for Cooking Tender Organ Meats Sous Vide Medium rare

duck foie gra s

Medium

Pink

(' C)

(' F)

(h)

(' C)

(' F)

(h)

(' C)

(' F)

(h)

so

122

to co re*

54

129

to core*

60

140

to core*

56

133

to core*

Note

See page b elo w, 9 8, 99

poultry liver

52

126

to co re*

56

133

to core*

60

140

to co re*

veal liver

58

136

to co re*

62

144

to core*

65

149

to core*

soak in milk o r water fo r at leas t 8 h

n/ a

55

131

2

65

149

1

soak in wat er for at least 5 h b efo re

n/ a

60

140

1

67

153

1

b efo re se rvin g lamb

se rv in g

sweetbread s veal

next p age, 99, 100

sweetbread s cock's kidney

n/ a

70

158

p an fr y bri efl y af te r coo kin g for b est

n/ a

20min

98

tex ture kidn ey

n/ a

56

133

to core*

60

140

p o rk kidn ey is id eal b ecause it is

1

often mild er t astin g th an o th er t y p es

(mammal)

o f kidn eys fro m page 3·146

*( If cooked just to these core temperatures, these m eats may n ot m eetf ood safety g uidelines. To pasteurize, hold at the cooking temperature fo r the p eriod oftime g iven by the table on page 1·184. Tim es in bold are those we prefer.)

SOUS VIDE FOIE GRAS

Yi elds400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCA LING

PROCEDURE

Flas h-froze n fo ie gras, pres li ced, 2.5 em I 1 in

400g (four 100 g portions)

10 0%

CD Vacuum sea l portions in dividuall y. 0 Reserve frozen un til ready to serve.

Flaky salt

to tas te

Duck broth wi th va nilla and bay leaf, warmed

100 g

® Cook foie gras so us vide directly from freeze r at 53 ' C I 127 ' Fto core tempe rature of 52 ' CI 126 ' F, about 35 min. @) Cut each portion into slices 1 em I ® Seaso n. 25%

® Pour around fo ie gras portions.

see page16

from page 5·110

96

VOLUM E 6 ·KITCHEN MANUA L

'Ia in thick.


ANKIMO TORCHON

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Monkfish liver (ankimo quality)

SOOg

100%

Water

200g

40%

@ Whisk together to make brine. ® Vacuum seal monkfish livers with brine, and refrigerate for 24 h.

PROCEDURE

CD Remove main veins. 0

Cover in water, and soak refrigerated for 3 h, changing water every 30 min.

® Drain and reserve. Sake

50 g

10%

Salt

8.75g

1.75% (3.5%)*

® Drain.

Sugar

6.25g

1.25%

0

(2.5%)*

Roll livers together into tight cylinder by using plastic wrap .

® Vacuum seal. ® Cook so us vide in 63 oc / 145 °F bath to core temperature of 62 oc I 144 °F, about 35 min. @ Cool, and refrigerate overn ight to allow flavors to mature. Daikon, julienne

as desired

So us vide ponzu

as desired

@ Slice monkfish liver, garnish with daikon, and serve with ponzu.

seepage22

*(% oftotal combined weight of water and sake)

from page 3·147

Many recipes for fo ie gras, liver, sweetbreads, and other offal include a soaking step before cook ing. For kidneys, this step serves a very simple purpose: to remove any trace of the anima l's bodily fluids. Recipes often ca ll for soaking foie gras, liver, and sweetbreads in milk. It is often said that milk improves the taste, purges blood, lightens the color, or affects some other property of the meat. We were skeptical, so we tried several e xperiments. With a mild-flavored organ meat like foie gras, we could taste a difference, but, frankly, in our tests, we prefer the taste of water-soaked to milk-soaked foie gras. With stronger-flavored organ meats, there is even less of a difference than with foie gras. So our suggestion is to simply soak the meat in water.

SWEETBREADS WITH SOUR MANGO POWDER AND SHIITAKE

Yields 650 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM JEAN-GEORGES VONGERICHTEN

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Veal sweetbreads

600g

100%

CD Peel off exterior membra nes .

White vegetable stock

200g

33%

0

see page 6

1.5%

Salt

9g

Carrot, finely minced

60g

10%

Unsalted butter

60g

10%

Ginger, finely minced

32 g

5.5%

Shiitake, thinly sliced

120g

20 %

Shallot, thinly sliced

BOg

13.5%

Brown chicken stock

110g

18.5%

40g

6.5%

Manzanilla sherry

25 g

4%

Amchoor (sour mango powder)

34.5g

6%

Licorice powder

6g

1%

Freeze-dried carrot powder

30g

5%

seepage 6

White port (dry)

Vacuum seal with stock and salt.

® Cook so us vide in 67 °C / 153 °F bath for1 h. @ Sweat until carrots and ginger a re tender, about 5 min.

® Add, and cook until tender, about 5 min. ® Deglaze sauce base.

0

Reduce until syrupy, about 5 min.

® Wh isk 4.5 g of amchoor and 1 g of licorice into sauce, and reserve.

® Combine with remaining amchoor a nd li corice powder. @ Dust powder over surfaces of cooked sweetbreads.

seepage 340

Clarified unsalted butter

70g

Salt Lemon juice

to taste to taste

11.5%

@ Fry sweetbreads in very hot butter until golden on both sides, about 1 min each.

@ Season sauce and sweetbreads. @ Sli ce sweetbreads into des ired dimensions.

@ Divide evenly a mong four plates, and garnish with sauce. from page 3·151

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

97


FOIE GRAS AND BUTTON MUSHROOM TART

Yields 800 g

ADAPTED FROM PASCAL BARBOT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Verjuice (store-bought)

1 kg

140%

Duck foie gras, Grade A

700g

100%

CD Marinate foie gras in verjuice for 3 h. 0 Cut carefully into slices 5 mm I ')\6 in thick, and reserve.

Button mushrooms

450g (121arge mushrooms)

65%

® Peel, and rub with lemon juice to prevent discoloration.

0

Lemon juice

16g

2%

Roasted-hazelnut oil

lOg

1.5%

Orange zest, finely grated

3g

0.4%

Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

Maple syrup

40g

5.5%

Unsalted butter, melted

20 g

3%

Brik pastry sheets

three pieces

Slice very thinly on mandoline, and reserve about 20 slices for garnis h.

® Season remaining mushroom sli ces, and reserve.

® Whisk together to make maple butter.

0

Lay one sheet of pate a brick on silicone mat.

® Brush careful ly with maple butter. ® Repeat with other two sheets until three-layer pastry stack is formed . @ Punch out 12 em I 4:Y,. in circles from stack, using pastry cutter; makes about 20 rounds. @ Place rounds on baking sheet between two sili cone mats. @ Bake in 160 •c I 320 "F oven for 12 min. Dried mushrooms, ground to fine powder

@ Arrange seasoned mushrooms on each pate a brick round.

as needed

@ Top with slices of marinated foie gras. @ Dust lightly w ith mushroom powder. @ Top with reserved, unseasoned mushroom slices. @ Dust with more mushroom powder.

Eggless citrus curd

@ Slice rounds (tarts) into quarters.

10%

70g

see page307

@ Serve with dab of curd on side.

from page 3·148

SOUS VIDE PIGEON OFFAL

Yields3oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pigeon hearts

100g (four hearts, 25 g each)

100%

CD Measure and reserve individually.

Rendered duck fat

SOg

50%

Cock's kidneys

100 g (four kidneys, 25 g each)

100%

Pigeon gizzards, split and peeled

150g

100%

Rendered duck fat

SOg

Neutral frying oil

as needed

0

Salt

to taste

® Slice browned kidneys in half lengthwise and gizzards into thin pieces, and season with salt.

0

Vacuum sea l.

® Cook so us vide in 70 •c I 158 "F bath for 20 min.

0

Vacuum seal together.

® Cook so us vide in 60 ·c I 140 "F bath for12 h. 33%

® Reserve duck fat. Brown kidneys gently in oil to achieve go ld en crust.

® Brown hearts on al l sid es in reserved duck fat for 2 min, and season with sa lt. @ Serve as garnish for ragout of gra ins; see page 156. from page 5·130

98

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


FOIE GRAS SOUP WITH BOMBA RICE AND SEA LETTUCE Yields 800 g (four porti ons)

ADAPTED FROM ANDON I LUIS ADUR I Z INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Foie gras lobe (Grad e B)

600g

100%

CD Cut into two or three large pieces, depending on size. If three pieces, cut off ends by abo ut 1 em I facilitate removing blood.

0

y, in to

Whole milk

1 kg

167%

Water

1 kg

167%

Whisk until sa lt has dissolved, and bring to 30 86 °F.

Table sa lt

lOg

1.7%

® Add fo ie gras pieces; keep subm erged for 3 h.

Sunflower oil

SOg

8.3%

0

oc I

Remove foie gras from milk brine, and pat dry.

® Sear brined foie gras until gold en brown on all sid es . @ Bake in 130 oc I 265 °F oven to core temperature of 58 °C I 136 °F.

0

Remove, and place we ighted sheet pan on top offo ie gras to press out excess fat and blood .

An alte rnative to baking foie gras in the oven is to seal raw foie gras in a so us vide bag and cook it at 58 oc I 136 °F. Remove the meat from th e bag, place a weighted sheet pan on top of the fo ie gras to press out excess fat and blood, and then sear th e meat. This procedure rep laces steps S-7 in the recipe at left.

® Rest in w arm place fo r 5 min. Extra-virgin olive o il

lOg

6.7%

Yell ow onion, finely chop ped

25 g

4.2%

® Sweat until lightly gold en, abo ut 7 min.

Bomba rice

SOg

8.3%

@ Add rice to onion, and toast for 5 min.

White vegetab le stock, brought to a boil see page 6

SOOg

83%

@ Pour in hot vegetab le broth, and simm er for 15 min.

Sea lettuce (fresh)

SOg

8.3%

@ Add to rice, simm er for 5 min, and remove from heat. ® Cover pot, let sta nd for 15 min, and pass through fine sieve.

Salt

as needed

@ Season broth. @ Slice foie gras into four portions, each 4 em I 1y, in thick, and place in ce nter offo ur warm bowls. @ Finish w ith rice broth.

from page 3·149

SOUS VIDE VEAL SWEETBREADS

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Veal sweetbreads

SOOg

100%

Water

as neede d

CD Cover sweetbreads with water. Refrigerate for 4 h. 0 Drain, and then repeat pro cess twice for total soaking time ofl2 h. ® D isca rd liquid.

0

Pee l membrane off sweetbreads, and trim away fat and ve ins.

® Vacuum sea l. @ Cook so us vide in 67 oc 1 153 °F bath forl h.

0

Meanwhile, co mbin e, and reduce to 50 g.

White veal stock seepage 6

300g

Fino sherry

lSO g

30%

Dri ed li co ri ce root

2.5 g

0 .5%

@ Ad d to hot red ucti on, and infu se for 7 min.

Fennel seeds

O. Sg

0 .1%

@ Stra in.

Star anise

O.Sg

0.1 %

Kaolin clay

2g

0 .4%

Salt

to taste

60%

® Bring reduct io n to boil, and remove from heat.

@ Whisk into infused redu ctio n to create glaze. ® Season cl ay glaze. @ Add sweetbreads to hot glaze, and baste until glaze has red uced and sweetb reads are well coated , about 1 min. @ Cut sweetbreads into portio ns 2.5 em I 1 in thick .

from page 5·32

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

99


INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White soy sauce

140g

23.5%

Extra-virgin olive oil

70 g

11.5%

0 0

Garlic cloves, thinly sliced 60 g

10%

® Cool, strain, and reserve.

Black pepper, coarsely ground

1.5 g

0.25%

Veal sweetbreads

600g

100%

0

Combine, and vacuum seal. Cook so us vide in 93 "C I 199 "F bath for 10 min.

Peel off exterior membranes.

® Separate a long seams, using sharp knife, in to 2.5 ern I 1 in pieces, and reserve. ® Vacuum sea l sweetbreads with cooled infusion.

0

Cook so us vide in 60 "C I 140 "F bath for1 h.

® Coo l quickly in ice-water bath. Wondra flour

20g

3.5%

Pistachio powder

15g

2.5%

Salt

3g

0.5%

Dried orange zest powder 2 g

0 .3%

White asparagus stalks, chopped

BOg

22%

Spanish onion, thinly sli ced

90g

15%

® Comb in e to make dredging powder, and reserve.

@ Sweat together until asparagus stalks are tender.

Extra-virgin olive oil

15g

2.5%

Soy milk

300g

50%

@ Add to asparagus mixture, and simmer until very tender, about 15 min.

Macadamia nut butter

35 g

6%

@ Puree, and pass through fine sieve.

Salt

to taste

Asparagus tips, blanched 90g and cut lengthwise

@ Season asparagus stalk puree, and reserve warm. 15%

@ Warm in smal l pot. @ Drain cooked sweetbread pieces, and coat with dredging powder. @ Fry in 190 "C I 375 "Foil until golden brown and just warmed through, about 45 s. ® Drain on paper towels.

Chickpeas, cooked and peeled

60 g

10%

@ Spoon asparagus puree into bowls.

Black summer truffle, julienne

12 g

2%

@ Garnish plates.

Chive flowers from page 3·150

as needed

100

@ Top with crisp sweetbread pieces, asparagus tips, and ch ickpeas. @ Dust with add itiona l dredging powder.

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


BRINES, CURES, AND DRY RUBS are given using two distinct kinds of baker's percentages. Quantities in the sca ling1 column are relative to the combined weight of the meat and water (excluding the weight of any bones), and are appropriate for the equi librium brining method described on page 3·170. Quantities in the scaling 2 column are for use with the more traditional high-concentration approach described on page 3·171, and are explained there.

CD Se lect a brine, wet cure, or dry rub; the Best Bets tables below and on the next page suggest many good options.

0

Combine the ingredients, stir fully to dissolve, and then refrigerate the solution. Quantities for rubs are g iven relative to the amount of salt. For example, to make a basic dry rub, use 10 g of sugar and 5 g of spices for every 100 g of salt. For convenience, quantities for brines and wet cures

Best Bets for Brines Recipe

Ingredients

(scaling1)

(scaling 2)

meat and water water

100% as needed

100%

salt

1%

7%

sugar

0.4%

3%

meat and water water

100%

salt

1%

5%

sugar

0.6%

3.5%

meat and water water

100% as needed

100%

sa lt

10%

10%

lnsta Cure No.1

0.2%

2%

basic phosphate brine meat and water water

100%

basic brine

basic seafood brine

basic pink brine

umami brine

cola brine

dairy brine

as needed

100%

as needed ·

100%

salt

1%

7%

sodium tripolyphosphate

0.007%

0.05%

meat and water water

100% as needed

100%

usukuchi shoyu

5.3%

100%

hon ey

1%

20%

meat and cola co la (not diet co la)

100% as needed

100%

salt

1%

8%

meat & cultured whey cu ltured whey

100% as needed

100%

salt

1%

6%

Note

See page

works well for most applications

5·113

higher sugar content balances this brine for delicate fish and shellfish

5 ·1 61

has an effective nitrite concentration of 0.12%; works well with color-sens iti ve meats, such as pork belly or tongue

5·101

firms meat and maintains moisture; using more sodium tripolyphosphate than indi cated here can produce a rubbery texture saltiness varies with brand and type of soy sauce but is usu a ll y about 19%; usukuchi shoyu has an exce ll ent flavor

popular sweet brine in the American South; never add cur in g sa lts to cola brines because the mixture will release a letha l gas has a mild tenderizing effect; adds characteristic dairy sweetness; especially good with mild meats like ch icken and fish

from page 3·168

The resting step that follows brining works very much like the resting one does after cook ing meat. The salt, just like the heat, continues to diffuse through the meat after it is removed from the source. Another way to judge when brining is comp lete is to calcu late the final weight of the meat when it has reached the desired sa linity, D (in percent), which typically ranges from lightly brined at 0.7% sa linity to an intense cure of2%. First, determine the salinity S of the brine from the weight of salt and water in grams by using the formulaS ~ 100 x sa lt + (salt + water). Next weigh the unbrined meat to obta in the starting weight Min grams. Then calculate the target weight of the meat T by using the formula T~ M + (D x M + S ). As the meat soaks in the brine, remove and weigh it periodically to check whether the weight has increased to the target weight. For example, ifbrining 1 kg pork chops in the basic brine recipe above, S ~ 100 x 7 + (7 + 100) ~ 6.54.

M ~ 1,000 g, the starting weight of the pork chops. To achieve a final salinity D ~ 0.7%, brine to a target weight ofT ~ 1,000 + (0.7 x 1,000 + 6.54) ~ 1,107 g. The pork chops will thus weigh about 1.107 kg when they have reached the desired degree of sa ltin ess. Sometimes cured meats and seafood are also smoked as part of the ripening process. We discuss the deta ils of smoking food in chapter 7 on Traditional Cook in g, page 2·2, and in chapter 11 on Meat and Seafood, page 3·208. We mention it here to point out that it can be an imp ortant step after curing. Sometimes, it is done early, often during the resting step, after the curing is comp lete. Other tim es, it's done at the end, after the product is fully mature. The choice to do it early or late comes down to whether or not you want a distinct smoky aroma . Over time, smoke aromas dissipate to the point that you would no longer describe the flavor as smoky.

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

101


Best Bets for Wet Cures Effective Effective nitrite (scaling2) salinity concentration

Recipe

Ingredients*

(scaling l)

basic wet cure

water and meat

100%

water

as needed 100%

salt

2%

20%

0.14%

1.40%

lnsta Cure No.1** basic sweet cure water and meat water

17%

100%

keep meats and seafoods submerged and refrigerated

17%

0.1%

sugar, corn syrup, honey, molasses, and treacle are all common ly used sweeteners

as needed 100%

salt

2%

20%

sweetener

1.5%

15% 1.4%

lnsta Cure No. l**

0.14%

Wiltshire

water and meat

100%

tank cure

water

as needed 100%

salt

2%

20%

sodium nitrite

0.001%

0.01%

sodium nitrate

0.003%

0.03%

corned beef cure water and meat

0.1%

19%

100%

Note

0.10% nitrite

traditionally used for bacon

0.25% nitrate

10%

0.1%

to make pickling spice mix, comb in e 10 g cor-

water

as needed 100%

iand er seed, 8 g black peppercorns, 5 g yellow

salt

2%

8%

mustard seeds, 5 g dill seeds, 5 g star anise,

brown sugar

1.7%

4.5%

1 g mace, l g clove, and two fresh bay leaves for

lnsta Cure No.1

0.14%

1.4%

each 1 kg cure; combine cu re ingredients and bring to boil; cool complete ly to infuse; inject

pickling spice mix see note

10% cure to weight of meat; submerge meat in remaining cure; refrigerate for 3-5 d; rinse

from page 3路169

*(allow sufficient cure to cover meat or seafood); **(optional)

Phosphates in brines or wet cu res should be dissolved separately in a small amount of warm water and added to the main mixture only after fully dissolved.

For the herbs and spices in the dry rub recipes, use any spice mix, such as our Indies Spice Blend (page 48), Kansas and Memphis Rubs (page 49), Pastrami Spice Blend (see page 121), or various curry blends (see page 5路89).

Best Bets for Dry Rubs Recipe

Ingredients*

(scaling)

Effective nitrite concentration

Note

basic dry rub

salt

100%

none

customizable to your own taste

sugar (optional)

10%

sweet dry rub

pink salt rub

slow-curing rub

from page 3路169

102

herbs and spices (optional)

5%

salt

100%

sugar

50%

herbs and spices (optional)

5%

salt

100%

lnsta Cure No.1

16%

none

less than 0.15%

only suitable for brief dry-curing or brining under refrigeration

sugar (optional)

20%

herbs and spices (optional)

5%

salt

100%

less than 0 .15% for both

recipe includes nitrates; must be

Morton Tender Quick

43%

nitrites and nitrates

used only for dry, long cures

sugar (optional)

30%

herbs and spices (optional)

5%

* (allow sufficient rub to cover meat or seafood)

VOLUME 6 路KITCH EN MANUAl


Best Bets for Brining Thickn ess

Soak* Rinse

Rest

(h)

(m in)

(h)

Note

Meat

Recommended brine

(em) (in)

chicken breast, boneless and skinless

bas ic brine

3.2

1',4

4

n/ a

2

exte nd soaking time if skin on or 101 bone in

chicken legs, skin on, bone in

bas ic brine

See page

3.8

1Y2

7

n/a

3

101

duck breast, skin on, boneless bas ic phosphate brin e

3.2

1',4

10

n/a

5

101

fish fillet, portion, skinless

basic seafood brin e

3.8

1V2

5

n/a

lobster tail, whole, shelled

basic seafood brine

3.2

1',4

3

n/a

shrimp, whole, shelled

basic seafood brine

1.25

h

2

n/ a

2h

72

2h

pork belly, whole, skin on, bone in

basic pink brine

6.4

pork chop, bone in

basic brine

2.5

pork tenderloin, whole

juniper brine

101 101 h 24

101 adj ust soaki ng time for pre portion ed c uts

101

101 vacuum sea l pork with brine unti l meat absorbs 10% of liquid

see note

69

3.8

1h

12

n/a

8

pork shoulder, whole, skin on co la brin e

23

9

72

2h

n/a

sweetbreads, membrane pee led

um a mi brine

3.8

1Y2

10

30

n/ a

veal tongue

basic phosp hate brine

7.6

3

24

2h

n/ a

whole chicken

basic brine

2.5 kg

24

n/ a

24

whole turkey

basic brine

5 kg

48

48 n/ a * (tumbling or injecting the meat reduces the soaking time required);

from page 3路172

inj ect with 7% brin e, a nd imm e rse in remaining brine**

101 101

inj ect with 14% brine, a nd immerse in remaining brine**

101,90

**(by weight ofmeat, which is about 60% of weight of whole poultry)

Best Bets for Curing Meat

Recommended rub or cure

Thickness (e m) (in)

Cure time* Rinse (h) (d)

Rest (h)

Example use cure d beef co rn e d beef pastrami

beef tenderloin, whole

bas ic dry rub

8.75 3Y2

2

n/ a

24

brisket, whole

pastrami cure

7.5

7.5

n/ a

n/ a

duck breast, skin on

basic sweet cure, corned beef cure

2.5

duck leg, skin on

basic dry rub

3.2

1',4

fish fillet, whole side, skin on

3% sa lt, 1% sugar to weight offish

3.75

1Y2

pork belly, whole, skin on, bone in

6.25 2h basi c dry rub, Wiltshire tank cure

pork leg, skin on, bone in (fresh ham)

bas ic wet-cure, bl ac kstra p molasses cure

17.5

pork jowl, skin on

pink salt cure

pork shank, skinless sweet dry rub (ham hock) from page 3路172

3

Note

See page

we prefer the meat from the 88 nose e nd

wipe off 12 cure

co rn e d duck, for co rn ed du ck, cook after curing; for du ck ham, hang du c k ham dry in refrige ratorfor7 d

6h

wipe off n/a cure

du c k confit

ca n be cured for up to 12 h for a firm e r texture

105

24-28 h

wipe off n/a cure

smoke d salmon

vacuum sealing recom me nd e d

121

5-7

n/ a

7d

baco n

omit res ting if usin g W iltshire tank cure

7

12- 15

8

8

honey bake d ham, prosciutto

inj ection curing reco mm e nd e d

3.75

1h

1

2

n/a

guanciale

7

2%

5

quick rin se

12

smoke d ham hock

110

*(cure time is approximate, but varies with the thickness ofthe meat)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

103


FOIE GRAS TORCHON

Yields875 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw duck foie gras, Grade A

800g

100%

CD Bring lobe of foie gras to room temperature.

Water, cold

as needed

White port (sweet}

16g

2%

Salt

14g

1.75%

® Rub onto foie gras; cover comp lete ly.

Cognac

4g

0.5%

0

Sugar

4g

0.5%

® Refrigerate for12 h to cure.

lnsta Cure No.1

2g

0.25%

® Cook cured foie gras so us vide in 56 oc 20 min.

0

Butterfly lobe carefully to reveal network of blood vesse ls.

® Remove veins and any remaining blood by scraping away w ith spoon . @ Set aside foie gras. ® Blend to form cure .

Vacuum sea l foie gras.

I

133 °F bath to core temperature of 55 oc 1 131 °F, about

@ Remove from bag, and coo l at room temperature for 10 min, or until fat begins to congeal.

@ Reserve 50 g of fat. Synthetic sausage casing, 1 piece 5 em I 2 in diameter, 20 em I 8 in long

@ Puree cooked fo ie gras. @ Pour in to synthetic sausage casing. @ Tie ends of casing with butcher's tw in e.

@ Refrigerate for at least 3 d to age. Brioche loaf

300 g

37.5%

@ Cut into sli ces 2.5 em I 1 in thick and 75 g each.

Foie gras fat, from above

50 g

6.25%

@ Brush brioche slices evenly with reserved foie gras fat.

Salt

3g

0.4%

@ Toast slices in nonstick pan until edges are golden and centers are tender, about 3 min.

Yuzu and kumquat marmalade see page 181

40 g

5%

@ Serve slices of aged foie gras w ith marmalade and hot, toasted brioche.

PROCEDURE

from page 3·176

FOIE GRAS PARFAIT

Yields 600 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING 100%

Raw duck foie gras

425g

Whole milk

as needed

White duck stock warmed see page 6

170g

lnsta Cure No.1

6g

1.4%

Salt

6g

1.4%

Sugar

3g

0.7%

CD Slice 1 em I% in off each end of lobe. 0

Cover foie gras with milk, soak for 5 h in refrigerator to drain blood , and then drain and vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 57 oc 1 135 °F bath to core temperature of 56 oc 40 %

® Blend foie gras with stock. ® Vacuum sea l and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·268

BACON CHIP

YieldslOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Maple syrup

50 g

20%

Water

50 g

20%

CD Simmer together until dissolved . 0 Coo l syrup.

Glucose syrup DE 40

45g

18% 10%

lsomalt

25g

Sorbitol

1g

0.4%

Cured bacon, sliced 1 mm I y,. in thick store-bought or see page 107

250 g

100%

® Soak bacon sli ces in syrup in refrigerator for 2 h. @ Dehydrate at 60 ocl 140 °F until crisp, 12-14 h. ® Store chips in cool, dry place.

from page 5·220

104

I 133 °F, about 20 min.

@ Whisk salts and sugar into stock until dissolved. Cool completely.

VO LU M E 6 ·KI TC HEN MA NU AL


SHAVED FOIE GRAS

ADAPTED FROM DAVID C HANG

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Lychees, drained (canned in syrup)

200g

50%

Yields 1.2 kg (16 portions)

PROCEDURE

0

Quarter.

0

Refrigerate until use.

For Riesling gelee: 160 Bloom gelatin

4g (two sheets)

1%

Riesling (dry)

250g

62 .5%

Rice vinegar

4g

1%

® Combine, and bring to simmer.

0

Refrigerate in small mixing bowl for 6- 8 h.

® Stir, and thoroughly break up gelee once an hour with long-tin ed fork. This will give appearance of shattered glass. @ Cover gelee, and store refrigerated for no more than 1 wk.

For pin e nut brittle: Sugar

lOOg

25%

0

Glucose

lOOg

25%

® Combine sugar, glucose, and isomalt in heavy-bottom saucepan.

lsomalt

lOOg

25%

® Cook over medium heat without di sturbing until go ld en caramel form s, 12- 15 min, and remove from heat.

Pine nuts

400g

100%

Cover baking sheet with parchment paper or silicone mat, and set as id e for cara m el.

@ Meanwhile, toast nuts in 150 oc I 300 °Foven until golden and fragrant, 6 - 7 min. @ Fold into caramel.

Unsalted butter, brought to room temperature

75 g

Kosher salt

to taste

Foie gras torchon, frozen

400 g

18.75%

@ Stir into caramel until fully incorporated, about 30 s. @ Pour caramel imm ed iate ly onto prepared baking sheet in thin layer, and coo l. @ Break brittle into small, bite-size pieces.

100%

see previous page

@ Place two tab les poon s of quartered lychees in bottom of eac h of eight serving bowls. @ Top lychees with tablespoon of Riesling gelee. @ Top gelee with tablespoon of cracked brittle. @ Grate mound of frozen foie gras with Microplane onto each bowl, as generously as desired.

from page 3·177

DUCK LEG CON FIT WITH POMMES SARLADAISES

Yields 1.4 kg (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM PAULA WOLFERT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Moulard duck legs

1.6 kg (fo ur legs)

100%

0 0

288g

18%

Confit cure mix see next page

Rendered duck fat

® Refrigerate for 10 h.

0 BOg

5%

Pack cure even ly onto duck legs. Vacuum seal.

Rinse off cu re, and blot legs until completely dry.

® Vacuum seal legs individually with 20 g of fat each . ® Cook so us vide in 82 oc I 180 °F bath for 8 h.

0 Waxy potato, sliced 160 g 5 mm I :Y, 6 in thick and cut into 3 em I 1 :Y,6 in coins

10%

Water

30g

1.9%

Rendered duck fat

20g

1.25%

Cool quickly in ice-water bath, and refrigerate .

® Vacuum seal together. ® Coo k so us vide in 88

oc I 190 °F bath until just tender, 20 - 25 min.

@ Warm duck legs in 80 oc I 176 °F bath for 12 min.

Garlic, thinly sliced

Sg

0.3%

Salt

1.4 g

0.09%

Thyme leaves from page 3·178

0.5g

0.03%

@ Brown legs in sk ill et, skin sid e down, until skin is crisp, about 4 min. @ Garnish crisped legs with potatoes.

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

10 5


CON FIT CURE MIX

Yieldsu kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Kosher salt

1 kg

100%

<D Combine, vacuum sea l, a nd refrigerate until use.

Coriander seeds, toasted 100g

10%

0

Garlic cloves, mashed

11 g

1.1%

Star anise, finely crushed

7g

0.7%

Orange zest, finely grated 5g

0.5%

Thyme leaves

2g

0.2%

Black peppercorns, coarsely crushed

0 .8g

0.08%

Bay leaves, thinly sliced

0.4 g

0.04%

Use to cure poultry a nd ga me.

from page 3·179

MISO-CURED BLACK COD

INSPIRED BY NOBU MATSUHISA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White miso

500g

80%

<D Combine to make cure.

Mirin

100g

25%

Sake

80g

20%

Shoyu

35g

8.75%

White soy sauce

25g

6.25%

Yuzu zest, finely grated

8g

2%

Lime zest, finely grated

5g

1.25%

Lemon zest, finely grated 3g

7.5%

Black cod fillet, skin on, 3.25 em I 1}< in thick

100%

400g

0

Yields500 g

Cut into four100 g portions.

® Spread cure over a ll surfaces of fish.

0

Vacuum seal individually.

® Refrigerate for12 h. ® Remove from bags, and wipe off excess cure. Unsalted butter

60g

15%

0

Vacuum seal each portion with 15 g of butter.

® Cook so us vide in 49 •c I 120 ' F bath to core temperature of 48 •c I 118 ' F, a bout 20 min. Toasted sesame seeds

15g

3.75%

Ginger powder

4g

1%

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

4g

1%

Clarified unsalted butter

80g

20%

® Blend in spice grinder to fine powder.

@ Dust cooked fish generously with sesame powder. @ Brown in very hot butter until just golden, about 45 s.

Daikon, fine julienne

40g

10%

@ Toss togeth e r.

Spring onion, fine julienne 40 g

10%

@ Garnish each fish portion .

Sesame oil

to taste

White soy sauce

to taste

Yuzujuice

to taste

from page 3·179

106

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


GRAPEFRUIT-CURED SALMON

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salmon belly, 2.5 em I 1 in thick

400g

100%

CD Trim, and remove skin.

Sa lt

60g

15%

® Blend, form in g wet cure.

Sugar

40g

10%

0

Young Douglas fir buds

30g

7.5%

® Vacuum seal rubb e d salmon.

Vodka

0

Set salmon aside. Rub cure onto salmon to comp lete ly cover.

15g

3.75%

® Refrigerate salmon for 12 h to cure.

Pink grapefruit zest, finely grated

5g

1.25%

0

juniper berries, crushed

4g

1%

Black peppercorns, finely ground

2g

0 .5%

Douglas fir essential oil

0.1 g

0.025%

Pink grapefruit essential oil from page 3·180

0.1 g

0.025%

Remove cured salmon from bag.

® Rinse cure off with water, and dry. ® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate salmon to store.

HOUSE-CURED BACON

Fir tree buds can be picked from early May through mid-june. You can omit them if they a re not available-the taste will be subtly different but still good .

Yields 3.5 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salt

100g

2.5%

CD Mix to make cure.

Sugar

72g

1.8%

lnsta Cure No. 1

24g

0.6%

Fermento

7g

0.175%

Black peppercorns, coarsely ground

4g

0.1 %

Coriander seeds, toasted, 4g finely ground

0.1 %

Mace, finely ground

4g

0.1 %

Star anise, coarsely ground

4g

0.1 %

Sodium erythorbate

2.2g

0.055%

Pork belly, bone in

4 kg

100%

0

Rub cure thoroughly on surface of meat .

® Let sit 10 min so that sp ices adhere.

0

Pack remaining cure around meat.

® Vacuum sea l. ® Refrigerate for1 wk, turning over once a day.

0

Brush away cure from surface of meat.

® Hang cleaned meat on meat hook, and refrigerate uncovered for1 wk in well-ventil ated area so that cure can permeate all areas even ly. ® Smoke in 77 oc I 170 °Fsmoker with 60% relative humidity for 7 h (wet-bulb temperature: 65 oc I 150 °F). @ Chill for 12 h before using. from page 3·182 Although we use Fermento culture for flavor, this is a cured, rather than a fermented, bacon.

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

107


MICROWAVED BEEF JERKY

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef flank steak

SOOg

100%

CD Cut with grain into even, rectangular strips 5 mm I 'X• in thick, and set aside.

Soy sauce

125g

25%

@ Combine.

Fish sauce

85g

17%

® Place meat strips in marinade.

Sugar

14g

2.8%

@ Vacuum sea l together, and refrigerate for48 h.

Salt

5.3g

1.06%

® Drain. ® Place strips on paper towel - lined tray; pat strips dry.

0

Lay three strips in center of microwavable plate.

® Microwave at 50% power for1 min, and flip strips over. Repeat four more times for total cooking time of 5 min, and remove jerky. ® Repeat steps 7 and 8 with remaining strips, always work ing with batches of three. from page 3·184 To dehydrate the jerky without a microwave, dry the marinated beef strips at 60 oc I 140 °F until leathery, 10-12 h.

CRISPY BEEF STRANDS

Yields 80 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beefflanksteak

200g

100%

Soy sauce

SOg

25%

CD Cut w ith grain into even, rec tangular strips, 5 mm IV. 0 Combine, and place meat strips in marinade.

Fish sauce

34g

17%

® Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate for 48 h.

Sugar

S.Sg

2.8%

@ Drain.

Salt

2g

1.06%

in thick, and reserve .

® Microwave strips at full power (800 W) until dry, 3-5 min . ® Pull strips apart, strand by strand.

Canolaoi l

0

as needed

Fry strands in 180 oc I 355 °Foil until dry.

® Drain. ® Reserve in airtight co ntainer with silica packets. from page 5·44

CRISPY BEEF AND SHALLOT SALAD

Yields10og

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red shallots, sliced 1 mm I){. in thick

SOg

100%

CD Deep-fry shallot slices in 170 oc I 340 °Foil until dry and go ld en.

Canolao il

as needed

Salt

as needed

0

Drain on paper towels.

® Season shal lot slices. @ Reserve in a irti ght container with sil ica packets.

Sweet, sour, and savory glaze

100g

200%

® Warm together, st irring to dissolve sugar and reserve.

see page 5·44

Palm sugar

18g

36%

Crispy beef strands, warmed

BOg

160%

® Toss together with fried shallots.

0

see page 108

Cilantro stems, cut into 1 em I% in lengths

3g

6%

Scallion, fine julienne

2g

4%

Small cilantro leaves

2g

4%

Small mint leaves

2g

4%

Small Thai basil leaves

2g

4%

Lime zest, fine julienne

1.5g

3%

Bird's eye chili, seeded and sliced paper-thin

1g

2%

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Fold warm glaze in carefully to taste.

® Season.

from page 5-47

108

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


JUNIPER BRINE

Yields 600 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

100%

CD Combine.

Juniper berries, crus hed

60g

12%

0

Salt

35 g

7%

® Cool, and infu se refrigerated for12 h.

Coriander seeds

12g

2.4%

@ Stra in.

Lemon zest, grated

4g

0.8%

Angelica root, sliced

3.2g

0.64%

Bitter orange zest, grated 2.5g

0.5%

Malt, roasted

2g

0.4%

Hops

0 .8g

0 .1 6%

Cinnamon stick

0.4g

0 .08%

Ginger, minced

0.4 g

0.08%

Allspice berry

0.25g

0.05%

Bring to boil, to dissolve sa lt fu lly.

from page 5·36

sous VIDE DUCK HAM ADAPTED

FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Salt

18g

1.2%

CD Combine to make cure.

lnsta Cure No.1

7.5 g

0.5%

Duck thighs, boneless and skinless

1.5 kg

100%

0

Water, warm

lOOg

6 .7%

® Combine to prepare slu rry.

Activa GS or RM

25 g

1.7%

@ Brush cured duck thighs with slurry.

(25%)*

® Place duck thighs in terrine.

see page 3·250

Yields 750 g

Coat duck thighs with cure.

® Vacuum seal.

0

Refrigerate terrine fo r 12 h.

® Cook so us vide in 69 ' C I 156 ' F bath for 6 h. ® Top bagged terrine with weight to flatten. @ Refrigerate until coo l. @ Freeze and sli ce duck ham into sheets 1 mm I V, 6 in thick on meat sli cer.

*(%oftotal weight of water)

from page 5·87

FOIE GRAS AND HAZELNUT GANACHE

Yields 650 g

INGRED IENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Cognac

60g

20%

CD Reduce to 20 g and reserve.

Sauternes

30g

10%

Sweet onions, finely minced

100g

33%

Rendered duck fat

15g

5%

Raw duck foie gras

300g

100%

® Combine alcohol reduction, on ions and remaining ingredients, and puree until smooth.

Roasted hazelnut butter

100g

33%

@ Pass through fine sieve.

Unsalted butter

50g

16.7%

® Freeze in Pacojet beaker, and reserve.

Roasted hazelnut oil

25g 5g

8.3% 1.7%

® To serve, Pacotize once and form into quenelles. Serve with toasted bread.

Salt lnsta Cure No.1

3.25 g

1.08%

0

Sweat until tender without colo ring, abo ut 10 min.

(7%)* {0.7%)*

from page 5·128

*(%oftotal weightoffoie gras, hazelnut butter, unsalted butter, and hazelnut oil)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

109


FLUKE CURED IN KOMBU INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

ADAPTED FROM KYLE CONNAUGHTON SCALING

Dry kombu sheets, about eight sheets 20 em I 8 in long Fluke fillets, 1.5 em I :Y. in 400 g thick, skinned and side fin (four whole fillets) muscle removed

Yields350 g

PROCEDURE

0

Soak in cold water for until fully hydrated, about 20 min.

Grind together to fine powd e r.

100%

Salt

40 g

10%

0

Kombu powder (storebought)

8g

2%

® Dust evenly over one side of fillets.

Sugar

8g

2%

0

Lay fillets, seasoned side down, on kombu sheets.

® Dust evenly with remaining sa lt, and cover with second sheet of kombu. ® Vacuum seal, a nd refrigerate for1 h to cure surface.

0

Remove fillets from cure, pat dry, and vacuum seal.

® To serve, slice fluke thinly. Serve ponzu on side.

Sous vide ponzu see page 22

from page 3·181

BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES COUNTRY HAM

Yields 6 kg

ADAPTED FROM MICHAEL RUHLMAN AND BRIAN POLCYN INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Kosher salt

1.3 kg

100%

0

Combine.

lnsta Cure No.2 (or DQ Curing Salt)

340g

26%

Dark brown sugar

450g

35%

0

Add to salt blend, and stir together.

Blackstrap molasses

617g

47%

Dark rum

210g

16%

Ginger, grated or minced lOg

0.8%

juniper berries, crushed

8g

0.6%

Cayenne pepper

3g

0.2%

Coriander seeds, black, toasted and ground

lg

0.08%

Fresh ham, skin on, a itchbone removed

7 kg

540%

® Rub cure a ll over ham, app lyin g more to area around exposed bone.

0

Put in nonreactive container large enough for ham and for liquid that cure will draw out.

® Place 7 kg of weight on ham, using platter or board with weights on top. ® Refrigerate for12-15 d (1 d per Y2 kg). Turn ham; after 6 d, re distribute cure as necessary.

0

Remove ham from refrigerator, and rinse off cure under cold water.

® Soak in co ld water for 8 h to remove residual surface salt. ® Set ham on rack, and refrigerate uncovered for 8 h. @ Cold-smoke ham at 15 ' C I 60 ' Ffor 18 h. @ Hang ham to dry in cool, dark place, ideally at 15 ' C I 60 ' F with 65%- 75% relative humidity, for 7 wk. from page 3·1 83

ll 0

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


CURED BEEF TENDERLOIN "BRESAOLA STYLE" INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef tenderloin (or venison tenderloin), 5 em I 2 in thick

1 kg

100%

CD Remove silver skin, and trim tapered end for even curing.

Espresso roast coffee, ground

50g

Salt

40g

Yields300 g

0 Setaside. ® Grind together to medium coarse.

5%

0

Pack all over surface of tenderloin, and vacuum seal.

4%

® If making cured carpaccio, refrigerate forl wk. Flip bag every 2 d to ensure even curing.

Sugar

40g

4%

® Rinse, and pat dry.

Cocoa nibs

16g

1.75%

0

Black pepper

lOg

1%

® If making true bresaola, cure for 3 wk.

juniper berries

lOg

1%

® Rinse, and pat dry.

lnsta Cure No.2

2g

0.2 %

@ Tie with butchers twine, and hang for minimum of 1 wk and up to 1 mo in refrigerator. Hanging time determines dryness of final texture.

Fermented black garlic (store-bought) Extra-virgin olive oil Lemon juice White balsamic Salt

80g

8%

@ Blend until smooth, and pass through fine sieve.

40g lSg 13g to taste

4% 1.5% 1.3%

Wild arugula

Slice thinly, and pound to desired thickness; or freeze, and slice paper thin on meat slicer.

@ Slice thinly.

@ Verify seasoning.

50g

5%

@ Spoon small amount of fermented garlic paste across each plate.

Wild blackberries, halved 30 g

3%

@ Arrange slices of cured carpaccio or bresaola on each pl ate.

Celery stalk, peeled and thinly sliced

25 g

2.5%

Celery leaves

lOg

Lemon juice

to taste

Extra virgin olive oil

to taste

Flaky sea salt

to taste

@ Garnish with celery slices, arugula, blackberries, and celery leaves. @ Season with salt, olive oil, and lemon juice.

1%

from page 3·185

SEA URCHIN BOTTARGA

YieldslSO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Sea urchin tongues (gonads)

200 g

100%

Salt

500 g

250%

Beeswax

500 g

250%

from page 3·186

CD Pass sea urchin tongues through fine sieve . 0 Pipe into so us vide bag molded into shape offish roe sac, which is a thin, tapered triangle. ® Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 64 oc I 147 °F bath for 50 min. Leave in bag, and chill in ice-water bath until hardened, about 20 min.

0

Pack cooked sea urchin in salt. Ensure all sides are completely covered, and refrigerate forl2 h.

® Remove from cure. Rinse, and pat dry on paper towels. ® Wrap cured sea urchin in cheesecloth . Tie both ends of cheesecloth with butcher's twine. Hang in refrigerator for 2 mo to yield sliceable, fudge-like consistency, or for 3 mo to make dry enough to grate.

0

Melt beeswax, and dip dried sea urchin carefully into wax to coat completely.

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until needed.

M EAT AND SEA FOO D

111


SALTED HALIBUT

Yields 1.2 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salt

750g

37.5%

Q) Mix together to form cure.

Sugar

150g

7.5%

lemon zest, finely grated 15 g lime zest, finely grated

10 g

Halibut fillet, skin on, cut 2 kg into strips 5 em / 2 in thick

0.75% 0.5% 100%

0

Rub cure on strips to cover completely.

® Vacuum seal strips.

0

Refrigerate for 48 h.

® Remove from bag, and rinse, discarding cure and rendere d juices. ® Wrap single layer of cheesecloth around each cured strip.

0

Tie both ends of cheesecloth with butcher's twine.

For a recipe for brandade, see page 112. For a lutefisk recipe, see page 114.

® Hang wrapped fish in refrigeratorfor15 d to air-dry. ® Remove from cheesecloth. @ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate indefinitely until needed. @ To serve, soak in water or milk for 48 h, refrigerated, changing soaking liquid every 12 h. @ Use for ma king brandade or lutefisk. from page 3·187

HALIBUT BRANDADE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Whole milk

as needed

Salted halibut

160g

Yields800g

SCALING

PROCEDURE Q) Soak halibut in milk, refrigerated, for12 h.

100%

optional, see above

0

Drain fish , and discard milk.

® Repeat steps 1 and 2 three more times, for total soaking time of 48 h. Rese rve 20 g of liquid from final soaking.

0

Vacuum seal halibut, reserved soaking liquid, and garlic together. ® Cook sous vide in 58 oc / 135 °F bath to core temperature of 57 oc / 133 °F, about 20 min. Hold at temperature for15 min.

Garlic, sliced and blanched twice

25g

16%

Water

1 kg

625%

0

Yukon Gold or other waxy potatoes, thinly sliced

250 g

156%

® Cook so us vide in 90 oc / 194 °F bath for 45 min.

Extra virgin olive oil

90g

® Pu lse in food processor until fine ly shredded. Vacuum seal potatoes with water in thin, even layer.

® Drain potatoes, and pass through ricer. 56%

@ Mix into potatoes. @ Pass through fine sieve. @ Fold sieved potatoes into shredded halibut mixture .

Salt

to taste

@ Warm brandade and season .

Italian basil, julienne

to taste

@ Garnish.

Roasted hazelnut oil

to taste

from page 5·152

112

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


SEAFOOD PAPER INGREDIENT

ADAPTED FROM CARLO CRACCO

QUANTITY

Yields 80 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whitefish 250g (prawns, scallops, or squid may be substituted)

100%

CD Blend to fine puree in food processor or Pacojet, if available.

1.25 g

0.5%

Squid ink (optional)

0

Pass through fine sieve.

® Cast fish or shellfish puree paper-thin (1 mm I Y,, in thick) onto silicone baking mat.

0

Cover with another silicone baking mat.

® Roll out evenly to 0.5 mm I

Y., in with rolling pin.

® Dehydrate at 70 •c I 158 •F until sheets are dry but still flexible, about 15 min.

0

Remove top silicone mat, and return to dehydrator or oven until surface of sheet is leathery, about3 min.

® Cut to desired dimensions, and reserve. from page 3·188

BACON CHIPS WITH BUTTERSCOTCH, APPLE, AND THYME

Yields 160 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cured bacon strips, 10 em I 4 in long and 2 n1'm I ~ . in thick

100g

100%

CD Place bacon on dehydrator tray. 0 Dehydrate at 80 ·c I 175 •Ffor 3 h.

Granny Smith apples, halved and cored

400g

400%

0

® Store dehydrated bacon chips in airtight container. Place on tray lined with silicone mat.

® Roast in 190 •c I 375 •F oven for 30 min. @ Cool.

0

Scoop out flesh from skins.

® Puree flesh in blender. ® Pass through chinois. @ Spray acetate sheet with nonstick cooking spray, and wipe off excess liquid. @ Spread puree with palette knife in layer 2 mm I~. in thick. @ Dehydrate at 70 •c I 160 •F for 45 min. @ Cut resulting apple leather into strips, 3 mm by 10 em I Ys in by 4 in. @ Reserve. 250g

250%

Light corn syrup

150g

150%

Heavy cream

375 g

375%

Sugar

® Whisk together in small pot, and cook to 190 •c I 375 •F to make caramel.

@ Whisk into caramel to make butterscotch.

® Heat to 115 ·c I 240 •F. @ Pour onto silicone mat, and cool. @ Transfer to pastry bag. @ Pipe dots of butterscotch onto each bacon chip, starting 2.5 em I 1 in from top of strip, and leaving 6 mm I ',4 in between dots. @ Wind six apple leather strips around each bacon chip, using butterscotch as glue. Black pepper

to taste

@ Season.

Thyme leaves

to taste

@ Attach to bacon chips using small amount of butterscotch.

from page 3·189

MEAT AND SEAFO OD

113


Instead of flank steak, th in sli ces of beef short ribs can be used .

The pH leve l of the marinade should be around 4.5.

Depending on how tender you like your flank steak, the cooking time can be increased to 24 hours.

jaccardingthe steak improves its tenderness directly and, if done before marinating, also makes the marinade work better. Vacuum tumbling for 30 minutes reduces marination time greatly. For more on jaccarding, see page 3·50; for vacuum tumbling, see page 3·174.

KALBI FLANK STEAK

Yieldslkg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Flank steak, trimmed

1 kg

333%

0

Reserve.

Water

300g

100%

0

Combine, and stir until sugar is dissolved.

Sugar

175 g

58.5%

® Vacuum seal steak with marinade.

Light soy sauce

150g

50%

@ Marin ate in refrigerator for 5 d.

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fish sauce

75g

25%

® Remove steak from marinade, and vacuum seal again.

Apple juice (fresh)

50 g

16 .5%

® Cook so us vide in 54 oc I 129 °F bath forl h.

Toasted sesame oil

30 g

10%

(i) Cool.

Mirin

23g

7.5%

® Trim steak to desired size, and sear both sides qu ickly.

Scallions, thinly sliced

20 g

6.5%

Garlic, crushed

lOg

3.5%

Rice vinegar

lOg

3.5%

Korean chili flakes

5g

1.5%

Black pepper, coarsely ground

3g

1%

Kim chi

as desired

® Slice, and serve with kimchi, butter le ttuce and shiso leaves, kochujang paste, and other banchan (Korean side dishes).

see page175

from page 3·199

LUTEFISK

Yields800g

114

PROCEDURE

QUANTITY

1 kg 100% (one large piece)

0

Remove skin, and cut away thin ends.

Water

3.5 kg

350%

0

Sodium hydroxide

25 g

2.5%

Whisk water and sodium hydroxide together until dissolved to make brine.

(7%)*

® Place fish in brine, and refrigerate for 24 h.

Salt

25 g

2.5%

@ Drain fish, and discard brine.

(7%)*

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for 24 h to allow brine to equilibrate through fish .

Lutefisk is an acqu ired taste and texture, but it has been a Scandinavian delicacy for many centuries. The dimensions of the fish are important for a good final result. The fish should be uniform in size and at least 4 em I 1 y, in thick for the brining time to be accurate. Smal ler pieces offish require some experimentation with brining time. If making with salted halibut or cod, omit sa lt from brine.

SCALING

INGREDIENT Halibut

® Remove from bag, cover in fresh water, a nd soak refrigerated for 48 h.

0

Change water, and soak again for 48 h, refr igerated.

® Drain . ® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate to store ind efinitely. Unsalted butter

lOOg

Salt

to taste

10%

@) To serve, vacuum seal with fish . @ Cook so us vide in 50 oc I 122 °F bath for 45 min.

from page 3·200

@ Season. *(% ofweightojwoter)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


YAKITORI INGREDIENT

Yields 600 g (four portions) QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mirin

400g

100%

0

Whisk together, and bring soy sauce mixture to simmer.

Honey (clear)

220g

55%

light soy sauce (no vinegar added)

200g

50%

0

Pour hot soy sauce mixture over pineapple cubes, and cool completely.

Sake (dry)

200g

50%

Ginger juice (fresh)

lOg

2.5%

Pineapple rind and flesh, cubed

SSOg

137.5%

® Vacuum seal, and macerate 12 h, refrigerated.

Rice vinegar

so g

12.5%

0

Salt

30g

7.5%

® Season with vinegar and salt, and reserve.

Chicken skin

200g

25%

Strain yakitori sauce.

® Cook so us vide in 88 'C/ 190 ' F bath for 2 h.

0

Drain from cooking juices, pat dry, and cool.

® Cut cooked skin into strips 2.5 em by 12.5 em I 1 in by 5 in. ® Thread onto soaked bamboo skewers, and reserve. Chicken oysters orthigh 200g meat cut into 2.5 em/ 1 in pieces, skinless

50%

Yakitori sauce, from above

30 g

7.5%

Chicken thigh meat, coarse ground

400g

200%

Tokyo negi (Japanese leek), finely minced

4Sg

Egg white

3Sg

8.75%

Yakitori sauce, from above

20g

5%

Toasted sesame oil

lOg

2 .5%

Young ginger, finely minced

6g

1.5%

@ Combine in bottom of 1 I whipping siphon to pressure-marinate. @ Charge with two nitrous oxide cartridges, shake, and refrigerate for 20 min. @ Vent pressure, remove pieces from siphon, and skewer individually.

@ Stir together until all components are evenly distributed. @ Make four meatballs 5 em I 1 in. in diameter by using plastic wrap to shape tightly.

11.25%

@ Skewer meatballs individually. @ Blanch in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil for 5 s to set shape of meatball .

Salt

4g

1%

Sansho pepper, ground

1g

0.25%

Yakitori sauce, from above

200g

50%

Japanese charcoal

as needed

@ Reserve.

@ Reduce to 65 g (light syrup), about 15 min . Cool and reserve. @ Burn coals in bottom of hibachi or similar grill until coals are white. ® Set grill screen on top of hot coals, and grill marinated chicken oysters and meatballs for 2-3 min on each side. @ Remove from heat, and brush all pieces with thin layer of yakitori glaze. ® Deep-fry skewered chicken skin in 190 'C I 375 ' Foil for 2 min until very crispy and lightly puffed. @ Drain from oil, and brush with thin layer of yakitori glaze. @ Grill glazed chicken oyster, meatball, and skin skewers for 1 min on each side.

@ Remove from heat, brush meatball with final layer of glaze, and serve. from page 3·201 For a step-by-step procedure for pressure-marinating, see page 3·207.

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

115


TUNA RIBBONS WITH GINGER MARINADE ADAPTED FROM JEAN-GEORGES VONGERICHTEN INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lime juice

100g

33%

CD Vacuum seal together.

Sugar

BOg

27%

0

Makrud (kaffir) lime leaves, thinly sliced

20g

6.5%

®Coo l lime syrup completely.

Ginger, peeled, thinly sliced

60g

20%

® Saute in dry pan until slightly charred, about 5 min.

Cook so us vide in 55 ' C / 131 ' F bath for1Y2 h.

@ Strain. ® Measure 40 g of syrup, and reserve.

Rice vinegar

50g

17%

0

White soy sauce

40g

13.5%

® Reserve ginger marinade.

Shoyu

36g

12%

Grapeseed oil

30g

10%

Avocado, peeled and thinly sliced

100g

33%

® Season avocado slices, and arrange in serving bowls.

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Tuna (sashimi-quality), 300 g cut into thin, spaghetti-like ribbons

100%

@ Gently combine tuna with radish slices, chili oil, and lim e leaves.

Breakfast radish, sliced 50g very thinly on mandoline

17%

@ Top each avocado portion with spoonful of tuna mixture. @ Pour ginger marinade around bowls, and serve.

Spiced chili oil see page 29

25 g

8.5%

Makrud (kaffir) lime leaf, fine julienne from page 3·202

5g

1.5%

116

Blend with ginger and reserved lime syrup until smooth.

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL

Yields 600 g (eight portions)


FLUKE CEVICHE INGREDIENT

Yields 500 g (fourto eight portions)

ADAPTED FROM ERIC RIPERT

QUANTITY

Fluke fillet (sushi-quality) 400 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

CD Slice on bias into segments, 1.75 em by 5 em I 'X• in by 2 in. 0

Lay slices in single layer on large plate.

® Cover with plastic wrap.

0

Refrigerate.

® Combine.

Fluke fillet, diced

BOg

20%

Lemon juice (fresh)

30g

7.5%

® Cover.

Lime juice (fresh)

30g

7.5%

0

Red onion, sliced

5% 20g (quarter of onion) 3.25%

Sugar

13 g

Fine sea salt

10.5g

2.5%

Rendered fluke juice, from above

50g

12.5%

Red onion, julienne

16 g

4%

Extra-virgin olive oil

12 g

3%

Cilantro, julienne

10 g

2.5%

Tomato, blanched, peeled, and finely diced

10 g

2.5%

jalapeno pepper, minced 4 g

Refrigerate for1 h to macerate.

® Strain through fine sieve, and reserve 50 g of fluke juice.

® Combine in bowl to make marinade.

1%

Basil, julienne

2.5 g

0.5%

Mint, julienne

1.2 g

0.3%

Lemon-infused olive oil

to taste

Espelette pepper

to taste

@ Season fluke slices.

Salt

to taste

@ Cover sli ces with marinade, and allow to stand for 2- 5 min, depending on desired firmness. @ To serve, divide ceviche among four small bowls. @ Garnish with more pepper, and serve immediately.

from page 3·203

M EAT AN D SEAFOOD

117


CHICKEN TIKKA MASALA

Yields 1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

24g

5%

CD Pour hot water over saffron threads.

Saffron threads

0.5g

0.1%

0

Coriander seeds, toasted 5g

1%

Cumin seeds, toasted

5g

1%

® Toast spices in dry skillet or 170 oc I 340 °Foven until aromat ic.

Cinnamon, toasted

1g

0 .2%

@) Cool.

Clove, toasted

1g

0 .2%

Cover, steep forlO min, and then strain water, and reserve.

® Grind spices to fine powder. ® Reserve .

For better marinade penetration, use a jaccard tenderizer after slathering the chicken with the marinade, but be careful not to break the blades on the chicken bones.

Kashmiri chili punctuates a dish with bright red color and is only mildly hot.

Greek-style strained yogurt (plain, full fat)

250g

50%

0

Blend togetherto fine paste.

Neutral oil

100g

20%

® Add spice powder and saffron-infused water to make marinade.

Shallots, thinly sliced

25 g

5%

® Reserve 50 g for later use.

Ginger, fine paste

24g

4.8%

Garlic, fine paste

lOg

2%

Kashmiri chili

lOg

2%

Annatto seeds

8g

1.5%

Green Thai chili, finely chopped

5g

1%

Bay leaves, fine julienne

1g

0.2%

Chicken breast, skinned

500g

100%

@ Clean, and trim off any excess fat.

Chicken thigh, boneless and skinned

500g

100%

@ Cut thighs and breasts into total of eight pieces, 125 g each.

Marinade, from above

200g

40%

@ Slice three cuts across thick side of each thigh for marinade to penetrate. @ Place all chicken pieces in 200 g of marinade, and toss to coat thoroughly. @ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for 12 h.

Clarified unsalted butter

40 g

8%

@ Remove ch icken from marinade. @ Vacuum seal breasts and thighs in two separate bags with 20 g each of clarified butter. ® Cook breasts so us vide in 60 oc I 140 °F bath for 2 h. @ Cook thighs so us vide in 65 oc I 149 °F bath for 1Y' h.

Marinade, from above

50g

10%

@ Simmer for 5 min. @ Cool at room temperature . @ Brush over cooked chicken .

Clarified butter

as needed

@ Heat thin film of clarified butter over high heat. Sear chicken pieces, skin side only, until crisp, about 90s. Remove from pan.

Lime juice

100g

20%

Shallots, finely sliced

50g

10%

Green chili, finely sliced

15g

3%

Salt

to taste

Cilantro, fine julienne

to taste

Mint, fine julienne

to taste

from page 3·204

118

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl

@ Combine, and season with salt.

@ Garnish chicken with lime dressing, cilantro, and mint.


GONG BAO CHICKEN INGREDIENT

Yields500 g

ADAPTED FROM FUCHSIA DUNLOP

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken breast, boneless 400g

QUANTITY

100%

CD Cut into 1.5 em I% in strips.

Water

50g

12.5%

®Whisk together.

Light soy sauce

lOg

2.5%

Potato starch

7g

1. 75%

0 Mix into chicken, taking care to coat all pieces evenly. ® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for 12 h to marinate.

Shaoxing wine

5g

1.25%

® Remove chicken from marinade, and reserve.

Baking soda

lg

0.25%

White chicken stock see page ll

20g

5%

Sugar

15g

0

0

Cut strips into small cubes, and reserve.

Whisk together until everything is incorporated .

®Reserve resulting sauce.

Known as kung pao chicken to millions of American fans of Chinese food, this is a classic dish. The alkaline marinade, which includes baking soda, tenderizes the chicken and also promotes the Maillard reaction when the ch icken cooks. The baking soda marin ade technique works beautifully with other lean cuts of meats, such as pork and beef tenderloin.

3.75%

Chinkiangvinegar

12g

3%

Toasted sesame oil

5g

1.25%

Dark soy sauce

4g

1%

Light soy sauce

4g

1%

Potato starch

lg

0.25%

Neutral oil

5g

1.25%

® Heat wok, and add oil.

Dried red chili pepper

Bg

2%

@Ad d chili and pepper when oil is about to smoke.

Sichuan peppercorns (whole)

Bg

2%

Scallions, whites only, thinly sliced

24g

6%

@Add to wok, and stir-fry until chicken is cooked, about 2 min. @Ad d sauce, and cook until thick, about 45 s.

@Stir-fry until crisp and fragrant. @Add marinated chicken, and fry on high flame for about5 min.

Garlic, thinly sliced

18g

4.5%

Ginger, thinly sliced

18g

4.5%

Peanuts, blanched and peeled

75 g

19%

Salt

to taste

@ Roast peanuts in 170 °C I 340 °Foven until colored golden brown, or use pressure-cooked fried peanuts (see page 5·65). @Add peanuts, and adjust seasoning.

from page 3·205

BEET JUICE-FED OYSTERS

ADAPTED FROM DAVE ARNOLD AND NILS NOREN

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Kusshi oysters

12 oysters

Red beet juice

1.25 kg (from 2 kg of beets)

100%

32.5g

2.6%

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Rinse oysters thoroughly to remove any grit. 0

Aquarium salt

Yields 12 oysters

Arrange, upright and evenly layered, in metal container.

®B lend .

0 Strain juice through fine (500 micron I ® Pour over oysters to cover.

0.02 in) sieve.

®Sea l container tightly with lid.

0

Refrigerate for 48 h. Do not disturb, or oysters will not feed on juice.

from page 3·206 Using a 500 micron sieve to strain the juice is essential to prevent the oysters from suffocating on larger particles.

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

119


HOT- AND COLD-SMOKED MEATS AND SEAFOOD ® Cook so us vide or otherwise. Some smoked foods, such as hams or smoked salmon, are meant to be consumed raw after smoking. 0 Season and finish. Many barbecued items are seared briefly at high heat or glazed. Finish by adding spices, dry rubs, or sauces.

G) Select a recipe from the table below, and prepare the meat as indicated.

0

See the referenced pages for further instructions. Smoke. Suggested smoking temperatures, humidities, and times are listed in the table. Not all smokers permit humidity control, but an improvised wet-bulb thermometer will he lp (see page 3·211). Adjust the smoking time to impart more or less smoke flavor.

Best Bets for Smoking Meats Smoke Prep Ingredient

Method

See page

Dry-bulb temperature (oF) (oC)

Wet-bulb temperature (oF) (oC)

Time Relative Cook humidity (h)

See page

Cold-smoked pork, Boston butt

n/ a

pork ribs

n/ a

foie gras, torchon

cure

3·176

24

yes

86

60%

24

yes

5·66

60%

24

optional

96

44

60%

24

optional

86

10

50

6.5

44

60%

10

50

6.5

44

10

50

6.5

44

6.5

ham

cure

3·183

10

50

salmon (Scottish)

cure

3·256

10

50

6.5

44

70%

24

no

pork cheek

brine

3·1 68

10

50

6.5

44

60%

24

yes

pork chop

brine

3·168

10

50

6.5

44

60%

24

yes

68

6.5

44

60%

24

optional

5·170

86, 5·35

sablefish, black cod

brine

76

10

50

whitefish

brine

3·168

10

50

6.5

44

60%

24

yes

74

beef fillet, raw

n/ a

10

50

8

46

80%

24

yes

68

caviar and fish roe

n/ a

10

50

8

46

80%

12

no

oyster

n/ a

10

50

8

46

80%

24

optional no

foie gras, raw

n/ a

salmon, Russian style

cure

3·168

5·205

25

77

18

64

50%

4

25

77

18

64

50%

4

no

64

50%

4

yes

3,71 68

chicken, whole

brine injected

3·168

25

77

18

pork chop

brine

3·168

25

77

18

64

50%

4

yes

cure

3·185

52

126

48

118

80%

12

no

50%

4

yes

121

Hot-smoked beef fillet, cured beef cheek pastrami

brine

beef short ribs

n/ a

brisket pastrami

brine

3-257 3·257

144

77

171

62

77

171

66

151

60%

4

yes

90

77

171

62

144

50%

7

yes

86

60%

7

optional

86

pork belly (for bacon)

cure

3·182

77

171

66

151

beef tongue

brine injected

3·168

77

171

66

151

60%

4

yes

86

chicken, whole

brine injected

3·168

77

171

66

151

60%

4

optional

71,122

beef flatiron

n/ a

60

140

55

131

77%

4

yes

86, 89

7

yes

86,88

pork ribs

n/ a

65

149

57

135

65%

pork butt

n/ a

65

149

57

135

65%

7

yes

86,5·66

sausage

n/ a

52

126

48

118

80%

12

yes

128,130

from page 3·210

1 20

VO LUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


RUSSIAN SMOKED SALMON INGREDIENT

Yields 1.2 kg

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salt

225g

15%

CD Combine to make cure.

Sugar

120 g

8%

Salmon fillet, whole side, 1.5 kg skin on, pin bones removed

100%

0

Pack even ly onto both sides of fish.

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate fish for 12 h to cure. @) Rinse off cure from surface offish. ® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for another 24 h to allow the salt to fully diffuse through the meat. @ Smoke at 25 oc I 77 °Fwith 60% re lative humidity for 4 h.

0

Vacuum seal.

For lox-style salmon, use a 3% salt and 1.5% sugar rub (with weights relative to the weight of the fish), and vacuum seal the fish refrigerated for 48 h. For Scottish-style salmon, use a 3.5% salt rub, and vacuum sea l refrigerated for 36 h. Follow the remaining steps described in the recipe for both styles.

® Refrigerate until use. from page 3·212

BEEF CHEEK PASTRAMI

Yields 1 kg

INSPIRED BY JEAN PAUL CARMONA AND DAVID KINCH

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Wagyu beef cheeks, cleaned

1 kg 100% (about 4 cheeks)

CD Trim off any silver skin and excess fat.

Water

2.25 kg

225%

0

Brown sugar

14Sg

14.5%

® Remove brine from heat, add remaining water, and cool.

SCALING

Salt

75g

7.5%

lnsta Cure No.1

lSg

1.5%

PROCEDURE

BoiiSOO g of water with sugar and salts to dissolve.

Coriander seeds, toasted 3.5g

0.35%

@) Combine aromatics with cooled brine.

Black peppercorns

2.5g

0.25%

® Vacuum seal beef cheeks with chilled brine.

Mustard powder

2.5g

0.25%

® Refrigerate for 72 h.

Food critic Jeffrey Steingarten (see page 1·65) likes to say that New York City has its own local barbecue trad ition: the pastrami prepared by the city's many Jewish delicatessens. The most famous places for pastrami are Carnegie Deli in Midtown and Katz's Deli in the Lower East Side.

Pastrami might seem quite different than southern barbecue, but it certainly qualifies as part of that cuis in e : cured and spiced meat that is smoked and then cooked low and slow.

Pink peppercorns

2g

0.02%

0

Cinnamon stick, toasted and crushed

lg

0.1%

® Pat dry cheeks.

Fennel seeds

lg

0.1%

Cloves (whole)

O.Sg

0.05%

Red pepper flakes

0.25g

0.025%

Bay leaf

0.2g

0.02%

Juniper berries

75g

7.5%

Sugar

75g

7.5%

@ Grind together coarsely in coffee grinder to make spice rub.

Black peppercorns

72g

7.2%

@ Rub cheeks with 50 g (5% of their weight) of sp ice rub.

Coriander seeds, toasted 42g

4.2%

@ Smokefor4hat77 °Ci l71 °F.

Garlic powder

lOg

1%

@ Boil reserved brine, and skim off surface foam.

Salt

lOg

1%

@ Strain and cool.

Chili flakes

6.5g

0.65%

@ Vacuum seal smoked cheeks with 1 kg of coo led brine.

Cut

@ Cook so us vide in 62 oc I 144 °F bath for 72 h.

short rib, bone in

6

short rib, boneless

3

beef tongue

7

brisket, fatty end

7

Remove cheeks from brine, and reserve brine.

® Reserve.

@ If serving imm ediately, rest for 15 min at room temperature, and slice . Otherwise, cool quickly in ice-water bath, and refrigerate. from page 3·213

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

This pastrami recipe also works well with other cuts of meat. Simply use the table below to adjust the brining time, and see page 86 for cooking times and temperatures. Brine (d)

121


HAY-SMOKED CHICKEN CROWN

Yields 1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole chicken

1 kg

100%

CD Remove legs and wings. 0

Cut through ribs to remove bone-in crown, and reserve crown.

® Optionally, reserve carcass, legs, and wings for sauce vin jaune (see page 308). Water

400g

40 %

0

Salt

28g

2.8%

® Immerse crown in brin e .

Thyme

2g

0.2%

® Refrigerate for 12 h.

10%

0 Drain and rinse crown. ® Lay hay in bottom of hotel pan.

Yellow sweet meadow hay or straw

100g

Combine to make brine.

® Place crown in ce nter of hay, and cover with more hay. @ Ignite hay with blowtorch until burning. @ Cover with anoth e r pan, and let smolderfor 10 min. @ Remove crown from hay, and cool completely. @ Peel away skin, and discard. @ Cook chicken crown in 65 ' C I 150 ' F combi oven with 0 % relative humidity until core temperature reaches 60 ' C I 140 ' F for about 2 h, depending on size of chicken. If using CVap oven, set browning level to 4 and doneness temperature as above. @ Optionally, to pasteurize, lower temperature to 60 ' C I 140 ' F, and hold for 1 h.

from page 5·114

SMOKED PORK CHEEK Alternatively, smoke cheeks in a conventional smoker for 2 h. The taste will be different but still good.

Yields240 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork cheek, sinew removed

300g (four cheeks)

100%

CD Cold-smoke at 7 ' C I 45 ' F with 50% relative humidity

Alder wood chips

as needed

Cherry wood chips

as needed

Brown pork stock

150g

for 24 h, which will produce wet-bulb temperature of 3 ·c I 37'F.

50%

see page 6

0

Vacuum seal pork cheek with stock.

® Cook so us vid e in 68 ' C I 154 ' F bath for 48 h.

0

Slice and serve, or cool, in bag, in ice-water bath, a nd refrigerate.

from page 5·38

HEATHER-SMOKED STURGEON

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Wild sturgeon fillet

500g

100%

CD Combine vodka, salt, sugar, and lemon zestto make

Vodka

35g

7%

Salt

20g

4%

Sugar

7g

1.4%

® Cure in refrigerator for 8 h.

Lemon zest, finely grated 2g

0.4%

0

® Smoke fillet with chips and blossoms at 52 ' C 1 125 ' F with 50% relative humidity for 4 h.

Cherry wood chips

750g

150%

Dried heather blossoms

100g

20%

cure. Coat fillet evenly with cure.

0

Vacuum seal. Rinse, and pat dry with paper towels.

® Serve, or cool and refrigerate until use. from page 5·235

122

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


SMOKED OCTOPUS

ADAPTED FROM JOAN ROCA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Baby octopuses, heads removed and set aside for other use

150 g

100%

Frying oi l

as needed

Baked potato foam

15o·g

CD Pat dry, and coat lightly with o il. 0

100%

see page 324

to taste

Salt

to taste

Sweet smoked paprika (Pimenton de Ia Vera, dulce)

to taste

Oak wood sawdust, finely ground

15g

Sear on grill until just cooked through, about4 min, turning once.

® Vacuum seal.

0

Pistou basil leaves

Yields 300 g (four portions)

PROCEDURE

Although the heads are removed, the arms of each octopus should still be connected to its body.

Warm in 70 oc 1 158 °F bath.

® Cover four glass bow ls w ith layer of plastic wrap, pul ling tightly on each until plastic is invisible. @ Top plastic wrap with warmed potato foam.

0

Top foam with octopuses.

® Season and reserve. 10%

® Place in smoke gun, and warm end of gun. @ Poke tip of gun into plastic wrap, and fill bowl with smoke. Repeat qu ickly for remaining three bowls. @ Serve immediately.

from page 3·215

HAMBURGERS CD Choose a blend of well-marbled meat, and chill the meat deeply. The

Best Bets for Burgers

table Best Bets for Burgers lists several good options, each of which has a different flavor, texture, and cooking profile.

0

Put ice cubes or liquid nitrogen in the grinder to chill it to just above 0 °C /32 ° F.

® Cut. Cut away any large chunks of fat from the meat, and cut into cubes about 2 em I :Y, in on a side. Chill the meat to -1 oc I 30 °F. Do not salt the meat .

0

Grind the cubes through a 3-4 mm I Ys-Y. 6 in plate. (For tender meat blends, chop by hand , and then shape into a loose patty 3 em I 1Y., in thick, and skip to step 9.) When using a grinder, tighten the collar to prevent mashing and tearing. Don 't force the meat through the grinder; let the auger pull it through .

® Collect the extruded strands of ground meat in a cylindrical mold cut in half and lined with plastic wrap . (Select a mold slightly wider than the diameter desired for the patties.) Slowly pull the mold toward you as the meat exits the grinder so that the strands run straight along the mold . Build up layers of strands to fill the mold. @ Repeat with a second mold, and then press the two molds together to form a complete cylinder of meat.

0

Use the surrounding plastic wrap to remove the meat from the mold. Tighten the wrap slightly to gently compress the cylinder-but take care not to overtighten and mash the meat together, which will make the patties less tender. The meat cylinder can be frozen at th is point, but then it will have to be sawed into patties .

® Use a sharp knife to cut hamburger discs of the desired thickness. Remove the plastic wrap from the cut patties, and refrigerate them until cook ing.

Leanness

Cook

Meat blend

Ingredients

(scaling) (% fat)

(oC) (oF)

rare beef

fillet mignon

100%

20

52

126

rib eye cap

45%

short rib

short-rib meat 100%

30

54

129

MCteam favorite

short-rib meat 100%

25

56

133

25

54

129

aged rib eye steak- house blend

100%

hangar

25 %

chuck

100%

sirloin

50%

flank

50%

from page 3·234

When is the best time to add flavorful liquids and powdered seasonings to ground beef? Mixing them with the cubed meat before grinding is not the best approach because most additives bind the meat strands together. Seasonings containing salt, for example, extract the meat protein myosin, which forms a strong, elastic gel when cooked. That may be desirable in sausage making, but it produces a rubbery burger. For the tenderest burgers, season the meat after you have cut it into patties. Avoid adding eggs, starches such as bread crumbs, or protein-laden liquids such as milk. During cooking, these ingredients gel and act like edible glue.

® Cook, season, and garnish. See the recipes for Mushroom Swiss Burger on page 5·11 and for So us Vide Hamburger on page 3·86.

MEAT AND SEA FOOD

1 23


COARSE-GROUND SAUSAGES CD Choose a recipe and a binding strategy, which will determine the

0

pregrinding treatment if any-see page 3·228. Depending on the strategy selected, add salt and any polyphosphates during this step. Add Act iva, if needed, during step 3.

0

Grind meat and fat separately (see page 3·228). Before grinding, freeze the meat partially, and freeze the fat fully. Optionally, prepare a fat gel with fatty tissue or a rendered fat or oil, as described on page 3·145.

Mix at low speed with a paddle mixing blade. Keep mixture below 15 ' C I 59 ' F.

® Perform a poach test (see page 3·225) to check that the sausage binds properly. If binding is insufficient, add polyphosphate or Activa (but not both)-each yields a somewhat different texture. If binding is too strong, add water (up to a few percent) or fillers such as bread crumbs. ® Form, mold, or stuff, as discussed on page 3·240.

® Combine the ground meats and fats with liquid, spices, and fresh herbs, plus other ingredients in a kitchen stand mixer. The spices should be finely ground, and the herbs finely minced. If using Activa, add it now.

0

Cook in a water bath to the core temperature indicated in the table. Note that vacuum sealing the meat will affect the cooked texture.

Best Bets for Coarse-Ground Sausages Sausage recipe Meat sweet Italian

British banger,

pork shoulder

pork shoulder

(scaling) Fat 100%

100%

(scaling) Liquid

pork fatback

pork fatback

25%

50%

water

water

(scaling) Spice and herbs 14%

30%

adapted from Heston Blumenthal

Kielbasa Kminkowa

pork shoulder

100%

pork fatback

30%

pork shoulder

(80%)*

pork fatback

35%

beef chuck

cotechino

merguez

Thai chicken

100%

pork fatback

35%

100%

whole duck skin

50%

pork shoulder

100%

inspired by David Thompson

from page 3·236

124

lamb shoulder 100%

chicken thigh

20%

(20%)*

duck breast, skinless

breakfast-style pork shoulder

water

100%

pork jowl fat

pork fatback

60%

22.5%

water

water

water

16%

5%

6%

chicken skin and fat 20%

fish sauce 5%

20%

soy sauce 1%

pork fatback

*(set total weight ofpork shoulder and beefchuck to 700%)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

sweet paprika

(scaling) 1.7%

oregano, fresh

1.7%

basil, fresh

1.7%

fennel seed, cracked

1.1%

coriander seed, finely crushed

0.6%

hot pepper flakes (optiona l)

0.2%

black pepper, coarse-ground

0.1%

black pepper

0.4%

white pepper

0.4%

mace

0.3%

nutmeg

0.3%

ginger powder

0.1%

marjoram

0.50%

caraway, coarsely ground

0.35%

white pepper

0.20%

sage

0.70%

black pepper

0.20%

ground ginger

0.15%

w ild fennel seed

0.30%

rosemary

0.20%

lemon zest, finely grated

0.10%

sweet paprika, smoked

0.80%

oregano

0.80%

hot pepper flakes

0.30%

black pepper

0.25%

lemongrass

1.1%

cilantro

1.0%

galangal

0.6%

makrud lime leaves

0.6%

dried Thai red chili

0.2%

long pepper

0.1%

cassia

0.1%


Salt Other ingredients

(scaling) (scaling)

sugar

2%

white bread, toasted

10%

grain mustard Tate & Lyle Golden Syrup

4% 2%

garlic, finely minced

0.50%

lnsta Cure No.1

0.25%

sugar

0.45%

maple syrup, smoked

3%

sweet onion, finely chopped

2%

whole green lentils, cooked

40.0%

Parmesan, grated

3.2%

3%

3%

2.6%

3.8%

4.5%

roasted red pepper, minced

8.00%

garlic, minced

1.40%

sugar

0.25%

shallot, finely minced

3.0%

fresh coconut, finely grated

3.0%

garlic, finely minced

1.0%

2%

2.3%

Cook

Binder

Note

(scaling) (oc)

(° F)

Activa

0.25%

58

136

polyphosphate blend

0.10%

58

136

Toast bread at170 oc I 340 oF until dry and golden brown, about30 min.

55

131

Grind using a 2 mm I Y,6 in plate. Dry sausages for 2 d at 2-6 °C I 35 - 42 ° F and 85% relative humidity. Smoke for1-2 d atlO °C I 50 ° F and 85% relative humidity.

59

5

57

135

55

131

60

140 Mix finely ground spices and herbs with shallot, coconut, and garlic to make a paste.

Act iva

0.175%

polyphosphate blend

0.070%

Activa

0.175%

polyphosphate blend

0.070%

Activa

0.25%

polyphosphate blend

0.10%

Activa

0.25%

polyphosphate blend

0.10%

Activa

0.25%

polyphosphate blend

0.10%

Activa

0.25%

polyphosphate blend

0.10%

(binder selections in bold are those we prefer)

MEAT AN D SEAFOOD

125


FARCE ROYALE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pigeon leg meat, cold

150 g

100%

CD Combine, puree until smooth, and reserve.

Rendered foie gras fat

lOg

6.7%

Salt

3g

2%

lnsta Cure No.1

1.9 g

1.3%

Nutrifos 088 (Astaris brand), dissolved in wa rm water

0.16g

0 .12%

Brown pigeon stock

200 g

133%

see page6

160 Bloom gelatin

0

Reduce stock to 25 g to make glaze.

® Bloom gelatin, and dissolve in glaze. 3.25 g

2%

Pancetta, brunoise

40g

27%

Hazelnuts, sk inn ed and finely minced

35g

23 %

Porcini, finely minced

35g

23%

Garlic, blanched and brunoise

7g

4.7%

Nutrifos 088 (Astaris brand), dissolved in warm water

0.16g

0.12%

@ Add meat puree, and coo l over ice-water bath. ® Fold into meat mixture until completely incorporated. ® Place mixture between two sili cone baking mats.

0

Roll out with heavy rolling pin; use two dowels 5 mm I placing one on each sid e of stacked sheets.

'A in each in diameter, for calibration,

® Refrigerate farce royale until set.

from page 5·132

TOULOUSAIN GARLIC SAUSAGE QUANTITY

SCALING

Lean pork

735 g

100%

CD Combine sa lt with lean pork, and refrigerate forl2 h.

Pork fatback, frozen

255 g

35%

0

Salt

18g

2 .4%

Garlic confit

30g

4.1%

Nutmeg, finely ground

lg

0.14%

Natural casings, 2.5 em 1 1 in diameter

as needed

see page 176

Using polyphosphates can shorten presalting t im e. Alternat ive ly, skip this step a ltogether by adding 0.25% Activa Tl. For details, see page 3·250.

Yields750 g

INGREDIENT

PROCEDURE Grind meat and fatback through 5 mm I 'X• in grind in g plate.

® Combine ground meat and fat, and spices in stand mixer. @ Prepare, stuff, and link casings 10 em I 4 in long. ® Hang sa usages in refrigeratorforl2 h. ® Cut into two long li nks, and vacuum seal without crushing.

0

Cook garli c sausages so us vide in 59 oc I 138 °F bath to core temperature of 58 oc I 136 °F, about 35 min. Hold at temperature for 30 min to pasteurize.

® Cut sausages into sl ices 1 em I ® Sear on 220 from page 5·82

126

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL

oc I

y, in thick.

425 °Fgriddle until a ll sides are golden .


GREEN GARLIC AND PORK SAUSAGE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork shoulder, boneless

250g

100%

Fatback

BOg

32%

CD Cut into cubes. 0 Toss with meat and fat cubes, and refrigerate for 4 h.

Salt

4.5g

1.8%

® Grind all cubes through 5 mm I Y., in grinding plate.

Nutrifos 088, dissolved in small amount of warm water

0.66g

0.26% (0.2%)*

Green garlic, blanched and finely minced

8g

3.2%

0

Mix thoroughly with ground pork mixture.

® Form into sausages 3.75 em I 1y, in. in diameter and 10 em I 4 in long by using plastic wrap to mold meat mixture.

® Refrigerate links for 12 h to mature.

0

Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 61 "C I 142 "F bath to core temperature of 60 "C I 140 "F, about45 min.

® Cool in ice-water bath, and slice sausage on diagonal into slices 1 em I from page 5·86

'Ia in thick.

*(% oftotal weight ofpork shoulder andfatback)

MEA T AND SEAFOOD

127


EMULSION-STYLE SAUSAGES 0 Choose a recipe from the table of Best Bets below.

0

Grind meat and fat separately, as described on page 3·228. Use a pretreatment for the meat, which will affect binding ingredients. ® Puree ground meat in a food processor or bowl chopper. Keep the temperature belowl5 oc/ 59 °F. Add liquids chilled or frozen to keep meat cool. Optionally, sprinkle the meat with liquid nitrogen to chill it. @ Add the fat, and continue to puree. Keep the mixture cold.

® Chop or fold in the spices and fresh herbs, plus other ingredients. The spices should be finely ground, and the herbs finely minced. ® Do a poach test (see page 3·225). Adjust the binder as needed.

0 Stuff or mold the sausage. ® Smoke the sausage (optional). For best results, the wet-bulb temperature should not exceed 56 oc I 132 °F during smoking.

Best Bets for Emulsion-Style Sausages Sausage variety blood sausage

bratwurst

boudin blanc, chicken

Meat

(sealing)

n/a

pork shoulder

100%

veal shoulder

33%

chicken thigh

100%

boudin blanc, veal veal shoulder 100% or blend (or chicken/ veal mix) frankfurter, all beef frankfurter

beef chuck

100%

Fat

(scaling)

pork fatback, small dice and blanched

42%

foie gras fat, rendered

pork fatback

Liquid

(scaling)

Spices and herbs

(scaling)

bay leaf, powdered

0.3%

pork blood

100%

whole milk

20%

Calvados (or applejack)

8%

16%

52%

whole milk

9%

white pepper

0.5%

heavy cream

9%

ginger powder

0.3%

nutmeg

0.3%

quatre epices (see page 48)

0.2%

liquid smoke (optional)

1.50%

mustard powder

1.25% 1.00%

33.0%

infused milk (see page 131)

107%

pistachio oil

8.5%

3.7%

veal jowl fat

33.0%

40%

rendered chicken fat

pistachio oil

8.5%

alcohol reduction (see note)

beef fat

55%

water

beef chuck

(65%)*

onion powder

pork leg

(35%)*

sweet paprika

1.00%

white pepper

0.25%

coriander seed

0.20%

nutmeg

0.10%

ham and cheese

pork shoulder

100%

Gruyere cheese, grated

35%

water

35%

mortadella

pork shoulder

100%

pork fatback, blanched (see note)

100%

water

60%

white wine (dry)

7%

shellfish

from page 3·238

128

scallop, shrimp, or lobster

100%

n/a

n/ a

white pepper

0.35%

coriander seed

0.30%

garlic powder

0.25%

nutmeg

0.10%

cinnamon

0.10%

heavy cream

55%

chervil

1.0%

alcohol reduction (see note)

15%

chive

1.0%

tarragon

1.0%

white pepper

0.1 %

star anise

0.1 %

*(set total weight ofbeefchuck and pork leg to 100%)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUA L


® Cook so us vide or steam at temperature indicated. To pasteurize, hold at cook ing temperature for time indicated on page 1-184. Plunge into cold water or use a cold-wate r shower. @ Peel sausages if they are in removabl e cas ings.

Salt

Cook

Other ingredients

(scaling)

(scaling)

Binder

(scaling) (°C)

(°F)

Note

onions, minced

100%

5.4%

Activa RM

0.6%

82

180

chesnut puree (store-bought)

20%

Combine flour, pure e, milk, and half of th e foie gras fat. Bring to boil. Chill. Emulsify blood into mixture, an d reserve. Sweat appl es and onions in remaining foi e gras fat until very tender. Deglaze with Calvados. Chill. Combine app les and onions with fatback, breadcrumbs, Act iva, and seasonings. Fold in blood, and mold . Before cooking, blanch in boilingwaterfor1 min.

fine breadcrumbs

13%

apple, small dice

10%

chestnut flour

5%

whole egg

8.5%

soy protein co nce ntrate

7.0%

egg white

16.2%

egg yolk

4.4%

Sicilian pistachios

11.0%

black truffles, optional

7.0%

glycerin monostearate

2.00%

skim milk powder

1.85%

lnsta Cure No.1

0.15%

dextrose

0.20%

sodium citrate

0.2%

pullman loaf, frozen (see note)

as needed

Sicilian pistachios, peeled

18%

Micro crystallin e ce llulose (Avice I CG 200, FMC BioPolymer brand)

7%

5%

nl a

55

130

4.4%

nl a

61

142

For alcoho l red uction, co mbin e 14.7% cog nac, 11% Madeira, and 3.7% white port, and red uce to one-eighth of starting volume.

60

140

For hot-smoked version, air-dry for 30 min after stuffing. Smoke for 90 min at 70 oc 1 158 oFand 85% relative humidity. Poach at 70 oc I 158 oFto

4.5%

Activa or

0.22%

polyphosphate blend (not both)

0.09%

4%

co re temperature of 68 oc I 154 °F. Plunge in co ld waterfor 2 min. Refrigerate until co ld, and peel.

55

nl a

130

Add sodium citrate to boiling water, and blend in cheese until smooth. Coo l. Blend with meat. Slice frozen bread very thinly. Wrap coo ked, uncased sausage in bread slice, and fry in butter until crisp .

4.6%

0.25%

Activa

55

130

Reserve 25% of pork fatback, and cut into 1 em I V2 in cubes. Blanch in boilingwaterfor10 s, and then cool. Fold into the sausage mi x along with the pistachios before stuffing.

lnsta Cure No.1

0.55%

who le egg

11.0%

sodium case inate

0.4%

2.5%

nl a

65

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

149

For alcohol reduction, reduce two parts dry sherry and o ne part cognac by half, and coo l comp lete ly.

129


ITALIAN SAUSAGE

Yieldsl.Bkg SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork shoulder, cubed and 1 kg chilled to -1 ' C I 30 ' F

100%

0 0

Pork fatback, cubed and frozen

300g

30%

Ice water

140g

14%

® Fold gro und meat and fat togethe r, a nd rese rve. @) Finely mince fresh basil and oregano.

Salt

20g

® Grind fe nn e l seeds and toasted co ri ander seeds to fine powder.

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT

Chill coa rse grinder di e and extrud e r bowl. Grind pork sho uld er a nd fatback sepa rate ly through chill ed die into c hill ed bowl. Keep forcemeat chill ed.

Sugar

20g

2% 2%

Basil

17g

1.7%

® Coarsely grind peppercorns.

Hungarian paprika

17g

1. 7%

0

Oregano

17g

1.7%

Fe nn e l seeds, toasted

ll g

1.1%

Coriander seeds, toasted 6g

0.6%

Hot pe pper fl a kes

2g

0.2%

Black peppercorns

1g

0.1%

Hog casings, 32-35 mm I 1Y.,-1% in. in diamete r

as needed

Comb in e seasonings, a nd fold into forcemeat.

® Stuff seaso ned forcemea t into casing. ® Twist links to desired le ngths. @ Refrigerate sausages for at least 1 h. @ Poach or steam sa usages at 61 ' C I 142 ' F until core temperature reaches 60 ' C I 140 ' F, about 25 min.

from page 3-242

FRANKFURTER

The sa usages ca n be co ld-smoked at 10 ' C I 50 ' F for 24 h or hotsmoked at 52 ' C 1 125 ' F for12 h. See page 120 for d etai ls on smoking.

Yie lds 2.2 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef chuck, cubed a nd chilled to - 1 ' C I 30 ' F

lkg

100%

0 0

Ch ill fine die a nd extrud er bowl. Grind beef chu ck a nd fat separate ly.

Beeffat, cubed a nd frozen 550 g

55%

® Puree ground meat a nd ice until smooth .

Ice, crushed

400 g

40%

@) Add fat, and cont inu e to puree until smooth. ® Reserve ground meat mixture c hill e d .

Salt

33g

3.3%

Skim milk powder

18.5g

1.85%

® Grind nutm eg, white pepper, and toasted coria nd er seeds to fine powder.

Musta rd powder

12.5 g

1.25%

0

Onion powder

lOg

1%

Sweet paprika

lOg

1%

Nutmeg

5g

0 .5%

lnsta Cure No. 1

3.3 g

0.33%

White pepper

2.5 g

0.25%

Glycerin monostea rate (4mular brand)

2.2g

0.22%

Coriander seeds, toasted 2g

0.2%

Dextrose

2g

0.2%

Sheep casing, 2 em I 'A in. in diamete r

as needed

Fold spices a nd add itives into co ld gro und-m eat mi xture.

® Stuff forcemeat paste into cas in g. ® Twist links to desired le ngt hs. @ Refrigerate sausages for at least 1 h. @ Poach or steam links at 61 ' C I 142 ' Fto core temperature of 60 ' C I 140 ' F, abo ut 25 min.

from page 3·242

13 0

VOl UME 6 ·K I TCHEN MANUA l


BOUDIN BLANC

Yields2kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

1%milk

750g

103%

CD Vacuum seal together.

Button mushrooms, thinly sliced

75g

10%

0

Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 oFbath for1 h.

® Strain.

Clarified unsalted butter

50 g

7%

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

50g

7%

Dried morels, ground to powder

5g

0.7% 0.1%

0

Measure 725 g of infused milk, and reserve refrigerated.

Bay leaf

0.75g

Thyme

0.5g

0.07%

Cognac

100g

14%

® Combine, and reduce to 25 g.

Madeira wine

75g

10.5%

® Cool complete ly, and reserve.

White port

25g

3.5%

Infused milk, from above 725g

100%

Chicken thighs, finely ground

680g

94%

Egg whites, blended

110g

15%

Egg yolks, blended

0

Puree until smooth, while keeping temperature below 7 °C I 45 °F.

® Refrigerate for10 min.

30g

4%

Salt

30g

4%

Quatre epices

1.5g

0 .2%

Rendered chicken fat

227g

31.5%

® Blend into chilled chicken puree until fully emu lsifi ed.

Pistachio oil

58g

8%

@ Optionally, for aerated texture, transfer mixture to 1 I whipping siphon and charge with two cartridges of nitrous oxide . Omit added pistachios and truffles pieces in step 11 .

Green Sicilian pistachios, 75 g quartered

10.5%

@ For regular boudins, fold into mixture to make forcemeat.

Black truffles, optional finely minced

50 g

7%

Natural casings, 4 em llY2 in. in diameter

as needed

Frying oil

as needed

see page48

If not using a siphon, whip the egg whites separately. Fold the emu lsified mixture into the whipped egg whites, and stuff.

@ For aerated texture, shake siphon vigorously, and dispense forcemeat directly into cas ings. @ For regular boudins, stuff casings with forcemeat. @ Poach or steam sausages (boudins) at 61 oc I 142 °F to core temperature of 60 oc I 140 °F, about 35 min.

@ Puncture membrane of sausage with needle in several places to prevent explos ion. @ Sear boudins in oil until even ly gold en and slightly puffed. from page 3·243

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

131


FERMENTED SAUSAGE CD Select a sausage recipe and a fermentat ion approach . The table Best Bets for Fermented Sausages below lists several good optio ns, and the Fermentation Methods tab le at right suggests cultu res and parameters for slow, medium, a nd fast methods.

0

Select a cu lture and a curing sa lt. We recommend Bactoferm F-LC cu lture, wh ich works for all three approaches; for slow-fermented sausages, Bactoferm T-SPX produces a more traditional flavor. Follow manufacturer's in structions for rehydrating the culture before use. Use the curing sa lt indicated in the tab le on the next page.

® Grind trimmed meat and fat separately. For details, see page 3·228. Recommended grinding plate d im ensions are given in the table below.

0

Combine all ingredients. To avoid degrading the activity of the culture, mix the curing salt, carbohydrates, and season ings into the meat thoroughly before add ing the culture. Add the salt and fat last. Quantities in the recipes below are given re lative to the principal meat used. For

example, when making chorizo add 3 g sa lt, 0 .3 g curing sa lt, 0.02 g culture, and 25 g fatback to every 100 g of pork shou ld er. Use a stand mixer with a paddle mixing blade; run the mixer at low speed. ® Stuff. Stuff the sausage mixture into cas ings of the dimensions indicated in the tab le. ® Ferment by holding at the temperature, relative humidity (%R H), and time indicated in the tab le above.

0

Smoke, dry, or both (optional). Dry at the temperature and humidity shown in the table above until sa usage has lost at least 25% of its origin al wet weight for sem idri ed, or about 50% for dried sausage; approximate times are listed in the tab le above . To enco urage a coating of mold to grow on the outside of the casing, dip the sausages into a solution of Christian Hansen M-EK-4 mold cu lture before drying. For more information about smok ing meat, see page 3·208.

Best Bets for Fermented Sausages Salt

Curing salt

Culture

(mm) (in)

(sca ling)

(scaling)

(sca ling)

5

:y,6

4.2%

0.4%

0.03%

2

x6 o/,6

3.0%

0.3%

0.02%

Grind Sausage

Meat

(scal ing)

Fat

(scaling)

salami

pork shoulder beef, chuck

100% 40%

pork fatback

25%

saucisson sec

pork sho uld er

100%

pork fatback

35%

5

pepperoni

pork should er beef chuck

100% 42.5%

pork fatback

40%

5

5.1%

0.4%

0.02%

chorizo

pork shou ld er

100%

pork fatback

25%

8

3.0%

0.3%

0.02%

lap cheong

pork shou lder

100%

pork fatback

20%

10

3.0%

0.3%

0.02%

from page 3·246

132

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


Fermentation Methods Ferment Curing salt

(•c)

Slow, dried

lnsta Cure No.2

Medium, semidried

lnsta Cure No.1

Fast, fresh

lnsta Cure No.1

Method

Dry

(•F)

(d)

18

64

10

85

12

54

70

25-40

24

75

3

85

15

59

70

10-25

37

100

1

100

n/ a

n/ a

n/ a

n/ a

(%RH)

(•c)

(•F)

(d)

(%RH)

Fast fermentation lowers the pH of the sausage more quickly and further by using fast-acting cultures that work at higher temperatures, but require higher sugar content. And provided the food is refrigerated, you can skip the lengthy drying step.

VARIATION: Fermenting Sous Vide Follow steps 1 to 5 on the previous page.

CD Vacuum sea l sausages together in a single row. Be careful not to squish th e sa usages when sealing them in the bag.

0 Ferment so us vide in a water bath, combi oven, or water-vapor oven at th e desired temperature-usually 37 •c / 100 •F-for1 d. ® Paste urize at 55 •c I 130 •Ffor 2-3 h (optional).

0 Cool. The sausages must be refrigerated. ® Vacuum dry, or dry conventionally at the temperature, humidity, and time indicated in the table above (opt ion al, see page 2·433). Drying can simulate th e texture of a sausage made with the traditional, slow-dried approach.

(scaling)

Casing

Carbohydrate

(slow/ medium/ fast)

Seasonings

dextrose

0.35%/0.7%/1.1%

black pepper, coarsely ground

dextrose

0.25%/0 .5%/0.75%

dextrose

dextrose

dextrose

0.35%/0.7%/ 1.1%

0.25%/ 0 .5%/0.75 %

0 .25%/0.5%/0.75%

0.15%

garlic, finely minced

0.10%

hazelnuts, peeled, roasted , and coarsely chopped (optional)

9.0%

black pepper, coarsely ground

0.7%

garlic, finely minced

0 .1%

red chili powder

1.25%

hot paprika

1.10%

allspice

0.75%

cayenne (optional)

0.50%

black pepper

0.50 %

hot pi menton de Ia Vera

0.7%

Ancho chili powder

0 .7%

cayenne pepper

0.2%

garlic, finely minced

0.2%

soy sauce

3.00%

shaoxing wine

1.00%

monosodium glutamate

1.00%

cassia, finely ground

0.15%

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

(mm)

(in)

75

3

75

3

60

2%

33

1'}{6

20

3f.

133


SAUCISSON SEC

Yields 1.5 kg

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork shoulder, cubed and 1 kg chilled to - 1 oc I 30 °F

100%

0 0

Pork fatback, cubed and frozen

250g

25%

Garlic

13g

1.3%

Pork fatback

100g

10%

® Freeze, and cut into sma ll dice. Reserve frozen.

Hazelnuts, roasted, peeled, and chopped

90g

9%

0

Dextrose

lOg

1%

Black pepper, coarsely ground

7g

0 .7%

I nsta Cure No.2

2, 5g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Ya in fine die.

Grind pork shoulder and fatback separate ly through chilled coarse die into chilled bowl.

® Grind both separately through chil led fine die into chi ll ed bowl.

0

11.25 g Bactoferm F-RM 52 (Christian Hansen brand)

Ch ill grin der extruder bowl, coarse die, and 3 mm I

Fold ground meat and fat together, and res erve ch ill ed .

® Blanch once in boiling water, drain, and mince. Reserve. Fold minced garlic, nuts, dextrose, pepper, and lnsta Cure into ch ill ed ground pork to make forceme at.

0 .25% 1.125% (0.7%)*

® Whisk bacterial culture into water at 20 oc I 68 °F to make slurry. ® Fold into forcemeat, and mix thoroughly to eve nly distribute slurry.

@ Fold in frozen fat and salt.

Distilled water

35 g

3.5%

Salt

35 g

3.5%

Synthetic casings, 3 em by 61 em 1 11,4 in by 24 in

as needed

@ Stuff meat into casings, an d then twist into 25 em I 10 in links; tie ends with butch er's twine.

@ Dip sausages into distilled water to moisten surface, and immediately hang in fermentation chamber or other controlled-atmosphere chamber. @ Ferment at 22 oc I 72 °F and 90% relative humidity for 3 days. A thin film of bacterial growth may form on surface of sausage cas ing.

@ Hang sausages in cool room at 12 oc I 54 °F to dry for 3- 4 wk, until sausages have lost 25%40% of their original weight. The more water weight sausages lose, the d enser they become.

*(%oftotal weightofmeotondJot)

from page 3·247

FERMENTED SHRIMP SHEETS

INSPIRED BY WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw shrimp, ground

200g

100%

Coconut milk

100g

50%

0 0

Shrimp paste (belacan)

15g

7.5%

® Spread on silicone mat in layer 1 mm I

Activa Tl (or Activa RM)

6g

3%

0

Salt

1.25 g

0.65%

Yields300 g

Puree in food processor until smooth. Pass through fine sieve.

y,. in thick .

Cover, and steam in combi oven at 55 oc I 131 °F for 4 min covered.

® Refrigerate for 1 h to set. ® Steam at100 oc l 212 °F forl min, or cook so us vide at same temperature and time .

0

Cool and refrigerate.

from page 5·168

13 4

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


FAST CURED PEPPERONI

Yields1.5kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Bactoferm F-LC

0.85g

0.085% (0.05%)*

CD Whisk bacterial culture into water at 20 •c I

Distilled water

lOg

1%

Pork shoulder, cubed and 1 kg ch illed to -1 ·c I 30 ' F

100%

0

Beef chuck, cubed and frozen

425g

42.5%

@ Toss cubed meat with seasoning powder.

Pork back fat, cubed and frozen

400g

40%

Salt

51 g

5.1%

Chill grinder extruder bowl and 3 mm I Ys in fine die.

® Dry-blend seasonings except salt.

® Cover, and refrigerate for 3 h.

Dextrose

17g

1.7%

Sugar

17g

1.7%

Red chili powder

12.5 g

1.25%

Smoked paprika

llg

1.1%

Lactic acid

8.5g

0.85% (0.5%)*

Allspice, powder

7.5g

0.75%

Black pepper, powder

5g

0.5%

Cayenne

5g

0.5%

lnsta Cure No.1

3.5g

0.35% {0.2%)*

from page 3·247

68 ' F to make slurry. Reserve.

® Grind seasoned meat and fat separately into chilled bowl.

0

Stir culture slurry into meat until evenly distributed, and fold in fat and salt.

® Vacuum seal mixture, and hold at 38 •c I 100 ' F for 24 h. ® Optionally, to make pepperoni sheets, add 0.25% Activa RM to weight of meat, and roll mixture in a so us vide bag into sheet 1 mm I Y, 2 in thick (see page 2·208). @ Cook so us vide in 55

•c I 131 ' F bath for 10 min.

@ To make quick-dried pepperoni stick, form forcemeat into 1 em

I% in diameter sticks.

@ Cook so us vide in 55 ' C I 131 ' F bath for 25 min.

@ Vacuum dry for 8-24 h (see page 2-433) or air dry refrigerated for 2-3 days until desired texture is achieved.

*(%oftotal weight ofmeat)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

135


MODERNIST SAUSAGES COARSE FAT-GEL SAUSAGE

Yields420 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pork fatback

70g

100%

0 0 0

Vacuum seal, and heat to 70

0

Bring to simmer.

Sodium caseinate

5g

7%

Water

70g

100%

low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.7g

1%

Cut into medium-size cubes .

oc 1 158 °F.

Disperse gellan and sodium caseinate in water, and blend.

® Blend in warm fat cubes until fully emulsified. ® Continue blending for 3 min until mixture forms bright-white fat gel.

0

You can add the spice mix for any coarse sausage to the recipe above as a flavoring, and similarly use any spice mix for emu lsifi ed sausage in the recipe below.

Pour into conta in er, cover, and refrigerate for 24 h.

Pork shoulder, chilled

280g

400%

® Cube pork, and mix with Nutrifos and salt.

Salt

8.4 g

12%

Nutrifos 088

0.28g

0 .4%

® Mix with fat gel, and grind through coarse 5 mm I ',4 in die. @) Stuff or shape, and cook in 63 oc 1 145 °F bath to core temperature of 62 oc 1 144 °F.

from page 3·248

EMULSIFIED SAUSAGE WITH FAT GEL

Yields 600 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

100g

100%

0

Disperse alginate in water, and blend until fully hydrated.

Sodium alginate (Manugel DMF, FMC BioPolymer brand)

10 g

10% (5%)*

0 0 0

Ch ill to 0

Rendered fat or oil (liquid) 100 g

Meat

500g

100%

500%

Blend in until emulsified .

oc 1 32 °F.

Grind meat in fine 3mm

I Va in die.

® Place all ingredients in food processo r, and puree until emulsified. ® Form in mold, and cook in 62 oc 1 144 oF bath to core temperature of 61 oc 1 142 °F. Salt

12g

12%

*(%oftotal weight ofwater andfat)

from page 3·248

Yields450 g

LOW-FAT CHICKEN SAUSAGE QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

138 g

46%

0

Blend together until fully hydrated.

Xanthan gum

0.45g

0.15%

Guargum

0.18g

0.06%

Sa lt

6.9g

2.3%

Rendered chicken fat or oil

4.5g

1.5%

Comb ine meat and fat, and blend w ith gum mixture, from above, until smooth.

Chicken breast

300g

100%

0 0 0

INGREDIENT Water

Form sausages, and cook in 74 oc 1 165 °F bath to core temperature of73 oc 1 163 °F. Chill. Reheat to serve .

from page 3·248

13 6

VO LU M E 6 ·K I TCH EN MAN UAL


RARE BEEF SAUSAGE

Yields 1.8 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef chuck

l kg

100%

CD Cut meats in to 12.5 mm I

Beef sirloin

500g

50%

0

Beef short rib

300g

30%

® Chil l grinder dies and parts, as well as extruder bowl.

0 Activa RM

4.5g

0.45% (0.25%)*

Salt

36g

3.6% (2%)*

lnsta Cure No.1

3.6g

0.36% _(0.2%)*

Nutrifos 088

1.8g

0.18%

Y2 in cubes, and combine.

Freeze meat until semifirm, - 1 oc I 30 °F. Grind beef mixture once through ch ill ed 3 mm I die.

Ya in

® Dry blend. ® Fold seasoning mixture into chilled ground beef mixture until even ly distributed.

0

Roll in plastic wrap to form cylind er4 em llY2 in thick, and tie ends tightly.

® Refrigerate for 3 h.

(0.7%)*

® Cook in 55 oc I 131 °F bath to core temperature of 54 oc I 129 °F, about 35 min.

3.6%

@ Slice to desired thickness .

N-ZorbitM (Nationa l Starch brand)

36g

Black pepper, coarsely ground

9g

0.9%

Flat leaf parsley, minced

36g

3.6%

This temp eratures given here will cook the sausage beef to medium rare.

(2%)*

@ Serve with mustard if desired.

Alsatian mustard, optional as needed see page 176

*(%oftotal weight ofmeat)

from page 3·249

FRIED CHICKEN SAUSAGE

Yields 1.5 kg

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken thighs, skinless and boneless, cubed

l kg

100%

CD Chi ll grinder dies and parts, as well as extruder bowl.

Salt

26g

26%

Nutrifos 088

2.5g

0.25%

Activa RM

2.5g

0.25%

0

Ice, crushed

200g

20%

® Combine with ground chi cken in food processor, and puree until smooth and ice is melted.

Pressure rendered ch icken fat see page J.l45

400g

9%

0

Mono- and diglycerides (Giice, Texturas brand)

28g

Synthetic casing, 4 em I 1Y2 in . in diameter

as needed

INGREDIENT

0

Comb in e ch icken pieces with sa lt and Nutrifos 088.

® Grind ch icken mixture once through chil led fine die.

Fold in Activa.

® Reserve. Heat fat to 65

oc I

149 °F, and whisk in glycerid e flakes until fully dissolved .

® Cool fat mixture to 40 oc I 104 °F. 2.8%

® Slowly drizzle fat into running food processor until fully emu lsified.

(7%)*

@ Stuffforcemeat into casings to make 30 em I 12 in lengths. Tie off ends. @ Poach in 60 oc l 140 °F bath for 1 h. @ Peel cas ing from cooked sausages, and cut into four 7.5 em I 3 in portions. @ Reserve.

Chicken skin, frozen and finely ground

2 kg

200%

@ Wet-render over medium low heat until all water has evaporated and sk in pieces have fried in their own fat, about 30 min.

Water

400g

40%

@ Remove from heat, and blend with immersion blender until all skin is finely ground. @ Drain skin, and reserve fat. @ Dry skin between paper towels in 93

Salt

as needed

oc I 200 °Foven, about 20 min .

@ Season powdered skin with 1% of its weight in salt.

@ Roll sausage portions in seasoned powder just before serving. from page 3·249

*(%oftotal weight offat)

MEAT AND SEAFOOD

137


FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SOUS VIDE 0

Select and prep ingredients. Some of our favorites, along with prep steps, are listed in the tables on these two pages.

0

Vacuum seal. See chapter 9 on Cook ing So us Vide, page 2·192, for details.

® Cook. Recommended cooking temperatures and times appear in the tables, as do references to e lsewhere in the book.

Best Bets for Cooking Fruits Sous Vide Until Tender Cut to (em)

Ingredient

Prep

apricots

peeled, pitted

(in)

Cook (' C)

(' F)

(min)

halves

88

190

15

See page

apples

peeled, cored

halves

88

190

40

320

bananas

skin on

whole

88

190

12

280

cantaloupes

peeled, seeded, cubed

53

127

15

2.5

cherries

whole

88

190

7

cranberries

whole

88

190

45

grapes

whole

83

181

10

75

167

10 12

mangoes

peeled, pitted, cubed

nectarines

peeled, pitted

halves

88

190

peaches

peeled, pitted

halves

88

190

16

pears

peeled, cored

whole

88

190

60

persimmons, soft Hachiya

stemmed

quarters

88

190

20

pineapples

peeled, cored, cubed

75

167

60

plums

pitted

75

167

20

2.5

2.5 halves

from page 3·288

SOUS VIDE BABY BEET SALAD

Yields 375 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Baby beets, trimmed but not peeled

250 g

100%

0 0

Extra virgin olive oil

75 g

30%

® Remove from bag, reservingjuices, and rub off beet skins with clean kitchen towe l.

Water

so g

20%

@ Vacuum sea l beets and jui ces together.

Salt

3.Sg

1.4%

® Refrigerate for at least 2 h before serving.

Passion fruit-white soy sauce vinaigrette

SOg

20%

@ Toss beets with vinaigrette and oil.

0

see page 23

Toasted sesame oil

lOg

Vacuum sea l together. Cook so us vide in 88 ' C / 190 ' F bath for1 h.

Season with add ition a l salt.

4%

from page S·183

SOUS VIDE GLAZED PEARL ONION

Yields SO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pearl onions

SOg

100%

0

Blanch for1 min.

0

Shock in ice-water bath.

® Peel and reserve. Water

20 g

40%

Extra virgin olive oil

Sg

10%

Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

Neutral oil

as needed

Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Combine. ® Vacuum seal with onions. @ Cook so us vide in 90 ' C / 194 ' F bath for 2Y2 h.

0

Drain, and season or refrigerate until use.

from page S·221

138

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


Best Bets for Cooking Vegetables Sous Vide Until Tender Cook

Cut to (em)

(i n)

Ing redient

Peel

(min)

See page

asparagus, g reen or white

yes

15

6

85

185

15

5·147, 33

bamboo shoots, fresh

yes

2.5

1

80

176

6h

5·247

whole

85

185

1h

5·183

2

82

18 0

1h

beets, baby

no

beets, large

optional

5

carrots, large

yes

15

carrots, young

no

celery roots

yes

6

85

185

45

5·164

whole

85

185

40

25

5

2

85

185

11/2 h

chard stems

15

6

88

190

25

corn, on cob

7.5

3

60

140

15

5

daikon radishes

yes

2

85

185

25

whole

88

190

50

cut in ha lf

85

185

30

whole

85

185

1Y2 h

2

endives, Belgian fennel bulbs hearts of palm

yes

kohlrabi

optional

5

88

190

11/4 h

leeks

root removed

cut in half

85

185

50

mushrooms (shiitake, crimini, oyster, shimeji, enoki, lobster, porcini) no

w hol e

90

194

10

144

onions, cipollini

yes

whole

90

194

2h

141

onions, pearl

yes

whole

85

185

50

140

onions, sweet

yes

cut in ha lf

88

190

45

rutabagas

yes

5

2

85

185

1h

5·53

salsify

yes

5

5·205

shallots

yes

jerusalem artichokes (sunchokes)

optional

squash, summer (zucchini, yellow)

no

squash, firm autumn varieties (Hokkaido, kabocha, kuri)

yes

squash, tender autumn varieties (acorn, butternut, de Iicata) turnips

2

88

190

15

whole

85

185

1 h 25

5

2

85

185

1h

5

2

65

149

40

5

2

90

194

15

yes

5

2

85

185

25

yes

5

2

85

185

35

139

from page 3·289

SOUS VIDE TURNIP

Yields200g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Turnips

200g

100%

CD Cut turnips into sli ces 3 mm I Ys in thi ck. 0

Cut discs from eac h slice with 2.5 em I 1 in pastry c utte r.

Unsalted butter

25g

12.5%

® Vacuum sea l discs in si ngle even layer with butter, water, and sa lt.

Water

25g

12.5%

0

Salt

2g

1%

® Season with addi tional salt to taste.

Cook so us vide in 85 ' C I 185 ' F bath for 20 min .

from page 5-33

GLAZED WHITE CARROT

Yields30 0 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Small white ca rrots, pee led

300g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together.

Water

50 g

17%

® Pour cookingjuices into pot, leaving ca rrots in bag.

0

Cook so us vide in 85 ' C 1 185 ' F bath for45 min.

Unsalted butte r

45g

15%

0

Fru ctose

6g

2%

® Stir in carrots until just warmed, a nd season with additi o na l sa lt to taste.

Salt

3g

1%

Re duce cooking juices unt il syrupy, a bout 8 min .

from page 5-32

PLANT FOODS

139


BRAISED TURNIPS WITH SAFFRON INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Turnips, peeled and cut to 250 g slices 5 mm I Y.. in thick

Yields200 g

SCALING PROCEDURE 100%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for 35 min. ® Serve, or refrigerate until use.

40%

Water

100g

Saffron threads

2g

0.8%

Salt

2g

0.8%

from page 5·123

GLAZED PEARL ONION

Yields230 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pearl onions, blanched and peeled

100g

111%

Water

90g

100%

CD Prepare onions as directed. 0 Vacuum seal onions w ith other ingredients. ® Cook so us vid e in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for1 h.

Champagne vinegar

30 g

33%

@ Cool in ice-water bath.

Honey

7g

8%

® Refrigerate until use .

Salt

3g

3.5%

Neutral oil

as needed

® To serve, drain pea rl onions, cut in half through stem ends, and pat dry.

0

Sear pearl onions in oil, cut sides only, until surfaces a re golden and onions are just warmed, about3 min.

from page 5·263

POTATO SALAD

Yields 600 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fingerling potatoes

400g

100%

Salt

Sg

1.25%

CD Toss together. 0 Cook so us vide in 88 oc 1 190 oF bath for about 30 min. (Cooking time wil l depend on size of potatoes.) ® Cool in ice-water bath. @ Cut into halves or quarters, depending on size, and reserve.

Creme frakhe

SOg

12.5%

® Whisk together.

Muscat vinegar

20g

5%

® Mix gently with cut potatoes.

Walnut oil

1Sg

3.75%

French whole-grain mustard

4g

1%

Salt

2g

0.5%

Sugar

2g

0.5 %

Egg yolk, cooked so us vide, BOg at 68 oc I 154 °Ffor 35 min, cooled and quartered

20%

Pickled pearl onions, petals 48 g

12%

0

Fold gently into potato sa lad .

see page 182

Celery leaves, thinly sl iced 3 g

0.75%

Coriander seeds, toasted and crushed

2g

0.5%

Scallions, whites only

40g (four pieces)

10%

® Saute sca lli ons over medium heat until tender.

Potato skins

200g

50%

@ Toss potato skins with starch.

Potato starch

1Sg

3.75%

@ Fry in 180 oc

Frying oil

as needed

@ Toss with salt.

Salt

to taste

@ Serve with potato salad.

® Arrange on potato sa lad.

I 360 °F oil until golden and crisp, about 3 min.

from page 5·73

140

VOLUME 6 ·KITCH EN MANUAL


FRESH BEAN SALAD

Yields1oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fava beans, shelled and peeled

2Sg

100%*

CD Vacuum seal peas and each type of bean individually. 0 Cook so us vide in 88 oc I 190 °F bath for 20 min, or to desired doneness.

English peas, shelled and 20g peeled

® Cool in ice-water bath. @ Cut beans crossw ise into 2.5 em I 1 in pieces.

Romano beans, trimmed lSg Green beans, trimmed

14g

Yellow wax beans, trimmed

14g

® Combine. ® Refrigerate until use.

Purslane leaves

7g

8%

0

Roasted hazelnut o il

7g

8%

® Toss with cold beans and peas.

Vermouth vinegar(or other sem isweet wh ite vinegar)

Sg

5.7%

Scallion, thinly sliced

4g

4.5%

Lime juice

3g

3.4%

Black pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 5·87

Measure ingredients individually.

® Season sa lad. *(700% is the total weight ofall beans used)

SWEET-AND-SOUR CIPOLLINE ONION

Yields80 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cipolline onion, peeled

lOOg

100%

White wine vinegar

55 g

55%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 90 oc I 194 °F bath forl

Chestnut honey

29 g

29%

® Remove from bag and drain.

Neutral oil

2Sg

25%

Water

lOg

10%

Salt

l.Sg

1.5%

Neutra l oil

as needed

h 50 min .

@ Cut onions in half horizontally, and sear until golden.

from page5·19

CARROT AND DILL FRICASSEE

Yieldsl2Sg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Carrots, peeled

llOg

100%

Extra virgin olive oil

lOg

9%

CD Halve carrots lengthwise, and core. 0 Cut into half-moons 5 mm I V. in thick. ® Vacuum seal with oil. @ Cook so us vide in 85 oc I 185 °F bath for 40 min.

Unsalted butter

lOg

9%

® Combine remaining ingredients, and warm through in small pot.

Ajowan seeds

2g

1.8%

® Stir in cooked carrots and season.

Dill

2g

1.8%

Semisweet vinegar 2g (honey or white balsamic)

1.8%

Salt

to taste

from page 5·1 64

PLANT FOODS

141


SOUS VIDE LENTILS

Yields 650 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Carrots, thinly sliced

120g

34%

Prepare vegetables as noted.

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 120g

34%

0 0

Shallots, thinly sliced

23%

0 0

Combine, add sachet, and cook so us vide in 90 ' C I 194 ' F bath for1 h 15 min.

80g

Leeks, thinly sliced

70g

20%

Celery, thinly sliced

50g

14%

Garlic, thinly sliced

25g

7%

Thyme sprig

3g

0.8%

Bay leaf

2g

0.6%

Black peppercorns

2g

0.6%

Distilled water

lkg

286%

French green le ntils, 350g soaked in cold water for 2 h

100%

Place vegetables and aromatics together in sachet.

Discard sachet, and rest lentils at room temperature for 30 min.

® Cool in ice-water bath, and refrigerate until use.

Salt

17g

4.8%

Cherry vinaigrette

5g

1.5%

® To serve, fold into cooked lentil s.

Green hazelnuts, thinly sliced

90g

26%

0

see page 5·270

Black radish, small dice

15g

4%

Chervil tops

15g

4%

Frisee tops

15g

4%

Chamomile blossoms (fresh)

5g

1.5%

Garnish dressed lent il s.

from page 5·271

SOUS VIDE GREEN ASPARAGUS

Yields200 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

200 g Green asparagus, stalks peeled (about1.5 em I o/o in thick)

100%

0 0

Water

20g

10%

Extra virgin olive oil

lOg

5%

Salt

2g

1%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Vacuum sea l a ll ingred ients together. Cook so us vide in 85 ' C 1 185 ' F bath forlO min.

from page 5·149

SOUS VIDE ARTICHOKE

Yields1oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

200%

Baby artichokes, peeled, and chokes and tough leaves discarded

100g (four pieces)

100%

0 0 0

Yellow onion, thinly sliced

25g

25%

Carrot, peeled a nd thinly sli ced

15g

15% 5.5%

Lemon peel

5.5 g

Salt

2.5g

2.5%

Ascorbic acid

1g

1%

Thyme

1g

1%

Black coriander seeds

0.5g

0.5%

Black peppercorns

0.5g

0.5%

Bay leaf

0.2g

0.2%

Vacuum sea l together. Cook so us vide in 90 ' C I 194 ' F bath fo r 45 min. Slice artichokes and serve, or cool and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·244

142

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


VARIATION: Cooking Vegetables Sous Vide with Fat CD Select and prep. See the table below for suggestions and prep steps. 0 Add fat, and vacuum seal. The fat co lumn in the table indicates the kind

® Cook. Recommended cooking temperatures and times appear in the table below.

and quantity that work best. Proportions are relative to the weight of the vegetable. For examp le, add 20 g of olive oil to the so us vide bag for every100 goftrimmed artichokes.

Best Bets for Cooking Vegetables Sous Vide with Fat Until Tender Cook

Cut to Fat

(scaling)*

(oc)

(oF)

(min)

See page

whole

olive oil

20%

85

185

1h

142

half

olive oil

20%

85

185

lY2 h

5·172

(in)

(em)

Ingredient artichokes, baby artichokes, mature carrots, large

butter

30%

83

181

45

whole

lard

15%

90

194

12 h

whole

clarified butter

20%

85

185

35

butter

20%

95

203

45

7.5

chestnuts, peeled crosnes (Chinese artichokes)

3

Japanese yams

7.5

garlic

whole cloves

olive oil

40%

88

190

7h

potatoes

7.5

butter

30%

85

185

45

3

3

neutral oil

15%

85

185

1 h 25 min

olive oil

15%

90

194

1h

3

clarified butter

10%

90

194

40

3

butter

10%

85

185

15

whole

shallots squash, kabocha

7.5

3

sweet potatoes

7.5

turnips

7.5

from page 3·292

143

5·35

184

*(set weight of vegetable to 700%)

CHESTNUT CON FIT

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Italian chestnuts

180g

100%

CD Cut X into stem side of each chestnut. 0 Blanch for 30 s. ® Peel off receded skins and shell ca refully.

Rendered pork fat

90g

50%

0

Salt

2g

1%

® Cook so us vide in 90 °CI 194 °Fbath for12 h.

Vacuum seal chestnuts with fat and salt.

® Serve, or coo l to room temperature and refrigerate. from page 5·18

SALSIFY FONDANT

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Salsify, peeled and cut into 5 em I 2 in lengths

100 g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 95 oc I

Extra virgin olive oil

20g

20%

® Serve, or cool and refrigerate.

Water

1Sg

15%

Lim e juice

l.Sg

1.5%

Salt

1g

1%

203 °Fbath for1 h.

from page 5·18

PLANT FOODS

143


SWEET POTATO FONDANT

Yi elds200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White sweet potatoes (satsuma imo), peeled

175 g

100 %

CD Use ring cutte r to cut potatoes into tubes 4 em I 1Y2 in thic k and 6 em I 20

Water

125 g

71.4%

0 Vacuum seal togethe r with potatoes.

Unsa lted butte r, melted Salt

27.5 g 4.5 g

15.7%

® Cook so us vid e in 95 °CI 203 °F bath for 45 mi n. @ Serve, o r coo l and refrige rate.

2.6%

in . in dia meter.

fro m page 5·39

LOBSTER MUSHROOM CON FIT

Yi elds 200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lobste r mu shroom Ca rote ne bu tte r (o r unsalted bu tte r)

20 0g

100%

CD Vacuum seal togethe r.

100g

50%

0 Cook so us vide in 80 oc I 176 °F bath fo r 40 min .

4g

2%

Salt from page 5·187

® Se rve, or refri gerate unt il use.

VARIATION: Cooking Fruits or Vegetables Sous Vide for Puree CD Select and pre p ingre di e nts. See the tab le be low fo r recom me ndations. 0

Peel, ste m, or pi t the prod uce to re move coarse or bitte r co mp one nts and to simp li fy hand ling after cook ing. Cut even ly. Vacuu m sea l. See chapter 9 on Cooking So us Vide, page 2·192, for detail s.

® Cook. Reco mm e nded cook ing te mpe ratu res and tim es appea r in the tab le be low, alo ng with references to recip es elsewhere in the book . @ Puree unt il smooth. Use a blender or food processo r, and then pass through a fine sieve, ricer, or foo d mi ll. See page 2-424 for more deta ils.

Best Bets for Cooking Fruits or Vegetables So us Vide for Purees Cook

Cut to (i n)

Ingredient

(e m)

apples, pee le d

q ua rte rs, cored

(oC)

(of)

(h)

See page

88

190

2

145

bananas, p eel on

w ho le

88

190

12 min

41

blackberrie s

wh o le

65

149

1

dates, pitted

w hol e

80

176

2

garlic

cl oves, p ee le d

88

19 0

kohlra bi

7.5

3

88

19 0

1V2

5

2

75

167

20 min

mangoes mushroom s, dried

w ho le

90

194

1

mushroom s, fre sh

w ho le

90

194

2

nettles

leaves

95

203

lOm in

190

2

3

onions and s hallots

7.5

pears, p e ele d

ha lves, core d

potato es, pee led

7.5

rhubarb

7.5

rutabagas

7.5

88

190

1'/2

3

10 0

21 2

35 min

3

88

190

3

85

185

90

19 4

7 min

90

194

4 5 min

85

185

25 min

85

185

30m in

90

194

10min

leaves

s pinach

3

squash, winte r va rieties (Hokkaido, kabocha, Kuri)

7.5

tomatoes, pee led a nd seed e d

q uarte rs, co red

turnips

7.5

w atercress

3 leaves

fro m page 3-290

144

88

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

145

148, 15 1

2 39

56


SALTED CARAMEL APPLE PUREE

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sugar

40g

27%

Apple cider (store-bought)

80g

52%

CD Cook to dark caramel, about 4 min. 0 Deglaze caramel.

Apples (firm and tart), peeled, cored, and quartered

150g

lemon juice

2 .5g

1.7%

Clarified brown butter

2g

1.3%

Salt

1g

0.7%

Xanthan gum

0.3g

0.2%

® Cool syrup to room temperature. 100%

0

Vacuum sea l together with syrup.

® Cook so us vide in 90 ' C I 194 ' F bath for 2Yz h. ® Transfer from vacuum bag to small pan.

0

Reduce juice, basting apple constantly, to thick syrup, about 5 min.

® Puree with apples and syrup to smooth consistency. ® Pass through fine sieve.

@ Refrigerate. from page 5·20

TAMARIND PASTE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tamarind, pulp with seeds and fibers

350g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 80 •c I 170 ' F bath for 30 min.

Water

125g

36%

® Press through fine sieve to form fine paste, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·99

DATE PUREE

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Dates, pitted

300g

100%

Water

90g

30%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vid e in 80 ' C I 176 ' F bath for 2 h.

Ginger juice

9g

3%

® Blend fully.

Salt

1.2g

0.4%

0

Black pepper, finely ground

1g

0.3%

® Discard pulp, and refrigerate puree until use.

Cardamom pods

0.2g

0.1%

Press through fine sieve.

from page 5·122

PLANT FOODS

145


VARIATION: Cooking Fruits or Vegetables Sous Vide in Sugar Syrup CD Make the syrup. Use equal amounts of water and sugar (sucrose or other, less sweet sugars such as isomalt or glucose syrup), or adjust the sweetness to accommodate your taste and the sweetness of the fruit. Fully dissolve the sugar in the water.

0 Select and prep ingredients. The table below offers some good options. For easy handling after cooking, peel away tough skins, remove pits, and cut evenly.

® Add syrup, and vacuum seal. The syrup co lumn in the table below indicates the quantity to use relative to the weight of the fruit. For example, add 20 g of syrup to the so us vide bag for every 100 g of dried apr icot. @) Cook. Recommended cooking temperatures and times appear in the table below, along with references to recipes elsewhere in th is book.

Best Bets for Cooking Fruits Sous Vide in Sugar Syrup Until Tender Cook

Syrup Ingredient

Prep

(scaling)*

(oc)

(oF)

(h)

apples

peeled, halved, cored

50%

90

194

3

apricots, dry

whole

20%

80

176

1 12

chestnuts

peeled, whole

100%

90

194

citrus fruits (oranges, limes, lemons, mandarins, kumquats)

whole

100%

90

194

4

segments

30%

88

190

40min

quarters

40%

88

190

12

cranberries

whole

10%

88

190

45 min

grapes

whole, peeled

10%

83

181

8min

200%

90

194

5

peels with pith only

grapefruits Buddha's hand lemons

cut in to fingers

100%

75

167

2

quinces

peeled, halved, cored

100%

95

203

8

See page 217

146

*(setweightoffruitto 700%)

from page 3·291

PINK GRAPEFRUIT CON FIT

Yields250 g SCALING

PROCEDURE

200 g Pink grapefruit peel with pith from one grapefruit, pulp reserved for garn ish

100%

CD Cut grapefruit peel into e ight equa l pieces.

Water

450 g

225%

Salt

60 g

30%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

0 Blanch three times, starting from co ld water each time. ® Combine water and salt, and bring to boil. @) Add peel pieces, and simmer for 8 min. ® Drain, rinse, and coo l. ® Reserve.

Fructose

210 g

105%

0 Stir together to make syrup.

Water

210g

105%

® Add blanched peel pieces to syrup.

lsomalt

92g

46%

® Cook so us vide in 90 oc I 194 °F bath for4 h.

Citric acid

4.5 g

2.25%

@ Cool in ice-water bath, remove peel pieces from bag, and reserve syrup. @ Dice chil led peel pieces finely, and return to syrup. @ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·226

146

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


VARIATION: Cooking Heat-Sensitive Vegetables Sous Vide 0 0

Select and prep ingredients.

Best Bets for Warming Vegetables So us Vide

Vacuum seal. See chapter 9 on Cooking So us Vide, page 2·192, for details.

® Cook. Recommended cooking temperatures and times appear in the table at right.

Warm Vegetable

Prep

(oC)

(oF)

asparagus

whole, stalks peeled

70

158 5

corn

cobb

60

140 15

70

158 15

(min)

fava beans

pee led

75

167 25

green

whole

75

167 20

kohlrabi

thinly sliced

peas

pee led

spring

quartered

75 70 70

167 20 158 18 158 15

whole, peeled

75

167 45

thinly sliced

75

167 20

See page

256

chickpeas

256

turnips young carrots zucchini

from page 3·292

RED WINE CABBAGE

Yields 37S g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red cabbage leaves

100g

100%

0 0

Vacuum seal. Blanch so us vide in 90 •c / 194 • F bath for4 min.

® Cool in ice-water bath, and remove from bag immediately. @ Trim off and discard larger ribs; julienne leaves finely. ® Reserve. Red wine (dry)

200g

200%

® Combine, and reduce to 200 g.

Red cabbage juice

180g (from about 300 g cabbage)

180%

0

Pineapple juice (fresh)

6Sg 65% (from about 100 g pineapp le)

Red wine vinegar

SOg

50%

Red onion ju ice

40g (from about 100 g onions)

40%

Lime juice

1.2g

1.2%

® Season cabbage mixture.

Salt

to taste ® Warm cabbage and fold in rema ining ingredients.

Unsalted butter

40g

40%

Pineapple, small dice

35g

35%

Coriander seeds, toasted 2g and coarsely crushed

2%

Lime zest, finely grated from page 5·105

0.5%

O.Sg

Add julienned cabbage leaves, and finish cooking through, about1 min.

PLANT FOODS

147


Best Bets for Potato Purees Liquid

Fat

100%

25% whole milk creme fralche 6%

unsalted butter

Charlotte

100%

whole milk

20%

fluffy mash

Russet

100%

whole milk

15%

potato foam

Yukon Gold

100%

vegetable broth or milk

60%

heavy cream

50%

Recipe

Potato solid

Robuchon pommes puree

Ratte or fingerling

Blumenthal puree

pommes aligot

roasted potato puree

Belle de 100% Fonte nay or Yukon Gold

creme fralche 25%

Yukon Gold

Yukon Gold potato juice

100%

dried potato 10% flakes

See page

Other ingredients 2.0%

50%

salt

unsalted butter

30%

sa lt

2.0%

unsalted butter

15%

salt

1.5%

olive oil

14%

salt

1.5%

Cantal or

80%

salt

1.5%

324

Gruyere cheese, grated

65%

unsalted butter

10%

unsalted butter

73%

sa lt

2.5%

Ultra-Sperse 3

1.0%

5·5

from page 3-297

POTATO PUREE

Yields700 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yukon Gold potatoes, peeled

375 g

250 %

CD juice potatoes in vegetable juicer. 0 Centrifuge juice at 27,500g for 1 h. ® Decant juice through fine sieve.

0

Vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 90 oc I 194 °F bath for 20 min. ® Pass through fine sieve, and reserve 150 g.

0

Potato juice, from above

150g

100%

Clarified unsalted butter

37.5 g

25%

Warm butter over low heat. ® Add potato flakes and toast, stirring constantly, until go ld en brown, about 7 min.

Instant potato flakes

37.5 g

25%

® Add potato juice, bring to boil, and remove from heat.

Unsalted butter, melted

200g

133%

@ Fold butter in gently until melted.

Yukon Gold potatoes

325 g

216%

@ Reserve 425 g. @ Bake in 200 oc I 400 °F oven for 1 h. @ Cut potatoes in half, and scoop out hot flesh. @ Pass through fine-mesh drum sieve.

@ Reserve 280 g of sieved potatoes. Potato juice-butter mixture, from above

425g

283%

Sieved potatoes, from above

280g

186%

@ Whisk Ultra-Sperse into potato juice-butter mixture over low heat until warm. @ Whisk in sieved, baked potatoes slowl y.

Ultra-Sperse A (National Starch brand) 3.5 g

2.3%

Grain mustard, optional

30g

20%

Salt

to taste

@ Season and stir in mustard, if desired.

from page 5·8

148

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


COOKING PLANT FOODS UNDER PRESSURE Best Bets for Pressure-Cooking Plant Foods Ingredient

Advantage develops flavors and colors

Quince, pears Caramelized coconut milk, onion soup Chickpeas, white beans, other legumes Steel-cut oatmeal, pearl barley, other grains Whole citrus fruits, fresh coconut, nuts, other tough plant foods

browns accelerates softening

See page 280 214 5·138 3·304

softens 151

Seeds, including mustard, sesame, sunflower from page 3·300

BAKED BEANS

Yields 700 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Dry navy beans

200g

100%

CD Soak in water, refrige rated, for 8 h. 0 Rinse beans. ® Place in fresh wate r, and pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 25 min. @ Cool in cooking water.

300g

150%

® Combine to make sauce.

Sweet onions, finely minced

65g

32.5%

0

Grade B maple syrup

40g

20%

Pomegranate molasses (store-bought)

30g

15%

Tomato con fit

30g

15%

Brown pork stock see page6

® Bring to boil. Skim, and reduce to 250 g, or150 g for thicker sauce.

® Vacuum seal sauce with coo led beans. ® Cook so us vide in 80 ·c I 176 •r bath for 1 h.

see page 179

Bourbon (Wild Turkey brand)

20g

10%

Worcestershire sauce

18g

9%

Dijon mustard

15g

7.5%

Smoked Hungarian pepper, hydrated, and sieved

8g

4% 30%

Smoked ham hock meat, finely minced

60g

Salt

to taste

Sherry vinegar

to taste

@ Add to cooked beans. @ Season.

from page 5·77

PRESSURE-COOKED TARSAlS BEANS

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

40g

27%

CD Sweat together in pressure cooker until onions are translucent.

Bacon, thinly sliced

30g

20%

Rendered duck fat

lOg

7%

Garlic, thinly sliced

5.5 g

3.7%

Thyme

0.5g

0.3%

Black pepper, cracked

0.2g

0.13%

Brown pork stock

400g

267%

0

Deglaze pressure cooker.

see page 6

Dry tarbais beans (or navy beans)

150 g

100%

® Add to pressure cooker.

Calcium chloride

lg

0.67%

@ Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar 1 15 psi for45 min.

Salt

to taste

® Season.

from page 5·83

PLANT FOODS

1 49


CARAMELIZED CARROT SOUP

Yields1kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Young carrots, peeled and cored

SOOg

100%

CD Cut into 1.5 em I% in pieces.

Unsalted butter

BOg

16%

0

Salt

7.5g

1.5%

® Add carrot sli ces, salt, and baking soda.

Baking soda

2.5 g

0.5%

0

Melt butter in pressure cooker. Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar 1 15 psi for 50 min to caramelize.

® Pour cold water over cooker to depressurize quickly. ® Blend mixture to smooth puree, and press through fine sieve. Carrot juice, brought to boil and centrifuged see page 2·360

635 g (from 1.4 kg of carrots)

Water

as needed

Carotene butter (or unsalted butter)

60g

127%

0

Blend with puree, and bring to simmer.

® Blend into soup to achieve desired viscosity. 12%

® Blend into soup.

optional, see page 40

Young ginger, finely diced 4g

1.25%

@ Remove from heat, and season with more sa lt, if desired.

Tarragon, finely minced

2.5g

0.5%

@ Garnish .

Ajowain seed, lightly crushed

O.Sg

0.1 %

Licorice powder, optional O.Sg

0.1 %

from page 3·301

AUTOCLAVED ONION SOUP

Yields700g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions

1 kg

500%

CD juice 500 g of onions, and reserve 200 g of resulting juice.

0

Slice remaining 500 g of onions thinly.

® Pack sliced onions in to two 475 ml 1 1 pt canning jars, and reserve. Onion juice, from above

200g

100%

@ Combine.

Red port (dry)

40g

20%

Unsalted butter, cubed

35g

17.5%

® Pour mixture over packed onions, and seal jars. Do not overtighten, or jars may exp lode.

Sugar

12g

6%

Baking soda

l.Sg

0.75%

Black peppercorns (whole)

1g

0.5%

Thyme

O.Sg

0.25%

Salt

to taste

0

Sherry vinegar

to taste

® Portion evenly among four bowls.

® Cook in 130 •c I 265 •Fautoclave for 20 min. Alternat ive ly, pressure-cook in canner or pressure cooker at gauge pressure of1 bar 1 15 psi for 40 min.

Season soup.

Clarified unsalted butter, 2Bg melted (or rendered veal marrow fat)

14%

® Spoon thin layer of melted butter over each portion to prevent any cloudin ess caused by cheese foam.

BOg

B%

@ Siphon onto soup.

Cheese foam optional, see page 317

from page 3·302

150

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

The combination of pressurecooking and baking soda can also be applied to make a baked-potato consomme. Roast 100 g of russet potato skins until golden, combine w ith 400 g russet potato juice and 1.6 g of baking soda, and then pressure-cook as described in step 6.


CRISPY BOILED PEANUTS

Yields120 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

200%

Raw peanuts, shelled

100g

100%

0 0

Combine, and pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for 25 min. Transfer boiled peanuts to dehydrator tray.

® Dehydrate at 60 oc

0

Deep-fry in 190 oc

I 140 °Ffor 12 h. I 375 °F o il for1 min.

® Drain on paper towels, coo l, and reserve. Water

100g

100%

® Combine; let seaweed soak for 30 min at room temperature.

Dried laver (seaweed)

20g

20%

0

Sugar

20g

20%

® Dehydrate seaweed at 60 oc l 140 °Ffor12 h.

Strain to remove excess liquid from seaweed.

Salt

2g

2%

® Deep-fry in 190 oc /375 °Foi l for about 1 min.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), optional

1g

1%

@ Drain on paper towe ls, cool, and measure 25 g.

Demerara sugar

2g

2.6%

@ Grind together.

Chili powder

1g

1%

@ Toss with cooled peanuts and reserved seaweed.

Salt

O.Sg

0.5%

from page 3·303

PRESSURE-COOKED SESAME SEEDS

Yields125g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

250g

500%

Raw sesame seeds

SOg

100%

0 0

Boil seeds in water for 2 min to remove bitterness. Place blanched seeds and water in pressure cooker.

® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for JY, h.

0

Remove mixture from cooker, and coo l at room temperature.

® Strain seeds, and reserve. Toasted sesame oil

40g

Salt

to taste

80%

® Comb in e .

0

The same procedure used to pressure-cook the sesame seeds can also be app li ed to cook mustard seeds. Simply rep lace the toasted sesame oi l with good-quality o live o il or mustardseed o il.

Toss oil with cooled seeds, and season.

from page 3·303

POTATO PUREE

Yields1 kg

INSPIRED BY JOEL ROBUCHON, JEFFREY STEINGARTEN, AND HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Yukon Gold potatoes, peeled and skins reserved

SOOg

100%

Water

2 kg

400%

Sugar

20g

4%

Unsalted butter, cubed

250g

50%

Whole milk

125 g

25%

Creme fraiche

30g

6%

Salt

to taste

Flavors can be infused into the liquid s prior to using them; for instructions, see page 2·310. You can also use meat or vegetable stocks as liquid s. If using fat-free liquids, supplement with a fat such as butterfat (one of our favorites), rendered chicken fat, or olive oil.

from page 3-296

0 0

Peel and cut potatoes even ly, saving peels, and then rinse the potatoes. Vacuum seal potatoes with peelings and water (and sugar, if any), and then cook so us vide in a 70 oc I 158 °F bath for 35 min. See the table on page 148 for recommended liquids and quantities, which are expressed as a percentage of the weight of the potatoes after cook ing. You can subst itu te the liquid from the bag for liquids in the recipe.

® Remove potatoes from bag, drain, and coo l complete ly.

0

Pass potatoes through a sieve for a smoother texture. Robuchon's silky potatoes recipe, for example, calls for three passes through the sieve. We find that one pass through a very fine sieve is enough . At this point, the puree can be refrigerated for later use.

® Warm the liquid (including skin infusion, if prepared), and whisk into the potato mixture to the desired consistency. Add pureed potato flakes if made in step 4.

Optionally, saute instant potato flakes in butter until go ld en. Puree them using a mortar a nd pestle, and reserve for use as a flavor enhancer.

® Season w ith sa lt, and gent ly fo ld in Ultra-Sperse 3 or any other starch cal led for in the recipe.

® Boil potatoes until tender. Cooking times vary with the variety of potatoes and thickness of cut, but 15-25 min is typical.

@ Optionally, add cheese, and stir until fully melted and in corporated.

0

@ Serve warm.

® Drain, a nd then press potatoes through ri ce r or food mill directly over cubed butter. Then fold the potatoes with the butter.

PLANT FOODS

151


RISOTTOS VARIATION: PRESSURE-COOKING RISOTTO CD Fre eze a sheet tray. 0 Combine grains with twice their weight in water in pressure cooker.

PARBOILING RISOTTO CD Freeze a sheet tray, and bring a pan of water to a boil. 0

Parboil the grains. See th e tabl e below for recommended times.

Parcook for time recommended in the table below.

® Drain with a fine sieve.

0

® Follow steps 3-7 at left.

Spread the gra ins even ly in a thin laye r on the chilled tray to cool.

® Cover tightly with plastic wrap or vacuum seal. Refrigerate until needed, but for no more than one week.

VARIATION: COOKING RISOTTO SOUS VIDE CD Preheat the water bath to 90 °C I 194 °F.

® Finish cooking for the time recommended in the tab le. Follow steps 8-10 on page 153.

0

0

Season. If using a non-starchy gra in you may need to thicken (see page 156).

Vacuum seal the grains with twice their weight in liquid.

® Parcook. See the cook so us vide column in the table below for recommended times.

0

Chill in an ice-water bath. Refrigerate in the bag until needed.

® Follow steps 6 and 7 at left.

Best Bets for Risotto Parcooking time (choose one method)

Finish on stove top

For pressureFor Cook so us vide boiled cooked (min) (min) (min)

For so us vide (min) Sauce or finish See page

Crain

cooking*

PressureBoil cook (min) (min)

amaranth, rinsed well

190%

13

4

17

1h

2

2

thicken

bomba rice

240%

8

4

n/ a

4h

3

n/ a

mantecato

brown rice

225%

12

6

30

6

5

4

mantecato

forbidden rice

150%

17

7

23

3

3

3

integral sauce

pearl barley

185%

18

12

25

4

4

5

thicken

156

Y2

2

thicke n

155

Yield after

156 153

pine nuts

110%

9

7

25

1

quinoa

235%

7

2

10

2

3

2

mantecato

156

risotto rices (Arborio, carnaroli)

200%

6

3

n/a

3

3

n/a

mantecato

153

short-grain Japanese rice

210%

4

2Y2

n/ a

3

2

n/ a

thicken

spelt, soaked overnight

150%

15

12

25

3

4

3

integral sauce

156

steel-cut oats, rinsed

185%

7

5

9

2V2

2

2

thicken

154

wild rice

150%

30

25

45

2Y2

2

4

mantecato

*lfinal cooked weight ofeach grain-for example, every 700 g ofdry bomba rice yields 240 g when cooked)

from page 3·305

STEAMED STICKY RICE

Yields150g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White chicken stock or water

60g

100%

CD Hand-bl e nd together. 0

see page 6

40g

67%

Clarified unsalted butter, 12g warmed

20% 3.5%

Coconut milk

Reserve refrigerated .

Salt

2g

Water

480g

800%

® Combine.

Sticky rice

60g

100%

0

Refrigerate for 12 h to soak rice.

® Drain ri ce. Spread on cheesecloth-lined perforated tray. ® Steam rice for 30 min. Allow to rest, uncovered, for 5 min.

0

Warm reserved stock and coco nut milk mixture, and fold into cooked rice.

from page 5·119

152

VOLUME 6 ·KI TCHEN MANUAL


RISOTTO MILANESE

INSPIRED BY GUALT I ERO MARCHESI

Yields250 g

0

Freeze a sheet tray to use for cool ing the rice.

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

0 0

Bring stock to bo il.

So us vide vegetable stock

400g

267%

see pagel3

Sa ute onions and sha ll ots. When trans lu cent, add rice, and continu e saute ing until a lso translucent, about 5 min.

Olive oil

45g

30%

@) Deglaze pan with wine.

Yellow onions, finely mince d

50g

33%

® Ladle 100 g of stock into pan, and parcook over high heat. Add two more 100 g ladlefuls o f stock, allowing each amount to be fully absorbed before adding another. Parcook for exactly 6 min.

Shallots, fin e ly mince d

lO g

6 .5%

Carnaroli rice

150g

100%

Ita lia n white wi ne (dry)

100g

67%

® Drain with a fine sieve, reserving any li quid.

Parmigiano Reggia no cheese, finely grated

57g

38%

0

Spread t he risotto in a th in layer on the chill ed tray, and cover tray tightly with plastic wrap. Refrigerate until needed. Up to t hi s point, you can substitute othe r pa rcook ing techniques such as so us vi de or pressure cook ing (see previous page).

® To finish cooking, put coo led, parcooked risotto in pan, a nd add rema ining stock. Cook for a nother 3 min for a! dente or un til desired texture is ach ieved.

Unsalted butter, cubed

30g

20%

Saffron threads

0.4g

0.25%

Black pepper, finely ground

to taste

Salt

to taste

Gold leaf

fo ur sheets

from page 3·306

® Remove from heat, and fo ld in cheese, butter, saffro n, and pepper. Season with sa lt. @ Spoon one portion of risotto onto center of plate or bowl. Garnish with gold leaf.

PAELLA RICE

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Spa ni sh onions, finely minced

25g

20%

0

Saute together in pressure cooker until tender and translucent, about 7 min.

Olive oil

20g

16%

Piquillo pepper, finely minced

20g

16%

Sweet pimento pepper, fi ne ly minced

15g

12%

Smoked bomba rice (or regular bomba ri ce)

125g

100%

0

Add rice to onion mixture, and cook until translucent, about 2 min.

325 g

260%

0

Add wine a nd 150 g of stock to rice and on ion mixture, and pressure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 3 min .

35 g

28%

@) Run cold water over sea led pressure cooker.

see page 183

Paella stock see page 9

Spa nish white wine (dry and fruity)

® Drain rice, discarding liquid. ® Spread rice on chi ll e d baking sheet to speed coo ling.

0 Saffron threads

2g

Salt

to taste

1.6%

Transfer to conta in er, and refrigerate rice and remaining175 g of paella stock separate ly until use.

® Finish cooking pae ll a ri ce by simmering, while add ing remaining stock a little at a time, until rice is a! dente, abo ut 5 min. ® Remove from heat, add saffron, and season w ith sa lt.

from page 5·241

PlANT FOODS

1 53


SOUS VIDE CLAM AND OAT RISOTTO INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

150g

150%

CD Vacuum seal together.

Steel-cut oats, rinsed with warm water to remove starch

lOOg

100%

0

Mussel jus

SOg

50%

lOOg

100%

Yields585 g

Cook so us vide in 90 °C 1 194 °F bath for10 min .

® Strain, and reserve liquid. @ Cool oats, and reserve.

see page37

Geoduck clams, belly meat only

® Vacuum seal. ® Cook so us vide in 50 °C I 122 °F bath for 30 min.

0 Montpellier butter

100g

100%

see page 298

Slice thinly, and reserve.

® Melt in pan and then add cooled oats. ® Stir until warmed through, and then add reserved cooking liquid as necessary to ach ieve desired consistency.

Salt

to taste

Wild arugula

2Sg

25%

@ Combine in small bowl, and toss to coat evenly.

Extra, virgin olive oil

15g

15%

@ Spoon oats in thin layers in warmed bowls.

Leeks, whites only, fine julienne

1Sg

15%

@ Top each portion with geoduck belly.

Radishes, fine julienne

15g

15%

Champagne vinegar

lOg

10%

Young ginger, fine julienne

7.5g

7.5%

@ Season oats, and reserve warm .

@ Garnish with salad.

from page 3·308

PRESSURE-COOKED VEGETABLE RISOTTO INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, minced

40g

20%

CD Saute shallots in uncovered pressure cooker until tra nslucent.

Vegetable oil

20g

10%

Carnaroli rice

200g

100%

White vegetable stock

180g

90%

see page 6

0

Add to shallots, and saute until slightly toasted and tra nsluce nt, about 2 min.

® Stir liquids into rice mixture. @ Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for sy, min.

Carrot juice

llOg

55%

Celery juice

llOg

55%

Vermouth

SOg

25%

Aged Gouda cheese, finely grated

100g

50%

Unsalted butter, cubed

12g

6%

Salt

to taste

® Pour cold water over pressure cooker to quickly depressurize.

® Mix into hot ri sotto.

0

Season risotto.

from page 3·308

154

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

Yields600g


BRAISED PINE NUTS WITH WINTER SQUASH INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White veal stock

250g

250%

CD Puree until smooth, and reserve.

lOg

10%

1 kg (from 4 kg squash)

1,000%

YieldsSOO g

see page 6

Tomato con fit seepage179

Kabocha squash juice

0

Bring to simmer, and remove from heat.

® Strain through fine sieve to clarify, and reserve.

White wine (dry)

75 g

75%

@ Reduce to 50 g, about 5 min, and reserve.

Olive oil

25g

25%

® Saute until tender.

Shallots, finely minced

25 g

25%

Pine nuts, lightly toasted

lOOg

100%

® Add to shallots, and deglaze with w in e reduction .

0 Add stock mixture and kabocha squash juice. ® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 7 min. ® Cool. @ Drain, reserving pine nuts and liquid separate ly. ® Reduce liquid to form glaze. @ Fold glaze into reserved pine nuts, and cool. @ Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate. Kuri squash, peeled and cut into large dice

lOO g

100%

Extra virgin olive oil

lOg

10%

Salt

to taste

@ Vacuum seal. @ Cook so us vide in 90 •c I 194 "F bath for 1\4 h. @ Pass through fine sieve. ® Season kuri squash puree, and measure 80 g.

Pickled butternut squas h, lOOg drained, from above

100%

Extra virgin olive oil

lSg

15%

Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, grated

12g

12%

Saffron threads

0.1 g

0.1 %

Black pepper, freshly ground and sifted

to taste

Orange zest, grated

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Reheat reserved pine nuts, and fold into kuri squash puree.

@ Fold in pickled butternut squash, olive o il, and cheese.

@) Season squash mixture.

from page 5·65

PLANT FOODS

155


RAGOUT OF GRAINS

Yields280 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Button mushrooms, peeled

2 kg

2,000%

0

Grapeseed oil

100 g

100%

® Roast in 175 ' C I 350 ' F oven until go ld en, about 30 min .

Water

800g

800%

Coat mushrooms in oil.

® Place with roasted mushrooms in pot, and simmerfo r1 h. @ Stra in. ® Measure and reserve 1 kg of mushroom stock, divided into four portions of 250 g each. ® Measure and reserve 25 g more of mushroom stock for use during finishing.

0

Spelt, soaked for 12 h

35 g

35%

Pearl barley, rinsed

40g

40%

Quinoa

35 g

35%

Sprouted brown rice

35 g

35%

Raw foie gras, brought to room temperature

20g

20%

@ Drain.

Unsalted butter, cubed, brought to room temperature

20g

20%

@ Pass through fine sieve, and whisk with butter.

Shiitake mushrooms, finely minced

lOOg

100%

Shallots, finely minced

75 g

75%

Seasonal wild mushrooms, finely minced

40g

40%

Rendered duck fat

45g

45%

Brown chicken jus

25 g

25%

Mushroom stock, from above

25 g

25%

lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Combine w ith 250 g mushroom stock and pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar 1 15 psi for12 min.

® Drain, coo l, and refrigerate. ® Combine with 250 g mushroom stock and pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar 1 15 psi for12 min. @) Drain, cool, and refrigerate. @ Comb in e with 250 g mushroom stock and pressure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 2 min. @ Drain, cool, and refrigerate. @ Comb in e with 250 g mushroom stock and pressure-cook at gauge pressureof 1 bar l 15psifor6min. @ Stra in, cool, and reserve.

@ Vacuum seal foie gras butter, and refrigerate. @ Saute mushrooms in duck fat until light go ld en and tender, about 10 min. @ Add cooked grains, and warm through. @) Finish w ith reserved foie gras butte r, brown chicken jus, and mushroom stock.

see page 34

® Season ragout .

from page 5·129

ROOT VEGETABLE RISOTTO

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

60g

50%

0

Olive oil

48g

40%

White wine

160g

133%

Carrots, cut like rice

120g

100%

® Add to sha ll ots.

Potatoes, cut like rice

120g

100%

@ Cook together until vegetab les areal dente, about 7 min.

Turn ips, cut like rice

l20g

100%

Vegetable stock

40g

33%

® Whisk together in bowl.

Ultra-Sperse 5 (Nationa l Starch brand)

2.4g

2%

0

Squash puree, warmed

60g

50%

® Stir into risotto.

Unsalted butter, cubed

30g

25%

® Fold into risotto until creamy.

Parmesan cheese, finely grated

24g

20%

Salt

to taste

see page 6

Saute sha ll ots until tender.

® Deglaze shal lots, a nd reduce until dry.

® St ir into cooked vegetables. Bring mixture to simmer, and remove immediately from heat.

see page 55

@) Season.

from page 3·309

156

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


MICROWAVED VEGETABLES 0 0

Select a technique. The table below lists our recommendations.

® Evenly arrange them on a microwave-safe dish, or seal as specified.

Prepare your ingredients in a uniform size.

@ Microwave at the prescribed power level.

Best Bets for Microwaving Vegetables Time

Power

Technique

Best Bets

Prep

Procedure

(min)

(W)

cooking root vegetables

baby beet, carrot, celery root, potato, turnip

whole

vacuum seal

3-7

800

cooking leafy greens

bok choy, broccoli, cabbage

whole

place in 2 mm I X6 in of water in microwave- 3-5 safe dish, and cover with plastic wrap

800

cooking bulbs and fibrous vegetables

artichoke, cardoon, celery, fennel, leek, on ion, scallions

whole

vacuum seal

2-5

600

frying herbs

basil, carrot top, Italian parsley, leaves sage

arrange on oiled plastic wrap

3-4

600

dehydrating raw vegetable purees into powders

beet, carrot, mushroom, parsnip, spinach

spread raw puree thinly onto microwave-safe dish

12-20 200

puree

from page 3·311

MICROWAVE-FRIED PARSLEY INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Frying oil

as needed

Flat-leaf Italian parsley, leaves only

30g

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

SCALING

100%

Yields 8 g

PROCEDURE

0

Stretch plastic wrap over microwave-safe plate, ensuring that it is flush with bottom of plate and adheres tightly to p late's edges.

0

Brush plastic wrap with th in film of oil.

® Lay parsley across plastic wrap, leaving approximately 2 em I :Y., in between leaves. @ Brush tops of leaves thinly with oil. ® Microwave at 600 W (75% power) for 4 min or until crisp, checking leaves every 1Y2 min to prevent burning.

Salt

® Transfer fried parsley to paper towel-lined tray.

to taste

0 Season.

® Reserve in airtight container, preferably lined with silica gel desiccant. from page 3·312

TOMATO POWDER ADAPTED

FROM THOMAS KELLER

INGRED IENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato pulp, peeled, seeded, and finely chopped

200g

100%

0 0

Yields 15 g

Squeeze tightly in towel to extract excess moisture. Spread in thin, even layer on microwave tray lined with parchment paper.

® Microwave on low power for 30-40 min, or until pulp has dried comp letely but stil l retains its color. @ Cool to room temperature. ® Grind in coffee or spice grinder until as fine as possible. ® If some pieces do not break up during grinding, sift powder through fine mesh strainer while stirring w ith spoon. 0 Store in covered plastic container.

Inexpensive PVC-based cling film should not be used for this technique because it poses health hazards. Use polyethylene-based fi lms instead. Microwave ovens can be used for dehydrating fruits, vegetables, a nd herbs in the same manner as this recipe. Of course, conventional methods of dehydration could also be used (see page 2-428).

from page 3·312

PLANT FOODS

157


ARTICHOKE AND POTATO CHAAT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields 600 g (4 portions)

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Artichoke hearts, cleaned 200 g

100%

Water

lOOg

50%

CD Combine and vacuum seal. 0 Microwave at 800 W (full power) for 3 min, and then coo l for 2 min in bag.

Extra, virgin olive oil

40g

20%

® Remove art ichokes very carefully from bag (steam will escape), and cool comp lete ly.

Unsalted butter

32g

16%

@ Cut into small dice, and reserve.

Fingerling potatoes (whole)

200g

100%

® Combine a nd vacuum seal.

Brown butter

40g

20%

0

® Microwave at 800 W for 3 min, and then cool for 2 min in bag.

see page 4 ·213

Water

25 g

Saffron threads

0.1 g

0.05%

Masala Sev (chickpea flour noodles), store-bought

30 g

15%

Cashews, coarsely crushed

lOg

5%

Cilantro leaves (small)

lO g

5%

Dates, thinly sliced

lOg

5%

Mint, fine julienne

5g

2.5%

lim e juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Yogurt foam

lOOg

50%

40g

20%

12.5%

Remove potatoes very carefully from bag, and cool completely.

® Cut into small dice, a nd reserve .

® Toss with diced artichokes and potatoes.

@ Season chaat, and divide into equa l portions. @ Garnish chaat generously.

see page329

Tamarind paste see page 145

Chaat masala

to taste

see page 50

from page 3·313

SICHUAN BOK CHOY

Yields 350 g (4 portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Hoisin sauce (storebought)

20g

10%

CD Combine, and bring to simmer. 0 Cool and reserve.

Fermented black bean and chili paste (storebought)

15g

7.5%

Shaoxingwine

8g

4%

Soy sauce

5g

2.5%

Toasted-sesame oil

lg

0.5%

Shiitake mushroom caps (smallest possible)

lOOg

50%

® Blanch in boiling water for 2 min. @ Transfer to bowl, and reserve.

Rice wine vinegar

lOOg

50%

® Whisk together until fully d issolved.

Water

50g

25%

® Bring brine to simmer, an d remove from heat.

Sugar

25g

12 .5%

0

Salt

3g

1.5%

® Cool completely to pickle mushrooms, and reserve .

Baby bok choy, cleaned and cut in half

200g

100%

Water

50g

25%

@ Re move bok choy from bag, and serve immediate ly.

Pressure-cooked sesame 50g seeds

25%

@ Garnish bok choy with spicy sauce, pickl e d mushrooms, sesame seeds, and chili oil.

® Vacuum seal together. @ Microwave at 800 W (full power) for 2 min, and then cool for 2 min in bag.

@ Serve with steamed rice.

see page 151

Dried chili oil

Pour warm brine over blanched mushrooms.

lOg

5%

see page28

from page 3-313

15 8

VOLU ME 6 ·K I TC HEN MANUAL


Best Bets for Naked Frying Prep

Deep-fry

Ingredient

(e m )

artichokes, baby

quartered

3

asparagus, green

who le

3

(in)

(m in)

CD Prep. Preheat fry ing oi l to 190 oc I 375 °F, and cut vegetables to d im ensions indicated. The dried sh iitake must be hydrated with warm water for at least 30 min before frying.

0

Fry for th e tim e in dicated in the table. The vegetab les typica ll y turn very dark brown and look alm ost ove rcooked.

® Drain, and transfer fried vegetab les to a tray lin ed with paper towe ls. Season w ith sa lt.

and white bok choy

qu artered

4

broccoli, florets

2.5

3

1

TOASTED GARLIC CHIPS

Yields 24 pieces

Brusse ls sprouts

halved

5

INGREDIENT QUANTITY

cauliflower, florets

2.5

4

Garlic cloves

50g

cucumber

2.5

1

4

Milk, cold

as needed

0

daikon radish

1.25

0. 5

eggplant

2.5

Frying oil

as needed

0

Salt

to taste

® Season .

SCALING PROCEDURE 100%

CD Slice 1 mm I ){6 in thick.

8

Cover garlic sli ces w ith milk, heat to 70 and drain.

oc I 158 °F,

® Repeat two more times.

5

green beans

w hol e

3

scallions

whole

2

shiitake, fre sh

whole

4

shiitake, dried

whole

2

Deep-fry garli c sli ces in 160 oc I 320 °F oil until golden and crisp, about 5 min.

® Serve or store in cool, dry place. from page 5·9

3

squash, autumn

2.5

sunchoke

1.25

0.5

3

zucchini

1.25

0 .5

1Y2

from page 3·320

DEEP-FRIED BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Yields 350 g (fo ur portion s)

ADAPTED FROM DAVID CHANG INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fi sh sa uce

130g

26%

CD Whisk toget her unti l sugar dissolves. 0 Rese rve sauce.

Lim e jui ce

70g

14%

Sugar

60g

12%

Water

55g

11%

Ri ce wine vinegar

25g

5%

Garlic clove, minced

5g

1%

Bird 's eye chili, minced

3g

0.6%

Xanth an gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.53g

0.1 % (0.75%)*

Rice puffs

20g

4%

Cilantro ste ms, 1 em I 'Is in long

lO g

2%

Small mint leaves

4g

0.8%

Brusse ls spro uts

500g

100%

® Measure individu all y, and reserve for garn ish .

0

Peel off tough outer leaves until only cores remain, about 2 em I :Y., in each in diameter.

® Slice in half. Frying oil

as needed

® Deep-fry sp routs in 180 oc I 355 °F oil until tend er and very dark, abo ut 5 min .

0

Drain on pape r towels .

® Toss with sauce, arrange o n plates, an d garnish. from page 3·321

*(%oftotal weightoffirstfive ingredients)

PLANT FOODS

15 9


POMMES PONT-NEUF

INSPIRED BY HESTON BLUMENTHAL

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potatoes

500g

100%

Water

500g

100%

0 0

Sugar

15g

3%

Salt

7.5 g

1.5%

® Add potatoes and water mixture to pot, and bo il for about 20 min until very tender and nearly fall ing apart.

Baking soda

0.75g

0.25%

@) Drain, and place warm potatoes on wire rack in vacuum chamber.

Cut into batons 1.5 em I% in thick by 1.5 em

I% in ta ll.

Whisk sugar, salt, and bak ing soda into water.

® Pull vacuum until surfaces of chips are dry and chips feel coo l, 3- 4 min. ® Optiona ll y, vacuum -coo l again, or air-coo l in single layer.

0

Blanch in 150 ' C I 300 ' Foi l until chips are mostly cooked but st ill pale, about 7 min.

® Deep-fry in 220 ' C I 430 ' Foil until crisp, about 2 min . ® Drain on paper towels. from page 3·323 A vacuum treatment both coo ls and dries the exterio r of t he fries. Heston Blumenthal fou nd that th is process produces a thicker, crunchier crust. He does the vacuum cooling and drying step tw ice: first after boiling, and again after parcooking. Air-cooling the chips after the boi ling step yields a th inn er, more deli cate crust. To air- cool the fries, place them in a single layer on a w ire rack. You ca n use a hou se hold fan to speed t he process. We find that vacuum coo ling and drying after parfrying produces a chip that is too dry for o ur tastes. We prefer to vacuum coo l after boiling, but to air cool after parfrying.

PECTINASE-STEEPED FRIES

Yields350 g

ADAPTED FROM NILS NOREN AND DAVE ARNOLD INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potatoes

500g

100%

0 0

Water

500g

100%

® Combine w ith rinsed potatoes.

Pectinex Ultra SP-L (Novozymes brand)

2g

0.4%

@) Soak forl h, and drain.

Water

500g

100%

® Vacuum seal with potatoes in one even layer.

Salt

lO g

2%

Cut into batonsl .5 em /% in thick byl.5 em / % in tall. Rinse thorough ly to remove surface starch.

® Steam at 100 ' C I 212 ' Ffor 15 min.

0

Drain and coo l.

® Bl anch in 170 ' C I 340 ' Foil for 3 min, and cool. ® Deep-fry in 190 ' C I 375 ' Fo il until crisp, about 3 min. @ Drain on paper towe ls. from page 3·324

STIR-FRIED FIDDLEHEAD FERNS

Yieldsl55 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fidd lehead ferns

120g

100%

0

White ch icken stock or water

40g

33%

Stir-fry fidd leheads in very hot oi l for 2 min, moving them constantly to ensure blistering without burning. Douse with stock or water, a little at a time, until cooked through.

0

Add garnishes and continue stir-frying for 20 s.

see page ll

Frying oil

20g

16.7%

A lsatian bacon, sma ll dice

20g

16.7%

Scallions, fine juli enne

lOg

8.3%

Garlic, germ removed and finely minced

6g

5%

Black peppercorns, coarsely ground

2.5 g

2%

Salt

to taste

® Season garnished fiddleheads, and arrange on plates.

from page 5·11 9

160

VOLUM E 6 ·K I TCHEN MANUA L


STARCH-INFUSED FRIES

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potatoes

500g

100%

CD Cut into batons 1.5 em I% in t hi ck by 1.5 em I% in tall , and rinse thoroughly to remove surface

Water

lOOg

20%

0

Potato starch

50g

10%

® Vacuum seal.

Water

500g

100%

® Vacuum sea l with potatoes in one even layer.

Salt

lOg

2%

starch. Combine with rinsed potatoes.

@) Refrigerate for 30 min, and drain. ® Steam at 100 ' C I 212 ' F for 15 min.

0

Drain.

® Place hot fries on wire rack in vacuum chamber. ® Pull vacuum until surfaces of fries are dry. @ Blanch in 170 ' C I 340 ' Foil for 3 min, and cool. @ Deep-fry in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil un til crisp, about 3 min. @ Drain on paper towels. from page 3·325

ULTRASONIC FRIES

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potatoes

500g

100%

CD Cut into batons 1.5 em I% in thick byl .5 em I% in tall, and rinse thoroughly to remove surface

Water

500g

100%

0

Salt

lOg

2%

® Cook atlOO ' C I 212 ' F forl5 min.

starch . Vacuum seal with potatoes in one even layer.

@) Transfer to ultrasonic bath, and cavitate for 45 min. ® Flip bag, and cav itate in ultrasonic bath for another 45 min. ® Drain.

0

Place hot fries in singl e laye r on wire rack.

® Coo l at room temperature, with or without fan. ® Blanch in 170 ' C I 340 ' Foil for 3 min, and cool. @ Deep-fry in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil until golden and very crisp, about 5 min. @ Drain on paper towels. from page 3·325

STARCH-INFUSED ULTRASONIC FRIES

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Russet potatoes

500g

100%

CD Cut into batons 1.5 em 1% in thick byl .5 em 1% in tall,

Water

500g

100%

0

Salt

lOg

2%

and rinse thoroughly to remove surface starch. Vacuum seal together with potatoes.

® Cook atlOO ' C I 212 ' F forl5 min. @) Drain. Cool, and reserve.

Water

lOOg

20%

® Whisk togeth er.

Potato starch

50g

10%

® Vacuum seal carefu lly with cooked potatoes.

0

The chips must be cooled and dried both after the boiling step and after parfrying. Vacuum cooling and air cool ing both work, but yield different textures- see page 3·322.

Cavitate in ultrasonic bath for 45 min.

® Flip and cavitate in ultrasonic bath for another 45 min. ® Drain. @ Place hot fries on wire rack in vacuum chamber.

We use a 21 I I 5Y2 gal Branson 8150 ultra sonic bath set at a frequency of 40kHz for making these fries.

@ Pull vacuum until surfaces of fries are dry. @ Blanch in 170 ' C I 340 ' Foil for 3 min, and cool. @ Deep-fry in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foi l until crisp, for 3 min. @ Drain on paper towels. from page 3·325

PLANT FOODS

161


FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CHIPS Best Bets for Fried Fruit and Vegetable Chips Slice (mm)

Ingredient apple Asian pear carrot

1-3 cucumber (and pickles)* 1-3 eggplant* 3 jalapeno* 3 lotus root 1-3 celery root

melon pineapple potato strawberry* tomato*

1 1-3 3 3

watermelon

Deep-fry

(in)

(oC)

(oF)

(s)

%2 %2 y32 YJrYa %rYa Ya Ya %2-Ya y32 y32 Y32-Ya Ya Ya %2

165 190 190 165 165 165 165 190 165 165 190 165 165 165

330 375 375 330 330 330 330 375 330 330 375 330 330 330

105 100 40 60 15-25 90 15 15-25 105 120 35 40 15 105

G) Slice evenly. See the table at left for suggested ingredients and thicknesses. Use a meat slicer, if available, to produce slices of uniform thickness.

0

Mix Crisp Coat UC or potato starch with water to make a slurry. Optionally, add Methocel K100M to the slurry to reduce oil.

® Dip sli ces in starch slurry, and arrange them in one layer in a so us vide bag. Vacuum seal. A full vacuum impregnates the sli ces with starch, yie lding a texture similar to that of a thin potato chip.

0

Remove sl ices from bag, and pat dry.

® Dehydrate (optional). For delicate fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumbers, and jalapenos, dehydrate the starch-coated slices at 50 oc I 122 °F until complete ly dry, up to 2 h. ® Deep-fry until crisp and golden. See the table for a re co mmended oil temperature and frying time.

0

Drain on absorbent paper towels, and season with salt.

from page 3·328 *(dehydroteat60 °C/ 140 °Fjar 1h beforefrying)

WATERMELON CHIPS

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Seedless watermelon flesh, skin and pith removed

200g (from one whole)

100%

Water

100 g

50%

Crisp Coat UC (National Starch brand) 50 g or raw potato starch Salt

to taste

Neutral oil

as needed

25%

Adding 0.5% of Methocel K100M by weight of slurry can reduce the oil uptake of the chips after frying by up to 20 %. For regular potato ch ips, simply compress the potato slices with a stock so luti on of100% water and 0.5% Methocel K100M before fry in g for simi lar results. The film-forming properties of methylcellulose prevent the vacuoles from absorb in g as much oil upon coo lin g.

from page 3·328 Yields 100 g

RESTRUCTURED POTATO CHIPS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

CD Comb in e a ll ingredients. 0

Blend (optiona l). For puffed chips on ly, puree with hand blender or blender until smooth, about 1 min .

Water

200g

400%

Instant potato flakes

50 g

100%

® Cast mixture into circu lar template, 2 mm I in diameter.

Raw potato starc h (or Ultra-Crisp CS or Crisp Coat UC for puffed chips)

18.5 g

37%

0

Neutral oil

15 g

30%

Salt

1.5 g

3%

® Turn over (optiona l). For puffed chips only, flip and bake another 2-3 min to e nsure they are comp letely baked through .

3 in.

Bake in 175 °( I 350 °F oven on tray lin ed with silicone mat until golden and crisp, about 9 min.

from page 3·330 To make puffed chips, use Ultra-Crisp CS or Crisp Coat UC rather than raw potato starch, and include step 5. For a great flavor add ition, replace the water with cheese-infused water (see page 20).

162

:Y" in thick and 7.5 em I

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


BATTER-FRYING 0

Select a batte r. Use the Batter Textures ta bl e at right to choose a n option that yie ld s the texture you desire.

0

Mix flou rs or starches with season in gs. Ingre di e nts a nd proportions a re li sted in the table below.

® Blend liquid with rising age nts . @ Whisk liquid into dry mi xture. ® Pour batter into sip hon (for siphon ed batters only). Cha rge siphon with the gas li sted in the sca ling co lumn . ® Coat food with a n ad hesive (optio na l). Batters cling better to lowmoi sture fo ods if yo u first dip the food in milk, eggs, or a noth e r sticky substa nce.

0

Batter Textures Crisp

Crunchy

airy

te mpura, whole egg

lacy

yeast

thin

cid e r

crispy tempura

rich dense

Extra crispy

egg yolk beign et

cornmeal

from page 3·332

Coat even ly in dry starc h (see page 162). Shake off a ny excess.

® Dispense batter into bowl, a nd coat th e food eve nly. ® Fry. For recommended frying temperatures a nd times, see individual recipes. @ Pat dry, and seaso n. Salt is app ropri ate for most food s.

Best Bets for Batters Batter

Flour or starch

(sca ling) Seasoning

tempura

fl o ur

67%

rice flour

67%

whole egg yeast

crispy tempura

cider

egg yolk

beignet

cornmeal

sweet- potato starch 37.5% flour

37.5%

Trisol (Texturas brand)

90%

flour

65%

flour

28.5%

co rnstarch

12.5%

Ultra Crisp CS (National Starch brand)

10.0%

tapioca starch

35%

flour

25%

xanthan gum

0 .15%

potato starch

(scaling) liquid

n/ a

salt

2%

salt

1%

salt

3%

n/ a

50%

salt

2.5%

flour

35%

glutinous rice flour

15%

Old Bay salt

1.0%

flour

33 .0%

salt

2%

ta pioca starch

(scaling) Rising agent

5·197

sake

100%

baking powder

2%

75%

siphon*

malt syrup

8%

two c harges of C0 2

blonde ale

100%

dry yeast

0.6%

egg

15%

siphon*

two charges ofN,O

water

100%

fresh yeast

2%

water

100.0%

baking powder

0.5%

vodka

12.5%

siphon*

two charges ofN,O

ha rd cider

100%

baking soda

0.75%

siphon*

two charges ofN,O

ice water 100% malt vinegar 30% 8% 100%

33. 0 %

carbonated water

trehalose

16.5%

vodka

11 %

co rnm eal

40.0%

salt

buttermilk

100%

flour

17.5%

cayenne p e ppe r 0 .5%

from page 3·333

See page

vodka

egg yolk

1.5%

(sca lin g)

164

166

thermal shock

baking soda

1.5%

Methoce l SGA 150 1.25% baking powder

0.60%

*(we use 7 l siphons;fill siphon at least halffull, and adjust quantity ofcharges as needed)

PLANT FOODS

163


SPOT PRAWN AND LOTUS ROOT TEMPURA WITH SMOKED WHITE SOY SAUCE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shrimp meat

150g

75%

0

Combine, and blend to fine paste.

Lard

15g

7.5%

Japanese potato starch

lOg

5%

Egg yolk

8g

4%

Egg white

7g

3.5%

Sake

7g

3.5%

White soy sauce

7g

3.5%

Ginger, mas hed to paste

2g

1%

Salt

2g

1%

0 0 0

Fill cavities of lotu s root slices with shrimp paste.

Yields 600 g

Young lotus roots, peeled 90 g and sliced 1 em I :Y. in thick

45%

Live spot prawns

200g (four prawns)

100%

Sake, cold

150g

75%

® Combine flour, rice flour, and baking powder for tempura batter.

Vodka

112g

56%

0

All-purpose flour

100g

Rice flour

100g

50% 50%

Malt syrup

12g

6%

Baking powder

3g

1.5%

® Transfer batter to siphon, and charge with two nitrous ox id e cartridges. Siphon batter into bowl. ® Dip lotus root slices into batter to coat even ly. @ Deep-fry lotus root slices and spot prawns in 190 oc 1 375 °F o il until crisp and golden, about 2 min.

Smoked white soy sauce

lOOg

50%

Refrigerate until firm, about30 min. Peel.

® Refrige rate. Blend flour mixture with sake, vodka, and malt syrup until well incorporated.

@ Arrange on plates, and serve with smoked white soy sauce for dipping.

see page 183

from page 5·201

FRIED PICKLES

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

80%

All-purpose flour

130g

52%

0 0

Trisol (Texturas brand)

180g

72%

Yeast (fresh)

4g

1.6%

Salt

2g

0.8%

Pickling cucumbers

250g

100%

0 0

White wine vinegar

200g

80 g

® Combine to make brine, and let coo l.

Mix to make batter. Allow to rest at room temperature for 30 min .

(55%)* (0.8%)**

Water

150g

60%

Sugar

125g

50%

Salt

12.5 g

5%

Garlic, thinly sliced

6.5g

2.5%

Celery seeds

0.5g

0.3%

Chili flakes

O.lg

0.05%

Dill

2g

0.8%

Frying oil

as needed

Season batter, and reserve. Cut into slices 6 mm I \4 in thick, and reserve .

® Vacuum seal with cucumber sli ces and cooled brine.

0

Refrigerate for at least 12 h.

® Dip pickle slices in batter. ® Deep-fry in 200 oc 1 390 °F oil for 2 min . @ Drain on paper towels.

from page 5·75

164

*(% oftotal weight of water andflour usedfor holler) **( % oftotal weight offirst three ingredients)

VOLUME 6 · KI TC HEN M ANUAL


CRISPY HALIBUT CHEEK

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

All-purpose wheat flour

200 g

50%

0

Sifttogether, and reserve.

Rice flour

200g

50%

Salt

4g

1%

Baking powd er

3g

0.75%

Vodka

350g

87.5%

0

Bl end.

Water

200g

50%

® Wh isk into dry mixture until com pl ete ly incorporated.

Malt sy rup

12 g

3%

0

Yields800g

Pour in to 1 I siphon, and cha rge with o ne cartridge of nitrous oxide.

® Shake vigorously and rese rve siphon refrigerate d. Halibut cheeks, clean ed of co nnective tissue

400g (fou r cheeks)

100%

Trisol (Texturas brand)

lOOg

25%

Neutral oil

as needed

® Du st Triso l even ly over cheeks.

0

Skewer each cheek.

® Siphon batter into bowl. ® Coat cheeks eve nly with foam batte r. @) Fry in 200 ' C I 400 ' Fo il. @ Lift extra batter from bow l with fork, and drizz le onto cheeks to build lacy surfaces. Make sure to flip cheeks in o il while drizzling batter, to build an eve n crust. @ Remove each cheek from o il when its co re reaches 50 ' C I 122 ' F, about 6 min. @ Drain on paper towels.

from page 3·334

THE COLONEL'S FRIED CHICKEN

INSPIRED BY CO LO NE L H AR L AN SANDERS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken, drumsticks

800g

100%

Cake flour

200g

25%

0 0

All-purpose bleached wheat flour

160g

20%

Yields800 g

Clean, pat dry o n paper towels, and rese rve. Combine and reserve.

Whole wheat flour

32 g

4%

Black peppercorns

lO g

1.25%

® Grind sp ices and herbs finely.

White peppercorns

8g

1%

0

Paprika

4.5 g

0.56%

Onion powd er

4g

0.5%

Caraway seeds

2.5g

0.31 %

Nutmeg

1.5 g

0.18%

Sage, rubbed

0.7g

0.0 8%

Allspice, ground

0.5g

0.06%

Thyme

0.5 g

0.06%

Cayenne pepper

0.3g

0.03%

Bay leaf

O.lg

0.01 %

Salt

24g

3%

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

14g

1.75%

Whole milk

120g

15%

® Blend together until smooth.

Eggs

60g

7.5%

0

Combine with flour mi xture.

® Comb in e with seasoned flour mixture, and reserve.

Dip chi cken pieces in to egg mixture, and dredge in seaso ned flour mi xture.

® Pressure-fry coated chi cke n in 160 ' C I 325 ' Foil for 7 min. A lte rnative ly, fry in 180 ' C I 360 ' F oi l until golden and cooked through, about12 min. from page 3·336

PL AN T FOODS

1 65


MODERNIST FRIED CHICKEN

Yieldsl kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken legs with ski n

1 kg (four legs)

100%

<D Remove thigh bones from legs; leave lower leg bones in.

Water

SOOg

50%

0

Salt

35 g

3.5%

® Vac uum sea l with prepared ch icken legs.

0

Whisk togeth er until sa lt di sso lves to make brin e.

Brine in refrigerato r for 5 h, or vacu um tumbl e for 30 min (see page 3·152), and th en drain.

Chicken skin, from w hol e 20g chicken

2%

® Cut pi eces of sk in to match dim ension s of exposed thigh meat.

Activa RM

1%

0

lO g

® Du st Activa over cut sk in pi eces and exposed, bone less thigh meat. Press matc hing skin p ieces to meat so that no sk in rema in s exposed.

® Wrap eac h leg t ightl y w ith pl ast ic wrap, and refrigerate 12 h to let protein s bond.

so g

5%

Baking soda

Sg

0.5%

Vodka

450 g

45%

Water

® Mix until bak ing soda dissolves .

@) Mi x with baking sod a so luti on to make brin e. @ Unwrap chi cke n legs, and vacuum sea l indi vidually with eq ual portions of brin e. @ Brin e, refrigerated, for 3 h, or vacuum tumb le for 30 min. @ Remove from bag, and pat dry. @ Vacuum sea l dry chi cken legs. @ Cook so us vide in 64 "C I 147 "F bath fo r 2 h. @ Blot dry.

Spray-dried buttermilk

lSg

1.5%

Cayenne p epper

2g

0.2%

Bay leaf, powdered

lg

0 .1 %

Black pepper, coarse ly ground

lg

0 .1 %

Frying oi l

as needed

@ Whisk together spice mixture, and rese rve.

see page 59 o r store-boug ht

@ Fry thighs in 225 "C I 435 ' Foi l for 4 min. @ Drain on paper towe ls, and du st with spice mi xture.

from page 3-337

OYSTER BEIGNET

Yields 12 beignets

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tapioca starch

BSg

35%

<D Mix togeth er.

All -purpose flour

60g

25%

Baking soda

2g

O.BS%

Xanthan gum

0.4g

0.17%

Hard cid er

240g

100%

0

Whisk into dry mixture to form batter.

® Transfe r batter to 1 I whipp ing sip hon.

0

Charge batter-filled siphon w ith two nitrou s oxide cartridges and shake vigorously.

Kum amoto oysters

12 oysters

® Toss oysters in cornstarc h and skewe r them.

Cornstarch

as needed

® Di spense batter in to conta iner, and dip oysters in batter to coat fu ll y.

Sa lt

to taste

0

Deep-fry oysters briefly in 200 "C I 390 "Fo il unti l crispy, gold en, and just wa rm ed through, abo ut2 min.

® Remove from skewe rs, dry o n paper towels, and season with salt. fro m page 5·28

166

VO LUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUA L


BREADING Breadings Coating

Density

Texture

Oil absorption

CD Prep the core ingredient, if required.

bread crumbs

heavy

crispy

moderate

0

processed grain (cream of wheat,

light

crunchy

moderate

rolled oats, instant polenta,

® Dust food evenly with an adhesive coating. The Adhesives table lists some that we recommend.

to crispy

pressed rice flakes) freeze-dried vegetable flakes

light

very crispy

high

@ Dip in a liquid coating, and drain excess. See the Liquids table for suggestions.

varies

crunchy

low

® Roll food in breading to cover. All of the options listed in the Breadings table can work well.

(carrot, corn, onion, potato) puffed snacks

Cut into even pieces. If the food pieces differ greatly in size, some will overcook while others don't cook enough.

@ Refrigerate breaded food until crust is firm, at least 1 h.

0

Adhesives Coating

Stickiness

Flavor

albumin powder

acceptable

egg

flour

good

raw flour

starch

good

varies, raw starch

modified starch

very good

neutral

Trisol (Texturas brand)

very good

neutral

Deep-fry until golden. We fried these in 190 oc I 375 °F oil for about 90s. For other recom mend ed temperatures and times, see individual recipes.

® Drain on paper towels, and season.

Liquids Coating

Film thickness

Film flavor

whole egg

thick

egg

egg yolk

medium

egg

egg white foam

medium

egg

slurry oflOO% starch, 30% water

thin

neutral

methyl cellulose KlOOM, slurry, or

thin

methylcellulose

foam (100 % water, 0.5% KlOOM) from page 3·338-339

CRISPY OKRA

Yields120 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Okra, cut in half lengthwise

lOOg

100%

CD Combine, and let marinate for 5 min. 0 Drain.

Lime juice

2g

2%

Salt

2g

2%

Chili powder

1g

1%

Chickpea flour

35 g

35%

Frying oil

as needed

® Coat okra in chickpea flour, and shake off excess. @ Deep-fry okra until crispy and golden, about 3 min. ® Drain on pap er towel-lined tray.

from page 3·338

PLANT FOODS

167


CROMESQUIS

Yields 1.5 kg (50 cromesquis)

INSPIRED BY MARC MENEAU

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red port, chi lled

450g

129%

CD Disperse gelatin in port.

160 Bloom gelatin

50g

14.3%

0

Raw duck foie gras

350g

100%

® Cut fo ie gras in to cubes.

Heavy cream

600g

171%

Simmer until reduced to 200 g, and reserve warm.

@) Sear until exteriors are go ld en but centers are sti ll raw, about 1 min, a nd reserve warm. Black truffle juice (store- 50g bought) or mushroom jus

® Whisk together and season.

14.3%

see page 37

4.3 %

Salt

15g

Black pepper, ground

0.2g

0.05%

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

6g

1.7% (0.5%)*

® Dry blend powders, and disperse into cold cream mixture.

Iota carrageenan

2.4g

0.68 % (0.2%)*

® Blend in warm port re duction and foie gras until smooth.

low-acyl gellan (Ke lcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

1.8 g

0.51 % (0.75%)*

Black truffle, finely minced

30g

8.5%

0

Bring to simmer while blending to hydrate fully.

@ Fold into hot puree. ® Cast mixture in nonstick mold in layers 2 em I

Y..

in thick.

@ Refrigerate until set, at least 4 h. ® Cut foie gras gel into 2 .5 em I 1 in cubes. @ Dredge cubes in Trisol.

Trisol (Texturas brand)

as needed

Eggs

300g

85%

Egg yolks

75 g

21.4%

Fine, dry bread crumbs

150 g

43%

Frying oil

as needed

@ Blend until smooth . @ Coat floured cubes in egg mixture, and then dredge in bread crumbs. @ Refrigerate cubes for 2 h to harden crusts. ® Fry cubes in 190 'C I 375 ' Foil until golden, about 2 min. @ Drain on paper towels.

*(%oftotal weightof.ftrst.ftve ingredients)

from page 3·340

FRIED GREEN TOMATOES

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green tomatoes, cored

300g

100%

CD Blanch for1 min. 0 Shock in ice-water bath . ® Peel off skins. @) Cut slices 8 mm I '}i'G in thick. ® Blend to make wash.

Cultured buttermilk

150g

50%

Eggs, blended

150g

50%

Cornmea l

100g

35%

® Mix to make cornmeal breading.

Panko

25g

8.5%

0

Black pepper

0.8 g

0.25 %

® Coat sli ces with cornmeal bread ing.

Cayenne pepper

0.2g

0.05%

Canolaoil

as needed

Salt

to taste

Dredge tomato slices in wash .

® Deep-fry in 200 ' C I 390 ' Foil for 2 min. @ Drain on paper towels. @ Season.

from page 5·74

168

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


CORN CROQUETTA

Yields 3SO g (24 croquettas)

INSPIRED BY DAVID Kl NCH

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Frozen sweet corn, thawed

200g

67%

CD Combine, and puree until smooth .

Heavy cream

90g

30%

Salt

Sg

1.7%

Cayenne pepper

3g

1%

Vanilla seeds and pulp

l.Sg (from one vanilla bean)

O.S%

Corn puree, from above

300g

100%

® Disperse gelatin in 100 g of reserved corn puree.

160 Bloom gelatin

9g

3%

® Warm mixture until gelatin is fully d isso lved.

0

Stra in through fine sieve, and reserve 300 g of corn puree.

® Whisk in remaining reserved corn puree. ® Cast mixture in layer2.S em 1 1 in thick in nonstick mo ld.

0 Water

100g

SO%

Methylcellulose E4M

1.Sg

0.7S%

Refrigerate until set, at least 4 h.

® Bring water to simmer. ® Blend in methylcellulose until fully dissolved, 2-3 min . @Refrigerate at least 4 h to hydrate.

Crisp Coat UC (National Starch brand)

Sg

2.S%

@ Cut gelled puree into 2.S em I 1 in cubes. @ Dust cubes evenly with Crisp Coat to coat. @ Whip hydrated methylcellulose with electric whisk to form stiff and foamy peaks. @ Coat cubes evenly with whisked methylcellulose, and reserve .

Corn powder, freezedried seepagel88

SOg

Panko

SOg

Frying oi l

as needed

Salt

to taste

2S%

@ M ix to make breading. @ Dredge foam-covered cubes in breading mix.

2S%

@ Refrigerate cubes to firm and bind crusts, about 30 min. @ Fry cubes in 190 oc I 37S °F oil until golden, about 1V2 min. @ Drain on paper towels. @ Season.

from page 3·341

PORK TROTTER BEIGNET

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown pork stock see page 6

600g

120%

CD Reduce to about 100 g, until glaze is achieved.

Water

1 kg

200%

® Pressure-cook together at gauge pressure of1 bar I 1S psi for 2V2 h.

Pork trotter

SOOg

100%

® Remove bones from trotter and sno ut, and separate sk in and collagen from meat.

Pork snout

2SO g

SO%

® Dice skin and meat finely, keep ing them separate.

Shallots, minced

200g

40%

0

Neutral oi l

so

10%

Black trumpet mushrooms, minced

40g

0

Cool and reserve.

® Combine 120 g of meat and 30 g of skin, and reserve.

g

8%

Cook together until shallots and mushrooms are very tender, about 20 min .

® Remove from heat.

Cured ham, brunoise

40g

8%

® Fo ld with cooked pork into shallot mixture.

Grain mustard

lOg

2%

@ Wh isk in reserved pork glaze.

Fine sa lt

2.2g

0.44%

@ Cast onto silicone mat in layer 1.S em I

Black pepper, coarse ly ground

0.2g

0 .04%

@ Refrigerate until set, at least 3 h.

Nutmeg, grated

0.1 g

0.02%

Eggs, whisked

200g

40%

@ Dredge each beignet cube in Methocel K1 OOM until evenly coated.

Dried brioche crumbs

100g

20%

@ Roll cubes in egg, and then coat with brioche crumbs.

Methocel KlOOM (Dow brand)

30g

6%

@ Refrigerate for at least 1 h before frying, to firm crusts .

/! in thick.

3

@ Cut into cubes.

@ Deep-fry cubes in 190 oc I 37S °F oil for 1 min, and then drain on paper towe ls.

from page S-38

PLANT FOODS

169


ONION RINGS

Yields 250 g (about10 onion rings)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Onions, thinly sliced

750g

375%

CD Saute until light golden, about 10 min and cool. 0 Vacuum sea l cooked onions with water.

Unsalted butter

100g

50%

Water

150g

75%

® Cook so us vide in 90 oc

Onion stock, cold

45g

22.5%

@ Strain and cool onion stock. Measure 245 g for recipe.

Methocel A15C (Dow brand)

4g

2%

see pagell

I 194 oF bath for 1 h.

® Brin g onion stock to simmer, and disperse Methocel A15C and salt. ® Refrigerate Methocel solution for at least 8 h to hydrate fully, and reserve cold.

Salt

1.5g

0.75%

Onion stock, cold, from above

200g

100%

Tapioca starch

120g

60%

® Cook so us vid e in 93 oc

Salt

3g

1.5%

@ Coo l comp lete ly until hardened, at least 12 h.

(J) Combine and blend all ingredients in food processor to fine, smooth paste.

® Vacuum seal.

I

200 oF bath for 20 min.

® Remove from bag, and grate with Microplane. @ Dehydrate at 70 ' C I 160 °F until hardened, about 3 h. ® Reserve breading in airtight conta in er. Yellow onions, thinly sli ced

500g

250%

@ Brown onions over low heat.

Neutral oil

50g

25%

@ Drain excess oil, and blend to smooth puree.

@ Deglaze with water as needed until very tender, about 40 min. ® Cool comp letely, and measure 100 g. @ Blend 100 g of puree w ith Methocel solution, and transfer mixture to pastry bag. @ Pipe onion ring shapes onto si li cone mat. @) Freeze.

Tapioca starch

100g

50%

@ Dredge frozen onion rings in tapioca starch, and shake off excess.

Egg, blended

50g

25%

@ Dip rings in egg.

Frying oil

as needed

@ Dredge rings in breading until evenly coated, and place on sil icone mat. @ Deep-fry rings in 190 oc

I

375 °F oil for 2 min, ensuring that puree stays inside coating.

@ Drain on paper towe ls. from page 3·342

170

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUA L


RAZOR CLAM "TAKOYAKI"

Yields 250 g (10 balls)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Live razor clams

900g

450 %

0

Vacuum seal together.

Ginger, thinly sliced

Sg

2.5%

0

Steam at 100 oc I 212 °F for 6 min .

Scallions, thinly sliced

Sg

2.5%

® Strain clam juice, and reserve 50 g.

Sake (dry)

30g

15%

0

Shuck clams, reserving any additiona l juice.

® Mince clam meat, and reserve. Tokyo negi (Japanese leek), finely minced

225 g

112.5%

@ Sweat until tender, about 3 min.

Unsalted butter, cubed

40g

20%

Heavy cream

150g

75%

0

Clam juice, from above

SOg

25%

® Strain, and measure 200 g of clam cream.

Clam cream, from above

200g

100%

@ Wh isk into cold clam cream , and bring to simmer to hydrate.

Salt

4g

2%

@ Puree with immersion blender over ice -water bath to form fluid gel.

Ultra-Sperse 3 (Nation a l Starch brand)

1g

0.5%

@ Fold in reserved minced clam meat.

Iota carrageenan

0.4 g

0.2 %

@ Freeze until gel balls are hardened, at least 45 min.

Low-acyl ge ll an (Gellan F, 0.3g CP Kelco brand)

0.15%

Water, boiling

SOg

25%

@ Disperse methylce llul ose into boiling water, blending consta ntl y.

Methocel K100M (Dow brand)

0 .25g

0 .1 25%

@ Cool and reserve.

Batter BindS (Natio na l Starch brand)

SOg

25%

Panko, finely ground

SOg

Add, and bring to simmer.

® Refrigerate until cold.

@ Pipe mixture into spherical silicone molds 2 em I

:Y. in. in diam e ter.

@ Dust over balls. @ Whip methylcellulose mixture into stifffoam . @ Dip dusted balls into foam to ful ly cover surface.

25 %

@ Roll coated balls in panko. @ Dip breaded ba ll s in methylcellu lose foam and then panko once more. @ Refrigerate to firm crust, at least 2 h.

Mutsu app le, cut into batons

20g

10%

@ To serve, deep-fry takoyaki balls in 190 oc I 375 °F o il until golden, about 1 min. Set in centers of smal l bowls.

Grey mullet bottarga

lOg

5%

@ Toss together apple and sea beans and place with takoyaki balls.

Sea beans, blanched

lOg

5%

@ Season bowls with li me juice and salt.

Frying oil

as needed

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Garnish with shavings of bottarga.

from page 5·199

PLANT FOODS

171


CRISPY CORN PUDDING

Yields 780 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole milk

800g

355%

0

Bring milk to boil, and remove from heat.

Popped corn

140g

62%

0

Add corn, cover, and steep for 30 min.

INGREDIENT For the popcorn puree:

® Puree mixture.

0

Pass through fine sieve .

® Cool. @ Measure 350 g of popcorn puree, and reserve. For the corn pudding: Frozen white corn, thawed

225 g

100%

0

Unsalted butter

20g

9%

® Cool and reserve.

Popcorn puree, cold, from above

350g

155%

160 Bloom gelatin

20g

Heavy cream Egg yolks

Saute until lightly golden.

® Disp erse gelatin in popcorn puree. @ Bring to simm er to dissolve.

9% (5.7%)*

@ Remove from heat, and cool.

100g

44.5%

@ Blend until smooth with sauteed white corn and gelled puree .

36g

16%

@ Pass through fine sieve.

Maple syrup (Grade B)

34g

15%

@ Cast in mold in layer 2.5 em I 1 in thick.

Salt

7g

3%

® Refrigerate until set, at least 4 h.

Cayenne pepper

3g

1.5%

@ Cut into cubes.

Thyme essential oil

0.01 g

0.004%

200g

89%

Forthe corn pudding crust: Freeze-dried corn

@ Combine to make breading, and reserve.

see page 188

Panko

200g

89%

All-purpose bleached flour 100g

44.5%

@ Combine.

Ultra-Crisp (National Starch SOg brand)

22%

@ Dredge co rn cub es in starch blend until eve nly coated .

Eggs, whisked

125 g

56%

@ Dip cubes in eggs, and finish by coating with reserved breading. Refrigerate until use.

Frying oil

as needed

from page 5·104

1 72

® Deep-fry corn pudd ing cubes in 190 •c I 375 "Foil until golden, about 1 min. Drain on paper towels .

*(%of weight ofpopcorn puree)

VOLU M E 6 · KITCHEN MA NU AL


SALTING, PICKLING, AND FERMENTING 0

and sugar preserves, cook all ingredients over low heat until they are very tender and their surfaces are nearly dry. Keep fermented pickles or sauerkraut unsealed in a dark, cool place for at least two weeks; check that li quid exuded from the ingredients always covers the solids.

Select an ingredient and a preservation method. The Best Bets for Preservation table on page 182 suggests many good options.

® Mix brine or cure, and combine with aromatics. Use the table below to determine quantities. Note that weights are scaled in proportion to the vinegar for vinegar pickles and to the fruit or vegetable for other kinds of preserves. ® Cook or ferment. For sour or sweet vinegar pickles, bring the brine and aromat ics to a simmer, and pour over the prepared ingredients. For o il

0

Refrigerate (nonferme nted preserves only). After cook ing, cover the ingredients comp lete ly with brine or cure, vacuum seal them or place them in an airtight container, and then refrigerate them to pickle or cure.

® Keep brined and cured products refrigerated.

Formulas for Preserving Produce Product

Ingredient

(scaling)

Aromatics

(sca lin g)

See page

sour vinegar pickles

vinegar

100%

garlic

1.5%

176

sweet vinegar pickles

salt pickles

fermented pickles

sugar preserves

water

40%

black peppercorns

0.5%

salt

4%

mustard seeds

0.5%

calcium lactate (opt ional, to firm)

1%

red ch ilies (optional)

0.2%

vin egar

100%

coriander seeds

1.00%

water

70%

star an ise

1.00%

sugar

40%

ginger

1.00%

salt

5%

lemon zest

0.40%

pectin methylesterase enzyme (NovoShape brand, optional, to firm)

0.4%

white peppercorns

0.25%

fruit or vegetable

100%

n/ a

salt

9%

sugar

9%

fruit or vegetable

100%

salt

1.5%

178

177

n/ a

lactic ac id (optional, to enhance flavor)

0.2%

fruit or vegetable

100%

lemo n zest

0.5%

sugar

100%

vanilla pulp and seeds

0.1%

water

100%

180

from page 3·348 Note that the table above does not include the preparation steps that should be taken to pasteurize the food. Store any unpasteurized foods in the refrigerator as you would fres h foods. Canning and heat preservation require more intense pasteurization; see Cann ing, page 2·75, for details.

PRESERVED PEAR IN MUSTARD OIL

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Anjou pears

250g

100%

0

Peel and core.

® Scoop 12 spheres with melon bailer, and reserve. ® Toast seeds and curry leaves in oi l until gold en, about 3 min, and reserve.

Mustard oil

lOg

4%

Yellow mustard seeds

lOg

4%

Curry leaves

2g

0.8%

Water

100g

40%

0

White wine vinegar

75 g

30%

® Add mustard oi l mixture.

Glucose syrup DE 40

50g

20%

® Vacuum sea l pear spheres with syrup.

Sugar

25g

10%

0

Combine remaining ingred ients, and warm to make syrup.

Refrigerate for at least 2 h before using, and up to 24 h total, after which pear spheres will become too soft.

from page 5-283

PLAN T FOODS

1 73


PRESERVED LEMONS

ADAPTED FROM BRADFORD THOMPSON

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

lemons (organic)

3 kg (about 25 large)

100%

CD Cut off one slice, 2.5 em I 1 in thick, from one end of each lemon.

1.5 kg

50%

Yields 2 kg

0 Cut each lemon as if to quarter, but keep lemon intact by not fully cutting through its flesh and not cutting through its unsliced end. ® Reserve lemons in large bowl.

Salt

@) Combine.

Sugar

800g

26 .6%

® Place five 11 I 32 fl oz cann ingjars with lids in boiling water to sterilize.

Black peppercorns

SOg

1.6%

@ Air-dry sterilized ja rs and lids on rack.

Cinnamon sticks, crushed lightly

25g

0.8%

0

Coriander seeds

25g

0.8%

® Sprinkle seasoned salt generously inside lemons .

Fennel seeds

20g

0.6%

® Pack lemons into canning jars, five per jar, covering each layer with remaining salt mixture.

Saffron threads

@ Seal jars tightly and refrigerate. Preserved lemons can be used after 4 wk but are best after 3- 4 mo. Store refrigerated for up to 1 y.

18g

0.6%

Star anise, crushed lightly lOg

0.3 %

Black onion seeds

0.2%

Sg

Open up each lemon w ithout breaking its unsliced end; lemon should resemble a bloomed flower.

from page 3·350

PICKLED GARLIC

Yields 75 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Garlic cloves

lOOg

100%

CD Blanch for 3 min. 0 Drain. ® Arrange in single layer in rigid container.

White wine vinegar

200g

200%

0

Water

75 g

75%

® Pour over garlic cloves.

Combine, and bring to boil.

Sugar

25g

25%

@ Cool.

Thyme

Sg

5%

0

Salt

4g

4%

Refrigerate for at least 12 h before serving.

from page 5·26

PICKLED TAPIOCA PEARL

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

200 %

CD Combine.

Tapioca pearls

100 g

100%

0 Simmer until pearls are te nder and translucent, about 20 min.

Rice wine vinegar

110g

110%

0

Oyster juice

40g

40%

® Mix together brine and cooked tapioca pearls.

Sugar

lSg

15%

lime juice

lOg

10%

Salt

3g

3%

® Drain.

see page 81

Combine to make brine.

@ Vacuum seal, and refri gerate.

from page 5·207

17 4

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN M ANU AL


KIMCHI

Yields650 g

ADAPTED FROM DAVID CHANG

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sugar

75g

9%

CD Combine salt with 30 g of sugar.

Salt

22g

2.6%

Napa cabbage head with leaves attached

825 g

100%

0 0

Rub mixture thoroughly into leaves while keeping cabbage head intact. Cover, and refrigerate for12 h.

8) Drain and reserve . Garlic, finely minced

100g

12%

Fish sauce

65g

8%

® Rub mixture complete ly into leaves, keeping head intact.

Light soy sauce

62g

7.5%

0

Korean chili powder

48g

6%

Scallions, minced

37g

4.5% 4%

Ginger, finely minced

35 g

Carrot, julienne

30 g

4%

Dried salted shrimp

7g

1%

® Combine with remaining 45 g of sugar. Cover, and store at 18-24 ' C I 64-75 ' Ffor 24 wk to ferment. Final pH should be less than 4.0.

® To serve, cut individual leaves away from core.

from page 3·352

WATERMELON RIND KIMCHI

Yields140 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

250%

CD Whisk together until salt and ac id have fully dissolved, to make pickling brine.

Salt

35 g

17.5%

Scallions, thinly sliced

30g

15%

Sugar

25g

12 .5%

Ginger, minced

20g

10%

Garlic, minced

8g

4%

Lactic acid

6g

3% (1.2%)*

Dried shrimp, minced

5g

2.5%

Bird's eye chilies, minced 2g

1%

Watermelon rind, peeled 200g and cut into strips 5 em I 2 in wide

100%

from page 5·286

*(%oftotal weight of water)

0 0

Vacuum seal rind pieces with brine. Refrigerate for12 h.

8) Drain. ® Refrigerate until use.

NUKAZUKE

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

1 kg

100%

CD Combine.

Salt

200g

20%

Rice bran (nuka)

1 kg

100%

0 0

Ginger, cut into chunks

20g

2%

8) Add solution from above.

Cabbage leaves

15 g

1.5%

Stir until salt is completely dissolved. Combine.

® Cover, and leave at room temperature for 2 wk; stir once daily. ® Discard cabbage leaves and gin ger; reserve rice bran mixture.

Carrots

200g

20%

0

Japanese cucumbers (or Persian)

200g

20 %

® Place in deep crock with rice bran mixture; bury vegetab les comp lete ly in mixture.

Radishes

100g

10%

@ Store in dry place at room temperature until desired texture is ach ieved, 4-24 h.

Salt

as needed

Rub surfaces of vegetables with salt.

® Cover top of crock tightly with plastic wrap . @ To serve, remove vegetables from rice bran mixture, and rinse. @ Reserve rice bran mixture, refrigerated, for future pickling.

from page 3·354

PLANT FOODS

175


SOUS VIDE CUCUMBER PICKLES

Yields3oog

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Small pickling cucumbers 300g

100%

CD Slice to 4 mm I

White wine vinegar

350g

117%

® Combine, a nd bring to boil.

Water

150g

50%

® Remove brine from heat, and cool.

Sugar

80g

27%

0

Salt

8g

2.7%

Black peppercorns

1g

0.3%

Caraway seeds

1g

0.3%

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Refrigerate to cool completely.

0.67%

NovoShape PME enzyme 2g (optional, Novozymes brand)

(0.4%)*

Fresh dill sprigs

2.7%

8g

Y, in thick, and reserve.

® Add dill and sliced cucumbers to chilled brine. ® Vacuum seal.

0

Refrigerate for1-2 d.

*(%oftotal weight ofvinegar and water)

from page 3·353

GARLIC CONFIT

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Olive oil

SOOg

200%

CD Place garlic cloves and aro matics in mason jars, an d

Garlic cloves, peeled

100% 250g (about 35 cloves)

cover w ith o il.

Rosemary sprigs

3g

1.2%

® Place mason jars in pressure cooker, and pour water halfway up their sides.

Thyme sprigs

3g

1.2%

® Pressure cook at 1 bar I 15 psi (gauge) for 2 h.

0

Alternatively, vacuum seal together, and cook so us vide in 88 •c 1 190 •F bath for 7 h.

® Se rve, or cool and refrigerate.

Pressure-cooked garlic con fit has a darker appearance and deeper flavor than so us vide garlic con fit does. This recipe can also be made with other typical Provenc;al aromatics, such as fenn e l seed, bay leaf, lavender, and sage, instead of-or in add ition to- rosemary and thyme.

from page 3·354

AROMATIC ALSATIAN MU STARD

Yields245g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yellow mustard seeds

75 g

100%

CD Blanch three times in sca lding water, discarding water each time to remove bitterness.

Cider vinegar

190g

253%

® Combin e seeds with vinegar.

Fennel, brunoise

2.2g

2.9%

0

Tarragon, finely minced

1.5g

2%

® Puree for1 min to coarse texture.

® Refrigerate for12 h. Combin e with soaked mustard seeds in food processor.

1.6%

® Vacuum seal mustard.

Salt

1g

1.33%

0

Black cardamom seeds, ground

0.8g

1.1%

Ground cinnamon

0.7g

0.9%

Ground cloves

0.7g

0.9%

Black pepper, ground

O.Sg

0.7%

Bay leaf, finely minced

0.2g

0.3%

Coriander seeds, ground 1.2g

Refrigerate for at least 7 d before use.

from page 5·37

176

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SAUERKRAUT

Yields 600 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Savoy cabbage (green cabbage, red cabbage, rutabaga, or turnips may be substituted)

2 kg

100%

0

Remove leaves, and cut out and discard their central ribs.

0

Slice leaves into fine ribbons.

Salt

30 g

1.5%

® Toss with cut leaves.

0

Pack salted leaves in crock or other deep, opaque container.

® Cover mouth of container with cheesecloth, and top with clean rock or other heavy, sanitized object. ® Store at 18-24 oc I 64-75 °Ffor 2-4 wk, or until pH is below 4.0. Cabbage must become fully submerged in its own juices. This should occur by the third day; if not, add 1% salt brine to cover.

0

Vacuum sea l, and refrigerate sa uerkraut with brine until need ed .

from page 3-351

BRAISED SAUERKRAUT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields480 g SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 90g

60%

0

Saute together, without a llowing onions to color, until very tender, abo ut 25 min.

Goose fat

50%

0

Add to onion mixture.

75g

Garlic, finely minced

30g

20%

Cabbage sauerkraut see recipe above

150g

100%

Vegetable stock see page 6 and page 13

150g

® Cook until cabbage is very tender and liquid is reduced by half, abo ut 30 min. 100%

Riesling (dry)

105g

70 %

Rutabaga sauerkraut

100g

66.7%

Muscat (dry)

50g

33.3%

Bay leaf

O.Sg

0.33%

0

Black peppercorns

0.2g

0.13%

juniper berries

0.15g

0.1%

® Add sac het to onion and ca bbage mixture, a nd continue to cook until most of liquid has evaporated, about 25 min.

Cloves

0.1 g

0.07%

® Remove sachet.

Coriander seeds

0.1 g

0.07%

Salt

to taste

see recipe above

0

Comb ine in sachet.

Season sauerkraut.

from page 5·39

PICKLED FIGS

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red wine vinegar

350g

175%

Dried black figs

200g

100%

0 0

Sugar

200g

100%

® Cool completely.

White balsamic vinegar

195g

97.5%

0

Balsamic vinegar

125 g

62.5%

Lemon, thinly sliced

20g

10%

Ginger, peeled and thinly sliced

4g

2%

Cinnamon stick

3.5 g

1.75%

Star anise, crushed

1.5g

0.75%

Cardamom seeds, black

O.Sg

0.25%

Black peppercorns

0.2g

0.1%

Vacuum seal together. Cook so us vide in 80 oc / 176 °F bath for 4 h. Refrige rate until use.

from page 5·137

PLANT FOODS

177


COMPRESSED DILL-PICKLED VEGETABLES INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red bell peppers, seeded and peeled

100g

33%

CD Cut into fine julienne.

Cucumbers

175g

58%

® Peel and slice on diagonal1 mm I X• in thick with mandoline. Yield is about 100 g.

Hon-shimeji mushrooms, 100g caps only

33%

® Bring water and saltto boil.

Water

100g

33%

® Shock in ice-water bath.

Salt

2g

0.67%

@ Drain and reserve.

50%

0

Red pearl onions, peeled 150g

Yields300 g

@ Blanch mushrooms for 2 min.

Cut in half lengthwise.

® Vacuum seal. ® Blanch in 95 "C I 200 "F bath for4 min. @) Separate into petals, and reserve. White wine vinegar

300g

100%

@ Combine, and bring to boil to ma ke pickling brine.

Distilled water

150g

50%

Sugar

50g

16.7%

@ Pour approximately 100 g of brine over each vegetable: bell peppers, cucumbers, mushrooms, and onions.

Dill

8.5g

2.8%

@ Cool vegetables completely.

Salt

7.5g

2.5 %

@ Serve, or vacuum seal separately and refrigerate .

Black peppercorns

1.5g

0.5%

Caraway seeds

1.5g

0.5 %

from page 5·58

PICKLED JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES

Yields280 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Champagne vinegar

150g

100%

CD Combine to make pickling brine.

Sugar

30g

20%

Salt

5g

3.3%

Jerusalem artichokes, peeled and cut into 0.5 em I 1,4 in cubes

100g

67%

® Vacuum seal with brine, and refrigerate.

from page 5·131

PICKLED RAMPS

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

100%

CD Combine and bring to simmer.

White wine vinegar

200g

100%

Sugar

80g

40%

Salt

12g

6%

Yellow mustard seeds

3g

1.5%

Black peppercorns

2.5g

1.25%

Coriander seeds

1.5g

0.75%

Bay leaf

O.Sg

0.25 %

Ramp bulbs, cleaned

450g

225%

® Pour wa rm brine over bulbs. ® Cool mixture. @ Vacuum seal. ® Refrigerate for at least 12 h.

from page 5·118

178

VOlUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAl


PICKLED LEMON

Yields125 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lemons

100g

100%

CD Slice 1 mm I X• in thick.

Water

lOOg

100%

® Combine to make brine.

White wine vinegar

SOg

50%

@) Bring to simmer to disso lve sugar.

Sugar

25g

25%

® Pour warm brine over lemon slices.

0

Place in rigid container and reserve.

® Cool.

0

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·275

PICKLED CELERY ROOT

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Celery juice, clarified

125g (from 250 g celery)

125%

CD Combine to make brine.

White wine vinegar

lOOg

100%

Sugar

JOg

30%

Salt

Sg

5%

Celery root, peeled and thinly sliced

100g

100%

Black peppercorns

1g

0

Vacuum seal with brine.

® Refrigerate until use.

Coriander seeds, toasted 0.5 g

1% 0 .5%

from page 5·133

TOMATO CONFIT ADAPTED

FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Tomatoes

1 kg

100%

Yields150 g

PROCEDURE

CD Core tomatoes. 0

Cut small X in blossom end of each tomato.

® Blanch until skin begins to lift at X, about 10 s. @) Shock in ice-water bath for 2 min. Peel off skins. ® Cut in half vertically, and scoop out seeds. ® Pat dry.

0

Place cut side down on baking sheet lined with silicone mat, and reserve.

Glycerol

20g

2%

Water

20g

2%

® Brush evenly on tomatces.

Extra virgin olive oil

40g

4%

@ Brush evenly on tomatoes. @ Sprinkle equally and evenly over tomatoes.

Garlic, thinly sliced

15g

1.5%

Thyme leaves

4g

0.4%

® Combine.

Bay leaves, finely sliced

1g

0.1 %

Salt

2g

0.2%

® Season tomatoes evenly.

Sugar

2g

0 .2%

@ Dry in 110 'C I 225 ' Foven for about 1 h. @ Turn tomatoes over, reduce heat to 95 ' C I 200 ' F, and dry until deep red and shriveled, 3-4 h. Cool.

@ Discard dried herbs from tomatoes. @ Vacuum seal tomatoes with their cooking oils. ® Refrigerate until use. from page 5·62

PLANT FOODS

179


PICKLED BING CHERRY

Yields 650 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Bing cherries

SOOg

100%

CD Arrange in single layer in rigid plastic container that fits in vacuum sealer chamber.

Red wine vinegar

265g

53%

0

Sour cherry juice (store-bought)

150g

30%

® Pour brine over cherries, and cool at room temperature.

Sugar

130 g

26%

Water

l30g

26%

0

Bring remaining ingredients to boil to make brine. Pull fu ll vacuum three times on cooled cherries.

® Vacuum sea l and re frigerate until use. Both cherries and their pick ling brine are delicious and versatile acidifiers for dressings and sauces.

from page 5·268

GREEN PAPAYA PICKLE

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Papaya (semiripe), peeled

225 g

90%

Cane vinegar

250g

100%

CD julienne a nd reserve. 0 Reserve 150 g of vinegar. ® Combine 100 g of vinegar with re maining ingredients, and grind to coarse paste.

Red onions, finely minced

75 g

30%

Black mustard seeds

25g

10%

Garlic, finely minced

8g

3%

Ginger, finely minced

8g

3%

Bird's eye chili, finely minced

1.5g

0.5%

Neutral oil

20g

8%

0

Sugar

40g

16%

® Add to cooked paste with reserved 150 g of vinegar.

Fry paste over medium heat, stirring constantly, until aromatic but not colored, aboutlO min.

Green chili, minced

Sg

2%

® Fold julienned papaya into warm paste.

Salt

Sg

2%

0

Turmeric (fresh), grated

4.5g

1.8%

® Cool comp letely, vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

Simmer for 2 min.

from page 5·97

PICKLED BUTTERNUT SQUASH

YieldslOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Black peppercorns

3g

3%

CD Combine in sachet.

Coriander seeds, toasted 3g

3%

Star anise, lightly crushed 3g

3%

Orange zest, grated

2 .5g

2.5%

Dried bitter orange peel

l.5g

1.5%

Saffron threads

0.1 g

0 .1%

White wine vinegar

l30g

130%

0

Water

80g

80%

® Remove from heat, and ad d sachet.

0

Sugar

30g

30%

Salt

1g

1%

Butternut squash, brunoise

100g

100%

Combine, and bring to boil. Infuse for 3 min, discard sachet.

® Place squash in co ntain e r. ® Pour hot brine over squash.

0

Place open container in vacuum chamber, and pull vacuum several times to infuse squash thoroughly.

® Vacuum seal and refrigerate until use. from page 5·64

180

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


CRISPY DOSA

Yields BOO g (12 dosas)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

jasmine rice

400g

100%

Whole black gram (urad dal)

200g

50%

CD Soak together in water at room temperature for about 3 h. 0 Drain.

Flattened rice flakes (poha)

25g

6.25%

Water

BSOg

212.5%

Water

100g

25%

® Combine with soaked grains and soaking liquid, and grind until smooth and fluffy.

Coconut (fresh), grated

30 g

7.5%

0

Salt

lOg

2.5%

® Measure 500 g of batter, and ferment in covered container at room temperature for 2 h. Refrigerate remaining batter.

Lactic acid

2.5g

0.63 %

Ghee

as needed

® Add to batter, and continue to ferment for 30 min.

0

see page 4·213

Add up to 100 g more water, as necessary, to achieve thin pancake-batter consistency.

Bring nonstick skillet or griddle to medium heat.

® Ladle batter onto skillet. Use an outward spiral motion to spread evenly. ® Drizzle 5 ml I 1 tsp of butter around edges of each dosa. @ Cook until crispy and golden on bottom.

Masala curry sauce

20%

BOg

@ Combine potatoes and masala sauce; warm through.

see page 225

@ Warm foam in 60 "C I 140 "F bath for 20 min .

So us vide cooked potatoes, cubed

120 g

30%

Coconut chutney foam

150g

37.5%

BOg

20%

@ Fill dosas with potatoes, foam, and puffed lentils; serve on side .

see page325

Puffed lentils see page342

from page 3·355

YUZU AND KUMQUAT MARMALADE

Yields475 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fructose

100g

40%

CD Dry blend.

High-methoxyl pectin (Brown Ribbon HV, Obipektin brand)

2.5 g

1%

Salt

1.5 g

0.6%

Yuzu juice (fresh or bottled)

55 g

22%

0

Reserve 5 g of ju ice.

® Blend powder mixture with remaining 50 g.

0

Bring juice to boil to make syrup.

® Remove from heat, and cool completely. Kumquats, quartered

250g

100%

® Blanch once in boiling water, and cool completely.

0

Combine with cooled yuzu syrup.

® Vacuum seal together. ® Cook so us vide in BO "C 1 176 "F bath until very tender, about 4 h. @ Remove from bag to cool completely, and reserve. Mandarin juice, freeze-concentrated

70g

2B%

@ Combine, and hand-blend until gums are completely incorporated. @ Fold into cooled marmalade base.

see page 2·337

Guargum

0.2Bg

0.11% (0.2%)*

Xanthan gum

0.2g

O.OB% (0.76%)*

Citric acid

2g

O.B%

@ Whisk into marmalade.

Yuzu juice, from above

Sg

2%

@ Add to marmalade, and refrigerate.

from page 3·356

*(% oftotal weightofyuzu and mandarin juices)

PLANT FOODS

181


Yields250 g

ENZYME-TREATED PINK GRAPEFRUIT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pink grapefruit, peeled

300g

30%

Water

lkg

100%

0 Separate carefu ll y into segments, leaving membranes intact, and reserve. 0 Combine, and transfer to sanitized jar.

Pectin ex Ultra SP-L (Novozymes brand) Pectin ex Smash XXL (Novozymes brand)

2g

0.2%

®Add grapefruit segments.

1g

0.1%

0 Seal jar. ®Refrigerate for 12 h to soak. ® Remove treated segments from water.

0 Brush away any undissolved grapefruit membrane. from page 3·357

Best Bets for Preservation Salt pickle

./

./

./

apricot

./

bean sprout

./

./

./

beet

./

Ingredient

./ ./

bell pepper

./ ./

./

./

carrot

./

./

./

cauliflower

./

./

./

cherry

./

./

chili

./

./

citrus

./

./

coconut, young

./

cucumber

./

eggplant

./

fig

./

garlic

./

grape

./

green bean

./

lychee

./

./ ./

cabbage

./

./

./

./

./ ./ ./

./

./ ./ ./

./

./

./

./

./ ./

./

mango, green

./

melon

./

./

mustard seeds

./

./

mushroom

./

./

okra

./

./

olive

./

./

onion

./

papaya, green

./

peach

./

./

pear

./

./

pineapple

./

radish

./

./

rhubarb

./

./

rutabaga

./

seaweed

./

tomato

./

turnip

./

zucchini

./

from page 3·348

182

Fermented pickle Sugar preserve

Vinegar pickle

apple

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

./

./ ./

./ ./

./

./

./

./

./ ./ ./ ./ ./

./

./

./

./

./


HEAT-TREATED FRUIT

Best Bets for Heat-Treated Fruit

CD The table at right suggests a numb er offruits for which this process works well. Make ce rtain the water bath has reached the temperature indi cated before you drop the fruits in whole.

0 Stir gently and submerge the fruits if necessary. If you remove them after the time indicated and dry them thoroughly, you can expecttheirshelf life to increase by half or more, as noted in the table.

Warm bath (oF) (min)

Shelf life after treatment

Shelf life, untreated

Fruit

(oc)

blueberry

60

140

h

7

20

citrus, segments

60

140

20

6

11

grape

55

131

V2

5

25

melon

so

122

60

12

15

pear

45

113

40

10

15

strawberry

60

140

'/4

9

12

tomato

60

140

V2

7

10

from page 3·359

SMOKED PLANT FOODS CD Select and prepare the ingredient. The table below offers a number of

® Set the smoker temperature and relative humidity to the va lu es indicated. For smokers without temperature or humidity controls, place a pan of water on the bottom rack of the smoker, and use a wet-bulb thermometer to monitor the wet-bu lb temperature.

good options.

0 Load the wood mixture into the smoker. Do not soak the wood chips first, because that results in acidic smoke (see page 2·140).

0 Smoke for the time indicated in the table.

Best Bets for Smoked Plant Foods Smoke Relative humidity Time

Wet-bulb temp. (oC) (oF)

(h)

Note or example use

46

114

40

24

serve plain, or in tarte tatin

Ingredient

Wood

Dry-bulb temp. (scaling) (oC) (oF)

apple

apple

100%

asparagus

cherry

100%

7

45

4

39

80

24

saute quickly

corn, on the cob

oak

100%

10

so

3

37

60

24

cook so us vide, and baste with smoked butter and pimenton

65

149

maple

25%

eggplant

hickory

100%

65

149

46

114

40

6

baba ghanouj, moussaka

fresh pasta

oak

100%

10

so

3

37

60

24

pasta carbonara

10

so

3

37

60

12

vinaigrette, brushed on grilled bread

65

149

54

129

60

24

cook so us vide, and finish in a roasting pan with bacon-infused butter

See page

nectarine 33% olive oil (or other oils and fats)

oak

onion, cooked so us vide

oak maple

25%

pecan

apple

100%

65

149

46

114

40

6

briefly roast, and toss with pecan oil, salt

pineapple

oak

100%

10

so

3

37

60

24

maple

25%

briefly grill, and brush with lim e and vanilla syrup

pine nut

hickory

100%

30

86

21

70

60

4

pes to

potato, cooked so us vide

oak

100%

10

so

3

37

60

24

cook so us vide with 2 g (1% total weight of potatoes) of high-quality liquid smoke mixed into the butter

next, 5·193

rice

oak

10

so

3

37

60

24

paella valenciana

5·239

so

122

40

104

60

24

shiro dashi or miso soup

10

so

3

37

60

24

spot prawn tempura

65

149

46

114

40

2

dessert for a barbecue

100%

nectarine 33% 100%

nectarine 33% 100%

139

nectarine 33% soy sauce, dark

oak

soy sauce, white

oak

100%

nectarine 33% 100%

164

nectarine 33% watermelon

hickory

100%

from page 3·362

PLANT FOODS

183


SMOKED POTATOES WITH VIN JAUNE SABAYON Yields 625 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM ALAIN PASSARO

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Ratte fingerling potatoes, 100 g peeled

100%

0

Vacuum seal together.

0

Cook so us vide in 90 ' C / 194 ' F bath for1 h.

Baby Yukon gold potatoes, peeled

100 g

100%

Unsalted butter, melted

50g

50%

® Vacuum seal potatoes with butter.

Vinjaune

75g

75%

0

Shallots, finely minced

50g

50%

® Reduce to syrup.

200g

200%

® Blend together fully with vin jaune reduction.

156%

@ Cook mixture so us vide in 70 ' C / 158 ' F bath for 35 min.

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

® Remove potatoes from bag.

0

Cold-smoke cooked potatoes at 10 ' C / 50 ' F for 24 h, or hot-smoke in stove-top smoker for 30 min.

® Cool. Combine vin jaune with sha llots.

If smoking is not an option, vacuum seal raw potatoes with a mixture of water and good-quality liquid smoke in step 1. Use 2 g of liquid smoke for every 100 g of water, and includ e enough smoke-water mixture to equa l the weight of the potatoes.

® Strain, and measure 10 g ofvin jaune reduction. White vegetable stock see page 6 and page 13

Egg yolks

156g

Heavy cream

40g

40%

Lemon juice

5g

5%

Salt

to taste

@ Transfer sabayon to 1 I sip hon, and charge with two cartridges of nitrous oxide. @ Keep siphon warm in 62 ' C / 144 ' F bath until ready to use. @ Warm sealed potatoes in same bath used for sabayon for 10 min. @ Remove potatoes from bath and bag; divide equa ll y among four bowls. @ Dispense warm sabayon around potatoes.

Roasted hazelnut oil

20g

20%

Toasted haze lnuts, quartered

20 g

20%

Ginger, finely diced

7g

7%

Chives, finely minced

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Garnish potatoes.

from page 3·363

SMOKED POTATO CONFIT

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Yukon Gold potatoes, hot-smoked

200g (four potatoes)

100%

0 0

Extra virgin olive oil

50g

50%

Salt

1.5g

1.5%

see page 183

Cut out3 em by 6 em / 1'/t in by 2'/t in cylinders using ring cutter. Vacuum seal together.

® Heat potatoes in 70 ' C / 15B ' F bath.

from page 5·195

184

VOLUME 6 ·K I TCHEN MANUAL


DEHYDRATED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CD Choose a product. Use the table below to se lect the dehydrated form you wish to make, cross-referenced with the kind of produce yo u are using.

0

Se lect a texture. The table on the next page presents our recommendations for c hips, papers, leathers, glasses, a nd wafers.

0

Comb in e sli ces, puree, juice, or foam with other ingred ie nts. Assign a sca ling valu e of100% to the fruit or vegetab le preparation, a nd weigh the othe r ingredi e nts proportionally. For examp le, use 0.8 g aga r and 2.5 g of glycero l for eve ry 100 g of raspberry puree to make a fl ex ibl e raspberry leather.

® De hydrate by using the temperature a nd time li sted.

® Prepare the fru it or vegetab le as indicated in the tab le .

Best Bets for Dehydration Chips (thin slices)

Papers (purees)

Leathers (purees)

Glasses (purees and juices)

Wafers (purees and juices)

apple

./

./

./

./

./

apricot

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

Ingredient

beet

./

cabbage

./

cauliflower

./

citrus

./

./ ./ ./

./

corn flower petals

./

leek

./

./

mango

./

./

mushroom

./

./

onion

./

./

./

./

passion fruit pear

./

./

persimmon

./

./

pineapple

./ ./

raspberry spinach

./

./

squash

./

./

strawberry

./

./

from page 3·366

Yields400g

GARLIC NOUGATINE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Glucose syrup DE 40

lOOg

100%

Iso malt powder

100g

100%

CD Mix together. 0 Spread o nto sil icone bakin g mat in one laye r, 1 mm I y,. in thick.

Unsalted butter, softe ned 100g

100%

® Cover with second si li co ne bak ing mat.

Al l-pu rpose flour

50g

50%

0

Garlic, brunoise a nd blanched

50g

50%

Bake in 200 •c I 390 • F oven until go ld en and soft, about 5 min. ® Pass rolling pin severa l times over top baking mat, wh il e nougatine is sti ll hot, to make as th in as possibl e.

Marcona almonds, brunoise

50g

50%

® Wa rm in oven.

Salt

4.5g

4.5%

0

Cut into desired dimensions while sti ll hot.

® Store in ai rtight conta in er, id ea ll y with sili ca ge l packet.

from page 5·29

PLANT FOODS

185


Formulas for Dehydrating Produce Dehydrate Preparation

Ingredients

(sca ling)* (oc) (oF)

very

dust over sliced fruit or

trehalose or isoma lt, fine

100%

so

120

crisp

vegetable

powder

so

120 12

so

120

7

55

130

5

60

140 12

Product

Texture

chips

crisp crisp

make syrup and brush

isomalt

100%

onto slices

water

65%

whisk until dissolved,

egg white

100%

rest at room temperature

gum arabic

50%

(h) 8

abo ut 20 min, and brush mixture onto produce crisp

chewy

papers

soak slices for 20 min

soak slices for 2 h

water

50%

maltodextrin DE19

100%

glycerol

30%

water

40%

sugar or trehalose

100%

moist,

spread mixture into

methylcellulose E4M

1.5%

55

130

6

chewy

paper-thin layer

(Dow brand) 55

130

7

20%

55

130 3

vegetable oil

5%

55

130

Ultratex 8

3.0%

60

140 5

60

140 5

60

140 36

dry,

glucose syrup DE 40

5.0%

flexible

low-acyl gellan

0.7%

(Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

leathers

dry,

N-Zorbit M

brittle

(National Starch brand)

tender

spread mixture into layer

chewy

1 mm

I

lf,G in thick

8

(National Starch brand) xanthan gum

0.3%

agar

0.8%

sorbitol

2.5%

spread mixture into layer

g lu cose syrup DE40

2%

1 mm I Y,6 in thick

isomalt

10%

chewy

glasses

crisp

brittle

simmer mixture for 4 min,

icing sugar

18%

Pure Cote B790

12.5%

60

140 15 - 18

egg white

18%

so

130 12

55

130 12

and then spread into layer 1 mm I Y,6 in thick wafers

crisp

whip mixture into stiff

and airy

foam, and then spread into xanthan gum

1%

crunchy

layer 3 mm I

xanthan gum

0.50%

160 Bloom gelatin

1.25%

Vs in thick

and airy from page 3·367

*(set weight offruit or vegetable to 700%)

GREEN PEA WAFER

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green pea puree

400g (from 750 g offrozen sweet peas)

100%

CD Blend to fine puree.

see page 55

0

Pass through fine sieve.

Egg whites

75g

18.5%

® Whisk together into puree until light and fluffy in texture.

Xanthan gum

4.75g

1%

0 Cast puree evenly into nonstick mold in layer 0.5 em I 14 in thick. ® Dehydrate at 57 oc I 135 °Funtil crisp, 2 h or longer. @ Cut into rectangles.

from page 3·371

186

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


CRYSTALLIZED ROSE PETALS

Yields30 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Rose petals (organic)

SOg

100%

Egg whites

SOg

100%

CD Separate petals, and reserve. 0 Whisk together until gum arab ic is fully disso lved .

Gum arab ic

25g

50%

® Rest at room temperature until bubbles have dissipated, abo ut 20 min.

Sugar, isomalt, or trehalose

100g

200%

0

Brush mixture onto each petal to coat complete ly.

® Dredge petals. ® Place on dehydrator tray or parchment paper-lined baking sheet.

0

Dry at 45 oc l 115 °F until dry and crisp, for 8-12 h.

from page 3·368

SPINACH PAPER

Yields 70 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Spinach puree

100g

100%

CD Season puree.

20%

0

see page 55 and page 144

N-Zorbit, a modified starch (see page 4·34), dries to create a crisp glassy film .

Salt

to taste

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

20g

Whisk into puree.

® Spread mixture thinly on si li cone mat.

0

Dehydrate at 60 oc

I 145 °F until crisp, 25-45 min.

from page 3·369

MANDARIN LEATHER

The add ition of oil provides tenderness to the leather. Our favorite texture uses a scaling of3% of the tota l puree weight. You can go up to 4.5% for even more tenderness. This recipe can be adapted to any fruit or vegetable puree.

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mandarins, quartered and seeds re moved

200g

100%

CD Combine in pressure cooker. 0 Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for

Water

150g

75%

Sugar

75 g

37.5%

0

Strain through fine sieve.

® Cool puree, and measure 300 g. lime juice

10 g

5%

® Blend together fully w ith puree.

Kosher salt

0.5 g

0.25%

0

Grapeseed oil or other ne utral oil

9g

4.5% (3 %)*

® Place sheet on dehydrator tray.

For more on freeze-dried ingredients. see page 2·444.

Spread seasoned puree in layer 3 mm I Ys in thick on cel lulose acetate sheet, 15 em by 30 em I 6 in by 12 in.

® Dehydrate puree at 35 oc about 8 h.

I 95 oF until leathery,

*(%oftotal mandarin puree weight)

from page 3·369

PINEAPPLE GLASS

45 min. ® Blend fu ll y to puree.

ADAPTED FROM GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pineapple, juiced

275 g

100%

CD Strain through fine sieve.

Fructose Malic acid

7g 2g

2.5% 0.7%

0

Salt

2g

0.7%

Saffron threads

0 .25g

0.1%

Pure-Cote B790 (GPC brand)

35.Sg

13%

Yields200 g

see page 2·338

Combine with strained juice.

® Bring to boil over medium heat, and remove imm ediate ly.

0

Add to warm juice, cover, and steep for 5 min.

® Strain . ® Blend with juice mixture on high speed for about2 min. Simmer for15 min .

0

Pour liquid onto center of cellulose acetate sheet.

® Form sheet into U shape, and a ll ow liquid to coat sheet even ly. ® Lay sheet on flat surface, and rest at room temperature until dry, 12-15 h. @ Peel glass off in single piece. from page 3·370

PLANT FOODS

187


FREEZE-DRIED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CD Prepare the ingredients. The table below lists our recommendations. 0

Arrange in a single layer on a tray.

® Freeze-dry for the time indicated. Temperature and pressure settings for prim ary and secondary drying are given in chapter 10 on The Modernist Kitchen on page 2-450.

Best Bets for Freeze-Drying Plant Foods Dry (h)

Ingredient

Preparation

Cut (mm) (in)

apples

peeled

2

1/JG

24

bananas

peeled

3

Vs

48

butternut squash

peeled

2

).{6

36

carrots

peeled and sl iced, then blanched for 30 s

1hz

12

instant ramen

See page

Typical use whole; grind into a fine powder, and us e to e nhance apple recipes whole; grind into a fine powder, and add to Thai spice mix or to mustard base grind into a fine powder, and add to fresh butternut squash puree to deepen the flavor and thicke n

61

chives, mint, and other herbs

whole leaves

12

grind into a fine powder for seasoning

corn, kernels

whole

36

209

whole

48

whole; grind into a fine powd e r and us e in Modernist breading, add to corn bread recip es or broths whole; pickled; add to pastry recipes; infuse into broths

grapes lettuce

perforated with needl e

mushrooms onions

24

caesar salad

189

})z

12

infuse into stocks and broths; re hydrate to ma ke a puree; grind into a fine powder for breading

5·14

1/JG

12

grind into a fine powder, and add to savory pastry

189

grind into a fine powder, and add to spice blends whole; grind into a powder, and add to pastry or infuse into vinegar whole; grind into a fine powder for seasoning a nd breading

217

whole; infuse into oils; grind into a fin e powder, and add to sauces a nd spice blends

49

whole leaves

cooked until tender

2

piquillo peppers blanched, pee led

quartered

36

raspberries

whole

24

2

strawberries tomatoes

peeled, cored

).{6

thinly sliced

24 24

33

from page 3·372

ONION SABLE

Yie lds350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Unsa lted butter

500 g 200 g

500% 200%

CD Simmer over low heat for 2 h to infuse butter with onion fl avo r,

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

being careful not to brown onions.

0

Strain butter, and rese rve onions for other us e.

® M eas ure 100 g of onion broth for making dough. All-purpose flour

112.5 g

112.5%

0

Onion butter, from above

100g

100%

® Roll out dough in layer 1 mm I

Almond powder

so g so g

50%

® Place on nonstick baking sheet.

50%

0

Egg yolk, cooked so us vide in 65 oc 1 149 oF bath for 7min

25g

25%

® Cut into 3 em by 8 em 1 11,4 in by 31,4 in rectangles whi le still warm.

Cornstarch

12.5g

12.5%

@ Reserve in cool, dry place.

Freeze-dried onion powder see page 189

8g

8%

lsomalt

Mi x to form dough, and rest dough for 20 min at room temp.

Bake in 175 oc

350 oF oven until lightly golden, forll min.

® Cool completely.

Salt

4.5g

4.5%

Heavy cream

3.3 g

3.3%

Baking powder

l.Sg

1.5%

from page 5·263

188

I

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL

y,. in thick.


SEARED STRAWBERRY

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Strawberries, halved lengthwise

60g (two berries)

100%

CD Coat ha lved strawberries with thin dusting of strawberry powder, and then sear in oil over high

Freeze-dried strawberry powder

12g

20%

heat until charred, abo ut 45 s.

see page 188

Grapeseed oil

as needed

Oloroso sherry vinegar

Sg

Sa lt

to taste

8 .5%

0

Season.

from page 5·279

CAESAR SALAD

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolk powder, freezedried

12 g

24%

CD Dry bl e nd powders.

Acetic acid

7g

14%

Salt

7g

14%

Black peppercorns, finely ground

3g

6%

An chovy powder, freeze- 2 g dried

4%

see page 5·250

N-Zorbit M (National Starch bra nd)

20 g

Extra-virgin o live oil

40 g

80%

0

Romaine lettuce, freezedried

50 g

100%

® Toss greens together with dressing.

Basil leaves (small), microwave-fried

8g

16%

Chives, cut into 1 em I

8g

16%

40% (50%)*

0

Whisk into powder mixture until fully incorporated. Arrange sa lad on plate.

l-8 in batons and freezedried Parsley, microwave-fried 4 g

8%

see page l57

20g

40%

Salt-cured anchovies, freeze -dri ed

16g

32%

Brioche, cut into 1 mm I

12 g

24%

Parmesan nuggets

® Garnish salad.

see page 206

y,, in sli ces and dehydrated *(%of weight ofolive oil)

from page 3·373

Yields40 g

FREEZE-DRIED ONION POWDER INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

350g

100%

CD Saute in nonsti ck pan over low heat until translucent a nd tender, about15 min.

28.5%

0

Neutral oil

as need ed

Water

100g

Deglaze as needed to prevent any browning.

® Coo l at room temperature.

0

Freeze-dry for12 h.

® Grind into powder. ® Store in cool, dry place. from page 3-373

PL AN T FOODS

189


SHRIMP AND GRITS

INSPIRED BY SEAN BROCK

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Bacon, thinly sliced

lOOg

50%

Water

lOOg

50%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in BB oc I 190 °F bath for 2 h.

Yields 750 g (four portions)

® Strain bacon broth, and coo l. @ Discard resulting layer offat, and measure 100 g of broth. Bacon broth, from above lOOg

50%

Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand)

2.4 g

1.2%

Whey protein isolate

1.5g

0.75%

Eggs

four large

Dried corn kernels or hominy

200g

Liquid nitrogen

as needed

Water, shellfish stock, or vegetable stock

1 kg

500%

Spot prawn or shrimp tails, peeled

150g

75%

Liquid nitrogen

as needed

Mascarpone

BOg

Salt

to taste

Red-eye gravy

BOg

® Blend sucrose esters and whey protein iso late into broth, and reserve.

® Cook in shells in 65 oc / 149 °F bath for 35 min. 100%

0

Dip dried corn in liquid nitrogen until frozen.

® Blend frozen corn on high power until coarse texture is ach ieved . ® Pass through coarse sieve to remove any unground pieces. @ Combine with cornmea l from above, and cook over medium heat for about 40 min; stir constantly until mixture softens and forms grits.

see page 6 and page 9

@ Dip prawns in liquid nitrogen until frozen. @ Blend frozen prawns on high power until fine powder is achieved. @ Fold into warm grits. @ Warm bacon broth, and whip with foaming wand.

40%

@ Fold into grits, and reheat to make sure grits are warm . @ Season grits, and portion into four bowls.

® Place peeled, cooked egg in center of each bowl. 40%

@ Pour gravy over eggs and grits.

see page 225

from page 3·377

19 0

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


PASTA 0 0

Mix dry ingre di e nts, texturing agent, and salt. Whisk in liquids.

® Knead, or blend until dough is elastic, 5- 10 min.

0

Rol l out, and cut to desired shape.

To make sodium carbonate for the alkaline ra men recipe in the table below, place som e sodium bica rbonate in a shallow pan, and bake it in a 150 •c I 300 •r oven for1 h.

® Dry (optional). Se e page 2-430 for d e hydrating strategies.

Best Bets for Pasta Doughs Pasta wheat

buckwheat

semolina

cocoa tajarin

rice flour

alkaline ramen

Dry ingredient OOwheatflour

buckwheat flour, sifted

(scal ing) Texturing agent 100%

100%

all-purpose unbleached wheat flour

50%

al l-purpose bleached wheat flour

25%

semo lina flour

100%

00 wheat flour

100%

xanthan gum

Activa RM

Salt (scaling) (scaling)

Liquid

(scaling) Dry

1%

water

9%

4%

2.5%

1.75%

albumin powder

2%

1.3%

vital gluten

4%

1.5%

egg yolk

56.7%

neutral or o live oil

10.7%

milk

75%

egg yolks

37.5%

olive oil

20%

water

35%

white wine

7%

egg yolks

117% 27%

semolina flour

65%

water

cocoa powder

44%

olive oil

22.5%

rice flour

100%

tapioca starch

50%

glutinous rice flour

50%

bread flour

100%

no

optiona l

yes

no

konjac gum

10%

2.5%

water

160%

yes

sodium carbonate

0.9%

1.5%

water

37.5%

no

potassium carbo nate 0.1% from page 3·381

Yields300g

HERB-EMBEDDED PASTA VEIL INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

All-purpose unbleached wheat flour

210 g

100%

0 0

Water

50g

24%

® Vacuum se a l, and refrigerate fo r12 h.

Egg yolks

28g

13.5%

Canolaoil

7.2g

3.5%

Toasted sesame oi l

7.2g

3.5%

Gluten flour

2.5 g

1.2%

Salt

1g

Cilantro, dill or other small-leaved herbs

as des ired

Combin e to form smooth dough . Kn ead for12 min.

(7%)*

0 .5%

0

Roll dough to 1 mm I

){6 in thi ck.

® Divid e into two sh e ets of equal le ngth and width. ® Lay he rbs individually on first sheet, and cove r with second sheet.

0

Roll laye re d dough to 1 mm / ){6 in thick.

® Tra nsfe r to flour-dust e d, parchm e nt paper- lin e d tray, a nd cove r with da mp clot h. ® Re frige rate until nee d e d. from page 3·383

*(% of total weight ofall other ingredients)

PLANT FOODS

191


SPAGHETTI CARBONARA

INSPIRED BY JEAN-FRAN<;:OIS PIEGE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whipping cream

200g

200%

Bacon, th inl y sliced

90g

90%

CD Combine, and vacuum seal. 0 Cook so us vide in 88 ' C I 190 ' F bath for 2 h.

Parmesan, grated

20 g

10%

® Strain cream, and reserve warm .

Garlic, thinly sliced and blanched

15g

7.5%

Water

1 kg

1,000%

@ Bo il spaghetti in salted water until al dente, about 8 min.

Dry spaghetti

100 g

100%

® Transfer spaghetti to bacon cream, stirring to coat evenly.

Salt

20g

20 %

® Arrange pasta strands straight and pressed against each other on sheet of plastic wrap.

0 Sodium citrate

2.3g

2.3%

Yields 1.5 kg (about 30 portions)

Refrigerate coated strands unt il set, about 2 h.

® Dry blend.

low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel 0.6 g F, CP Kelco brand)

(0.26%)*

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel 0 .3 g LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

(0.73%)*

Whole milk

100 g

100%

® Disperse powder blend in milk and bring to simmer.

Parmesan cheese, finely grated

130 g

130%

@ Shear cheese into simmering milk .

0 .6% 0.3%

@ Cast into nonstick mold in layer 1 em I% in thick . @ Cool, and refrigerate until set, about 5 min. @ Cut set gel in strips measuring 5 em by 10 em I 2 in by 4 in. @ Place strips over cold spaghetti ribbons. @ Rol l spaghetti w ith cheese strips into tight parcels.

Egg yolks, blended

50g

50 %

@ Vacuum seal. @ Cook so us vide in 68 ' C I 154 ' F bath for 35 min to form fluid gel. @ Pass fluid yolk mixture through sieve. @ Transfer to squeeze bottle with 5 mm I Y., in diameter tip.

Chives, finely minced

lOg

20%

@ Steam spaghetti parcels until warmed through, about 4 min. @ Pipe stripe of egg yolk fluid gel across each spaghetti parcel. @ Garn ish parcels with chives. ® Serve carbonara with braised pork bel ly, or finish with fresh black truffles.

*(% oftotal weight of whole milk and Parmesan cheese)

from page 3-384

MAC AND CHEESE

INSPIRED BY HAROLD MCGEE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

lOOg

50%

CD Whisk together.

0

Wheat beer

75 g

37.5%

Sodium citrate

lOg

5%

Sa lt

4.5g

2.25%

Iota carrageenan

1.25 g

Yields 400 g (four portions)

Bring to simmer.

0.63% (0.26%)*

Aged Gouda cheese, grated

200g

Sharp cheddar cheese, grated

85g

100% 42.5%

Water

300g

150%

100 g

50%

Salt

2.4g

1.2%

192

® Refrigerate until set, about 30 min. ® Grate coarsely.

Macaroni (store-bought) from page 3·387

® Hand-blend slowly into hot liquid until cheese is completely emulsified. @ Transfer to shal low bowl, and cool to room temperature .

0

Boil together over high heat until pasta has absorbed most of water and is al dente, about 7 min. Do not drain .

® Whisk 160 g of cheese and remain ing liquid into pasta until cheese is melted.

*(% oftotal weight offirst two ingredients and cheeses)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCH EN MANUAL


PAD THAI

ADAPTED FROM PIM TECHAMUANVIVIT

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Palm sugar

56g

18.5%

<D Combine, and bring to simmer until fully d issolved.

Fish sauce

40g

13.5%

0

Tamarind paste

18g

6%

Yields 500 g (four portions)

Remove sauce from heat, and reserve.

seepage145

Rice vinegar

11 g

3.5%

Dried baby shrimp

50g

16.5%

Neutral oi l

as needed

® Fry baby shrimp over medium heat until golden brown, about 10 min. @) Transfer to paper towel-lined tray. ® Cool. ® Mince finely, and reserve for garnish.

Rice stick noodles

300g

Shrimp, peeled and deveined

12 shrimp

100%

0

Cover with warm water, and soak at room temperature for 2 h.

® Fry over medium heat until half cooked, about 1 min.

Neutral oil

as needed

Bean sprouts, cut into 3 em / 1'/4 in strips

40g

13%

Garlic chives, diced

24g

8%

® Add, and stir-fry until slightly wilted and shrimp are fully cooked, 1-2 min. @ Remove shrimp, bean sprouts, and garlic chives, leaving oil in pan.

Shallot, minced

20g

7%

@ Add to pan, and increase heat to high. Cook until golden, about 45 s.

Garlic, minced

lOg

3%

@ Add soaked noodles, and stir-fry over high heat until translucent, 2-3 min.

Ginger, minced

lOg

3%

@ Remove from heat.

Egg, beaten

60g

20%

@ Add to pan, stirring constantly until incorporated and cooked through, a bout 1 min. @ Add 40 g of reserved sauce. @ Cook over high heat for 1 min. @ Stir in cooked shrimp, bean sprouts, and garlic chives; remove from heat.

Lime juice

to taste

@ Season.

Salt

to taste

@ Add more sauce if necessary. 10%

Pressure-cooked peanuts, 30 g finely ground

@ Garnish with dried shrimp, peanuts, and chili powder.

see page 151

Roasted chil i powder

to taste

from page 3·385

PASTA MARINARA

INSPIRED BY H. ALEXANDER TALBOT AND AKI KAMOZAWA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato water

500g

100%

<D Comb in e, and vacuum seal. 0 Infuse refrigerated forl2 h.

see page40

Basil

5g

1%

Thyme leaves

2.5 g

0.5%

Bay leaf, julienne

1g

0.2%

Salt

lOg

2%

Spaghetti ortagliatelle (store-bought)

140g

28%

Yields 450 g (four portions)

® Strain tomato water.

@) Season tomato water. ® Soak spaghetti in tomato water forl h. ® Drain, reserving tomato water.

0

Transfer tomato water and pasta to separate containers, and refrigerate. Pasta can be stored for up to 8 h.

® Bring tomato water to boil. Add soaked pasta, and cook forl min 10 s. ® Drain. Tomato confit, thinly sliced

40g

8%

Basil leaves, julienne

5g

1%

Extra-virgin olive oil

to taste

@ Toss with pasta to finish.

see page179

from page 3·386

PL ANT FOO DS

1 93


COCOA TAJARIN

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

00 wheat flour

127g

100%

CD Combine.

Semolina flour

85g

67%

Dutch processed cocoa powder

57g

45%

Vital wheat gluten

5g

4%

Salt

2g

1.5%

Egg yolks

153 g

120%

0

Water

35 g

28%

® Vacuum seal. Refrige rate for12 h.

Extra virgin olive oil

29 g

23%

Add to flour mixture, and kn ead for 10 min to ma ke dough.

0

Roll into sheets 1 mm I y,, in thick.

0

Cut into noodles 2 mm I y,, in wide.

® Place on parchment paper, cover with damp towel, and refrigerate. Deodorized cocoa butter 40 g (food-grade)

31.5%

Sea urchin butter warmed 100 g

79%

0

Melt cocoa butter, and reserve.

® Cook noodles in boiling 3% salt water for 40 s. ® Drain, a nd toss w ith me lted cocoa butter. @ Garnish tajarin.

from page 5·227

RAMEN NOODLES

Yields 14.5 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

All-purpose flour

78g

100%

CD Mix together.

Semolina flour

57g

73%

0

Wheat gluten

2.5 g

3.2%

® Make well in center.

Salt

1g

1.3%

Egg yolks, whisked

76.5g

98%

Water

17.5 g

22%

0 0

Neutral oil

14.5g

18.5%

® Vacuum seal.

0

Form into mound .

Combine, and pour into well. Mix slowly by hand until dough forms . Rest at room temperature for at least 1 h.

® Roll with pasta roller into sheets 1 mm I ){, in th ick. ® Cut sheets into noodl es 2 mm I

){, in wide.

@ Cook noodles in 3% salt solution for 30 s. Ramen broth, warmed (not freeze-dried)

400g

513%

see page 61

Yuzu zest, finely grated (fresh)

@ Divide noodl es and broth evenly among four bowls. @ Garnish with zest.

to taste

from page 5·250

BUCKWHEAT DOUGH INGREDIENT

Yields 525 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Buckwheat flour

200g

100%

CD Sift.

All-purpose flour

100g

50%

0

Activa Tl or RM

12g

6% (4%)*

® Process to mix thoroughly.

Salt

3.5 g

1.75%

Whole milk

150 g

75%

Egg yolks

75g

37.5%

Grapeseed oil

40g

20%

0 0

Combine with sifted buckwheat flour in food processor.

Blend thoroughly into flour mixture. Transfer dough to floured surface, and knead for10 min .

® Vacuum seal.

0

Refrigerate for12 h to a llow e nzyme to bind proteins.

® Roll dough with pasta roller into sheets 2 mm I Y,, in thick. ® Cut sheets into noodles 0.5 em I

Ys in wide.

@ Cook noodles in 3% salt solution for 1 y, min. Oyster butter emulsion, warmed

100 g

50%

@ Toss noodles in oyster butter and serve.

see page 297

from page 5·234

194

*(%oftotal weight ofboth flours)

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN M A NU AL


SEMOLINA PASTA

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Semolina flour

400g

100%

All-purpose bleached wheat flour

100g

25%

Water

100g

25%

White wine (dry)

28g

7%

Album in powder

8g

2%

Salt

5.2g

1.3%

from page 3·382

COMPRESSED AND IMPREGNATED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 0

Peel, and cut the ingredients into even-s ize pieces. Arrange the food in a single layer in a so us vide bag.

0

Add liquid (optional). To impregnate the fruit or vegetable with a liquid, add it to the bag or container; see the table at right for suggestions.

0

Vacuum-seal by using full vacuum power. Rest the produce in the bag or container for at least 10 min after the vacuum is released .

Best Bets for Compressing or Impregnating Produce Ingredient

Liquid

See page

apple

app le juice

2·338

apricot

chamomile tea

asparagus

asparagus juice

celery

blue-cheese water

cucumber

pickling brine

dragon fruit eggplant

lychee juice barbecue sauce di luted in water

fig grape, peeled

verjuice (store-bought sour grape juice)

port

kiwi

strawberry juice

lettuce

smoked water

melon

bacon water or prosciutto stock

onion

pickling brine

peach

vanil la syrup

pear

red wine syrup coconut water (store-bought or fresh), rum

pineapple

182

plum

almond milk

rhubarb

grenadine syrup

strawberry

thin cream infused with basil

tomato

ketchup diluted in water

watermelon

green tea

195

178

from page 3·390

SMOKED LETTUCE

Yields 90 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

150g

167%

0

Mix together.

Hickory liquid smoke (Wright's brand)

0 .8g (three drops)

0.9%

Iceberg lettuce, cut 1 em I% in squares

90g

100%

0 0

Pour smoky water over lettuce. Place container, uncovered, in vacuum chamber.

@ Pull vacuum until water boils, and then turn off machine and allow lettuce to absorb smoky water in vacuum chamber for 20 min. ® Drain lettuce, and refrigerate. from page 5·15

PLANT FOODS

195


CURRY-IMPREGNATED APPLE

Yields1 kg

INGREDI ENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

App le juice see page 2·338

1 kg

100%

Turmeric, freshly grated

20g

2%

Black peppercorns (who le)

3g

0.3%

Coriander seeds

2g

0.2%

CD Vacuum sea l juice and spices . 0 Refrigerate for 12 h to infuse.

Cinn amon stick, toasted

1.5g

0.15%

® Place app les in bow l, and cover with infused jui ce.

Cardamom

1g

0.1 %

0

Cloves (w hole)

1g

0.1%

Star anise, toasted

1g

0.1 %

Saffron threads

0.2g

0.02%

App les, peeled and co red

900g

90%

Place bow l in chamber sea ler, and pull moderate vacuum. Re lease vacuum when li qu id begins to boi l, and then run vacuum cycle twice more to bo il a tota l of three tim es.

® Hold under vacuum for15 min. After last cycle, turn machine off, and leave machine sea led. Wh en app les have fu ll y absorbed li quid, release vacuum, and remove food .

from page 3·393

COMPRESSED MUSCAT GRAPES

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Muscat grapes

100g

100%

CD Blanch in boil ing water for 20-45 s, depending on ripeness. Riper grapes wi ll require shorter time.

0

Shock in ice-water bath, peel, and reserve.

Grape jui ce, clarified

100 g

100%

® Combine.

Verjuice (store-bought)

60g

60%

0

Fructose

12g

12%

® Vacuum sea l with peeled grapes to compress.

Malic acid

1.3g

1.3%

® Refrigerate for no more than 3-4 h before serving or grapes will become too soft.

Salt

to taste

Taste for season ing ba lance.

from page 5·110

COMPRESSED MELON TERRINE

Yields675 g

ADAPTED FROM H. ALEXANDER TALBOT AND AK I KAMOZAWA INGREDI ENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Disperse calcium lactate glu conate in water, and stir until fu ll y dissolved.

For the calc ium lactate so lution : Coldwater

500g

167%

Calcium lactate

2.5 g

0.8% (0.5%)*

375 g Honeydew melon, cut into five planks, each 1 em I 'Is in thick, 5 em by10 em I 2 in by 4 in

125%

Canta loupe, cut into four 300 g planks, each 1 em I 'Is in thick, 5 em by10 em I 2 in by4in

100%

0

Vacuum seal planks in one even layer with calc ium solution.

® Refrigerate for 20 min.

0

Remove from bag, and pat dry.

For the pectin so luti o n: Co ld water

500 g

167%

® Mix pectin in water, and blend until fu ll y dispersed.

LM pectin (Genu pectin LM 104 AS, CP Kelco brand)

15 g

5% (3%)*

0 Coo l.

® Bring solution to boil while shearing for1 m in to fully hydrate. ® Brush one ca lcium-infused cantaloupe plank with coo led pectin so lution, and lay calcium -infused honeydew plank on top. ® Repeat brushing and layering process w ith remaining six p lanks. @ Vacuum sea l each stack to compress. @ Refrigerate until bonded, about 12 h. @ Cut terrines into slices, and serve.

from page 3·392

196

*(%oftotal weight of water used in the individual solution)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


WATERMELON MEAT

Yields250 g

INSPIRED BY ANDON I LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Watermelon, peeled and white rind discarded

500g

100%

Water

100g

20%

Salt

5g

1%

from page 3·394

<D Cut into 2.5 em / 1 in "steaks." Cut from surface, seed less part on ly, reserving all remaining watermelon flesh for another use. Leave sma ll lip of white rind to mimic fat cap of stea k, if desired.

0

Wh isk together water and salt to make brine.

® Vacuum sea l watermelon steaks with brine, and refrige rate fo r 2 h.

0

Drain brined waterme lon, and pat dry.

® Dehydrate slices at 55 •c / 130 "F until dry and leather- like, 8- 12 h. ® Brush sli ces with water, vacuum seal, and refrigerate. This will moisten them ju st enough to keep them tender.

0

Serve as fun replacement for meat. See the plated-dish recipe for Watermelon Bu lgogi on page 5·285.

VEGETABLE COALS

Yields250 g

ADA P TED FROM MUGARITZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cassava roots, peeled

675g

100%

White fish stock

350g

52%

<D Cut into 4.5 em /H4 in cub es. 0 Combi ne stock and ink.

Squid ink

15 g

2.2%

Salt

to taste

see page 12

® Mi x with cassava cub es .

0

Simmer together until te nd er, 35-40 min.

® Drain ink-sta in ed cubes. ® Season .

from page 3·395

PULLED MUSHROOM

INSPIRED BY H. ALEXANDER TALBOT AND AKI KAMOZAWA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

King Trumpet mu shrooms, sli ced in half lengthwise

250g

100%

<D Vacuum seal oi l with mushroo ms. 0 Cook so us vid e in 90 ·c / 194 "F bath for 4 h.

Neutral oil

50g

20%

0

Barbecue sauce

to taste

Yields200 g

® Drain on tray lin ed with paper towels. Pull mu shroo ms apart into individual fibers.

® Mix in, and serve.

see page220

from page 3·396

PLANT FOODS

1 97


SQUID-INK BEAN-SPROUT RISOTTO Yields 700 g (eight portions)

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN AD RI A

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Bean sprouts

250g

100%

CD Cut off ends.

Squid stock (or water) see page 6

50g

20%

0

Cut into 1 em I 'Ia in st icks to resemb le ri ce, and reserve.

® Bl end stoc k and ink, and reserve, refrigerated.

Squid ink

2.5g

1%

Squid stock (or water)

50g

20%

0

Agar (Texturas brand)

0 .3g

0.12%

® Simm er for 2 min, and remove from heat.

Disperse agar in stock, and bring to bo il.

® Cast even ly into non st ick mold in layer1 em /'Ia in th ick .

0

Refri gerate until set, about 10 min.

® Cut squ id j ell y into cubes, and reserve. Egg yo lks

30g

12%

Garli c, mashed

8g

3.2%

Extra-virgin olive oil

150g

60%

Salt

to taste

Squ id legs

75 g

Neutral oil

as needed

Sa lt

as needed

Squ id ink stock, from above

50g

Neutral oil

as needed

® Blend . @ Drizzle slowly into yo lks, w hil e b lend ing, until emu lsifi ed and mayonnaise forms. @ Season and reserve.

30%

@ Saute legs for 20 son each sid e until just cooked through. @ Season, remove from pan, and reserve.

20%

@ Saute bean sprou ts. @ Add squ id ink stock to sa uteed sp routs.

Lemon herb oil see page 27

@ Simmer together until risotto is ju st cooked through and sti ll crunchy, about 2 min. ® Portion risotto into four bowls. @ Garnish with squid jelly, garli c mayonnaise, squid legs, and parsley o il.

from page 3·397

FROZEN WHITE "TRUFFLE" ADAPTED FROM QUI QUE DACOSTA CD Disperse gelatin in co ld soy milk, and then st ir over medium heat until d isso lved

Yields 900 g

and fully hydrated .

0

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

® Strain and chi ll.

160 Bloom gelatin

6g

2%

0

Soy milk

500g

166%

Aged Parmesan cheese, grated

300g

100%

White truffle oil

12g

4%

Blend in cheese until melted and fully incorporated into the mixture.

Add white truffle oi l, sa lt, and pepper, and then p lace in 11 wh ipp ing siphon. Charge with two cartridges of nitrous oxide.

® Melt mannitol in sma ll saucepan, and bring to 200 ' C I 390 ' F. Add co lored powders, and then ho ld at 180 ' C I 355 ' F. ® Dispense foam onto offset spatul a in desired shapes. In sert bamboo skewer in to each "truffle."

Blac k pepper, fine ly ground

0 .5g

0.1 7%

Salt

2%

0

6g

267%

Dip in liquid nitrogen. After dipping, baste w ith nitrogen to ensure even freezing.

Mannitol

800g

® Swirl frozen truffle in warm mannitol to coat evenly and soften rough edges.

Gold powder

2g

0.7%

® Refreeze in nitrogen. A brief dip wi ll set mannitol she ll.

Bronze powder

0.2g

0.07%

@ Thaw in refrigerator for 1 h. Parmesan cream wil l soften as it warms .

Dried porcini powder

60g

20%

@ Garnish w ith porcini powder.

from page 3-400

198

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


CLAY POTATOES

Yields200 g

ADAPTED FROM AN DON I LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

3 kg

1,500%

CD Combine in pot.

Salt

24g

12%

Whole baby Yukon Go ld potatoes, skins on

200g

100%

Water

40g

Kaolin clay

30g

15%

® Dip warm skewered potatoes into clay mixture to coat.

Lactose

20g

10%

0

Carbon black powder

l.Sg

0 .75 %

® Thread skewers to stand upright in racks.

0

Simmer in salted water for 20 min, until cooked but still firm .

® Stra in.

0 20%

Place on bamboo skewers, and reserve warm.

® Combine.

Place two cooling racks in deep hotel pan, one on bottom and one on top.

® Dry in 45 oc / 115 °F oven forlS min. @ Transfer potatoes from skewers to serving plates. Garl icconfit

lOOg

@ Blend.

50%

see page176

Egg yo lks

40g

20%

Extra-virgin olive oil

250g

125%

Salt

to taste

@ Blend into garlic and yolk mixture until emulsified and aiol i forms. @ Season aioli, and serve with warm potatoes.

from page 3·398

FOSSILIZED SALSIFY BRANCH

ADAPTED FROM ANDONI LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

125%

CD Whisk calcium hydroxide into water to make brine.

Calcium hydroxide

4.Sg

1.13% (0.9%)*

Sa lsify root, scrubbed and pee led

400g (four medium roots)

100%

0

Extra-virgin olive o il Sea beans (Sa licorn ia) Extra-virgin olive oil

Soak in brin e at room temperature for 3 h; stir every 30 m in to ens ure that calcium hydroxid e is distributed eve nly.

® Remove from brine, and rinse.

0 Salted cod roe or pollock 100 g roe

Yields 350 g (four portions)

25%

Bake in 170 oc I 340 °F oven for 45 min, and reserve warm .

® Whisk and reserve.

16g

4%

40g

10%

® Toss .

lOg

2.5%

0

Place salsify root in center of each warmed plate.

® Garnish evenly with fish roe and sea beans. from page 3·399

*(%of weight of water usedfor brine)

PLANT FOODS

199


TRADITIONAL STARCH THICKENERS 0 Disperse by mixing the starch with whatever liquid you want to thicken

0

until a slurry forms.

Heat to at least 80 oc /176 °F to hydrate. Use a water bath if available; if heating on a stove top, stir the mixture constantly. The starch so lution will change from milky to clear when it is fully hydrated.

Best Bets for Thickening with Natural Starch Starch

Texture

Translucency

Flavor

Application

(scaling)*

Heat-sensitive Stable when thawed

arrowroot

creamy

clear

neutral

broths

1%

no

unstable

jus, gravies

2%

yes

unstable

no

unstable

yes

unstable

yes

unstable

somewhat

stab le

no

stable

yes

stable

corn

kudzu

potato

rice

tapioca

waxy corn

wheat

creamy

gelatinous

sticky

sticky

sticky

creamy

creamy

opaque

clear

clear

opaque

clear

opaque

opaque

strong

neutral

subtle

subtle

neutral

subtle

stro ng

broths

1.50%

veloute, cream sauce

2.0%-2.5%

gravies

3%-4%

puddings

5.0%-6.5%

set gels

9%

broths

2%

glazes

5%-7%

dense puddings, tofu

12%

broths

1%

jus, gravies

2%

stir-fry sauces

2.5%

glazes

3.0%-3.5%

soups

4%-5%

puddings, purees

7%-8%

broths

1.5%-2 .0%

jus, gravies

2.5%-3.0%

fruit fillings

4%-5%

broths

1%

low-fat salad dressings

2.50%

gravies

4%

veloute, cream sauce

2.5%

gravies

3.0%-3.5%

bechamel

4%-5%

from page 4·28

*(set weight ofliquid to be thickened to 700%)

PREGELATINIZED STARCH PASTE

Yields500 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

SOg

12.5%

Tapioca starch

SOg

12.5%

Water, hot

400g

100%

0 Whisk starch into water until fully dispersed. 0 Vacuum sea l mixture. ® Cook so us vide in 80 oc / 176 °F bath for 2 h. 0 Blend in hot water until fully incorporated while the paste is still warm. ® Strain, coo l, and store vacuum-sealed at room temperature.

from page 4·29

200

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


MODERN STARCH THICKENERS 0 Select a th icken in g agent from th e table below. Note that sta rches marked as unstab le below may break down upon heating or upon thawing from a frozen state.

0

Whisk the starch into the liquid to be thi ckened by hand . Do not use a blender, whi ch ca n make the mixture glu ey or stringy.

® Heat to hydrate if necessa ry. Bring Pure Cote B790 and Wondra to a simm e r to hydrate fully; heat Novation PRIMA 600 to 75 oc / 167 °F.

Best Bets for Thickening with Modified Starch Product

Brand

Source

N-ZorbitM

National Starch

tapioca

National Starch

tapioca

National Starc h

co rn

Novation Prima600

National Starch

cor n

Ultra-Tex 8

National Starch

tapioca

Ultra-Sperse 3 Flojel60

Translucency Texture

20%100%

nea rly opaque

1%-10% 1%-7% 1%-10%

Thawed

opaq ue opaque

stable

smooth, stable stringy

unsta bl e

smooth

stable

creamy

nea rl y opaque

stab le

stable stab le

unstable

(scaling)*

See page

o il powders

30%-40%

207

oil pastes

85%-100% 206

bulking gels, sa uces

5%-20%

Example use

meat g rav ies, jus 3%-4% pudd in gs

6%-8%

c ream sauce

4%

puddings

7%

broths

2.0%-2 .5%

purees

4%

cream sauce

3.0%-3.5%

smoot h

stab le

un stable

6%

puddings

8%

films

12%

th icke ne d jui ces

15% 10%

clear

1%-30%

clear

s m oot h

stab le

sta bl e

th in sauces purees

20%

opaque

smoot h

stab le

un stable

grav ies, ve loute

6%-7%

bechamel

8%-9%

Maltrin

GPC

corn

Wondra

Genera l Mills

barley malt, 1%-15% wheat

242 204

meat gravies, jus 4% purees

0.5%20%

GPC

229

*(set weight ofliquid to be thickened to 700%)

from page 4-46

AVOCADO

Heated

swe ll ed unstab le un stab le gran ul es

0 .2%-8% nea rly to full y sm ooth opaque

Pure-Cote 8790

corn

Stable when

Scaling range•

PUREE ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

140g

100%

Ultra-Sperse 5 (National Starch brand)

5g

3.6%

0 Puree unti l smooth. 0 Transfer to squeeze bottle.

Ascorbic acid

1.4 g

1%

Lime juice

1.4g

1%

Salt

to taste

INGREDIENT Hass avocado, peeled

Yields150 g

® Pipe dots of avocado puree onto plates. Char lightly with blowtorch.

from page 5·207

THICKENERS

201


MODERNIST BECHAMEL

Yields215g

INSPIRED BY AK I KAMOZAWA AND H. ALEXANDER TALBOT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

All-purpose bleached flour

250g

125%

CD Combine, and divide mixture among three 500 ml 1 1 pt mason jars.

Unsalted butter, melted

250g

125%

0

Seal jars, and place them upright in pressure cooker.

® Fill pressure cooker with water to middle of jars.

0

Pressure-cook fat at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 2 h.

® Coo l resulting roux at room temperature; measure 15 g for recipe, and refrigerate remainder for later use. Whole milk, warmed to 45 •c I 113 •F

200g

Pressure-cooked roux, from above

15 g

7.5%

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

7g

3.5%

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0.2 g

0.1%

100%

® Whisk together with reserved roux until smooth to form bechamel.

0

Nutmeg, freshly grated

to taste

Salt

to taste

Warm bechamel to desired temperature.

® Season.

from page 4·31 The bechamel can also be made by using 1.25% (2.5 g) lambda carrageenan rather than the amount indicated above and subst itutingl % (2 g) pregelatinized starch paste for the Ultra-Sperse 3. For more details, see page 200.

If pressure-cooked in a canningjar, the roux can be stored without refrigeration. It has effectively been canned (see page 2·88). Once opened, it must be refrigerated.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE PUDDING

Yields 160 g (four portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

jerusalem artichokes, thinly sliced

200g

200%

CD Combine in nonstick pan.

Neutral oil

20g

20%

Whole milk

400g

400%

0

Cook artichoke slices over medium heat until golden brown and very tender, about 20 min.

® Puree milk with cooked artichokes until smooth.

0

Pass puree through fine sieve; reserve 100 g of artichoke puree for recipe.

jerusalem artichoke puree, from above

100g

100%

® Blend with reserved puree to form pudding.

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

3g

3%

0

Xanthan gum

0.2g

0.2%

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0.1 g

0.1%

jerusalem artichokes, thinly sliced

25g

25%

Grapeseed oil

as needed

Roasted-hazelnut oil

8g

® Divide pudding equa ll y among four sma ll bowls. Cover and refrigerate bowls of pudding.

® Heat oil to 190 •c I 375 • F. ® Add artichokes, and fry until golden brown, approximately 2 min. @ Transfer artichokes to tray lined with paper towels, and cool.

8%

@ Drizzle oil evenly over each bowl of pudding.

Roasted hazelnuts, quartered 10 g

10%

@ Garnish puddings.

Pickled jerusalem artichoke, fine julienne

6g

6%

Parmigiano-Reggiano, grated

5g

5%

Flaky salt

to taste

see page 178

@ Season puddings. @ Top with fried artichokes.

from page 4·31

202

VO LUME 6 ·K I TC HEN MA NU AL


STEAMED COD WITH COD ROE VELOUTE

Yields four portions

ADAPTED FROM MIGUEL SANCHEZ ROMERA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White fish stock

SOg

100%

CD Blend together.

20g

50%

see page6

Pregelatinized starch paste see page200

Water

25g

50%

0

Sugar

lO g

20%

® Cool complete ly.

lemon juice

Combine warm, a nd stir until disso lved to make sy rup.

lO g

20%

0

l e mon zest

2.5g

5%

® Blend syrup with fish stock mixture to make veloute.

Cod fillet

300g

600%

® Cut loin into four portions of75 geach.

0

Add juice and zest to syrup.

Vacuum sea l portions individu a ll y.

® Cook so us vide in 43 oc I 109 °Fbath to core temperature of 42 oc I 108 °F, abo ut 25 min. Salted cod roe (ortobiko)

30g

Salt

to taste

Garlic oil

SOg

® Warm velo ute.

60%

@ Whisk in rce.

@ Season roe veloute. @ Place one cooked loin portion in center of each offour bowls.

100%

see page28

® Spoon roe ve lo ute over loins. @ Drizzle oil on top.

from page 4·32

SMOKED PEPPER PUREE

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Goulash broth,

185g

100%

CD Vacuum sea l together. 0 Coo k so us vide in 85 oc 1 185 °F bath for 2 h.

Red be ll pepper, thinly sliced

30g

16%

Re d onion, thinly sliced

23g

Cured ham, thinly sliced

lSg

8%

Smoked Hungaria n paprika

8g

4.5%

see pagel9

Re d wine vinegar

to taste

Salt

to taste

Ultra-Sperse 5 (National Starch brand)

5.2 g

12.5%

® Blend to fine puree.

0

Pass through fine sieve.

® Measure 200 g.

® Season puree. 2.8%

0

(2.6%)*

® Reheat and serve, or refrigerate until use.

Whisk into puree.

*(%oftotal weig ht ofpepper puree)

from page 4·5

CARAMELIZED CREME FRAICHE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Creme fralche

250 g

100%

CD Co mbin e.

Ba king soda

2.Sg

1%

0

Garlic co nfit, sieved

50 g

20 %

3.75 g

1.5%

Pressure-cook in Mason jars at gauge pressure of 1.4 bar I 21 psi for 2'/2 h.

® Cool.

0

Blend into creme fralche.

see pagel76

Prege latinized sta rch paste (or Ultra-Sperse 3) seepage200

Salt

to taste

® Season.

Raising the pH level (by add in g baking soda) and pressure-cooking tem pe rature greatly accelerates the Maillard reaction that produces a brown color and distinct flavor.

® Serve, or refrigerate until use. from page 4·5

THI CKEN ERS

203


POMEGRANATE AND CARUM JUS

YieldsSSO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown duck stock

200g

100%

CD Combine.

Pomegranate juice

34g

17% 10%

see page 6

0

Carum (or fish sauce)

20g

Malt vinegar

as needed

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

4.8g

Bring to boil.

® Cool.

0

Season jus with vin egar.

® Blend in Ultra-Sperse 3 to th ic ke n.

2.4%

® Serve, or refrigerate until use.

from page 5·122

TURKEY WING

Yields 450 g (four portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Turkey wings, ends cut off

300g

100%

CD Mix salt and sugar and rub even ly onto wings . 0 Vacuum seal.

Salt

9g

3%

Sugar

3g

1%

® Refrigerate to cure for 24 h.

0 Clarified butter

15g

5%

Remove cured wings from bags; rinse off cure.

® Vacuum seal wings with butter. ® Cook so us vide in 58 °C I 136 °F bath for12 h.

0

Remove wings from bag while still hot; carefully d e bone without rupturing meat.

® Refrigerate. ® Coat wings with starch.

Potato starch

25 g

Frying oil

as needed

@) Pour thin film of oil in nonstick pan.

Sage, leaves

as needed

@ Fry coated wings for 2 min on each side.

8.3%

@ Transfer to serving plates, and garnish with gravy and whole sage leaves. from page 4·33

THANKSGIVING TURKEY GRAVY INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Brown chicken orturkey stock 600g

Yields245g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

300%

CD Reduce to 200 g, and reserve.

100%

0

see page6

Reduced chicken or turkey stock, from above

200g

Garlic con fit, pureed

25 g

12.5%

see page176

8g

4%

Dried cranberries, finely minced

lOg

5%

Sage, finely minced

2g

1%

Black peppercorns, coarsely ground

0.15g

0.075 %

Salt

to taste

Ultra-Sperse 3

Blend reduce d stock and garlic con fit together to make gravy.

® Whisk in Ultra-Sp e rse 3.

0

Warm gravy to 70 °C I 160 °F.

® Whisk into warm gravy.

® Season gravy.

from page 4·33

204

VOlUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAl


HEATHER-SMOKED STURGEON RILLETTES

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

15g

15%

CD Marinate shallots at room temperature for 30 min.

White balsamic vinegar

13g

13%

Heather-smoked sturgeon

100g

100%

Shred sturgeon.

® Combine shallots, sturgeon, and remaining ingredients in stand mixer.

see pagel22

Basic mayonnaise

0

75g

75%

see page303

Celery, finely minced

9g

9%

Chives, minced

5g

5%

Celery leaf, minced

1.5 g

1.5%

Chervil, minced

1.5g

1.5%

Tarragon, minced

1.5g

1.5%

Smoked salt

l.2g

1.2%

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

1.2 g

1.2%

Lime zest, finely grated

1g

1%

Lemon juice

0.7g

0.7%

Store-bought sturgeon can be substituted in this recipe.

@ Whip on medium-high speed until fluffy and all ingredients are well incorporated. ® Refrigerate until use.

from page 5·235

CRISPY GOAT'S MILK RICOTTA DUMPLING

Yields290 g

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Goatmilkricottaorcow milk ricotta

200g

100%

CD Blend together fully.

store-bought or see page 248

Heavy cream

80g

40%

Salt

2.8g

1.4%

Black pepper

0.5g

0.25%

Ultra-Tex4 (National Starch brand)

8g

4%

0

(3%)*

® Roll into logs 3 em I 2)4 in. in diameter on nonstick surface, using your palms.

Fold into ricotta mixture.

@ Cut logs crosswise into 3 em I 2)4 in pieces. ® Arrange pieces on nonstick baking sheet and refrigerate until use. Frying oil

® To serve, dehydrate dumplings in 45 oc 1 115 °F oven for45 min.

as needed

0 from page 5-274

Deep-fry dumplings in 195 oc I 385 °F oil until crispy and golden, about 1 min, and drain on paper towels .

*(%oftotal weight ofgoat's milk ricatta and heavy cream)

MARCONA ALMOND BUTTER PASTE

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw Marcona almonds

500 g

143%

CD Roast in 175 oc I 350 °Foven until golden, about 15 min.

Marcona almond butter, from above

350 g

100%

Ultra-Sperse 5 (National Starch brand)

10.5 g

3%

Salt

to taste

0

Process roasted nuts with colloid mill or food processor until smooth, and measure 350 g.

® Blend together to thicken.

@ Season butter, and refrigerate until use. Before use, temper at room temperature for 15 min.

from page 5·282

THICKENERS

205


MALT VINEGAR POWDER

Yields250 g

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

Acetic acid

40g

20%

0 0

Salt

36g

lB%

® Store in an airtight container in dark, cool place.

Sugar

12g

6%

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

Bg

4%

200g

Spray-dried malt vinegar

Grind together, and sift through fine sieve. Season with salt to taste.

from page 4·34

BACON POWDER SQUARES

ADAPTED FROM GRANT ACHATZ SCALING

PROCEDURE

100 g

100%

0

Warm bacon fat just enough to liquefy it.

BOg

BO%

0

Whisk bacon fat into N-Zorbit M a little at a time until fully incorporated with powder.

QUANTITY

INGREDIENT Smoked bacon fat, rendered

Yields250 g

see page 3·145 N~o~~M

(National Starch brand) Salt

to taste

Black pepper, fine powder

to taste

Pineapple glass

70g

® Season powder.

0

Form powder into squares 13 mm I \1.! in wide, and set aside.

® Cut glass into squares 5 em I 2 in wide.

70%

see page 187

® Place one single bacon powder square in center of each glass square. 0 Fold glass squares over bacon powd er squares to form small packets. ® Serve immediately, or store packets in cool, dry environment.

from page 4-34

PARMESAN NUGGETS INGREDIENT Parmesan, grated

INSPIRED BY FERRAN ADRIA

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100g

100%

0

Microwave until oil separates from solids.

0

Strain; reserve 10 g of oil for recipe.

® Whisk oil into N-Zorbit M a little at a time, until fully incorporated. Resulting powder may be used as seasoning.

25%

25g

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

Yields35 g

0

Spoon thin layer of resulting powder into nonstick pan. ® Saute powd er over low heat; swirl constantly until small spheres form and begin to dry. ® Serve at room temperature, or refrigerate.

from page 4·35 Yields BOg

SPICED ASH INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pain d 'epices powder

45g

100%

0

Whisk together.

Carbon color powder (MSKbrand)

B.5g

19%

Kaolin clay powder (MeadowSweet Herbs and Oils brand)

7g

15.5%

Roasted hazelnut oil

12g

27%

0

Whisk oil slowly into N-Zorbit M.

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

lOg

22%

® Incorporate tinted spice blend thoroughly.

see page 51

from page 5·22

206

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


VANILLA OLIVE OIL POWDER

ADAPTED FROM GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Confectioner's sugar

BOg

80 %

CD Dry bl end.

N-ZorbitM (Nationa l Starch brand)

160g

160%

Vanilla pulp and seeds

14g 14% (from four beans)

Salt

4g

4%

Olive oil

100g

100%

0

Yields350 g

Whisk into powder until fully incorporated .

® Press through fine tam is to remove clumps. @ Store in airtight conta in er in coo l, dry p lace. from page 4·35

CASHEW HALVAH

Yields 130 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cashews, roasted

100 g

100%

CD Combine.

N-Zorbit M (National Starch brand)

30 g

30 %

0

Salt

1.5 g

Grind to fine powd er.

® Refrigerate until use. 1.5%

from page 5·93

ALMOND POLENTA

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Marcona almonds, toasted and finely grated

250g

100%

CD Whisk together.

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

30g

12% (5%)*

Ultra-Sperse M (National Starch brand)

5g

2% (0.9%)*

0

Xanthan gum

0.4 g

0.16%

White chicken stock

250 g

100%

see page 6 and page 11

Yields 575 g

Set dry mixture aside.

® Pour stock into pot. @ Whisk in dry mixture from above. ® Cook over med iu m heat; stir until just thickened, about 3 min .

Sweet almond oil

40g

Salt

to taste

from page 4·36

16%

® Whiskin.

0

Season.

*(% oftotal weight ofall ingredients)

TH I CKENERS

207


EDIBLE EARTH

INSPIRED BY RENE REDZEPI AND WYLIE DUFRESNE

Yields475 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Almond flour, toasted

200g

100%

CD Blend in food processor until resembles soil.

Black bread, thinly sliced and dehydrated at135 oc I 275 °F

150g

75%

N-ZorbitM (Nationa l Starch brand)

20g

10%

Barley malt powder

18.5g

9.25%

Dried ch icory root, coarsely ground

17g

8.5%

Dried porcini powder

15g

7.5%

14g

7%

31 g

15.5%

Toasted-pumpkin seed oil

9g

4.5%

Caramel color powder

as needed

® Adjust co lor if necessary.

Salt

to taste

0

Freeze-dried shiitake powder

This is our homage to the edible land scapes of Michel Bras (Le

Gargouil/ou de}eunes Legumes), David Kinch (Into the Vegetable Garden), and the many modern

see page 188

Grapeseed oil

0

Drizzle into dry mixture while continuing to blend with food processor until o il is fu ll y in corporated.

Season.

® Transfer to airtight container and store in cool, dry place. from page 4·37

208

VO LUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL

chefs who have simulated the aesthetics of nature in their dishes, including Quique Dacosta, Ferran and A lb ert Adria, Andoni Luis Aduriz, Yoshiaki Takazawa, and Sam Mason, among others.


CORN PEBBLES

Yields 95 g

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Corn, freeze-dried and ground into powder

30g

100%

@ Dry bl end.

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

15g

50%

Spray-dried buttermilk

15g

50%

Smoked-grapeseed oil (store-bought)

6g

20%

Grapeseed oil

30g

Salt

to taste

see page 188 (or store-bought)

se e page 59 (or store-bought)

0

Combine oils.

® Whisk into powder mixture until fully incorporated. 100% @ Season resulting corn pebble base.

® Form into 1 em I :Y. in diameter balls; wearing latex gloves will help. ® Bake in 135 •c I 275 • F oven until balls become lightly golden and begin to firm, about 6min.

0

Serve immediately, or store in airtight container in cool, dry place.

from page 4·36

TH I CKENERS

209


THICKENED HOT AND COLD LIQUIDS CD Choose the amount of thickening desired and a corresponding formula. We recommend those listed in the tables that follow. Proportions are given relative to the weight of liquid used. For example, add 0.5 g of guar gum and 0.35 g of xanthan gum to every 100 g of carrot juice to make a thick, hot carrot sauce.

0

stirred directly into cold liquids; those listed as hot-soluble can be stirred into hot liquids. Otherwise, stir the agent into a small amount of cold liquid to dissolve it, and then add it to the remaining liquid, and finally whisk to disperse it.

庐 Hydrate fully. Heat as directed in the hydration column of th e tables. Temperatures indicated are the minimum required for proper hydration .

Disperse the thickeners. Thickening agents listed as cold-soluble can be

Best Bets for Thickening Hot Liquids Hydrate

Amount of thickening Thickeners

(scaling)* (oC)

very little

xanthan gum

0.2%

hot or cold

lambda carrageenan

0.1%

cold

gum arabic

10%

160 Bloom gelatin

3%

lambda carrageenan

0.25%

xanthan gum

0.35%

propylene glycol

0.65%

(oF)

(min)

Heat stability

Note

Example use

best used in dairy applications

and broths,

thins at high temp yes

light consommes flavored milks

little

moderate

60

140

5

cold

yes

hot or cold 82

180

yes

slightly opaque, not suited to

broths, light

best used in dairy applications

soups

thins at high temp cream sauces,

3

veloutes, soups

alginate microcrystalline

constructed

clear liquids

1.5%

cold

yes

ce llulose

great

very great

gum tragacanth

0.35%

lambda carrageenan

0.4%

locust bean gum

0.2%

guargum

0.5%

xanthan gum

0.35%

82

180

3

hot or cold

thickens at high

high-calcium solutions may

temp

become too thick

thins at high temp

good for liquids with a high

coating sauces,

slightly opaque

veloutes

160 Bloom gelatin

9%

sucrose, fructose or another,

meat glazes,

glucose syrup DE40

4%

less sweet sugar solid may be

constructed jus

cellulose gum LV

0.5%

substituted

(see page 34)

lambda carrageenan

0.8%

cold

yes

best used in dairy applications

light puddings

xa nthan gum

0.3%

co ld

yes

lambda carrageenan

0.7%

ce llulose gum LV

1.2%

room

konjac gum

0.15%

temperature

xanthan gum

0.15%

60

140

5

yes

purees and sp reads, thick

30

thickens at high temp

shearfor 5 min after dispersing glazes, savory to ensure konjac fully hydrates; puddings best texture when fat concentration is above 12%

from page 4-46

210

soups and

ratio of suspended solids,

*(set weight ofliquid to be thickened to 700%)

VOlUME 6 路 KITCHEN MANUAl


Best Bets for Thickening Cold Liquids Hydrate

Amount of thickening

Thickeners

(scaling)*

very little

guargum

0.35%

hot or cold

xanthan gum

0.15%

hot or cold

lambda carrageenan

0.15%

co ld

little

moderate

(oc)

(oF)

(min)

Note

Example use

opaque, not suited for clear liquids

flavored milk co ld consommes broths, light soups

xanthan gum

0.10%

xanthan gum

0.25%

hot or co ld

broths, light soups

guargum

0.25%

cold

cold cream sauces

ce llulose gum LV

0.50%

lambda carrageenan

0.25%

co ld

light fruit and vegetable

xanthan gum

0.15%

xanthan gum

0.4%

konjacgum

0.3%

locust bean gum

0.1%

cel lulose gum LV

1.0%

lambda carrageenan

0.5%

gum tragacanth

0.5%

purees, soups hot or cold

light fruit and vegetable purees, soups

great

very great

xanthan gum

82

3

180

2.25%

propylene glycol

0.50%

gazpachos and other co ld

ensure that konjac hydrates fully

soups

cold

opaque, not suited for clear liquids

coati ng sauces

cold

best texture when fat concentration

pastes, thick purees

is above12%

0.2%

cellulose gum LV

shear for 5 min after dispersing to

82

180

3

best texture when solids ratio is high

alginate

*(set weight ofliquid to be thickened to 700%)

from page 4-46

HAM CONSOMME WITH MELON BEADS

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

Yields 600 g(lO servings)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water, co ld

SOOg

200%

I be rico ham, excess fat removed, thinly sliced

250g

100%

CD Combine, and simmerfor15 min. 0 Cool comp lete ly, and remove congea led fat from surface of broth.

Iberica ham consomme

250g

100%

Xanthan gum (Texturas brand)

0.6g

0.24%

Melon juice

200% SOOg (from about 800 g of melon)

see page 2·336

® Pass broth through fine sieve, and reserve 250 g of consomme.

0 Blend thoroughly with consomme. ® Refrigerate for later use. ® Blend with juice until dissolved.

0

Vacuum seal to remove any trapped air.

® Transfer to Texturas-style syringe.

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

2g

Water

SOOg

200%

® Blend together until fully dissolved.

Calcium chloride

2.5g

1%

@ Expel juice from syringe, one droplet at a time, into calcium chloride bath.

0.8% (0.4%)*

@ Remove resulting beads from bath after 3 min. @ Rinse beads in clean water bath. @ Serve, or store beads in clean water. @ To serve, fill1 0 champagne flutes with 50 g each of cold ham consomme. @ Spoon 10 g of melon juice beads into each flute; beads will remain suspended. Black peppercorns, finely ground from page 4-48

to taste

@ Garnish.

*(%of weight ofmelon juice)

THI CK ENER S

211


Yields230 g

TOMATO WHEY BROTH SCALING

PROCEDURE

100g

100%

CD Whisk together.

Whey, from goat milk ricotta making see page 248

100 g

100%

lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0 .20g

0.2 %

0

(0.7%)*

®B lend into tomato-whey mixture until fully hydrated.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.20g

0.2%

0

Salt

to taste

INGREDIENT Tomato water seepage40

QUANTITY

Refrigerate.

(0.7%)*

®Season just before serving, or whey wil l curdle. @ Serve co ld with fresh mozzarella or on tomato salad.

to taste Tomato vinegar see page 315 or lemon juice (optional)

*(%oftotal weight oftomato water and whey)

from page 4·49

TRUFFLEJUS

Dry blend together.

Yields250 g

INSPIRED BY MARC VEYRAT

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

30g

30%

CD Cook together over low heat until tender, about 5 min.

Clarified butter

1Sg

15%

Black peppercorns, ground

O.Sg

0 .5%

Red port (dry)

40g

40%

0

Red wine (dry)

40g

40%

® Simmertogetherfor2 min to cook off alcohol flavor.

Mushroom jus, cold see page 37

100 g

100%

Konjac gum (Ticagel Konjac HV, TIC Gums brand)

0.54 g

0.54% (0.3 %)*

0

Black truffles, vacuum-packed, 35 g frozen, thawed, then minced

35%

® Whisk into warm mushroom jus and wine mixture.

Black truffle oil

7g

7%

Dark cocoa powder

4g

4%

Thyme essential oil

O.OSg

0.05%

Salt

to taste

®

Sherry vinegar

to taste

@ Season.

0

Add to pan of cooked sha ll ots. Keep port base hot for later use.

® Disperse gum into co ld mushroom jus. @ Whisk mushroom jus into hot port base. Bring to simme r, and blend continuousl y for 5 min to ensure konjac is fully disp e rsed.

Remove jus from heat.

*(%oftotal weight ofred port wine and mushroom jus)

from page 4·53

BEEF TENDERLOIN WITH JUS DE ROTI

Yields 500 g (four portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beef tenderloin

400g

400% 40%

CD Vacuum seal together. 0 Cook so us vide in 53 °C I 127 °F bath to core temperature of 52 °C / 126 °F.

Brown beef stock see page 10

lOOg

100%

® Combine.

160 Bloom gelatin

9g

9%

Rendered beef marrow or suet 40g

0

Fructose

2.5g

2.5%

D-Ribose Powder (Solgar brand)

1.75g

1.75%

Cellulose gum (CekollVD, CP Kelco brand)

O.Sg

0.5%

Koji-Aji (Ajinomoto brand)

0.4g

0.4%

Caramel coloring

0 .2g

0.2 %

Malic acid

to taste

Salt

to taste

Bringjus to low simmer to dissolve solids.

® Season jus, and serve with sliced beeftenderloin.

from page 4·54

212

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


OLIVE OIL SPREAD INGREDIENT Deodorized cocoa butter Olive oil

Yields325g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

lOOg

44%

CD Heatto 40 oc I 104 °Fto melt.

225g

100%

0

QUANTITY

Blend with melted butter.

® Allow mixture to harden at room temperature.

0 Black pepper, ground

lg

0.4%

Thyme essentia l o il (optional)

0.2g

0.09%

Rosemary essential oil (optional)

O.lg

0.04%

Fleur de sel

to taste

Blend again to sil ky cons istency.

® Wh isk into spread.

® Season, and warm at room temperature for 20 min before serving.

from page 4 ·51 Yields430 g

WHITE GRAPE SYRUP INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Muscat grapes (or other white grapes)

2 kg

500%

CD ju ice with Champion juicer or similar appliance. 0

Clarify juice with pressure or vacuum fi ltration .

® Reserve 400 g. Clarified grape juice, from above

400g

100%

0

Blend.

® Adjust sweetness and acidity to taste.

Fructose

20g

5%

Malic acid

4.5g

1.3%

Cellulose gum (Cekol LVD, CP Kelco brand)

4g

1%

Xanthan gum (Ke ltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

1.2g

® Shear into juice mixture.

0

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate syrup.

0 .3%

from page 4·52

XO SAUCE

Yields275 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown pork stock

250g

125%

CD Combine, and vacuum seal.

Cured ham, finely minced

60g

30%

® Strain, and press solids to remove as much liquid a s possibl e.

Ginger, peeled and thinly sliced

40g

20%

0

Agave nectar (or honey)

lOg

5%

Infused pork stock, from above

200g

100%

Cellulose gum (Cekol LV, CP Kelco brand)

2g

1%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

O.Sg

0 .25%

Salted dried shrimp, minced

14g

7%

® Fry together until tender, about 2 min.

Ginger, minced

12g

6%

0

Dried scallop, minced

7g

3.5%

® Fold mixture into thickened stock base.

Fermented b lack beans, minced

7g

3.5%

® Serve with Deep-Fried Custard (page 255), or coo l and refrigerate.

see page6

0

Garlic, minced

7g

3.5%

Dried red chilies, seeded and minced

3g

1.5%

Frying oil

5g

2.5%

Cook so us vide in 90 °C I 194 °F bath for 1 h. Measure 200 g of infused stock, and cool.

® Shear into reserved stock to hydrate.

Blot excess oi l with paper towels.

from page 4·52

THICKENERS

213


CARAMELIZED COCONUT CREAM INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields550 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Coconut milk

350g

350%

Palm sugar

50g

50%

0 0

Baking soda

1.5g

1.5%

® Cool comp letely; liquid may curdle as it cools, which is normal.

Coconut water (canned or fresh)

100g

100%

@ Blend until sodium a lgin ate is completely dissolved.

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV, FMC BioPolymer brand)

1.75 g

1.75%

Young coconut meat (frozen or fresh)

50g

Combine. Pressure-cook mixture at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for1Y., h.

® Combine with coconut milk mixture . (0.35%)*

50%

@ Add to coconut milk mixture, and blend until smooth.

0

Strain through fine sieve.

® Refrigerate. from page 4·50

*(%oftotal weight ofall ingredients)

PRESSURE-COOKED POLENTA WITH STRAWBERRY MARINARA INGREDIENT

Yields 800 g (12 portions)

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Strawberries, thinly sliced

220g

88%

0

Heirloom tomato, peeled

190g

76%

Combine a ll ingredients in pot, and simmer, until reduced and thickened, about 90 min.

0

Whisk gum into marinara base until fully dispersed.

For the strawberry marinara:

Strawberry juice, clarified

185g

74%

Sweet onion, finely minced

100g

40%

White wine (dry)

lOOg

40%

Garlic, thinly sliced a nd blanched

3g

1.2%

Basil leaves, torn

2g

0.8%

Tarragon leaves, crushed

2g

0.8%

Strawberry marinara, from above

250 g

100%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.6 g

0 .24%

Salt

to taste

Lime juice

to taste

® Season marinara, and reserve.

For the corn husk consomme: Water

1 kg

400%

Corn husks, fresh

125 g

50%

@ Line baking sheet with corn husks, and toast in 205 ' C I 400 ' F oven for10 min . ® Flip husks, and toast for another 5 min until deep go ld en brown. @ Combine husks with water, and simm er for 30 min to infu se. Strain and reserve.

Cellulose gum (CekollVD, CP Kelco brand)

2g

0.8% (0.2%)*

Fructose

to taste

4%

Salt

to taste

0

Blend gum into consomme base, and season.

For the polenta: Clarified butter

15g

6%

® Saute polenta in butter until golden, 3-4 min.

Stone-ground polenta

100g

40%

® Cool completely.

Corn juice, clarified

300g

120%

@ Combine with toasted polenta, and vacuum seal. @ Place in pressure cooker, and cover with water. Pressure-cook at gauge pressure of 1 bar I 15 psi for 8 min.

Mascarpone

20g

8%

Ricotta salata, grated

15g

6%

Salt

to taste

see page 226 (or store bought)

from page 4·50

2 14

@ Remove cooked polenta from bag, and whisk in mascarpone and ricotta. ® Season with sa lt. @ Divide among bowls, and garnish with strawberry marinara. @ Pour some consomme over polenta at table.

*(%oftotal weight ofcom husk consomme)

VO LU ME 6 · KI TC HEN MA NU AL


CREAMED SPINACH

Yieldsl25 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0 0 0 0

Baby spinach, cleaned

150 g

100%

Olive oil

5g

3.3%

Salt

to taste

Garlic confit, mashed

6g

4%

® Saute until shallots are translucent .

Olive oil

5g

3.3%

0

Shallots, finely minced

5g

3.3%

Mascarpone

27g

18%

see page176

Saute until wilted, about 1 min. Season, a nd cool completely. Transfer to colander, and press to remove excess liquid. Chop fin e ly.

® Add spinach.

see page 226 (or store-bought)

Stir together, and cook for3 min.

® Remove spinach from heat. ® Stir into spi nach until completely incorporated. @) Set spinach mixture as ide.

low-fat milk

20g

13.3%

@ Dry blend Ultra-Sperse 3 and xa nth a n gum.

Ultra-Sperse 3 (National Starch brand)

0.5g

0.3%

@ Whisk dry mixture into cold milk until fully hydrated .

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.1 g

0.06%

Comte cheese, finely grated

lOg

6.7%

@ To serve, fold Comte cheese into creamed sp in ach, and scatter some on top.

lemon zest, finely grated

0.5g

0.3%

@ Season with lemon zest and black pepper.

Black peppercorns, ground

0 .2g

0.1%

@ Serve warm or cold.

® Mix thickened milk into creamed spinach.

from page 4·55

WARM POTATO AND PISTACHIO PESTO SALAD INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Italian basil leaves

BOg

80%

0

Blanch in boiling water individually until tender, about 2 m in each .

Cilantro leaves

70g

70%

0 0

Cool in ice water and squeeze to remove excess moisture.

Blanc in boilingwaterfor2 min. Drain and rese rve.

Chives

70g

70%

Scallion greens

70g

70%

Garlic cloves, peeled

16g

16%

0

Extra virgin olive oil

190g

190%

® Puree togeth er with cooked herbs an d blanched garlic until smooth.

Parmiggiano Reggiano, finely grated

lOOg

100%

® Measure 900 g of pistachio pesto.

Pistachios, peeled and toasted 100g

100%

Yields2 kg

Reserve refrigerated.

Roasted-pistachio oil

4 0g

40%

Spinach puree

30g

30%

lemon juice

20g

20%

Pistachio pesto, from above

900g

900%

0

Salt

to taste

Microcrystalline cellulose (Avice I CG 200, FMC BioPolymer brand)

9g

9%

® Blend into pistachio pesto to fully hydrate .

(1%)*

® Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for at least 1 h to macerate.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

1.8g

Fingerling potatoes, skin on

1 kg

see page144

Olive oil

Season.

1.8% (0.2%)*

lOOg

1,000%

@) Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 90 °C I 194 °F bath until tender, about 45 min.

100%

@ Remove from bag while still warm. @ Slice thinly. ® Toss with pes to as desired.

from page 4·53

*(%of weight ofpistachio pes to)

T HIC KE NERS

215


AGED RARE BEEF JUS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

700 g Aged beef chuck steak, cut into 2.5 em I 1 in cubes

Yields250 g SCALING

PROCEDURE

700%

0 0

1.4%

® Press aga inst fine sieve to get juice, discarding meat.

Bromelain capsules, ground to fine powder (optional, NOW Foods brand)

1.4 g

Water, cold

lOOg

100%

Xanthan gum

0.3g

0.3 %

0

Vacuum sea l. Cook so us vide in 53 oc 1 127 °F bath for 4 h. Centrifuge juice at 27,500g for 30 min to yield about 100 g of aged beef jus, and reserve.

® Disperse gums in water.

(0.75%)*

Guargum

O.lg

0.1% (0.05%)*

Aged beef jus, from above

lOO g

100%

® Blend gum mixture into aged beef jus until comp lete ly fluid.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

2g

0.4%

0

Salt

to taste

Season jus.

® Cool, vacuum sea l, and refrigerate until use. To serve, reheat if necessary, no higher than 52 oc I 125 °F, and serve. *(% oftotal weight of water and aged beef}us)

from page 5·6

SHIITAKE MARMALADE

Yieldsl50 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

70g

70%

0

Saute over low heat until tender, about 20 min.

Shiitake mushrooms, brunoise

26g

26%

0

Add to sha llot mi xture, and reduce to 50 g to make marmalade base.

Clarified unsalted butter

lOg

10%

Garlic, brunoise

lOg

10%

Rend e re d beef marrow

lOg

10%

Tomato water

40g

40%

see page40

® Reserve.

Sherry vinegar

20g

20%

Brown beef jus

lOOg

100%

see page 34

0

Disperse gelatin into beef jus.

® Heat to fully dissolve gelatin.

160 Bloom gelatin

3g

3%

Xanthan gum

0.3g

0.3%

® Blend into beef jus.

0 Black pepper, coarsely ground

0.25g

Salt

to taste

0.25%

Fold in reserved marmalade base.

® Season marmalad e . ® Serve or coo l, vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·7

MAPLE VINEGAR GASTRIQUE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Maple syrup (G rade B)

175g

175%

Sherry vinegar

100 g

100%

0 0

Cider vinegar

20 g

20 %

® Refrigerate until use.

Microcrystalline cellulose 3 g (Avice! CG-200, FMC Biopolymer brand)

Whisk together. Vacuum seal.

3%

We used Avi eel CG200 microcrystalline cellulose, made by FMC Biopolymer.

from page 5·128

216

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


MUSHROOM KETCHUP

Yields 750 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yellow onions, thinly sliced

350 g

54%

0

Saute until translucent, abo ut 7 min.

0

Add to onions, and cook forl min.

Olive o il

53 g

8%

Garlic, thinly sliced

32g

5%

Ginger, thinly sliced

7g

1%

Crimini mushrooms, thi nl y sli ced

650 g

100%

® Combine with onion mixture and simmer, stirring frequent ly, until mushrooms are very tender a nd li quid has evapo rated, about 35 min .

Malt vinegar

155 g

24%

@ Blend until smooth.

Dark ale

105g

16%

® Pass through fin e sieve.

Mushroom broth, from above

70g

11%

® Adjust seasoning to taste.

Barley malt syrup

40g

6% 6%

0

Cane vinegar

40g

Molasses

40g

6%

Fish sauce

34g

5%

Freeze -dri e d shiitake mushrooms (or dried shiitake powder)

30 g

4.5%

Sea salt

15.5 g

2.5%

Honey

lOg

1.5%

Horseradish, fresh ly grated

7g

1%

Mace blades

4.2g

0.6%

Allspice berries

2.2g (two berries)

0.3%

Freeze-dried coffee powder

0.6 g

0.1%

Ketchup, from above

800g

123%

Xanthan gum

1.6g

0.25% (0.2%)*

Measure 800 g of ketchup .

see page 58

® Blend together until smooth, and refrigerate .

*(%oftotal weightofketchup)

from page 5·13

APRICOT AND JASMINE PUREE

Yields250 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Unripe apricot juice, fresh 315 g

100%

0

Blend toget her to fin e puree.

Dried apricots, chopped 100 g

32%

Xanthan gum

0.5 g

0.15% (0.11%)*

Osmanthus vin egar

25g

8%

0

Whisk into apricot puree.

jasmine essential oil

0.1 g (one drop)

0.03%

® Refrigerate until use.

IN GRED IENT

from page 5·1 73

QUANTITY

*(% total weight ofall other ingredients)

THICKENERS

217


SEAWEED TAPENADE

Yields525g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green olives, finely minced

200g

100%

CD Drain ingredients soaked in water.

Dulse seaweed, soaked in waterforl h, finely minced

lOOg

50%

Shallots, finely minced

75 g

37.5%

Arame seaweed, soaked in waterforl h, finely minced

50g

25%

Hijiki seaweed, soaked in waterforl h, finely minced

50g

25 %

Capers, finely minced

25g

12.5%

Anchovy paste

lOg

5%

® Whisk together until smooth.

Dijon mustard

lOg

5%

@ Fold in rese rved ingredients from above.

0

Lemon juice

7g

3.5%

Garlic, finely minced

Sg

2.5%

Xanthan gum

0 .2g

0.1 %

Reserve all ingredients separate ly.

® Seaso n tapenade.

Salt

® Se rve, or refrigerate until use. from page 5·27

TAMARIND PUREE

Yields240 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tamarind paste

140g

100%

CD Vacuum seal together.

140g

100%

Water

50g

36%

Coconut sugar (store-bought)

3.5 g

2.5%

Salt

l.Sg

1.1%

Sherry vinegar

lg

0.7%

Xanthan gum

0.45g

see page 145

Sour Indian plum (alubukhara)

0

Cook so us vide in 90 · c / 194 •F bath forl h.

® Pass through fine sieve.

@ Blend with tamarind paste and plum mixture . ® Pass through fine sieve. ® Refrigerate until use.

0.32 % (0.2%)*

from page 5·282

218

*(% oftotal weight ofcooked tamarind, plum, and water puree)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SOUTH CAROLINA BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields380 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Dijon mustard

300 g

100%

Lager beer

125g

42 %

CD Mix together in heavy-bottom pot. 0 Simmer, stirring frequently to prevent st ick ing, until

Cider vinegar

30 g

10%

Tomato puree

30g

10%

Brown sugar

15g

5%

Worcestershire sauce

lOg

3%

Black pepper, ground

1.5g

0.5% 0.5%

Garlic powder

1.5g

Cayenne pepper

to taste

Cider vinegar

to taste

Salt

to taste

reduced to 380 g, about 20 min.

® Season sauce, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·70

KENTUCKY BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ketchup (Heinz brand)

300g

100%

CD Mix together in heavy-bottom pot. 0

Cider vinegar

60g

20%

Brown sugar

50g

17%

Molasses

30g

10%

Pineapple juice (fresh)

30g

10%

Bourbon (Wi ld Turkey brand)

25g

B.5%

Bacon fat

8g

2 .7%

Worcestershire sauce

5g

2%

Unsalted butter

8g

2.7%

® Blend into warm mixture until fully emulsified.

Bourbon (Wild Turkey brand)

20g

6.7%

0

Lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Simmer, stirring frequently to prevent sticking, until reduced to 300 g, about 15 min.

Season sauce, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5-71

NORTH CAROLINA (LEXINGTON-STYLE) BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cider vinegar

115g

100%

Distilled white vinegar

115g

Ketchup (Heinz brand)

70g

100% 61%

CD Mix togeth e r in heavy- bottom pot. 0 Simmer, stirring frequently to preve nt sticking, until

Maple syrup

30g

26%

Sugar

9.5g

8.5%

Ch ili flakes

7g

6%

Black pepper, ground

4.5g

4%

Salt

to taste

red uced to 300 g, about 10 min.

® Season sauce, a nd refrigerate until use.

from page 5·71

THICKENERS

219


HOUSE BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields 120 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ma lt vinegar

50g

50%

CD Combine in pot.

White beef stock

50g

50%

0

see page 6

Cook mixture over low heat until reduced to about 100 g.

® Puree until smooth.

Maple syrup

25g

25%

Ye llow onion, finely diced

15g

15%

Bourbon

13.5 g

13.5%

Rend e red bacon fat

12g

12%

Sherry vinegar

5g

5%

Smoked Hungarian paprika pepper (or other dried, smoked pepper), ground

5g

5%

Cayenne pepper, dried and ground

0.5g

0.5%

Yellow mustard powder

0.5g

0.5%

Liquid hickory smoke (Lazy Kettle brand)

0.1 g

0.1 %

Barbecue sauce, from above

100g

100%

Tomato powder, freeze-dried

20g

40 %

1g

2%

0

Pass sauce base through fin e sieve.

®Coo l.

®S hear into co ld sauce base until evenly distributed and smooth.

see page 157 (or store- bought)

Microcrystallin e cellulose (Avice I CG 200, FMC BioPolymer brand) Salt

to taste

Red wine vinegar

to taste

0

Season sauce.

from page 4·49

KANSAS CITY BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ketchup (Heinz brand)

225g

100%

Tomato paste

40g

17.8%

CD Mix in heavy-bottom pot. 0 Simmer, stirring frequently to prevent sticking, until

Water

40g

17.8%

White wine vinegar

40g

17.8%

Brown sugar

35 g

15%

Black peppe r, ground

5g

2.2%

Chili powder (McCormick brand)

5g

2.2% 2%

Mustard powder

4.5g

Salt

4.5g

2%

Cayenne pepper

4g

1.8%

Green Thai chili, minced

4g

1.8%

Garlic powder

1g

0.4%

Onion powder

0.75g

0.3%

Ginger, peeled and finely 0.25g minced

0.1%

Cumin powder

0.1 g

0.05%

Lemon juice

5.5 g

2.4%

Salt

to taste

reduced to 250 g, about 20 min .

® Season sauce, and refrigerate until use .

from page 5·68

220

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


MEMPHIS BARBECUE SAUCE

Yie lds250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Canned tomatoes

300g

100%

Cid er vinegar

80g

27%

CD Mix in heavy-bottom pot. 0 Simmer, st irring freq uently to prevent sticking, until

Lemon juice

40g

13%

Unsa lted butter

40g

13%

Brown sugar

35 g

11.5%

Worcestershire sauce

30g

10%

Chi li powder (McCorm ick brand)

2.5 g

0.85%

Black pepper, ground

1.5 g

0.5%

Onion powder

1.5g

0.5%

Tabasco sauce

1g

0.3%

Mustard powder

0.75g

0.25%

Cayenne pepper

0.5g

0.15%

Salt

to taste

Lemon juice

to taste

re duced to 250 g, about 20 min.

® Season sauce, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·70

NORTH CAROLINA (EASTERN REGION) BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cider vinegar

200g

100%

CD Mix together in heavy-bottom pot. 0 Simmer, stirri ng frequently to prevent sticking,

Distilled white vinegar

200g

Maple syrup

30g

100% 15.5%

Chili fl akes

lOg

5%

Sugar

5g

3%

Black pepper, ground

3g

1.5%

Salt

to taste

until red uced to 250 g, about 20 min.

® Season sa uce, a nd refrigerate until use.

from page 5·70

EAST TEXAS BARBECUE SAUCE

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Ye llow onions, finely minced

135 g

169%

CD Sweat onions until translucent an d tende r in heavy-

Unsalted butter

40g

50%

Garlic, finely minced

7g

9%

Distilled vinegar

80g

100%

0

Water

80g

100%

® Add to onion mixture.

Ketchup (Heinz brand)

50g

62.5%

0

Ancho chili paste

40g

50%

Worcestershire sauce

4g

5%

Chili powder (McCormick brand)

2g

2.5%

Mustard powder

2g

2.5%

Bay leaf, crushed

0.15g

0.19%

Cayenne pepper

0.5g

0.6%

Lemon juice

13.5 g

17%

Suga r

2g

2.5%

Salt

to taste

bottom pot, abo ut 7 min.

Co mbin e. Simmer, stirring frequently to prevent stick ing, until red uced to 200 g, abo ut 20 min.

® Season sauce, a nd refrigerate until use.

from page 5·69

THICKENERS

221


MUG HAL CURRY SAUCE Instead of soak ing the nuts and seeds for12 h, you can a lternative ly soften them in a pressure coo ker at a gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 45min.

Yi e lds450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw a lmond s

160g

80%

Raw cashews

160g

80%

CD Cover w ith water, and soak in refrigerator for12 h. 0 Drain, grind together to fine paste, and reserve .

Poppy seeds

8g

4%

® Cover with water, and soak in refrigerator for12 h.

Shallots, thinly sliced

200g

100%

Ghee

30g

15%

Garlic, grated

6g

3%

® Comb in e aromat ics, and add to sha ll ots.

Ginger, grated

6g

3%

0

Green Thai chili, fin e ly minced

5g

2.5%

Turmeric (fres h), grated

4g

2%

Nutmeg, grated

2g

1%

@ Drain, grind to fine paste, and reserve. ® Saute sha ll ots until translucent and lightly go lden.

Saute until go lden, abo ut 5 min, and reserve.

Bay leaf

0.25g

0.3 %

Mace blade

1.6 g

0.8%

Coriander seed

1g

0 .5%

® Toast sp ices together in 170 ' C I 340 ' F oven unt il aromatic and go ld en, 10-15 min .

Black pepper

0.5g

0.25%

® Grind to fine powder in blender or coffee grin der.

Cinnamon stick

0.5g

0.25%

@ Add to sauteed mixture.

Clove

0.5g

0.25%

Cumin seeds

0.5g

0.25%

Green cardamom seeds

0.1 g

0.05%

Ra isins

25g

12.5%

Plain yogurt

8g

4%

Lim e juice

to taste

@ Season.

Salt

to taste

@ Coo l and refrigerate unt il use.

@ Add ra isin s to sauteed mixture, and then add nut and poppy seed pastes. @ Simmer for 25 min, and remove from heat. @ Add to sa uce.

from page 5·92

PEA VINE SALAD

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pea vines, tips only

120g

100%

CD Measure and reserve individually.

Pickled le mons, drained

36g

30%

see page 179

Cinnamon basil leaves

15smal l

Lemon-infused olive oil

30g

25%

0

Ve rmouth vinegar

lO g

8.3%

® Toss vin a igrette with reserved salad co mpo ne nts.

Lime juice

5g

4.2%

0.3g Microcrysta llin e cellulose (optional; Avice I CG200, FMC Biopolymer brand) Black pepp er

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 5·275

222

Whisk together to form vinaigrette.

0.25% (0.85%)*

@ Season sa lad . *(% oftotal weight offirst three ingredients for vinaigrette)

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN M A NUAl


MUSLIM CURRY SAUCE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 110g Ghee

40g

Yields350g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

55% 20%

0

Saute onions until translucent and lightly golden, abo ut10 min.

0

Add to onions, a nd saute until fragrant, about5 min.

see page 4·213

Garlic, grated

7g

3.5%

Ginger, grated

7g

3.5%

Black peppercorns, toasted and ground

2g

1%

® Toa st in shallow pan in 170 oc I 340 °F oven until a romatic and go ld e n, 10-15 min.

Cinnamon stick, toasted and ground

2g

1%

0

Cumin seeds, toasted and ground

2g

1%

Green cardamom seeds, toasted a nd ground

2g

1%

Mace blad e, toasted a nd ground

0.8g

0.4%

Cane sugar

4g

2%

Nutmeg, grated

0.8g

0.4%

Grind to fine powder in bl e nder or coffee grinder.

These curry sauces have a traditional texture. They stick to meat better if you add 0.2% xanthan gum, relative to th e tota l weight ofthe sauce. Use a blender or rotor-stator homoge nizer to blend in the gum after the final step in the recipe.

® Mix with ground spices and sauteed onion mixture.

Heavy cream

200g

100%

® Add to spiced onion mixture .

Wate r

60g

30%

0

Unsalted butter

16g

8%

® Whisk into sauce.

Simmerfor30 min, and remove from heat.

Lime juice

4g

2%

Saffron threads

0 .8g

0.4%

Rosewater

to taste

® Season.

Salt

to taste

@ Cool and refrige rate until use.

from page 5·93

GREEN MANGO AND CASHEW SALAD

Yields256 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green mango, fine julienne

lOOg

100%

0

Measure and reserve individually.

30%

0

Blend together until smooth to make dressing, and reserve.

Cashews, roasted

30g

Mint leaves, torn

8g

8%

Cilantro stems and leaves, thinly sliced

4g

4%

Coconut water (fresh or canned)

60g

60%

® Toss green mango with reserved salad e lements, a nd dress to taste.

Fish sauce

40g

40%

Distilled vinegar

19 g

19% 13%

Lime juice

13g

Sugar

8g

8%

Salt

1g

1%

Xanthangum

0.28g

0.28% (0.2%)*

from page 5·169

*(%total weight ofsix preceding ingredients)

THI CKENERS

223


GOAN CURRY SAUCE

Yields2oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

120 g

100%

CD Saute onions until translucent and golden, about

Ghee

3Sg

29%

Tomato puree

60g

50%

7g

5.8%

Ginger, finely grated

7g

5.8%

Black peppercorns

Sg

4%

Green cardamom seeds

4.2g

3.5%

Turmeric, grated

10 min.

see page 55

Add to onions.

® Saute mixture for 5 min.

Garlic, finely grated The traditional way to toast spices in Indi a n cuisine is in a dry skillet. We prefer an oven for more control, but even with this method, you need to watch that you don't burn your spices.

0

4g

3.3%

Fennel seeds

3.4 g

2.8%

Coriander seeds

2.4 g

2%

Cumin

0

Add to onion and tomato mixture, and saute until fragrant, aboutlO min.

® Toast in shallow pan placed in 170 oc I 340 °F oven until golden and aromatic, 10- 15 min . @ Grind to fine powder in blender or coffee grinder.

2.4 g

2%

Yellow mustard seeds

2g

1.7%

Cane vinegar

40g

33%

0

Raw cane sugar

12g

10%

® Simmerfor45 min.

Bay leaf

O.Sg

0.4%

lime juice

to taste

® Season sauce.

Salt

to taste

@) Cool and refrigerate until use .

Comb ine with sauce.

from page 5·95

KERALA CURRY SAUCE

Curries are by no means exclusive to India. Southeast Asia has its yellow, green, and red curries; there are a daptations from Iran to Britain to japan. But they all share the basics: meat, seafood, or just loads of flavorful vegetables in a fragrant, spicy sauce, usually served with rice.

Yields3sog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

120g

85%

CD Saute until shallots are translucent and golden, about

Ghee

35 g

25%

Green Thai chili, minced

12g

8.5%

Garlic, finely grated

lOg

7%

Ginger, finely grated

lOg

7%

Curry leaves

Sg

3.5%

Bay leaf

O.Sg

0.4%

Black peppercorns

14g

10%

® Mix together thoroughly.

Cumin seeds

4g

2.8%

0

Green cardamom seeds

3g

2%

Star anise

1.4 g

1%

® Grind to fine powder in blender or coffee grinder.

Cinnamon stick

lg

0.7%

Cloves

1g

0.7%

@ Add to shallot mixture, and saute until fragrant, about 3min.

Coconut milk

140g

100%

Salt

to taste

10 min.

0

0

Add to shallot mixture, saute for 5 min, and reserve.

Toast in shallow pan placed in 170 oc I 340 °F oven until golden and aromatic, 10-15 min.

Add to shallot mixture, and simmer for 45 min.

® Season sauce. ® Cool and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·96

224

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


MASALA CURRY SAUCE

YieldsJoog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onions, thinly sliced

200g

80%

CD Saute onions until amber and translucent, about 25 min.

Ghee

JOg

12%

Tomato puree

250g

100%

see page 55

0

Add to onions, a nd saute forl min.

® Reserve warm.

Curry leaves

2.5g

1%

Coconut (fresh), grated

60g

24%

0

Garlic, finely grated

lOg

4%

® Add to onion and tomato mixture, a nd saute for 3 min.

Ginger, finely grated

lOg

4%

® Reserve warm.

Dried bird's eye chili, crushed

3.5g

1.4%

Grind together to fine paste.

Toast in shallow pan placed in 170 •c; 340 •F oven until aromatic and go ld en, 10-15 min.

fenugreek seeds

2.4g

1%

0

Coriander seeds

2g

0 .8%

® Grind to fine powder in blender or coffee grinder.

Fennel seeds

2g

0 .8%

® Stir into warm onion a nd tomato mixture. @ Saute until aromatic.

Water

160g

64%

@ Add to mixture.

Tamarind paste

60g

24%

@ Simmer for 45 min.

Turmeric (fresh), grated

9g

3.6%

lime juice

to taste

@ Season sauce.

Salt

to taste

@ Cool and refrigerate until use.

see page 145

from page 5·98

RED-EYE GRAVY INGREDIENT

Yields 75 g

QUANTITY

Sweet onions, thinly sliced 80 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

16%

CD Saute onions until tender and golden, aboutl5 min.

Re nd e red pork fat

30 g

6%

Star anise

0.2 g

0 .04%

0

Add to onions.

® Continue cooking over lower heat until onions are dark amber and star an ise is fragrant. Brown pork stock

500g

100%

see page 6

0

Deglaze.

® Reduce to 75 g, and remove gravy from heat.

Maple syrup (Grade B)

15g

3%

Coffee beans

25g

5%

® Add to gravy, and cover.

0

Infuse for 5 min.

® Strain, discarding coffee beans. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avice! CC-200, FMC Biopolymer brand)

0.2 g

Smoked salt

to taste

from page 5·102

0.04% (0.27%)*

® Blend into gravy to thicken.

@ Season and serve, or refrigerate until use. *(%oftotal weight after reduction)

THICKENER S

225


MilKS AND CREAMS 0

Select a recipe. Some of our favorites appear in the table be low. Proportions are relative to the main liqu id. For example, use 80 g of tigernuts for every100 g of water to make chufa milk.

0

Blend liquids with thickeners. Disso lve acidifiers or rennet in a sma ll amount of water, milk, or cream before adding them to the liquid.

® Hydrate the thickeners. Soak or heat as indicated in the Procedure column of the table.

0

Sieve if needed to remove lumps. Nut and legume milks should be sieved after steeping.

Best Bets for Making Milks and Creams Recipe

almond milk

liquid

(scaling) Thickeners

water

100%

sweet almond o il 2%

(scaling) Procedure

almonds, finely ground

60%

sugar

1%

soak 24 h, and sieve combine liquids, and pour in open container; steam or cook in 80 °CI176 oF bath for1 h undisturbed; refrigerate 24 h; skim clotted cream from surface

clotted cream

whole milk*

100%

heavy cream

50%

chufa milk

water

100%

ch ufas (tigernuts)

80%

soak 12 h, and sieve

buttermilk

butter whey

100%

lactic acid

0.4%

season with salt to taste, and allow to rest overnight; adjust amount of heavy cream to taste

20%

lambda carrageenan

0.2%

100%

live culture (Yogotherm brand)

1.0%

lactic acid

0.2%

nla

see page 4·286

heavy cream skyr

low-fat milk

heat mi lk to 82 °( I 180 °F, and cool to 42 oc I 108 oF; add culture and acid, pour into sanitized containers, and incubate at 45 oc I 113 oFfor 5 h; drain for 2 h

yogurt

whole milk

100%

live culture (Yogotherm brand)

1%

heat milk to 82 oc I 180 °F, and coo l to 42 oc 1 108 oF; add culture, pour into sanitized containers, and incubate at 45 oc I 113 oFfor 8 h; drain 12 h for thick, Greekstyle texture; for firmer yogurt, scald milk at 85 oc I 125 oFfor 25 min, and cool before adding culture

mascarpone

heavy cream

100%

ascorbic acid (or glucono de lta-lactone)

0.2%

combine, heat cream to 90 oc I 190 °F, cool for 30 min, wrap in cheesecloth, and hang, refrigerated, for12 h

from page 4·56

*(whole milk used in clotted cream should be unhomogenizedfor best results)

LOW-FAT "CREAM"

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet whey powder

5g

2.5%

0

Dry blend.

Cellulose gum (Cekol LV, CP Kelco brand)

0.7g

0.35%

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0.2g

0 .1 %

Skim milk

200g

100%

0

Shear powder mixture into milk unti l fully hydrated .

® Refrigerate. from page 4·57

226

VO LUME 6 ·K I TC HE N MA NU AL


INSTANT CREME FRAICHE

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Heavy cream (free of stabilizers or thickeners)

400g

100%

0 0

Heat heavy cream to 40 °C I 104 °F. Blend in carrageena n to fully hyd rate, and remove from heat.

Lambda carrageenan

1.6 g

0.4%

Lactic acid

1.6g

0.4%

® Dissolve lact ic ac id in water.

Water

8g

2%

0

Stir lactic acid so lution into warm cream, and refrigerate for10 min before using.

® Pass through fine sieve, and refrigerate until needed. from page 4 ·57

HERBED CHEESE SPREAD INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields 125 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Heavy cream 75 g (free of stabilizers or thickeners)

100%

0 0

Whole milk

25 g

33%

® Bring mixture to boil while blending to hydrate.

Locust bean gum (POR/A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

1g

1.3% (1%)*

0

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0.2 g

0.27% (0.2%)*

Fresh goat cheese

30g

40%

lOg

7.5%

Disperse into cold milk and cream. Remove from heat .

® Strain and cool.

Locust bean gum and lambda carrageenan are often combined to create commercial cream cheese in the United States.

® Add to heavy cream mixture.

0 Garlic confit, pureed

Dry blend lo cust bean gum a nd carrageena n.

Blend together until homogenized to make spread base.

® Fold into cheese spread.

see pagel76

Chives, minced

3g

4%

Parsley, minced

2g

2.7%

Tarragon, thinly sliced

1g

1.3%

Lemon juice

to taste

Black pepper, cracked

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 4 ·57

® Season, and refrigerate until use.

*(%of total weight offirst two ingredients)

SOY MILK

Yieldsl kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Dried organic soy beans

250g

100%

Water

250g

100%

0 0

Vacuum seal together. Soak, refrigerated, until beans absorb a ll water, about14 h.

® Remove from bag. Water, co ld

750g

300%

0

Puree soaked soybeans in food processor.

® Add cold water. ® Blend for10 min until texture is creamy and grainy. Water, boiling

425g

170%

0

Pour into saucepan, and bring mixture to simmer.

® Add boiling water to soybeans; surface sho uld start to foam. ® Stir until foam subsides, about 20 min . @ Strain mixture through fine sieve lined with cheesecloth, and co ll ect soy milk. @ Wrap mixture in cheesecloth. @ Wring cloth tightly to extract all remaining soy milk. @ Vacuum seal soy milk, and refrigerate. from page 4 ·58

TH I CKENERS

227


Yields 1.5 kg

TOASTED RICE MILK INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Arborio rice

50g

33%

0 0

Arrange dry rice in thin, even layer on baking sheet. Toast in 175 oc I 350 °Foven until evenly go lden, about 45 min.

® Remove from oven. Water

1.5 kg

1,000%

0

Long grain rice

150g

100%

® Soak rice for 3 hat room temperature.

Fresh pan dan leaves (optional)

30g

20%

Combine all rice an d 1 kg of water in pot.

® Add to rice and water, if using.

0

Simmer mixture for 30 min.

® Remove from heat. ® Add reserved 500 g of water, and puree coa rsely to release starch. @) Strain through cheesecloth-lined fine sieve to extract 1.5 kg, about 1 h. To avo id unwanted solids, do not press. 60g

Sugar

40 %

@ Whisk into ri ce milk until dissolved, and coo l.

from page 4 ·59

TOASTED ALMOND MILK

Yields 650 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

750g

250%

Marcon a almonds, toasted (or regular almonds, skinless)

300 g

100%

0 0

Sugar

15 g

5%

Sweet almond oil

15g

5%

Salt

9g

3%

Almond extract (optional)

to taste

INGREDIENT Water

Blend into coarse puree. Refrigerate for 24 h.

® Blend chilled puree until smoot h.

0

Strain through fine sieve to extract almond milk.

® Add sparingly to milk. ® Vacuum seal almond milk, and refrigerate until nee ded.

from page 4·59

HORCHATA (CHUFA MILK)

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chufas (tigernuts)

450g

100%

Water

as needed

0 0

Cover nuts with fresh water. Soak nuts in refrigerator for 12 h.

® Drain nuts, and discard water. 250g

56%

0

Sugar

20g

4.4%

® Blend to fine, smooth texture.

Whey protein isolate (optional)

1.4g

0.3%

Water

Combine with softened nuts.

® Pass milk through fine sieve .

0

Vacuum seal milk, and refrigerate until needed .

from page 4·59

LEMON STRIPS

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Glycerin

3.75 g

1.67%

0

Blend together to make lemon water, and reserve.

Lemon essential oil

2.55 g

1.13% Dry blend.

Yields 50 g (50 strips)

Deionized water

225 g

100%

Maltodextrin DEB

7.95g

3.53 %

0

Algin 400F (TIC Gums brand)

B.5Bg

3.81 %

® Whisk slowly into lemon water until completely incorporated.

Viscarin TP 389 (FMC BioPolymer brand)

3.18g

1.41%

0

Aspartame

0.12g

0.05 %

® Spread mixture onto acetate sheet using film applicator or improvised dowel with a spacer to form very thin and eve n coating.

Vacuum seal or refrigerate for 8 h to remove trapped ai r bubbl es .

® Dry at room temperature for about 24 h.

0

Slice hardened film into 2 em by 3 em I :Y., in by 1',4 in strips.

® Peel off strips from sheet. ® Store in airtight co ntain er. from page 4·61

228

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


EDIBlE FilMS CD Select a texture and a corresponding film formula. The Best Bets for

0

Edible Films table below lists seve ral good options that range from tender to brittle.

0

Mix thickeners into cold liquid to create a slurry. Quantities in the table are given relative to the weight of the liquid. For example, if you are making a clear, brittle tomato water film, use 10 g of Pure-Cote B790 for every 100 g of tomato water.

® Hydrate fully. Times and temperatures are indicated in the table below. For step-by-step instructions, see page 4·26.

Cast into a film onto a flat, level surface. Keep the liquid cold, so that it is more viscous and coats the surface more easily. Films are typically cast in a layer 0.5-1 mm I Y..-Y,, in thick; crisps and tuiles are usually thicker, 1.5-2 mm I Y,.-:Y,, in. For more on making films, see th e example recipes on the next two pages.

® Dehydrate at the lowest humidity and temperature feasible. Dehydrating at 30 oc I 86 °Fis ideal. Slow, low-temperatures drying produces films that have an even texture; films often crack when dried to quickly and warp when exposed to humidity. The greater the degree of dehydration, the less flexible and more brittle the film becomes. For more information on dehydrating techniques, see page 2-428.

Best Bets for Edible Films Hydrate Texture

Clarity

Formula

(sca ling)* (oC)

tender

clear

Methocel SGA 150**

0.75%

Example use edible wrappers, paper coating films

0.75%

60

140

5

15%

95

203

3

95

203

3

2% 1.0%

glycerin

1.2%

xanthan gum

0.2%

low-acyl gellan

0.5%

95

203

3

propylene glycol alginate

0.5%

60

140

5

160 Bloom gelatin

0.3%

maltodextrin DE 8

15%

sugar or isomalt brittle

(min) 8h

sugar HM pectin

clear

refrigerated

160 Bloom ge latin

opaque agar

crisp

(oF)

flavored cr isp s, delicate tuiles

cold

10%

opaque Methocel E4M **

1.25%

refrigerated

8h

crispy cream cheese (see page 229)

clear

10%

100

15

Grant Achatz's pineapple glass wrapper for

20%

cold

glucose powder

15.0%

95

LM pectin

1.5%

agar

0.6%

Pure Cote B790

212

bacon powder (see page 187) opaque N-Zorbit M

from page 4·60

seasoned glasses, fruit and vegetable glasses 203

3

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%); **(jor dispersal instructions, see page 424)

CRISPY CREAM CHEESE

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

100g

50%

Methylcellulose E4M (Dow brand)

6g

3%

CD Bringwaterto boil. 0 Shear in methylcellulose, and simmer until completely dispersed, at least 3 min.

Cream cheese, at room temperature

200g

100%

Salt

1.5 g

(2%)*

® Pour mixture onto cream cheese.

0 0.75%

Add salt, and blend.

® Cool cream cheese mixture to 10 oc I 50 °F. ® Spread onto silicone mat in layer 2 mm I Y, 6 in thick.

0

Dehydrate at 50 °CI 120 °Funtil crisp and brittle, 10- 12 h.

® Allow to coo l comp letely before using. from page 4·63

*(%oftotal weight of water and cream cheese)

THICKENERS

229


Yields365 g

SPICED HONEY GLASS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Honey, spray-dri ed (store-bought)

180g

100%

0

Trehalose or sugar

180g

100%

Water

45g

25%

0 0

2%

® Crush spices together to make coarse powder.

Combine and heatto 160 ' C I 320 ' F, stirring constantly.

@ Pour onto 27.5 em by 40 em 1 11 in by 16 in silicone mat, and cool until hardened.

Coria nder seeds, toasted 4 g

Break glass into shards, and grind to fine powder. Pass powder through fin e sieve onto baking sheet lin ed with sili cone mat, forming layer 1.5 mm I y,, in thick, and reserve.

Sichuan peppercorns

2.5 g

1.5%

® Use fine sieve to remove fine particles.

Fennel seeds

2g

1%

0

0.8%

® Bake in 150 ' C I 300 ' F oven until completely melted, about 6 min.

Black pepper, coarsely ground

1.5 g

Sprinkle coarse particles evenly over tray of sugar powder.

® Cut into 2.5 em by 7.5 em I 1 in by 3 in pieces while sti ll hot and pliable. @ Store in coo l, dry place.

from page 5·123 Yields240 g

DRIED CHERRY AND HAZELNUT NOUGATINE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0

SOg

100%

Trehalose (or isoma lt)

50g

100%

Glucose syrup DE 40

25 g

50 %

Water

20g

40%

SOg

100%

Unsalted butter

lOg

20%

Dried sour cherries, minced

20g

40%

Hazelnuts, peeled and minced

15g

30%

Salt

2.2g

4.4%

Baking powder

l.Sg

3%

Sugar

Hazelnut butter

Heat together to 150 'C I 300 ' F to make syrup.

@ Whisk into syrup, and heat mixture to 170 ' C I 340 ' F.

0 0

Fold remaining ingredients into mixture. Pour onto si li con e mat. Cover with second sili cone mat, and roll mixture out into layer1 mm I

y,, in thick. ® Cool until britt le, break into irregular shards, and serve, or store in coo l, dry place.

from page 5·270

EDIBLE WRAPPERS

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

400g

100%

0

200 Bloom gelatin

6g

1.5%

@ Heat solution; whisk constantly to dissolve gelatin.

Glycerin

0.2g

0.05%

0 0

Yields 130 g (65 wrappers)

Combine to bloom gelatin. Transfer 6 g of solution to 9 em I 3Y2 in diameter petri dish with pipette. Swirl solution to coat dish bottom even ly and elim inate air bubbles.

® Rep eat with remaining solution in individual petri dishes, one for each wrapper. ® Rest in warm place until resu lting films are comp lete ly dry, 20 - 24 h.

0

Peel off wrappers, and store in airtight conta in er.

from page 4 ·62

230

VOLUME 6 ·K I TCH EN MANUAL


ONION ARLETTE

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sweet onion juice

300g (from about 500 g onions)

100%

0

Combine, and cook at 155 ' C I 310 ' F, until light golden caramel forms.

130g

43.3%

0 0

Cool and harden at room temperature, about 20 min.

0

Grind to fine powder, and reserve resu lting onion sugar.

Trehalose (or isomalt or sugar) Glucose syrup DE 40

70g

23.3%

Puff pastry dough (store-bought or fresh-made)

SOOg

167%

Pour hot onion syrup onto silicone mat.

® Roll out dough in rectangle 0.5 em I V. in thick. ® Cut dough into five progressively sma ll e r rectangles.

Clarified unsalted butter, 150 g melted

0

SO%

Stack in laye rs, brushing with butter an d dusting with thin coat of onion sugar between each layer.

® Fold and roll dough into cylinder, and then pinch top to give dough a bulb shape. ® Freeze until very hard , about 45 min. @ Cut dough with meat sli cer into slices 1 mm I

){6 in thick.

® Place sli ces between two silicone mats, and pass rolling pin over top until slices a re nearly translucent; they should retain their shape. @ Dust flattened sli ces with more onion sugar to fully coat surfaces. @ Transfer to si li cone mat- lined baking sheet.

@ Bake in 170 ' C I 340 ' Foven for 7 min. @ Dust with additional on ion sugar, and bake at same te mperature for 2-3 min. @ Coo l, and reserve in cool, dry place. from page 5·262

BBQ CARAMELS

Yields 750 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

KC Masterpiece honey barbecue sauce

SOOg

286%

Reserve.

Sugar

175g

100%

0 0 0

Salt

lOg

5.7%

Combine w ith sugar mixture in pot.

Reduce sauce over low heat to 250 g. Blend.

HM pectin (Brown Ribbon HV, 4.7g Obipektin brand)

2.7%

Glucose syrup DE40

17Sg

100%

0

Water

175 g

100%

® Heat to 145 °C I 293 °F.

Unsalted butter, cubed

110g

63%

® Stir into reduced barbecue sauce to form carame l base.

Liquid hickory smoke (lazy Kettle brand)

Sg

3%

You can substitute our House Barbecue sauce (see page 220) or one of the regional sauces (see page 5·66).

{0.53%) *

0

Heat to 135 °C I 275 °F, a nd remove from heat.

® Stir into caramel base quickly while base is still hot.

For the texture of the carame l to be correct, the sugar content shou ld be 88 °Brix as measured on a refractometer. Extend the cooking time as needed to reach the correct Brix leve l.

® Pour in to mold 1.5 em I% in thick. @ Refrigerate until so lidifi ed. ® Cut ca rame l sheet with scissors into desired shapes. Edible wrappers, from above

as needed

@ Wrap carame ls individu a ll y. @ Store in cool, dry place.

from page 4·62

*(% oftotal weight ofreduced honey barbecue sauce, sugar, g lucose, water, and unsalted butter)

THIC KENER S

2 31


COOKED WHOLE EGGS Best Bets for Cooking Whole Eggs Cook (oc)

Recipe

(oF)

(min)

Equipment

See page 1-190

pasteurized egg

55

131

2h

water bath

onsen egg (Japanese slow-cooked egg)

62- 68

144-154

35

water bath

4 ·76

perfect soft-bo iled egg

100

212

3

4·79

64

147

35

water baths and blowtorch

perfect hard-boiled egg

79

174

35

water bath

4·76

fast hot-spring egg

75

167

13

water bath

70

158

7

water bath

85

185

12

water bath

adapted from Aki Kamozawa and H. Alexander Talbot

fast hot-spring quail egg adapted from Ferran Adria

Arzak egg blossom

232

from page 4·78

LIQUID CENTER DUCK EGG

Yields340 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Duck eggs (s he ll ed)

320g (four eggs)

100%

0 0

Imm erse eggs in boiling waterfor 4 min. Cool in ice-water bath for 20 min.

® Cook in 62 oc

0

I 143 °F bath for about 30 min.

Coo l aga in in ice-water bath.

® Crack eggshe lls gently a ll over with back of spoon, but do not remove she lls. The egg white needs more heat to coagulate than the yo lk does, so first use boi li ng water to set the wh ite firmly e nough that it can be peeled later. Then use a low temperature water bath to cook the center. If substitut ing ch icke n eggs, w hi ch usua ll y are smalle r than duck eggs, you may need to reduce the initi a l boiling time to 3-3Y2 min.

® Reserve. Red beet juice

800g

250%

0

Red port wine

350 g

109%

® Imm erse eggs in reduction , and soak in refrigerator forl2 h.

Comb in e, reduce to 750 g, and coo l.

® Drain, and then gently peel off eggs he lls. @ Reheat eggs in 62 oc Flaky sea sa lt

to taste

Constructed red wine glaze, warmed

65g

I 143 °F bath for about 25 min.

@ Season. 20%

@ Garnish w ith glaze.

see page24

from page 5·220

EGG BLOSSOM Add 2 min to the cook ing time if using duck eggs.

This recipe uses a single step of 12 min in an 85 oc 1 185 °F bath, but yo u cou ld a lso cook the eggs in a two-stage manner (as w hen making soft-boi led eggs as described on the previous page): boil them for l -3 min, and the n cook in a 40-64 °C I 104-147 °F water bath.

I NSP IR ED BY J UAN MARl ARZAK

SCALING

PROCEDURE

50g

100%

0 0

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Whole eggs

four large

Duck fat

Line sma ll bowl with plastic wrap. Comb in e fats, a nd brush ce nter of plastic wrap.

Extra-virgin olive oil

25g

50%

® Break one egg in center of bowl.

Truffle oil

lOg

20%

0

Salt

to taste

Season w ith sa lt and additiona l fat.

® Gather edges of plastic wrap togethe r ca refu lly. ® Twist wrapped mixture into ball, a nd tie off top of wrap.

0

Repeat procedure with remaining eggs.

® Cook eggs in 85 °C I 185 °F water bath for12 min. ® Cut away plastic wrap to se rve. from page 4·80

232

Yields four eggs

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


DEVILED EGGS

Yields four portions

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole eggs, in shell

200g (four large)

100%

CD Cook in 72 ' C / 162 ' F bath for 35 min. 0

Plunge in ice water. At 72 ' C / 162 ' F, the yo lk sets hard e nough that it remains sp herica l rather than flattening from its own weight-as it does at lower temperatures (see page 4·76). Th ese yo lk balls have a wo nd erfu l consistency. They can be used as a kind of dumpling in soups or other dishes.

® Peel, and separate yo lks from whites. @ Set yo lks as id e. ® Retain whites for mayonnaise . Reserved egg whites, from above

145g

72 .5%

Champagne vi negar

25g

12.5%

Dijon mustard

lOg

5%

Extra-virgin olive o il

100 g

50 %

Walnut oil

20g

10%

Tarragon, thinly sli ced

4g

2%

® Blend.

0

Drizzle slow ly into egg wh ite mixture w hil e blending.

® Emulsify fu ll y to make mayonnaise. ® Fold in.

Black pepper, coarse ly ground to taste

@ Season mayonnaise.

Cayenne pepper

to taste

Salt

to taste

@ Smear on each plate, a nd garnish each plate with one yolk.

Bottarga di Muggine (store-bought)

20 g

@ Grate finely ove r each plate.

10%

from page 4·81

CUSTARDS The perfect custa rd temperature depends on three things: whether you use yolks or whole eggs; the proportion of egg to other li quid; a nd the fin a l co re temperature. Using the table below, you ca n ac hi eve a ny res ult you want.

Note that "milk," "qu iche," and other terms in the table below refer to the resulting texture, not to ingre di e nts or a specific recipe.

Custard Textures lk

Whole Cook (' C) 70 (' F)

158

75 167

80 176

83 181

88 190

70 158

75 167

80 176

83 181

88 190

Egg (scaling) *

10% 30% 50% 70% 90%

milk

milk

thin cream

heavy

thin creme

milk milk milk half-andhalf

110% 130% 150% 200% 250% from page 4·84 *(set weight ofliquid to 100%)

GEl S

233


PRESERVED AND PICKLED EGGS CD Select a recipe. See the table Best Bets for Pickled a nd Preserved Eggs

® Submerge very fresh whole eggs in brine or cure, and refrigerate for the time indicated. Note that a ll of the recipes here, except the vinegar-coagul ated egg, requ ire that th e eggs remain in the she ll when immersed in brine.

below for suggest ions.

0

Make the brine or curing agent. Prepare enough to complete ly cover al l eggs. Weights in the table a re sca led to be proporti ona l to the weight of th e principa l liquid. For exa mpl e, to make a dozen ce ntury eggs, weigh out e nou gh water to cover the eggs comp lete ly, and then add 9 g of sa lt a nd 4.2 g of sodium hydroxid e for every 100 g of water.

@ Cook (optional). For a more familiar texture, light ly cook th e cu red eggs, using the time and temperature indi cated in the table.

Best Bets for Pickled and Preserved Eggs Cook (optional) (oc)

(oF)

(m in)

See page below

Recipe

Coagulant

(sca ling)

Brine/ cure (days)

century egg

water

100%

154

35

9%

20 2 5

68

sa lt

brine soak dry brine

28

68

154

35

62

144

20

sod ium hyd roxid e (l ye)

4.2%

water

100%

salt

32%

vinegar-coagulated egg

vinegar

100%

brine

Y2-1

miso-cured egg yolks

red miso

100%

cure

3

sa ke

18.5%

sugar

16%

salt-coagulated egg

n/ a

below 236

from page 4·82

CENTURY EGG

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

1 kg

100%

CD Whisk together until fu ll y dissolved to make brine.

Salt

90 g

9%

Sodium hydroxid e (lye)

42g

4.2%

Whole duck eggs, washed a nd checked for cracks

450 g (a bout six)

45%

0

Vacuum sea l eggs w ith brine.

® Refrigerate in bag for 20 d. @ Remove from bag, and soak in fresh water for 2 d. ® Air-dry at room temperature for 5 d. ® Optionally, cook in 68 oc / 154 °F bath for 35 min. Cool and peel.

0

If des ire d, garn ish with pi c kled mushroom s and seaweed vin ega r.

from page 4·83

PICKLED QUAIL EGGS

I NSPIRED BY HERVE THIS

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Quail eggs

200g (aboutlO)

100%

CD Crack open; reserve whole quail eggs individu a lly. 0

INGREDIENT

Champagne vinegar

500g

250%

Water

250g

125%

Sugar

135 g

67.5%

Salt

8g

4%

Yields150 g

Combine to make brin e, a nd bring to simmer.

Black peppercorns

1g

0.5%

®Combine.

White peppe rcorns

1g

0 .5%

@ Pour hot brine over spice mixture, and coo l.

Pink peppercorns

0.5g

0.25%

®Strain cold brine into large so us vide bag.

Yellow mustard seeds

1g

0.5%

Ce lery seeds

1g

0.5%

® Slide eggs gently, one by one, into brine-filled bag, while taking care to avoid co lli sions that cou ld burst their yolks.

Dill seeds

1g

0.5%

0

0.05%

® Dra in eggs, and cook in 62 oc / 144 °F bath for 15 min.

Aleppo pepper flakes

0 .1g

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate for 12 h.

from page 4·83

234

VO LUM E 6 · KITC HE N MANUAL


SEPARATED EGG GELS CD Select a texture. The table below lists our recommendations. 0 Measure the yolk, white, liquid, and sa lt. Scale the ingredients relative to the weight of the eggs (for examp le, use 2 g of salt for every 100 g of egg yolk in a sliceable yo lk).

® Blend eggs with liquid, and whisk in seasoning. Eggs for the two-stage fried egg shou ld just be separated. For the two-stage baked eggs, blend the whites with the cream and keep the yolks whole.

0

Cook. Appropriate methods, times, and temperatures are indicated, along with references to example recipes.

Best Bets for Separated Egg Gels Egg yolk

Egg white

Texture

(scaling)

(scaling)

liquid

(scal ing)

(sca ling)

Method

(' C)

(' F)

(min)

See page

creme anglaise

100%

nl a

milk or cream

400%

5.5%

so us vide

80

176

12

below

egg yolk droplets

100%

nl a

1.1%

open container in so us vide bath

77

171

2

236

sliceable yolk

100%

nla

creme brUiee

100%

nl a

egg white custard

nl a

Salt

nl a nl a

100%

egg white droplets

nl a

100%

two-stage baked eggs

white

100%

cream

200%

milk

175%

cream

110%

milk

110% nl a

cream

35%

Cook

2%

so us vide

70

158

1h

238

5%

steam oven

79

174

35

237

3.5%

steam oven

83

181

15

1.1%

stove top

74

165

3

1.4%

steam oven

74

165

30

yolk

1 per serving

nl a

to taste

Nathan's two-stage

white

1 per servin g

nl a

to taste

fried egg

yolk

1 per serving

buttered ring mold, steam oven

64

147

20

79

174

15

63

145

25

236

2

from page 4·85

CAULIFLOWER CREME ANGLAISE INGREDIENT

Yields300 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Cauliflower, thinly sliced

400g

160%

CD Roast in 160 ' C I

Whole milk

500g

200%

320 ' F oven until deep amber, about 25-30 min. Alternatively, deep-fry in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil for 5-6 min.

0

Cool complete ly.

® Vacuum seal with roasted cau liflower.

0

Cook in BS ' CI185 ' F bath forl h to infuse milk.

® Remove from bag, and strain. ® Measure 250 g of cau liflower milk.

0 Cauliflower milk, from above

250 g

100%

Egg yolks

63 g

25%

Cool milk to room temperature.

® Blend together until smooth, and vacuum seal. ® Cook so us vide in 80 ' C I 176 ' F bath for 35 min.

@ Remove from bag, and cool. @ Add additional cauliflower milk or heavy cream to achieve desired viscosity. @ Vacuum seal and refrigerate. Nutmeg, freshly grated

to taste

@ To serve, reheat creme anglaise in 70 ' C I 158 ' F bath for 10 min.

Salt

to taste

@ Pour into serving container. @ Season.

from page 4·89

GEL S

235


EGGS BENEDICT

Yi eld s 610 g

INSPIRED BY PEDRO SUBIJANA AND GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Whisk yo lks together w ith sa lt, and stra in through fine sieve.

Egg yolks

150g

100%

Salt

3g

2%

Egg whites

150g

100%

Salt

3g

2%

0 0 0

Clarified butter see page 4·213

750g

500%

® Divide butter even ly amo ng two sma ll pots.

Transfer to squeeze bottle. Whisk w hites together with sa lt, and stra in through fin e sieve. Transfer to seco nd squeeze bottle.

® Heat one potto 72 oc 1 162 °Fand second pot to 90 oc 1 194 °F.

0

Squeeze droplets of yo lk mixture into 72 oc

I 162 °Fbath; keep drops sepa rated.

® Cook for1 min. ® lift drops slightly from pot botto m with small spatula to help them float. @ Remove droplets w hen they begin to float, rese rving butter. Reserve warm. @ Repeat procedure to make egg white droplets in 90 oc l 194 °F bath. @ Reserve warm. English muffins, ground

100 g

67%

@ Comb in e in nonstick pan .

Neutral oil

20 g

13.4%

@ Fry unti l gold en, abo ut 5 min, and drain .

Salt

to taste

So us vide instant hollandaise see page305

150 g

100%

@ Heat in 62 oc/144 °F bath for at least 10 min.

Canadian bacon, fin ely diced

45 g

30%

@ Warm with spoonfu l of reserved butter.

® Season toasted crumbs.

@ Fold into egg yo lk droplets, egg white droplets, an d toasted crumbs. @ Portion egg, bacon, and crumb comb in ation in small bowls. @ Garn ish with sma ll amoun t of ho ll anda ise . from page 4·86

MISO-CURED EGG SHEETS

Cu re the yo lks for 48 h on each side (96 h total) for a softer, mo re pliable texture.

Yi elds 60 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Red miso

75g

75%

Sake

14g

14%

CD Comb in e. 0 Line sma ll bowl w ith cheesecloth,

Sugar

12g

12%

Egg yo lks, whole

100g

100%

or use si li co ne hemispherical mo ld .

0

Spread mixture in prepared bowl or mo ld to form well shape.

0

Place yo lk s, ind ividually and intact, in center of we ll, and cover w ith remaining miso mixture.

® Refrigerate for48 h to cure. Fl ip yolks ove r, and refrigerate again for 72 h. ® Remove yo lks from cure.

0 The cured egg yo lk sheets ca n be coo ked in a 70 oc I 158 °F bath for a more fl ex ib le texture.

® Dry at room temperature for15 min to firm. ® Use egg sheets for ravioli, or cut into nood les an d dress w ith bonito flakes and ol ive o il. from page 4·87

236

Roll between two thin sili cone mats or two p ieces of plastic wrap to form sheets 1 mm I y, in thick.

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHE N MANUAL


PARMESAN CREME BRULEE

Yields 450 g (about eight portions)

INGRED IENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Heavy cream

350 g

140%

0

Bring cream and cheese to simmer.

Parmesan, finely grated

BOg

32%

0

Stra in, an d reserve 250 g of infused cream.

Cheese-infused cream, from above

250g

100%

® Blend together.

Egg yo lks

67.5 g

27%

® Cover ram e kins with p lastic wrap.

Salt

1.32g

0.5%

® Cook in 78 ' C I 172 ' F bath or steam oven to core te mperature of77 ' C I 171 ' F, about 35min.

Muscat grape syrup or onion sugar

40 g

16%

@ Divide mixture evenly among ind ividua l ramek ins.

0

Refrigerate until cool, about45 min .

® Pour syrup over eac h creme brulee to serve. Alternatively, dust onion sugar over surface of custards, and flash w ith blowtorch until ca ram e lize d .

see page 213 or page 231

from page 4·88 Sweet creme brul ee can be made with th e same basic rec ipe. Omit the cheese, add 15%-2 0 % sugar, and cook in a 82 ' CI 180 ' F bath to a core temperature of81 ' CI 178 ' F.

For a lighter custard, substitute mi lk for part of the heavy cream . A typical ratio wou ld be ha lf milk, ha lf cream.

SAUCE ALLEMANDE

Yields370 g

INGRED IENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White chicken stock

120g

200%

0 0

100 g

167%

® Vacuum seal.

Egg yolks, b lended and sieved 60 g

100% (20%)*

@ Cook so us vide in 79 ' C I 174 ' F bath for 35 min.

Mushroom jus see page 37

50g

83% 67%

see page 6

Heavy cream

Blend unti l smooth. Pass through fin e sieve.

® Blend unti l smooth once more.

Unsalted butter, melted

40g

Nutmeg, freshly grated

to taste

® Season.

Salt

to taste

0

White pepper

to taste

from page 4·88

Thi s is a slightly Modern ist version of a French haute cuisine classic perfected by Auguste Escoffier in the early 20th century. We think he wou ld a pprove. The savory custard base ca n be flavored w ith other stocks or juices.

Serve w ith poach e d a rtichokes (see page 3·292) and bra ised chicken thighs (see page 3·99).

*(% oftotal weight ofall other ingredients)

GE LS

237


EGG SALAD SANDWICH

INSPIRED BY WYLIE DUFRESNE

Yields 700 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks, blended

200g

100%

CD Make sleeves measuring 2.5 em by 30.5 em I 1 in by 12 in from so us vide bags by using sealing strips of vacuum sealer.

0

Pipe yolks into sleeves, and tie tops of sleeves tightly to make tube shapes.

® Clip tubes to top of bath.

0 Cook in 70 °Ci l58 °F bath forl h. ® Remove yolks from sleeves, and cool comp letely. ® Cut yolks into sli ces 2 mm I Yl • in thick.

0 Egg yolks

50g

25% 7.5%

Lemon juice

15 g

Champagne vinegar

1g

0 .5%

Neutral oil

200g

100%

Cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate.

® Blend until smooth .

® Drizzle slowly into yolk mixture, whi le blending, until fully emulsified. @) Set aside mayonnaise.

Salted pollock roe (store-bought)

30g

Cornichons, minced

lOg

5%

Salt

3g

1.5% 1%

15%

@ Combine. @ Fold into mayonnaise.

Chives, finely minced

2g

Sriracha sauce

lg

0.5%

Pain de mie or white bread, crusts removed and sliced 5 mm l'li• in thick

150 g

75%

Clarified butter, melted

as needed

@ Set mixture aside.

@ Cut bread into sandwich-size sli ces. ® Brush outside of slices with clarified butter. ® Toast carefu lly in pan until go ld en, about 1 min on each side. ® Spread inside of each sli ce with mayonnaise.

see page 4·213

@ Arrange egg yolks on one slice of bread. Black pepper

to taste

Flaky sea salt

to taste

Watercress leaves

40g

@ Season eac h yolk-covered slice. 20%

@) Garnish with leaves. @ Top each with second slice of toasted bread to comp lete sandw ich.

from page 4·90

Wylie Dufresne came up with these molded egg yolk tubes to serve with his version of Eggs Benedict, which a lso involves Deep-Fried Hollandaise (see page 305) and crispy Canadian bacon. We've used them to make this delicious egg sa ndwi ch to show how versatile a preparation they can be.

238

VO LUM E 6 · KI TC HEN MA NU AL


BLENDED EGG GEL 0

® Vacuum seal if cooking so us vide (optional).

Measure yolks, whites, liquid ingredients, and seasonings. Use the weight of egg whites as 100%, and measure other ingredients proportionally-for instance, use 60 g of yolk and 10 g of cream for each 100 g of white in an omelet, and so on.

0

Cook. See the table below for recommended final core temperatures. The time required wil l vary depending on the thickness of the layer of egg mixture and oft he cooking vessel.

0 Blend all ingredients thoroughly.

Best Bets for Blended Egg Gels Eggyolk Eggwhite

Cook

Recipe

(scaling)

(sca lin g)

Liquid

(scaling)

Other ingredients

(sca lin g)

Method

(°C)

(°F)

American scrambled eggs

70%

100%

whole milk

10%

salt

1.8%

water bath

70

158

French scrambled eggs

110%

100%

whole milk

45%

salt

3%

water bath

72

162

unsalted butter, melted

45%

See page

next

omelet

60%

100%

heavy cream

10%

sa lt

2%

steam oven

82

180

next

savory flan (creme

50%

100%

whole milk

300%

salt

2%

steam oven or water bath

83

181

244

50%

100%

mirin

3%

salt

2%

180

242

210%

Activa RM

1%

steam oven or water bath

82

hon dashi whole milk

600%

steam oven or water bath

80

176

241

300%

flavorful puree, juice, or stock

800%

heavy cream

Taleggio cheese, grated

25%

steam oven

80

176

sa lt

3%

salt

3%

steam oven

80

176

caramel) chawanmushi (savory Japanese custard)

see page 15

400%

royale custard

50%

frittata*

50%

quiche filling*

100%

100%

100%

whole milk

50%

o live oil

15%

bacon-infused heavy cream

190%

see page 2·310

from page 4·92 *(many different flavors can be adapted to these recipes)

BOUDIN NOIR CUSTARD

Yields95og

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Yellow onions, thinly sliced

100g

22%

0

Saute onions until translucent.

0 Cool.

Rendered bacon fat

20 g

Whole milk, co ld

200g

44%

® Disperse gelatin into milk.

160 Bloom gelatin

19 g

4 .2%

0

® Combine with onions and milk.

0 0

4.4%

Heavy cream

450g

Egg yolks

BOg

18%

Pigeon blood (fresh)

60g

13%

Salt

14g

3%

® Vacuum seal.

Dutch-processed cocoa powder

4g

0.9%

® Cook so us vide in 70

Quatre ep ices

4g

seepage48

For more on the steps involved in proper dispersion and hydration of gelatin, see page 4·124. For more on strategies for clarifying juice, see page 2-352.

Warm until gelatin is fully dissolved.

100%

Blend until smooth. Strain through fine sieve.

oc I 158 °F bath for1

h.

@ Cool in ice-water bath. 0.9%

® Refrigerate.

from page 5·127

GELS

239


FRENCH SCRAMBLED EGGS INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks

150g (from about eight large)

100%

0 0

l30g (from about four large)

87%

Egg whites Th is recipe, and its more formal cous in in volume 5 (see page 5·215), are among our favorites. Daniel Patterson of Coi in San Francisco published a recipe for poached scrambled eggs in 2007. He carefully drops blended eggs into seasoned simmering water, while stirri ng, as if making traditiona! poached eggs. He then drains the eggs and serves them with olive oil and salt. They are extremely fluffy.

Yieldss2og

Combine, and blend until smooth. Vacuum seal.

® Cook in 72 oc l 162 °F bath until thick, about 25 min.

0

Optionally, transfer eggs to whipping siphon, and charge with two nitrous oxide cartridges for light, foamy texture.

Unsalted butter, melted

60g

40 %

Whole milk

60g

40%

Salt

4g

2%

Beech mushrooms (honshimeji), washed thoroughly

120g

80%

Unsalted butter

30g

20%

Pancetta, thinly sliced

45g

30 %

0

Mushroom jus

45g

30%

® Add to mushrooms, and reduce until syrupy, about 3 min. ® Whisk into mushroom mixture.

see page37

Creme fraiche

30g

20%

Scallions, thinly sliced

15g

10%

Salt

to taste

® Reserve warm. ® Saute until cooked through, about 4 min.

Add to mushrooms, and cook for 2 min.

@ Season . @ Portion scrambled eggs into four bowls, and garn ish with mushroom mixture.

from page 4·93 Yields four omelets, about 75 g each

HAM AND CHEESE OMELET INGREDIENT Whole eggs

SCALING

PROCEDURE

145g (about three)

100%

0 0

QUANTITY

Blend thoroughly. Spread in layer 20 em by 20 em I 8 in by 8 in and 2 mm I 1Y,, in thick on nonstick tray.

Heavy cream

15g

10%

® Steam at 80 oc 1 176 °F until set, about 7 min.

Egg yo lk

12g

8%

0

Salt

2.5 g

1.7%

® Set as id e.

Cooked French ham, brunoise 75 g

52%

® Combine.

60 g

41 %

0

Gruyere cheese, thinly spread (or brunoise)

Cool complete ly, and cut into four square portions, 5 em by 5 em I 2 in by 2 in.

Fill each omelet even ly.

® Fold omelets over.

see page299

Basil, minced

0.35g

0.24%

Chervil, picked

0.35g

0.24%

Chives, minced

0 .35g

0.24%

Tarragon, minced

0.35g

0.24%

Clarified brown butter

as needed

see page 4 ·213

® Brush onto omelet. @ Steam at 80 oc

I

176 oF until cheese has melted, about 4 min.

from page 4·95 By using a combi oven or a low-temperature steamer (see page 2·162), perfectly done omelets can be made simultaneously for dozens or even hundreds of people . This omelet can also be made in a convention al oven, but doing so requires great vigilance. Pour a thin layer of omelet base in a nonstick pan, wrap tightly w ith cling film or cover with a lid, and bake in a 120 oc I 250 °Foven until just set, 7-10 min depending on the wet-bu lb temperature. A dramatic mushroom omelet-a more complex version of the omelet recipe above-can be found on page 5·215 . We use a pastry comb to create flavorful stripes of mushroom puree thickened with albumin and egg yo lk powder.

24 0

VO LU M E 6 ·KITC HEN MAN UAL


ASPARAGUS ROYALE

INSPIRED BY ALA IN DUCASSE

Yields 550 g (about eight royales)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Asparagus puree or juice

200g

100%

CD Blend until smooth . 0 Press mixture through fine sieve.

Whole milk

150g

75%

Egg yolk

105 g

52 .5% (24%)*

see page 33 or page 55

Heavy cream

75 g

37.5%

Egg white

25 g

12.5% (5.8%)*

Salt

6.5g

3.25%

Roasted-hazelnut oil

Sg

2.5%

Porcini oil (store-bought)

Sg

2.5%

Brown chicken jus

80g

40%

0

Cover bowls with plastic wrap.

® Cook in 80 oc I 176 °F bath or steam oven to core temperature of79 °C 1 174 °F, about30 min. ® Reserve royales warm, or refrigerate.

(!) Combine.

see page34

Black truffle concentrate

® Pour layer 2.5 em 1 1 in thick into individual bowls.

® Whisk over low heat until just warm, about 2 min. 20g

10%

Unsalted butter

20g

10%

Lemon juice

to taste

® Season warm truffle mixture.

Salt

to taste

@ Divide equa lly among royales.

see page 57

from page 4·94

Royales are savory custards, eith er served as is or cut into designs and flo ated on the surface of a consomme . We think even Anton in Careme would approve of this recipe, which uses Modernist temperature control to achieve the perfect texture.

*(% oftotal weight ofall other ingredients in royales)

DASHIMAKI TAMAGO

Yields295 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg whites

125g

167%

Egg yolks

75 g

100%

CD Combine, blending comp letely. 0 Vacuum sea l to remove bubbles.

Han dashi

40g

53%

® Remove from bag, and cast into nonstick mold in layer 4 em I l Y2 in thick.

N-ZorbitM (National Starch brand)

30g

40%

Agave syrup

20g

27%

White soy sauce

7g

9.3%

see page 15

0

Steam, covered, at 79 oc I 174 °F until set, about 25 min.

® Refrigerate to coo l comp letely, about 30 min. ® Remove from mold.

0

Sugar

Sg

6.7%

Salt

lg

1.3%

Frying oil

as needed

Slice tam ago into desired dimensions.

® Heat thin film of oil over medium heat. Sear each tam ago on one sid e until evenly browned. ® Serve tam ago while crust is warm and center is still co ld for pleasant temperature contrast.

from page 4·94

PRESSURE-COOKED EGG TOAST

ADAPTED FROM NILS NOREN AND DAVE ARNOLD

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks

200g (about 11 yolks)

100%

CD Blend until smooth. 0 Vacuum sea l to remove excess air.

Yields 180 g (about six toasts)

Baking powder

9g

4.5%

® Transfer egg mixture to sma ll greased ramekins; fill each halfway fu ll.

Salt

2g

1%

0

Add enough water to pressure cooker to reach halfway up ramekin sid es.

® Pressure-cook at gauge pressure ofl bar I 15 psi for 40 min to form cooked, muffinlike eggs. ® Cool quickly by running cold water over cooker. Clarified butter, unsalted

0

as needed

Cut egg rounds in half horizontally, and brush with butter.

® Fry rounds, cut side down, until go ld en . Chives, finely minced

lOg

Sturgeon caviar

as desired

5%

® Garnish.

from page 4·97

GELS

241


CHAWANMUSHI

Yields 850 g (about eight chawanmushi)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Scallop stock or chicken stock

350g

350%

CD Blend. 0

see page 6 or page 11

Vacuum seal.

® Cook so us vide in 45 ' C I 113 ' F bath for10 min to act ivate enzyme.

Diver scallops, pureed and sieved

65g

65%

White soy sauce

18g

18%

® Wrap bowls tightly with plastic wrap.

Whole eggs, blended

100g (about two)

100%

0

Cook in 82 ' C I 180 ' Fwater bath o r steam oven to core temperature of 81 ' C I 178 ' F, about 40min.

ActivaRM

8g

8%

Scallop stock or chicken stock

100g

100%

0

Simmer stock and sake together for 3 min.

Sake

75g

75%

Xanthan gum

0.3g

0.3%

® Blend into stock mixture.

Unsalted butter, cubed

SOg

50%

® Blend into stock mixture until fu lly emu lsifi ed.

0

(23%)*

Pour chawanmush i base into porcelain bowls to depth of2.5 em I 1 in.

(1.5%)* *

see page 6 or page 11

Salt

to taste

Prosciutto crudo, finely diced

30g

30%

Dates, finely diced

25g

25%

Scallions, thinly sliced

20g

20%

Lemon verbena, thinly sliced

3g

3%

@ Season sauce. @ Whisk into sauce. @ Garnish each chawanmushi even ly.

from page 4·96

*(%oftotal weightoffirstthree ingredients) **( % oftotal weightoffirstfour ingredients)

BOUDIN NOIR BREAD PUDDING

Yields 1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Day-old brioche, crust removed

SOOg

100%

CD Cut into slices 2.5 em I 1 in thick.

Boudin noir custard, warmed

SOOg

0

see page239

100%

Place sl ices in bottom of deep hotel pan .

® Pour custard over brioche, and place pan quickly in vacuum chamber. Warm custard wil l penetrate better than co ld .

0

Pull full vacuum twice, turn brioche slices over, and pull vacuum three more times, or as many times as necessary for bread to fully absorb custard.

® Refrigerate until set, at least 4 h. Cut gelled brioche s li ces into 3.75 em I 1Y' in by 5 em I 2 in rectangles.

Frying oil

as needed

0 0

Trehalose

as needed

® Deep-fry in 175 ' C I 350 ' Foil for3 min.

Glucose syrup DE 40

as needed

® While frying rectangles, heat glucose syrup in nonstick saute pan over medium high.

Salt

as needed

@ Remove rectangles from oi l, and pat dry with paper towels. Transfer immediately to saute pan, and coat with hot glucose syrup.

Dust brioche rectangles with trehalose on a ll sides.

@ Cook, flipping constantly, until go ld en shell forms on al l sides, about 3 min. @ Transfer to nonstick surface, season with salt, and cool at room temperature until shells harden, about 1 min. from page 5·127

2 42

VO LU M E 6 ·K I TC HEN MANUAL


CHORIZO FRENCH TOAST

Yields 250 g (fo ur sli ces)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

W ho le milk

600g

300%

Spanish chorizo, ground

150g

75%

0

Combine milk and chorizo.

0

Vacu um seal, and cook so us vide in 85 oc 1 185 oF bath for1 h.

® Coo l comp letely. Strain, and reserve 600 g.

0

Blend reserved cho ri zo milk with eggs and sa lt until smooth.

® Place brioche rounds in conta in er, and pour custard over brioche.

Chorizo milk, from above

600g

300%

Whole eggs, bl end ed

245g

122 .5%

® Place conta in er in vacuum chamber, and pull vacuum until custard boils.

(47%)*

0

® Saute brioche rounds until gold en on both sides. (This step can be reversed with step 10 if desired.)

Salt

9g

1.5% 100%

Brioche, cut into 5 em I 2 in rounds

200g

Quail eggs

four eggs

Frying o il

as needed

from page 4·98

* (% ofweightofchorizo milk)

Release vacuum; custard w ill be fully absorbed by brioche.

® Cook in 150 oc l 300 °F oven to core temperature of80 oc 1 176 °F, about 7 min . Alternative ly, vacu um seal under w eak vacuum, and cook so us vid e in 80 oc I 176 °F bath or steam oven for10 min.

French toast is good when made with many savory flavors, such as aged cheese, foie gras, sweet peas, corn-even savory nut mi lks. To make a foie gras vers io n of this recipe, simply blend 400 g of milk w ith 200 g of raw foie gras, and use th is mixture in stead of the chor izo-infused milk. We also had great success with a blend of300 g of milk and 300 g of toasted alm ond milk (see page 228).

@ Fry quail eggs in nonstick pan until whites are cooked through but yolks are sti ll runny. If making large quantiti es, consid er using the two-stage "fried " egg approach - see page 2 and page 235. @ Top toast rounds with fried eggs. Serve with olive marmalade (rec ipe below). We garn ish o ur chorizo French toast with thyme, but there are many other poss ibiliti es.

OLIVE MARMALADE

Yields100g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fen nel, finely minced

30 g

100%

0 0

Olive oil

30 g

100%

® Fold into fenne l.

Shallots, min ced

10 g

33%

Pi cholin e olives, minced

30 g

100%

Candied orange rind, minced

15 g

50%

Ni~oise olives, minced

10 g

33%

Thyme, leaves

0.1 g

0.33%

Salt

to taste

0

Saute over low heat until tender, about 12 min . Cool complete ly.

Season.

from page 4·99

OMELET BASE

Stripes of mushroom puree make for a visua ll y stunning ome let in the recipe be low, but skipping this step greatly simplifi es the recipe and saves nearly an hour of effort. A lso, om itt ing the stripes does not take away from what makes th is omelet special: the remarkable texture . Truffle conce ntrate (see page 57) is a decadent subst itute for the mushroom puree. Yields 300 g (abo ut four omelets)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Eggs

145g

100%

0

Blend thorough ly to create egg base, and reserve.

Heavy cream

15g

10. 3%

Egg yo lks

12g

8.3%

Sa lt

2.5g

1.7%

Mushroom puree see page 55

100g

69%

0

Combine, and spread onto silicone mat in layer 20 em I 8 in square and 2 mm I

Egg yolk powder

15.5g

10.7%

® Pull pastry comb w ith 3 mm I Ys in teeth thro ugh mushroom puree mixture to create even lin es. If pastry comb is unava il able, proceed to step 4.

Heavy cream

10.3 g

7.1%

0

Albumin powd er (store-bought)

8.8g

6%

Salt

1.7 g

1.1%

X• in thick.

Pour egg base eve nly over mushroom puree mixture, between lin es if pastry comb was used, in laye r 2 mm I X• in th ick.

® Steam in 82 oc 1 180 °F co mbi oven with 100% relative humidity, or CVap oven with sa me settings, until set, abo ut 3 min. ® Cut into four 5 em I 2 in squares .

0 Scrambled egg foam, warmed see page 5·216

200g

Mushroom marmalad e, warmed see page 5·217

80 g

138%

Reheat omelet squares in 82 oc I 180 °F combi oven with 100% relative humidity, or CVap oven at same temp erature with brown ing level set to 0, for 3 min.

® Dispense straight line of sc rambled egg foam down ce nters of omelet squares. ® Spoon marm alade in straight lin es next to scrambled egg foam li nes.

55%

from page 5·217

GEl S

243


SMOKED EGGS AND DAIRY PRODUCTS CD Select the ingredient. The table below lists several good options. 0 Preheat and prehumidify the smoker to the temperature and relative

water on the bottom rack of the smoker, and use gauges to monitor the heat and humidity.

0 0

humidity indicated in the table. Some smokers allow you to set the temperature and relative humidity directly; otherwise, place a pan of

Smoke for the time indi cated. Use immediately, or chill quickly and thoroughly.

Best Bets for Smoking Dairy and Eggs Wet-bulb temperature

Dry-bulb temperature Ingredient

(•c)

(• F)

(•c)

(• F)

Relative humidity

(h)

Example use

See page

cold-smoked eggs, shelled

60

140

48

118

50%

7

flan, creme anglaise, mayonnaise

below

cream

7

45

5

42

75%

4Y2 cream sauce, cream cheese

butter, hot-smoked

30

85

22

72

50%

4

spread for toast

butter, cold-smoked

10

50

6

43

55%

24

poached salmon with smoked beurre blanc

cheese (mozzarella, Parmesan, cheddar) 10

50

6

43

55%

24

pizza, cheese plate

5·161

from page 4·100

SMOKED EGG CREME CARAMEL

If cold smoking the eggs is not an option, use fresh eggs, and add 0.75 g (0.5% of the total weight of infused milk and eggs) of good quality liquid smoke instead.

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole milk

150g

CD Vacuum seal together, and cook so us vide in

Bacon, minced

100g

150% 100%

Shal lots, fine ly minced

30g

30%

0

Bacon-infused milk, from above

lOOg

100%

0

Cold-smoked eggs, shelled

50g

50%

Salt

2.3g

2.3%

Sugar

40g

40%

20g

20%

® Combine in pan . Cook over med ium heat until sugar becomes dark caramel, about 7 min.

Black pepper, coarsely ground 0.1g

0.1%

0

90 •c l 194 •F bath for1Y2 h. Remove from bag, a nd strain; reserve 100 g of milk .

@ Cool milk. Blend together until smooth.

® Vacuum seal to remove any trapped air bubbles.

see above

Water

Pour caramel into four ramekins, and cool.

® Spoon 2.5 em I 1 in thick layer of custard over caramel. ® Steam ramekins at 83 •c l 181 °F for15 min, a nd cool completely. @ To serve, invert onto plates. from page 4·101

PECORINO WITH TRUFFLE HONEY ON CEDAR

ADAPTED FROM SCOTT CARSBERG

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Smoked Tuscan Pecorino cheese, aged 18 months

250g

100%

CD Cut cheese into four triangular chunks, each 1.25 em I

Yields300 g

Y, in thick . Set aside at room

temperature .

Black truffles, finely chopped

50 g

20%

@ Combine.

Acacia honey

lOg

4%

0 0

Cedar plank

Set aside at room temperature. To serve, preheat oven to 260 •c

I 500 °F.

® Place cheese chunks on plank, and bake until bubbling and very soft, about 5 min . Candied chestnuts (storebought), cut into small cubes

25g

10%

® Remove plank from oven. Ignite edges of plank with blowtorch to create smoke. 0 Garnish bubbl ing cheese with truffle honey and cand ied chestnuts (marrons glace). ® Serve on smoking plank to imbue room with smoked-wood aroma.

from page 4·101

244

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


PROTEIN CURDS 0

Select a c urd recipe and texture. Th e table presents good options that use a variety of coagul a nts with d ifferent fl avors and textures.

0

Adjust solub le solids concentration, if using soy milk, to 10-14 °Brix. Use a refractometer o r a float that measures the density (see page 2·313). You may need to reduce fresh soy milk to achi eve this concentration; the high e r the density, th e ri che r, firm e r, a nd less e lastic the tofu will be.

mixture into the milk or cream. Th e a mounts of lactic acid, citri c acid, a nd glu cono delta- lactone indi cated were selected to achi eve the pH shown . If cu rd texture is too firm (pH too high) or too loose (p H too low), adjust th e coagulant quantity accordingly (see page 2·316). ® Heat at temperature indicated for the time shown .

0

® Measure liquid. Scale ingredients relative to t he weight of the liquid; in ricotta, for exa mpl e, use 0.3 g of lactic acid fo r eve ry 100 g of milk .

Remove from heat, and a ll ow to curdl e. Approximate setting times a re given in the table.

® Season (optio nal). See examp le recipes o n the pages in dicated.

@ Preheat the li quid to the cook ing temperature. Use a water bath, if avai la bl e. Do not preheat if making silken tofu or ricotta.

® Cut, drain, and press even ly (for firm-textured curds on ly). Press both dairy a nd soy curds while they are still warm (65-75 °CI 149-167 °F) to e nsure proper bonding a nd a goo d final texture.

® Dissolve the coagulant in a sm a ll amount of water, and then stir the

Best Bets for Protein Curds Set

Heat (scaling)

(°F)

(min)

rennet

0.35%

38

100

1

7

8.2 set in serv ing container; for firmer curds, cut curds, a nd heat at 47 oc I 116 °F for Y2-1 h, a nd then drain, and c ut again

247

te nd e r, brittle

lac ti c acid

0 .3%

85

185

1

35

for salted and aged ri cot- 5.4 ta, fold in 0 .7% sa lt, press refrigerate d for 1-3 d, drain, a nd hang for 1-3 wk

248

tender, britt le

re nnet

1%

38

100

1

7

38

100

1h

whisk to break apart curd, 8.2 hold at 38 °C I 100 °Ffor 1 h, and dra in whey; fold in cream to taste

lactic acid

82

180

5

20

press while warm, a nd refrigerate for 24 h

5.8

80

176

1

15

milk density affects tofu texture; let silken tofu set in serving container, and then steam undisturb e d at80°C/176°F

6.3

basic milk curd

raw milk or 100% unh omogen ized, pasteurized milk

tender, brittle

ricotta

whole milk

100%

heavy cream

10%

100%

cheese

0. 35%

pH

paneer

whol e mi lk c ultured yogurt

1%

firm, e lastic

tofu

soy milk

100%

silken

0.2 % glu co no de lta-lactone

me dium firm

ni gari gra nul es

0 .35%

85

185

1

30

firm

ca lc ium sulfate

0.4%

80

176

3

20

firm , brittle

re nnet

0.4%

23

73

1

buttermilk

0.4%

36

97

1\4 h

8.1 heat milk for1 min at nl a 23 °C I 73 °F, and then add other ingredients, and hold for1Y., h at36 °C I 97 °F; press while warm, and refrigerate for 12-24 h

tender, smooth

ci tric acid

0.7%

88

190

1

100%

see page 227

farmer's

whole milk

100%

cheese

heavy cream

5%

posset

heavy cream (stabilizer-free)

100%

from page 4·104

See page

(°C)

liquid

fresh cottage whole milk

(m in) Note

(sca ling)

Texture Coagulant*

Recipe

4h

add 15%-25% sugar to make a posset d esse rt

246

nl a nl a

248

6.7

*(BioRen rennet tablets were usedfor all ofour recip es; other brands may alter the formu lations slightly)

GElS

245


COCOA NIB CURD

Yields 1 kg (10 portions)

INSPIRED BY MICHEL TRO I SGROS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole milk, unhomogenized

1 kg

100%

Cocoa nibs

50g

5%

CD Vacuum seal together, and refrigerate for12 h to infuse. 0 Remove from bag, and stra in.

Rennet tablet (BioRen brand)

3.5 g

0.35%

@) Dissolve rennet tablet in water.

Water

lOg

1%

® Heat milk to 38

oc 1 100 °F.

® Stir in warm milk. 0 Stirfor10s.

0

Leave mixture in pot, or pour quickly into sma ll bow ls to depth of 2.5 em I 1 in.

® Let stand at room temperature until set, about 7 min. Cocoa nibs, toasted

to taste

Fleur de sel

to taste

Grapefruit zest, finely grated

to taste

Maple syrup

to taste

Olive oil

to taste

Shiso leaves, fine julienne

to taste

® Garnish as desired, and season evenly.

from page 4·105 You can use glucono delta-lactone in place of the rennet and still achieve the same texture. Dissolve the GDL in cold milk, pour the mixture into molds or bowls, and then steam at 80 oc I 176 °F for 20 min.

GOAT CHEESE DUMPLINGS

ADAPTED FROM H. ALEXANDER TALBOT AND AKI KAMOZAWA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Goat cheese, fresh

300g

100%

CD Blend completely. 0 Transfer mixture to pastry bag.

Yields550 g

Ricotta, fresh

200g

67%

Egg yolk

36 g

12%

® Pipe into si li cone sphere molds measuring 2.5 em

Activa YG

5.4 g

1.8% (7%)*

@) Tap molding sheet on counter to eliminate bubbl es .

Salt

3.5g

1.2%

Cayenne pepper

0.25g

0 To serve, warm spheres gently in simmering water. When hot, serve with desired sauce or glaze.

0.08%

I 1 in. in diameter (see page 135).

® Refrigerate, covered, for 12 h to set.

*(%oftotal weight offirst three ingredients)

from page 4·105

SILKEN TOFU

Yields585 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Soy milk see page227

400 g

100%

CD Check density of soy milk, and dilute or reduce as needed to reach 12 °Brix.

Glucono delta-lactone (GDL)

0.8 g

0.2%

INGREDIENT

0

Dissolve GDL in sma ll amount of soy milk, and then whisk solution into remaining milk for 10 s to distribute evenly.

® Pour into small bowls or mold to depth of2 .5 em 1 1 in. @) Steam in 80

oc I 176 °Fcombi oven or water-vapor oven until set, 30-40 min.

® Transfer to molds, and cool at room temperature until sl ightly firmed, about 15 min, and then refrigerate. Tomato water see page 40

lOOg

White soy sauce

lOg

25%

0 Combine to make dressing.

0 2.5%

Rice vinegar

8g

2%

Salmon roe

60g

15%

Basil, leaves

8g

2%

Extra-virgin olive oil

as needed

Check seasoning; add salt if necessary.

® Set aside. ® Garnish tofu.

@ Season, and pour dressing at table.

Black pepper, coarsely ground to taste from page 4·113

246

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


FRESH CHEESE CURDS

Yields 800 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole milk

4 kg

100%

CD Verify that pH of milk is 8-9.

Mesophilic starter (Mesophile Type II)

1g

n/ a*

Th ermophilic starter (Thermophile Type II)

1g

n/ a*

® Sprinkle over surface of warm milk, and let sit 5 min.

0

Heat to 30 oc /86 °F, and hold at that temperature in warm bath.

® Sprinkle over surface of warm milk, a nd let sit 5 min.

0

Stir in until eve nly distributed.

@ Stir in until eve nly distributed.

Water

40g

1%

0

Rennettablet (BioRen brand)

O.Sg

0.01%

® Stir mixture into warm milk, and wait for milk to set into one large curd, 15-30 min.

Dissolve rennet in water.

® Remove from heat, and cut into 2 em / 3,4 in cubes. @ Heat cut c urds in 40 oc / 104 oF bath, removing whey from surface every 10-20 min until texture resembles elastic egg white, 1- 1Y2 h. @ Check that pH is 5-5.2. If it is not, hold curd at 40 oc / 104 °F until pH reaches ta rget range. @ Drain curd, and cut to desired size. @ Refrigerate for 2 h. @ Serve or use within 24 h; cultures cause c urd to start to sour after 1 d. from page 4·106

*(these ore live cultures;follow directions on manufacturer's packaging when scaling quantities)

To make squeaky curds, follow the recipe above, but in step 10 heat the curds to 47 °( / 117 °F, and hold there for1 h. Drain, cut, a nd season. Serve, or coo l quickly and store, refrigerated, for up to 2 d.

To make curds without re nn et or cultures, heatthem in a pressure canner or autoclave to at least 128 oc / 262 °Ffor 30-40 min . The curds will turn light brown and develop a flavor rem ini sce nt of creme cara me l. Add 0.3% of sod ium hexametaphosp hate to yield a more co hesive, firm puck.

To make feta, use the recipe above with at least 70% sheep's milk. At step 12, press curds lightly in to a basket to drain, and rest for 24 hat abo ut 20 °( / 68 °F. The pH sho ul d drop to 4.7-4.8. Soak, refrigerated, in a brine containing 3% sa lt and 0.07% calcium chlorid e for 1 wk. For drier curds, cure briefly with dry salt at room temperature, a nd rinse.

To make fresh mozzarella, follow the recipe above through step 11, and then drain curd s, and cut into 1.25 em I Y2 in cubes. Heat reserved whey to 85 °C/ 185 °F, and ladl e over cub es to just cover. Let rest 4 min until softened, a nd then drain. Repeat process three times, covering curds with hot whey until they begin to melt together. Mold curds by hand into teardrop shapes, or pour into a mold. The mozzarella becomes stretchier and firmer with handling. Hold formed balls in a bowl of cold water. Season, and serve warm or soak in a brine containing 4% salt and 0.07% calcium chloride for12- 24 h.

MODERNIST BURRATA INGREDIENT

Yields 700 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

300g

100%

PROCEDURE

For the filling: Fresh cheese curds see above

CD Puree 100 g curds, a nd shred remaining 200 g. 0

Mix cream and salt into curds to make cream-curd filling.

Heavy cream

300g

100%

Salt

6g

2%

Whole milk

300g

100%

0

Heavy cream

100g

33%

® Bring to 65 oc / 149 °Fto dissolve gelatin.

Salt

4g

1.3%

@ Cool to 50 °( / 122 °F.

Activa YG

6g

2%

0

160 Bloom gelatin

8g

2.7%

® Cast onto level, nonstick surface.

® Refrigerate.

For the skin: Mix milk, cream, salt, and gelatin.

Add Activa.

® Rest at room temperature for 1 h, and then refrigerate overnight. @ Cut to desired size, and lay over plated cream-curd filling. Extra-virgin olive oil

to taste

Salt

to taste

Seasonal herbs, leaves

to taste

@ Garnish and season.

from page 4·109

GELS

247


GOAT MILK RICOTTA INGREDIENT

Yields 850 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

For ricotta:

CD Dissolve acid into water, and stir acid solution into cold milk. Heat milk to 85 ·c I 185 •F, stirring gently. As soon as milk starts coagulating, stop stirring.

Lactic acid

4g

0.2%

Water

25g

1.4%

0

Goat milk

1.8 kg

100%

® Continue to heat as needed until milk reaches 85 •c 1 185 •F. @ Remove from heat, and allow to curdle at room temperature for 30 min. ® Strain curds through cheesecloth, and then drain curds, refrigerated, for3 h for wet ricotta or for up to 12 h for drier cheese. Discard liquid.

Heavy cream

250 g

14%

® Fold into drained curds. Refrigerate if not serving immediately.

For frozen honey powder (optional): Water

200g

11%

0

Buckwheat honey

BOg

4.4%

® Pour into Pacojet beaker.

Whisk together.

® Freeze to -20 ·c I -4 •For below. @ To serve, Pacotize once to make fine powder. @ Spoon around ricotta. Thyme (several varieties such as lemon, English, caraway, silver)

to taste

Extra-virgin olive oil

to taste

@ Garnish as desired.

Black pepper, coarsely ground to taste from page 4·108 For tender, coarse ricotta, stop stirring as soon as coagulation begins, regardless of the temperature of the milk. For ricotta with a finer, more traditional grain, keep stirring until the target temperature is reached.

FIRM TOFU These tofu recipes use fresh, homemade soy milk (see page 227). Store-bought soy milk often will not work with these recipes because it contains various additives.

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Calcium sulfate

2g

0.4%

CD Disso lve calcium sulfate in cold water.

Water

20g

4%

0

Soy milk (12 °Brix)

500g

100%

® Check solid content of soy milk, and dilute or reduce as needed to reach 12-14 • Brix.

3g

0.6%

@ Add salt, and bring to 80 •c I 176 •Fwhile stirring constantly.

see page 227

Salt A quick alternative for making instant firm tofu is to hydrate 0.2% low-acyl gellan and 0.15% high-acyl gellan in soy milk at 85 •c I 185 •F. The mixture will set as it cools.

® Add calcium su lfate water to hot milk, and remove from heat. ® Coagulate at room temperature for 3-4 min.

0 The amount of calcium sulfate or other coagulant required depends on the amount of protein available in the mixture. Soy beans vary in their protein content, so always test a small amount of soy milk before making each batch. When the proper amount of coagulant is used, the whey becomes transparent. A yellow hue to the whey and a coarse curd texture signal overcoagulation; a cloudy whey is a sign of undercoagulation.

Line mold for tofu with cheesecloth .

® Ladle coagulated soy milk into mold . ® Seal mold quickly while curds are warm (68 70 •c I 154-156 •F), and put heavy weight on lid. @ Press at room temperature for 25 min, and then remove from mold, and refrigerate until firm. @ Cut to des ired dimensions, and garnish.

Scallions, thinly sliced

50g

10%

Daikon radishes, finely grated

40g

8%

Fresh ginger, fine julienne

40g

8%

Bonito flakes (katsobushi)

20g

4%

White soy sauce

50g

10%

@ Combine to make sauce.

Dark soy sauce

30g

6%

@ Garnish tofu with sauce as desired.

Mirin

15g

3%

Rice vinegar

7g

1.4%

from page 4·112

248

Set aside.

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


MOZZARELLA BALLOONS

INSPIRED BY GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fresh cheese curds

800g

100%

CD Cut into 2 em I

see page247

0

Yields 700 g

:Y., in cubes.

Reserve 150 g of curds for cream filling.

® Reserve 650 g of curds in large bowl to make balloon skins. 180g

22.5 %

0

Fresh cheese curds, from above 150 g

18.8%

® Pour into 11 siph on.

Whole milk

Blend thoroughly to form cream filling .

Heavy cream

30g

3.75%

® Charge with one cartridge of nitrous oxide.

Salt

2.75 g

0.34%

0

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP kelco brand)

0.1g

0.01 %

Water

5 kg

625%

Fresh cheese curds, from above 650 g

81%

Refrigerate.

® Heat water to 75 •c / 167 •F. ® Ladle water into bowl to cover curds. @ Let curds sit undisturbed for 3 min. @Pour out first covering of water. @ Ladle in second covering of water. @ Let curds sit undisturbed again for 3 min. @ Pour out second covering of water. @ Ladle in third covering of water. @ Touch curds. If they begin to stretch and shine, they are ready. If not, let sit longer, and cover with fresh hot water every 3-5 min. @ Pick up lime-size ball of curd. Knead surface to develop smooth and shiny skin. Reserve remaining curds in warm water. @ Shake siphon vigorously. @ Place ball of curd overtip of inverted siphon. @ Fill curd ball qu ick ly with cream fi llin g; try to keep out excess air. Complete filling process within 20s. @ Once desired size is reached, pinch each balloon closed. @ Repeat steps 17-21 to fi ll remaining curds. @ If curds wi ll not be served im mediate ly, reserve in co ld water bath.

Tomato whey broth or tomato 200 g water

25%

see page 212 or page 40

Cinn amon basil, leaves

@ To serve, place balloons in bowls, and pour seasoned broth or tomato water around balloons. @ Garnish with basil and, optionally, w ith basil oil (see page 27).

to taste

from page 4 ·11 0

GREEN PEA YUBA

I NSP IRED BY TAKASHI SUGIMOTO

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Soy milk

950g

100%

CD Reserve 50 g of soy mil k for later use.

400g (from 500 g of frozen peas)

42%

see page 227

Green pea puree see page 55

0

Yields150 g

Blend pea puree with 900 g soy milk until smooth.

® Strain pea milk through fine sieve, and transfer to pot.

0

Bring to 80 •c / 176 •Fover medium heat.

® Lower heat. Yuba will form on surface of pea milk mixture in about 3 min. ® Line baking sheet with plastic wrap, and brush sheet with reserved soy milk.

0

Lift yuba carefu ll y from pot, and transfer to mi lk-brushed sheet. Cover with plastic wrap.

® Refrigerate for 1 h until firm. Chervi l, leaves

as needed

® Arrange severa l yuba sheets on each plate.

Flaky sea salt

to taste

@ Garnish.

Ginger o il

to taste

Fresh horseradish, finely grated

to taste

from page 4·115

GELS

249


MILK SKIN WITH GRILLED SALSIFY AND TRUFFLE PUREE

Yields 600 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM RENE REDZEPI

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw or non homogenized whole milk

1 kg

100%

0 0

Skim milk powder

30g

3%

® Cut parchment paper circl es to match diameter of pot. Parchment paper will help transfer and store milk skins.

0

Blend. Pour into pot whose diameter is desired size of milk skin.

Bring milk to boil, and hold at 80 oc / 176 °F until sk in forms, about 7 min.

® Discard first skin, which is too tender to work with. ® Place parchment circle on top of second skin, and delicately peel skin off.

0 Rest skin on parchment circle at room temperature. ® Repeat process to make four skin sheets . (A lthough 1 kg of milk w ill make many more than four sheets, it can be difficult to work w ith very small quantities of milk.) 40%

® Saute salsify in thin film of oil in nonstick pan, while bastin g constantly with oil, until tubes are golden on all sid es, about 4 min.

Salsify roots, peeled and cut into tubes 10 em I 4 in long

400 g

Neutral oil

as needed

@ Drain, and pat dry.

Salt

to taste

@ Season salsify. ® Cool to room temperature. @ Divide salsify into four portions, and place each one on center of plate. @ Remove each milk skin from parchment, and cover sa lsify portion.

Black trumpet mushroom puree see page 2·424

SOg

Black truffle concentrate see page 57

lOg

1%

Extra-virgin canola (rapeseed) oil

30 g

3%

Wild watercress leaves (or regular watercress)

20g

2%

5%

@ Blend together mushroom and truffle purees until smooth. @ Garnish plates evenly.

from page 4·114

250

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


GELS

2 51


TRANSGLUTAMINA SE GELS CD Select a recipe. The table below gives some examples. 0

Blend Activa into the liquid or puree. Quantities in the table are given as a proportion of the main fluid. For example, to make a flourless gnocchi, use 1.3 g of Activa GS, 3 g of160 Bloom gelatin, and 6.6 g of heavy cream for every 100 g of potato puree.

® Refrigerate 12-24 hours to set. If the base is heat-tolerant, you can reduce the setting time to 1 h in the refrigerator by first warming the mixture to 40 - 45 ' C I 104-113 ' Ffor 10 min, or 55 ' C I 130 ' Ffor 5 min. Warming it above 60 ' C I 140 ' F destroys the enzyme activity.

Best Bets for Gelling with Transglutaminase (Activa) Typical concentration Application

Type

Components

(scaling)*

Example recipe

Base

dairy gels

Activa YG

transglutaminase, lactose, yeast extract, maltodextrin

0.05%-3.0%

yogurt

low-fat yogurt

mozzarella noodle

mozzarella

adapted from Aki Kamozawa

ricotta

and H. Alexander Talbot

heat-stable milk skin

milk 160 Bloom gelatin

ricotta gnocchi

ricotta

sour cream spaetzle

sour cream ricotta water whey protein isolate

egg gels and Activa RM soy gels

0.1% -2.0%

transglutaminase, sodium caseinate, maltodextrin

chawanmushi

whole egg pureed scallop flavorful liquids

gelatin gels

Activa GS

0.05%-1.8%

transglutaminase, gelatin, trisodium phosphate, maltodextrin

flourless potato gnocchi

potato puree heavy cream 160 Bloom gelatin

from page 4·116

Activa is made by Ajinomoto, the same Japanese company that commercialized monosodium glutamate in 1909 (see page 1·213).

SOUR CREAM SPAETZLE

Avoid inhalingActiva or any other enzyme or powder.

For more on the origin of transglutaminase and how this enzyme works. see page 3-250.

Yields 150 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

160 Bloom gelatin

6g

3.3%

CD Disperse gelatin into cold water, and heat to dissolve. Allow to cool.

Water

40g

22.2%

0

Sour cream

180g

100%

® Set spaetzle maker or perforated pan over an ice-water bath, and grate spaetzle base to form individual dumpl ings.

Ricotta

180g

100%

Whey protein isolate

65g

36%

ActivaYG

4g

2.2% (0.9%)*

Salt

3.6g

1.7% 27.8%

@ Transfer in one layer to sheet lined with plastic wrap. ® Refrigerate for at least 4 h to set protein . ® Drain spaetzle, and fry in clarified butter until golden, about 3 min.

0

Clarified butter

50g

Salt

to taste

from page 4·117

*(%oftotal weight ofall ingredients except butter and salt)

252

Blend sour cream with gelatin mixture, and rest at room temperature for 5 min.

Season to taste.

VOLUME 6 ·KITCH EN MANUAL


Activa

Set

See

page

(scal ing)

(scaling)

Prep

100%

0.15%

stir in

55

puree until smooth with Pacojet or food processor; cast onto acetate 1 mm I y, in thick

refrigerated

18

10min

131

5 min

100%

1.3%

34%

(7%)*

100%

1%

cast onto acetate 1 mm I y, in thick

45

100%

0.7%

shape logs for cutting gnocch i before setting

refrigerated

12

100%

2.2% (0.9%)*

see above

refrigerated

12

below

100%

8%

10min

242

(7.5%)*

cast onto acetate 1 mm I y, in thick

45

65%

12

254

1%

100%

113

247

40% 36%

113

368% 100%

1.3%

6.6%

(7%)*

refrigerated stir into cold puree; shape logs for cutting gnocchi before setting

3% *(%oftotal weight ofbase ingredients)

SALMON CUSTARD

Yields120 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Salmon belly, skinless

700g

700%

White fish stock

450g

450%

CD Combine in food processor, and blend to smooth paste. 0 Vacuum seal.

7g

7%

Nutrifos 088 (ICL Performance 2 g Products brand)

2%

Salmon liquid, from above

100g

100%

® Disperse PGA into salmon liquid.

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

O.Sg

0.5% (0.42%)*

0

Rendered salmon fat, from above

20g

20%

® Slowly drizzle into warm salmon liquid while homogenizing.

Activa RM

0.9g

0.9% (0.75%)*

® Add to mixture, and blend until smooth.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.1g

0.1%

see page 6

Salt

from page 4·119

® Cook in 40 °CI 104 °F bath for1 h. @ Centrifuge at 12,000g for1 h. ® Separate salmon liquid and rendered salmon fat, and reserve. Discard solids.

Heat gently to 50 oc I 122 °Fto hydrate fully.

@ Transfer to molds, and chi ll. @ To serve, cook custard in 53 52 oc 1126 °F, about 25 min.

oc I

127 °F bath or steam oven to core temperature of

*(%oftotal weight ofsalmon liquid andfat)

GELS

253


EDAMAME SHEETS, KING CRAB, CINNAMON DASHI

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fresh edamame (or defrosted frozen edamame)

250g

125%

0 0

Water

100g

50%

® Reserve 200 g for later use.

160 Bloom gelatin

13.75 g

6.8%

0

Water

SOg

25%

® Heat until melted.

Blend to fine puree. Pass through fine sieve. Disperse ge latin in cold water.

Edamame puree, from above

200g

100%

® Combine with gelatin mixture.

Water

25 g

12.5%

0

Activa RM

3.Sg

1.75%

® Cast onto silicone mat, a nd spread into even layer 0.5 mm I Y" in thick.

(7.2%)*

® Refrigerate until set, at least 6 h, and cut into squares 7.5 em/ 3 in w ide.

Activa GS

2g

1% (0.69%)*

Hon dashi

200g

100%

2.5g

1.25%

see pagel5

Cinnamon extract

Yields300g

Blend until completely smooth.

@ Combine and warm. Add more cinnamon extract to taste. If the broth coagulates, strain through fine sieve.

see page27

Sa lt

@ Season cinnamon dashi.

to taste

® Add edamame sheets to stack, warming them. @ Set aside. King crab tails or claws

160g (about four pieces)

80%

25%

Clarified butter

SOg

Salt

to taste

Seasonal herbs

as needed

@ Sear until just cooked through, about 1 min per side.

@ Season crab pieces. @ Place one piece on each plate. @ Drape warmed edamame sheet over each piece. @ Pour cinnamon dashi over edamame, and sprinkle with seasonal herbs. Serve immediately.

*(% oftotal weight ofgelatin mixture, edomame puree, and water)

from page 4·118

FLOURLESS GNOCCHI

Yields 650 g

SCALING

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Russet potatoes, washed

150% 900g (about four large)

PROCEDURE

0 0

Cook so us vide in 92 •c I 198 •F bath for 2 h. Cut potatoes in half, a nd scoop out hot potato flesh.

® Press, while still hot, through ricer or food mill. @) Coo l. ® Reserve 600 g of puree. 160 Bloom gelatin

19.2g

3.2%

® Bloom ge latin in cold cream.

(3%)*

0

Warm cream mixture until gelatin is dissolved.

Heavy cream

40g

6.6%

® Cool.

Activa GS

6.4g

1.07%

® Whisk into cream.

(7%)*

Potato puree, from above

600g

Salt

to taste

100%

@ Fold cream into potato mixture to form dough. @ Season dough. ® Gently roll into log 2 em I :Y., in. in diameter. @) Cut into desired size gnocch i. @ Transfe r to parchment paper-lined tray. @ Refrigerate until firm , about 12 h. @ Bring gnocchi to room temperature, about 20 min .

Unsalted butter, cut into cubes 120 g

20%

@ Cook butter in saute pan until solids begin to brown, about 3 min . @ Add gnocch i, gently stirring until warmed through, about 2 min. @ Remove from heat.

Sage, thinly sl iced from page 4·119

254

6g

1%

® Fold in.

*(%of total weight ofpotatoes and cream)

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


STARCH GELS DEEP-FRIED CUSTARD

vields450g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

All-purpose flour

32g

12.8%

White chi c ke n stoc k

250g

100%

0 0

Egg yo lks, blended

25 g

10%

® Whisk together into smoot h paste.

Cornstarc h

9g

3.6%

0

Whisk together. Bring to boil, a nd cook for 5 min.

see page 6 or page 11

Temper hot stock into egg mixture.

® Return to pan, and cook over low heat until mixture thickens, about 2 min. Unsalted butter, cubed

lO g

4%

® Stir butter into cooked custard until melted.

0

Quickly cast hot mixture into silicone mold in 2.5 em I 1 in thick layer.

® Refrigerate unti l set, abo ut 3 h. Potato starch

as needed

® Cut custard into cubes or desired shapes, a nd dredge in potato starch; shake off excess.

Frying oil

as needed

@ Deep-fry cubes in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil until go ld en, abo ut 2 min.

Salt

to taste

XOSauce

lOO g

@ Drain and seaso n. 42%

@ Pour over fried cubes generous ly just before se rving.

see page213

from page 4·120 The starch in the custard, and dusted on its exterior, al lows us to deep-fry it w ithout a batter. This recipe is essentia lly a deep-fried savory pastry cream. For a sweet versio n of t he recipe, replace the ch icke n stock w ith whole milk, and add 26 g of sugar (20% of the overall weight).

BURMESE CHICKPEA TOFU LAKSA

Yields 1.4 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

1 kg

100%

Chickpea flour

350g

35%

0 0

Blend until comp lete ly homogenized . Line fine sieve with three layers of c heesecloth .

® Strain chickpea mixture through fine sieve into pot.

0

Bring to boil.

® Remove from heat. Salt

14 g

1.4%

® Whisk into hot c hi ckpea mixture.

Turm e ric powd er

0.5g

0.05%

0

Divide mixture even ly a mong molds 5 em I 2 in thick.

® Refrigerate for 4 h until firmly set.

The particles in the c hi ckpea mixture must be very fine to yie ld an elastic, homogenized ge l instead of one w ith a grainy, brittle texture. Siev ing with a fine sieve or through cheesecloth is cruc ial to achieve a good result.

The chickpea tofu is de li cio us when deep-fried a nd served with a sweet-a nd -sour glaze or a sp icy paste.

® Cut into cubes. Kum a moto or Olympia oysters 12 pieces Laksa broth

200 g

see page 17

@ Shuck, rese rvingj ui ces separate ly. 20%

@ Warm broth . @ Add oyster juice to taste.

Oyster juice, from above

to taste

Frying oil

as needed

@ Deep-fry remaining cubes in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil until go ld e n, about 3 min.

Mint, leaves

as needed

@ Garnish.

Cucumber, pee led, seeded, and sliced

as needed

@ Add half of tofu cubes and oyste rs to broth, a nd wa rm through.

This so-ca ll ed tofu is rea lly a starch gel that plays a big role in the traditional cu isin e of Myanmar (formerly Bu rm a).

from page 4 ·1 21

GElS

255


CORN BREAD INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Corn kernels (fresh-cut)

560 g (from about six ears)

100%

0

Saute until browned, about12 min.

Unsalted butter

150g

27%

Lard

100g

18%

Eggs, blended

lOOg

18%

0

Puree in blender.

100g

18%

Whole milk

SOg

10%

® Add sauteed corn, and reserve. Optionally, first pass corn through fine tam is to remove kernel sk ins.

Flour

150g

27%

0

140g

25%

® Fold into corn cream mixture.

100g

18%

Sugar

SOg

10%

Baking powder

3.2g

0.5%

Baking soda

1.75 g

0.3%

® Transfer to floured and grease loaf mold, filling half full. 0 Bake in 130 oc I 265 °F oven to core temperature of 88 oc I 190 °F, about 20 min.

Thyme leaves, chopped

to taste

Heavy cream There are many styles of corn bread across the United States. This version is nontraditional but has an amazing flavor a nd texture. Sieving out the kernel skins is a nice, but optional, refinement.

Yields1 kg

lsomalt Cornmeal

Mix together.

® Rest at room temperature for 5 min. ® Unmold, and sli ce to desired thickness. @ Serve warm or toasted with bacon jam (see page 304).

from page 5·76

CORN CUSTARD

For a tender starch custard, a 9% ratio of cornstarch to liquid seems to be ideal. The percentage of starch in fresh corn varies dramaticallythis recipe assumes that the corn juice itself contains 5% starch. You can test the recipe using a small amount of your corn juice, and adjust the quantity of cornstarch to achieve the texture you prefer.

Yields 340 g (four portions)

INSPIRED BY DAVID KINCH

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Frozen organic sweet yellow corn, thawed

SOOg

500%

0

juice corn, preferably with Champ ion-style juicer (see page 2·332), reserving 100 gj ui ce.

Corn juice, from above

100g

100%

0

Cornstarch

4g

4%

Blend starch and salt into cold juice to distribute even ly.

Salt

1.7g

1.7%

® Pour 25 g of juice in layer1 em /'Is in deep into each of four molds.

0

Steam at 88 oc about30 min.

I 190 oF until custards are just set,

® Coo l completely. Fava beans, peeled

SOg

50%

® Vacuum seal in one even layer.

Olive oil

8g

8%

0

Fresh sweet peas, shucked

SOg

50%

® Vacuum sea l in one eve n layer.

Olive oil

8g

8%

@ Cook so us vide in 70 oc I 158 °F bath for 18 min.

Sous vide vegetable jus

lOg

70%

30g

30%

Unsalted butter, cubed (use olive oil if serving cold)

35g

35%

Anise hyssop, fine julienne

Sg

5%

Cook so us vide in 75 oc

I 167 oF bath for 25 min.

® Remove from bag.

@ Remove from bag. @ Combine while bringing to simmer.

see page 36

Tomato water see page40

In this interpretation of David Kinch's Corn Pudding, we have presented the typical flavors of a late summer succotash. The accompaniments can be varied seasonally, but the custard can be made year-round with good quality frozen corn.

@ Blend into simmering liquid until fully em ulsified. @ Remove from heat. @ Whisk into warm butter sauce. @ Steep for 3 min, and strain.

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

® Season sauce. @ Fold in warm beans and peas.

@ Reheat custards, and garnish with sauce. @ Finish with hyssop blossoms, if available. from page 4·122

256

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


PEANUT"TOFU"

INSPIRED BY YOSHIHIRO MURATA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

400g

100%

CD Combine in pot. 0

Coconut milk

SOg

12.5%

Fish sauce

2Sg

6.25%

Yields550 g

Stir until pa lm sugar is comp lete ly dissolved.

Palm sugar

lOg

2.5%

Peanut butter (smooth)

SOg

12.5%

® Blend into mixture.

Kuzu starch

42 .5g

10.6% (8%)*

0

Add to mixture, blending until starch is comp letely d ispersed .

® Pass through fine sieve. ® Simmer for 20 min until thick. Salt

0

to taste

Season mixture.

® Po ur quickly into si li co ne molds. ® Refrigerate until set, about 12 h. Tom yum broth

200g

see page 18

Scallio ns, shredded from page 4·122

as needed

50%

@ Bring broth to simm er. @ Transfer tofu to bowl, and garn ish with scal li ons and warm broth.

This recipe makes a typical Asian peanut sauce, which is then set into a gel by using Kuzu starc h. The resu lt isn't true tofu, but it has a tofu-like texture.

*(%oftotal weight offirstfive ingredients)

GElS

257


IDIAZABAL GNOCCHI INGREDIENT Cheese water (made with ldiaz;ibal)

Yields500 g

ADAPTED FROM AN DONI LUIS ADURIZ

QUANTITY 130g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

100%

0 0

see page 20

Blend together. Vacuum sea l.

® Cook in 95 •c I 203 •F bath for 1Y2 h to create starch base.

Kuzu root starch

32 g

25%

ldiazabal cheese (or other semifirm cheese such as Pecorino), grated

50 g

38%

Salt

2.5g

2%

® Extrude directly into ice water; cut equally sized dumpl ings with scissors as dough is extruded.

Ham broth

260g

200 %

0

(78%)* @) Blend into starch base over medium heat until fully incorporated. ® Transfer dough to piping bag.

see pagel6

Heat broth.

® Stir in gnocchi to warm through.

Extra-virgin olive oil

to taste

Perilla (red and green), leaves

as needed

Lemon balm, leaves

as needed

Micro scallion greens

as needed

® Garnish.

*(%oftotal weight ofwater and cheese)

from page 4 ·1 23

EVERYTHING BAGEL BROTH

Yields2oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato juice

200g

100%

0

Combine juices.

Cucumber juice

50g

25%

Red onion juice

30g

15%

Bagels, toasted until golden and finely ground

50g

25%

0

Combine with juice mixture.

® Vacuum seal.

Toasted sesame seeds

7g

3.5%

@) Infuse in refrigerator for 24 h.

Dried onion flakes

5g

2.5%

® Centrifuge at 27,500g for1 h.

Black poppy seeds

3g

1.5%

® Measure 200 g of clear broth.

Sodium hexametaphosphate 0.6 g

0.3%

0

0.2g Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.1 %

Infused bagel broth, from above

200g

Red wine vinegar

to taste

Salt

to taste

100%

Dry blend together.

® Bring broth to room temperature. ® Add gellan mixture to broth, and shear unti l gellan is fully dispersed. @ Season broth, and refrigerate.

from page 4·130

258

This broth and the squid ink on the previous page are both examples of fluid gels (see page 285).

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


DILL SPHERES INGREDIENT

Yields300 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Low-acyl gellan 1.6 g (Kelcoge l F, CP Kelco brand)

0.64% (0.48%)*

CD Dry blend.

Sodium hexametaphosphate

0.4g

0.16% (0.12%)*

Dill sprigs

130g

52%

0

Deionized water

150g

60%

® Cool quickly, drain, and puree until smooth with deionized water.

Water

250g

100%

® Disperse gellan blend in dill puree. Bring to simmer while shearing, and cool completely.

Dill puree, from above

85g

34%

0 0

0

Blanch dill sprigs in boiling water until tender, about 2 min. Pass mixture through fine sieve, and measure 85 g for recipe. Transfer mixture to squeeze bottle with 0.4 mm I

Ys in tip.

Pipe small droplets into liquid nitrogen to freeze.

® Drain frozen spheres, and reserve. Celery juice, clarified

500g

200%

® Whisk together until fully dissolved to make setting bath.

Calcium gluconate

30g

12%

@ Drop frozen spheres into setting bath, and allow to skin to form for 2 min.

Citric acid

0.4g

from page 4·130

(6%)**

@ Drain set spheres, and transfer to fresh water bath to rinse.

0.16% (0.08%) **

@ Drain once more, and hold in fresh water bath until ready to serve.

*(%oftotal weight of water and dill puree) **(%oftotal weight of water)

SQUID INK FLUID GEL

Yields 140 g (400 g with other components)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

lOOg

100%

CD Blend until smooth.

Capers, brined

15g

15%

Squid ink

lOg

10%

Champagne vinegar

to taste

Salt

to taste

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.5g

Sodium hexametaphosphate

0.125g

0 0.5% (0.4%)* 0.125% (0.1%)*

Season squid ink mixture.

® Dry blend, and disperse in squid ink mixture.

0

Boil mixture forl min to fully hydrate.

® Pour into desired container, and refrigerate until set, about5 min.

0

Puree squid ink gel to fluid gel, transfer to squeeze bottle, and reserve.

0

Whisk to make black pepper oil.

Olive oil

lOg

10%

Black pepper essential oil

lg

1%

Brominated vegetable oil (weighting agent)

0.1 g

Bagel broth

200g

200%

® Divide cold broth evenly among four bowls.

lOOg

100%

® Spoon individually into each bowl.

0.1% (I%)**

see previous page

Dill spheres see above

Tobiko roe, washed in aquavit 50g Chives, minced

as desired

Dill tips

as desired

50%

Squid ink fluid gel, from above 40g

40%

@ Stir contents gently to even ly distribute roe, spheres, and herbs. Drip some squid ink fluid ge l and b lack pepper oil into consomme, and stir once, gently, to create suspended black streaks and oil droplets.

from page 4·131

*(%oftotal weight offirst three ingredients) **(%oftotal weight ofolive oil)

GElS

259


COLD GELS @ Select a texture and firmness. Possibilities range from brittle to rubbery, and from very tender to very firm.

0

0

® Hydrate fully. Blend whi le heating to ensure the gell ing agents are evenly distributed during hydration. The table lists appropriate hydration times and temperatures.

Choose the gelling agents. The table at right offers at least two options for each texture. Many of the formulas use a mixture of two or more gelling agents .

Dry blend the gelling agents, and disperse them into the cold flavorful liquid.

® Cast the gel into a mold . For detailed in structions, see page 4·132.

® Measure the gelling agents. Quantities are given relative to the we ight of the liquid, which is set to 100%. For example, use 8.5 g of160 Bloom ge latin for every 1 kg of wine to make a tender, elastic wine gel.

Best Bets for Cold Gels Hydrate Texture

Firmness

Gelling agents

(scaling)*

(min)

(oC)

nl

Castor mold

elastic

very tender

160 Bloom gelatin

0.75%

5

60

140

kappa carrageenan

0.1%

3

85

185

cast directly into serving vessel

iota carrageenan

0.1%

high-acyl gellan

0.20%

3

95

203

tender

firm

very firm

brittle

firm

very firm

kappa carrageenan

0.05%

160 Bloom gelatin

0.85%

25

60

140

iota carrageenan

0.20%

3

85

185

kappa carrageenan

0.1 5%

locust bean gum

0.15%

3

95

203

agar

0.10%

xanthan gum

0.20%

160 Bloom gelatin

1%

25

60

140

LM pect in

2%

3

100

212

3

85

185

25

60

140

110

230

3

95

203

calc ium gluconate

1%

io ta carrageenan

0.25%

kappa carrageenan

0.25%

160 Bloom gelatin

1.5%

sucrose

65%

HM pectin

1.75%

citric or tartaric acid

1.5%

low-acy l ge ll an

0.25%

high-acyl ge llan

0.15%

agar

0.35%

3

95

203

locust bean gum

0.4%

3

85

185

kappa ca rrageenan

0.2%

agar

0.5%

3

95

203

0.35%

3

95

203

low-acyl gel lan from page 4·140

260

*(%of total weight ofall liquids)

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL

pour directly into serving vessel and mold; cutt in g not recommended best molded; cut w ith care

best suited for cutting and shaping


SALT GEL

Yields450 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Distilled water, cold

400g

100%

Salt

40g

10%

0 0

Agar

12g

3%

Disperse salt and agar in water. Bring to boil, a nd hold for 2 min while stirring to hydrate.

® Cast in desired mold.

The salt gel can be grated and used to season any dish in which you want salt crystals that will not dissolve.

@ Refrigerate until set, about 10 min . Grate over food as seasoning. from page 5·9

Note

Example use

keep cold; softens rapidly at room temperature

coat ing gelees, layered tender jellies

highly stable when used with dairy liquids

set yogurt

opaque; not suitable for consomme ge ls

eggless creme brCJiee

firmness of gel in creases for 24 h

cau liflower panna cotta

works well with dairy liquids

egg less c ustard/ flan

texture very similar to that of gelatin but doesn't me lt in the mouth as gelatin do es

ch ili pearls

tenderize by tempering at room temperature

firm panna cotta

firm texture develops when made with liquid of18 oBrix

savory pate de fruit

highly stab le when used with dairy liquids

cold terrines

tenderize by tempering at room temperature

firm asp ics, suspended solids

firm texture develops when made with liquid of75 °8rix

pate de fruit

hi gh ly stable

firm asp ics, suspe nded solids

See page

263

265

works well with a ll liquid s but tends to weep over time hi ghly stab le when used with dairy liquid s works well with a ll liquids but tends to weep over time

sunny-s id e up egg

268

Parmesan spaghetti

next

ge l noodles

GELS

26 1


TWO-METER PARMESAN SPAGHETTO

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Parmesan cheese, finely grated

450 g

150%

Water

450 g

150%

CD Combine, and bring to boil. 0 Remove from heat, and infuse for1

Yields 300 g (about 15 spaghetto strands)

min at room temperature .

® Strain through fin e sieve lined with cheesecloth, and cool.

0 Parmesan water, from above

300 g

100%

Agar(Texturas brand)

2.1 g

0 .7%

Locust bean gum (PORIA2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0.45 g

0.15%

Measure 300 g of Parmesan water.

® Dry blend agar and locust bean gum, and disperse into cold Parmesan water. ® Bring to bo il, and hold for 2 min to fully hydrate. Skim any surface scum that appears .

0 Fill Texturas-styl e syringe immediately with Pa rmesan water. ® Pipe quickly into coiled PVC tubes measuring 2m I 6)1, ft long and 0.5 em I \4 in. in d iameter; ho ld opposite end of each tube shut with one hand to preve nt Parmesan water from shooting out. ® Seal tubes. @ Submerge filled tubes in ice -water bat h until set, about 2 min. @ Shoot air from soda siphon into one end of each tube to extrude noodles.

Black pepper, coarsely ground

to taste

Flaky sea salt

to taste

Lemon zest, finely grated

to taste

Warm Parmesan oil (or olive oil)

to taste

@ Season . Instead of topping pasta with a cheese sauce or grated cheese, this recipe makes a "pasta" out of the cheese itself.

see page 206

from page 4·143

LONG ISLAND ICED TEA GEL SHOT SCALING

PROCEDURE

SOg

42%

6.75g

5.6%

CD Disperse gelatin into cold water. 0 Heat until fully disso lved .

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Water 160 Bloom gelatin

(7.6%)*

120 g

Cola

Yields435 g

100%

Lemon juice

60g

50%

Gin

40g

33%

Rum

40g

33%

Tequila

40g

33%

Triple Sec

40g

33%

Vodka

40g

33%

® Remove mixture from heat, and let cool.

0

Combine, and whisk in gelatin mixture.

® Pour into serving containers. ® Refrigerate until fully set, about 5 h.

*(%oftotal weightofa/1/iquids)

from page 4 ·141

SPIC ED WALNUT VINEGAR GEL

Yields2oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White duck stock, cold

200g

100%

CD Disperse agar in stock.

see page 11

Agar

6g

3%

Salt

6g

3%

Ascorbic acid

1g

0.5%

Sugar

1g

0.5%

Black peppercorns, toasted and cracked

3g

1.5%

l.Sg

1%

Whisk into stock until dissolved.

® Add to stock.

0

Coriander seeds, toasted 2g and crushed Sichuan peppercorns, toasted and crushed

0

Boil for 3 min to hydrate agar.

® Strain thorough fine sieve directly into hemisphere nonstick mold. ® Refrigerate unti l set. Grate over so us vide foi e gras or other poultry as seasoning.

0.75 %

from page 5·111

262

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUA L


CAULIFLOWER PANNA COTTA

ADAPTED FROM TH OMAS KELLER

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

500g

200%

Cauliflower trimmings, thinly sliced

300g

120%

0 0

INGREDIENT

Yields 850 g (about16 panna cottas)

For th e panna cotta: Simmer over low heat fo r 1 h. Strain through fine sieve.

® Coo l stock at room temp erature, and rese rve 400 g for later use. Cau liflower stock, from above

35 0 g

140%

0

Cau lifl ower florets, thinly sliced

250 g

100%

® Simmer for 35 min or until florets are very tender.

Comb in e in pot.

Heavy cream

215g

86%

® Puree until smooth.

Unsalted butter

30g

12%

0

Salt

to taste

Cauliflower stock, from above

50g

20%

160 Bloom gelatin

3.8g

1. 52% (0.85%)*

Cauliflower puree, from above

400g

160%

Stra in puree through fine sieve .

@ Season. ® Measure 400 g of puree, and reserve. @ Bloom gelatin in coo led stock.

® Stir stock into warm puree until gelat in has dissolved, 3-5 min. @ Spoon into 16 small se rving bowls or cups. @ Refrigerate panna cotta for at least 4 h to set.

For the oyster juice gelee: Water

28 g

11.2%

@ Bloom ge lat in in cold water in small, sta inless stee l bowl.

160 Bloom gelatin

0.2 g

0.08%

@ Warm unti l dissolved.

(0.28%)** Oyster juice (from shucked oysters)

42 g

Black pepp ercorn s, fin ely ground

to taste

17%

@ Combine with gelatin mixture. @ Season mixture. @ Refrigerate gelee for 30 min. @ Strain. @ Add abo ut 6 g of oyster jui ce gelee to top of each panna cotta portio n to coat . @ Refri gerate until comp lete ly set, abo ut 4 h.

Sturgeon caviar from page 4·142

as needed

@ Garnish.

*(% oftotal weight ofcauliflower stock and cauliflower puree used in panna cotta) **( % oftotal weig ht of water and oysterjuice used in oysterjuice gelee)

GEl 5

263


KNOT FOIE

Yields 300 g (four portions)

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Foi e gras torchon

225g

100%

CD Microwave or otherwise heat to 82 •c I 180 •F. Torchon fat w ill melt, and terrine

Konj ac gum (Ticagel Konjac HV-D, TIC Gums brand)

1.05g

0.47%

0

Agar (Telephone brand)

0.6g

0.27%

Xanthan gum

0.45g

0.2%

Water

75g

33.3%

@) Heatwaterto 80 •c l 176 •F.

Egg yolk

lOg

4.4%

® Blend in egg yo lk.

see page 104

will sp lit. Dry blend .

® Blend with warm foie gras.

® Blend in foie gras mi xture unti l fully incorporated.

0

Pour into nonstick mold in layer1.5 em

I% in th ick.

® Refrigerate foie gras until set, abo ut 3 h. Kim chi

250g

111 %

® Puree until smooth .

Xanthan gum

0.4 g

0.18%

@ Transfer to squeeze bottle.

White raisin s

200g

88%

@ Comb in e.

Water

125 g

55.6%

@ Refrigerate for 3 h to steep.

Xanthan gum (Ke ltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.4 g

0.17%

@ Shear w ith raisins to form puree.

Salt

to taste

Cilantro Delfino springs or cilantro ste ms, cut into 1 em I% in batons

30g

Japanese puffed rice

50g

@ Season raisin puree. @ Transfer to second squeeze bottle. 13.3%

@ Cut set foie gras into strips 8 mm by 12.5 em I

Y..

in by 5 in.

® Tie strips carefu ll y into knots without break in g them. 22.2%

@ Divide knotted foie gras among four plates. @ Garnish w ith ci lantro and puffed rice. @ Dot plates w ith reserved kim chi an d raisin purees.

from page 4·144

MADEIRA GELEE

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Madeira wine (dry)

200 g

100%

CD Comb in e.

White chi cken stock

150 g

75%

0

see page 6

Bring to simm er.

® Remove from heat. @) Add to hot stock, and infuse for 5 min.

Cassia bark, toasted and crushed

2g

1%

Salt

4g

2%

® Season coo led liquid.

Low-acyl gell an (Kelcoge l F, CP Kelco brand)

2.1 g

1.05% (0.6%)*

0

Sodium citrate

0.7 g

® Strain and coo l.

Blend into cooled liquid.

® Heat to 95 •c

I

203 •F, and ho ld at temperature for at least 3 min to fu ll y hydrate.

® Po ur layer 0.5 em I 0.35% (0.2%)*

Y..

in th ick into nonstick mold .

@ Refrigerate until set, about 5 mi n. @ Cut in to cubes, and refrigerate until use. Use as seasoning for sa lads or hearty stews.

Hi gh-acyl gellan (Kelcogel 0 .55 g LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

0.27% (0.75%)*

from page 5·131

*(%oftotal weight ofMadeira and chicken consomme)

264

VOLUME 6 ·KITC HEN MANUAL


CHILl PEARLS

INSPIRED BY MICHAEL LAISKONIS

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Yields3SO g PROCEDURE

SCALING

For chili oil: Grapeseed oil

250 g

250%

CD Combine.

Aleppo pepper flakes

30 g

30%

0

Cayenne

lOg

10%

® Strain through fine sieve, and cool.

Chili flakes

7g

7%

0

Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 70 ' C 1 158 'F bath for12 h. Reserve 250 g of oi l in bowl over ice.

For chili pearls: Piquillo peppers, roasted and peeled 260g {store-bought)

260%

® Blend.

Salt

6g

6%

0 0

Fresh red Thai chili peppers

2.5g

2.5%

Xanthan gum {Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.3g

0.3%

Red pepper puree, from above

250 g

250%

Water

100g

100%

Press through sieve. Measure 250 g of puree; keep hot.

® Combine to form chili pearl base.

Salt

3g

3%

® Blend.

Agar {Texturas brand)

1g

1%

@ Disperse into chili pearl base.

locust bean gum {PORIA2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0.4g

Chili oil, from above

250g

(0.78%)*

@ Bring base to boil.

0.4%

@ Simmer for 2 min.

(0.07%)*

@ Transfer hot mixture qu ickly to syringe or fine-tipped squeeze bottle. @ Expel chili pearl base one drop at a time while still hot onto surface of cold chili oil. Beads will set almost instantly.

250%

@ Serve immediately, or store beads in chili oil, refrigerated. from page 4·145

*{%oftotal weight offirst six ingredients in chili pearls)

GUINNESS "PATE DE FRUIT"

Yields400 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sugar

150g

150%

CD Mix together in pot.

lsomalt

100g

100%

HM pectin {Brown Ribbon HV, Obipektin brand)

lOg

10%

Guinness beer

300g

300%

0

Glucose syrup DE 40

50g

50%

Tartaric acid

lOg

10%

® Use refractometer to check so lubl e solids concentration, and cook until reduced to 75 'Brix.

{2%)*

0

Combine with sugar and isomalt mixture, and cook to 110 ' C I 230 ' F.

Cast hot mixture into mold.

®Cool at room temperature for 4 h to set gel.

0 0 Pretzels, ground

50g

lsomalt

50%

Chill in freezer for 5 min to simplify cutting. Cut into 2 em I ~ in squares.

® Blend together to fine powder.

20g

20%

® Dust over cut pate de fruit.

N-Zorbit M {National Starch brand) 10 g

10%

@ Serve, or reserve dusted squares on nonstick sheets at room temperature.

from page 4·145

*{%oftotal weight ofsugar, isomalt, beer, and glucose)

GEL 5

265


OLIVE OIL NOODLES INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tapioca starch Water

100g

62.5 %

100g

62.5%

0 0

Olive oil

160g

100%

Sg

300 Bloom gelatin

4g

2.5%

2g

1.25%

Agar (Texturas brand)

0.7 g

0.56%

Mineral water

120g

75%

® Whisk gel powder into water.

0 BOg

Pregelatinized starch paste, from above

Hold warm.

® Dry blend to make gel powder.

3.1%

LM pectin (Genupectin LM 104 AS, CP Kelco brand)

Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 80 'C I 176 ' F bath for 2 h. Measure 80 g of pregelatinized starch paste, and reserve warm.

® Heatto30 ' CI 85 ' F.

0 Salt

Yields350 g

INSPIRED BY JORDI CRUZ

Bring mixture to boil.

® Blend starch paste into warm gel solution.

50%

® Remove from heat, and blend by hand ove r ice until comp lete ly cool and fluid. @ Slowly blend in warmed olive oil until fully em ulsified to form olive oil noodle base.

Olive oil, chilled but still fluid

@ Transfer noodl e base to pastry bag.

as needed

@ Extrude noodles 1 mm I y, in thick into chi ll ed olive oil bath. @ Refrigerate, and allow to set for at least for 4 h before serv ing. @ Garnish with flaky salt and herbs as desired. from page 4·146

SEA URCHIN TOFU, TOKYO NEGI, SESAME, PONZU

Yields 400 g (about 8 servings)

INSPIRED BY YOSHIHIRO MURATA INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Hon dashi, cold

200g

100%

0 0

160 Bloom gelatin

3.6g

1.8%

Agar

0.4g

0.2%

Sea urchin tongues

200g

100%

see page 15

Disperse gelatin and agar in dashi. Boil for 3 min to fully hydrate agar.

*(0.9%) *(0.7%)

® Blend into hot dashi.

0

Cast immediately into 8 small individual bowls to create layer 3 em I 1'./.1 in thick.

® Refrigerate until tofu is fully set, at least 5 h, before serving. Tokyo negi, thinly sliced

40 g

13.3%

® Toss negi with yuzu juice and toasted sesame oil, and arrange on top of tofu.

Sous vide ponzu

BOg

26.6%

0

Pour ponzu around tofu.

see page 22

Yuzujuice

Bg

2.6%

Toasted sesame oil

Sg

1.6%

from page 5·202

266

*(% oftotal weight ofhan doshi and sea urchin tongues)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


OLIVE OIL GUMMY WORMS

Yields44Sg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

200 Bloom gelatin

20g

27%

CD Disperse gelatin into cold water.

Water

40g

53%

0 Vacuum sea l gelat in mixture. ® Hydrate in 60 ' C I 140 ' F bath for 30 min . 0 Set as ide gelatin mixture.

Water

110g

147%

® Combine.

Isoma It

100g

133%

® Bring to boil.

Clear honey

55 g

73%

0

Glucose syrup DE 40

25g

33%

Gum arabic

20g

27%

Olive oi l

75g

100%

® Whisk in; emulsify fully to form gummy worm base.

Vanilla seeds and pulp

1g

1.3%

® Whisk into gummy worm base.

Thyme essential oil

0.1 g

0.13%

@ Cast base into worm-shaped molds.

Whisk in gel atin mixture.

@ Cool. @ Refrigerate for at least 4 h to set. @ Remove from molds. from page 4·147

SHERRY GEL CUBE

Yields215g

INGRED IENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Water

so g

33%

CD Steep blossoms in 70 ' C 1 158 ' Fwater for10 min.

Chamomile blossoms

1Sg

10%

Agar

2g

1.3%

0 Stra in and cool. ® Disperse agar in cooled chamomile tea .

Sherry vinegar

150g

100%

0

Mix into chamomile tea, and bring to boil.

® Pour quickly through fine sieve into desired mold, and set at room temperature for 5 min. ® Cut into 3 mm I

Ys in cubes, and refrigerate until

use. Use as seasoning for cold cuts and salad.

from page 5·270

GElS

267


SUNNY-SIDE UP "EGGS" INGREDIENT

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Combine. 0 Steep milk mixture for 20 min in refrigerator.

Yields 800 g (about 25 "eggs")

For the egg whites: Coconut milk

500g

100%

Sugar

20g

4%

Cardamom, cracked

9g

1.8%

® Strain.

Guar gum (8/ 22A Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0 .8g

0.16%

0

Blend to fully in corpo rate into milk mixture.

® Heat to 80 •c / 176 "F.

0.8 g Locust bean gum (POR/ A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0 .16%

® Pour 20 g of mixture directly from pot onto each of25 plates to create egg white shapes . Work quickly; gel mixture sets rapidly.

0.8 g

0.16%

0

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T)

Refrigerate "egg" whites.

For the egg yolks: Carrot juice

50% 250g (from about 500 g of ca rrots)

® Blend until fully incorporated .

Glucose syrup DE 40

25g

5%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T)

1.5g

0.3%

Smoked maple syrup

to taste

® Season jui ce mixture.

Salt

to taste

@ Pour into silicone hemisphere molds 5 em / 2 in. in diameter. @ Freeze completely, abo ut 2 h, to form yolks.

For assembly: Water

250g

50%

@ Blend in pot.

Kappa carrageenan (Genugel CHP2, CP Kelco brand)

1g

0.2%

@ Heat gum mixture to 80 •c / 180 "F.

1g Locust bean gum (POR/A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0.2%

@ Cool to 45 "C/ 113 "F, and hold at temperature.

Potassium chloride

0.12 g

Black pepper, coarsely ground

to taste

Coarse salt

to taste

Olive oil

to taste

@ Remove froze n yolks from molds with toothpick or skewer. @ Dip yolks into coo led gum mixture.

0.024%

@ Place one coated yolk in center of each "egg" white. @ Allow yolks to thaw at least 30 min before serving. @ Season.

from page 4·148

268

VOlUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAl


COATING GELS 0

0

0.7 g of low-acyl gellan and 0.2 g of high-acyl gellan for every 100 g of licorice infusion.

Select a temperature and texture. If the food will be coated hot, fewer options are available, but the table Best Bets for Firm Coating Gels below presents good formulas that yield textures ranging from elastic and tender to brittle and firm.

0

Disperse the gelling agents in the liquid.

® Hydrate fully. Hydration times and temperatures are indicated in the table.

Choose the gelling agent. We give several options for hot and cold coating gels in the table of formulas. Some options use a mixture of two or more gelling agents.

® Apply the coating. Control the temperature of the gel to maintain a barely liquid consistency while dipping the food or brushing on the coating.

® Measure and mix the gelling agents. Set the weight ofthe liquid to 100%. For example, to make a smooth licorice coating gel for cold food, use

Best Bets for Firm Coating Gels Hydrate Temperature Texture Firmness Gelling agent cold

elastic

brittle

hot or cold

elastic

tender

from page 4·151

(min)

Coat

Example use

60

140

5

cool over ice until syrupy, about 15 min, before applying to food

traditional chaudfroid, so us vide chicken breast with truffle jus coating, cured salmon loin with watercress juice coating

See page

160 Bloom gelatin

2.3%

xanthan gum

0.2%

firm

160 Bloom gelatin

3%

60

140

5

tender

iota carrageenan

0.45%

75

167

3

0 .35%

keep gel base warm while applying coating; the gel sets quickly

crimini in a mber

kappa carrageenan

sorbitol

3.00%

95

203

3

agar

0.60%

xanthan gum

0.25%

chill food with liquid nitrogen before coating to get a thin covering

modern chaud-chaud, warm oysters with seaweed vinegar gelee

low-acyl gellan

0.35%

95

203

3

xanthan gum

0.20%

sorbitol

2%

95

203

3

1%

foie gras torch on with beet and hibiscus glaze

272

160 Bloom gelatin

prechill food with liquid nitrogen to coat thinly

agar

1%

low-acyl gellan

0.7%

95

203

3

272

0.2%

dip food in bath of gel solution to coat evenly

salmon with licorice

high-acyl gellan

tender

firm

brittle

(OF)

(scaling)* (•c)

firm

271

*(set weight ofliquid to 100%)

One problem with coating gels is their tendency to slip off the surface rather than coating it. A way to avoid this problem is to prepare the surface by scoring or pricking it (see page 4·158). Another method to help adherence is to get the surface very cold. Dousing it in liquid nitrogen helps with this.

GElS

269


FOIE GRAS PARFAIT SPHERES

Yields 600 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Raw duck foie gras

425g

100%

White duck stock

170g

40%

CD Cook so us vide in 57 ' C 1 135 ' F bath to core temperature of 56 ' C I 133 ' F, about 20 min. 0 Disperse gelatin in small amount of cold stock, and heat until fully dissolved.

160 Bloom gelatin

lOg

2.4%

lnsta Cure No.1

6g

1.4%

Salt

6g

1.4%

® Pipe 12 g of mixture into each of36 silicone hemisphere molds, each 2.5 em 1 1 in. in diameter.

Sugar

3g

0.7%

® Refrigerate for at least 4 h to set.

Hazelnuts or apricot kernels, roasted and peeled (optional)

18whole

INGREDIENT

see page 6

® Whisk gelatin mixture into remaining stock.

0

0

Blend warm foie gras with gelatin mixture and remaining ingredients.

If using kernel "p it," scoop 1 em

I% in hemisphere from center of molded foie gras.

® Melt flat surface of each hemisphere with blowtorch, and press kernel into center divot. ® Join pairs of hemispheres to form spheres. @ Insert 10 em I 4 in skewer into each foie gras sphere, and freeze. @ Using metal skewer d ipp ed in very hot water, indent top of each sphere to mimic dimple that holds stem, and sculpt side of sphere to mimic natural crevasse of cherry. @ Dip sphere into hot water and then into liquid nitrogen. Refrigerate until cool.

from page 4·152

FOIE GRAS CHERRIES

Yields 18 cherries

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sour cherry juice

150g

100%

low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

1.5g

1% (0.26%)*

CD Disperse gellan into juice, and bring to boil. 0 Pour liquid into beaker set in ice-water bath.

Cherry pickling brine

85g

57%

® Blend mixture with imm ersion blender as it sets to form sour cherry fluid gel.

0

see page180

Disperse gelatin in small amount of brine.

® Heat mixture until gelatin is fully dissolved . 9.3% (2.4%)*

14g

160 Bloom gelatin Black cherry puree

200g

133%

Amarena cherry syrup

150g

100%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0 .6g

0.4% (0.07%)*

Foie gras parfait spheres,

100g (four spheres)

67%

see page 270

® Blend in remaining ingredients.

0

Whisk in sour cherry fluid gel.

® Vacuum seal to remove accumulated air bubbles.

® Dip frozen foie gras spheres into cherry liquid, coating even ly. @ Refrigerate until set, about 1 h. To serve, temper at room temperature for 10 min.

*(%oftotal weight ofall other ingredients exceptfoie gras)

from page 4·153

HAliBUT CHEEK GEL BASE

Yields180 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White fish stock

400g

100%

CD Reduce stock to 150 g.

see page 6

Malt vinegar

30g

7.5%

0

Salt

4g

1%

® Cool stock completely.

Fish stock mixture, from above

150 g

45%

0

low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel 0.75 g F, CP Kelco brand)

0.19% (0.5%)*

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel 0.36 g lTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

0.1 % (0.2%)*

Sodium citrate

0.36g

0.1% (0.2%)*

Halibut cheeks, from above

400g

100%

Mix with reduced stock.

Disperse gellans and sodium citrate in cold stock.

® Heat to 95 ' C I 203 ' F, and hold at temperature for 3 min to fully hydrate. ® Keep gel mixture above 65 ' C 1 149 ' Fto prevent it from gell ing prematurely.

0

Dip skewered cheeks into hot gelled stock three times, allow ing gel to set between dips.

® Place coated cheeks on silicone baking mat. ® Refrigerate for 1 h to cool and set. @ Vacuum seal and cook sous vide in 49 •c I 120 ' F bath to core temperature of48 ' C I 118 ' F, about 35 min. from page 5·144

270

*(%oftotal weight ofreducedfish stock)

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


CRIMINIIN AMBER

Yields200g

INSPIRED BY FERRAN ADRIA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Crimini mushrooms, stem on, peeled

50g

100%

CD Clean. 0 Cut into at least 20 slices 1 mm I J.:\2 in thick.

Dried porcini

30g

60%

@ Rinse.

® Cover with damp paper towel, and refrigerate.

® Soak for 5 min. ® Strain.

0 Add to rinsed and soaked porcinis. ® SimmerforlO min.

Water

400g

800%

Salt

7.5g

15%

® Mix into porcini mixture.

10%

@ Simmer for 10 min.

Kombu

5g

Koji-Aji (Ajinomoto brand)

2g

4%

Bonito flakes

1g

2%

@ Add to porcini mixture. ® Remove from heat. ® Infuse for 1 min. @ Strain; measure 200 g of stock.

Iota carrageenan (Texturas brand) 0.9 g

1.8% (0.45%)*

@ Combine with reserved porcini stock.

0.7 g

1.4% (0.35%)*

@ Remove from heat.

Kappa carrageenan (Texturas brand)

@ Bring to boil to dissolve comp lete ly.

@ Skim off any accumulated foam. @ Dip chilled crimini slices in hot gel mixture; coat slices comp letely. @ Transfer to nonstick baking sheet or lightly oiled plastic wrap; ensure sl ices remain coated.

Aged Parmesan, small dice

20 pieces

Breakfast radish, small dice

20 pieces

Pickled dried fig, sma ll dice see page 177

20 pieces

Pressure-cooked sesame seeds see page 151

30g

from page 4·154

@ Garnish gel- encased crim ini sli ces.

60%

® Dab evenly on finished crim ini .

*(%oftotal weight ofreserved porcini stock)

GEL 5

271


SALMON POACHED IN LICORICE

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Distilled water

2.4 kg

150%

0 0

125g Hard, glassy black licorice sticks (store-bought), crushed into small pieces

7.8%

Yields280 g

Combine while bringing to simmer. Cool for 5 min.

® Process mixture in food processor for 5 min or until licorice is fully dissolved .

0

Strain li co rice stock through fine sieve.

® Reserve 1.6 kg of stock, refrigerated. low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

11.2 g

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

3.2g

licorice stock, from above

1.6 kg

® Dry blend.

0.46% (0.7%)*

0.13%

(0.2%)*

0

100%

Disperse gellan gum mixture into cold stock.

® Heat mixture to 95 •c I 203 "F until gellans are hydrated, abo ut 2 min. ® Skim any foam from surface using sma ll sieve. Salmon fillet, skinned and cut evenly into squares

200g (four squares, 50 geach)

@ Insert wooden skewer into sid e of each fish square and, holding skewer, dip squares individually into stock.

12.5%

@ Place coated salmon on plates to cool until set, about 5 min. @ Dip fish into stock aga in to apply second coat. @ Transfer fish to chilled tray lin ed with s ilico ne mat. @ Set at room temperature, about 5 min . @ Wrap each coated square tightly in plastic wrap. @ Vacuum seal individua lly, and cook so us vide in 44 •c 1 111 "F bath to core temperature of 43 •c I 109 "F, about 25 min.

*(% oftotal weight oflicorice stack)

from page 4·155

FOIE GRAS TORCHON WITH BEET AND HIBISCUS GLAZE

Yields600g

ADAPTED FROM PAUL LIEBRANDT INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Beet juice

800g (from 1 kg of beets, about five large)

320%

0 0

Reduced beet juice, from above

250g

100%

Dried hibiscus flowers

20g

8%

see page 2·336

Re duce over medium heat until syrupy, about 30 min . Cool at room temperature.

® Measure 250 g of reduced juice.

0

Bring juice to boil, and remove from heat. Add hibiscus and orange peel, a nd steep at room temperature for15 min.

Dried orange peel

Sg

2%

® Strain, and cool completely.

Sorbitol

12 .5 g

5%

® Combine, and disperse in infused juice.

160 Bloom gelatin

Sg

2%

0

Agar (Texturas brand)

2g

0.8%

Salt

to taste

Foie gras torch on

SOOg

Boil for 2 min to fully hydrate, and keep warm.

® Season. ® Cool mixture to 65 •c I 149 "F, and hold at temperature. @ Centerfoie gras te rrine on cooling rack.

200%

see page104

liquid nitrogen

@ Prick evenly across surface with fine skewer so that gel will adhere more eas ily. as needed

@ ladle over liquid nitrogen to freeze terrine surface. @ Pour warm glaze directly from pot overterrine in one fluid motion to coat evenly; repeat. @ Refrigerate glazed terrine for at least 8 h before serving. Pigment from glaze will permeate terrine.

from page 4·158

This elegant preparation is a Modernist version of the classic foie gras terrine in aspic. Here, the hibiscus adds both flavor and color, some of which penetrates the foie gras.

272

VO LUM E 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


HALIBUT IN VERBENA BUBBLE

Yields 1BO g (four portions)

INSPIRED BY MARC VEYRAT

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Halibut fillet, sk inl ess

100g

100%

0

Cut into four eq ua l rectangles.

0

Set aside.

Coconut cream (store-bought)

lOOg

100%

® Combine.

240 Bloom gelatin

2g

2%

@ Heat to d isso lve gelatin.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0 .5g

0.5%

® Pour in layer 1 mm I y, in thick into recta ngul ar mold on baking sheet lined with plastic wrap.

® Refrigerate for 2 h to set. 0 Place halibut rectangle on coco nut gel; align width of rectangle with edge of gel sheet. ® Cut long rectangle of ge l equal in width to halibu t rectangle and long enough to wrap comp lete ly around fish. ® Roll halibut tightly in long gel rectangle. @ Cut and roll ge l arou nd remaining halibut portions. For lemo n verbena encasement: Water

400g

400%

@ Blanch mint leaves for 2 min in bo il ing water

lemongrass, thinly sliced

40g

40%

@ Cool quickly in ice water.

Mint leaves

20g

20%

@ Blend blanched mint with remaining ingredients until smooth.

lemon verbena essential oil

0.2g

0.2 %

@ Strain.

Agar (Texturas brand)

lOg

10%

@ Disperse in mint mixture.

(2.5%)*

@ Heat to 95 •c I 203 •Ffor 3 min to hydrate.

2%

® Remove from heat, and pour enough gel mixture to make layer 2 mm I y,, in thick in bottom offour deep rectangular molds that are larger than halibut rectangles.

Sorbitol

2g

(0.5%)*

@ let ge l set in molds for 2 min. @ Place rolled halibut on top of gel in each mold. @ Pour rema inin g ge l mixture quickly over eac h rolled halibut to fo rm airt ight sea l around fish. @ Refrigerate until set, about 10 min. For fish sauce condiment: Fish sauce

30g

30%

@ Blend together until dissolved, and reserve.

Honey

20g

20%

@ Remove encased halibut portions from molds.

lime juice

20g

20%

@ Vacuum sea l portions together.

Ri ce vinegar

lOg

10%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0 .15g

0.15%

@ Cook so us vide in 48 •c 117 •F, about 25 min.

I 118 •F bath or steam oven to core temperature of 47 •c I

@ Transfer portions from bag to plates. ® To serve, break verbena gel cas ing at tab le to reveal steamed fish and liquefi ed coco nut gel. Remove verbena gel cas ing, a nd discard. @ Serve with fish sauce condi ment.

from page 4·156

The verbena ge l encasement is inte nd ed only as an aromatic cooking vesse l for the fish; it should not be consumed. It imbues the fish with the scent of the esse ntia l oil and makes for a dramatic presentation.

*(% oftotal weight of water in verbena bubble encasement)

Marc Veyrat used a hot gel casing as a cooking vessel, in the same way that parchment, sa lt, clay, and p ig bladders have been used in the past. The origina l version of this dish was a pi ece of turbot e ncased in lemongrass w ith white choco late. Veyrat 's insight presents a huge range of possibilities, both aesthetic a nd aromatic, for th e Modern ist chef. Im agin e a steamed pigeon e ncased with suspended rose peta ls in a clear, rose-scented gel. Or a black gel that is broken open at the tab le to revea l a suspended whole egg.

Be sure to work qu ickly with the hot gel because it begins to set below 45 •c l 113 •F. Warming the lad le w ill prevent the ge l from setting on the surface of the ladle.

The coconut cream is so lidified with gelatin for assemb ly but me lts into a liquid when served hot.

GElS

273


HOT GELS 0 0

Select a texture. Possibilities ra nge from tender to firm a nd from e lastic to brittle. Choose the ge lling age nts. The table Best Bets for Hot Gels be low gives at least two option s for eac h texture. Most formulas use a mixture of two or more ge lling agents.

® Sca le and mix the gell ing age nts. All quantities in d icated in the table are proportional to the weight of the puree or juice. For examp le, to make a brittle, firm gel with consomme, use 0.5 g of agarforeve ry100 g of consomme.

0

Dry blend the gel ling agents, and disperse them in the flavorful liquid.

® Hydrate fully. Blend while heating to ensure that the ge lling age nts are eve nly distributed during hydration. Usually 2-3 min at 95 •c I 203 •F is sufficient to hydrate the ge lling agents. ® Cast. See the table for casting directions and references to examp le recipes. See page 4·132 for illustrate d, step-by-step instructions. Most hot ge ls can also be served co ld. Methycellulose ge ls are t he one exception: they set when hot and melt when cold-see page 4 ·1 70.

Best Bets for Hot Gels Texture

Gelling agents

(sca ling)*

Hydrate (oC) (oF)

Castor mold

Note

Example

See page

tender,

xa nth a n gum

0.25%

95

203

cast directly into serving vessel

bone marrow-like texture

warm aspic

277

95

203

cast directly in to serv in g vessel

opaque, so not suited to clear gels

warm panna cotta, eggless creme brulee

creamy mouthfeel

warm panna cotta, eggless creme brul ee

very elastic

low-acyl ge ll an

0.10%

sorbito l

5.00%

high-acyl ge ll an

0.20%

agar

0.10%

high-acyl ge ll an xanthan gum low-acyl ge ll an

0.20% 0.15 % 0.10%

95

203

cast direct ly into serving vessel

95

203

cast into serving vesse l or mold

95

203

cast into serving vessel or mold

85

185

best molded; cut with care

best with nondairy gels; add 5% sorbito l for tender texture

ge l noodles

85

185

best molded; cut with care

pate de fruit-l ike texture

hot eggless flan

85

185

best su ited for cuttin g a nd shap ing

95

203

best su ited for c uttin g and shap ing

tender,

xantha n gum

0.15 %

elastic

lo cust bean gum

0.15%

firm, elastic

low-acyl ge ll a n

0.10%

hi gh-acyl ge ll an

0.20%

low-acy l ge ll a n

0.10%

locust bean gum

0.25 %

agar

0.20%

high-acyl gel lan

0.25 %

low-acyl ge ll an

0.20%

xa nth a n gum

0.10%

firm,

agar

0.4%

semi brittle

guargum

0.2%

very firm, brittle

from page 4·160

274

high-acyl ge ll a n

0.40%

agar

0.25 %

agar

0.5 %

85

185

best sui ted for cutting a nd shap ing

low-acy l ge ll a n

0.30%

95

203

high-acyl ge ll an

0.15 %

best suited for cutt ing and shap ing

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%)

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL

eggless flan, c ustard

hotterri ne

tends to weep over time

ge l seasoning cubes ge l seasoning cubes

5·267


AGAR CARBONARA

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

Yields 1 kg (about 20 portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Consomme madrilene

SOOg

100%

CD Blend, and bring to boil.

Agar (Texturas brand)

3g

0.6%

Locust bean gum (PORI A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

1.25g

0.25%

Unsalted butter, cut into small cubes

100 g

20%

® Vacuum seal.

Bacon scraps

50 g

10%

0

see page42

0

Cast onto tray measuring 60 em by 40 em I 24 in by 16 in to form layer1 mm I y,, in thick.

® Refrigerate for 2 h. @ Cut into noodles 2 mm I y,. in wide. ® Arrange in even layer on sili cone mat.

Cook so us vide in 70

oc I 158 °Fbath for 2 h.

® Strain, and reserve butter. Heavy cream

® Reduce cream by half over medium heat.

50%

250 g

@ Reserve in squeeze bottle. Egg yolks, pasteurized

40g

8%

Smoked bacon, cut into 5 mm IV. in cubes

BOg

16%

Parmigiano Reggiano, cut into 5 mm I V. in cubes

lOOg

20%

Truffle oil

lOg

2%

@ Strain.

see page 4·78

@ Reserve in squeeze bottle. @ Heat noodles in 200 oc I 390 °Foven until just warmed through, about 4 min. @ Warm bacon cubes in reserved bacon-infused butter over medium heat, about4 min. @ Divide noodles equally among eight plates. @ Garnish each serving with bacon and Parmesan cubes, reduced cream, egg yolks, and truffle oil.

from page 4·161

GRUYERE CUSTARD

Yields 670 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole milk

250g

250%

CD Combine. 0

Heavy cream

75 g

75%

Sodium citrate

4.7g

4.7%

Gruyere cheese, grated

lOOg

100%

Bring to simmer.

(0.78%)* ® Blend into milk mixture, stirring until melted and smooth. @ Reserve. Sweet onions, thinly sliced 50 g

50%

® Saute onions until tender, about 30 min.

Unsalted butter

20%

® Cool.

20 g

0

Hand-blend into reserved cheese mixture.

® Pass through fine sieve. ® Cool completely. Onion stock, cold

175g

175%

Iota carrageenan

3.35g

3.35% (0.5%)*

Kappa carrageenan

1.35 g

1.35% (0.2%)*

Salt

to taste

see page 11

@ Disperse carrageenans into stock. @ Blend with cooled cheese mixture. @ Heat to 95

oc I 203 °Ffor 3 min to fully hydrate.

@ Season warmed custard base. @ Cast evenly into mold to create layer 2.5 em I 1 in thick. @ Refrigerate until set, about 10 min . @ Cut into 2.5 em I 1 in cubes, and refrigerate until use. @ To serve, heat custard cubes in 70 oc I 160 °F oven until just warmed through, about 8 min.

from page 5·264

*(%oftotal weight ofall other ingredients)

GELS

275


SHELLFISH CUSTARD

Yields 1.2 kg

HOMAGE TO JOEL ROBUCHON

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Heavy cream

300g

100%

Whole milk

140g

47%

0 0

Mushroom jus see page 37

90g

30%

® Remove from heat.

Salt

5g

1.7%

Chervil, leaves

30g

10%

0

Tarragon, leaves

6g

2%

® Strain and cool.

Shellfish stock see page 6

280g

93%

@ Combine with cold milk mixture.

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LTlOO, 1.6g CP Kelco brand)

0 .53% (0.2%)*

0

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

1.2g

0.4% (0.75%)*

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.57g

0.2 % (0.07%)*

Sodium hexametaphosphate

0 .4g

0.14% (0.05%)*

Cauliflower fluid gel foam base see page326

300g

100%

Sea urchin

100g (24 tongues)

33%

40g

13.3%

Combine in pot. Simmer for 5 min.

Add to warm milk, and infuse for 20 min at room temperature.

Dry blend, and disperse into shellfish stock mixture.

® Heat to 90 ' C 1 194 ' F, and hold at temperature for 3 min. ® Remove from heat. @ Cast into desired molds to make custards of about 80 g each.

@ To serve, transfer cau liflower foam base to 1 I siphon. @C harge with one ca rtridge of nitrous oxide. @ Reheat custards, and warm siphon to 80 ' C I 176 ' F.

Coffee butter, melted see page350

@ Garnish each custard with three tongues. @ Shake warmed siphon vigorously, and top each custard with cauliflower foam. @ Drizzle over custards.

*(%oftotal weightoffirstfourliquid ingredients)

from page 4·162

BONE MARROW CUSTARD Joel Robuchon is one of the world's most influential chefs. His original version of this dish consisted of a spoonful of oscietra caviar topped with layers of delicate shellfish gelee, cauliflower cream, and chlorophyl puree. It inspired many interpretations, from Ferran Adria's hot version of the original to Thomas Keller's Cauliflower Panna Cotta (see page 263). We created this dish in homage to Robuchon and to the creative lineage that has followed it. It can be hard to hydrate gel ian in a liquid that contains calcium. Fortunately, the calcium in milk and cream is naturally sequestered. It poses no problem as long as sufficient heat is used during hydration. When using gellan with other liquids that contain calcium, a sequestrant may be necessary (see page 4·129).

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Veal marrowbone (optional)

one foreshank bon e

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0

Cut into four equal pieces, and reserve for casting custard. If not using bones, reserve other molds. Soak marrow in water for12 h to remove blood.

Water

500g

400%

0

Veal marrow

125g

100%

® Drain.

Whole milk, cold

125g

100%

0

160 Bloom gelatin

3.5g

2.8% (0.9%)*

® Vacuum seal with coffee beans.

Coffee beans

1.5g

1.2%

0

Salt

3g

2.4%

® Combine.

0.55 g High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LTlOO, CP Kelco brand) Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.3 g

White veal stock, warmed 250 g slightly see page 6 Garlic confit, pureed see page 176

15 g

Disperse gelatin in milk.

@ Cook so us vide in 75 'CI 167 ' F bath for10 min. Strain coffee-infused milk, and reserve.

0.44% (0.15%)* 0.24% (0.7%)* 200%

12%

® Disperse gel mixture into stock. @ Blend stock w ith veal marrow, coffee-infused milk, and garlic confit. @ Bring mixture to boil, and simmer for 3 min. @ Pour quickly into marrowbones or other molds. @ Cool until set, about 5 min. @ Reheat bone marrow custard in 75 ' C I 165 ' F combi oven with 100% relative humidity for 8 min. If comb i oven is unavailable, reheat in steamer for 5 min.

from page 5·63

276

vields650g

*(%oftotal weight of whole milk and white veal stock)

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


BOEUF EN GELEE

INSPIRED BY DANIEL BOULUD

Yields 1.5 kg (eight portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Carrots, brunoise

SOg

5%

CD Saute together until tender, about 5 min. 0 Cool.

Parsnips, brunoise

SOg

5%

Shallots, brunoise

SOg

5%

Neutral oil

15g

1.5%

Oxtail meat, cooked sous vide and shredded

300g

30%

Tomato confit, finely minced

40g

4%

Grain mustard

0

Fold into vegetab le mixture.

to taste

0

Season meat and vegetable mixture.

Salt

to taste

® Divide into 50 g servings, and spoon evenly into bottom of eight small bow ls .

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

2.5g

0 .25%

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

1.25g

0.1%

Oxtail consomme

lkg

100%

see page90

see page46

® Blend.

0

Disperse gum mixture into co ld consomme.

® Heat to 95 •c I 203 •F, and hold for 3 min. ® Pour hot gel into bowls of meat and vegetables until mixture is submerged 2.5 em I 1 in below surface of gel.

@ Refrigerate bowls. Horseradish foam

120g

12%

@ To serve, reheat bowls in 70 ·c I 158 • F bath or steam oven until just warmed through, about 10 min.

20g

2%

@ Garnish even ly with horseradish foam and grated fresh wasabi as desired.

see page 327

Fresh wasabi, peeled from page 4 ·163

GElS

277


HOT FRUIT AND VEGETABLE GELS CD Prepare and puree the fruit or vegetable. The gels can also be made with juice, but that approach yields a very different gel texture.

0 Find the acid ity of the puree or juice. Use the table offruit and vegetable acidities, or measure the pH directly by using a pH meter. ® Select a texture. Possibi liti es range from brittle to very elastic and soft.

0 Choose the gelling agent. We give two options for each texture in the table Best Bets for Hot Fruit Gels below. Some options use more than one agent.

® Disperse the gelling agents into the cold juice or puree, and hydrate fully. A few minutes at 90 •c I 194 •F is usually sufficient to hydrate the gelling agents. Use a high-shear mixer, such as a blender, imm ersion blender, or rotor-stator homogenizer. You may need to add calcium when using low-acyl gellan. While still hot, shear in calcium lactate or another calcium salt after hydration, stirring well until dissolved. For more details on calcium salts, see page 4·129.

0 Cast into a mold, and then cut to size when set. Allow 5-10 min at room

® Mix the gelling agents. Set the weight of the puree or juice to 100%, and measure each gelling agent proportionally. The amount of sodium hexa-metaphosphate, if any, varies according to the pH of the food. Dissolve it in the juice before adding the gelling agent or agents.

temperature, or2-4 min in the refrigerator, for the gel to setto moderate firmness. The locust bean/ xanthan gum formula will set after being frozen and thawed. A methocellulose/ gelatin gel will set when heated to 90 •c / 194 · F.

Fruit and Vegetable Acidities (pH)

Medium acidity (pH 3-4.6)

(pH)

High acidity (pH s 3)

(pH)

peas

6

apple

4.0

cherry

3

6

persimmon

6

apricot

3.7

cranberry

3

avocado

7

pumpkin

7

blackberry

3.5

gooseberry

3

banana

5

radish

7

black currant

3.3

lemon

2

beans

6

red cabbage

6

blueberry

3.7

lime

3

beets

6

red onion

6

elderberry

3.8

bell pepper

5

russet potato

6

grape

3.8

low acidity (pH ?. 4.6)

(pH)

artichoke

6

asparagus

broccoli

7

rutabaga

6

grapefruit

3.7

Brussels sprout

6

mushroom

7

greengage

3.4

button mushroom

7

spaghetti squash

6

guava

4.1

carrot

6

spinach

7

kiwi

3.6

cauliflower

7

spring onion

6

mango

4.0

celery

6

sweet onion

6

mulberry

3.5

cucumber

6

sweet potato

7

nectarine

3.0

eggplant

6

taro

6

orange

3.9

passion fruit

3.5

fennel

6

tomato

5

fig

6

turnip

6

peach

3.7

jicama

7

watermelon

5

pineapple

3.5

leek

6

yellow squash

6

plum

3.6

lettuce

7

zucchini

7

pomegranate

4.0

lychee

6

quince

3.7

melon

5

raspberry

3.3

napa cabbage

6

red currant

3.1

papaya

6

rhubarb

3.4

parsnip

6

strawberry

3.8

pear

5

tangerine

4.1

from page 4·164

278

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL

The acidity found in fruits and veget abies is the primary issue with making gels w ith them. Calcium content can also be an issu e, which is why, in general, we recommend us in gsodium hexametaphosphate as a sequestran t ifgellan is in the ge l mixture. In some cases, however, you may need to add extra calcium t o gel (see page 4·129).

We took pains to measure and calcu late the average pHs of these various frui tsand vegetables because this information is useful for far more than making hot fruit gels. Whether you are seasoning broths a nd sauces, creating brines and marinades, or ma king preserves, pH plays a huge role in th efinal qualities ofthese preparations. Note that the pH can vary with ripeness and variet y, so you may want to use a pH meter to meas ure it yourself.

For more on the role of pH in fruit and vegetabl es see page 3-274. For more on how to measure pH, see page 2-316.


Best Bets for Hot Fruit Gels Texture brittle

semi brittle

elastic

very elastic

low acidity

Medium acidity

High acidity

(scaling)*

(scaling)*

(scal in g)*

high-acyl ge ll an

0.30 %

0.3 %

0.3%

sodium hexametaphosphate

0.05%

0.1%

0.2%

agar

0.5%

0.5%

0.5%

high-acyl gellan

0.20%

0.2 %

0.2%

low-acyl gellan

0.10%

0.1%

0.1%

sodium hexametaphosphate

0.05%

0.1 %

0.2 %

agar

0.4%

0.4%

0.4%

locust bean gum

0.3 %

0.3%

0.3%

high-acyl gellan

0.20%

0.20%

0.20%

low-acyl gellan

0.10%

0.10%

0.10%

xanthan gum

0.15%

0.15%

0.15%

sodium hexametaphosphate

0.05%

0.10%

0.20%

locust bean gum

0.8%

0.8%

0.8%

xanthan gum

0.2%

0.2%

0.2%

Gelling agent

methylcellulose E4M

1.5%

1.5%

1.5%

160 Bloom gelatin

3.0%

3.0%

3.0%

agar

0.4%

0.4%

0.4%

locust bean gum

0.3 %

0.3 %

0.3 %

sorbitol

5.0%

5.0%

5.0%

from page 4·165

For details on how to disperse and hydrate methylcellulose, see page 4·170.

*(set weight offruit or vegetable to 100%)

HOT ORANGE GEL

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

75g

60%

Fructose

75g

60%

0 0

Orange zest, blanched three times

SOg

40%

® Puree, pass through fine sieve, measure 175 g of puree, and reserve.

0

Citric acid

2g

1.6%

Agar (Texturas brand)

1.2g

0.96%

Locust bean gum (TIC Gums brand)

0.9g

0.72%

Orange juice, sieved

125g

100%

Mix to dissolve, and warm to make syrup. Vacuum seal with syrup, cook so us vide in 88 •c / 190 • F bath for4 h.

Dry blend powders.

® Mix 50 g (40%) of orange juice into puree. ® Disperse powder blend into cold mixture.

0 Sorbitol

1Sg

12%

Boil until fully hydrated, about 2 min.

® Combine with remaining 75 g (60%) of juice, and blend into hot puree. ® Cast immediately into mold, and allow to set.

from page 4·167

GEL S

279


HOT BANANA GEL

Yields300g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Banana, unpeeled

100g

100%

0

Cook sous vide in 88 'CI 190 ' F bath for12 min .

@ Peel. ®Sieve. Wate r

175 g

175%

0

Fructose

25g

25%

® Cast into mold, a nd cool.

Locust bean gum (PORIA2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

2.2g

2.2%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.55g

Blend all ingredients with banana flesh , and bring to simmer to hydrate locust bean gum.

® Freeze co mpl ete ly, and store until needed.

0

Thaw ge l to se rve.

0.55%

from page 4·166

HOT GREEN APPLE GEL

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Green apple, peeled and thinly sliced

100g

100%

0 0

Malic acid

4g

4%

® Dissolve acid into fresh juice to preserve juice co lor.

Green apple juice (or water)

175g

175%

Cook so us vide in 90 'C I 194 ' F bath for 30 min. Puree until smooth, and reserve.

Fructose

25g

25%

0

Calcium gluconate

1.25g

1.25%

® Disp erse into juice mixture.

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.55g

0.55%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T)

0.42g

0.42%

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

0.275 g

0.275%

Sodium hexametaphosphate

0.2g

0.2%

Dry blend powders.

® Blend with reserved puree.

0

Heat to at least 85 ' C I 185 ' Fto hydrate.

® Cast into mold, and refrigerate until set, about 5 min.

from page 4·166

HOT QUINCE GEL

Yields300g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Fragrant quince, halved, cored, and peeled, peels reserved

100g

100%

0 0

Pressure-cook (including reserved peels) at gauge pressure of1 bar I 15 psi for 45 min. Puree.

® Cool co mplete ly. 127%

Water

127g

Sugar

63g

63%

Citric acid

1.8g

1.8%

0

Calcium gluconate

0.82g

0.82%

® Disperse into co ld puree.

Sodium hexametaphosphate

0.2g

0.2%

® Mix into puree.

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

0.3g

0.3%

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F)

0.6g

0.6%

Malic acid

as needed

0

Dry blend powders.

Add acid as needed to pH 4.5 or to taste.

® Heat to at least 85 ' C 1 185 ' F. ® Cast into mold, and allow to set. from page 4·167

280

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN MANUAL


QUINOA AND IDIAZABAL WITH BONITO STOCK VEIL Yields 800 g (eight portions)

ADAPTED FROM ANDONI LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White vegetable stock

700g

233%

CD Blend together.

ldianiba l cheese, finely grated 300 g

100%

Quinoa

67%

see page 6

0

Heat to 70 ' C I 158 ' F.

® Restfor10 min. @) Strain; reserve 700 g of cheese- infus ed stock.

200g

® Combine with reserved stock. ® Simmer until quinoa is just cooked through, about 30 min.

0

Cool completely.

® Season quinoa, and reserve 470 g, refrigerated.

Salt

to taste

White vegetable stock

375 g

125%

® Heat to 70 •c 1 158 ' F.

60g

20%

@ Stir into vegetable stock.

see page 6

Bonito flakes

@ Remove from heat, and cover pot tightly with plastic wrap. @ Rest for 30 min. @ Strain. @ Cool comp le tely, and reserve 300 g of bonito stock. Bonito stock, from above 160 Bloom gelatin

300g 3g

100% 1%

Agar (Texturas brand)

1.2g

0.4%

@ Disperse into reserve d bonito stock while co ld . @ Bring stock to boil, and simmer for 2 min . ® Cast onto tray lined w ith plastic wrap to form layer 1 mm I y,, in thick. @ Refrigerate until fu ll y set, about 4 h. @ Cut circles 7.5 em I 3 in. in d iameter from bonito gel. @ Spoon quinoa into mounds on center of eight p lates slightly smaller in diameter than ge l circles. @ Cover each quinoa mound with ge l circl e.

@ Heat plates in 80 •c I 175 ' F oven for abo ut 8 min. Rosemary blossoms

32 blossoms

Creamed honey

to taste

@ Garnish attab le.

from page 4·168

DUNGENESS CRAB AND APPLE ROULADE

INSPIRED BY SCOTT CARS BERG

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Apple juice

200g

100%

CD Season juice.

Malic acid

to taste

Fructose

to taste

Agar (Texturas brand)

0.8g

0 .4%

0

High-acyl ge ll an (Ke lcoge l LTlOO, CP Kelco brand)

0.6g

0.3%

® Bring juice to boil, and simmer for 2 min.

YieldsSOO g

Disperse into juice.

@) Cast onto nonstick baking sheet to form layer1 mm I y,, in thick. ® Refrigerate until set, about 5 min. ® Cut in to c ircles 7 em I 3 in. in diameter.

Dungeness crab meat

300g

150%

Basic mayonnaise

50g

25%

Sca lli ons, fine julienne

30g

15%

Sweet a lmo nd oi l

24g

12%

Le mon balm, fine julienne

3g

1. 5%

Vanilla seeds and pulp

1.5g (from half a bean)

0.75%

0

Fold together to make crab salad.

see page 303 (or store-bought)

® Season crab sa lad .

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

® Place app le ge l c ircl e flat across large flat plate or cutting board.

Seasonal herbs

to taste

@ Spoon salad thin ly and evenly across surface of each circle. @ Roll each circl e to form tight rou lade. @ Garnish with seasonal herbs.

from page 4·168 GElS

2 81


CELLULOSE GUM GELS 0

Select a texture. Several optio ns are li sted in the table Best Bets for Methylcellulose Ge ls below.

® Hydrate fully in the refrigerator for 6-12 h. The mixture will become a clear liquid.

0

Make a methylcellulose stock so luti on. Measure the methylcellulose, a nd whisk it into hot water equ al to about one-third of the weight of the fluid you want to gel. Avo id using co ld water because it causes the powder to hydrate too quickly and clump. Quantiti es in the tab le are given as a percentage of the water used. For examp le, mix in 1.2 g ofSGA 150 for every 100 g of water to produce a stock solution for firm, custardlike ge ls.

@ Add to the product to be set. The table suggests a number of uses. In ge nera l, add one part methylcellulose stock so lution to every two parts flavored fluid. For examp le, to make 300 g of app le je ll y, add 100 g of methylcellulose stock to 200 g of concentrated app le juice. ® Cast th e product into a conta iner, and heat it to set. Heat it at least to the ge llin g temperature given in the tab le, a nd hold it above the melting temperature until ready to serve.

Best Bets for Methylcellulose Gels Gels

Quantity

Melts (oF)

Texture

Firmness

Gelling agent

(sca lin g)*

(oC)

(OF)

(o()

very elastic

tender

K100M

1.5%

90

194

50

122

tender pudding, in stant creme br(dee

elastic

tender

A15C

1.5%

55

131

25

77

ge l sheets, instant noodles

elastic

firm

E4M

1.5%

64

147

50

122

gel pancakes

F450

2.5%

68

154

35

95

dumplings, gnocch i

semi brittle

firm

SGA 150

1. 2%

44

111

15

59

firm custard, scramb led corn

brittle

firm

SGA7C

1.0%

44

111

15

59

hot sli ceab le terrin e

from page 4 ·1 71

Example u se

See page next

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%)

Properties and Applications of Cellulose Gums Viscosity

Quantity

(mPa ·s)

(sca ling)*

K99

80-120

K4M

2,700-5,040

K100

75,000-140,000

Gel firmness

Gelling Category agent

soft

HPMC

semifirm

HPMC

HPM C

firm

very firm

MC

Sup erMC

from page 4·170

E15

12- 18

E50

40 -6 0

E4M

2,700-5,040

F50

40-60

F450

360-540

F4M

2,700-5,040

A15

12- 18

A4M

2,700-5,600

A40M

7,500-14,000

SGA 150

150-45 0

SGAA7C

700-980

SGAA50M

50,000-120,000

Hydrate

Gels (oF)

Melts

Cl

nl

(o()

nl

Example uses

0.4%-4%

<30

<86

70-90

158-194

<50

<122

formatio n of films, fried products, tender ge ls

1.0%-3%

<25

<77

58-64

136-147

<50

<122

custa rd s, noodles

0.2%- 2.5%

<25

<77

62-68

144- 154

<35

<95

foams, whipped toppings, puddings

0.1 %-2%

<13

<55

50-55

122-13 1

<25

<77

baked goods, set foams, formation of fi lm s

1.0%-3.5%

<10

<50

38-44

100-111

<15

<59

liqui d coat in gs, firm-set ge ls

0 (

0 (

C)

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%)

The ge lling age nts li sted in the tables above refer to Dow brand products. For the names of comparab le products made by other manufacturers, see the Hydrocollo id Product Guide on page II at the end of volume 5.

282

VOLUME 6 ·KITC HEN MANUAL


INSTANT TOFU NOODLES

Yields 1.5 kg

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

150 g

44%

Methocel A 15C (Dow brand)

7.5 g

2.2% (7.5%)*

CD Disp e rse. 0 Bring to boil.

Tofu, firm

340g

100%

Salt

to taste

0

Toasted sesame oil

to taste

® Coo l to 50 ' C I 122 ' F.

® Bl e nd into boiling water to form puree. Season tofu puree.

® Refrigerate until hydrated, at least 6 h. (!) Tra nsfe r to squeeze bottle with tip 5 mm I

3;\•

in. in diameter.

® Set as id e. 9 00 g

265%

Aka miso

25g

7.4%

Shiro miso

20 g

6%

Salt

to taste

Golden e noki mushrooms, tops only

SOg

Hon dashi see page 15

® Blend dashi with miso. @ Centrifuge at 27,500g for 1 h to make co nsomme.

@ Season miso consomme. @ Bring to boil, and ladl e into bowls. 15%

@ Garnish so up. @ Extrude tofu puree into hot soup to form instant nood les.

Fresh sea lettuce, thick julie nne 17 g

5%

Scallions, gree n pa rts only, thinly sliced

2%

7g

from page 4·172

*(% oftotal weight oftofu and water)

POTATO BEICNETS WITH CAVIAR

Yields 700 g (a bout 25 beignets)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Baked potato stock

100 g

80%

CD Bring water to boil. 0 Shear Methoce l in to boiling stock.

5.5 g

4.4%

see page 19

Methoce l E4M (Dow brand)

(0.77%)*

® Simmer for 3 min.

0

Pl ace pot in ice-water bath, and stir un ti l cold and thickened.

® Vacuum sea l, a nd refrigerate Methocel mixture for at least 8 h to hydrate. 125g

100%

Cultured buttermilk (stabilizer-free)

125g

100%

Eggs

SOg

40%

Creme fralche

90g

72%

Methoce l mixture, from above 4Sg

36%

Baked potato stock

® Blend together until smooth.

see page 19

All-purpose flour

120g

96%

(!) Dry-bl e nd, and sift together.

Insta nt potato fl akes (store-bought)

30g

24%

® Pour wet mi xture in, a nd stir until comp lete ly incorporated. Do not overwork the batter.

Salt

Sg

4%

Baking powder

Sg

4%

Baking soda

2.5g

2%

Clarified butte r

20g

16%

Neutral oil

as needed

® Drizzle in to batter w hil e stirring; mix to distribute even ly. @ Roll 30 ml I 2 T portions gently in gloved hands until round and smooth. Do not comp lete ly defl ate mixture. @ Drop balls into 190 'C I 375 ' Foil until go ld en brown and slightly puffed, abo ut 3 min. @ Drain on paper towels.

Caviar (best qu a lity availabl e)

as desire d

Creme fralche

as desire d

from page 4·174

@ Serve w ith warm be ign ets . *(% oftotal weig ht afall other batter ingredients)

GElS

283


SWEET PEA CLUSTERS

INSPIRED BY FERRAN ADR IA AND AN DONI LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Pea juice (or vegetable stock) see page 41 or page 6

200g

100%

0 0

Methocel E4M (Dow brand)

4g

2%

Yields 375 g (four portions)

Bringjuice to boil. Disperse methylcellulose into bo ilingju ice.

® Simmer for 3 min.

0

Refrigerate until hydrated, at least 6 h.

® Measure 20 g of E4M so luti on to coat peas. Sweet peas, she ll ed

130g

65%

® Blend xanth an gum into methocel so luti on.

E4M solution, from above

20g

10%

0

Xanthangum

0.03g

0.015%

® Form 16 clusters of9 g each.

Water

1 kg

500%

@ To serve, transfer clusters carefully to sa lted 90 oc / 194 °Fbath.

Salt

20g

10%

@ Remove from bath when gel on clusters has fully set, about 1 min.

Ham broth see page 16

200g

100%

@ Bring broth to simm er, and check seasoning.

Walnut oil

20g

10%

Mint leaves

8g

4%

Mix peas w ith reserved so luti on; stir to coat peas even ly.

® Arrange clusters, well separated, on baking sheet lin ed with plastic wrap, and refrigerate.

@ Divid e broth eq ually among four bowls. @ Place two pea clusters in each bowl. @ Seaso n broth.

from page 4·1 73

MACKEREL WITH SPICY TOMATO SKIN

Yields 800 g (four portions)

INSPIRED BY HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

0 0

Water

225g

100%

Tomato con fit see page 179

150g

67%

Red bell pepper, roasted and peeled

75g

33 % 0 .9%

Cayenne pepper

2g

Salt

to taste

160 Bloom gelatin

4.5g

Methocel F50 (Dow brand)

5.7 g

Puree until smoot h. Pass through fine sieve .

® Season puree. 2% (7%)* 2.5 % (7.27%)*

0

Disperse into puree.

® Heat to 90 oc / 194 °F. ® Blend into hot puree until fully dispersed, and contin ue blending for1 min.

0

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until fully hydrated, at least 6 h.

® Spread puree on tray lin ed with plastic wrap to form layer1 mm I

!h> in thick.

® Dehydrate in oven at 110 oc / 230 °Ffor15 min. @ Coo l resulting tomato skin to room temperature. Mackerel fillets, cleaned, pin bones and ski n removed

320g (four fillets)

142%

Olive oil

40g

18%

@ Cut tomato sk in to match dimensions of each fillet. @ Press cut tomato skins onto fillets. @ Vacuum sea l fillets individually. @ Refrigerate until set, at least 30 min . @ Remove fillets and skins from bags, and vacuum sea l aga in individually with 10 g of olive o il in each bag. @ Cook fillets so us vid e in 46 oc / 115 °F bath to core temperature of 45 oc / 113 °F, abo ut 15 min. @ Remove fillets from bags.

Bouillabaisse broth see page 17

300g

133%

@ Warm, and adjust seasoning.

Blood orange segments

40g

18%

@ Toss together to make sa lad.

Fennel, thinly shaved

40g

18%

@ Season salad.

Radish, thinly shaved

20g

9%

@ Place each fillet covered in tomato sk in in individual serving dish.

Thai basil leaves

5g

2%

@ Garnish with salad.

Olive oil

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 4·175

284

@ Pour bouillabaisse broth around fillets at table.

*(% oftotal weight offirst three ingredients)

VO LUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


FLUID GELS CD Select the temperature and desired viscosity. The table Best Bets for Fluid

table. If you use a seq uestrant, or if the food has low calc ium conte nt, then you may need to add calcium after hydration (see page 4·129).

Ge ls below li sts seve ral options for both hot and co ld ge ls.

0

® Cast the gel, and let it set.

For egg fluid gels, coo k eggs. Th e table suggests coo kin g times and temperatures.

0

® For hydrocolloid fluid gels, sca le and mix the ge lling agent s. The table offers two or more options for each combination of service temperature and viscos ity. Q uantities in the tab le are sca led relative to the we ight of the principal liquid. Fo r exa mpl e, to make a thick, hot on ion gel, use 0 .8 g of low-acyl gel ian for every 100 g of o ni on puree.

0

Puree the gel to the preferred co nsistency. Additional liquid may be added as needed to thin the gel.

® Sieve the fluid gel to produce a gel having a finer consiste ncy (optio nal).

VARIATION: QUICK-SETTING A FLUID GEL

CD Follow steps 1-5 above.

Disperse the gelling agents in to the liquid. A sequestrant may be necessary if using gell an (see page 4·129).

® Set the gel in a beaker imm ersed in ice water.

® Hydrate fully. Hydration times and temperatures are indi cated in the

0

Puree the gel with a hand blender as the gel sets.

Best Bets for Fluid Gels Hydrate or cook (sca ling)**

(m in )

(oC)

(oF)

Note

160 Bloom gelatin

0.8%

2-5

60

140

st ir or sieve before serving; gel thickened consomme, broth wi ll continue to set

egg yo lk

250%

35

65

149

se lect quantity to obtain amount of egg flavor desired

savory creme angla ise, lemon egg yo lk sauce

light cream sauce

Temperature Viscosity Gelling agents cold

th in

mediumth ick

thick

hot

t hin

mediumth ick

thick

from page 4·177

Example use

84%

35

69

156

25%

35

80

176

iota ca rrageenan

0 .1 %

3

75

167

higher viscos ity w ith dairy

160 Bloom gelatin

1.5%

2-5

60

140

stir o r sieve before serving; gel passion fru it j ell y, coating gel for terrines will co ntinu e to hea l

egg yo lk

150%

35

80

176

whole egg

100%

35

78

172

kappa carrageenan

0.4%

3

95

203

higher viscosity with dairy

light pudding

160 Bloom gelatin

2.5 %

2-5

60

140

stir or sieve before serv in g; gel w ill conti nu e to set

vegetab le or fruit ju ice puree, dense pudding

who le egg

250%

35

78

172

iota carragee nan

0.35%

3

75

167

higher viscosity if use d with dairy

traditional pudding

See page

287

287

mustard sauce for co ld cuts, smooth sa lad dressing

low-fat mayonna ise, aioli

kappa carrageenan

0.20%

agar

0 .25%

3

95

203

sli ghtly cloudy

broth

low-acy l ge l ian*

0 .1 %

3

95

203

acidic liquid s may require a sequestrant to hydrate

co nso mm e

egg yo lk

80%

35

69

156

do not reheat above cook in g temperature

rich egg-yolk sauce

agar

0 .40 %

3

95

203

xa nthan gum

0.15%

low-acy l gell an *

0 .5%

3

95

203

aga r

0.9%

3

95

203

xanthan gum

0.2%

egg yo lk

150%

35

69

156

low-acy l gell an*

0.8%

3

95

203

gravy, cream-style sauce

acidic liquid s may require a sequestrant to hydrate

gravy, cream-style sauce fluid gel puree

egg-on ly mayonna ise acid ic liquid s may require a sequestra nt to hydrate

fizzy grape fluid gel

289

*(add 0.15% calcium lactate for low calcium solutions; allow 3 h to fully set); **(set weight ofliquid to 100%)

GElS

285


PASSION FRUIT BROWN BUTTER FLUID GEL INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Passion fruit juice

250g

100%

Agar

1.35 g '

0 .54% (0.45%)*

0 0 0

Yields450 g

Combine, and bring to boil. Pour liquid into beaker set in ice-water bath . Blend with immersion blender as gel sets, until coo led and fluid.

@ Blend into fluid gel. The earthy aroma of beet comes from a compound cal led geosmin. We think that it complements the bright acidity and pungency of passion fruit.

® Strain. Horseradish, grated

7.5g

3%

® Blend into fluid ge l.

0

Adjust to taste.

Brown butter, melted

50 g

20%

® Wh iskin.

Malic acid

4.5g

1.8%

® Season, and refrigerate until use.

Salt

to taste

from page 5·182

*(%oftotal weight ofall other ingredients)

HOT AND COLD TEA

Yields 1.73 kg

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Distilled water

1.8 kg

209%

EariGreytealeaves

40g

4.6%

0 0 0

Stir together. Vacuum seal, and infuse at room temperature for1 h. Strain tea through fine sieve, and measure 1.73 kg.

@ D ivide reserved tea into two 860 g and two 5 g portions for hot and cold tea components. For cold tea: Earl Grey tea, from above

860g

100%

® Dry b lend, and whisk into 860 g of reserved tea.

Unrefined caster sugar

80 g

9.3%

® Bring mixture to simmer.

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.6g

0.07%

0

Blend until completely dissolved, and reserve gel lan mixture.

® Comb in e with 5 g of reserved tea.

Sodium citrate

0.6g

0.07%

® Whisk into ge ll an mixture to hydrate and thicken.

Mal ic acid

1g

0.12%

@ Cool over ice-water bath, and then refrigerate for 24 h.

Calcium chloride

0.25g

0.03%

@ Pass tea mixture through fine sieve. ® Refrigerate until needed.

Forhottea: Earl Grey tea, from above

860g

100%

@ Follow steps 5-11 above.

Unrefined caster sugar

80g

9.3%

@ Warm fluid gel in 72

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

0.6g

0.07%

@ Place tight-fitting vertical dividers down centers offour small glasses, al igning dividers perpendicular to handles.

Sodium citrate

0 .6g

0.07%

@ Remove cold tea gel from refrigerator.

3.5 g

0.4%

0.25g

0 .03%

® Pour hot tea and cold tea gels individually into separate halves of each glass, filling both sections to same height.

Malic acid Calcium chloride

oc I

162 °F bath.

@ Remove divider, and serve immediately without jostling or tipping. Align dividing lines with lips of drinkers so that they experience hot and cold teas simultaneously. from page 4·182

286

VOL UM E 6 ·KITC HE N MAN UAl


PASSION FRUIT JELLY INGREDIENT Passion fruit puree (Bo iron brand)

Yields580 g

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

150g

40%

CD Disperse ge latin in cold water. 0 Whisk together puree and fructose.

Fructose

45g

12%

® Warm sweetened puree until fructose is comp lete ly dissolved.

160 Bloom gelatin

10.5g

2.8% (2%)*

@ Add hydrated ge lat in to warm puree, and stir together until dissolved.

Fresh oyster juice

375 g

100%

® Whisk into warm liq uid mixture. ® Refrigerate for 1 h to set.

0

Press set gel through sieve to make it fluid .

® Spoon onto fresh oysters in cleaned shells, and serve imm ediate ly.

*(% oftotal weight ofpassion fruit puree and oysterjuice)

from page 4 ·180

POPCORN PUDDING

Yields450 g

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Microwave popcorn.

popcorn

75g (one bag)

19%

Whole milk

2.5 kg

625%

0

Freeze-dried corn see page 188 (or store-bought)

200g

50%

® Pass corn milk through fine sieve twice; measure 400 g of corn milk.

INGREDIENT Organic mi crowavab le

Blend with popped popcorn.

Corn milk (from above)

400g

100%

@ Comb in e corn milk and water.

Water

45g

11 %

® Disp erse gums into liquid .

Iota carrageena n (Genuvisco], 2.7 g CP Kelco brand)

0.68% (0.6%)*

0

Kappa carrageenan (Genugel CHP2, CP Kelco brand)

1.8 g

0.45% (0.4%)*

Salt

to taste

® Bring mixture to boi l, and remove from heat. Coo l until set.

® Bl end to fine puree. ® Pass pudding through fine sieve. @ Season .

*(%oftotal weight ofcorn milk and water)

from page 4·181

LEMON EGG-YOLK FLUID GEL INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Strip steak

one steak

Egg yolks

120g

Yields 200 gofflu id gel

SCALING

PROCEDURE

CD Vacuum sea l, and cook so us vide in 55 oc 1 131 °F bath to core temp erature of 54 oc I 129 °F, about 40 min . 100%

0

(84%)*

® Cook so us vid e in 69

Blend egg yolks, and vacuum seal.

oc I 156 °F bath fo r 35 min. Yolks will solidify.

@ Remove from bag. White beef stock seepage 6

130g

108%

Lemon juice

12g

10%

Salt

to taste

from page 4 ·180

® Blend cold stock and lemon juice with yo lk mixture until comp letely fluid. ® Pass through fine sieve.

0

Season, and reheat to 60 oc I 140 °F. Keep temperature below 69 oc 1 156 °F, otherwise sauce w ill thicken.

*(%oftotal weight ofstock andjuice)

GElS

287


PARMESAN "POLENTA"

INPIRED BY DAVE ARNOLD AND NILS NOREN

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

White chicken stock

100 g

100%

CD Shear powders into co ld stock with immersion blender. 0 Bring mixture to boil.

100g

100%

see page 11

Parmesan water

® Place mixture in pan, and place over ice-cold water bath to set.

see page 20

Corn juice

100g

100%

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

3g

3% {1%)*

Yields400g

0

see page 2·336

Pulse set gel with hand blender-or press through potato ricer-to create an irregular, coarse-grained mixture.

® Refrigerate until use.

Unsalted butter, cubed

50g

50%

® To serve, reheat polenta, and whisk in butter until melted.

Parmesan, finely grated

50g

50%

0

Salt

to taste

Whisk in Parmesan.

® Season.

from page 4·181

*(%oftotal weight ofchicken stock ond corn juice)

ONION FLUID GEL

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Onions, thinly sliced

250g

62.5% 7.5%

CD Combine in pot. 0 Saute onions until soft and translucent.

Unsalted butter

30g

Thyme, sprig

1g

0.25%

Low-fat milk

200g

50%

® Add to cooked onions, and simmer mixture for 5 min .

White chicken stock

150g

37.5%

0

see page 6 and page 11

Yields400 g

Remove from heat, and discard thyme.

® Blend mixture fully.

Heavy cream

95g

Salt

to taste

Infused onion milk, from above

400g

100%

® Disperse into cold infused milk.

Low-acyl gell an (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

2.7g

0.68%

@ Transfer to conta in er, and coo l over ice-water bath.

23.8%

® Press through fine sieve, and reserve 400 g of infused milk.

0

Season infused milk, and let cool.

® Bring milk to 93 oc / 199 °F, and hold for 3 min to fully hydrate gellan. @ Blend by hand until co ld and comp letely fluid. @ Pass through fine sieve, and refrigerate.

from page 4·183

CONFIT EGG YOLK PUREE

Yields110 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCAliNG

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks, blended

100g

100%

CD Vacuum seal. 0 Cook so us vide in 69 oc / 156 °F bath for 45 min. ® Puree with egg yolks.

Champagne vinegar

8g

8%

Glucose syrup DE 40

4g

4%

Salt

to taste

0

Season puree, and refrigerate until use.

from page 5·148

288

VOlU M E 6 ·K ITCHE N MA NU A l


UMAMI SEASONING FLUID GEL

INSPIRED BY GRANT ACHATZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown beef stoc k or water see page 10

300g

100%

0 0

Tomato ketch up (Heinz brand) BOg

26.7%

Clear honey

60g

20%

Fish sauce

30g

10%

Sherry v in egar

20g

6.7%

Agar (Texturas brand)

6g

2%

Dark soy sauce

150g

50%

Yi elds 625 g

Blend li qu ids, and disperse agar into cold mixture. Bring mixture to 95 oc

I

203 oF, and hold for 3 min to hydrate fu ll y.

® Remove from heat, and cast into mold.

0

Refrigerate until set, about 5 min.

® Break gel into sma ll pieces fo r eas ier blending.

® Puree soy sauce w ith set gel until very smooth, and pass through fine sieve.

0

Serve as seaso ning fo r grill ed mushrooms with shaved j alapeno peppers and avocado.

from page 4·1B3

FIZZY GRAPE FLUID GEL

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENT H A L

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Wh ite grape juice

720g

100%

low-acyl gellan (Kelcoge l F, CP Kelco brand)

6.4g

O.B9 %

0 0

(0.8 %)*

® Remove from heat, and stra in through fine sieve.

0 Muscat wine (dry)

BOg

11%

Yields BOO g

Blend in pot. Heat to 95 oc

I

203 °Fto fully hydrate, and hold for 3 m in.

Cool over ice-water bath, b lend ing continuous ly, until gel mixture is chilled and comp lete ly fluid.

® Ad d to fluid gel, and blend . ® Pass through fine sieve, and coo l.

Champagne

15g

2%

0

Fold gently into fluid gel, and pour flu id gel into 11 whipping siphon.

® Vent head space with one cartridge of carbon dioxide (see page 2·46B). Charge with two ca rtridges of carbon dioxide, and shake siphon vigorously. ® Refrigerate for at least 2 h to carbonate . from page 4·183

*(%oftotal weight of white grape juice, muscat wine, and Champagne)

GElS

289


SPHERIFICATION <D Select a spherifi cat ion method fro m the table Best Bets for Spherification below. To gel a liquid that naturally co ntain s calc ium, we recomme nd usin g reverse sph erifi cation, described in the variation below.

0

Sca le and mix the gelling agents. Weigh th e ingredients re lative to the amount of liquid you will be ge lling. For exa mpl e, when making cranb erry ge l spheres, ad d 2 g of iota ca rragee nan for every 100 g of cra nb erry jui ce.

® Prepa re th e setting bath. Stir the setting agen t into clean water, and allow 1 h for it to dissolve fully. Optionally, add suga r syrup (up to 22% sugar co nce ntrat ion) or corn syrup to the bath so th at its density matches that of th e liquid to be gel led. Thi s prevents the droplets from fa lling to the bottom of the setting bath.

0

® Disperse the gelling so lution. Add sequestrants as nee ded (see page 4·129). @) Hyd rate fully. See the tab le of hydroco lloid properties on page 4 ·42 for hydration tim es and temperatures.

Introduce drops of gelling so luti on into the bath. A common technique when making large spheres is to slide tab lespoonfu ls of gelling fluid gently into t he bath water. A peristaltic p ump (see page 4·139) can be set up to drip the droplets co ntinu ous ly. If you are making small sph eres, use a syringe to dispense th e so luti on. Allow t he skin to form for 1- 3 min; beads w ill grow increasingly firm as th ey soak .

® Rinse the spheres w ith clear water. Rins ing slows the gel ling process and washes away any lingering flavors from the setting solution. Rinse the sp heres at least tw ice. Remove with a perforated spoon . Optionall y, heat to 85 ' C I 185 ' Ffor10 min to stop further so lidifi cat ion. Store the sphe res in water or oil until need ed.

® Vacuum sea l (optio nal), and chi ll for 2 h. Vacuum sea ling removes air from the so lution an d helps prevent bubbles from altering the shape and texture of the spheres as they form.

Best Bets for Spherification Method

For the sphere base

(sca lin g)*

For the setting bath

(sca lin g)*

Note

See page

alginate (direct)

sod ium algin ate

1%

ca lcium ch lor id e

0.5%

0.2%-0.5%

xanthan gum thickens liquid and yield s more eve n orbs

next

xa nth an gum (o ption al) sodium alginate

1%

calc iu m glu conate

2.5%

see note above

xa nth an gum (optional)

0.2%-0.5%

alginate (reverse) ca lcium lactate

carrageenan (direct) gellan (direct)

LM pectin (reverse) from page 4·1 87

3%

sodium algin ate

0.5%

see note above

xanthan gum (optional)

0.2%- 0 .5%

sodium citrate (optional)

1.2%

use sodium cit rate when liquid is acidic or high in calcium

iota carrageen an

2%

potassium phosphate

5%

hydrate carragee nan co ld for at least 5 h; ca n also be made reverse

low-acyl gellan

0.2%

sodium hexametap hosp hate

0.1%

calc ium gluconate lactic acid

6% 0 .1 %

best made w it h low acid, moderate ca lcium liquid s; make frozen hemispheres and set in 80 ' C I 176 ' F ca lcium bath; ca n also be made reverse

ca lcium lactate

5%

LM pectin

2%

can also be made direct

293

*(setweight ofliquidto 100%)

VARIATION: REVERSE SPHERIFICATION

VARIATION: SUSPENDING A SOLID IN A GELLED SPHERE <D Follow steps 1- 6 above. If you are using reverse spherification, see the va ri at ion at right.

(!) Add a sol id to t he center of the li quid or puree. The so li d mu st be fu ll y encased in t he so lution; if any part protrudes, an intact membrane will not form aro und th e sp here. Conti nu e with step 7 above for direct spherification, or see at right for reverse spherifi cation.

2 90

next

<D In reverse spherificatio n, the ed ibl e liquid is m ixed w ith calcium lactate or another sa lt, and the gelling agent (such as algin ate) is dispersed into t he bath.

0

When the ed ibl e liquid enters the bath, a sk in of gel forms around it, encaps ul atin g the liquid. Un like direct spherification, the edib le liquid itself does not set, altho ugh the skin does grow in creas ingly firm the longer the bead remai ns in the bath. Add ing xanthan gum to the liquid thi ckens it and yield s smoother spheres. Because the bath co ntains no sa lts, it is not necessary to rinse the beads .

VOLUME 6 ·K ITCHEN M ANUAL


CARBONATED MOJITO SPHERES

ADAPTED FROM JOSE ANDRES

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water, d istilled

450g

86%

CD Blend until comp lete ly dissolved.

lim e juice

120g

34.5%

Sugar

120 g

34.5%

Mint leaves, juli enn e

80g

23%

0

Lim e zest, grated

12 g

3.4%

® Steep, refrigerated, for 1 h.

Yields 480 g (about 40 spheres)

Bl end into jui ce mixture.

@ Strain, and reserve 350 g of juice solution to make sp heres. Reserve remainder to store sp heres. lime juice mixture, from above

350g

100%

White rum

130g

37%

Calcium lactate

6.7 g

1. 9%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

1.7g

0.5%

Ascorb ic acid

0.3g

0.08%

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

Sg

1.43%

Water

1 kg

® Blend with reserved jui ce so lution unti l in corpo rated .

® Blend water and sod iu m algin ate until comp letely dissolved.

0 286%

Refrigerate bath for 1 h.

® Fill two w hipping sipho ns w ith 100 g each of reserved juice mixture. ® Fill tablespoon w ith mixture, tip gently into algin ate bath, and release contents. @ Set for 7 min; skin will form. @ Remove from bath with perforated spoo n, and rin se sphere tw ice in fresh water. @ Place sphere gently into whipping siph on containingjuice mixture. @ Repeat procedure with remaining mixture; fill each siphon on ly half full with sp heres. @ Vent head space with one cartridge of carbon dioxide, and then charge each siphon with two cartridges of ca rbon dioxide at least 5 h before serving. Refrigerate siphons to carbonate sp heres .

lime zest, finely grated

@ Remove sp heres from whipping sipho ns w ith perforated spoon, and place in cockta il s.

to taste

@ Garnish. from page 4·188

MELON CAVIAR

Yie ld s250 g

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADR I A

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sodium alginate (A lgin, Texturas brand)

2g

0.8%

CD Combine sodium alginate w ith 50 g of melon juice.

Melon juice see page 2·336

250 g

100%

Water

SOOg

200%

® Blend calci um chlorid e in water until dissolved.

Calcium chloride

2.5g

1%

0

0

Bl end until dissolved.

® Mix in remaining melon jui ce. @ Strain. ® Vacuum sea l; remove excess air. Set up three baths: one filled with calc iu m ch loride solut ion to set spheres, two filled w ith co ld wate r to rinse spheres.

® Fill sy ringes or droplet maker with melon jui ce mixture. ® Expe l droplets one at a tim e into ca lcium chl oride bath. @ Remove each droplet from bath after 1 min. @ Strain melon caviar. @ Rins e caviar twice in co ld water baths. from page 4·189

GElS

2 91


"POACHED" EGG INGREDIENT

Yields five "eggs"

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

For the setting bath: Water

2 kg

333%

CD Whisk together.

Sodium alginate (TICA-algin 400 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

lOg

1.7%

0

4g

0.7%

® Sift together.

3g

0.5%

Vacuum sea l to remove excess air, and refrigerate for 2 h.

For the egg-yolk base: Calcium lactate Sugar Salt

2g

0.3%

Egg yolks, pasteurized see page 232

150 g

25%

Rendered bacon fat

50g

8.5%

0

Blend into calcium lactate mixture, ta king care to incorporate as littl e air as possible.

® Dispense with sauce gun into 2 em I

:Y. in hem isph ere molds. Freeze.

@ Heat sodium algin ate so lution until fluid is 60-65 oc l 140- 149 °F.

0

Remove from heat, and carefull y drop in frozen hemispheres.

® Leave for 2 min, turn sp heres ove r, and leave for 1 min longe r. ® Fill three bowls with water: heat two to 75-80 oc l 167-176 °F; fill the third wit h co ld water. @ Transfer spheres with slotted spoo n to first bowl of warm water to rinse for 1 min. @ Rinse spheres aga in in second bowl of warm water, and reserve in co ld water. For the "coo ked" egg-white base: Gruyere water see page 20

600 g

100%

Heavy crea m

100g

16.5%

Iota carrageenan (Texturas brand)

4.2g

0.7%

Locust bean gum (PORI A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0.44g

0.07%

@ Mix, and brin g to boil. @ Pour into sauce gun, and rest at room temperature until abo ut 60 oc

I

140 °F.

@ Dispense "egg" w hi te into o ne half of plastic eggs hell . @ Place yo lk sp here in ce nter of white, and cap with top half of plastic shell. @ Dispense remaining white into sea led shell through drilled hol e until overflowing. ® Chill over ice .

from page 4·195

TOMATO SPHERES WITH BASIL OIL

Yields3oog(about12spheresl

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato water see page 40

250g

50%

CD Blend until homogen ized. 0 Press through fine sieve, and reserve refrigerated.

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

2g

0.4%

Grapeseed oil

200g

40%

® Pu ree in blender for 3 min.

100 g

20%

0

Basil, blanched and shocked

Press through fine sieve.

® Decant basil oil, and reserve in syringe. Water

SOOg

100%

® Blend to dissolve comp lete ly.

Calcium lactate

2.5 g

0.5%

0

Set up four baths: fill one with calc ium lactate so lution, an d fill three with co ld water.

® Fill tablespoon with reserve d tom ato water so lution. ® Tip spoon into calc ium lactate bath to gently release co ntents. @ Set in bath until membrane has fully formed around tomato sp here, abo ut 30 s. @ Inj ect approximately 3 ml I 0.1 oz of basil oil into submerged sphere. @ Remove syringe; wait for membrane puncture to hea l and sphere to res hap e, abo ut 15 s. @ Remove sp here from bath with perforated spoon. @ Repeat procedures with remaining tomato water solution and basil oil. @ Rinse sp heres in eac h of three co ld water baths. @ Refrigerate until need ed. from page 4·192

292

VOLUM E 6 ·K ITCH EN MANUA L


GRUYERE SPHERES

Yields 2 kg (about 24 sp heres)

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Gruyere cheese, finely grated

250 g

100%

CD Spread on tray lin ed with sili cone mat. 0 Bake in 175 oc I 350 °F oven until gold en, about 12 min.

Whole milk

1 kg

400%

® Blend w ith cheese until fully in co rporated .

Propylene glycol alginate (Prota nal Ester BV, FMC BioPolymer brand)

7.5 g

3%

0

Salt

to taste

Refri gerate overnight.

® Strain through fine sieve. ® Season, and pipe into sili cone hemisphere molds 3 em I 1Y., in. in diameter.

0

Freeze comp lete ly, about 2 h.

® Blend until comp lete ly dissolved.

Water, room temperature

500g

200%

LM pectin (Genu pectin LM 104 AS, CP Kelco brand)

20g

8%

Water, room temperature

500g

200%

@ Blend until comp lete ly dissolved to make setting bath.

Calcium lactate

2.5g

1%

@ Drop pectin-coated spheres into setting bath.

Yellow onions, thinly sliced

200g

80%

@ Saute onions until very tender and deep gold en, abo ut 35 min.

Unsalted butter

50g

20%

@ Puree.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.8g

0.32 %

@ Blend into onion puree.

® Remove frozen cheese hemispheres from molds, and drop into pectin bath. @ Soak until coated with pectin, abo ut 1Y2 min.

@ Allow membrane to form, at least 90s, and then remove from bath; hold in cold water.

Salt

to taste

Rye bread, froz en, crusts removed

lOO g

Oxtail consomme

500g

@ Season onion puree. @ Cut into sli ces 3 mm

40%

I Ys in thick with meat sli ce r.

® Roll sli ces through pasta machine to compress. @ Bake slices at 95

oc I

205 °F between two si licone mats for 45 min.

@ Combine, and bring to simmer.

200%

see page46

@ Season soup.

Salt

to taste

Sherry vinegar

to taste

Lemon thyme leaves

lOg

@ Drop cheese spheres into soup, and warm through. @ Serve spheres in hot conso mm e with rye bread sli ce smeared with onion puree. ® Garnish.

4%

from page 4·190

CAPER DROPLETS

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Capers

90g

100%

CD Blend to fine puree. 0 Pass through fine sieve.

White wine vinegar

6g

6.7%

Caper brine

5g

5.5%

Calcium lactate

3g

3.3% (3%)*

® Whisk into caper puree.

Water

500g

555%

0

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

2.5g

2.8% {0.5%)**

® Fill squeeze bottle with caper puree. ® Expel droplets into bath, and leave for 30 s.

0 Neutral oil from page 5·159

as needed

Disperse alginate in co ld water until fully dissolved, to make setting bath.

Drain droplets, and rinse in fresh water.

® Reserve droplets in oil.

*(% oftotal weight ofcapers, white wine vinegar, and caper brine) **(%oftotal weight ofwater)

GElS

293


MUSSELS IN MUSSEL JUICE SPHERES

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mussel jus

100g

100%

CD Blend until complete ly dissolved.

2.5%

0 0

Vacuum seal solution to remove excess air.

2.5g

Xanthan gum (Texturas brand) 0.5g

0.5%

0

Steam for 3 min until just opened.

see page34

Calcium gluconate

Rock mussels

20 mussels

Yields 200 g (about 20 spheres)

Refrigerate until needed.

® Shuck. ® Refrigerate to cool quickly. Water

1 kg

1,000%

0

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

5g

5%

® Vacuum seal to remove excess air.

Blend to dissolve completely.

® Set up three baths: fill one with sodium alginate solution, and fill two with cold water. @ Place one mussel at a time onto spoon 2.5 em I 1 in. in diameter. @ Pour 4 g of reserved mussel juice solution onto mussel. @ Tip spoon carefully into sodium alg in ate bath to gently release contents. @ Set in bath until membrane has fully formed, about 5 min. @ Remove sphere from bath with perforated spoon. @ Repeat procedure with remaining mussels and mussel juice solution. @ Rinse spheres in two cold water baths.

Salt

7g

7%

@ Dissolve salt in waterto make brine.

Water

400g

400%

@ Immerse mussel spheres in brine.

@ Refrigerate until needed. @ To serve, warm spheres in 60

oc I

140 °F bath for 3 min.

from page 4·191

LIQUID PIMENTO OLIVE

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Extra-virgin olive oil

500g

100%

CD Combine to make aromatic olive oil.

0

Reserve for later use.

0 0

Blend in food processor to fine paste.

Thyme

20g

4%

Orange peel, julienne

15g

3%

Green olives, pitted

500g

100%

Olive brine, from olives

200g

40%

Calcium lactate

13.5 g

2.7% (3%)*

Xanthan gum (Texturas brand) 1.6 g

Yields480 g

Press through fine sieve, and reserve 450 g of o live puree .

® Blend by hand with olive puree until completely dissolved. ® Blend gradually with olive puree.

0.32% (0.36%)*

0

Cast into hemisphere molds.

Piquillo pepper, cut in thin strips (store-bought)

15g

3%

® Place pepper strip on top, and carefully push into each hemisphere.

Sodium alginate (Algin, Texturas brand)

5g

1%

@ Disperse with hand blender, and refrigerate until needed.

Water

1 kg

200%

®Freeze.

@ Before use, blend until sodium alginate is completely incorporated. @ Vacuum sea l to remove accumulated bubbles. @ Pour into bowl to make bath for setting olives. @ Bring bath to simmer. @ Remove each frozen hemisphere from mold, place on spoon, and tip gently into bath. @ Set in bath for 3 min. Hemispheres will thaw into spheres, and skin will form.

@ Remove olive sphere from bath with perforated spoon. @ Rinse sphere twice in cold water.

@ Repeat with remaining olive hemispheres. @ Store spherifi ed o lives, refrigerated, in reserved aromatic olive oil. from page 4·193

294

*(%ofweight ofreserved olive puree)

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


PROSCIUTTO AND MELON "RAW EGG" INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Yields five eggs

PROCEDURE

For the setti ng bath: Water

2 kg

Sodium a lgin ate (TtCA-algin lO g 400 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

400%

CD Whisk together.

2%

0

® Sift together.

Vacuum sea l to remove excess a ir, and refrigerate for 2 h.

For the egg-yolk base: Sugar

20g

4%

Calcium lactate

9g

1.8%

Xanthangum

2.5g

0.5%

Salt

1.7g

0.3%

Malic acid

l.lg

0.2%

Melon juice

100% 500g (from about 900 g of melon)

@) Blend juice into ca lcium lactate mixture, taking care to incorporate as li ttle air as possible. ® Dispense with sauce gun into 2 em I :Y., in hemisphere molds. ® Freeze.

0

Heat sodium a lgin ate so lution until fluid is 60-65 "C / 140-149 "F.

® Remove from heat, and carefully drop in frozen hemispheres. ® Leave for 2 min, turn spheres over, and leave forl min longer. @ Fill three bowls with water: heat two to 75-80 "C / 167-176 "F; fill third with co ld water. @ Transfer spheres with slotted spoon to first bowl of warm water to rinse for 1 min. @ Rinse spheres again in second bow l of warm water, a nd reserve in cold water. For the "raw" egg-white base: Ham broth, gelati n-clarified

500g

100%

Xanthan gum

1.25 g

0.25%

Locust bean gum (POR/A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

0.032g

0.006%

see page 14 and page 16

@ Mix, and bring to boil. @ Pour into sauce gun, and rest at room temperature until about 60 "C / 140 "F. @ Dispense "egg" white into one half of plastic eggshe ll. @ Place yolk sp here in ce nter of white, a nd cap with other half of plastic she ll. @ Dispense remaining white into sealed shell through drill e d hole until overflowing. @ Chill over ice.

from page 4·194

GElS

295


DAIRY EMULSIONS ULTRASTABLE BEURRE BLANC

Yields220 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water, stock, or heavy cream

100g

100%

Agar

O.Sg

0.5%

0 0

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

O.Sg

0.5%

® Puree to fluid gel.

White wine (dry)

100g

100%

® Reduce until a lmost syrupy, and strain.

Champagne vinegar

30g

30%

® Measure 20 g of reduction, and reserve.

Shallots, finely minced

30g

30%

Unsalted butter, small cubed

100g

100%

0

Liquid soy lecithin

1g

1%

® Whisk into warm butter.

Wine reduction, from above

20 g

20%

Salt

to taste

Lemon juice

to taste

0

Dry blend agar a nd propylene glycol a lginate, and d isperse in co ld liquid. Heat to 95 •c1 203 •F. Cool until fully set, about10 min. Reserve.

Melt butter.

®B lend reserved win e re duction with fluid gel. @S lowly pour in warm butter mixture while blending with rotor-stator homogenizer or other high-sh ea r appliance until full y emulsified. @Seaso n, and serve hot with poac hed lobster (below), or cool and refrigerate.

from page 4·219

POACHED LOBSTER

Yields300 g

SCALING

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Lobster tails, shelled

300 g (four tails) 300%

Beurre blanc, from above

220g

Salt

to taste

73%

PROCEDURE

0

Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 55 •c I 131 •F bath to core temperature of 54 · c I 129 •F, a bout 25 min.

0

Warm beurre blanc in 90 •cl194 •F bath or in sma ll pot over medium heat.

® Slice and seaso n lobster, and serve with warm beurre blanc.

from page 4·219

BEET FLEXICURD

ADAPTED FROM JOHNNY IUZZINI

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

lsomalt (or sugar)

100g

25%

0

Dry blend.

Salt

llg

2.75%

0

Disperse isomalt mixture into cold juice.

8g LM Pectin 104 AS (Genu pectin, CP Kelco brand)

2% (0.9%)*

Malic acid

4g

1%

Agar (Texturas brand)

3.4 g

0.85% (0.38%)*

High-acyl gellan (Kelcogel LT100, CP Kelco brand)

2.6g

0.65 % (0.29%)*

Kappa carrageenan (Texturas brand)

1g

0.25% (0.11%)*

Beet juice

300g

75%

see page 2·336

® Heat to 95 •c I 203 •F, and hold at that temperature.

Unsalted butter, melted

lOOg

25%

0

Beet puree, brought to simmer

400g

100%

®Add hot puree, and hold at simm er for1 min.

see page 55

Blend slowly into hot mixture until emu lsified.

® Pour mixture into plastic wrap-l in ed quarter sheet, and al low to set, about 3 min.

0

Cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate.

® Cut into desired shapes, and serve hot or cold. from page 4·219

296

Yields 900 g

*(%oftotal weight affinal three ingredients)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SEA URCHIN BUTTER

Yields2oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sake (dry)

200g

100%

Vermouth (dry)

150g

75%

CD Combine in pot, a nd reduce to 150 g, about 10 min. 0 Strain.

Shallots, finely minced

SOg

25%

Champagne vinegar

25g

12.5%

Tarragon leaves, minced

1g

0.5%

Black peppercorns, coarsely ground

0.25g

0.13%

Sea urchin tongues

40g

Unsalted butter, cubed

30g

20% 15%

® Heat reduction to simmer, and then blend in sea urchin tongues a nd butter until fully e mulsified.

Pink grapefruit con fit syrup

30g

15%

0

Season butter.

see page 146

Lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 5·227

OYSTER BUTTER EMULSION

vields22Sg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, finely minced

75g

150%

CD Sweattogether until te nder, about10 min.

Clarified unsalted butter

SOg

100%

Celery, peeled and finely minced

3Sg

70 %

Oyster trimmings, from shucked and cleaned oysters

3Sg

70%

White vermouth

200g

400%

0

White fish stock

150g

300%

® Simmer until red uced to 150 g.

SOg

100%

7g

14%

see page 4 ·213

0

Add to shallot mixture.

® Sweatfor2 min. Add to shallot mixture.

see page 6

Oyster juice, see page 5·236

Darjeeling tea leaves

® Steep in reduction for 3 min.

0

Stra in .

® Cool, and refrige rate until us e. Unsalted butter

SOg

100%

Creme fraiche

25g

50%

White wine vinegar

Sg

10%

Salt

to taste

® To serve, warm reduction. Blend in butter and creme fraiche to form e mulsion. @ Season.

from page 5·236

BLACK BUTTER EMULSION

Yields3oog

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown fish stock

400g

200%

CD Reduce to 200 g.

Fish stock reduction, from above

200g

100%

0

Black butter, warmed

25g

12.5%

see page 6

Blend black butter, soy sauce, and ink into re duced stock.

see page 4·213

White soy sauce

20g

10%

Squid ink

2.7g

1.35%

Unsalted butter, cold

40g

20%

® Heat black butter e mulsion base to low simmer.

Whitemiso

20g

10%

0

lemon juice

as needed

Blend in butte r until fully emulsified, a nd then blend in miso.

® Season with le mon juice.

from page 5·158

EMULSIONS

297


BROILED TUNA BELLY WITH MONTPELLIER BUTTER

Yields 850 g of butter, 500 g of tuna with butter (four portions)

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks, blended

100g

22%

Unsalted butter, melted

450g

100%

CD Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 67 oc I 153 °F bath for 30 min. 0 Strain through fine sieve. ® Heat to 65 oc I 150 °F, stirring until flakes have dissolved, and remove from heat.

Mono- and diglycerides (Giice, Texturas brand)

54g

12%

160 Bloom gelatin

18g

4%

@) Hand blend into warm butter mixture.

Sodium caseinate

1.8g

0.4%

® Blend in cooked egg yolks until smooth .

Garlic chives, pureed

125 g

28%

see page 55

Garlicconfit

® Combine, and fold into butter mixture unti l all components are evenly distributed.

0 90g

20%

see page 176

Anchovy paste

30g

6.7%

Pickled ramp bulb, brunoise

25 g

5.5%

25g

5.5%

Chives, finely minced

15g

3.3%

Parsley, finely minced

15g

3.3%

Young ginger, finely diced

lOg

2.2%

Salt

9g

2% 0.6%

Cast onto sheet in one layer1.5 em

I% in thick to form Montpellier butter.

® Freeze, and cut into cubes.

see page 178

Spinach, pureed

The great advantage oft his recipe is that it allows the butter to stay emulsified when hot. So when it melts into a fluid, it doesn't break into an oily sli ck the way that traditional compound butte rs do.

see page 55

Lemon zest

2.5 g

Cayenne pepper

2g

0.4%

Lime juice

2g

0.4%

Black pepper

1.2g

0.3%

Star anise, finely ground

0.7 g

0.2%

Tuna belly, sliced 5 mm I Y. in thick

400g

89%

Salt

to taste

® Arrange five sli ces of tuna on each offour ovenproof plates. @ Dot with cubes of Montpellier butter, and place under broiler for 1 min until butter is melted, surface is golden, and fish is just warmed through. @ Season.

------------------------------------------------

from page 4·220

BLOOD PUDDING CUSTARD

ADAPTED FROM HESTON BLUMENTHAL

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Star anise

1.3g

0.19%

CD Combine.

Dried ginger

0.5g

0.07%

0

Cinnamon stick

0.3g

0.04%

® Cool.

Sichuan peppercorns

0.3g

0.04%

@) Crush lightly.

Cardamom seeds, black

0.15g

0.02%

® Place sp ice blend on cheesecloth.

100%

0

Yields450 g

Toast on baking tray at 150 oc I 300 °F until fragrant, about 10 min.

® Bund le, and tie cloth at top to form sachet. Heavy cream, stabilized with 690g hydrocolloids (or processed at ultrahigh temperature)

Heat to 70 oc I 160 °F.

® Add spice sachet. ® Refrigerate to cool. @ Discard sachet once infused cream is fully cooled.

Fresh pig's blood

160 g

23%

® Combine with infused cream. @ Transfer to Thermo mix fitted with butterfly whisk attachment or to beaker set on magnetic heating plate with overhead paddle-stirring attachment. @ Cook in 70 oc I 160 °FThermomix or beaker just until pudding has thickened to custard, about 4 h. Emulsion wi ll split if over-reduced.

Salt

8g

1.2%

@ Season.

Sugar

Sg

0.7%

@ Vacuum seal. @ Refrigerate until needed. @ To serve, reheat so us vide in 60 oc I 140 °F bath.

from page 4-221

298

VO LU M E 6 ·K ITCHE N MANUA l


CONSTRUCTED CHEESES CD Combine the liquids and other ingredients (except cheese and milk powder), and bring to a simmer.

0

Gradually whisk in the cheese. Also add milk powder, if called for. Whisk and melt until the cheese is completely incorporated.

速 Simmer for 2 min. This step is crucial in forming a smooth emulsion rather than a grainy, broken liquid .

0

Puree with an immersion blender until very smooth and silky. Do not puree fondue; the stringy strands are usually considered desirable.

速 Check pH. A target final pH is listed in the table. If the emulsion is not stable, and the pH reading is higher than listed, it may be necessary to add more emu lsifying salts (sodium citrate or one of the phosphates). 速 Season the cheese with salt, and serve warm. Or pour it into a lightly oiled mold, and chill for later use.

0

Refrigerate. Cover the cheese surface tightly to prevent a skin from form ing.

Best Bets for Constructed Cheeses Recipe

Liquid

fondue (hot

water

80%

cheese dip)

Fino sherry

40%

ordrywhite

water

Cheese

sodium citrate

4.4%

Gruyere or young 100%

Joha SDS2 sodium

1.2%

Fonti na, grated

(scal ing)

Final pH Note 5.8

100%

keep hot when serving; thickens slightly if reheated

phosphate (Fibrisol brand)

wine thin cheese

(scaling)

(scaling) Other ingredients

lambda carrageenan

0.5%

sodium citrate

2.0%

spread, hot or

whey protein concentrate 1.0%

cold

Joha SDS2 sodium

Swiss cheese,

100%

5.9

grated

very silky texture; very good either hot or cold

1.2%

phosphate (Fibrisol brand) thick cheese

water

sodium citrate

2.0%

Swiss cheese,

sauce/spread,

whey protein

1.0%

grated

hot or cold

concentrate

cheese soup, hot water

100%

160%

100%

6.1

best choice for use in macaroni and cheese, and cheese omelet

5.2%

sodium citrate

Gruyere

100%

6.1

good pairings: beer and cheddar; dry

whey protein concentrate 1.3%

Riesling and Gouda; port and Stilton cheeseburger

water

67%

sodium citrate

6.7%

Em mental, grated 100%

cheese slice

wheat ale

50%

iota carrageenan

3.0%

Comte, grated

kappa carrageenan

1.0%

cheese slice for

water

cast into mold quickly after combining, or

90%

m ixture will set

sodium citrate

2.0%

Gruyere, grated

baking (raclette

disodium phosphate

0.8%

skim milk powder 4%

analogue)

(BK Giulini brand)

32%

6.0

100%

5.8

best cut into slices and baked until melted

from page 4揃223

EMULSIONS

299


CONSTRUCTED VEAL CREAM

Yields360 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tapioca starch

11.2 g

4.5%

0

Combine to make emulsifying blend.

Salt

6g

2.4%

Whey protein isolate

6g

2.4%

Iota carrageenan

1g

0.4%

Acetic acid

0.5g

0.2%

Polysorbate 80

0.4g

0.16%

0

Add emulsifying blend to stock, and homogenize thoroughly.

Xanthan gum

0.16g

0.064%

White veal stock, cold

250g

100%

80g

32%

see page 6

Rendered veal marrow

® Warm mixture to 85 oc I 185 °F, and reserve at same temperature.

0

Warm fat to 85 °C I 185 °F.

® Drizzle into hot stock mixture while blending until fully emulsified. ® Serve with blanquette de veau in place of traditional cream sauce. from page 5·33

THE AMERICAN CHEESE SLICE

Yields635 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

230g

115%

Salt

5g

2.5%

0 0

Sodium citrate

14g

7% (2.3%)*

Iota carrageenan (Texturas brand)

6g

3% (0.98%)*

Kappa carrageenan (Texturas brand)

2g

1% (0.33%)*

Swiss cheese, grated

200g

100%

White cheddar, grated

180g

90%

Mix dry ingredients, and disperse into water. Bring to simmer to hydrate.

® Add cheese gradually to simmering water mixture, blending constantly with hand blender.

0

Continue blending until texture is fluid and smooth. ® Pour cheese mixture into greased cylindrical mold 7 em I 2:Y.. in. in diameter and at least 18 em I 7 in long. Complete the transfer very quickly. ® Refngerate for at least 2 h to set.

0

Remove cheese from mold, and slice to d es ired thickness.

® Store refrigerated between sheets of plastic wrap or wax paper. *(%oftotal combined weightojwaterand cheeses)

from page 4·224

Yields 215 g

CHEESE IN A TUBE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sodium citrate

2g

2%

0

Combine, and bring to simmer.

Whey protein concentrate

1g

1%

Sodium phosphate (Joha SDS2, Fibrisol brand)

1.2g

1.2%

Water

100g

100%

Aged Gouda, finely grated

50 g

50%

0

Gradually whisk cheese into hot liquid until fully in corporated. Simmer for 2 min.

Monterey jack, finely grated

50 g

50%

® Puree with hand blender until smooth.

Jalapeno, finely minced

10 g

10%

0

Cayenne pepper powder

2g

2%

Salt

to taste

Fold into warm cheese mixture.

® Adjust seasoning. ® Transfer to squeeze bottle, an d pipe into unused empty paint tubes. Reserve chilled.

from page 4·225

300

VOLUME 6 ·KITCH EN MANUAL


CHEESY WHIP

Yields480 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Sodium citrate

4g

2%

CD Dry blend powd ers.

Whey protein concentrate

2g

1%

Sodium phosphate (Joha SDS2, Fibrisol brand)

2.4 g

1.2%

Water

200g

100%

0

Gruyere, finely grated

200g

100%

® Gradually whisk cheese into hot liquid until fully in corporated . Simmer for 2 min.

Whole milk

BOg

40%

Salt

to taste

0

Disperse powd er mixture in cold water, and bring to simmer. Puree with hand blender until completely smooth.

® Blend into cheese mixture. Cool completely. ® Season generously to compensate for aeration, and pour into 1 I whipping siphon.

0

Charge with two cartridges of nitrous oxide.

® Shake vigorously, and dispense to serve. from page 4·225

CHEDDAR SOUP

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Brown butter see page 4·213

20g

20%

CD Melt butter in pot, and add shallots, garlic, and bay leaf.

Garlic cloves, thinly sliced

15g

15%

Shallots, thinly sliced

0

Cook over med ium heat until translucent, about 7 min .

100g

100%

Wheat beer (Hefeweizen-style) 160g

160%

® Deglaze pot with beer, and reduce until pan is dry.

Sodium citrate

5g

5%

0

Whey protein concentrate

1.3g

1.3%

® Bring to simmer.

Distilled water

160g

160%

Aged cheddar, finely grated

100g

100%

® Gradually whisk into simmering liquid until completely incorporated.

0 Salt

to taste

Dissolve sodium citrate and whey protein in water, and add to pot.

Puree with hand blender until smooth. Pass through fine sieve.

® Season and serve, or chil l over ice and refrigerate until use.

from page 4·225

EMUL SION S

301


EGG EMULSIONS Yields200g

REMOULADE SAUCE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Mayonnaise

90g

100%

0 0

55g

60%

Whole-grain mustard

31 g

35%

Dijon mustard

17g

20%

Garlic clove, crushed

4g

4.5%

Green bird's eye chili (fresh), minced

3.5g

4%

Worcestershire sauce

2.5g

2.5%

Hot sauce

2g

2%

store-bought or see page 303

lemon juice

Hungarian sweet paprika 0.5g

0.5%

Celery, peeled and finely 30g minced

35%

Flat-leaf parsley, minced

4g

4.5%

Celery leaf, minced

2g

2%

Chives, minced

2g

2%

Black pepper, coarsely crushed

0.5g

0.5%

Salt

to taste

Comb in e. Refrige rate .

® Fold into mayonna ise mixture just before serving.

@) Season remoulade.

from page 5·75 Yields300 g

WHITE COLESLAW INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Buttermilk

60g

0

Grapeseed oil

Blend thoroughly to make dressing; use rotor-stator homoge nizer, if available, for richer texture.

Season dress ing, and rese rve.

29 g

40% 19%

White balsamic vinegar

20 g

13.5%

Egg yolk, cooked sous vide, at 65 •c I 149 •F for35 min

19 g

12.5%

Rendered bacon fat

9g

6%

Dijon mustard

7g

5%

Sugar

3g

2%

0

Salt

to taste

Savoy cabbage, fine julienne

150g

100%

® Toss cabbage in salt.

Salt

1g

0.5%

® Toss with dressing.

Green apple, smal l dice

120g

80%

® Arrange on coleslaw, and serve immediately.

Horseradish root, finely grated

2g

1.5%

Celery seeds, lightly toasted

1.5g

1%

@) Let soften for1 min.

from page 5·72

302

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SEA URCHIN TARTAR SAUCE

Yields300 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Eggs (shelled)

60g

71%

0 0

Vacuum seal. Cook so us vide in 65

oc I 149 °F bath for 30 min.

® Chill in ice-water bath. 0 Peel. Lime juice

7g

8.5%

Dijon mustard

5g

6%

Grapeseed oil

85g

100%

0 0

Sea urchin tongues

75g

88%

® Pass through fine sieve.

Cornichons, finely minced

28g

33%

Scallions, finely minced

20g

2%

Garlic chives, fine brunoise

7.5g

9%

® Blend with cooked eggs.

Drizzle into egg mixture while blending, until fully emulsified. Reserve.

® Blend into egg emulsion. @ Fold into sauce.

Parsley, finely minced

7g

8.5%

Chervil, finely minced

4.7 g

5.5%

Tarragon, finely minced

1.8 g

2%

Salt

1.5g

2%

@ Season sauce.

Black pepper

0.5g

0.6%

@ Refrigerate until use.

Cayenne pepper

0.3g

0.4%

from page 5·145

BASIC MAYONNAISE

Yields470 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks, blended

45g

15%

Water

75g

25%

0 0

Vacuum seal, and cook so us vide in 67 oc I 153 °F bath for 30 min. Whisk together, and puree with cooked egg yolks until smooth.

Dijon mustard

21 g

7%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.7g

0.23% (0.75%)*

Grapeseed oil

300g

100%

® Drizzle slowly into egg mixture while blending until mixture is fully emu lsified .

Lemon juice

15g

5%

0 Season.

White wine vinegar

lOg

3.3%

® Refrigerate.

Salt

to taste

*(% oftotal combined weight ofall other ingredients)

from page 4·226

HOT EGG MAYONNAISE

Yields490 g

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Whole eggs

BOg

65%

Egg yolks

60g

30%

0 0

Dijon mustard

35g

17.5%

Sunflower oil (or other neutral oil)

200g

100%

Blend until smooth. Vacuum seal, and cook in 65

oc I 149 °F bath for 35 min.

® Combine. 0 Blend with warm egg mixture until emulsified.

Extra-virgin olive oil

50g

Salt

to taste

® Season.

Sherry vinegar

to taste

0 0

25%

Pour contents into 1 I whipping siphon, and charge with one cartridge of nitrou s oxide. Hold filled siphon in 62

oc I 144 °F bath until ready to serve.

® Dispense mayonnaise from siphon, and serve with grilled asparagus or poached fish. from page 4·227

EMULSIONS

303


SOFT-BOILED EGG AND GARLIC EMULSION INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Garlic confit, pressure cooked 30g

INSPIRED BY MICHEL BRAS

SCALING

PROCEDURE

30%

0 0

see page176

Puree until smooth . Pass through fine sieve.

White wine vinegar

25g

25%

Whole eggs

100 g(about two large)

100%

® Vacuum sea l, and cook so us vide in 67 ' CI 153 ' F bath for 35 min.

Grapeseed oi l

100g

100%

® Drizzle in slowly while blending into egg-garlic mixture until ful ly emulsified .

0

Olive o il

100g

100%

Walnut oil

SOg

50%

Salt

to taste

Green onions, very thinly sliced

30 g

Yields400g

Blend w ith garlic puree until smooth .

® Season. 30%

0

Fo ld in, and refrigerate.

from page 4·227

SOUS VIDE LEMON CURD

Yields850 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Egg yolks

120 g

30%

0 0

Sugar

300g

75%

® Bring to boil to dissolve sugar and acid .

Water

120g

30%

0

Citric acid

8g

2%

Unsalted butter, room temperature

400g

100%

® Blend butter w ith egg yo lk s and sugar syrup until smooth.

Lemon essential oi l (optional)

1g

0.5%

0

Salt

0.4 g

0.1%

® Refrigerate until firm, 4-24 h.

Vacuum sea l, and cook in 65 ' C I 149 ' F bath for 35 min. Coo l and reserve. Coo l to room temperature .

® Add more essentia l o il to taste. Other oils bes id es lemon may be used. Vacuum seal.

from page 4·227 Yields375g

BACON JAM INGREDI ENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

lsoma lt

50g

50%

0 0

Sugar

40g

40%

Water

30g

30%

Maple syrup (Grade B)

30g

30%

Egg yolks

75g

75%

Combine, and heat to 90 ' C I 195 ' F until fu ll y dissolved . Coo l and reserve.

® Vacuum sea l, and cook in 66 ' C I 151 ' F bath for 30 min.

0

Strain t hrough fine sieve.

® Blend into cooled syrup. Rendered bacon fat, warm

100g

100%

Bacon strips, finely diced

120g

120%

® Drizzle slowly into egg syrup wh il e blending constantly until fu ll y emulsified .

0

Refrigerate.

® Fry or bake in 175 ' C I 350 ' Foven until crisp, about 25 min. ® Drain on absorbent paper towe ls. Cool, and store in dry, coo l place.

Sa lt

to taste

@ Season jam w ith salt.

Liquid carame l co loring (optional)

as needed

@ Add co loring to ach ieve desired shade. @ Fold in 50 g of bacon bits, and serve with warm biscuits (see page 5·77). @ If mixture has been refrigerated, it shou ld be tempered for about 20 min before use.

from page 4·229

304

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


DEEP-FRIED HOLLANDAISE

Yields 1.2 kg (40 pieces)

ADAPTED FROM WYLIE DUFRESNE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Unsalted butter, melted

640g

640%

160 Bloom gelatin sheet

60g

60%

CD Soften gelatin leaves in cold water. 0 Drain, and dissolve gelatin in butter. ® Reserve warm .

Low-acyl gellan (Kelcogel F, CP Kelco brand)

3.5 g

3.5%

Sodium hexametaphosphate

2g

2%

Citric acid

0.6g

0.6%

Water

170g

170%

0

Dry blend.

® Add blended powders to pot of water. ® Bring to boil, and remove from heat.

0

Pour into container.

® Refrigerate until set, about5 min. Egg yolks, blended

lOOg

100%

® Puree gel with yolks until fluid, and reserve.

Water

llOg

110%

@ Whisk to combine.

Ultra-Sperse M (National Starch brand)

lOg

10%

@ Blend into yo lk gel mixture until smooth.

Lemon juice

to taste

@ Season hollandaise.

Salt

to taste

@ Cast into mold 2.5 em I 1 in thick.

@ Drizzle in reserved warm butter while continuous ly blending to make hollandaise.

@ Refrigerate until set, about 1 h. @ Cut set gel in to cubes . All-purpose wheat flour

lOOg

100%

@ Dredge cubes eve nly in flour, and shake off excess.

Eggs, blended

lOOg

100%

@ Coat cubes evenly w ith blended eggs.

English muffins, dried and ground into powder

200g (four muffins)

200%

@ Roll cubes in bread crumbs. Shake off any excess. Rep eat breading procedure once.

Frying oil

as needed

@ Freeze for 30 min to harden crusts. @ Deep-fry cubes in 190 ' C I 375 ' Foil until gold en, about

1Y2 min.

@ Drain on paper towels . from page 4·228

sous VIDE INSTANT HOLLANDAISE IN SP IR ED INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

BY DANIEL HUMM

SCALING

PROCEDURE

133%

CD Comb ine. 0 Reduce to syrup-like cons istency.

White wine (dry)

100g

Shallots, finely minced

50g

67%

White vinegar

35g

47%

Yields345g

® Strain.

0

Measure 20 g of wine reduction.

® Blend thoroughly with wine reduction.

Egg yolks

75g (four large)

100%

(28%)*

® Vacuum seal.

Stock or water

20g

27%

0

Unsalted butter, melted

225 g

300%

® Remove cooked egg yolk mixture from bag, and blend in butter mixture unti l fully emu lsifi ed.

Salt

4g

5.3%

® Season.

Malic acid

lg

1.3%

@ Transfer to 1 I siphon.

If you choose to use stock rather than water, consider the ingredient for which the hollandaise is being prepared: use fish stock for fish, poultry stock for poultry, and so on . For stock recipes, see page 2·296.

Cook in 65 ' C I 149 ' F bath for 30 min.

@ Charge with two cartridges of nitrous ox id e, and shake vigorously.

Alternatively, the hollandaise base can be cooked so us vid e in a 63 ' C 1 145 ' F bath to produce a lighter foam, or in a slightly warmer 67 ' C 1 153 ' F bath for a denser foam.

@ Hold siph on in 60 ' C I 140 ' F bath. Two-stage fried egg see page 2 from page 4·228

four eggs

@ Garnish eggs with hollandaise.

*(%oftotal weight of wine reduction, stock, and unsalted butter)

EMULSIONS

305


OTHER EMULSIONS BLACK OLIVE PUREE

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

Yields100 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

160 Bloom gelatin sheet

2g

4%

CD Soften gelatin in co ld water. 0 Drain, and set aside.

Black olive juice

100% 50g (from 150 g pitted Kalamata olives) 1%

Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand)

0.5g

Olive oil

50g

100%

Mono- and diglycerides (Giice, Texturas brand)

0.5g

1%

® Heat10 g of o li ve juice.

0

Melt softened gelatin in warm juice.

® Add remaining40 g of juice, and mix. ® Blend into juice mixture.

0

Set aside.

@ Warm oil to 65 oc / 149 °F. ® Dissolve Glice flakes in oil. @ Add oil mixture slowly to juice until it emu lsifies and forms puree. @ Refrigerate puree until thickened, about 2 h.

from page 4·230

THICKENED OIL

Yields100 g

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Extra-virgin olive oil (or other oil)

100g

100%

CD Heat to 65 oc / 149 °F in saucepan.

Mono- and diglycerides (Giice, Texturas brand)

7g

7%

0

INGREDIENT

Add, and stir to dissolve.

® Cool oil to room temperature.

0

Transfer to bowl held in ice-water bath.

® Whisk until cold, opaque, and thickened to consistency of mayonnaise . ® Serve as spread, or use as garnish.

0

Thickened oil can also be transferred to 11 whipping siph on, charged with two cartridges of nitrous oxide, and dispensed to form thick oil foam .

from page 4·230

INVINCIBLE VINAIGRETTE

Yields325g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Champagne vinegar

80g

80%

Quince vinegar

35g

35%

CD Combine, and heat to 60 °C / 140 °F. 0 Blend over heat until ingredients are completely incorporated.

Pear juice

20g

20%

Dijon mustard

5g

5%

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

0.98g

Extra-virgin olive oil

100g

100%

® Combine oils.

Pistachio oil

55 g

55%

0

Walnut oil

30g

30%

liquid soy lecithin (NOW brand)

1.85 g

1.85%

Salt

to taste

from page 4·231

0.98%

(0.3%)*

Drizzle slowly into vinegar mixture while blending; process until emulsified.

(7%)* *

® Season.

*(%oftotal weight ofall ingredients); **( % oftotal weight ofoils)

Use the above recipe as a template for any basic vinaigrette. Different oils and acids can be used to create a variety of effects. The vinaigrette is completely heat stable, so it can be made with animal fats or dairy fat for use in warm salads, eggs, and cooked meats.

306

For a low-fat version of this vin a igrette, replace 100 g of oil with 100 g of flavorful liquid, 1 g of Ultra-Sperse 5, and 0.2 g of xanthan gum. The overall flavor wil l be more acidic, so the liquid used should be quite flavorful or the quantity of vinegar used should be reduced.

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


SPOT PRAWNS WITH FOIE GRAS NAGE INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

Brown vegetable stock

250g

100%

see page 6

3g

1.2%

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

0.2g

0.08%

Raw foie gras, cubed

40g

16%

White miso paste

15g

6%

Chervil, chopped

8g

3.2%

Yields 1.2 kg (four portions)

PROCEDURE

CD Dry blend propylene glycol alginate a nd salt. 0

Salt

INSPIRED BY THIERRY RAUTUREAU

Disperse powder blend into cold stock.

® Heat to 60 oc I 140 °F to hydrate.

0

Blend with warm stock until fully emulsified.

® Add, and steep nage forl min. ® Strain.

0

lime juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

Season nage, and reserve warm.

Spot prawns

12 prawns (abo ut 720 g)

about290% ® Steam in combi oven at 60 oc / 140 °Fand 100% relative humidity for12 min; or vacuum seal, and cook in 60 oc/ 140 °F bath for12 min.

Fresh lychees, peeled and seeded(orcanned)

60g

24%

Pink Lady apples, peeled and finely shaved with mandoline

60g

® Divide prawns among four bowls. @Garn ish.

24%

Peanuts, roasted and crushed

lOg

4%

Anise hyssop, small leaves

3g

1.2%

@ Pour warm nage around each portion.

from page 4·233

EGGLESS CITRUS CURD

INSPIRED BY PASCAL BARBOT

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lemons, washed, whole

300g

385%

CD Vacuum sea l in retort pouch, or place in large Mason jar. 0

Yields600g

Place pouch or jar in pressure cooker filled with 2.5 em / 1 in of water.

® Pressure-cook for 30 min at gauge pressure ofl bar / 15 psi, and coo l.

0

Remove lemons from pouch or jar, a nd puree.

® Pass through fine sieve, and measure 130 g of puree. Lemon puree, from above

130g

100%

Grapefruit juice

100 g

77%

lime juice

60g

46%

Lemon juice

50g

38% 11%

® Mix together, and reserve.

Lemon zest, finely grated

14g

Grapefruit zest, finely grated

6g

4.6%

lime zest, finely grated

2g

1.5%

Water

130g

100%

0

Honey

35 g

27%

® Stir in citrus puree. ® Bring mixture to simmer.

Sugar

30g

23%

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

5g

3.8%

Salt

5g

3.8%

Unsalted butter, cubed

200g

154%

Combine, a nd boil for 3 min.

@ Blend or whisk butter cubes into hot citrus mixture in small batches until fully emulsified. @ Strain through fine sieve, and refrigerate for at least 3 h.

from page 4·234

EMULSIONS

307


MUSTARD VINAIGRETTE

Yields 700 g

SCALING

PROCEDURE

300g

100%

CD Whisk together.

Sherry vinegar

60g

20%

Polysorbate 80

1.5g

0.5%

0

Xanthangum

1.5g

0.5%

® Disperse in stock mixture, and blend until fully hydrated. @) Slowly blend into stock mixture until emuls ifi ed.

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

Sous vide vegetable stock (or other flavorful liquid) see page 13

Extra-virgin olive oil

150g

50%

Walnut oil

BOg

43 %

Grain mustard

60g

20 %

Black peppercorns, finely crushed

to taste

Salt

to taste

Combine.

® Fold in. ® Season.

from page 4·231

SAUCE VIN JAUNE

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING*

PROCEDURE

Chicken legs and wings, from above, cut into 3 em / 1Y. in pieces

400 g

200%

CD Saute chicken pieces in pressure cooke r until golden . 0

Clarified unsalted butter

75 g

37.5%

Leeks, whites only, thinly sliced

lOOg

50%

Drain and reserve.

® Cook together until vege tables are tender, about 30 min.

Carrot, peeled and thinly 50g sliced

25%

Chicken carcass, chopped and blanched

50g

25%

Shallot, thinly sliced

50g

25%

Brown chicken stock

450g

225%

Thyme

5g

2.5%

Bay leaf

2g

1%

0

Vin jaune du jura (or Fino sherry)

120g

60%

® Reduce to 30 g, a bout 12 min.

see page 6

@) Combine with brown e d wings and cooked vege tabl e mixture in pressure cooker. ® Cook at gauge pressure of1 bar / 15 psi for1 Y> h. ® Cool. Strain stock through fine sieve, and reserve .

® Add reserved stock. @) Reduce mixture to 200 g. @ Cool.

Chicken stock reduction, 200 g from above

100%

Propylene glycol a lginate 0.4 g (Protanal Ester BV4830, FMC Biopolymer brand)

0.2%

Rendered chicken fat

40g

20%

Lemon juice

to taste

Salt

to taste

from page 5·116

308

@ Disperse PGA into stock reduction. @ Bring to simm e r to fully hydrate. @ Blend ch icken fat into stock reduction until fully e mulsified.

@ Season a nd serve, or cool and refrigerate until use. *(% oftotal weight ofstock reduction)

VOLUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAL


EGGLESS MAYONNAISE

Yields400g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

100%

<D Disperse agar in water.

Agar (Texturas brand)

1.2g

0.67%

0

Bring to boil, and hold for1 min to fully hydrate.

® Cool complete ly until set, aboutS min. Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand)

2g

1%

0

® Dissolve Gli ce flakes in o il heated to 50 oc I 122 °F.

Olive oil

200g

100%

Mono- and diglycerides (Giice, Texturas brand)

2g

1%

Salt

to taste

Puree with set gel until smooth.

® Gradually blend oil into cold agar mixture until emuls ified.

0

Cool at room temperature.

® Refrigerate for 2 h before serving.

from page 4·232

SPICE MIX EMULSION

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Unsalted butter

24g

20%

<D Prepare ingredients as noted.

Garlic, finely minced

12g

10%

0

Ginger, finely minced

6g

5%

Saute together over medium heat until fragrant.

Anchovy fillets, finely minced Sg

4%

Mussel juice see page 37

120g

100%

Manzanilla sherry

4Bg

40%

Xanthangum

0.2g

0.17% (075%)*

0

Extra virgin olive oil

30 g

25%

® Blend into reduction until emuls ified .

Fish spice mix see page 51

20g

17%

® Season emulsion, and serve or refrigerate until use.

Champagne vinegar

to taste

® Deglaze pan, and reduce mixture to 100 g.

Blend into reduction.

*( % oftotal weight ofmussel-sherry reduction and olive oil)

from page 5·155

OLIVE OIL "MARGARINE"

Yields420g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

BOg

31 %

<D Dry blend agar and propylene glycol alginate.

Propylene glycol alginate (Protanal Ester BV 4B30, FMC BioPolymer brand)

l.BS g

0.7%

0

(0.44%)*

® Bring mixture to boil to hydrate.

Agar (Texturas brand)

1g

0.4%

Pregelatinized starch paste see page 200

BOg

31 %

® Blend into fluid gel.

Olive oil

260 g

100%

0

0 (0.24%)*

Disperse powder mixture into cold water.

Cool at room temperature until set.

® Puree gel until smooth to form fluid gel.

Warm to 30

oc I

BS °F.

® Blend oil gradually into fluid gel slowly until emulsified. Salt from page 4·235

to taste

® Season and chill.

*(% oftotal weight ofother ingredients)

EMUl SIONS

309


CONSTRUCTED CREAMS PISTACHIO GELATO

vields1.1 kg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

680g

100%

CD Blend until smooth.

Pistachio butter see page 54

210g

30.9%

Sugar

lSSg

22.8%

Pistachio oil

102g

15%

Salt

22g

3.2%

Locust bean gum (POR/A2 Powder, TIC Gums brand)

3g

0.44%

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

2g

Polysorbate 80

0.8g

0.12%

Glycerol monostearate

0.15g

0.02%

0 .3%

0 0 0

Dry blend, and disperse in pistachio mixture. Warm to 60 ·c I 140 •F.

If using a Pacojet in step 6, omit the locust bean gum.

Homoge nize until very smooth, a nd coo l.

® Season with more sa lt, if desired. ® Churn, and reserve in freezer; or freeze in Pacojet container, and pacotize to serve.

from page 4·236

HAZELNUT "CREAM"

Yields350 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

250g

100%

Tapioca starch

11.2 g

4.48%

Whey protein isolate

6g

2.4%

CD Dry blend hydrocolloids other than polysorbate. 0 Disperse in co ld water, and blend in polysorbate. 0 Homogen ize thoroughly with commercia l blender or rotor-stator homogenizer,

Citric acid

O.Sg

0.2%

Polysorbate 80

0.4g

0.16%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.16g

0.06%

Roasted-hazelnut oil see page 41 (or store-bought)

80g

32%

Salt

to taste

if ava ilab le.

0

Warm to 85 •c / 185 • F, and hold mixture at that temperature.

® Warm oil to 85 •c / 185 • F. ® Drizzle into mixture w hil e shearing at full speed until fully emulsified, and then coo l.

0

Season cream, and vacuum seal.

® Store refrigerated; serve hot or co ld. from page 4·236 Yields280 g

JUS GRAS QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Shallots, minced

BOg

40%

CD Saute sha ll ots until go ld en, about 5 min.

Neutral oil

20g

10%

Fino sherry

lOOg

50%

White port (dry)

SOg

25%

INGREDIENT

0 0 0

Add to pan of sauteed shallots. Reduce mixture to glaze. Combine with glaze in pot.

Brown chicken stock see page6

450g

225%

So us vide ch icken juice see page34

200g

100%

® Strain, a nd measure 200 g of reduced jus base.

Reduced jus base, from above

200g

100%

0

Propylene glycol a lginate (Protanal Ester BV 4830, FMC BioPolymer brand)

0.6g

0.3%

® Warm to hydrate PGA, and blend in commercial blender or rotor-stator homogenizer until very smooth .

Liquid soy lecithin (NOW brand)

0.4g

0.2%

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.4g

0.2 %

Rendered chicken fat, or butter, melted see page 3-145

80g

40%

® Reduce until syrupy, to about one-th ird of orig in a l we ight.

Salt

to taste

Lemon juice

to taste

Disperse emulsifiers into reduced jus base.

® Drizzle slowly into warm jus, blending constantly until fully emulsified.

@ Season and serve. Or cool, vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use.

from page 4·237

3 10

VOLU ME 6 ·K ITCHE N MA NU AL


NANOEMULSIONS CHILLED CHICKEN-NOOD LE SOUP

Yields 1.2 kg (four portions)

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chicken thigh meat, ground

600g

200%

CD Puree until smooth.

White chicken stock

300g

100%

0

INGREDIENT

see page 6 and page 11

Pass through fine sieve.

® Divide into 100 g portions.

Salt

lO g

3.3%

Activa RM

8g

2.7%

0.15 g Sodium tripolyphosphate (Nutrifos 088, ICL Performance Products brand)

0.05%

0

Place eac h portion between two layers of plastic wrap, and roll even ly into layerl.5 mm I in thick.

){6

® Vacuum sea l sheets individually. ® Cook so us vide in 62 "CI 144 "F bath for12 min.

0

Refrigerate sheets for 3 h. ® Remove from so us vide bags, and cut chill ed sheets into noodles 3 mm I yielding about 100 g per portion. Reserve.

Gum arabic

30g

10%

Bay essential oil

15g

5%

Thyme essential oil

15g

5%

Consomme MadriiE'me

300g

100%

Y. in thick,

® Homogenize until smooth.

@ Blend 1.2 g of gum-oi l mixture into co ld consomme. Liquid w ill remain clear.

see page42

Salt

to taste

@ Season consomme.

Tarragon leaves (sma ll)

to taste

Thyme leaves

to taste

@ Divide noodles among four bowls, forming nest in each. @ Pour consomme over noodles. Garnish chilled soup with leaves.

from page 4·238

GINGER COLA

Yields340 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Distilled water, cold

200g

CD Combine, and steep at room temperature for

Ginger, peeled and grated

35g

100% 17.5%

20 min.

0

Strain, and reserve 125 g of ginger water.

® Combine, and simmer until sugar is dissolved.

300g Ginger, thinly sliced a nd blanched three times in boiling water to remove bitterness

150%

Distilled water

200g

100%

Sugar

120g

60 %

® Cool comp lete ly, and reserve 200 g of gin ger syrup. ® Blend to form smooth essentia l o il base.

0

Remove from heat, and steep at room temperature for 20 min.

Gum arabic

20g

10%

Brominated vegetable oil

5g

2.5%

Lemon essentia l oil

5g

2 .5%

Sweet orange essential oil

5g

2 .5%

Vanilla extract

2.5g

1.25%

Ginger syrup, from above

200g

100%

0

Ginger water, from above

125g

62.5%

® Pour mixture into soda siphon.

Lime juice

16 .5g

8.25g

Liquid caramel co lor

1.25 g

0.62%

® Vent w ith one cartridge of carbon dioxide, and then ch a rge with two ca rtrid ges.

Essential o il base, from above

0.33g

0.16% (0.7%)*

from page 4·239

Other sodas can be made in a simil ar way by using a nanoemu lsion with essential oi ls. Stock or an infusion can be used in place of the water.

Blend together until combined.

"Open Co la" is a commercia l drink with a published recipe (availab le on the Internet) said to be in sp ired by Coca-Cola. You can use that recip e with the techniques described here to make your own cola or to experiment with other ingredients. Ferran Adria, Marc Veyrat, JeanGeorges Vongerichten, and anumber of other chefs have featured homemade sodas in their restaurants.

@ Refrigerate siphon on ice for at least 3 h before serv ing.

*(% oftotal weight ofginger water and ginger syrup)

EMU LSIONS

3 11


FROTHS, AIRS, AND BUBBLES 0

Select a texture, and choose your foaming agents. See the table below for our recommendations.

0

Combine the foaming agents and the liquid. Many flavorful liquids, including fruit juices and vinegars, foam well. The proportions given

are relative to the weight of the liquid (for example, whip in 1.25 g of soy lecithin for every 100 g of apple juice to make a dry, coarse apple air). ® Process, using the tool suggested in the table, until the desired texture appears. All foams are heat stable unless otherwise noted.

Best Bets for Airs, Bubbles, and Froths Texture

Foaming agents

dry, coarse airs

de-oiled soy lecithin 1.25%

(scaling)*

Equipment

Notes

Example

See page

handheld milk whipper

drainfor4min

mignonette air

next

powder Sucro

1.2%

electric whisk

160 Bloom gelatin

2%

electric whisk

Activa RM

1%

milk foams

(Texturas brand)

wet, coarse

glucose syrup DE 40 10%

bubbles

wet, coarse froths

albumin powder

2%

xanthan gum

0.1%

de-oiled soy lecithin 1% xanthan gum

0.2%

glucose syrup DE 40

8%

fish tank bubbler

disperse cold, then heat for 10 min at 40 oc / 104 oF

dairy foams

use liquids with a pH of

honey bubbles

314

citrus air

below

at least 4.5

hand blender

allow liquid to drain for 2 min before serving

handheld milk whipper

de-oiled soy lecithin 0.7%

Iight sweetness from

fruit and vegetable

glucose

juice foams

powder butter, melted

10%-20%

Sucro

1.2%

hand blender

foamy butter sauce

(Texturas brand) whey protein isolate 2% sodium caseinate

0.5%

sodium caseinate

1%

handheld milk whipper

heat-stable up to 85 oC/185 oF

handheld milk whipper

heat-stable up to

light, beer-like

85 °C / 185 °F

foams

heat-stable up to

latte style foams,

85 °C/185 °F

light milk shake

de-oiled soy lecithin 1% Sucro

1.2%

handheld milk whipper

(Texturas brand)

INSPIRED BY MARC VEYRAT

Yields 80 g

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lime juice

120g

100%

0

Combine and blend until sugar, lecithin, and xanthan are dissolved.

0

Whip with handheld foaming wand or hand blender until sufficient foam is formed.

Lemon juice

80g

67%

Sugar

8g

6.7%

Salt

2g

1.7%

De-oiled soy lecithin powder (Lecite, Texturas brand)

2g

1.7% (7%)*

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

0.4 g

0.3% (0.2%)*

312

315

*(set weight ofliquid to 700%)

INGREDIENT

from page 4·265

soups

foams

whey protein isolate 1% from page 4·264

CITRUS AIR

foamy broths, light

® Al low to drain for 2 min for foam to stabi li ze.

*(% oftotal weight oflime and lemon juices)

VO LUM E 6 ·KI TC HEN MAN UAL

Marc Veyrat found that increasing the viscos ity of lecithin foams prevents them from losing so much water and therefore gives them a better final texture and appearance. This can be done either with a hydrocolloid thickener such as xanthan gum or with dissolved solids such as sugar.


OYSTERS WITH MIGNONETTE AIR

INSPIRED BY FERRAN ADRIA

YieldslOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

200g

50%

CD Blend.

Sherry vinegar

150g

37.5%

0

Seaweed vinegar

50g

12.5%

® Strain, yielding 400 g of vinegar mixture.

Shallots, thinly sliced

50 g

12.5%

White balsamic vinegar

50 g

12.5%

Refrigerate for 1 h to mace rate.

see page 23

Black pepper, coarsely ground 5 g

1.25%

to taste

Salt Vinegar mixture, from above

400 g

100%

@ Blend until lec ithin powder is fully dissolved .

De-oiled soy lecithin powder (lecite, Texturas brand)

5g

1.25%

® Whip with hand blender or ha ndheld whipping wand until thick and coarse foam forms.

Kumamoto oysters

four oysters

® Allow foam to drain for 2 min to stabilize.

0

Soy lecithin-base d "airs" are considered dry foams becaus e most of the water that is us ed to create the foam drains away very quickly. Once the water drains away, there is very little left but a coarse matrix of bubbles. These types offoams should a lways be mad e with very inte nse flavors for their imp act to be more th an simply aesthet ic.

Garnish with foam .

from page 4·265

PARSLEY FOAM

Yields265g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Parsley juice

265 g (from about 500 g parsley)

100%

CD Blend together until powder is thoroughly incorporated.

Deoiled soy lecithin powder

4g

1.5%

Salt

1g

0 .4%

0

Season juice.

® Foam juice with immersion blender or hand he ld wand mixer (see page 4·252 for step by step). from page 5·231

KANPACHI SASHIMI WITH CITRUS FOAM

INSPIRED BY QUIQUE DACOSTA

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

White fish stock

500g

100%

CD Combine. 0 Heat stock to 60 "C I 140 •F, and hold for12 min.

lemongrass, finely chopped

30g

6%

lemon verbena (fresh)

7g

see page 6

1.4%

Makrud (kaffir) lime leaves 5 g

1%

lemon zest

3.5g

0.7%

White peppercorns, crushed

0.75g

0.15%

Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand)

1.5g

0.3%

Salt

to taste

lemon juice

to taste

® Strain infused stock into open container. @ Cool completely.

® Blend into cold, infused stock. ® Season stock generously.

0

Kanpachi (raw), thinly sliced

200g

40%

Kumquats, thinly sliced

40g

8%

Mint leaves, torn

4g

0.8%

So us vide ponzu

50g

10%

see page22

Yields 320 g (four portions)

Foam citrus-seasoned stock with fish tank bubbl er.

® Arrange fish on center of four plates, 50 g on each plate. ® Garnish . @ Pour around fish. @ Garnish each portion with citrus foam.

from page 4-269

FOAMS

313


GEODUCK WITH SEAWATER FOAM

Yields300g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Geoduck juice, reserved from shucking

200 g

100%

CD Blend with hand blender until powders are fully in corporated. 0 Wh ip with handheld whipping wand until stiff seawater foam forms at liquid 's surface.

Water

50g

25%

White soy sauce

35 g

17.5%

Sodium caseinate

2.5g

1.25% (1%)*

De-oiled soy lecithin 2.5 g powder(Texturas brand)

1.25% (1%)*

Geoduck siphon, cleaned, 200 g peeled, and trimmed

25%

® Slice thinly.

0

see page 5·200

Divide equally, and arrange on center of each plate.

Fico"ide glaciale (ice plant) 40 g

5%

® Garnish.

Pickled ramps, thinly sliced

5%

® Spoon some seawater foam on top of each portion.

40 g

see pagel78

from page 4·266

*(% oftotal weight offirst three ingredients)

EDIBLE SOAP BAR WITH HONEY BUBBLES

ADAPTED FROM AN DONI LUIS ADURIZ

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water

1 kg

100%

Wildflower honey

150g

15%

CD Blend fully with hand blender. 0 Strain.

Albumin powder

20g

2%

® Vacuum seal to remove accumulated bubbles.

Xanthan gum (Keltrol T, CP Kelco brand)

1g

0.1 %

0

Yields400g

Refrigerate honey bubble base.

Salt

0.5g

0.05%

All-purpose flour, sifted

110g

11%

® Arrange in thin, even layer on baking sheet.

Hazelnut flour

40g

4%

0

Sugar

30g

3%

Salt

3g

® Bake at 170 "C I 340 "F until golden brown, about 20 min. Combine, and whisk into warm, browned all-purpose flour.

0.3%

Rendered ham fat, melted 40 g

4%

® Combine.

Cocoa butter, melted

30 g

3%

® Fold into flour mixture.

Olive oil

30 g

3%

@ Pour into small rectangular silicone molds that resemble bars of soap. @ Freeze "soap" bars complete ly, about 30 min. ® To serve, transfer honey bubble base to open container. @ Place aquarium bubbler tube at bottom of container. @ Turn on bubbler, and leave until desired amount of bubbles have accumulated, about 5 min. @ Arrange soap bar in center of each plate, and garnish with bubbles.

from page 4·267

SAFFRON HONEY FOAM

Yields150g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Water, warm

100 g

100%

CD Combine. 0 Infuse for10 min at room temperature.

Saffron threads

0.4g

0.4%

Honey

36g

36%

® Combine w ith saffron water.

Deoiled soy lecithin powder

1.4 g

1.4%

0

Whey protein isolate

0.2g

0.2%

Salt

to taste

Blend until completely incorporated.

® Season generously to compensate for aeration . ® Whip with handheld whipping wand until abundant foam forms on surface.

0

Allow to drain for1 min before using.

from page 5·94

314

VOLUME 6 · KITCHEN MANUAL


LYCHEE AND LIME SODA

Yields 200 g (four servings)

INSPIRED BY SANG-HOON DEGEIMBRE

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Lychee juice, clarified

200g

500%

CD Season lychee juice.

Fructose

to taste

Malic acid

to taste

0

Reserve refrigerated.

Dextrose

40g

100%

® Combine to form lime base.

Baking soda

15g

37.5%

@ Grind into fine powder with mortar and pestle.

Citric acid

15g

37.5%

Lime essential oil

0.05g

0.1 %

Water

7g

17.5%

® Add slowly to lime base, incorporating small amount at a time; make sure mixture does not foam. ® Pack into circular molds (2.5 em 1 1 in. in diameter and 2.5 mm I 1 in high). This will produce 3 g tablets. Store in cool, dry place.

0

Lime tablets, from above four tablets

To serve, pour 50 g of lychee juice into each offour serving glasses.

You can use store-bought lychee juice if you wish, but we prefer fresh. For methods of clarifying fresh fruit juice, see page 2·351.

This dish makes tablets reminiscent of Alka-Seltzer, which produces a fizzy drink when dissolved in water.

® Add one lime tablet to each glass; tablet fizzes as it dissolves. ® Allow to dissolve completely before consuming soda. from page 4·268

TOMATO VINEGAR FOAM

Yields12sg

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Tomato water

1 kg

100%

CD Reduce to 125 g.

White wine vinegar

150g

14%

0

Salt

2.5g

0.24%

® Cool.

Saffron threads

1g

0.1 %

@ Vacuum seal.

Whey protein isolate

2g

0.2 %

® Whisk into infused tomato water until dissolved.

Deoiled soy lecithin

1g

0.1 %

0

see page40

Add to reduced tomato water.

® Refrigerate for12 h to infuse. Heat mixture to 35 ·c I 95 •F.

® Whip mixture with handheld wand mixer until thick foam forms. ® Allow foam to drain for1 min before using. from page 5·65

CAPPUCCINO FOAM INGREDIENT

INSPIRED BY FERRAN ADRIA

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

2%milk

500g

100%

CD Combine.

Coffee beans, coarsely crushed

100g

20%

0

Sugar

40g

8%

Glucose syrup DE 40

lOg

2%

Black cardamom seeds

1g

YieldslOO g

Vacuum seal.

® Refrigerate for12 h to infuse. @ Strain coffee milk, discarding coffee beans and cardamom seeds, and measure 350 g for recipe.

0.2%

Infused milk, from above 400 g

100%

® Dry blend powders, and disperse in infused milk.

Sucrose esters (Sucro, Texturas brand) Whey protein isolate

1.2% 1%

® Place in beaker of milk shake whipper; process until very frothy.

4.8g 4g

from page 4·266

FOAMS

315


LIGHT FOAMS CD Select the recipe that matches the temperature and bubble size

® Hydrate, using the temperature and time given. This is not required for co ld-solubl e foaming agents.

you want.

0

Measure the ingredients carefu lly, and combine the foaming agents with the liquid . Set the weight of the liquid to 100%. For examp le, to make a hot, coarse foam, add 0.35 g of xanthan gum and 0.20 g of guar gum for every 100 gof liquid.

@ Chill or heat the liquid to serving temperature. ® To serve, aerate the mixture with a whisk or mixer. Alternatively, pour the liquid into a 11 whipping siphon, pressurize by using the number of nitrous oxide cartridges suggested in the table, and dispense.

Best Bets for Light Foams (min)

Foaming method

Nitrous oxide charges

160 Bloom gelatin 1%

60

140

5

siphon

2

blood orange foam

next

160 Bloom gelatin

0.90%

60

140

5

siphon

2-3

corn foam

318

xanthan gum

0.27%

albumin powder

10%

electric whisk

3

light coating foam

3

lemon verbena and

Hydrate Serving Bubble temperature size Foaming agents cold

fine

(scaling)* (oc)

(oF)

cold

Example

See page

or siphon coarse

xanthan gum

0.7%

cold

siphon

318

peach froth

hot and cold fine

xanthan gum

0.20%

agar**

0.25%

low-acyl gellan** agar**

95

203

3

siphon

2

cava foam

0.3%

95

203

3

siphon

2

eggless sabayon, warm,

0.4%

95

203

3

siphon

2

70

158

30

siphon

3

bergamot sabayon

siphon

3

dairy-free milk shake

327

beer-like foam

coarse

egg yolk**

29.0%

Maltrin M100

5.5%

xanthan gum

0.25%

guargum

0.15%

from page 4·270

cold

319

*(set weight ofliquid to 100%); **(make fluid gel before.filling siphon)

HORCHATA FOAM

Yields200 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Chufa nuts

450g

225%

CD Cover nuts with water. 0

Soak in refrigeratorfor12 h.

® Drain. Water

250g

125%

@ Combine with soaked nuts.

Sugar

16g

8%

® Blend to smooth, fine texture. ® Pass through fine sieve to extract chufa milk.

0 Chufa milk, co ld, from above

200g

100%

Deoiled soy lecithin

6g

3%

Whey protein isolate

1.4g

0.7%

Salt

as needed

Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until cold.

® Disperse soy lecithin and whey protein isolates in milk. ® Blend thoroughly.

@ Season chufa milk. @ Vacuum seal, and refrigerate until use. @ To serve, foam horchata with handheld foaming wand or immersion blender until thick foam layer forms.

from page 5·244

316

VOlUME 6 ·KITCHEN MANUAl


WHIPPED CHEESE

YieldsSOO g

INSPIRED BY ALEX STUPAK

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Gruyere water

SOOg

100%

0 0

seepage20

Salt

to taste

Maltrin M100 (GPC brand)

20g

4%

Iota carragee nan (Genuvisco ), CP Kelco brand)

1.25 g

0.25%

Lambda carrageenan (Texturas brand)

0.75g

0.14%

Cheese-infused milk, from above

SOOg

100%

Season cheese w ater. Reserve.

® Dry blend powders. Alex Stupak aerates a carrageenan flu id gel as it is setting. This process is quite versatile and can be adapted to make various aerated textures that are not dependent on a wh ipp ing siphon . @) Disperse powder mixture in co ld milk. ® Bring to simmer, and remove from heat. ® While st ill warm, pour into standing mixer, and whip at hi gh speed until stiff foam forms and becomes cold.

G) Spoo n in to piping bag, and pipe to ord er. from page 4·272

BLOOD ORANGE FOAM

ADAPTED FROM FERRAN ADRIA

Yields250 g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

160 Bloom gelatin

2.5g

1%

0

Blood orange juice

250g

100%

Disperse into 50 g of cold juice and heat until gelatin is fu ll y dissolved.

0

Combine w ith remaining co ld juice. Strain.

This basic formu la can be used for any co ld foam.

® Transfer to siphon, and charge with one nitrous oxide cartridge. @) Refrigerate siph on for at least 2 h before use. from page 4·272

MILK FOAM

YieldsSOO g

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

SCALING

PROCEDURE

Skim milk

SOOg

100%

Leeks, whites on ly, thinly sli ced

75g

15%

0 0

Button mushrooms, gills and skin removed, thinly sli ced

SOg

10%

Turnip, peeled and thinly sliced

35 g

7%

Sweet onions, thin ly sli ced

25g

5%

Vacuum sea l together. Cook so us vide in 85 •c / 185 •F bath for1 h.

® Strain. @) Reserve hot.

Garlic, thinly sli ced<